WorldWideScience

Sample records for stimulate competitive research

  1. NASA Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research: South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The use of an appropriate relationship model is critical for reliable prediction of future urban growth. Identification of proper variables and mathematic functions and determination of the weights or coefficients are the key tasks for building such a model. Although the conventional logistic regression model is appropriate for handing land use problems, it appears insufficient to address the issue of interdependency of the predictor variables. This study used an alternative approach to simulation and modeling urban growth using artificial neural networks. It developed an operational neural network model trained using a robust backpropagation method. The model was applied in the Myrtle Beach region of South Carolina, and tested with both global datasets and areal datasets to examine the strength of both regional models and areal models. The results indicate that the neural network model not only has many theoretic advantages over other conventional mathematic models in representing the complex urban systems, but also is practically superior to the logistic model in its capability to predict urban growth with better - accuracy and less variation. The neural network model is particularly effective in terms of successfully identifying urban patterns in the rural areas where the logistic model often falls short. It was also found from the area-based tests that there are significant intra-regional differentiations in urban growth with different rules and rates. This suggests that the global modeling approach, or one model for the entire region, may not be adequate for simulation of a urban growth at the regional scale. Future research should develop methods for identification and subdivision of these areas and use a set of area-based models to address the issues of multi-centered, intra- regionally differentiated urban growth.

  2. To Support Research Activities Under the NASA Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John C.

    2003-01-01

    The Alabama NASA EPSCoR Program is a collaborative venture of The Alabama Space Grant Consortium, The Alabama EPSCoR, and faculty and staff at 10 Alabama colleges and universities as well as the Alabama School of Math and Science in Mobile. There are two Research Clusters which include infrastructure-building and outreach elements embedded in their research activities. Each of the two Research Clusters is in an area of clear and demonstrable relevance to NASA's mission, to components of other Alabama EPSCoR projects, and to the State of Alabama's economic development. This Final Report summarizes and reports upon those additional activities occurring after the first report was submitted in March 2000 (included here as Appendix C). Since the nature of the activities and the manner in which they relate to one another differ by cluster, these clusters function independently and are summarized in parallel in this report. They do share a common administration by the Alabama Space Grant Consortium (ASGC) and by this means, good ideas from each group were communicated to the other, as appropriate. During the past year these research teams, involving 15 scientists, 16 graduate students, 16 undergraduates, and 7 high school students involving 10 Alabama universities had 14 peer reviewed scientific journal articles published, 21 others reviewed for publication or published in proceedings, gave 7 formal presentations and numerous informal presentations to well over 3000 people, received 3 patents and were awarded 14 research proposals for more than $213K dollars in additional research related to these investigations. Each cluster's activities are described and an Appendix summarizes these achievements.

  3. Experimental program to stimulate competitive energy research in North Dakota: Summary and significance of DOE Trainee research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudjouk, Philip

    1999-07-01

    The general goals of the North Dakota DOE/EPSCoR Program are to enhance the capabilities of North Dakota's researchers to conduct nationally competitive energy-related research and to develop science and engineering human resources to meet current and future needs in energy-related areas. Doctoral students were trained and energy research was conducted.

  4. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom....

  5. Marketing research model of competitive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasilya Dmitriy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To support its competitive advantages in current market conditions, each company needs to choose better ways of guaranteeing its favorable competitive position. In this regard, considerable interest lies in the structuring and algorithmization of marketing research processes that provide the information background of such choice. The article is devoted to modeling the process of marketing research of competitive environment.

  6. Green competitiveness research on Chinese automotive enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanhui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: More and more executives of automobileindustry in China start to recognize the concept of green competitiveness recently. However, relatively less research attention has been devoted to the consideration of measurement. This paper aims to find empirical approach to quantify green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The connotation of green competitiveness is explored and one suite of evaluation index system has been proposed with four dimensions including environmental, resou...

  7. Stimulating the Competitiveness of the Macedonian Economy through the Process of Stimulation the Internationalization of the Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanka Damoska Sekuloska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The research in this paper is to be focused on examining the internationalization of the Macedonian companies as a prerequisite in improvement of Macedonian competitiveness. Internationalization as a process of integration in international economic activities contributes to overcome the sizes of national markets. According to the World Economic Forum (WEF the size of the market is one of the pillars of competitiveness and it is revealed as one of the limitation of the competitiveness of Macedonian economy. The contemporary theories of competitiveness recognize the necessity of quantitative and qualitative improvement of the process of internationalization of the companies. Quantitative improvement means involving not only trade but also outward FDI and the new quality signifies the necessity of restructuring the economic activities towards employing and creating innovation based processes, as (Porter, 1990accents that a nation’s competitiveness depends on the capacity of its industry to innovate and upgrade. Using data of some target Central European and Baltic (CEB economies, it will be examined interrelationships between the internationalization and competitiveness and policies that influence the improvement and stimulation of internationalization process.

  8. Green competitiveness research on Chinese automotive enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhui Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: More and more executives of automobileindustry in China start to recognize the concept of green competitiveness recently. However, relatively less research attention has been devoted to the consideration of measurement. This paper aims to find empirical approach to quantify green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The connotation of green competitiveness is explored and one suite of evaluation index system has been proposed with four dimensions including environmental, resource, capability and knowledge.Design/methodology/approach: By introducing the factor analysis method, green competitiveness has been measured through an empirical analysis of 24 automotive enterprises within China.Findings: The results indicate that those elements, such as enterprise resource possession and utilization; environment, responsibility and knowledge; profitability; management efficiency, have significant effect on the green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The further analysis also unveils the advantages and disadvantages of green competitiveness for each company and the direction for improvement.Research limitations/implications: Guide regulators and managers of automobile industry to take some measures to enhance their green competitive advantage.Practical implications: Provide practical methods to measure green competitiveness for automotive enterprises.Originality/value: This paper proposes an evaluation index system of green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The suggestions of our research will be beneficial to enterprise executives and industry regulators.

  9. Psychological Strategy to stimulate the training of labor competitions in students of Psychology, in university conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira Rodríguez Faría

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation proposes a psychological strategy to stimulate the training of labor competitions in students of Psychology in semi presence conditions based upon an educative necessity diagnosis felt by students and their potentialities and the educative context. ANSE Model was the main technique for the diagnosis, using specifically the Central Group, Research of problems and Nominal Group, besides observation, were used no structural interviews, revision of documents, and content analysis. The psychological strategy was validated by means of the Expert Criteria Method. The system of actions created were the based for the training process of labor competitions in students of psychology in semi presence conditions with the professor labor.

  10. Destination Competitiveness: a Framework for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Gruescu, Ramona; Nanu, Roxana; Pirvu, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    We identify the competitive advantage of a tourist destination from a double perspective: the critical contribution of the employees and the ICT impact on promoting and selling the destination. Research methodology includes "bottom to top" analysis of the mentioned indicators. Thus, results include the eficientisation of tourist businesses and destinations due to both human element development and ICT. Two essential basis of the competitive advantage are isolated: differentiation and cost adv...

  11. Cooperative behavior, competition and operations research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estevez Fernandez, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Game theory is the mathematical tool to study cooperation and competition. Since the beginnings of operations research and game theory both fields have been closely related. This thesis further investigates this relationship. Costs or rewards sharing problems arising from scheduling problems,

  12. Investigating the use of stimulants in out-of-competition sport samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghosian, Thierry; Mazzoni, Irene; Barroso, Osquel; Rabin, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    The List of Prohibited Substances and Methods (the List), an International Standard published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), determines which substances and methods are prohibited in sport in- and out-of-competition. Stimulants are included within drug class S.6 under the in-competition testing section of the List. Athletes may be tempted to use stimulants as ergogenic aids in-competition in order to temporarily improve their mental and/or physical functions by increasing alertness, aggressiveness, motivation, locomotion, heart rate, and reducing fatigue. The Prohibited List Expert Group, responsible for the maintenance of the List, approved WADA funding for a two-year study to determine whether athletes were also using stimulants to benefit from their performance-enhancing effects during the training phase between competitions (i.e., out-of-competition). This study, involving 11 WADA-accredited laboratories, found that the use of stimulants by athletes during training was not significantly prevalent (0.36% of positive findings), suggesting that this issue does not, at the moment, pose a further challenge to the fight against doping in sport. In addition, the study supports the current structure in the Prohibited List that differentiates banned substances into the in- and out-of-competition classifications.

  13. Competitive Pressure, Selection and Investments in Development and Fundamental Research

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of competitive pressure on a firm's incentives to undertake both fundamental research and development. It presents a new framework incorporating the selection effect of product market competition, the Schumpeterian argument for monopoly power, the Nickell/Porter argument for competitive pressure and the infant industry argument for protection. The key insight is that the effects of competitive pressure on a firm's incentives to innovate depend on the firm's eff...

  14. Competition, Regulation and Development Research Forum ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Forum : Competition and Regulatory Implementation Issues in Developing Countries ... create challenges that influence the operation of regulatory institutions. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  15. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species.

  16. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species. PMID

  17. Banking Relations, Competition and Research Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gehrig

    2000-01-01

    When banks incur sunk costs to provide ex-ante information about customers, exclusive banking relations will occur under intense price competition when monitoring costs are low. When monitoring costs are sufficiently high, only non-monitored finance will be provided, typically, by multiple lenders. While multiple lending generally is (second-best) efficient when it emerges, relationship lending typically is not. In our framework, the informational rents in relationships of a single financier ...

  18. Competitive Pressure, Selection and Investments in Development and Fundamental Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of competitive pressure on a firm's incentives to undertake both fundamental research and development. It presents a new framework incorporating the selection effect of product market competition, the Schumpeterian argument for monopoly power, the Nickell/Porter

  19. CASE STUDY: Uzbekistan — Competition research improves services

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-22

    Dec 22, 2010 ... Small Grants Competition for Distribution Sector Research ... restrictive business practices in international money transfer services and find ways to .... through its own methodology on analyzing the financial services market [.

  20. Environmental Economics Research Competition for the Middle East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , to extend its work in environmental economics by supporting a series of small research projects in the Middle East and North Africa. Project proposals will be solicited through two competitions: one with and one without a specific theme.

  1. "A strong competition" | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Each scholar has been guided by at least one Chinese and one international mentor, who work closely with them as they produce a paper of original scholarship, written in English for international audiences. In all cases, the young scholars either address new research questions or take a fresh approach to familiar topics ...

  2. Catecholamine stimulation, substrate competition, and myocardial glucose uptake in conscious dogs assessed with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merhige, M.E.; Ekas, R.; Mossberg, K.; Taegtmeyer, H.; Gould, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    Uptake of radiolabelled deoxyglucose out of proportion to reduced coronary flow demonstrated by positron emission tomography has been used to identify reversibly ischemic, viable myocardium. For this concept to be applied reliably in the clinical setting, factors that may depress glucose availability independent of tissue viability, such as adrenergic stimulation and substrate competition, must be examined. Accordingly, we studied the effect of catecholamine stimulation by dopamine on myocardial glucose uptake in vivo using chronically instrumented, intact dogs and positron emission tomography. We measured myocardial activity of [2- 18 F]-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and 82 Rb in glucose-loaded animals randomly studied during dopamine infusion, during insulin infusion, and then during their combined infusion. Myocardial FDG uptake was significantly decreased when animals were treated with dopamine, compared with treatment in the same animals with insulin. When insulin was added to the dopamine infusion, myocardial FDG uptake was restored. In contrast, myocardial activity of 82 Rb, which is taken up in proportion to coronary flow, was similar under all three experimental conditions. Plasma glucose, free fatty acid, and lactate concentrations were determined before and during each infusion. The depression of myocardial FDG activity seen during dopamine infusion and its reversal with addition of insulin can be explained on the basis of effects of these hormones on substrate availability and competition

  3. Editorial : initiating cultural heritage research to increase Europe's competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira Roders, A.R.; Oers, van R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the contribution of European Commission (EC) initiatives to stimulate cultural heritage research over the last 20 years and the contribution of the research results to cultural heritage management and sustainable development.

  4. Gaining a Competitive Edge through Action Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, L.; Alexa, M.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2016-08-01

    The current business environment is characterized by increased competition and highly innovative approach, in order to create products and services to better respond to the costumers’ needs and expectations. In this specific context, the research approaches need to be more flexible and business oriented and so, throughout the paper we have used a research method that combines design research and action research, named Action Design Research which is a research method used for generating prescriptive design knowledge through building and evaluating IT artifacts in an organizational setting [1]. Following the Action Design Research stages and principles: problem identification, building, intervention and evaluation, reflection and learning and formalization of learning, the research team has developed an online instrument used to actively involve the consumer in the product development process, in order to generate a better consumers insight regarding their needs and desires and to design and/or adjust the product accordingly. The customer engagement IT tool created and tested by using Action Design Research, E-PICUS, has been developed within the framework of the research project „E-solutions for innovation through customer pro-active involvement in value creation to increase organisational competitiveness (E-PICUS)”, PN- II-PT-PCCA-2013-4-1811, currently undergoing.

  5. Using a robotics competition to teach about and stimulate enthusiasm for Earth science and other STEM topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, Hildee; Barnhart, Paul; Brevik, Corinne E.; Brevik, Eric C.; Burgess, Cynthia; Chen, Jundong; Egli, Shawna; Harris, Billy; Johanson, Paul J.; Johnson, Naomi; Moe, Marie; Olsen, Reba

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in recruiting students to careers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields is to stimulate enthusiasm about these fields in our youth. BEST (Boosting Engineering Science and Technology) Robotics is a national program in the USA that attempts to recruit junior and senior high school students (ages 13-18) into STEM careers by showing youth how exciting these careers can be by using robotics competitions. The competitions have several aspects, including robot design, software engineering, marketing, public outreach, research into the subject area of the year's tasks, and a set of tasks to be physically performed by the robots that each team builds. The tasks to be performed change every year; therefore, even teams that compete over multiple years must build a new robot each year designed to perform the particular tasks charged to them. Dickinson State University is the home to Blue Hawk BEST, one of the hubs that host the first round of competition for teams hoping to move on to regional, and potentially, national level competition. The tasks for 2015 revolved around a mining theme. The robots needed to be able to replace the filter in an air filtration system, fix broken pipes, mine simulated aggregate, coal, magnetite, bauxite, chalcopyrite, and spodumene, and move core samples. Points were awarded for successful progress toward each task based on the difficulty of the task and the market value of the commodities. While several STEM fields are covered in various aspects of the competition, the 2015 competition includes Earth science in that the students are required to research the history and science of the commodities being mined and learn about ways the commodities are important to their lives and the economy of their particular region. Several awards are handed out to the top performing teams in various categories, including spirit and sportsmanship awards. As teams compete for these awards a raucous

  6. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridoux, F.; Vodosek, M.; Den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political

  7. [Research on ginseng trade competitiveness between China and Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Min-Tong; Yang, Guang; Tang, Xiao-Jing

    2017-05-01

    Ginseng is one of China's valuable Chinese herbal medicines, with a long using history. Ginseng has worldwide reputation, and widely used in food, medicine, health products, cosmetics and other production. China and South Korea have a big ginseng industrial, and sharing half of the export market. The ginseng export competitiveness analysis seems important and necessary between China and South Korea. In this paper, the data of customs and trade of ginseng in COMTRADE database were studied, and ginseng export competitiveness was analyzed between China and Korea. The results showed that the ginseng export competitiveness of Korean more competitive than China. Contrast with China, South Korea using only 15% total amount of ginseng exports and produced the same total export amount. This article has the reference value to the traditional Chinese medicine resources management and the economics research. On this basis, this paper further discusses the problems that should be paid attention to in the development of ginseng industry in China. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Stimulating innovative research in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Annie; Potvin, Louise

    2013-06-01

    The Global Working Group on Health Promotion Research (GWG HPR) of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) presents a collection of four articles illustrating innovative avenues for health promotion research. This commentary synthesizes the contributions of these articles while attempting to define the contours of research in health promotion. We propose that innovation in research involves the adoption of a reflexive approach wherein consideration of context plays different roles. The reflexive process consists of questioning what is taken for granted in the conceptualization and operationalization of research. It involves linking research findings and its theoretical foundations to characteristics and goals of the field and observed realities, while orienting reflection on specific objects. The reflexive nature of the research activity is of paramount importance for innovation in health promotion. With the publication of this series, the GWG HPR wishes to strengthen health promotion research capacity at the global level and reaffirm health promotion as a specific research domain.

  9. How much would each researcher receive if competitive government research funding were distributed equally among researchers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krist Vaesen

    Full Text Available Scientists are increasingly dissatisfied with funding systems that rely on peer assessment and, accordingly, have suggested several proposals for reform. One of these proposals is to distribute available funds equally among all qualified researchers, with no interference from peer review. Despite its numerous benefits, such egalitarian sharing faces the objection, among others, that it would lead to an unacceptable dilution of resources. The aim of the present paper is to assess this particular objection. We estimate (for the Netherlands, the U.S. and the U.K. how much researchers would receive were they to get an equal share of the government budgets that are currently allocated through competitive peer assessment. For the Netherlands, we furthermore estimate what researchers would receive were we to differentiate between researchers working in low-cost, intermediate-cost and high-cost disciplines. Given these estimates, we then determine what researchers could afford in terms of PhD students, Postdocs, travel and equipment. According to our results, researchers could, on average, maintain current PhD student and Postdoc employment levels, and still have at their disposal a moderate (the U.K. to considerable (the Netherlands, U.S. budget for travel and equipment. This suggests that the worry that egalitarian sharing leads to unacceptable dilution of resources is unjustified. Indeed, our results strongly suggest that there is room for far more egalitarian distribution of funds than happens in the highly competitive funding schemes so prevalent today.

  10. State Policy of Stimulation of Industrial Competitiveness under Conditions of Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk Viacheslav H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to problems of state regulatory policy of stimulation of economic growth, increase of efficiency of activity of industrial branches of the country. It considers examples of foreign experience in the part of state support of domestic manufacturers. It shows possible variants of integration of co-operation between CIS countries on the basis of specialisation, co-operation and joint activity for achieving economic growth of economies. It demonstrates an automated system of mass servicing of customers, which is offered to be used in the structure of associations of trade enterprises. It offers ways of achievement of competitive advantages of domestic enterprises under conditions of globalisation by means of introduction of clusters of the consumer market enterprises. The article reveals their shortcomings and possibilities of development in the territory of Ukraine under conditions of limited financial resources. It acknowledges that measures of the fiscal policy should be directed, first of all, at support of creation of associations of medium enterprises of the light and other branches of industry and agriculture, which have development potential. It identifies main elements of creation of state programmes of support and development of the cluster form of organisation of the light and other branches of industry, agriculture and trade.

  11. Research on Development Mode of Foreign Competitive Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjiang, Zhou; Bin, Zong; Xianwu, Wu

    Adopting literature material method, survey and comparative method, the paper studies foreign competitive basketball, foreign competitive basketball on behalf of the State management system model, competitive basketball reserve personnel training and development mode system. Rely on different powers of the foreign competitive basketball from amateur to professional development; different modes of foreign competitive basketball management system; foreign competitive basketball back-up personnel training mode, the model on school training in America and other countries, mainly the club training mode in European countries; foreign model of development of competitive basketball, different from social guidance, in the combination operation mode of market regulation and government administrative intervention.

  12. Stimulating medical education research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Debbie; Scherpbier, Albert; Van Der Vleuten, Cees; Ten Cate, Olle

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, the Dutch have been active innovators and researchers in the medical education domain. With regards to the quantity of publications in the medical education literature, the Netherlands rank second among countries in Europe and fourth worldwide over the past years,

  13. Examining social identity and intrateam moral behaviours in competitive youth ice hockey using stimulated recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Mark W; Boardley, Ian D; Allan, Veronica; Root, Zach; Buckham, Sara; Forrest, Chris; Côté, Jean

    2017-10-01

    Social identity - identity formed through membership in groups - may play an important role in regulating intrateam moral behaviour in youth sport (Bruner, M. W., Boardley, I., & Côté, J. (2014). Social identity and prosocial and antisocial behavior in youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 56-64. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.09.003). The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine this potential role through stimulated recall interviews with competitive youth-ice-hockey players. Twenty-three players (M age  = 13.27 years, SD = 1.79) who reported engaging in high, median or low frequency of antisocial teammate behaviour (determined through pre-screening with the Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport Scale [Kavussanu, M., & Boardley, I. D. (2009). The prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport scale. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 31(1), 97-117. doi:10.1123/jsep.31.1.97]) were recruited from eight youth-ice-hockey teams in Canada. Interviews involved participants recalling their thoughts during prosocial/antisocial interactions with teammates, prompted by previously recorded video sequences of such incidents. Thematic analysis of interview data revealed all athletes - regardless of reported frequency of intrateam antisocial behaviour - felt prosocial interactions with teammates enhanced social identity. In contrast, the perceived influence of antisocial teammate behaviour on social identity differed depending on athletes' reported frequency of intrateam antisocial behaviour; those reporting low and median frequencies described how such behaviour undermines social identity, whereas athletes reporting high frequency did not perceive this effect. The study findings highlight the potential importance of intrateam moral behaviour and social identity for youth-sport team functioning.

  14. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  15. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  16. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  17. Based on the core competitiveness of enterprise innovation culture research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩 军

    2017-01-01

    In the spring tide of market economy at present, the enterprise is a must to survive in order to achieve innovation, promote enterprise's core competitiveness. Enterprise innovation culture, the promotion enterprise's core competitiveness plays an important role in promoting, therefore must complete enterprise innovation culture. Therefore, put forward by enterprise innovation culture, promote enterprise's core competitiveness.

  18. International University Research Ventures: Implications for U.S. Economic Competitiveness National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-31

    NTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY RESEARCH VENTURES: IMPLICATIONS FOR US ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS AND NATIONAL SECURITY The views, opinions and/or findings...UNIVERSITY RESEARCH VENTURES: IMPLICATIONS FOR US ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS AND NATIONAL SECURITY Report Term: 0-Other Email: mzak@gatech.edu...expected to inform political and economic theories about technology transfer, innovation, economic competitiveness, and democratization/civil

  19. Stimulation of Research in Biomedicine. Role of Effective Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, N V; Shkolnikova, M A; Dlin, V V; Yugay, M T

    Analysis of publication activity in the field of biomedicine shows insignificant input of Russia in the world scientific product. This is largely due to the lack of incentives for researchers. Article describes stimulation of researchers in Russia, compares it with foreign models, formulates main shortcomings of support and stimulation of research in Russia and introduces the concept of effective contract. Development of personnel motivation and stimulation of employees of scientific and research organizations in the field of health. As a successful experience the article describes the implementation of effective contract in Veltishev Research and Clinical Institute for Pediatrics where for years remuneration of researchers depended upon their positions without consideration of research results. Effective contract brought significant changes in the traditional system setting new performance and efficiency criteria. New evaluation system took into account publication activity, presentation activity, implementation of research results, raising scientific personnel, thesis work and income-generating activities. Introduction of effective contract already in the second year led to a rise in the number of foreign publications, publications in journals with impact factor of more than 2, the general increase in the number of articles in peer-reviewed journals with impact factor more than 0.3, the growth of the number of articles by 1 researcher, Hirsch index improving both by individual employees and the entire Institute, increase of grant activity and presentation activity at top-rated professional congresses. The growth of publication and presentation activities has been achieved at the reduction of research staff by 23%. From financial viewpoint effective contract resulted in the redistribution of resources in favour of more efficient researchers. The introduction of effective contract and increase of requirements for scientific output did not cause resistance of staff

  20. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 501 (2014), s. 1-21 ISSN 1664-462X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invoasions * resource competition * dominance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2014

  1. Research and assessment of competitiveness of large engineering complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivorotov V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the problem of ensuring the competitiveness of manufacturing and high-tech sectors is shown. Substantiated the decisive role of the large industrial complexes in the formation of the results of the national economy; the author’s interpretation of the concept of “industrial complex” with regard to current economic systems. Current approaches to assessing the competitiveness of enterprises and industrial complexes are analyzed; showing their main advantages and disadvantages. Provides scientific-methodological approach to the study and management of competitiveness of a large industrial complex; the description of its main units is provided. As a Central element of the scientific methodology approach proposed the methodology for assessing the competitiveness of a large industrial complex based on the Pattern-method; a modular system of indicators of competitiveness is developed and its adaptation to a large engineering complexes is made. Using the developed methodology the competitiveness of one of the largest engineering complexes of the group of companies Uralelectrotyazhmash, which is the leading enterprises in electrotechnical industry of Russia is assessed. The evaluation identified the main problems and bottlenecks in the development of these enterprises, and their comparison with leading competitors is provided. According to the results of the study the main conclusions and recommendations are formed.

  2. Pay attention to the enterprise competitive intelligence analysis research promotion enterprise scientific research production and product development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yan

    2014-01-01

    This article covers the competitive intelligence content and five characteristics, and on the American Competitive intelligence Outstanding Company's place situation, shows fully the competitive intelligence constructs the core competitive power regarding the enterprise to have the significant function, Its contribution has already hold the pivotal status in the world famous enterprise. It is an important cornerstone for enterprises which construct the core competitive power. Along with the enterprise competition environment rapid change, the competitive intelligence importance suddenly to reveal day by day. Just like the world richest family Microsoft Corporation president Bill. Gates asserted that, How to collect, How to analysis, how to manage and how to use information, lt will decide the enterprise victory and loss. And unified the enterprise scientific research production the special details, take 'To develop the SF_6 New Product' to introduce as the example how did the enterprise competition intelligence, as well as how did the information development and using in it. (author)

  3. Using Game Theory and Competition-Based Learning to Stimulate Student Motivation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguillo, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for using Game Theory tournaments as a base to implement Competition-based Learning (CnBL), together with other classical learning techniques, to motivate the students and increase their learning performance. The paper also presents a description of the learning activities performed along the past ten years of a…

  4. The research of tactics of the competitive activity of the qualified sportswomen in long jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Grebenyuk, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Grebenyuk A. Purpose: to research features of competitive tactics of the qualified sportswomen in long jumps from the running start. Material & Methods: such methods were applied the in researches: analysis of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical supervision, content analysis (analysis of protocols of competitions). Results of 152 jumpers in length, who executed 886 attempts, are analyzed for the solution of the stated purpose. Results: options of competitive tactics of the q...

  5. The Trade Practices Act, Competitive Neutrality and Research Costing: Issues for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzobs, Tania

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly universities are becoming commercial enterprises and their core activities of teaching and research subject to business imperatives. This paper reviews the research costing methodologies of 17 Australian universities. Tension between Competition Law and Competitive Neutrality exists which could be resolved through improved costing and…

  6. Bargaining for Competitiveness: Law, Research and Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Richard N., Ed.

    This book is an analysis of the relationship among collective bargaining (CB), firm competitiveness, and employment protection/creation in the United States (U.S.). Comparisons are also made between the U.S. situation and that in Europe. "Collective Bargaining in Context" (Richard N. Block, Peter Berg) places the US system of industrial…

  7. Fostering research aptitude among high school students through space weather competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Majid, R. A.; Bais, B.; Bahri, N. S.; Asillam, M. F.

    2018-01-01

    Cultivating research culture at an early stage is important for capacity building in a community. The high school level is the appropriate stage for research to be introduced because of students' competitive nature. Participation in the space weather competition is one of the ways in which research aptitude can be fostered in high school students in Malaysia. Accordingly, this paper presents how research elements were introduced to the students at the high school level through their participation in the space weather competition. The competition required the students to build a system to detect the presence of solar flares by utilizing VLF signals reflected from the ionosphere. The space weather competition started off with proposal writing for the space weather related project where the students were required to execute extensive literature review on the given topic. Additionally, the students were also required to conduct the experiments and analyse the data. Results obtained from data analysis were then validated by the students through various other observations that they had to carry out. At the end of the competition, students were expected to write a comprehensive technical report. Through this competition, the students learnt how to conduct research in accordance to the guidelines provided through the step by step approach exposed to them. Ultimately, this project revealed that the students were able to conduct research on their own with minimal guidance and that participation in the competition not only generated enjoyment in learning but also their interest in science and research.

  8. Protocols for Thermoluminescence and Optically Stimulated Luminescence Research at DOSAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, SM

    2004-01-01

    The Life Sciences Division (LSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a long record of radiation dosimetry research at the Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) facility complex. These facilities have been used by a broad segment of the research community to perform a variety of experiments in areas including, but not limited to, radiobiology, radiation dosimeter and instrumentation development and calibration, and materials testing in a variety of radiation environments. Collaborations with the University of Tennessee-Knoxville (UTK) have also led to important contributions in the area of archaeometry, particularly as it relates to the use of radiation dosimetry to date archaeological artifacts. This manual is to serve as the primary instruction and operation manual for dosimetric and archaeometric research at DOSAR involving thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Its purpose is to (1) provide protocols for common practices associated with the research, (2) outline the relevant organizational structure, (3) identify the Quality Assurance plan, and (4) describe all the procedures, operations, and responsibilities for safe and proper operation of associated equipment. Each person who performs research at DOSAR using TL/OSL equipment is required to read the latest revision of this manual and be familiar with its contents, and to sign and date the manual's master copy indicating that the manual has been read and understood. The TL/OSL Experimenter is also required to sign the manual after each revision to signify that the changes are understood. Each individual is responsible for completely understanding the proper operation of the TL/OSL equipment used and for following the guidance contained within this manual. The instructions, protocols, and operating procedures in this manual do not replace, supersede, or alter the hazard mitigation controls identified in the Research Safety Summary (''Thermoluminescence/Optically Stimulated

  9. HR Excellence in Research as an attribute of scientific institutions’ competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosławska-Sobór Sylwia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available What plays a major role in the process of building the competitiveness of an organization is not just the ability to adapt to the changing conditions in the environment, but also acquiring characteristics distinguishing it, which make it possible to keep, or improve its position on the market. What may be such a handicap for a scientific unit is the HR Excellence in Research (HRE logo, which is awarded by the European Commission under the strategy “Human Resources Strategy for Researchers” (HRS4R. It is awarded to scientific institutions, which implement the rules of the „European Charter for Researchers” and the „Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers”, and thanks to this create a friendly work environment and opportunities for development. In 2015 Central Mining Institute (GIG took steps aimed at getting the HR Excellence in Research logo, which is supposed to boost the attractiveness of the institute for scientists and contribute to further development of science and achieving a better position on the market. In the article the results of an internal analysis, which includes research on the opinions of scientific and research employees of GIG concerning the existing practices and rules governing research at the institute, are discussed. As a result of the research a Report together with an Action Plan were drawn up. They are supposed to support the creation of a friendly environment for scientific work and transparent rules for recruiting scientific employees. Also, the article highlights the most important challenges which the institute has to face in order to fully implement the guidelines of HRE, which stimulate economic and personal development.

  10. Competitive Funding, Citation Regimes, and the Diminishment of Breakthrough Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    At first glance Sweden looks like a researcher's paradise with high levels of GDP investment in research and high scores on citation indexes, yet recent studies have suggested that Sweden might be losing its edge in groundbreaking research. This paper explores why that is happening by examining researchers' logics of decision-making at a large…

  11. A research model of health-care competition and customer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoh, Derek A; Rivers, Patrick A

    2007-11-01

    In all industries, competition among businesses has long been encouraged as a mechanism to increase value for customers. In other words, competition ensures the provision of better products and services to satisfy the needs of customers. Various perspectives of competition, the nature of service quality, health-care system costs and customer satisfaction in health care are examined. A model of the relationship among these variables is developed. The model depicts customer satisfaction as an outcome measure directly dependent on competition. Quality of care and health-care system costs, while also directly dependent on competition, are considered as determinants of customer satisfaction as well. The model is discussed in the light of propositions for empirical research.

  12. Health care competition, strategic mission, and patient satisfaction: research model and propositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Patrick A; Glover, Saundra H

    2008-01-01

    In all industries, competition among businesses has long been encouraged as a mechanism to increase value for patients. In other words, competition ensures the provision of better products and services to satisfy the needs of customers This paper aims to develop a model that can be used to empirically investigate a number of complex issues and relationships associated with competition in the health care industry. A literature review was conducted. A total of 50 items of literature related to the subject were reviewed. Various perspectives of competition, the nature of service quality, health system costs, and patient satisfaction in health care are examined. A model of the relationship among these variables is developed. The model depicts patient satisfaction as an outcome measure directly dependent on competition. Quality of care and health care systems costs, while also directly dependent on the strategic mission and goals, are considered as determinants of customer satisfaction as well. The model is discussed in the light of propositions for empirical research. Empirical studies based on the model proposed in this paper should help identify areas with significant impact on patient satisfaction while maintaining high quality of service at lower costs in a competitive environment. The authors develop a research model which included propositions to examine the complex issues of competition in the health care industry.

  13. Market Research for Effective Competition in the Federal Procurement Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Distribution Costs 5. Manufacturing Costs 6. Vendor Attitude 7. Vendor Sales Strategy 8. Countertrade Figure 4. Research on Vendors Source: Summarized by the...subjects would be lease or buy, purchase of source of supply, and countertrade with vendors. The general area of research may be the same at a Navy ICP and...anticipate the vendor’s actions and design a purchasing stategy to provide for continued supply of needed items at lowest cost. Countertrade . Locating

  14. Research evaluation and competition for academic positions in occupational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    Citation analysis is widely used to evaluate the performance of individual researchers, journals, and universities. Its outcome plays a crucial role in the decision-making process of ranking applicants for an academic position. A number of indicators, including the h-index reflecting both scientific productivity and its relevance in medical fields, are available through the Web of Knowledge( sm ) and Scopus®. In the field of occupational medicine, the adoption of the h-index in assessing the value of core journals shows some advantages compared with traditional bibliometrics and may encourage researchers to submit their papers. Although evaluation of the overall individual performance for academic positions should assess several aspects, scientific performance is usually based on citation analysis indicators. Younger researchers should be aware of the new approach based on transparent threshold rules for career promotion and need to understand the new evaluation systems based on metrics.

  15. The Competitive edge: research priorities for U.S. manufacturing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems; Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    1991-01-01

    ... Manufacturing Studies Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this and of...

  16. The competitive edge: research priorities for U.S. manufacturing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems; Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    1991-01-01

    ... Manufacturing Studies Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this and of...

  17. Competition for public project funding in a small research system: the case of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Jaan Masso; Kadri Ukrainski

    2009-01-01

    The extensive literature that deals with competition for research funding has focused on the mechanisms and outcomes of funding, but has not systematically studied the allocation of funding among research performers across different financing instruments. The analysis of a small research system on the basis of funding volumes disaggregated according to beneficiaries and funding instruments showed a very high and growing degree of market concentration strengthening existing dominant research i...

  18. Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

  19. Exploring Market and Competitive Intelligence Research as a Source for Enhancing Innovation Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the role of Competitive and Market Intelligence (CI/MI) Research as a potential source for improving the innovation capability of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME's) leading to successful new product/services/processes/capabilities development (Cooper & Edgett, 2002). This report highlights the…

  20. Competitive Research Grants and Industry Collaboration: A Challenge for Universities in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The reasons for increased collaboration between Australian universities and industry are examined, focusing on competitive research grant programs developed by the government in the last decade. University and industry response to these opportunities and to issues such as intellectual property rights and publication rights are discussed. (MSE)

  1. Joint Research and Development under US Antitrust and EU Competition Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Björn

    This fascinating new book dissects, from a Competition law perspective, how Research and Development collaborations operate under both US and EU antitrust law. Analyzing the evolution of this innovation landscape from the 1970s to the present day, Blomqvist details the modifications and amendments...... made over this time to the relevant legal acts and guidelines. In doing to, the author picks up on the slow shift that has taken place in both the antitrust laws of the USA and the Competition Rules of the EU. The book concludes by discussing the necessity for a stringent attitude towards the antitrust...

  2. Competition of two supply chains with different risk structures: applying market research option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hafezolkotob

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand uncertainty obliges all participants through a supply chain to make decisions under uncertainty. These decisions extend across price, investment, production, and inventory quantities. We take account of competition between two supply chains under demand uncertainty. These chains internally are involved in vertical pricing competition; however, they externally participate in horizontal pricing and service level competitions by offering a single-type product to the market. Since firms may have various attitudes against demand uncertainty and its related risks, different risk structures for competitive supply chains are considered. We assume that risk-averse firms are able to decrease demand uncertainty by information gathered from market research. For risk-averse participants in a chain, market research investment is an appropriate ground for vertical coordination, which diminishes risk through a supply chain. Optimal strategies based on game theory are obtained for different risk structures; furthermore, for each structure the effects of risk sensitivity as well as market research efficiency on these optimal strategies are investigated. Finally, we propose two scenarios for information sharing between risk-averse participants.

  3. The rd LAK data competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Dietze, Stefan; Herder, Eelco; d'Aquin, Mathieu; Taibi, Davide; Scheffel, Maren

    2017-01-01

    The LAK Data Challenge 2015 continues the research efforts of the previous data competitions in 2013 and 2014 by stimulating research on the evolving fields Learning Analytics (LA) and Educational Data Mining (EDM). Building on a series of activities of the LinkedUp project, the challenge aims to

  4. RESEARCH OF COMPETITION IN DEPOSIT MARKET OF UKRAINE BASED ON THE PANZAR-ROSSE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Didenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem in an adequate assessment of the level of competition in the banking market has prompted researchers to search constantly some new methods. The most famous of them were later successfully adapted to the banking market, are a models of Bresnahan, Panzar-Rosse, Bertrand, Iwat, Monti-Klein-Modesto Barros and others. In Ukraine, the process of assessing the level of competition in the banking sector is very relevant, in line with the recent reforms of particular relevance and distribution. Regarding the domestic deposit market, there is a shortage of qualitative analysis of this issue, unlike foreign practice. Therefore this study we try to solve this problem. The key goal of researchers in this study is in a detailed analysis to identify the important factors which make influence on the allocated markets, in particular on lending and deposit rates. Based on these factors there could be implemented internal adjustment processes taking place in the markets. The purpose of the article is to determine the level of competition in the deposit market of Ukraine in 2006-2015 basing on nonstructural Panzar- Rosse model and identify key factors that affect this level. Methodology. To research the level of competition in the deposit market of Ukraine the Panzar-Rosse model was used, in which separate 11 models were built using the integrated tool “Multiple regression” in the software package of statistics analysis STATISTICA. The input data in the model was presented with the information on financial performance of Ukrainian banks during ten years from 01.01.2005 till 01.01.2015. Results of this research showed that in Ukrainian deposit market there is a monopolistic competition, as proved by the calculated values of H-statistics index. The year of 2008, in the context of the global economic crisis, was marked as an unbalanced period for deposit market of Ukraine. Practical implications. Knowing the current state of competition level in the

  5. Research of competition in the function of positioning the organization in the business market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All marketers tend to position their company and its products and/or services in the market the best they could. In this context, they must develop and implement in practice a complete marketing strategy, which is undoubtedly based on three concepts: segmentation, targeting and positioning. If marketers want to successfully separate the image of their company and its brand in the minds of potential customers and users in business market it is necessary to obtain and analyze a sufficient number of accurate and relevant information from the environment. Although pieces of information about customers, suppliers and other participants in the marketing channel are significant, latterly information about competition are more important. Without a thorough and continuous research and monitoring of competition, marketers could not provide management of the company with relevant information about competing organizations, which would result in an absolutely negative impact on the quality of future management decisions. In this context, the subject of this paper is theoretical analysis of competition, and the aim of the research is to assess the real attitudes of managers in the Serbian market of styrofoam and styrodur, about the most relevant characteristics of the competition - which have a strong impact on organization's operations.

  6. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  7. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Considerations for Research in Adolescent Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is a prevalent disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current treatment interventions do not target relevant pathophysiology and are frequently ineffective, thereby leading to a substantial burden for individuals, families, and society. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex undergoes extensive structural and functional changes. Recent work suggests that frontolimbic development in depressed adolescents is delayed or aberrant. The judicious application of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to the prefrontal cortex may present a promising opportunity for durable interventions in adolescent depression. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applies a low-intensity, continuous current that alters cortical excitability. While this modality does not elicit action potentials, it is thought to manipulate neuronal activity and neuroplasticity. Specifically, tDCS may modulate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and effect changes through long-term potentiation or long-term depression-like mechanisms. This mini-review considers the neurobiological rationale for developing tDCS protocols in adolescent depression, reviews existing work in adult mood disorders, surveys the existing tDCS literature in adolescent populations, reviews safety studies, and discusses distinct ethical considerations in work with adolescents.

  8. Para Sport Athletic Identity from Competition to Retirement: A Brief Review and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Michelle; Martin, Jeffrey

    2018-05-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to review the literature on para sport athletic identity and provide avenues for future research direction. First, the authors briefly describe the existing quantitative and qualitative research on para sport athletic identity and, thereby, illustrate the complexities para sport athletes experience regarding the way they describe their participation in competitive sport. Next, the authors describe how para sport athletes with acquired permanent disabilities and congenital disabilities face similar, yet unique, identity-related challenges. Finally, the authors argue that future researchers should consider examining para sport athletes' identity through narrative identity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Research on the Competitive Strategy of Cross-Border E-Commerce Comprehensive Pilot Area Based on the Spatial Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Bo; Wang, Huipo

    2016-01-01

    By now, 13 cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas have been approved by the State Council of China; Dalian and Tianjin are two of them. But with the development of the construction of the cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas, the competition between those pilot areas is inevitable. Dalian and Tianjin are located in the Bohai Sea and the distance between them is only 800 kilometers. For Dalian and Tianjin they are in thus competitive situations: first they have to compe...

  10. Competition in hospital and health insurance markets: a review and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisey, M A

    2001-04-01

    To review the empirical literature on the effects of selective contracting and hospital competition on hospital prices, travel distance, services, and quality; to review the effects of managed care penetration and competition on health insurance premiums; and to identify areas for further research. Selective contracting has allowed managed care plans to obtain lower prices from hospitals. This finding is generalizable beyond California and is stronger when there is more competition in the hospital market. Travel distances to hospitals of admission have not increased as a result of managed care. Evidence on the diffusion of technology in hospitals and the extent to which hospitals have specialized as a result of managed care is mixed. Little research on the effects on quality has been undertaken, but preliminary evidence suggests that hospital quality has not declined and may have improved. Actual mergers in the hospital market have not affected hospital prices. Much less research has been focused on managed care markets. Greater market penetration and greater competition among managed care plans are associated with lower managed care premiums. Greater HMO penetration appears to be much more effective than PPO penetration in leading to lower premiums. While workers are willing to change plans when faced with higher out-of-pocket premiums, there is little evidence of the willingness of employers to switch plan offerings. Preliminary evidence suggests that greater managed care penetration has led to lower overall employer premiums, but the results differ substantially between employers with and without a self-insured plan. Much more research is needed to examine all aspects of managed care markets. In hospital markets, particular attention should be focused on the effects on quality and technology diffusion.

  11. Optogenetically inspired deep brain stimulation: linking basic with clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, Christian; Pollak, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, optogenetics has revolutionised the neurosciences. The technique, which allows for cell-type specific excitation and inhibition of neurons in the brain of freely moving rodents, has been used to tighten the links of causality between neural activity and behaviour. Optogenetics is also enabling an unprecedented characterisation of circuits and their dysfunction in a number of brain diseases, above all those conditions that are not caused by neurodegeneration. Notable progress has been made in addiction, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders, as well as other anxiety disorders. By extension, the technique has also been used to propose blueprints for innovative rational treatment of these diseases. The goal is to design manipulations that disrupt pathological circuit function or restore normal activity. This can be achieved by targeting specific projections in order to apply specific stimulation protocols validated by ex-vivo analysis of the mechanisms underlying the dysfunction. In a number of cases, specific forms of pathological synaptic plasticity have been implicated. For example, addictive drugs via strong increase of dopamine trigger a myriad of alterations of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid transmission, also called drug-evoked synaptic plasticity. This opens the way to the design of optogenetic reversal protocols, which might restore normal transmission with the hope to abolish the pathological behaviour. Several proof of principle studies for this approach have recently been published. However, for many reasons, optogenetics will not be translatable to human applications in the near future. Here, we argue that an intermediate step is novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) protocols that emulate successful optogenetic approaches in animal models. We provide a roadmap for a translational path to rational, optogenetically inspired DBS protocols to refine existing approaches and expand to novel indications.

  12. Research with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paula I; Naeser, Margaret A.; Ho, Michael; Treglia, Ethan; Kaplan, Elina; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to improve language behavior, including naming, in stroke patients with chronic, nonfluent aphasia. Part 1 of this paper reviews functional imaging studies related to language recovery in aphasia. Part 2 reviews the rationale for using rTMS to treat nonfluent aphasia (based on functional imaging); and presents our current rTMS protocol. We present language results from our rTMS studies, and imaging results from overt naming fMRI scans obtained pre- and post- a series of rTMS treatments. Part 3 presents results from a pilot study where rTMS treatments were followed immediately by constraint-induced language therapy. Part 4 reviews our diffusion tensor imaging study that examined possible connectivity of arcuate fasciculus to different parts of Broca’s area (pars triangularis, PTr; pars opercularis, POp); and to ventral premotor cortex (vPMC). The potential role of mirror neurons in R POp and vPMC in aphasia recovery is discussed. PMID:19818232

  13. Research on the Competitive Strategy of Cross-Border E-Commerce Comprehensive Pilot Area Based on the Spatial Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By now, 13 cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas have been approved by the State Council of China; Dalian and Tianjin are two of them. But with the development of the construction of the cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas, the competition between those pilot areas is inevitable. Dalian and Tianjin are located in the Bohai Sea and the distance between them is only 800 kilometers. For Dalian and Tianjin they are in thus competitive situations: first they have to compete with each other; second since they are located in Bohai Sea (North China, they have to compete with other cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas (South China. In this paper, our aim is to build models to provide best price strategies for these two cities. Based on the two-sided market theory and the geographical position, this paper builds two competitive theory models. Through the analyzing of the equilibrium, we get two main results: (1 according to different service area, the cities (Dalian and Tianjin should have different price; (2 the two-sided market characters have an impact on their strategies.

  14. Comparison of strategies and performance of functional electrical stimulation cycling in spinal cord injury pilots for competition in the first ever CYBATHLON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Azevedo Coste

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES can elicit muscular contraction and restore motor function in paralyzed limbs. FES is a rehabilitation technique applied to various sensorimotor deficiencies and in different functional situations, e.g. grasping, walking, standing, transfer, cycling and rowing. FES can be combined with mechanical devices. FES-assisted cycling is mainly used in clinical environments for training sessions on cycle ergometers, but it has also been adapted for mobile devices, usually tricycles. In October 2016, twelve teams participated in the CYBATHLON competition in the FES-cycling discipline for persons with motor-complete spinal cord injury. It was the first event of this kind and a wide variety of strategies, techniques and designs were employed by the different teams in the competition. The approaches of the teams are detailed in this special issue. We hope that the knowledge contained herein, together with recent positive results of FES for denervated degenerating muscles, will provide a solid basis to encourage improvements in FES equipment and open new opportunities for many patients in need of safe and effective FES management. We hope to see further developments and/or the benefit of new training strategies at future FES competitions, e.g. at the Cybathlon 2020 (www.cybathlon.ethz.ch.

  15. A harmonized and efficient clinical research environment would benefit patients and enhance European competitiveness. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Antonino; Aringhieri, Eugenio; Boccia, Stefania; Buccella, Filippo; Gorini, Barbara; Gramaglia, Donatella; Masetti, Riccardo; Rossi, Paolo; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The forthcoming implementation of the European Clinical Trial Regulation (Regulation (EU) No. 536/2014), which is expected to facilitate the conduct of clinical trials across the European Union, will require National Authorities to create the best conditions for the implementation of the new Regulation through national guidelines, so that sponsors may reconsider Europe as a prime location for planning clinical trials. During a meeting titled "Innovation in Clinical Research", an expert panel discussed potential local advances fostering competitiveness of European clinical research with representatives of the pharmaceutical industry, patient organisations and Italian regulatory agency in view of the forthcoming implementation of (EU) No. 536/2014 on clinical trials of medicinal products. In this article we summarise the findings of the meeting, describe features characterising clinical research patterns and offer some suggestions on the possible involvement of all stakeholders in order to foster research innovation and allow the timely access to novel medicines for patients.

  16. A Nation at Risk: Increasing College Participation and Persistence Among African American Males to Stimulate U.S. Global Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriel A. Hilton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Today’s knowledge-based, global commerce requires continuous investment in human capital through postsecondary education for countries to be fiercely competitive. Countries, such as China and India, are experiencing growth in the number of people participating in postsecondary education; the United States has fallen behind. While America needs to focus on increasing college access and degree completion among underrepresented ethnic minorities, particularly in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM, educators and policymakers assert that this is particularly important for African American males. Increasing matriculation and graduation rates for African Americans is not only a matter of equity, but in the context of STEM, it has major implications for the competitiveness of the United States in the global economy. This article identifies strategies that educators and policymakers can employ to promote the participation of African American males in college in general, particularly in STEM.

  17. Career Satisfaction and Perceived Salary Competitiveness among Individuals Who Completed Postdoctoral Research Training in Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M; Nelson, David E; Izmirlian, Grant

    2017-01-01

    Studies examining career satisfaction of biomedical scientists are limited, especially in the context of prior postdoctoral training. Here we focused on career satisfaction defined as satisfaction with one's career trajectory and perceived salary competitiveness among a predominantly Ph.D.-trained population of scientists who completed cancer prevention-related postdoctoral training between 1987-2011. National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) alumni (n = 114), and previous recipients of NCI-sponsored Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA/F32) postdoctoral fellowships (n = 140) completed online surveys. Associations of career satisfaction and perception of salary competitiveness with demographic, training, and employment-related factors were examined using logistic regression. Overall, 61% reported high levels of satisfaction with their career trajectory to-date. Higher salary (odds ratio [OR] = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07-7.69) and having more leadership roles (OR = 2.26, 95% CI:1.04-4.90) were independently associated with higher career satisfaction. Persons with race/ethnicity other than white (OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.20-0.82) or age ≥ 50 (OR = 0.40, 95%CI: 0.17-0.94) had lower career satisfaction levels. There were no statistically significant differences in career satisfaction levels by gender, scientific discipline, or employment sector. 74% perceived their current salary as competitive, but persons with 5-9, or ≥10 years in their current position reported lower levels (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.15-0.65; and OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.87, respectively), as did individuals in government positions (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.11-0.98). These data add to the understanding of career satisfaction of those with advanced training in biomedical research by examining these measures in relation to prior postdoctoral research training and across multiple career sectors.

  18. Career Satisfaction and Perceived Salary Competitiveness among Individuals Who Completed Postdoctoral Research Training in Cancer Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Faupel-Badger

    Full Text Available Studies examining career satisfaction of biomedical scientists are limited, especially in the context of prior postdoctoral training. Here we focused on career satisfaction defined as satisfaction with one's career trajectory and perceived salary competitiveness among a predominantly Ph.D.-trained population of scientists who completed cancer prevention-related postdoctoral training between 1987-2011. National Cancer Institute (NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP alumni (n = 114, and previous recipients of NCI-sponsored Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA/F32 postdoctoral fellowships (n = 140 completed online surveys. Associations of career satisfaction and perception of salary competitiveness with demographic, training, and employment-related factors were examined using logistic regression. Overall, 61% reported high levels of satisfaction with their career trajectory to-date. Higher salary (odds ratio [OR] = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07-7.69 and having more leadership roles (OR = 2.26, 95% CI:1.04-4.90 were independently associated with higher career satisfaction. Persons with race/ethnicity other than white (OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.20-0.82 or age ≥ 50 (OR = 0.40, 95%CI: 0.17-0.94 had lower career satisfaction levels. There were no statistically significant differences in career satisfaction levels by gender, scientific discipline, or employment sector. 74% perceived their current salary as competitive, but persons with 5-9, or ≥10 years in their current position reported lower levels (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.15-0.65; and OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.87, respectively, as did individuals in government positions (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.11-0.98. These data add to the understanding of career satisfaction of those with advanced training in biomedical research by examining these measures in relation to prior postdoctoral research training and across multiple career sectors.

  19. Strategies for 2nd generation biofuels in EU - Co-firing to stimulate feedstock supply development and process integration to improve energy efficiency and economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndes, Goeran; Hansson, Julia; Egeskog, Andrea; Johnsson, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The present biofuel policies in the European Union primarily stimulate 1st generation biofuels that are produced based on conventional food crops. They may be a distraction from lignocellulose based 2nd generation biofuels - and also from biomass use for heat and electricity - by keeping farmers' attention and significant investments focusing on first generation biofuels and the cultivation of conventional food crops as feedstocks. This article presents two strategies that can contribute to the development of 2nd generation biofuels based on lignocellulosic feedstocks. The integration of gasification-based biofuel plants in district heating systems is one option for increasing the energy efficiency and improving the economic competitiveness of such biofuels. Another option, biomass co-firing with coal, generates high-efficiency biomass electricity and reduces CO 2 emissions by replacing coal. It also offers a near-term market for lignocellulosic biomass, which can stimulate development of supply systems for biomass also suitable as feedstock for 2nd generation biofuels. Regardless of the long-term priorities of biomass use for energy, the stimulation of lignocellulosic biomass production by development of near term and cost-effective markets is judged to be a no-regrets strategy for Europe. Strategies that induce a relevant development and exploit existing energy infrastructures in order to reduce risk and reach lower costs, are proposed an attractive complement the present and prospective biofuel policies. (author)

  20. Stimulating research and technology in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub, H [Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-11

    The Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada prepared a survey as part of its investigation of the challenges and opportunities facing the oil and gas industry. This report includes a compilation of the 144 responses to the survey which was open for comment from May to early July 2003. The top technical challenges facing the conventional oil and gas industry were listed as being: improving conventional and heavy oil ultimate recovery; cost-effectively addressing environmental challenges including water, soil and air pollution and ecological impacts; life extension and cost reduction technologies; reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving energy efficiency; learning how to produce tight gas economically; using carbon dioxide injection for enhanced recovery; improving measurement-while-drilling techniques; and, improving seismic-while-drilling techniques. Other technical challenges include the development of hydrogen gas auto fuel; subsurface microbiology to enhance oil and gas quality; risk management; water conservation; and, coalbed methane. The report also listed a myriad of technologies with high potential for field testing. Many respondents strongly agreed that research and development incentive programs involving royalty tax credits or financial tax credits would result in greater resource recoverability. Respondents were also asked what additional role the government could play in resource development. The responses were numerous. The survey also also addressed the challenges associated with the service sector. figs.

  1. RESEARCH ON INVESTMENT APPEAL AND COMPETITIVE CAPACITY OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Khadzhynova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is an elaboration of theoretical, methodological, and methodical approaches to forming and developing competitive capacity and investment appeal of steel industry enterprises. The achievement of the given purpose has led to the necessity of formulating such scientific research concept, which bottom line is in the relevance of using modern management methods implemented in foreign manufacturing practices. These are innovative economic, technical, organizational, and corporate methods of managing enterprises with the help of developed systems of managing strategic changes in enterprise activities, the steel industry in particular, which will contribute to achieving the high level of effectiveness and competitiveness of domestic business units. The research methodology is based on the combination of theories of managing economic systems in the globalized market economy. The empirical base for the research consists of the works by domestic and foreign scientists on problems of formation and development of strategic change management systems at industrial enterprises, statistical records, companies’ public records in the Internet, data of international information agencies, Ukrainian legislation on regulating economic activity of enterprises. In carrying out the research, such methods were used as: general academic analysis and synthesis, systemic generalization, statistic and correlation analysis (when justifying the directions of development before carrying out the economic analysis of activities of metallurgical enterprises. There is a conclusion that the industry is concentrated and, consequently, long-term trends are quite predictable, but they require additional clarifications, taking into consideration the uncertainty in the modern state of world economy. It is determined that metallurgy development depends on GBP. The analysis shows that the countries with the high GDP level have quite developed metallurgy. One

  2. Media Competition Implementation for the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD: Adoption and Reach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaniece Criss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD was a multi-level, multi-sector community intervention with a media competition component to provide an overarching synergy and promote awareness of target behaviors to reduce childhood obesity. Students participating in the media competition were tasked with developing videos, song/rap lyrics, and artwork that reflected the goals. The aim of this study is to document the process used to develop and implement the media competition along with its reach and adoption. An adapted version of Neta and colleagues’ 2015 framework on dissemination and implementation was used to summarize the process by which the media competition was developed and implemented. Adoption was defined by whether eligible schools or afterschool programs decided to implement the media competition. Reach was defined by student participation rates within schools/programs and the number of votes cast for the finalists on the coalition website and students’ paper ballots. A total of 595 students participated in the media competition from 18 school and afterschool programs in two communities. Adoption of the media competitions ranged from 22% to 100% in programs and reach ranged from 3% to 33% of the student population. The documentation of the implementation should contribute to the replication of the media competition.

  3. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  4. The Entrepreneurial University: A Case Study of the University of New Mexico in a Competitive Research Environment, 1972-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Lars G.

    Factors affecting the emergence of the University of New Mexico as a research institution in a period of increased competition for research support are discussed. The case study covers the period of 1972-1978 and focuses on the development of the Office of the Vice President for Research and its entrepreneurial activities, including its increased…

  5. How to develop patent work research in the enterprise competitive intelligence environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nansheng; Ren Xiaorong

    2014-01-01

    with the enterprise competitive environment rapid change, the importance of competitive intelligence becomes suddenly to reveal day by day. The patent is one of the most important information sources of competitive intelligence. This article describes the present status of the enterprise patent work, proposes the patent work strategy, point out that if it wants to enhance the enterprise competitive power, it will pay attention to the patent work. (authors)

  6. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    and Astrophysics. Those in charge of the competition give an overview of this relatively young tournament. They give a few examples of theoretical and experimental tasks, and one can see the strong connection between astronomy and physics, between the large scales in the universe and the small scales in particle physics. The third paper introduces a special competition called 'First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics'. It was conceived as a national event in Poland and has gained international reputation and acceptance since 1992. Papers are submitted from young students prior to university and are refereed in the same manner as real research papers. This means that the most important criterion is the originality and novelty of the activity performed in theoretical or experimental physics. The aims of this competition are set out below and can be seen as a credo for all competitions: promotion of scientific interest among young pupils selection and promotion of outstanding pupils enhancing motivation stimulation of school work establishing friendly relations between young physicists.

  7. Career Satisfaction and Perceived Salary Competitiveness among Individuals Who Completed Postdoctoral Research Training in Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M.; Nelson, David E.; Izmirlian, Grant

    2017-01-01

    Studies examining career satisfaction of biomedical scientists are limited, especially in the context of prior postdoctoral training. Here we focused on career satisfaction defined as satisfaction with one’s career trajectory and perceived salary competitiveness among a predominantly Ph.D.-trained population of scientists who completed cancer prevention-related postdoctoral training between 1987–2011. National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) alumni (n = 114), and previous recipients of NCI-sponsored Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA/F32) postdoctoral fellowships (n = 140) completed online surveys. Associations of career satisfaction and perception of salary competitiveness with demographic, training, and employment-related factors were examined using logistic regression. Overall, 61% reported high levels of satisfaction with their career trajectory to-date. Higher salary (odds ratio [OR] = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07–7.69) and having more leadership roles (OR = 2.26, 95% CI:1.04–4.90) were independently associated with higher career satisfaction. Persons with race/ethnicity other than white (OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.20–0.82) or age ≥ 50 (OR = 0.40, 95%CI: 0.17–0.94) had lower career satisfaction levels. There were no statistically significant differences in career satisfaction levels by gender, scientific discipline, or employment sector. 74% perceived their current salary as competitive, but persons with 5–9, or ≥10 years in their current position reported lower levels (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.15–0.65; and OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16–0.87, respectively), as did individuals in government positions (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.11–0.98). These data add to the understanding of career satisfaction of those with advanced training in biomedical research by examining these measures in relation to prior postdoctoral research training and across multiple career sectors. PMID:28121985

  8. Cooperation and competition in business on example of Internet research of opto-electronic companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2006-10-01

    Based on findings from earlier studies which showed that links to academic web sites contain important information, the following study examines the practicability of using co-link data to describe cooperation and competition in optoelec-tronic business. The analysis was based on 32 companies and organizations which were found in an issue of a specialist magazine. For the purpose of the research three search engines - Google, Yahoo! and MSN Search were used. Assuming that a number of co-links to a pair of Web sites is a measure of the similarity between the two companies, the study aims at search for the sets of companies that would be similar to one another. The method applied is the MDS - multidimensional scaling that allows to present results of the analysis on a 2D map.

  9. Denmark - supplier of competitive offshore wind solutions. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind research, development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    In May 2006, the Danish Government presented a report on promoting environmentally effective technology and established a number of innovative partnerships. The partnerships intend to strengthen public-private cooperation between the state, industry, universities and venture capital to accelerate innovation for a number of green technologies. The partnership for wind energy is called Megavind. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind describes the offshore challenges and suggests research, development and demonstration (RD and D) priorities to enable offshore wind power become to competitive with other energy technologies. The strategy lists key recommendations as well as key thematic priorities and for each of these a number of RD and D priorities. Under each thematic priority references are made to the European Strategic Energy Technology plan (SET-plan), which prioritises offshore wind RD and D in Europe. (LN)

  10. Video-Stimulated Recall in Cross-Cultural Research in Education: A Case Study in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga Thanh; Tangen, Donna

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines incorporating video-stimulated recall (VSR) as a data collection technique in cross-cultural research. With VSR, participants are invited to watch video-recordings of particular events that they are involved in; they then recall their thoughts in relation to their observations of their behaviour in relation to the event. The…

  11. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This report outlines the energy research and innovation policy in the Nordic and Baltic countries - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The report is the result of the research project Competitive policies in the Nordic Energy Research and Innovation Area (eNERGIA). The project was co-funded by Nordic Energy Research and NIFU STEP. The objective of the project was to determine possible policy interventions targeted at the development and commercial promotion of promising renewable energy production technologies in the Nordic countries. The report is based on an analysis of the framework conditions for the sector innovation systems for energy production, with a focus on research and innovation policy in the Nordic and Baltic countries. We identified the key actors and institutions in all the eight countries studied. In addition, we conducted a performance assessment based on the quantitative indicators of publishing and patenting, international collaboration and funding data. Using these indicators as a basis, we conducted an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis) of the Nordic sector innovation systems for energy production. This analysis identified common or diverging characteristics, challenges, framework conditions, energy-technology specialisation and, most important of all, cases of good practice in key technologies. The project included two workshops, and the results of these are also reported here. The outcomes of the workshops have been used in several parts of the project: A Nordic workshop on the environmental consequences of deployment at scale of these technologies to replace existing energy systems, with a focus on wind energy and photovoltaic energy, carbon dioxide capture and storage, and second-generation bioenergy. A Nordic workshop on policy implications for Nordic Energy Research. The report comprises three parts: Part 1: Country reports Part 2: Technology reports

  12. Investigation of the Effect of Training on the Development of High School Teachers' Attitudes towards Scientific Research and Project Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçöltekin, Alptürk

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop positive attitudes in high school teachers towards scientific research and project competitions by training them in scientific research and project preparation subjects. The study group consists of 90 high school teachers. As a result of the study, a significant difference was found in favor of…

  13. What can animal research tell us about the link between androgens and social competition in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Trainor, Brian C; Marler, Catherine A

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. The relationship between androgenic hormones, like testosterone (T), and aggression is extensively studied in human populations. Yet, while this work has illuminated a variety of principals regarding the behavioral and phenotypic effects of T, it is also hindered by inherent limitations of performing research on people. In these instances, animal research can be used to gain further insight into the complex mechanisms by which T influences aggression. Here, we explore recent studies on T and aggression in numerous vertebrate species, although we focus primarily on males and on a New World rodent called the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). This species is highly territorial and monogamous, resembling the modern human social disposition. We review (i) how baseline and dynamic T levels predict and/or impact aggressive behavior and disposition; (ii) how factors related to social and physical context influence T and aggression; (iii) the reinforcing or "rewarding" aspects of aggressive behavior; and (iv) the function of T on aggression before and during a combative encounter. Included are areas that may need further research. We argue that animal studies investigating these topics fill in gaps to help paint a more complete picture of how androgenic steroids drive the output of aggressive behavior in all animals, including humans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Measures of outcome for stimulant trials: ACTTION recommendations and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiluk, Brian D; Carroll, Kathleen M; Duhig, Amy; Falk, Daniel E; Kampman, Kyle; Lai, Shengan; Litten, Raye Z; McCann, David J; Montoya, Ivan D; Preston, Kenzie L; Skolnick, Phil; Weisner, Constance; Woody, George; Chandler, Redonna; Detke, Michael J; Dunn, Kelly; Dworkin, Robert H; Fertig, Joanne; Gewandter, Jennifer; Moeller, F Gerard; Ramey, Tatiana; Ryan, Megan; Silverman, Kenneth; Strain, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    The development and approval of an efficacious pharmacotherapy for stimulant use disorders has been limited by the lack of a meaningful indicator of treatment success, other than sustained abstinence. In March, 2015, a meeting sponsored by Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) was convened to discuss the current state of the evidence regarding meaningful outcome measures in clinical trials for stimulant use disorders. Attendees included members of academia, funding and regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies, and healthcare organizations. The goal was to establish a research agenda for the development of a meaningful outcome measure that may be used as an endpoint in clinical trials for stimulant use disorders. Based on guidelines for the selection of clinical trial endpoints, the lessons learned from prior addiction clinical trials, and the process that led to identification of a meaningful indicator of treatment success for alcohol use disorders, several recommendations for future research were generated. These include a focus on the validation of patient reported outcome measures of functioning, the exploration of patterns of stimulant abstinence that may be associated with physical and/or psychosocial benefits, the role of urine testing for validating self-reported measures of stimulant abstinence, and the operational definitions for reduction-based measures in terms of frequency rather than quantity of stimulant use. These recommendations may be useful for secondary analyses of clinical trial data, and in the design of future clinical trials that may help establish a meaningful indicator of treatment success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Research on the Core Competitive Power Elements Evaluation System of Green Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Hui LIANG

    2013-01-01

    Green hotel is a new type of hospitality industry development model based on the concept of circular economy and sustainable development. This paper makes an analysis and evaluation of the elements of green hotel core competence, on this basis, constructs the Green Hotel core competitive evaluation index system. The construction of the system is conducive to understand the green hotel’s own competitive advantage objectively, and explore ways to enhance its core competitiveness, providing obje...

  16. COMPETITIVENESS, VALUE CHAIN AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH COMPETITIVIDAD, CADENA DE VALOR E INVESTIGACION CIENTIFICA

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Apolinar Martinez Arroyo; Irma Cristina Espitia Moreno; Marco Alberto Valenzo Jimenez

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of the sources of competitive advantage by cost or differentiation in the avocado value chain of exporting companies located in Uruapan, Michoacán. The analysis is made by assessing the impact of independent variables, dimensions and indicators on the dependent variable. This approach allows us to know or show the source of competitive advantage. That is, to observe the totally competitive advantage, you must know what activity the advantage derives from....

  17. Research of Competitive Orientation Among Secondary School Seniour Students: Current Trends and Prospects for Nurturing (Case Study of Tyumen Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady F. Shafranov-Kutsev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the priorities of socio-economic development facing our country set new requirements to secondary education; a graduate should not only have a certain amount of knowledge, but also be able to build an effective communication strategy, to be prepared for constant professional self-development, to take the initiative, to interact under conditions of rivalry, in other words, to be competitive. Addressing these issues will contribute to the creation of conditions in which objective requirements of the social system would have found understanding among secondary school students, therefore it is necessary to form competitive thinking. The aim of the study was to consider the factors enabling secondary school students to accept knowledge, values and skills of a competitive person needed for further su stainable development. Materials and Methods: a questionnaire survey of high school students was selected for its reliability and validity in studying competitive skills. The design of the questionnaire was developed by the team of the Sociological Laboratory of the Chair of General and Economic Sociology at Tyumen State University. IBM SPSS Statistics 23 software product was used to process and ana lyse the obtained data. Results: the research provides important insights into the dynamics of the social well-being of secondary school students, defines the main determinants of the formation of skills in competitive environment. The results of this study highlight obstacles to this process as well. Discussion and Conclusions: this paper argues that self-dependent decision-making, critical perception of information, willingness to compete enable to form a competitive personality. The findings from this study have significant potential implications for future educational practice. These research materials are relevant for improving the methods and skills of teaching activities and for development of youth policy. Possible areas for further

  18. Research and technology organizations’ mobilizers of the regional environment: Competitive strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Rincón Díaz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose a contingent model that facilitates knowledge of the strategies followed by the research technology organizations (RTOs of Valencia and the Basque Country, Spain, to adapt to the turbulence of their environment. Design/methodology/approach - The research includes context, organizational and results variables and identifies some barriers that the RTOs encounter in collaborating with SMEs and also the best practices they follow to develop competitive advantages. The methodology used consisted of applying the proposed model to the 27 RTOs of both autonomous regions; a factor analysis was then performed to determine whether there exist groups of related (correlated variables; finally, the authors proceeded to carry out a hierarchical cluster analysis to observe how the 27 RTOs are distributed according to their ability to adapt and respond to environmental turbulence. Findings - The technological policy must consider the characteristics of each region to propose more efficient and equitable mechanisms that allow the RTOs to face new challenges. Originality/value -This study proposes a theoretical model suitable for RTOs to respond to environmental changes, to the current economy globalization and to cope with new challenges. This proposal means that RTOs must manage an appropriate combination of key factors, including the development of more proactive innovation strategies, an organic organizational structure to relate better with other innovation agents and universities, which help them to work more efficiently with SMEs and to obtain a higher innovative performance.

  19. Scientific retreats with 'speed dating': networking to stimulate new interdisciplinary translational research collaborations and team science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranwala, Damayanthi; Alberg, Anthony J; Brady, Kathleen T; Obeid, Jihad S; Davis, Randal; Halushka, Perry V

    2017-02-01

    To stimulate the formation of new interdisciplinary translational research teams and innovative pilot projects, the South Carolina Clinical and Translational Research (SCTR) Institute (South Carolina Clinical and Translational Science Award, CTSA) initiated biannual scientific retreats with 'speed dating' networking sessions. Retreat themes were prioritized based on the following criteria; cross-cutting topic, unmet medical need, generation of novel technologies and methodologies. Each retreat begins with an external keynote speaker followed by a series of brief research presentations by local researchers focused on the retreat theme, articulating potential areas for new collaborations. After each session of presentations, there is a 30 min scientific 'speed dating' period during which the presenters meet with interested attendees to exchange ideas and discuss collaborations. Retreat attendees are eligible to compete for pilot project funds on the topic of the retreat theme. The 10 retreats held have had a total of 1004 participants, resulted in 61 pilot projects with new interdisciplinary teams, and 14 funded projects. The retreat format has been a successful mechanism to stimulate novel interdisciplinary research teams and innovative translational research projects. Future retreats will continue to target topics of cross-cutting importance to biomedical and public health research. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  20. Functional electrical stimulation cycling strategies tested during preparation for the First Cybathlon Competition – a practical report from team ENS de Lyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Metani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether it is from the patient’s or the physical therapist’s point of view, FES cycling can be considered either as a recreational activity, or an engaging rehabilitation tool. In both cases, it keeps patients with lower-limb paralysis motivated to sustain a regular physical activity. Thus, it is not surprising that it was selected as one of the six disciplines of the first Cybathlon competition held on October 8, 2016. However, many unresolved issues prevent FES cycling from being an activity practiced outdoors on a daily basis; such as, low power production, rapid muscle fatigue, precise electrode positioning, lack of systematic procedures to determine stimulation patterns, and the difficulty of transferring disabled riders from their wheelchair to the tricycle. This article documents the challenges we faced during preparation for the Cybathlon 2016 FES cycling race, and provides results obtained during different phases of the process. A particular specificity of our team was that, unlike most other teams where pilots were mainly paraplegic, both the primary and backup pilots for team ENS de Lyon are C6/C7 tetraplegics, with neither voluntary control of their abdominal muscles nor hand grip, and only partial use of their arms.

  1. A higher sink competitiveness of the rooting zone and invertases are involved in dark stimulation of adventitious root formation in Petunia hybrida cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Franken, Philipp; Klaering, Hans-Peter; Fischer, Kerstin; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Druege, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    The contribution of carbon assimilation and allocation and of invertases to the stimulation of adventitious root formation in response to a dark pre-exposure of petunia cuttings was investigated, considering the rooting zone (stem base) and the shoot apex as competing sinks. Dark exposure had no effect on photosynthesis and dark respiration during the subsequent light period, but promoted dry matter partitioning to the roots. Under darkness, higher activities of cytosolic and vacuolar invertases were maintained in both tissues when compared to cuttings under light. This was partially associated with higher RNA levels of respective genes. However, activity of cell wall invertases and transcript levels of one cell wall invertase isogene increased specifically in the stem base during the first two days after cutting excision under both light and darkness. During five days after excision, RNA accumulation of four invertase genes indicated preferential expression in the stem base compared to the apex. Darkness shifted the balance of expression of one cytosolic and two vacuolar invertase genes towards the stem base. The results indicate that dark exposure before planting enhances the carbon sink competitiveness of the rooting zone and that expression and activity of invertases contribute to the shift in carbon allocation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Research on the Core Competitive Power Elements Evaluation System of Green Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Green hotel is a new type of hospitality industry development model based on the concept of circular economy and sustainable development. This paper makes an analysis and evaluation of the elements of green hotel core competence, on this basis, constructs the Green Hotel core competitive evaluation index system.The construction of the system is conducive to understand the green hotel’s own competitive advantage objectively, and explore ways to enhance its core competitiveness, providing objective basis for sustainable development of China's Hotel industry.

  3. An Analysison Provincial Medical Science Basic Research Competitiveness Based on the National Natural Science Foundation of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Xia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] The National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC is one of the most important channels to support basic research in China. Competition for funding by the NSFC has been a very important indicator to measure the basic research level of various province and scientific research institutions. [Method/process] By combing and analyzing the status quo of NSFC in medical science, it is helpful to narrow the provincial gap and improve the basic research of medical science in China. Based on the project information of NSFC and previous scholars’ research, the paper update the index of basic research competitiveness, and analyzes project number and project funding of medical science during 2006-2016. At the same time, the competitiveness of medical science basic research and its changing trend in 31 provinces of China are analyzed. [Result/conclusion] The result shows that, in recent years, China’s basic scientific research has greatly improved, but there is a large gap between the provinces.

  4. Human Resources and Competitiveness. Report of the Committee on Human Resources, The President's Commission on Industrial Competitiveness. Research Report Series RR-87-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Competitiveness is a function of a nation's resources and how effectively those resources are used relative to that nation's competitors. The people of a nation, with their knowledge, skills, and attitudes, determine how effectively technology, capital, and trade will be used to the nation's competitive advantage. The competitive challenge to the…

  5. The Online Marketing Research on the Factors of Competitiveness of Enterprises in the Computer Accessory Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashkina Oksana I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at identifyng the factors of competitiveness of enterprises in the market for computer accessories (on the example of the «ZONA51» store and suggesting certain actions as to creating and strengthening competitive advantages. The main competitors of the enterprise, which offer computer accessories, as well as the basic preferences of consumers in choosing the game-oriented computer accessories, have been explored. The study has found that price and active Internet communications are the main factors in the competitiveness of enterprises in the market for computer accessories. It is also important to use communicative channels such as «word-of-mouth marketing» for specific types of goods. The target audience of the products analyzed is young people, so it is also important to advertise resources near the places of youth gatherings to provide active communications. Further studies should consider the factors of competitiveness of Internet shops with different orientation.

  6. Summative report of the public competition research and development on nuclear science and technology in the fiscal year 1998 through 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute started the public competition research and development on nuclear science and technology in 1998, and closed it in 2003. This report describes the system of the competition research and development, application situations, R and D subjects adopted, evaluation findings, outputs produced, achievements and problems, as a summative report of practice of the system for six years. (author)

  7. Summative report of the public competition research and development on software for computational science and engineering in the fiscal year 1997 through 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute started the public competition research and development on software for computational science and engineering in 1997, and closed it in 2002. This report describes the system of the competition research and development, application situations, R and D subjects adopted, evaluation findings, outputs produced, achievements and problems, as a summative report of practice of the system for six years. (author)

  8. Analysis of Telecommunication Markets of India, Singapore and Thailandand and Research Their Global Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, JU-HAN

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the telecommunication markets in India, Singapore and Thailand in order to find the potentiality of the markets which could be considered by the company to expand its business in telecommunication field and also to take a proper strategy. Michael Porter proposed a model that allows analyzing why some nations are more competitive than others are, and why some industries within nations are more competitive than others are. (Porter, 1990) Porter beli...

  9. An inexpensive Arduino-based LED stimulator system for vision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teikari, Petteri; Najjar, Raymond P; Malkki, Hemi; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Dumortier, Dominique; Gronfier, Claude; Cooper, Howard M

    2012-11-15

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are being used increasingly as light sources in life sciences applications such as in vision research, fluorescence microscopy and in brain-computer interfacing. Here we present an inexpensive but effective visual stimulator based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) and open-source Arduino microcontroller prototyping platform. The main design goal of our system was to use off-the-shelf and open-source components as much as possible, and to reduce design complexity allowing use of the system to end-users without advanced electronics skills. The main core of the system is a USB-connected Arduino microcontroller platform designed initially with a specific emphasis on the ease-of-use creating interactive physical computing environments. The pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal of Arduino was used to drive LEDs allowing linear light intensity control. The visual stimulator was demonstrated in applications such as murine pupillometry, rodent models for cognitive research, and heterochromatic flicker photometry in human psychophysics. These examples illustrate some of the possible applications that can be easily implemented and that are advantageous for students, educational purposes and universities with limited resources. The LED stimulator system was developed as an open-source project. Software interface was developed using Python with simplified examples provided for Matlab and LabVIEW. Source code and hardware information are distributed under the GNU General Public Licence (GPL, version 3). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the brain: guidelines for pain treatment research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Max M.; Treister, Roi; Raij, Tommi; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Park, Lawrence; Nurmikko, Turo; Lenz, Fred; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Lang, Magdalena; Hallett, Mark; Fox, Michael; Cudkowicz, Merit; Costello, Ann; Carr, Daniel B.; Ayache, Samar S.; Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recognizing that electrically stimulating the motor cortex could relieve chronic pain sparked development of noninvasive technologies. In transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), electromagnetic coils held against the scalp influence underlying cortical firing. Multiday repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can induce long-lasting, potentially therapeutic brain plasticity. Nearby ferromagnetic or electronic implants are contraindications. Adverse effects are minimal, primarily headaches. Single provoked seizures are very rare. Transcranial magnetic stimulation devices are marketed for depression and migraine in the United States and for various indications elsewhere. Although multiple studies report that high-frequency rTMS of the motor cortex reduces neuropathic pain, their quality has been insufficient to support Food and Drug Administration application. Harvard's Radcliffe Institute therefore sponsored a workshop to solicit advice from experts in TMS, pain research, and clinical trials. They recommended that researchers standardize and document all TMS parameters and improve strategies for sham and double blinding. Subjects should have common well-characterized pain conditions amenable to motor cortex rTMS and studies should be adequately powered. They recommended standardized assessment tools (eg, NIH's PROMIS) plus validated condition-specific instruments and consensus-recommended metrics (eg, IMMPACT). Outcomes should include pain intensity and qualities, patient and clinician impression of change, and proportions achieving 30% and 50% pain relief. Secondary outcomes could include function, mood, sleep, and/or quality of life. Minimum required elements include sample sources, sizes, and demographics, recruitment methods, inclusion and exclusion criteria, baseline and posttreatment means and SD, adverse effects, safety concerns, discontinuations, and medication-usage records. Outcomes should be monitored for at least 3 months after

  11. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the brain: guidelines for pain treatment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Max M; Treister, Roi; Raij, Tommi; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Park, Lawrence; Nurmikko, Turo; Lenz, Fred; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Lang, Magdalena; Hallett, Mark; Fox, Michael; Cudkowicz, Merit; Costello, Ann; Carr, Daniel B; Ayache, Samar S; Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2015-09-01

    Recognizing that electrically stimulating the motor cortex could relieve chronic pain sparked development of noninvasive technologies. In transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), electromagnetic coils held against the scalp influence underlying cortical firing. Multiday repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can induce long-lasting, potentially therapeutic brain plasticity. Nearby ferromagnetic or electronic implants are contraindications. Adverse effects are minimal, primarily headaches. Single provoked seizures are very rare. Transcranial magnetic stimulation devices are marketed for depression and migraine in the United States and for various indications elsewhere. Although multiple studies report that high-frequency rTMS of the motor cortex reduces neuropathic pain, their quality has been insufficient to support Food and Drug Administration application. Harvard's Radcliffe Institute therefore sponsored a workshop to solicit advice from experts in TMS, pain research, and clinical trials. They recommended that researchers standardize and document all TMS parameters and improve strategies for sham and double blinding. Subjects should have common well-characterized pain conditions amenable to motor cortex rTMS and studies should be adequately powered. They recommended standardized assessment tools (eg, NIH's PROMIS) plus validated condition-specific instruments and consensus-recommended metrics (eg, IMMPACT). Outcomes should include pain intensity and qualities, patient and clinician impression of change, and proportions achieving 30% and 50% pain relief. Secondary outcomes could include function, mood, sleep, and/or quality of life. Minimum required elements include sample sources, sizes, and demographics, recruitment methods, inclusion and exclusion criteria, baseline and posttreatment means and SD, adverse effects, safety concerns, discontinuations, and medication-usage records. Outcomes should be monitored for at least 3 months after initiation

  12. Research on the Mechanism of Cross Organizational Knowledge Sharing in BIM Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-opetition under the environment of BIM implementation process because the level is not high resulting in the project BIM application value of incomplete knowledge sharing among organizations, thus establishing good knowledge can effectively solve this problem and achieve the overall benefit and benefit sharing mechanism in the project organization. This paper defines five competing modes according to the competing degree of organization between different BIM applications, including imperfect competition, competition, competition and cooperation, full cooperation and cooperation, and put forward the conceptual model and related assumptions. Analysis of the effect of path and effect of project determined in BIM application mode, the concurrence of knowledge sharing, efficiency and overall efficiency of the project within the organization through the survey and empirical results, and according to the proposed contract, the distribution of benefits and work three kinds of knowledge sharing mechanism implementation path.

  13. INNOVATIVE CLUSTER OR COMPETITIVENESS POLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Scutaru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the situation of clusters in Romania and their areas of activity and innovation in entrepreneurship Romanian state. It is made also a territorial distribution of clusters on the eight regions. The findings lead to the conclusion that there are some clusters that have the vocation to become poles of competitiveness in areas such as renewable energy, automotive, electronics, health, biotechnology, mechatronics or ICT (Information and Communication Technology which represent the resources for future of the Romanian economy. Regarding the degree of innovation of Romanian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, the level is relatively modest, 30.8% of all enterprises being innovative. If we were to answer the question the title suggests, we would say "yes" to both since the innovative cluster as well as the competitiveness pole promotes par excellence, innovation through study, research and stimulation of creativity. And this is more than enough to support economic growth of Romania and maintain the competitiveness worldwide.

  14. Competitiveness, Technology and Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Sanjaya

    This document examines competitiveness in the developing world. Chapters 1 through 3, which are largely conceptual, examine the following topics: the concept of competitiveness and why it is important; market-stimulating technology policies in developing countries, and the relationship between import liberalization and industrial performance.…

  15. Research document no.31. Integration of European gas markets: nascent competition in a diversity of models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2002-01-01

    The idea of building an integrated European gas market based on competitive trade, like a gas lake supplied indifferently by remote, intra-European and national sources with the help of active market places allowing arbitration and price convergence, is far from being reached. In fact it depends upon two conditions: the deregulation of each gas market at national level, and at the upper level of the market the change in contractual relations between remote gas producers and buyers, who currently make the relations rigid with long-term transactions and limit opportunities for exchange on a competitive basis. This document analyses at two levels, namely national and European, the changing shape of the European gas markets under the effects of the market reforms and their chance of integration. Firstly the former two-level European gas market, the legacy of which determines the constraints on competition development more strongly than in electricity, are characterized. Secondly, in order to characterize the potential for development of competition, the main traits of each national gas market are identified in terms of market attractiveness and market accessibility for the incumbents competitors. Thirdly, dynamics of market development towards market integration are inferred at European level from these characteristics and from the possibility for development of new forms of gas trade between foreign producers, suppliers and users at national level. (A.L.B.)

  16. European Responses to Global Competitiveness in Higher Education. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.7.09

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wende, Marijk

    2009-01-01

    The growing global competition in which knowledge is a prime factor for economic growth is increasingly shaping policies and setting the agenda for the future of European higher education. With its aim to become the world's leading knowledge economy, the European Union is concerned about its performance in the knowledge sector, in particular in…

  17. Research document no.31. Integration of European gas markets: nascent competition in a diversity of models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D

    2002-07-01

    The idea of building an integrated European gas market based on competitive trade, like a gas lake supplied indifferently by remote, intra-European and national sources with the help of active market places allowing arbitration and price convergence, is far from being reached. In fact it depends upon two conditions: the deregulation of each gas market at national level, and at the upper level of the market the change in contractual relations between remote gas producers and buyers, who currently make the relations rigid with long-term transactions and limit opportunities for exchange on a competitive basis. This document analyses at two levels, namely national and European, the changing shape of the European gas markets under the effects of the market reforms and their chance of integration. Firstly the former two-level European gas market, the legacy of which determines the constraints on competition development more strongly than in electricity, are characterized. Secondly, in order to characterize the potential for development of competition, the main traits of each national gas market are identified in terms of market attractiveness and market accessibility for the incumbents competitors. Thirdly, dynamics of market development towards market integration are inferred at European level from these characteristics and from the possibility for development of new forms of gas trade between foreign producers, suppliers and users at national level. (A.L.B.)

  18. Management Of Competition And Besting Among Crew Members: A Study At The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) In Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allner, Matthew; Bishop, Sheryl; Gushin, Vadim; McKay, Chris; Rygalov, Vadim; Allner, Matthew

    Introduction: Psychosocial group functioning has become an increased international focus of many space faring nations due to the recent shift in focus of colonizing the Moon and then preparing to travel to Mars and beyond. Purpose: This study investigates the effects of competition and besting among crewmembers in isolated and confined extreme (ICE) environments. Furthermore, the study investigates the effects associated with both preand intra-mission management efforts, which included crewmember assessments at various mission phases (pre-, intra-, and end-mission). Suggestions on how to manage competition and besting within a crew were investigated by implementing preand intra-mission awareness strategies as well as group participation in the development and implementation of countermeasures to manage crewmember tendency towards competition and besting to promote the development of positive group functioning. Methods: A six person heterogeneous American crew conducted a Mars simulation mission at the Mars Society's Mars Desert Research Station in Utah, USA in 2006 as part of a new NASA training program called Spaceward Bound. Participants were administered assessments of personality, personal and group identity/functioning, subjective stress, and subjective motivation. All participants were also provided information (pre-mission) regarding past research findings and tendencies of group functioning, stressors, cognitive functioning, and competition and besting. Results: Anecdotal data obtained from personal interviews with crewmembers strongly showed that pre-mission discussions regarding competition and besting provided awareness that allowed crewmembers to continually self-assess to prevent this tendency from surfacing during the mission. The assessment data results showed support for recorded diary materials which indicated crewmembers felt strongly that continual reminders of the besting concept, along with being allowed to participate in the development and

  19. Variable-temperature Microwave Impedance Microscope with Light Stimulation for Research on Photo-induced Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-24

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The DURIP program "Variable-temperature Microwave Impedance Microscope with Light Stimulation for Research on Photo... Stimulation for Research on Photo- induced Phase Transitions The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should...reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions

  20. Research trend in thermally stimulated current method for development of materials and devices in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Taguchi, Dai

    2018-03-01

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurement is widely used in a variety of research fields, i.e., physics, electronics, electrical engineering, chemistry, ceramics, and biology. TSC is short-circuit current that flows owing to the displacement of charges in samples during heating. TSC measurement is very simple, but TSC curves give very important information on charge behaviors. In the 1970s, TSC measurement contributed greatly to the development of electrical insulation engineering, semiconductor device technology, and so forth. Accordingly, the TSC experimental technique and its analytical method advanced. Over the past decades, many new molecules and advanced functional materials have been discovered and developed. Along with this, TSC measurement has attracted much attention in industries and academic laboratories as a way of characterizing newly discovered materials and devices. In this review, we report the latest research trend in the TSC method for the development of materials and devices in Japan.

  1. Competitive advantage and the existence of the multinational corporation: earlier research and the role of frictions

    OpenAIRE

    Asmussen, Christian Geisler; Foss, Nicolai J.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a counterpoint to Hashai and Buckley’s article ‘Is competitive advantage a necessary condition for the emergence of the multinational enterprise?’We agree with their conclusion that it is, in fact, not a necessary condition, but argue that the theoretical reasons behind this are different and more diverse than the ones they propose. We suggest that much extant economic theory is, in fact, consistent with their view that firms may internationalize without owning or achiev...

  2. ACADEMIC PARTNERSHIP AND GENERATION OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE: THE CASE OF THE INTERNATIONAL NETWORK OF RESEARCHERS ON COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Vargas Hernández

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has the objective to demonstrate the contributions achieved by the International Network of Researchers in Competitiveness (INRCO in academic collaboration and scientific knowledge generation. Part of the assumption sustaining that economic globalization processes, information and communication technologies revolution lead to the increasing environmental complexity and uncertainty of a knowledge society. One answer is the study and analysis of competitiveness considered as the strategy to achieve higher levels of economic growth and socio-cultural development in all micro, meso and macro levels. The method used is the analytic-deductive based on the evidence of related data with the activity and results in publications of the International Network of Researchers in Competitiveness. Consequently, it has been adapted certain speculative notions in a theoretical analysis exploring the social dynamics of the scientific activities. It is concluded that the management of the researchers’ dynamic network is capable to generate, apply and recycle the critical knowledge and the assets of academic and scientific talent through a dynamic combination of resources that have a position inside the formal e informal borders and between these borders of participant academics and institutions.

  3. State of art: Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry – Frontiers of future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukihara, Eduardo G.; McKeever, Stephen W.S.; Akselrod, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Since the commercial adoption of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique in dosimetry, almost 20 years ago, we have seen major advances in the deployment of OSL dosimeters in different areas, including personal, medical, and space dosimetry. The objective of this paper is to provide a critical overlook at the OSL technique from three different points of view: strengths, challenges and opportunities. We discuss factors that made the OSL technique successful: its simplicity, accuracy, wide dynamic range of measured dose, ease for automation, re-read capability, ability to perform imaging, and the availability of diverse instruments and materials. We look into problems that were overcome and others that remain in several areas of new applications into which OSL has expanded in the past 10 years, such as medical, space, neutron and accident dosimetry. Finally, we discuss unexplored possibilities, new driving forces, and open questions. We hope the broad overview presented here will encourage more discussion and stimulate the research that will advance our fundamental understanding of the OSL process. - Highlights: • Critical overlook of the OSL technique is presented. • Factors that made the OSL technique successful are discussed. • New applications in medical, space and accident dosimetry are discussed. • Unexplored possibilities, new driving forces, and open questions are presented

  4. Development of optically stimulated luminescence technology for personnel monitoring applications at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technology in the radiation dosimetry applications, in general, and personnel and environmental monitoring, in particular, has driven investigation and developmental programme using OSL technique for a viable system for personnel monitoring at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The OSL related phosphor materials and instrumentation development has a very recent history in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The OSL technique is more versatile and easy to use than thermoluminescence (TL) technique. The X- and gamma ray (both high and low energy) photons and beta particles can be measured with OSL technique. In the OSL technique, the phosphor (say á- Ai 2 O 3 :C) is optically stimulated by blue/green light and the resulting light emitted from Al 2 O 3 :C (410-420 nm) is measured and correlated to the amount of radiation exposure. For a fixed stimulation intensity, the emitted blue light from the Al 2 O 3 :C dosimeter is proportional to the radiation exposure. The OSL technology is being increasingly used in several applications in external radiation dosimetry, in-vivo medical dosimetry in radiotherapy, in-situ, long-term monitoring system for radioactive contaminants, geological and archaeological dating of sediments, etc. For the success of OSL technology for large scale countrywide personnel monitoring program, indigenous development of dosimetric grade sensitive detector material was a key issue. Therefore, since 2002, efforts were directed towards the development of OSL phosphors (like aluminum oxide doped with carbon, á- Al 2 O 3 :C) and related instrumentation. To begin with, simple low cost OSL readers were developed using blue (470 nm) and green (530 nm) LED clusters. New techniques were developed for the preparation of dosimetric grade á- Ai 2 O 3 :C and other OSL phosphors. With the success in the development of indigenous technique for the large scale preparation of á- Al 2 O 3 :C phosphor, a four

  5. Substrates of neuropsychological functioning in stimulant dependence: a review of functional neuroimaging research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, C.L.; Veltman, D.J.; Booij, J.; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K.; van den Brink, W.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulant dependence is associated with neuropsychological impairments. Here, we summarize and integrate the existing neuroimaging literature on the neural substrates of neuropsychological (dys)function in stimulant dependence, including cocaine, (meth-)amphetamine, ecstasy and nicotine dependence,

  6. Substrates of neuropsychological functioning in stimulant dependence: a review of functional neuroimaging research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, Cleo L.; Veltman, Dick J.; Booij, Jan; Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; den Brink, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Stimulant dependence is associated with neuropsychological impairments. Here, we summarize and integrate the existing neuroimaging literature on the neural substrates of neuropsychological (dys) function in stimulant dependence, including cocaine, (meth-) amphetamine, ecstasy and nicotine

  7. Transcranial magnetic stimulation research on reading and dyslexia: a new clinical intervention technique for treating dyslexia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurits van den Noort

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, several noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, exist. The working mechanism behind TMS is a rapidly changing magnetic field that generates an electric current via electromagnetic induction. When the coil is placed on the scalp, the magnetic field generates a physiological reaction in the underlying neural tissue. The TMS-induced change in the participant′s behavior is used by researchers to investigate the causal relations between specific brain areas and cognitive functions such as language. A variant of TMS has been developed, which is called rapid-rate TMS (rTMS. In this review, three databases (Medline, Educational Resources Information Center, and Scopus were searched for rTMS studies on normal reading and dyslexia with a cut-off date of October 31, 2014. rTMS was found to be a valuable tool for investigating questions related to reading research, both on the word and the sentence level. Moreover, it can be successfully used in research on dyslexia. Recently, (high-frequency rTMS has been used as a "clinical" intervention technique for treating dyslexia and for improving reading performance by exciting underactive reading pathways in the brain. Finally, we end the paper with a discussion of future directions in the field of rTMS research and dyslexia, for instance, the promising prospect of combining TMS with simultaneous electroencephalographic imaging.

  8. Using Research Data to Stimulate Critical Thinking in Undergraduate Geoscience Courses: Examples and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D. L.; Moore, G. F.; Bangs, N. L.; Tobin, H.

    2007-12-01

    The results of major research initiatives, such as NSF-MARGINS, IODP and its predecessors DSDP and ODP, Ridge 2000, and NOAA's Ocean Explorer and Vents Programs provide a rich library of resources for inquiry-based learning in undergraduate classes in the geosciences. These materials are scalable for use in general education courses for the non-science major to upper division major and graduate courses, which are both content-rich and research-based. Examples of these materials include images and animations drawn from computer presentations at research workshops and audio/video clips from web sites, as well as data repositories, which can be accessed through GeoMapApp, a data exploration and visualization tool developed as part of the Marine Geoscience Data System by researchers at the LDEO (http://www.geomapapp.org/). Past efforts have focused on recreating sea-going research experiences by integrating and repurposing these data in web-based virtual environments to stimulate active student participation in laboratory settings and at a distance over the WWW. Virtual expeditions have been created based on multibeam mapping of the seafloor near the Golden Gate, bathymetric transects of the major ocean basins, subduction zone seismicity and related tsunamis, water column mapping and submersible dives at hydrothermal vents, and ocean drilling of deep-sea sediments to explore climate change. Students also make use of multichannel seismic data provided through the Marine Seismic Data Center of UTIG to study subduction zone processes at convergent plate boundaries. We will present the initial stages of development of a web-based virtual expedition for use in undergraduate classes, based on a recent 3-D seismic survey associated with the NanTroSEIZE program of NSF-MARGINS and IODP to study the properties of the plate boundary fault system in the upper limit of the seismogenic zone off Japan.

  9. Competitive intelligence with entrepreneurial focus: education and research in undergraduate courses of information science

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Leonardo Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Discute a idéia de uma Inteligência Competitiva (IC) com enfoque empreendedor, seus fundamentos e sua implementação em organizações de diversos tipos. Apresenta um programa que articula ensino e pesquisa, voltado à geração de conhecimento e à preparação de profissionais da informação na graduação para a prática dessa idéia. Discute os resultados já atingidos com a implantação desse programa no âmbito da graduação em Ciência da Informação. Discusses the concept of Competitive Intelligence (...

  10. A scoping review of the potential for chart stimulated recall as a clinical research method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Carol; Kelly, Martina A; Bradley, Colin P

    2017-08-22

    Chart-stimulated recall (CSR) is a case-based interviewing technique, which is used in the assessment of clinical decision-making in medical education and professional certification. Increasingly, clinical decision-making is a concern for clinical research in primary care. In this study, we review the prior application and utility of CSR as a technique for research interviews in primary care. Following Arksey & O'Malley's method for scoping reviews, we searched seven databases, grey literature, reference lists, and contacted experts in the field. We excluded studies on medical education or competence assessment. Retrieved citations were screened by one reviewer and full texts were ordered for all potentially relevant abstracts. Two researchers independently reviewed full texts and performed data extraction and quality appraisal if inclusion criteria were met. Data were collated and summarised using a published framework on the reporting of qualitative interview techniques, which was chosen a priori. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines informed the review report. From an initial list of 789 citations, eight studies using CSR in research interviews were included in the review: six from North America, one from the Netherlands, and one from Ireland. The most common purpose of included studies was to examine the influence of guidelines on physicians' decisions. The number of interviewees ranged from seven to twenty nine, while the number of charts discussed per interview ranged from one to twelve. CSR gave insights into physicians' reasoning for actions taken or not taken; the unrecorded social and clinical influences on decisions; and discrepancies between physicians' real and perceived practice. Ethical concerns and the training and influence of the researcher were poorly discussed in most of the studies. Potential pitfalls included the risk of recall, selection and observation biases. Despite the proven validity

  11. Clinical Research with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): Challenges and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoni, Andre Russowsky; Nitsche, Michael A.; Bolognini, Nadia; Bikson, Marom; Wagner, Tim; Merabet, Lotfi; Edwards, Dylan J.; Valero-Cabre, Antoni; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ferrucci, Roberta; Priori, Alberto; Boggio, Paulo; Fregni, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that delivers low-intensity, direct current to cortical areas facilitating or inhibiting spontaneous neuronal activity. In the past ten years, tDCS physiological mechanisms of action have been intensively investigated giving support for the investigation of its applications in clinical neuropsychiatry and rehabilitation. However, new methodological, ethical, and regulatory issues emerge when translating the findings of preclinical and phase I studies into phase II and III clinical studies. The aim of this comprehensive review is to discuss the key challenges of this process and possible methods to address them. Methods We convened a workgroup of researchers in the field to review, discuss and provide updates and key challenges of neuromodulation use for clinical research. Main Findings/Discussion We reviewed several basic and clinical studies in the field and identified potential limitations, taking into account the particularities of the technique. We review and discuss the findings into four topics: (i) mechanisms of action of tDCS, parameters of use and computer-based human brain modeling investigating electric current fields and magnitude induced by tDCS; (ii) methodological aspects related to the clinical research of tDCS as divided according to study phase (i.e., preclinical, phase I, phase II and phase III studies); (iii) ethical and regulatory concerns; (iv) future directions regarding novel approaches, novel devices, and future studies involving tDCS. Finally, we propose some alternative methods to facilitate clinical research on tDCS. PMID:22037126

  12. Facilitative-competitive interactions in an old-growth forest: the importance of large-diameter trees as benefactors and stimulators for forest community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, Andreas; Forrester, David I; Härdtle, Werner; Sturm, Knut; von Oheimb, Goddert

    2015-01-01

    The role of competition in tree communities is increasingly well understood, while little is known about the patterns and mechanisms of the interplay between above- and belowground competition in tree communities. This knowledge, however, is crucial for a better understanding of community dynamics and developing adaptive near-natural management strategies. We assessed neighbourhood interactions in an unmanaged old-growth European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest by quantifying variation in the intensity of above- (shading) and belowground competition (crowding) among dominant and co-dominant canopy beech trees during tree maturation. Shading had on average a much larger impact on radial growth than crowding and the sensitivity to changes in competitive conditions was lowest for crowding effects. We found that each mode of competition reduced the effect of the other. Increasing crowding reduced the negative effect of shading, and at high levels of shading, crowding actually had a facilitative effect and increased growth. Our study demonstrates that complementarity in above- and belowground processes enable F. sylvatica to alter resource acquisition strategies, thus optimising tree radial growth. As a result, competition seemed to become less important in stands with a high growing stock and tree communities with a long continuity of anthropogenic undisturbed population dynamics. We suggest that growth rates do not exclusively depend on the density of potential competitors at the intraspecific level, but on the conspecific aggregation of large-diameter trees and their functional role for regulating biotic filtering processes. This finding highlights the potential importance of the rarely examined relationship between the spatial aggregation pattern of large-diameter trees and the outcome of neighbourhood interactions, which may be central to community dynamics and the related forest ecosystem services.

  13. Facilitative-competitive interactions in an old-growth forest: the importance of large-diameter trees as benefactors and stimulators for forest community assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fichtner

    Full Text Available The role of competition in tree communities is increasingly well understood, while little is known about the patterns and mechanisms of the interplay between above- and belowground competition in tree communities. This knowledge, however, is crucial for a better understanding of community dynamics and developing adaptive near-natural management strategies. We assessed neighbourhood interactions in an unmanaged old-growth European beech (Fagus sylvatica forest by quantifying variation in the intensity of above- (shading and belowground competition (crowding among dominant and co-dominant canopy beech trees during tree maturation. Shading had on average a much larger impact on radial growth than crowding and the sensitivity to changes in competitive conditions was lowest for crowding effects. We found that each mode of competition reduced the effect of the other. Increasing crowding reduced the negative effect of shading, and at high levels of shading, crowding actually had a facilitative effect and increased growth. Our study demonstrates that complementarity in above- and belowground processes enable F. sylvatica to alter resource acquisition strategies, thus optimising tree radial growth. As a result, competition seemed to become less important in stands with a high growing stock and tree communities with a long continuity of anthropogenic undisturbed population dynamics. We suggest that growth rates do not exclusively depend on the density of potential competitors at the intraspecific level, but on the conspecific aggregation of large-diameter trees and their functional role for regulating biotic filtering processes. This finding highlights the potential importance of the rarely examined relationship between the spatial aggregation pattern of large-diameter trees and the outcome of neighbourhood interactions, which may be central to community dynamics and the related forest ecosystem services.

  14. Facilitative-Competitive Interactions in an Old-Growth Forest: The Importance of Large-Diameter Trees as Benefactors and Stimulators for Forest Community Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, Andreas; Forrester, David I.; Härdtle, Werner; Sturm, Knut; von Oheimb, Goddert

    2015-01-01

    The role of competition in tree communities is increasingly well understood, while little is known about the patterns and mechanisms of the interplay between above- and belowground competition in tree communities. This knowledge, however, is crucial for a better understanding of community dynamics and developing adaptive near-natural management strategies. We assessed neighbourhood interactions in an unmanaged old-growth European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest by quantifying variation in the intensity of above- (shading) and belowground competition (crowding) among dominant and co-dominant canopy beech trees during tree maturation. Shading had on average a much larger impact on radial growth than crowding and the sensitivity to changes in competitive conditions was lowest for crowding effects. We found that each mode of competition reduced the effect of the other. Increasing crowding reduced the negative effect of shading, and at high levels of shading, crowding actually had a facilitative effect and increased growth. Our study demonstrates that complementarity in above- and belowground processes enable F. sylvatica to alter resource acquisition strategies, thus optimising tree radial growth. As a result, competition seemed to become less important in stands with a high growing stock and tree communities with a long continuity of anthropogenic undisturbed population dynamics. We suggest that growth rates do not exclusively depend on the density of potential competitors at the intraspecific level, but on the conspecific aggregation of large-diameter trees and their functional role for regulating biotic filtering processes. This finding highlights the potential importance of the rarely examined relationship between the spatial aggregation pattern of large-diameter trees and the outcome of neighbourhood interactions, which may be central to community dynamics and the related forest ecosystem services. PMID:25803035

  15. Competitive intelligence: An instrument to enhance South Africa’s competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Viviers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The case for Competitive Intelligence (CI as an instrument that can enhance the competitiveness of South African companies and South Africa as a country is strong. Various global competitive rankings measurements have indicated over a number of years the areas in which competitiveness is lacking. Moreover, these rankings have indicated that South Africa has failed to improve its position year on year. The fact that the world is becoming increasingly competitive for South African entities is undisputed. Coupled with a fluctuating exchange rate and the country’s geographical proximity, this poses unique challenges facing South African managers who have to deal with various regulations and legislative matters. In order to create and sustain an effective knowledge economy and to enhance global competitiveness, South Africa however has to put appropriate strategies/measures in place to stimulate, encourage and grow knowledge practices. Competitive Intelligence (CI as a means of making more sense of the competitive business environment and to identify opportunities and risks in time to act upon can be effectively used as a means to enhance competitiveness. Valuable lessons from successful CI practices in the business sector and government can be learnt from elsewhere in the world. CI should be investigated and adapted for South Africa’s business environment. It is therefore the aim of this article to first attempt to describe the role of CI in enhancing competitiveness, specifically in South Africa and secondly, to stimulate thought on how to secure momentum in enhancing CI as an academic field by developing relevant CI courses as well as demonstrating the value of CI to companies in South Africa through research and collaboration between academics and the private and public sectors.

  16. A proposal to Raise the Level of Competitive Advantage of Scientific Research from the Teaching Staff’s Perspective in Higher Education Institutions - the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Noshy Anis ELsherbiny Elbaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to provide a proposal to raise the level of competitive advantage in scientific research from the teaching staff’s perspective in higher education institutions - in the Kingdom of Bahrain. To achieve this objective, the study used a descriptive method, and a questionnaire as a tool for the field study. In order to determine the mechanisms for achieving competitive advantage in scientific research at the institutions of higher education in the Kingdom of Bahrain, the tool was administered to a sample of (137 faculty members  from some higher education institutions (public and private in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The field study revealed a number of results, inter alia, the study sample agreed with all the proposed mechanisms to achieve competitive advantage in scientific research at institutions of higher education in the Kingdom of Bahrain at a high degree. Their agreement to the themes was in this order: academic support for scientific research, financial support for scientific research, community support for scientific research, and information technology support for scientific research. The study results also showed no statistically significant differences between the responses of the study sample about the proposed mechanisms for achieving competitive advantage in scientific research due to the variables of the academic degree  and the institution. Keywords: Competitive advantage, Research, Higher education institutions.

  17. Peranan Riset untuk Entreprenuership dalam Menghadapi Persaingan Global ( Research For Role In Dealing Entreprenuership Global Competition )

    OpenAIRE

    Sujarwo

    2012-01-01

    Research is said to give a role if used in the production process to improve the quality of human life. To be used, the research should be developed to identify potential users in advance. In the context of efforts to achieve this there are the primary users and secondary users. Primary users are users who directly memamfaatkan research developed a technology to produce products, is the secondary user is a supporter of the user's primary users. Factors causing the utilization of research is d...

  18. Competitive exclusion: an ecological model demonstrates how research metrics can drive women out of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Hapgood, K.

    2012-12-01

    While universities are often perceived within the wider population as a flexible family-friendly work environment, continuous full-time employment remains the norm in tenure track roles. This traditional career path is strongly re-inforced by research metrics, which typically measure accumulated historical performance. There is a strong feedback between historical and future research output, and there is a minimum threshold of research output below which it becomes very difficult to attract funding, high quality students and collaborators. The competing timescales of female fertility and establishment of a research career mean that many women do not exceed this threshold before having children. Using a mathematical model taken from an ecological analogy, we demonstrate how these mechanisms create substantial barriers to pursuing a research career while working part-time or returning from extended parental leave. The model highlights a conundrum for research managers: metrics can promote research productivity and excellence within an organisation, but can classify highly capable scientists as poor performers simply because they have not followed the traditional career path of continuous full-time employment. Based on this analysis, we make concrete recommendations for researchers and managers seeking to retain the skills and training invested in female scientists. We also provide survival tactics for women and men who wish to pursue a career in science while also spending substantial time and energy raising their family.

  19. Protectionism or competition in managing British nursing research? Current debate among nurse and midwifery teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzon, M; Gass, L; Wimpenny, P; Gibb, S

    1998-01-01

    The intention is to highlight key issues related to research by nurse and midwifery teachers. The debate centres on the 'culture change' facing teachers from traditional colleges moving to universities where a more formal research requirement prevails. Data were drawn from selected official reports and other literature informing the introductory discussion. Emerging themes were discussed by 25 nurse and midwife teachers at Forresterhill College, Aberdeen in March 1996 and their views were recorded and analysed. Selected documents and discussion records were reviewed, using a thematic approach. Main themes concerned nursing as art and science, balance between multidisciplinary and unidisciplinary research and ring-fencing nursing research funds. Anxieties among teachers centred on the increased research requirement in universities with possible neglect of teaching excellence.

  20. Combining transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional imaging in cognitive brain research: possibilities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Alexander T; Linden, David E J

    2003-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used tool for the non-invasive study of basic neurophysiological processes and the relationship between brain and behavior. We review the physical and physiological background of TMS and discuss the large body of perceptual and cognitive studies, mainly in the visual domain, that have been performed with TMS in the past 15 years. We compare TMS with other neurophysiological and neuropsychological research tools and propose that TMS, compared with the classical neuropsychological lesion studies, can make its own unique contribution. As the main focus of this review, we describe the different approaches of combining TMS with functional neuroimaging techniques. We also discuss important shortcomings of TMS, especially the limited knowledge concerning its physiological effects, which often make the interpretation of TMS results ambiguous. We conclude with a critical analysis of the resulting conceptual and methodological limitations that the investigation of functional brain-behavior relationships still has to face. We argue that while some of the methodological limitations of TMS applied alone can be overcome by combination with functional neuroimaging, others will persist until its physical and physiological effects can be controlled.

  1. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in developmental stuttering: Relations with previous neurophysiological research and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busan, P; Battaglini, P P; Sommer, M

    2017-06-01

    Developmental stuttering (DS) is a disruption of the rhythm of speech, and affected people may be unable to execute fluent voluntary speech. There are still questions about the exact causes of DS. Evidence suggests there are differences in the structure and functioning of motor systems used for preparing, executing, and controlling motor acts, especially when they are speech related. Much research has been obtained using neuroimaging methods, ranging from functional magnetic resonance to diffusion tensor imaging and electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography. Studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in DS have been uncommon until recently. This is surprising considering the relationship between the functionality of the motor system and DS, and the wide use of TMS in motor-related disturbances such as Parkinson's Disease, Tourette's Syndrome, and dystonia. Consequently, TMS could shed further light on motor aspects of DS. The present work aims to investigate the use of TMS for understanding DS neural mechanisms by reviewing TMS papers in the DS field. Until now, TMS has contributed to the understanding of the excitatory/inhibitory ratio of DS motor functioning, also helping to better understand and critically review evidence about stuttering mechanisms obtained from different techniques, which allowed the investigation of cortico-basal-thalamo-cortical and white matter/connection dysfunctions. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The competitiveness of national tourism industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rūtelionė, Aušra

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the scientific research is to suggest the model of national tourism industry competitiveness and determine the main factors that increase national tourism industry competitiveness basing on fundamental national competitiveness theories and national tourism industry competitiveness conceptions.

  3. Competitive Benchmarking: An IS Research Approach to Address Wicked Problems with Big Data and Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); M. Peters (Markus); J. Collins (John); A. Gupta (Alok)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWicked problems like sustainable energy and financial market stability are societal challenges that arise from complex socio-technical systems in which numerous social, economic, political, and technical factors interact. Understanding and mitigating them requires research methods that

  4. NFFA-Europe: enhancing European competitiveness in nanoscience research and innovation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsughi, Flavio; Fonseca, Luis

    2017-06-01

    NFFA-EUROPE is an European open access resource for experimental and theoretical nanoscience and sets out a platform to carry out comprehensive projects for multidisciplinary research at the nanoscale extending from synthesis to nanocharacterization to theory and numerical simulation. Advanced infrastructures specialized on growth, nano-lithography, nano-characterization, theory and simulation and fine-analysis with Synchrotron, FEL and Neutron radiation sources are integrated in a multi-site combination to develop frontier research on methods for reproducible nanoscience research and to enable European and international researchers from diverse disciplines to carry out advanced proposals impacting science and innovation. NFFA-EUROPE will enable coordinated access to infrastructures on different aspects of nanoscience research that is not currently available at single specialized ones and without duplicating their specific scopes. Approved user projects will have access to the best suited instruments and support competences for performing the research, including access to analytical large scale facilities, theory and simulation and high-performance computing facilities. Access is offered free of charge to European users and users will receive a financial contribution for their travel, accommodation and subsistence costs. The users access will include several "installations" and will be coordinated through a single entry point portal that will activate an advanced user-infrastructure dialogue to build up a personalized access programme with an increasing return on science and innovation production. The own research activity of NFFA-EUROPE will address key bottlenecks of nanoscience research: nanostructure traceability, protocol reproducibility, in-operando nano-manipulation and analysis, open data.

  5. A Research-Based Science Teacher Education Program for a Competitive Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, R. M.; Hamil, B.; Beard, D. J.; Chevalier, D.; Dunne, J.; Saebo, S.

    2009-12-01

    A united commitment between the College of Education and the College of Arts and Sciences at Mississippi State University, in partnership with local high-need school districts, has the goal of increasing the number of highly qualified science teachers through authentic science research experiences. The departments of Geosciences, Biological Sciences, Chemistry, and Physics offer undergraduate pre-service teachers laboratory experiences in science research laboratories, including 1) paleontological investigations of Cretaceous environments, 2) NMR studies of the conformation of tachykinin peptides, 3) FHA domains as regulators of cell signaling in plants, 4) intermediate energy nuclear physics studies, and 5) computational studies of cyclic ketene acetals. Coordinated by the Department of Curriculum and Instruction, these research experiences involve extensive laboratory training in which the pre-teacher participants matriculate through a superior education curriculum prior to administrating their individual classrooms. Participants gain valuable experience in 1) performing literature searches and reviews; 2) planning research projects; 3) recording data; 4) presenting laboratory results effectively; and 5) writing professional scientific manuscripts. The research experience is available to pre-service teachers who are science education majors with a declared second major in a science (i.e., geology, biology, physics, or chemistry). Students are employed part-time in various science university laboratories, with work schedules arranged around their individual course loads. While the focus of this endeavor is upon undergraduate pre-service teachers, the researchers also target practicing science teachers from the local high-need school districts. A summer workshop provides practicing science teachers with a summative laboratory experience in several scientific disciplines. Practicing teachers also are provided lesson plans and ideas to transform their classrooms into

  6. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  7. How to write a competitive proposal for Horizon 2020 a research manager's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 1: An Overview of Horizon 2020 ; Chapter 2: How the Research Priorities were Selected (How to Lobby) ; Chapter 3: The Research Priorities in Horizon 2020 ; Chapter 4: How Proposals are Evaluated ; Chapter 5: How to Write the ‘Impact’ of the project ; Chapter 6: The One Page Proposal ; Chapter 7: How to Streamline Proposal Writing ; Chapter 8: How to Find the Best Partners ; Chapter 9: How to Write the ‘Implementation' of the project ; Chapter 10: Legal and Financial Rules in Horizon 2020 ; Chapter 11: What is your Strategy for Horizon 2020?

  8. Global Competition, US Research Universities, and International Doctoral Education: Growth and Consolidation of an Organizational Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barrett J.; Cantwell, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    The heightened mobility of resources, ideas, and cultural practices across national borders--commonly known as "globalization"--entails changes in the contexts in which US research universities operate. We draw on recent developments in neo-institutional theory to understand these changes and their implications for the ways in which US…

  9. Denmark - supplier of competitive offshore wind solutions. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind research, development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    In May 2006, the Danish Government presented a report on promoting environmentally effective technology and established a number of innovative partnerships. The partnerships intend to strengthen public-private cooperation between the state, industry, universities and venture capital to accelerate innovation for a number of green technologies. The partnership for wind energy is called Megavind. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind describes the offshore challenges and suggests research, development and demonstration (RD and D) priorities to enable offshore wind power become to competitive with other energy technologies. The strategy lists key recommendations as well as key thematic priorities and for each of these a number of RD and D priorities. Under each thematic priority references are made to the European Strategic Energy Technology plan (SET-plan), which prioritises offshore wind RD and D in Europe. (LN)

  10. Linking sustainable use policies to novel economic incentives to stimulate antibiotic research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Theuretzbacher

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is now global recognition that antibiotic resistance is an emerging public health threat. Policy initiatives are underway to provide concrete suggestions for overcoming important obstacles in the fight against antibiotic resistance, like the alarming current paucity of antibacterial innovation. New economic models are needed as incentives for the discovery and development of novel antibacterial therapies especially for infections with too few patients today to justify private sector research and development (R&D investments. These economic models should focus on rewarding the innovation, not the consumption of the antibiotic since sustainable use policies will reduce selection pressure and slow the emergence of resistance. To effectively stimulate greater innovation, the size of the reward must be commensurate with revenues from other therapeutic areas, estimated at about a billion dollar total pay-out. Otherwise R&D investment will continue to move away from antibiotics to areas where returns are more attractive. A potential sizeable public investment, if implemented, must be protected to ensure that the resulting antibiotics have a lengthy and positive impact on human health. Therefore, public investments in innovation should be bound to sustainable use policies, i.e., policies targeted at a range of actors to ensure the preservation of the novel antibiotics. These policies would be targeted not only at the innovating pharmaceutical companies in exchange for the reward payments, but also at governments in countries which receive the novel antibiotics at reasonable prices due to the reward payment. This article provides some suggestions of sustainable use policies in order to initiate the discussions. These are built on planned policies in the US, EU, WHO and have been expanded to address One Health and environmental aspects to form One World approaches. While further discussion and analyses are needed, it is likely that strong

  11. Twittering About Research: A Case Study of the World's First Twitter Poster Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randviir, Edward P; Illingworth, Samuel M; Baker, Matthew J; Cude, Matthew; Banks, Craig E

    2015-01-01

    The Royal Society of Chemistry held, to our knowledge, the world's first Twitter conference at 9am on February 5 (th), 2015. The conference was a Twitter-only conference, allowing researchers to upload academic posters as tweets, replacing a physical meeting. This paper reports the details of the event and discusses the outcomes, such as the potential for the use of social media to enhance scientific communication at conferences. In particular, the present work argues that social media outlets such as Twitter broaden audiences, speed up communication, and force clearer and more concise descriptions of a researcher's work. The benefits of poster presentations are also discussed in terms of potential knowledge exchange and networking. This paper serves as a proof-of-concept approach for improving both the public opinion of the poster, and the enhancement of the poster through an innovative online format that some may feel more comfortable with, compared to face-to-face communication.

  12. Measuring Research Competitiveness in UK Universities: Introducing the Herfindahl Index to the 2008 and 2014 Research Assessment Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Like its 2008 predecessor, the, 2014 Research Excellence Framework was a high-stakes exercise. For universities and their constituent departments, it had zero-sum implications for league table position in a way that the 2001 exercise did not, and "post facto" it is having a significant effect on investment and disinvestment as…

  13. Unsustainable Growth, Hyper-Competition, and Worth in Life Science Research: Narrowing Evaluative Repertoires in Doctoral and Postdoctoral Scientists' Work and Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochler, Maximilian; Felt, Ulrike; Müller, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    There is a crisis of valuation practices in the current academic life sciences, triggered by unsustainable growth and "hyper-competition." Quantitative metrics in evaluating researchers are seen as replacing deeper considerations of the quality and novelty of work, as well as substantive care for the societal implications of research.…

  14. COMPETITIVENESS AND COMPETITIVE ORIENTATIONS: EVALUATION OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Z. Efimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Education of a competitive student is a strategically significant problem of the system of higher education in modern social and economic conditions. Personal competitiveness and competitive orientations – priority quality of future expert for successful future professional experience.The aim of the present research is to study factors of competitive orientations formation and criteria for evaluation of competitiveness of student’s youth in the Russian society.Methodology and research methods. Results of theoretical researches of Russian and foreign researchers are generalized; secondary analysis of data based on results of sociological researches and analysis of official statistical data are carried out. The results of the sociological survey undertaken in 2017 on the basis of statistical methods were processed and studied by the instrumentality of IBM SPSS Statistics 23 program; 1196 students of institutions of higher and secondary vocational education of the Tyumen region took part.Results and scientific novelty. It is stated that senior students feel themselves more competitive. It is revealed that a quarter of students who took part in the survey, generally men, count themselves competitive. A continuous distance of goal-setting is recorded among these respondents; in every third case they have plans of professional growth for five and more years that allows them to build attractive competitive strategy.The level of the competitiveness is directly connected with such indicators as “social stratum”, “overall life satisfaction”, “self-esteem of health”, “tendency to lead a healthy lifestyle” and “the level of trust in the surrounding people”. Mostly the students oriented on competition look into the future with confidence and optimism.Respondents focused on the competitiveness were more tend to demonstrate their abilities and cause admiration, have a creative approach towards work, be ready for surprises

  15. International technology-determined competitiveness and research and technology policy. A comparative study. Internationale technologiebestimmte Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit und Forschungs- und Technologiepolitik. Eine komparative Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, R

    1987-01-01

    The study answers the following questions: What is international technological competition. How are the framework requirements, regarding innovation of chosen countries in Europe, Japan and the USA made available. To what extent and with which instruments are the countries under investigation prepared to engage in technological competition. Point of departure was the supposition that the international competitiveness of a country depends increasingly on the innovation capacity of its industries. Technological innovations then become a specific means of competition. It was ascertained that the technical complexity of the systems and products, the cost accumulation and the availability of qualified personnel are amongst the greatest problems of the industry of a country and, at the same time, offer starting points for a state-run research and technology policies. (orig./HSCH).

  16. Research on the competitiveness and development strategy of china's modern coal chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Han, Y. J.; Yu, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    China's modern coal chemical industry has grown into a certain scale after over a decade of development, and remarkable progress has been made in key technologies. But as oil price collapsed since 2015, the economic benefit of the industry also slumped, with loud controversies in China over the necessity of modern coal chemical industry. The research believes that the modern coal chemical industry plays a positive role in the clean and sustainable exploitation of coal in China. It makes profit when oil price is no lower than 60/bbl, and outperforms petrochemical in terms of cost effectiveness when the price is between 60/bbl and 80/bbl. Given the low oil price and challenges posed by environmental protection and water restraints, we suggest that the state announce a guideline quickly, with adjusted tax policies and an encouragement to technological innovation, so that the modern coal chemical industry in China can grow sound and stable.

  17. Research on Capacity Addition using Market Model with Transmission Congestion under Competitive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Yasufumi; Attaviriyanupap, Pathom; Kataoka, Yoshihiko

    In this research, the fundamental premises for deregulation of the electric power industry are reevaluated. The authors develop a simple model to represent wholesale electricity market with highly congested network. The model is developed by simplifying the power system and market in New York ISO based on available data of New York ISO in 2004 with some estimation. Based on the developed model and construction cost data from the past, the economic impact of transmission line addition on market participants and the impact of deregulation on power plant additions under market with transmission congestion are studied. Simulation results show that the market signals may fail to facilitate proper capacity additions and results in the undesirable over-construction and insufficient-construction cycle of capacity addition.

  18. Competitiveness in Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a collection of interrelated research advances in the field of technological entrepreneurship from the perspective of competition in emerging markets. Featuring contributions by scholars from different fields of interest, it provides a mix of theoretical developments, insights...... and research methods used to uncover the unexplored aspects of competitiveness in emerging markets in an age characterized by disruptive technologies....

  19. Scientific Retreats with ‘Speed Dating’: Networking to Stimulate New Interdisciplinary Translational Research Collaborations and Team Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberg, Anthony J.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Obeid, Jihad S.; Davis, Randal; Halushka, Perry V.

    2016-01-01

    To stimulate the formation of new interdisciplinary translational research teams and innovative pilot projects, the South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research (SCTR) Institute (South Carolina Clinical and Translational Science Award, CTSA) initiated biannual scientific retreats with “speed dating” networking sessions. Retreat themes were prioritized based on the following criteria; cross-cutting topic, unmet medical need, generation of novel technologies and methodologies. Each retreat commences with an external keynote speaker followed by a series of brief research presentations by local researchers focused on the retreat theme, articulating potential areas for new collaborations. After each session of presentations, there is a 30 minute scientific “speed dating” period during which the presenters meet with interested attendees to exchange ideas and discuss collaborations. Retreat attendees are eligible to compete for pilot project funds on the topic of the retreat theme. The 10 retreats held have had a total of 1004 participants, resulted in 61 pilot projects with new interdisciplinary teams, and 14 funded projects. The retreat format has been a successful mechanism to stimulate novel interdisciplinary research teams and innovative translational research projects. Future retreats will continue to target topics of cross-cutting importance to biomedical and public health research. PMID:27807146

  20. Restructuring Public Higher Education Governance to Succeed in a Highly Competitive Environment. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.6.15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Given diminished governmental support, competition from private counterparts, and public demands for access to services, public universities need to respond in an effective manner to take advantage of opportunities and meet the challenges of today's highly competitive environment. A critical factor in meeting these challenges is the manner in…

  1. Quality and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Inder Khosla; Kingshuk K. Sinha

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, the practitioner literature in operations management has seen a dramatic surge in articles on quality management. It reflects the increased emphasis on quality by U.S. firms, which has been attributed largely to increased competition faced by them. The question of how quality is influenced by competitive intensity, however, has not received much attention, either in the practitioner or the academic research literatures. The notion of competitive intensity itself has not been ...

  2. Competition Research Improves Services

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    money goes to provide for families' basic needs — food, clothing, and shelter — considerable ... That definition drew attention to Western Union's practice of including an exclusivity .... Globalization, Growth and Poverty Program. International ...

  3. 'Virtual lesion' in pain research; a study on magnetic stimulation of the primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Y; Liem, K S; Weissman-Fogel, I; Yarnitsky, D; Chistyakov, A; Sinai, A

    2016-02-01

    'Virtual lesion' ('VL') is a transient disruption of cortical activity during task performance. It can be induced by single pulses or short trains of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) directed to functionally relevant brain areas. We applied 'VL' methodology of a short train of TMS given on top of experimental tonic pain, expecting to see changes in pain scores. Thirty young healthy subjects (15 women) were assessed with active ('VL') or 'sham' TMS in different sessions, randomly. In each session, 30 sec-long contact heat (47.5 °C, right forearm) was applied stand-alone ('baseline') and with 5 sec-long 10 Hz-TMS over left primary motor cortex (M1) starting at 17 sec of the heat stimulation. Pain scores decreased after 'VL' or 'sham' (p < 0.001). Independently of the type of TMS, pain reduction was stronger in women (p = 0.012). A triple Sex x Stimulation type ('VL' or 'sham') x Condition ('baseline' heat pain vs. heat pain with TMS) interaction (p = 0.027) indicated stronger pain reduction by 'VL' in women (p = 0.008) and not in men (p = 0.78) as compared to 'baseline'. Pain catastrophizing and perceived stress ratings affected the model (p = 0.010 and p < 0.001, respectively), but without sex differences. This study indicates that interactions between cortical excitability of the motor cortex and nociceptive processing may be gender-related. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  4. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  5. Competition in a Business Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J

    Competition and cooperation stabilize and structure business networks. In business research there is little focus on network based competition between firms and on how firms compete to gain network position. We review a range of conceptualizations of competition and cooperation and work towards...... research and also managerial thinking about network strategy and implementation....

  6. Retail competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Retail competition as the cornerstone of a competitive electricity marketplace was the subject of the seventh in the series of policy discussion papers developed at the Market Design Conference. Concern was expressed that because of the complexities involved in market design and technical implementation, the retail competition may lag behind other elements of the implementation of the new market design. A variety of key issues were debated, including the role of physical versus financial contracts, the form of retail competition and financial settlement systems in the short term, the requirement to separate 'competitive' (metering, billing, maintenance, consumer education) from non-competitive' (the transmission wires) services and the role of municipal electric utilities. It was agreed that the IMO should play an important role in defining and enforcing the separation of services, and that as a general rule, the development of policy in this area should be guided by the principle of maximizing the potential for competition

  7. The Literature of Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes competitive intelligence (CI) literature in terms of its location, quantity, authorship, length, and problems of bibliographic access. Highlights include subject access; competitive intelligence research; espionage and security; monographs; and journals. (21 references) (LRW)

  8. Research of functional backlogs of the cardiovascular system of sportsmen in the process of competition activity with the use of frequency and fractal methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachuk V.G.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The features of reactions of the cardiovascular system are considered on the physical loadings in a preparatory period. Researches were conducted before and after championship of Europe 2009 The mathematical analysis of rhythm of heart is resulted. The frequency and fractal methods of research of cardiac rhythm sportsmen the combined team of Ukraine are studied on taekwondo. Informing of some indexes of fractal of cardiac rhythm (coefficient of Khersta is rotined for determination of readiness of sportsman to competition activity.

  9. Stimulating translational research: several European life science institutions put their heads together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim; van Luenen, Henri G A M; Kubicek, Stefan; Andersen, Jesper B; Saarela, Janna; Cook, Simon J; Van Minnebruggen, Geert; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Maurer, Cornelia; Erler, Janine T; Bertero, Michela G

    2015-09-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigating and Stimulating Primary Teachers' Attitudes Towards Science: Summary of a Large-Scale Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walma van der Molen, Juliette; van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers towards science is of fundamental importance to research on primary science education. The current article describes a large-scale research project that aims to overcome three main shortcomings in attitude research, i.e. lack of a strong theoretical concept of attitude, methodological flaws in…

  11. Investigating and stimulating primary teachers’ attitudes towards science: Summary of a large-scale research project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walma van der Molen, Julie Henriëtte; van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers towards science is of fundamental importance to research on primary science education. The current article describes a large-scale research project that aims to overcome three main shortcomings in attitude research, i.e. lack of a strong theoretical

  12. Competitiveness effects of environmental tax reforms (COMETR). Final report to the European Commission, DG Research and DG TAXUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.; Speck, S. (Univ. of Aarhus, National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Policy Analysis (Denmark)); Barker, T.; Junankar, S.; Pollitt, H. (Cambridge Econometrics (United Kingdom)); Fitz Gerald, J.; Scott, S. (Economic and Social Research Institute (Ireland)); Jilkova, J. (Univ. of Economics Prague, Institute for Economic and Environmental Policy (Czech Republic)); Salmons, R.; Ekins, P. (Policy Studies Institute (United Kingdom)); Christie, E.; Michael Landesmann, M. (Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (Austria))

    2007-12-15

    COMETR provides an ex-post assessment of experiences and competitiveness impacts of using carbon-energy taxes as an instrument of an Environmental Tax Reform (ETR), which shifts the tax burden and helps reduce the carbon emissions that cause global warming. COMETR: reviews the experience in ETR in seven EU Member States (Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Finland, Slovenia, Sweden and UK); analyses world market conditions for a set of energy-intensive sectors, as a framework for considering competitiveness effects; analyses the effects of ETR on sector-specific energy usage and carbon emissions in Member States with carbon-energy taxes introduced on industry; presents a macroeconomic analysis of the competitiveness effects of ETR for individual Member States as well as for the EU as a whole; provides ex-post figures for environmental decoupling and assesses carbon leakage; reviews mitigation and compensation mechanisms for energy-intensive industries. (au)

  13. Energy and competition: research on the legal changes induced by the liberalization of the electricity and gas sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    The liberalization of the electricity and gas sectors, as triggered by the European Community right, has generated deep juridical mutations. These mutations are, first, linked with market organization. In front of the diversity of the national organizations in both sectors, the European Community right could not impose a unique model of liberalization. It has established a set of common rules and principles to the different member states with the aim of ensuring the development of a competitive market. The introduction of competition gives access to the different activities of these sectors to the newcomers. However, because of their characteristics, competition cannot apply uniformly to the overall activities in concern. Two logics, one of natural monopoly, and the other of competition, will thus cohabit together. Moreover, the introduction of competition is managed. This management is characterized by the search for a new equilibrium between competition and general interest imperatives and by the creation of a new regulation authority at the institutional level. These mutations are also linked with market operation. Liberalization leads to a multiplication and an increase of the complexity of the contractual relations between the operators, the control of which is fundamental to ensure a good market operation. This mutation of operations is followed by a mutation of operators. Those are submitted to a dissociation trend of their activities in order to prevent discriminations and to fight against cross subventions. On the other hand, the operators' mutation shows a huge recombination movement which is characterized by a multiplication of concentration operations, leading to a remodeling of the market structure. (J.S.)

  14. Demolishing the competition: the longitudinal link between competitive video games, competitive gambling, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-07-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship between video game competition and aggression. In addition, if competition in video games is a significant reason for the link between video game play and aggression, then other competitive activities, such as competitive gambling, also may predict aggression over time. In the current study, we directly assessed the socialization (competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8 % female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play, gambling, and aggressive behaviors. Greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. The selection hypothesis also was supported, as aggression predicted greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time, after controlling for previous competitive video game play and competitive gambling. Our findings, taken together with the fact that millions of adolescents play competitive video games every day and that competitive gambling may increase as adolescents transition into adulthood, highlight the need for a greater understanding of the relationship between competition and aggression.

  15. Comparative effectiveness of colony-stimulating factors in febrile neutropenia prophylaxis: how results are affected by research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henk, Henry J; Li, Xiaoyan; Becker, Laura K; Xu, Hairong; Gong, Qi; Deeter, Robert G; Barron, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of research design on results in two published comparative effectiveness studies. Guidelines for comparative effectiveness research have recommended incorporating disease process in study design. Based on the recommendations, we develop a checklist of considerations and apply the checklist in review of two published studies on comparative effectiveness of colony-stimulating factors. Both studies used similar administrative claims data, but different methods, which resulted in directionally different estimates. Major design differences between the two studies include: whether the timing of intervention in disease process was identified and whether study cohort and outcome assessment period were defined based on this temporal relationship. Disease process and timing of intervention should be incorporated into the design of comparative effectiveness studies.

  16. The Relationship of Competition and Choice to Innovation in Education Markets: A Review of Research on Four Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubienski, Chris

    Concerned about the deadening effects of standardization imposed by monopolistic education bureaucracies, policymakers in many different countries endorse economic-style mechanisms of consumer choice and competition between autonomous providers as the key elements of "market-driven" education. The reasoning behind this approach is that market…

  17. National workshop on forest productivity & technology: cooperative research to support a sustainable & competitive future - progress and strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric D. Vance

    2010-01-01

    The Agenda 2020 Program is a partnership among government agencies, the forest products industry, and academia to develop technology capable of enhancing forest productivity, sustaining environmental values, increasing energy efficiency, and improving the economic competitiveness of the United States forest sector. In November 2006, the USDA Forest Service, in...

  18. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  19. Corporate competitiveness and sustainability risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Braendle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing a theoretical analysis of the existing research on corporate competition and sustainability risks that occur when companies aspire to reach maximum competitive advantages and gain competitive benefits compared to their rivals. Competitiveness has been described as a multidimensional, theoretical and relative concept linked with the market mechanism. The concept of competitiveness may refer to different levels of aggregation: national, regional, industrial and individual companies. This paper contributes to the theoretical research on corporate competitiveness by the analysis of old and new definitions of this category. It also notes that the sustainability risks connected to competition can be divided into several groups where the authors highlight environmental, legal, financial risks, behaviour risks and state-related risks as the most crucial ones. For companies to be fit for the competitive challenge, the paper identifies main characteristics of such risks and gives policy guidance for their avoidance

  20. The Application of Intensive Longitudinal Methods to Investigate Change: Stimulating the Field of Applied Family Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Katharine T

    2016-03-01

    The use of intensive longitudinal methods (ILM)-rapid in situ assessment at micro timescales-can be overlaid on RCTs and other study designs in applied family research. Particularly, when done as part of a multiple timescale design-in bursts over macro timescales-ILM can advance the study of the mechanisms and effects of family interventions and processes of family change. ILM confers measurement benefits in accurately assessing momentary and variable experiences and captures fine-grained dynamic pictures of time-ordered processes. Thus, ILM allows opportunities to investigate new research questions about intervention effects on within-subject (i.e., within-person, within-family) variability (i.e., dynamic constructs) and about the time-ordered change process that interventions induce in families and family members beginning with the first intervention session. This paper discusses the need and rationale for applying ILM to family intervention evaluation, new research questions that can be addressed with ILM, example research using ILM in the related fields of basic family research and the evaluation of individual-based interventions. Finally, the paper touches on practical challenges and considerations associated with ILM and points readers to resources for the application of ILM.

  1. Estimating resting motor thresholds in transcranial magnetic stimulation research and practice: a computer simulation evaluation of best methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borckardt, Jeffrey J; Nahas, Ziad; Koola, Jejo; George, Mark S

    2006-09-01

    Resting motor threshold is the basic unit of dosing in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) research and practice. There is little consensus on how best to estimate resting motor threshold with TMS, and only a few tools and resources are readily available to TMS researchers. The current study investigates the accuracy and efficiency of 5 different approaches to motor threshold assessment for TMS research and practice applications. Computer simulation models are used to test the efficiency and accuracy of 5 different adaptive parameter estimation by sequential testing (PEST) procedures. For each approach, data are presented with respect to the mean number of TMS trials necessary to reach the motor threshold estimate as well as the mean accuracy of the estimates. A simple nonparametric PEST procedure appears to provide the most accurate motor threshold estimates, but takes slightly longer (on average, 3.48 trials) to complete than a popular parametric alternative (maximum likelihood PEST). Recommendations are made for the best starting values for each of the approaches to maximize both efficiency and accuracy. In light of the computer simulation data provided in this article, the authors review and suggest which techniques might best fit different TMS research and clinical situations. Lastly, a free user-friendly software package is described and made available on the world wide web that allows users to run all of the motor threshold estimation procedures discussed in this article for clinical and research applications.

  2. Basal ganglia, movement disorders and deep brain stimulation: advances made through non-human primate research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Thomas; Bergman, Hagai; DeLong, Mahlon R

    2018-03-01

    Studies in non-human primates (NHPs) have led to major advances in our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia and of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of hypokinetic movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and hyperkinetic disorders such as chorea and dystonia. Since the brains of NHPs are anatomically very close to those of humans, disease states and the effects of medical and surgical approaches, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), can be more faithfully modeled in NHPs than in other species. According to the current model of the basal ganglia circuitry, which was strongly influenced by studies in NHPs, the basal ganglia are viewed as components of segregated networks that emanate from specific cortical areas, traverse the basal ganglia, and ventral thalamus, and return to the frontal cortex. Based on the presumed functional domains of the different cortical areas involved, these networks are designated as 'motor', 'oculomotor', 'associative' and 'limbic' circuits. The functions of these networks are strongly modulated by the release of dopamine in the striatum. Striatal dopamine release alters the activity of striatal projection neurons which, in turn, influences the (inhibitory) basal ganglia output. In parkinsonism, the loss of striatal dopamine results in the emergence of oscillatory burst patterns of firing of basal ganglia output neurons, increased synchrony of the discharge of neighboring basal ganglia neurons, and an overall increase in basal ganglia output. The relevance of these findings is supported by the demonstration, in NHP models of parkinsonism, of the antiparkinsonian effects of inactivation of the motor circuit at the level of the subthalamic nucleus, one of the major components of the basal ganglia. This finding also contributed strongly to the revival of the use of surgical interventions to treat patients with Parkinson's disease. While ablative procedures were first used for this purpose, they have now been largely

  3. Assessing the Attractiveness of Ports in the North European Container Transhipment Market: An Agenda for Future Research in Port Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Koi Yu (Adolf) Ng

    2006-01-01

    Persistent development in global trade has significantly increased the demand for liner shipping, of which the industry is now being characterised by larger vessel size, comprehensive geographical coverage and frequent restructuring of shipping lines like transhipment. In turn, this has led to tense port competition, and port attractiveness is playing a pivotal role in this aspect. Understanding this and using container transhipment as a case study, this paper investigates the attractiveness ...

  4. Stimulating Creativity by Integrating Research and Teaching Across the Academic Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Creativity is a human adventure fueled by the process of exploration. But how do we explore our intellectual interests? In this talk, I'll propose that we seek out our creative opportunities using an inherent natural process. This process might, therefore, exploit search strategies found across diverse natural systems - ranging from the way animals forage for food to the way the human eye locates information embedded within complex patterns. The symbolic significance of this hypothesis lies in its call for educational institutes to provide environments that encourage our natural explorations rather those that stamp restrictive, artificial `order' on the process. To make my case, I'll review some of my own research trajectories followed during my RCSA Cottrell Scholarship at the University of Oregon (UO). My first conclusion will be that it is fundamentally unnatural to declare divides across disciplines. In particular, the infamous `art-science divide' is not a consequence of our natural creative searches but instead arises from our practical inability to accommodate the rapid drive toward academic specialization. Secondly, divides between research and teaching activities are equally unnatural - both endeavors are driven by the same creative strategy and are intertwined within the same natural process. This applies equally to the experiences of professors and students. I will end with specific success stories at the UO. These include a NSF IGERT project (focused on accelerating students' transitions from classroom to research experiences) and a collaboration between architects and professors to design a building (the recently opened Lewis Integrative Science Building) that encourages daily encounters between students and professors across research disciplines.

  5. Stimulating the development of national Streptococcus suis guidelines in Viet Nam through a strategic research partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horby, Peter; Wertheim, Heiman; Ha, Nguyen Hong; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Trinh, Dao Tuyet; Taylor, Walter; Ha, Nguyen Minh; Lien, Trinh Thi Minh; Farrar, Jeremy; Van Kinh, Nguyen

    2010-06-01

    Streptococcus suis is a common cause of adult bacterial meningitis in Viet Nam, and possibly other parts of Asia, yet this disabling infection has been largely neglected. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment are relatively straightforward and affordable but, in early 2007, no national diagnostic, case management or prevention guidelines existed in Viet Nam. Enhanced detection of S. suis infections was established in 2007 as part of a collaborative research programme between the National Hospital for Tropical Diseases, a key national hospital with very close links to the Ministry of Health, and a research group affiliated with Oxford University based in Viet Nam. The results were reported directly to policy-makers at the Ministry of Health. Viet Nam is a low-income country with a health-care system that has seen considerable improvements and increased autonomy. However, parts of the system remain fairly centralized the Ministry of Health. Following the improved detection and reporting of S. suis cases, the Ministry of Health issued guidance to all hospitals in Viet Nam on the clinical and laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of S. suis. A public health laboratory diagnostic service was established at the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology and training courses were conducted for clinicians and microbiologists. Ministry of Health guidance on surveillance and control of communicable diseases was updated to include a section on S. suis. Research collaborations can efficiently inform and influence national responses if they are well positioned to reach policy-makers.

  6. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  7. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  8. Using Patent Development, Education Policy and Research and Development Expenditure Policy to Increase Technological Competitiveness of Small European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferraro Simona

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Belt and Road Initiative will open new trade routes between China and the European Union (EU and increase competition pressures on smaller EU member states. This article ranks where states like Estonia stand internationally in terms of innovativeness (and consequent competitiveness by conducting an econometric study of patent development, education policy and research and development (R&D expenditure policy. The authors claim that small member states such as Estonia should follow the example of countries such as Germany and adopt policies which focus more on increased public spending on R&D and innovation in public universities of science and technology, and raise support for high tech startups with a strong focus on international patenting. Member States must go further and subsidise R&D activities by focusing, inter alia, on filing of foreign patents such as triadic patents.

  9. Competition Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Icaza Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the competition regime works of various authors, published under the auspices of the University of the Hemispheres and the Corporation for Studies and Publications. Analyzes the structure, the general concepts, case law taken for development. Includes comments on the usefulness of this work for the study of competition law and the contribution to the lawyers who want to practice in this branch of economic law.

  10. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  11. Rap system of stress stimulation can promote bone union after lower tibial bone fracture: a clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian-fei; Shen, Jia-zuo; Li, Da-kun; Lin, Da-sheng; Li, Lin; Li, Qiang; Qi, Peng; Lian, Ke-jian; Ding, Zhen-qi

    2012-01-01

    Lower tibial bone fracture may easily cause bone delayed union or nonunion because of lacking of dynamic mechanical load. Research Group would design a new instrument as Rap System of Stress Stimulation (RSSS) to provide dynamic mechanical load which would promote lower tibial bone union postoperatively. This clinical research was conducted from January 2008 to December 2010, 92 patients(male 61/female 31, age 16-70 years, mean 36.3 years) who suffered lower tibial bone closed fracture were given intramedullary nail fixation and randomly averagely separated into experimental group and control group(according to the successively order when patients went for the admission procedure). Then researchers analysed the clinical healing time, full weight bearing time, VAS (Visual Analogue Scales) score and callus growth score of Lane-Sandhu in 3,6,12 months postoperatively. The delayed union and nonunion rates were compared at 6 and 12 months separately. All the 92 patients had been followed up (mean 14 months). Clinical bone healing time in experimental group was 88.78±8.80 days but control group was 107.91±9.03 days. Full weight bearing time in experimental group was 94.07±9.81 days but control group was 113.24±13.37 days respectively (Ptibial bone union, reduce bone delayed union or nonunion rate. It is an adjuvant therapy for promoting bone union after lower tibial bone fracture.

  12. CROSS-COMPLIANCE Facilitating the CAP reform: Compliance and competitiveness of European agriculture : Specific Targeted Research or Innovation Project (STREP) Integrating and Strengthening the European Research Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.; Bezlepkina, I.; Winsten, J.; Fox, G.

    2008-01-01

    The prime aim or the project was on assessing the impacts of compliance with standards, more specifically those part of cross-compliance, on EU’s external competitiveness. This is why in several deliverables and also in the main text of this Deliverable 13 a lot of attention is given to the EU and

  13. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF COMPETITIVENESS AND INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana GUTIUM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of interdependence and correlation between competition and competitiveness, and competition’s consequences. The author analysed some authors’ visions on competitiveness, and common features between theories of competition and competitiveness. Using the synthetic indicator elaborated by author has been evaluated the competitiveness of domestic goods on the internal and external market. At the end of this article, the author has developed proposals to increase competitiveness.

  14. COMPETITIVENESS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu Eugen POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment puts pressure on all national economies which struggle to improve their competitiveness and innovativeness in a sustainable way. This article aims to present the current state of the competitiveness by reviewing the main literature and worldwide researches, in order to provide a brief overview of the determinants that drive productivity and economic success at global and national level, taking into consideration the entrepreneurial activity for a country’s competitiveness and economic growth. The paper identifies the ways in which efficiency driven countries can improve their policies and get a better return on their investments, underlining a set of competitiveness enhancing policies (measures that can be implemented by public and private institutions in order to strengthen the economic fundamentals of the economies.

  15. Competitive spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    been published previously. Any kind of reference may be consulted; textbooks and journal articles can be cited. The problems can be downloaded from the webpage of the Ortvay contest (mafihe.elte.hu/ortvay ) in Hungarian and English; on preliminary request the problems can be sent via e-mail. If an institute is represented by several contestants, then a teacher or student acting as local organizer collects the solutions and posts them to the referees. Solutions can be sent by mail, fax or e-mail to the address given on the webpage. The contest is evaluated separately for each university year and the referees reserve the right to withhold or to divide some prizes. Beyond the money prizes for the first, second and third places, honourable mentions and special prizes for outstanding solutions of individual problems can be awarded. The sponsors of the contest are the Students' Foundation of the Faculty of Sciences of Eötvös University and the Roland Eötvös Physical Society. The results are announced in December and the organizers are hoping for even more participants in future contests. Among the winners of the European Union Young Scientists competition which took place in Thessaloniki, Greece in September was Sarah Flannery from Ireland. Sarah had used advanced mathematics to compare two cryptographic systems and proved that a new system for encrypting information on the Internet is as secure and considerably faster than the one currently in use. Three students from Iceland also gained a prize for their work on a distant cluster of hundreds of galaxies, demonstrating the capacities of modern data processing tools and the Internet in the project. The winning entries were selected from 57 projects presented from over 30 countries, and the aim of the contest was to encourage and highlight young people's interest in science by inviting them to play a part in actual research projects. Some of the winners will be able to work on projects at the Joint Research Centre

  16. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  17. MACROECONOMIC ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Hooke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of globalization of world economic processes, the role of individual national economies increases, comparative advantages of the development of a country are formed, and their competitiveness is ensured. That is why it is worth emphasizing the importance of increasing the competitiveness of each individual country, based on its internal capacity. In a broad aspect, the competitiveness of the national economy is perceived as the ability of the country to ensure the balance of its external proportions and to avoid those constraints imposed by the foreign economic sphere, to self-organizing the improvement of their world economic ties. The competitiveness of the economy at the macro level is associated with the duration of the cycle of reproduction of the main productive assets and, accordingly, the jobs, productive forces of society and determined by the overall economic efficiency of investment. The criteria of competitiveness of the national economy are the growth of social productivity of labor, increase of social and economic efficiency of production and standard of living of the population. The competitiveness of the national economy determines sustainable socio-economic development of the country, as well as sustainable development predetermines the competitiveness of not only the country, but also all its levels. Scientific results are obtained using special methods of research of economic objects and phenomena, that is, based on the correlation and regressive, comparative analysis (establishing the relationship between the indicator factor, as well as economic modeling. Findings. Generalizing analysis and the importance of the macroeconomic aspect of competitiveness were used in the research paper, which will allow to better respond to the economic situation, in accordance with the trends of the “green” transformation of the economy; which in turn will solve important problems of the development and implementation of its

  18. Unsustainable Growth, Hyper-Competition, and Worth in Life Science Research: Narrowing Evaluative Repertoires in Doctoral and Postdoctoral Scientists' Work and Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochler, Maximilian; Felt, Ulrike; Müller, Ruth

    There is a crisis of valuation practices in the current academic life sciences, triggered by unsustainable growth and "hyper-competition." Quantitative metrics in evaluating researchers are seen as replacing deeper considerations of the quality and novelty of work, as well as substantive care for the societal implications of research. Junior researchers are frequently mentioned as those most strongly affected by these dynamics. However, their own perceptions of these issues are much less frequently considered. This paper aims at contributing to a better understanding of the interplay between how research is valued and how young researchers learn to live, work and produce knowledge within academia. We thus analyze how PhD students and postdocs in the Austrian life sciences ascribe worth to people, objects and practices as they talk about their own present and future lives in research. We draw on literature from the field of valuation studies and its interest in how actors refer to different forms of valuation to account for their actions. We explore how young researchers are socialized into different valuation practices in different stages of their growing into science. Introducing the concept of "regimes of valuation" we show that PhD students relate to a wider evaluative repertoire while postdocs base their decisions on one dominant regime of valuing research. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of these findings for the epistemic and social development of the life sciences, and for other scientific fields.

  19. Marathon's imaging of Bakken fracture stimulations : NDIC oil and gas petroleum research program grants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brimberry, D. [Marathon Oil Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed surface tiltmeter and microseismic studies conducted to image fracture stimulations at the Bakken formation. The aim of the studies was to map the fracture stimulation network of the Bakken formation, which has highly sensitive surface levels. The study determined the best fit theoretical deformation after stimulation. Stimulations from 2007 and 2006 were compared in order to determine time lapses as well as to understand data limitations and differences in time and production between jobs. The microseismic study used seismic arrays deployed at the surface of horizontal open hole wells. Data from the studies indicated the presence of a complex network. While data utility was good, noise prevented the precise location of events. The study demonstrated that both tiltmeter and microseismic technology can be used to plan well stimulation project. Data from the study can be applied in other areas in the Williston Basin. tabs., figs.

  20. The Case for Architectural-Design Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Roger K.

    2009-01-01

    A well-publicized design competition is especially beneficial for universities. It allows them to enhance fund raising and stimulate design consciousness among students, the faculty, and even members of the surrounding community. Yet universities rarely conduct competitions, and instead select architects for major projects through a multistep,…

  1. Romania's Competitiveness and Competitive Position in Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin NECULITA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness increase has become a primordial framework of the social and economic development strategies of most world countries (mainly the most developed ones over the last decades. The vigorous boost of the contemporary phenomenon of globalization, which has widened the global area of economies, sectors and firms confrontation, has laid an emphasis on their competitiveness importance for their favorable position in the international competition and has therefore force the status to take proper, broad and concerted measures to stimulate the determining factors of action and to take better advantage of their effects. The purpose of the paper is to determine whether an increase in competitiveness could reduce the disparities between regions. The E.U. Member States and regions need significant financial help to solve various structural problems and to achieve their potential of growth. Romania is no exception, one of the main problems being the low rate in attracting European funds.

  2. Competitive Priorities and Competitive Advantage in Jordanian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Awwad, Abdulkareem S.; Al Khattab, Adel A.; Anchor, J.R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore and predict the relationship between the competitive priorities (quality, cost, flexibility and delivery) and the competitive advantage of firms in the Jordanian Industrial Sector. A population of 88 Jordanian manufacturing firms, registered on the Amman Stock Exchange, was targeted using a cross-sectional survey employing a questionnaire method of data collection. The results of the data analysis indicate a significant relationship between competit...

  3. Stimulation of Managers in Regional Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the principles related to top managers work incentives were inherited from the planned economy that produces demotivation and opportunistic behaviour. Remuneration is a commercial secret and shall not be disclosed. The system of top managers’ stimulation is unbalanced and does not motivate them to achieve medium- and long-term goals of the company. The study pays great attention to the development of managers’ stimulation policies, the transparency of remuneration, correlation between pay and performance. We provide practical examples of foreign and national experience, showing the ability to ensure the transparency of remuneration of managers, and the relation between compensation and performance. These examples show that managers’ remuneration amount does not always correspond to the efficiency of enterprises and return on capital. To solve these problems, we offer to develop philosophy and policy for the stimulation of managers in enterprises. It will allow to find a balance between the interests of shareholders and managers. Furthermore, this philosophy will have a positive impact on the competitiveness of enterprises in a region. The policy of stimulating managers should include certain key areas. Firstly, it should ensure the competitiveness of managers’ remuneration. Secondly, it implies studying the motives of managers’ work and the integration of these motives in the development of incentive system for the managers. Thirdly, it should include an optimal combination of elements to stimulate labour: base salary, material and social remuneration, short and long-term remuneration, etc. And last, it should consider the indicators and norms of enterprise’s effectiveness as well as the assessment of working results of managers. The results of this research can be used for further study of the stimulation of managers’ work in Russian companies. They can also be used in practice for the analysis of labour incentives of

  4. The image of a research institution as an important element in shaping the level of competitiveness of the organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świeczak Witold

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the publication is defining the factors and processes affecting the efficient course of actions undertaken around building a positive image of the organisation. The study raises key aspects of this issue. The diagnosis providing that the recipient is guided in his/her purchasing decisions by the opinions about a given product or service that reach them through all the available content distribution channels is appearing increasingly often in subsequent study findings. The same studies have also confirmed that an inherent feature of a knowledge-based economy is the level of the intangible asset share as regards determining the position of an organisation (brand, reputation. The unbridled increase in competition has led to the generation of a growing volume of advertising offers for buyers, as a result of which standing out among other market players has now become more of an issue. One of the ways to enhance an organisation’s presence in a changing environment includes measures promoting its positive image creation and shaping of favourable (valuable opinions about it. The selection of the appropriate image concept to a constantly changing business environment in terms of competing or consumer preferences requires an effective response to their experiences in the cognitive, emotional and behavioural dimensions. If they are positive, they will contribute to building a favourable mindset among consumers, which in turn will facilitate the formation of a positive image of the organisation.

  5. Assessing the Use of YouTube Videos and Interactive Activities as a Critical Thinking Stimulator for Tertiary Students: An Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Sethela; Yaacob, Aizan; Kheng, Yeoh Khar

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to investigate the use of YouTube videos and interactive activities in stimulating critical thinking among students from a public university in Malaysia. There were 50 students of mixed background, comprised of local and foreign students who participated in this study which lasted for one semester. Data was…

  6. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents some of the most important microeconomic tools used in assessing antitrust and merger cases by the competition authorities. By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like “market power”, “critical loss” or “price elasticity of demand” are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get a practical perspective on the way that these concepts fit into the more general concept of “competition policy”. Extensive economic research has shown what...

  7. Logo competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Award of the prizes The price ceremony for the Staff Association’s new logo competition which took place on Friday 1st March at 5 p.m. was a big success. The first prize, an Ezee Suisse electric bike, was won by Paulo Rios, from Portugal. In his absence, the bike was handed to his brother Vitor. The other five winners of the competition also received their prize: Go Sport vouchers. A peize draw was then organized to award 22 other participants with prizes offered by our commercial partners (Aquaparc, BCGE, L’Occitane, Passeport Gourmand, Sephora, Theater La Comédie de Genève), whom we would like to warmly thank. After all prices were distributed the evening continued with discussions around a friendly drink.

  8. Competitive Framing

    OpenAIRE

    Ran Spiegler

    2014-01-01

    I present a simple framework for modeling two-firm market competition when consumer choice is "frame-dependent", and firms use costless "marketing messages" to influence the consumer's frame. This framework embeds several recent models in the "behavioral industrial organization" literature. I identify a property that consumer choice may satisfy, which extends the concept of Weighted Regularity due to Piccione and Spiegler (2012), and provide a characterization of Nash equilibria under this pr...

  9. VIRTUAL COMPETITIVENESS: YOUTHS’ VIEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Semenov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT has become an integral part both of every individual’s life and of the society in general. It is no longer possible to deny the impact of virtual environment on socialisation and development of the identity of young people. In this regard, the investigation of young people’s view on virtual social networks, and the possibility of students’ own competitiveness realization through various web services. The aim of the research presented in the article is to study the factors of students’ assessment of virtual social networks as a tool of personal fulfillment. Methodology and research methods. Content analysis and synthesis of scientific publications studies were carried out at a theoretical stage of the research; secondary sampling analysis of sociologic data material sources was conducted. The empirical research stage involved the instrument of questionnaire surveys, statistical data processing and interpretation of the results. Results and scientific novelty. The social survey conducted in 2017 with the participation of 1087 high school students and 1196 college students of the Tyumen Region shown that the more competitive students consider themselves, the more competitive they perceive the people having great popularity on the Internet. At that, compared to girls, young people are more inclined to consider the people having great popularity on the Internet competitive. It is determined that having a popular virtual media account for the young person is less worthwhile than for female respondents. The author explains this fact: male representatives regard it as “social capital” which can contribute to growth of their competitiveness in society as well as to achieve some profit. The author concludes that youth views on competitiveness are not directly related to the activity in virtual social networks. Frequent use by respondents of the Internet and

  10. Consumer Neuroscience : Pricing research to gain and sustain a cutting edge competitive advantage by improving customer value and profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Kumlehn, Malte

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study that exclusively focuses on gaining knowledge of the vast opportunities that Neuroscientific pricing research offers for marketing purposes. The findings of this study provide evidence of the importance to improve customer and organizational decision making. The findings further highlight the crucial importance of Neuroscientific pricing research. Moreover, evidence is provided that fundamental and well formulated models and concepts need to be developed in the discipl...

  11. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova A. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important conditions of the existence of every organization, every enterprise is to insure the long-term sustainable development, one of the conditions of which is the increase of an organizational competitiveness. In modern economic conditions, social aspects of competitiveness are now in the foreground of interest, because just the strategy of social responsibility (SSR of modern enterprises can assure some commercial benefits, in responding, at the same time, to the social demands and in creating its well-being. Such an approach is in the basis of the notion of competitiveness. Along with «rigid parameters», such as price characteristics, the capability to deal with competitors, effective financial and production policies, «flexible factors» of competitiveness are of a big importance: a personnel potential, individual and collective competencies, organizational and managerial capabilities. As a result, we have formulated a research hypothesis: the organizational competitiveness is defined by individual and collective competencies of an organization, is based on socially responsible actions, confirms the demand for the object and insures its sustainable long-term development. Any organization should base all its actions aimed to increase its competitiveness on its intellectual potential, or on the management of individual and collective competencies that assure the sustainable development and the goal achievement. For every organizational strategic action, an effective combination of these competencies exists. So, we suggest a new definition of competitiveness: it is a social and economic category of understanding of the social responsibility, having as a central element individual and collective competencies, based on socially responsible actions of an enterprise, insuring its long-term sustainable development.

  12. Competitive advantage and corporate communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic importance of corporate communications and its role in the development of competitive advantage has attracted interest of numerous researchers in the fields of organization, management, marketing and public relations. Recent studies particularly emphasise the growing importance of soft factors, such as reputation in the development of competitive advantage. Concept of reputation is strongly connected with stakeholder theory, which stresses the importance of corporate communications for competitive advantage of firms. The paper focuses on competitive advantage and the link among strategy, reputation and corporate communications.

  13. [Clinical research of post-stroke insomnia treated with low-frequency electric stimulation at acupoints in the patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei; You, Fei; Ma, Chao-Yang

    2014-08-01

    To compare the difference in the clinical efficacy on post-stroke insomnia between the low-frequency electric stimulation at the acupoints and the conventional western medication. One hundred and twenty patients of post-stroke insomnia were randomized into a low-frequency electric stimulation group, a medication group and a placebo group, 40 cases in each one. In the low-frequency electric stimulation group, the low-frequency electric-pulsing apparatus was used at Dazhui (GV 14) and Shenshu (BL 23), once a day; the treatment of 15 days made one session and 2 sessions were required. In the medication group, estazolam was taken orally, 1 mg each time. In the placebo group, starch capsules were taken orally, 1 capsule each time. All the drugs were taken before sleep every night, continuously for 15 days as one session, and 2 sessions were required. PSQI changes and clinical efficacy were observed before and after treatment in each group. Pitlsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) score was reduced in every group after treatment (all P low-frequency electric stimulation group and medication group, the score was reduced much more significantly as compared with the placebo group (both P low-frequency electric stimulation group, medication group and placebo group separately. The efficacy in the low-frequency electric stimulation group and medication group was better apparently than that in the placebo group (both P low-frequency electric stimulation at the acupoints effectively and safely treats post-stroke insomnia and the efficacy of it is similar to that of estazolam.

  14. Competitive Advantage through Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, Maximilian; Wimschneider, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe how Nespresso achieved competitive advantage through innovation by changing the rules of the game in its industry. Design/methodology/approach Nespresso was analyzed based on public available secondary data, in combination with related academic...... concepts on innovation and competitive advantage. Findings The company succeeded by the thorough application of a strategy that, through perfect alignment, allowed the company to reach a unique market position. However, as described in the case, it took a relatively long time and the company came close...... as a source for competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications Especially given the current market situation, the case offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and long-term company success. Practical implications Especially before the current market situation, the case...

  15. Integrated model of destination competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armenski Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the weakest point of Serbian destination competitiveness as a tourist destination in comparation with its main competitors. The paper is organized as follows. The short introduction of the previous research on the destination competitiveness is followed by description of the Integrated model of destination competitiveness (Dwyer et al, 2003 that was used as the main reference framework. Section three is devoted to the description of the previous studies on competitiveness of Serbian tourism, while section four outlines the statistical methodology employed in this study and presents and interprets the empirical results. The results showed that Serbia is more competitive in its natural, cultural and created resources than in destination management while, according to the Integrated model, Serbia is less competitive in demand conditions that refer to the image and awareness of the destination itself.

  16. Research Universities and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Competition, Resource Concentration, and the "Great Recession" in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barrett J.; Cantwell, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes the U.S. federal government's response to the "Great Recession" as a "natural experiment" whose broad emphasis on counter-cyclical spending contrasts with the tendency towards stratification within the quasi-market for academic research support. Regression results indicate that resources tended to flow…

  17. Academic misconduct and research productivity of business scholars : Researchers’ moral posture in the context of autonomy and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatak, Isabella; Harms, Rainer; Gartner, Johannes

    This study investigates whether business scholars’ moral posture is related to their productivity in terms of peer-reviewed publications and research funds. We distinguish between deontological and consequentialist moral postures and take account of the moderating role of researchers’ perceived

  18. Effects of Oral Stimulation Intervention in Newborn Babies with Cri du Chat Syndrome: Single-Subject Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Kyung Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to treat dysphagia in a newborn baby with cri du chat syndrome using an oral stimulation intervention and to examine its effects. The subject of this study was a baby born 2 weeks prematurely. Since birth, his oxygen saturation (SaO2 decreased while feeding, and he had difficulty with mouth feeding. Thus, an NG feeding tube was inserted, and dysphagia treatment was initiated on the sixth day after birth. A baseline phase and an intervention phase were performed using an AB design. The oral stimulation intervention was not performed in the baseline phase, as only nonnutritive sucking training using a rubber pacifier was used during the baseline phase. During the intervention phase, nonnutritive sucking training and oral stimulation intervention were simultaneously conducted. After the intervention period, daily oral milk intake and intake per feeding of the subject noticeably increased. The oxygen saturation while feeding rose over 90% on average, and the baby did not present with hypoxia. The oral stimulation intervention provided prior to feeding resulted in highly positive effects, including induced normal development of the baby, stimulation of his transition from the NG feeding tube to bottle feeding, increased oxygen saturation, and a shortened hospital stay.

  19. Competitive pressures on income distribution in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, H.

    1999-01-01

    to explore what perfect competition would do to income distribution in China. The research analyzes this question by determining personal income distribution under hypothetical, perfectly competitive conditions, where factors are rewarded according to their marginal productivities. Comparison with

  20. REGULATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition policy starts by shaping a legislative framework. This is aimed to establish boundaries for conducting competition and also sets limits of licit and illicit demarcation, for competitive and anticompetitive practices. The Romanian Competition Law has a divalent approach and it aims to provide specific behavioral conditions in order to stimulate and protect free-market competition, with the ultimate goal of developing a balanced, efficient and competitive economy. Our country’s Competition policy is based on punishing the behavior. There are three such types of anti-competitive behavior, namely: agreements between undertakings, abuse of dominant position and mergers and other concentrations between undertakings. Recent Practice proved that this “enforcement-conduct-punishment” structure is not necessary the best way to address competition and it is high time for authorities to switch both regulation and enforcement of competition from the “classical perspective” towards concepts like “competition advocacy” and “soft power” and give competition policy a new, reshaped face.

  1. European research and commercialisation activities in the field of tissue engineering and liver support in world wide competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, U; Bushnaq, H; Yalcin, E

    1998-02-01

    Tissue engineering is seen as an interesting field of technology which could improve medical therapy and could also be considered as a commercial opportunity for the European biotechnological industry. Research in the state of the art of science using the MedLine and the Science Citation Index databases, in the patent situation and of the industry dealing with tissue engineering was done. A special method, based on the Science Citation Index Journal Citation Report 1993, for evaluating scientific work was defined. The main countries working in the field of tissue engineering were evaluated in regard to their scientific performance and their patents. The R&D of German industry was investigated as an exemplary European country. Out of all activities, different tissues were rated with respect to the attention received from research and industry and with regard to the frequency in which patents were applied for. USA, Germany and Japan rank first in most tissues, especially liver. After comparing German patents with the German scientific and industrial work, it seems that the potential in German patents and research is underestimated by German industry and inefficiently exploited.

  2. Properties of sports competitions and relation to market value

    OpenAIRE

    Tribušon , Matic

    2018-01-01

    Sports are a very popular type of entertainment around the world. Consequently, they have become very important from a business perspective. In this thesis, we research the influence of sports competition competitive balance on its market value. The aim is to determine the competitive balance of various sports competitions and explore the correlation between competitive balance and market value of sports competitions. We propose a method for assessing competitive balance of an arbitrary team ...

  3. Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Business Ideas Competition "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition.The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund.Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at www.rainbowseedfund.com ." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via the CERN TT Unit (Jean-Marie.Le Goff@cern.ch) th...

  4. The role of research programs and commercial contracts for increase of economic competitiveness and development at INR Pitesti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petra, Nicoleta Mihaela; Ionila, Maria; Datcu, Mirela; Balan, Iosif Bogdan; Cretu, Ileana

    2008-01-01

    In the period in which globalization is increasing, one of the strategic objectives of the institute is to focus on those activities which help developing of services, products and technologies, applicable in nuclear industry, environment protection and medicine. One way to sustain INR activity is the technological transfer which ensures availability of research results by carrying out of R and D contracts in priority areas and of contracts with economical agents for the supply of services, products, technologies, such as: - Materials irradiation for medicine, industry and research; - Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and prompt gamma spectrometry for Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1; - Control and testing: non-destructive examination, functional tests of samples and equipment from Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1; - Characterization, conditioning and treatment of radioactive wastes for NPP- Cernavoda, Unit 1, Nuclear Fuel Plant (FCN) - Pitesti; - Measurement of isotopes concentration in environmental samples; -Corrosion experiments in static autoclaves and experiments regarding microbial corrosion for NPP Cernavoda Unit 1 and FCN Pitesti; - Nuclear consultancy for Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1 and Unit 2; - Stainless steel casks for radwaste; - Containers for heavy water; - Training and practice for students at the Universities of Pitesti, Bucuresti, Brasov. The paper presents the main areas where the results obtained in R and D programs can be applied, their implementation can be done, and the status of contracts and their importance for INR Pitesti and Romanian society development, as well. (authors)

  5. Twittering About Research: A Case Study of the World’s First Twitter Poster Competition [version 2; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward P. Randviir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Royal Society of Chemistry held, to our knowledge, the world’s first Twitter conference at 9am on February 5 th, 2015. The conference was a Twitter-only conference, allowing researchers to upload academic posters as tweets, replacing a physical meeting. This paper reports the details of the event and discusses the outcomes, such as the potential for the use of social media to enhance scientific communication at conferences. In particular, the present work argues that social media outlets such as Twitter broaden audiences, speed up communication, and force clearer and more concise descriptions of a researcher’s work. The benefits of poster presentations are also discussed in terms of potential knowledge exchange and networking. This paper serves as a proof-of-concept approach for improving both the public opinion of the poster, and the enhancement of the poster through an innovative online format that some may feel more comfortable with, compared to face-to-face communication.

  6. Twittering About Research: A Case Study of the World’s First Twitter Poster Competition [version 3; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward P. Randviir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Royal Society of Chemistry held, to our knowledge, the world’s first Twitter conference at 9am on February 5 th, 2015. The conference was a Twitter-only conference, allowing researchers to upload academic posters as tweets, replacing a physical meeting. This paper reports the details of the event and discusses the outcomes, such as the potential for the use of social media to enhance scientific communication at conferences. In particular, the present work argues that social media outlets such as Twitter broaden audiences, speed up communication, and force clearer and more concise descriptions of a researcher’s work. The benefits of poster presentations are also discussed in terms of potential knowledge exchange and networking. This paper serves as a proof-of-concept approach for improving both the public opinion of the poster, and the enhancement of the poster through an innovative online format that some may feel more comfortable with, compared to face-to-face communication.

  7. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 1: Country reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This (Part 1: Country reports) is the first report about the results from the eNERGIA project. The second report mainly deals with selected renewable energy technologies from different perspectives, while the third report sums up the SWOT-analysis, the eNERGIA workshops and the case studies of good practice. A short synthesis report summarises the entire project. This first report is the presentation of the countries studied in the project - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The policy system and the political framework conditions that underpin energy related industrial activity are reviewed for each country. This includes energy strategies, laws and regulations, R&D and innovation policies and instruments, and international collaboration. Key actors and institutions in the public domain, research and education, and non-governmental organisations are mapped. Finally, the descriptions of the countries include also technology specific overviews of R&D-intensive firms in the energy sector. The report comprises three parts: Part 1: Country reports Part 2: Technology reports Part 3: Special reports The results are summarised in the Synthesis report. (Author). refs., 24 figs., 49 tabs

  8. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 2: Technology reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This (Part 2: Technology reports) is the second report about the results from the eNERGIA project. The first report deals with the countries covered by the eNERGIA project, while the third report sums up the SWOT-analysis, the eNERGIA workshops and the case studies of good practice. A short synthesis report summarises the entire project. This second report mainly deals with selected renewable energy technologies from different perspectives. The report comprises the following nine chapters. Chapter 1 is the presentation of the selected renewable technologies (solar photovoltaic technology, wind technology, 2nd generation bio-energy technology, wave technology and hydroelectric technology) and a subsequent elaboration of the status of the technologies in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Chapter 2 gives an overview of patterns of international R&D collaboration as seen from the countries in question. Chapter 3 draws on technology specific patenting data and bibliometric data, describing the level of technology specific activity in each country. Chapter 4 and 5 describe the status of renewable energy production and renewable energy research respectively in each country. The four last chapters are relatively brief descriptions of the situation in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Chapter 6 gives an overview of the venture capital situation. Chapter 7 is about market regulations and Chapter 8 is about social concerns. Finally, Chapter 9 addresses infrastructural challenges. (Author) 77 figs., 70 tabs

  9. A Conceptual Mapping Resource Advantage Theory, Competitive Advantage Theory, and Transient Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanta PERANGINANGIN

    2015-01-01

    Competitive advantage is the main purposed of the business entity focusing on market base view. Resource advantage theorists put their concern to empowering resources development with resources based view, in the other side needs to redefining competitive advantage. All the competitive advantage are transient, concluded the end of competitive advantage. Redefining competitive advantage by selling migration and shrewdness outward. This research to emphasize innovation capability rarely appears...

  10. Adrenergic influence on pentagastrin and bethanechol stimulated gastric acid secretion in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C; Bech, K; Gottrup, F

    1984-01-01

    . The inhibitory effect of isoprenaline on pentagastrin stimulated acid secretion showed the characteristics of competitive type and on bethanechol stimulated acid secretion of non competitive type. An increasing and dose-dependent stimulation of bethanechol stimulated gastric acid secretion was found for dopamine...

  11. COMPETITIVENESS IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA MĂDĂLINA OPRIȚESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and diversification of the economic activities, the stimulation of investments both in the public sector, but mainly in the private one, the reduction of unemployment, the improvement of living standards are just some of the concepts aimed at by the regional development. The main method which can lead to a balanced development of the regions is financing them differentially so that the underdeveloped regions would obtain proportionally more funds that the developed ones. At a region level, the main objective is represented by the more accelerated growth of the less developed regions, in an effort to diminish the inter-regional and intra-regional development disparities. A key role is played by the sustainable economic growth concept, while also analyzing the competitiveness at a regional level, as well as the main development factors.

  12. Research staff training in a multisite randomized clinical trial: Methods and recommendations from the Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robrina; Morris, David W; Greer, Tracy L; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of and recommendations for meeting the challenges of training research staff for multisite studies are limited despite the recognized importance of training on trial outcomes. The STRIDE (STimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise) study is a multisite randomized clinical trial that was conducted at nine addiction treatment programs across the United States within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) and evaluated the addition of exercise to addiction treatment as usual (TAU), compared to health education added to TAU, for individuals with stimulant abuse or dependence. Research staff administered a variety of measures that required a range of interviewing, technical, and clinical skills. In order to address the absence of information on how research staff are trained for multisite clinical studies, the current manuscript describes the conceptual process of training and certifying research assistants for STRIDE. Training was conducted using a three-stage process to allow staff sufficient time for distributive learning, practice, and calibration leading up to implementation of this complex study. Training was successfully implemented with staff across nine sites. Staff demonstrated evidence of study and procedural knowledge via quizzes and skill demonstration on six measures requiring certification. Overall, while the majority of staff had little to no experience in the six measures, all research assistants demonstrated ability to correctly and reliably administer the measures throughout the study. Practical recommendations are provided for training research staff and are particularly applicable to the challenges encountered with large, multisite trials.

  13. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  14. Tax system competition – instruments and beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Biernacki

    2014-01-01

    Tax competition among states and jurisdictions has already been examined many times in the economic literature. However, the main scope of the research was focused on a tax rates competition in income taxes and its consequences in bringing direct investments. This scripture/commentary tries to analyze various instruments and beneficiaries of the tax system competition and provide a general overview on this subject.

  15. PERFECTION RUSSIAN TAX FEDERALISM AS THE FACTOR OF INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS OF INDUSTRIALLY ADVANCED REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Tatarkin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article problems of increase of competitiveness of industrially advanced regions are considered on the basis of optimization of system of differentiation of tax powers and tax incomes, stimulating authorities of different levels to develop own tax potential, to form economic sources for self-development and to carry out a responsible financial policy in interests of the population. The basic background of research became the ground of an opportunity to transfer the principles of a competition on mutual relations of authorities of a various level, thus determining economic advantages of decentralization control system of territory development.

  16. The impact of the energy cost on the competitiveness of the manufacturing industry. A review of the contributions of research in economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordigoni, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    After a large introduction on the variations of energy prices (in relationship with energy sources, with end users, with competitiveness), on what can be found in the literature on competitiveness in the industry in relationship with energy, and on the current debates on energy prices and energy transition, this report discusses the variations of energy prices among countries and among industrial sectors, outlines that high oil prices threaten more economic growth than competitiveness, notices that countries possessing abundant energy resources tend to be specialised in intensive industries, that energy prices tends to have an important impact on competitiveness in some specific sectors, outlines that shale gases boost the demand of the whole American economy but that the associated competitiveness improvement rather concerns energy intensive sectors, and finally discusses the energy issue at a European level

  17. Regulatory Considerations for the Clinical and Research Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): review and recommendations from an expert panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregni, F; Nitsche, MA; Loo, C.K.; Brunoni, AR; Marangolo, P; Leite, J; Carvalho, S; Bolognini, N; Caumo, W; Paik, NJ; Simis, M; Ueda, K; Ekhitari, H; Luu, P; Tucker, DM; Tyler, WJ; Brunelin, J; Datta, A; Juan, CH; Venkatasubramanian, G; Boggio, PS; Bikson, M

    2014-01-01

    The field of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has experienced significant growth in the past 15 years. One of the tES techniques leading this increased interest is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Significant research efforts have been devoted to determining the clinical potential of tDCS in humans. Despite the promising results obtained with tDCS in basic and clinical neuroscience, further progress has been impeded by a lack of clarity on international regulatory pathways. We therefore convened a group of research and clinician experts on tDCS to review the research and clinical use of tDCS. In this report, we review the regulatory status of tDCS, and we summarize the results according to research, off-label and compassionate use of tDCS in the following countries: Australia, Brazil, France, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Portugal, South Korea, Taiwan and United States. Research use, off label treatment and compassionate use of tDCS are employed in most of the countries reviewed in this study. It is critical that a global or local effort is organized to pursue definite evidence to either approve and regulate or restrict the use of tDCS in clinical practice on the basis of adequate randomized controlled treatment trials. PMID:25983531

  18. Towards a universal definition of competitive intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Rene Pellissier; Tshilidzi E. Nenzhelele

    2013-01-01

    Background: Enterprises face intense competition caused by globalisation. Consequently, enterprises look for tools that provide a competitive advantage. Competitive intelligence (CI) provides a competitive advantage to enterprises of all sizes. There are many definitions of CI but no universally accepted one. Objectives: The purpose of this research is to review the current literature on CI with the aim of identifying and analysing CI definitions to establish the commonalities and differen...

  19. Power market competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Unites States the prospect of greater competition in wholesale power market was immediately eclipsed by talk of retail competition. Attempts to move to retail competition have been costly and complex. Prudent public policy and economic analyses suggest that retail competition not be implemented until it can first be demonstrated that effective competition exists in wholesale power markets [it

  20. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  1. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  2. Noninvasive Stimulation of the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Rothwell, John; Capogna, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation methods, such as transcranial electric stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation are widely used tools for both basic research and clinical applications. However, the cortical circuits underlying their effects are poorly defined. Here we review the current...

  3. Mining research for enhanced competitiveness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogt, D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mining is very important to South Africa, contributing 7% of GDP directly, and 15% indirectly and employing more than 450 000 people. With the world’s largest resources of gold, platinum and ferrochrome, and major coal resources, mining...

  4. Metalcasting competitiveness research. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piwonka, T.S.

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises eleven separate reports: prediction of non- metallic particle distribution, electromagnetic separation of inclusions from molten Al alloy, clean steel castings, waste stream identification and treatment, elastic wave lithotripsy for removal of ceramic from investment castings, metal penetration in sand molds, mold-metal interface gas composition, improved Alloy 718, specifications for iron oxide additions to no-bake sands, criteria functions for defect prediction, and computer-aided cooling curve analysis.

  5. ENTERPRISE IRELAND: Design for Competitive Advantage Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A stimulating conference bringing together world leading experts on design to address the importance of brand development strategies to achieve competitive advantage. Peter Dee - Strategic Design and Marketing Consultant, specialised in the creation of brand development strategies for Enterprise Ireland’s Design Unit. Peter was responsible for the design and development of the the brand identity for the Enterprise Ireland Design for Competitive Advantage Conference in Dublin.

  6. Competitive Pressure: Competitive Dynamics as Reactions to Multiple Rivals

    OpenAIRE

    Zucchini, Leon; Kretschmer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Competitive dynamics research has focused primarily on interactions between dyads of firms. Drawing on the awareness-motivation-capability framework and strategic group theory we extend this by proposing that firms’ actions are influenced by perceived competitive pressure resulting from actions by several rivals. We predict that firms’ action magnitude is influenced by the total number of rival actions accumulating in the market, and that this effect is moderated by strategic group membership...

  7. Stimulating high impact HIV-related cardiovascular research: recommendations from a multidisciplinary NHLBI Working Group on HIV-related heart, lung, and blood disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Monica R; Cook, Nakela; Wong, Renee; Hsue, Priscilla; Ridker, Paul; Currier, Judith; Shurin, Susan

    2015-02-24

    The clinical challenges confronting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have shifted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses to chronic diseases, such as coronary artery disease, chronic lung disease, and chronic anemia. With the growing burden of HIV-related heart, lung, and blood (HLB) disease, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recognizes it must stimulate and support HIV-related HLB research. Because HIV offers a natural, accelerated model of common pathological processes, such as inflammation, HIV-related HLB research may yield important breakthroughs for all patients with HLB disease. This paper summarizes the cardiovascular recommendations of an NHLBI Working Group, Advancing HIV/AIDS Research in Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases, charged with identifying scientific priorities in HIV-related HLB disease and developing recommendations to promote multidisciplinary collaboration among HIV and HLB investigators. The working group included multidisciplinary sessions, as well as HLB breakout sessions for discussion of disease-specific issues, with common themes about scientific priorities and strategies to stimulate HLB research emerging in all 3 groups. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 67: Maximizing the Results of Federally-Funded Research and Development Through Knowledge Management: A Strategic Imperative for Improving US Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1998-01-01

    Federally-funded research and development (R&D) represents a significant annual investment (approximately $79 billion in fiscal year 1996) on the part of U.S. taxpayers. Based on the results of a 10-year study of knowledge diffusion in U.S. aerospace industry, the authors take the position that U.S. competitiveness will be enhanced if knowledge management strategies, employed within a capability-enhancing U.S. technology policy framework, are applied to diffusing the results of federally-funded R&D. In making their case, the authors stress the importance of knowledge as the source of competitive advantage in today's global economy. Next, they offer a practice-based definition of knowledge management and discuss three current approaches to knowledge management implementation-mechanistic, "the learning organization," and systemic. The authors then examine three weaknesses in existing U.S. public policy and policy implementation-the dominance of knowledge creation, the need for diffusion-oriented technology policy, and the prevalence of a dissemination model- that affect diffusion of the results of federally-funded R&D. To address these shortcomings, they propose the development of a knowledge management framework for diffusing the results of federally-funded R&D. The article closes with a discussion of some issues and challenges associated with implementing a knowledge management framework for diffusing the results of federally-funded R&D.

  9. The stimulated recall method as a research tool on the school visit in the Cerrado Biodiversity Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Martins de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with modernization and scientific and technological development presents new requirements of education and knowledge to integrate the world of work, of science communication, and citizenship. Museums represent this integrative space, relating to the communication dimension to the educational project, and the audience becomes the focus of the study, with special focus on relationships that these spaces provide. So this paper presents a theoretical and methodological study to highlight aspects that were significant to the visitors during the visit to the Cerrado Biodiversity Museum (MBC located in Uberlândia- MG- Brazil. The study followed the procedures and tools Souvenir methodology stimulated Falcão and Gilbert (2005. We conclude that the knowledge in the museum take place through free interaction student-exposure and studentstudent; that the relationship between science and the visit to the MBC occurs through the relationship that the teacher can establish in their classes and the Remembrance Method Stimulated corresponded as a methodological tool to rescue concepts and recall important moments of the visit to MBC

  10. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  11. Competitive balance in national European soccer competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Koning, R.H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Albert, Jim; Koning, Ruud H.

    2007-01-01

    According to popular belief, competitive balance in national soccer competitions in Europe has decreased due to the Bosman ruling and the introduction of the Champions League. We test this hypothesis using data from 7 national competitions, for a host of indicators. We find some evidence for

  12. Stimulating the clinical academics of tomorrow: a survey of research opportunities for medical students in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S; Wells, Cameron I

    2017-09-22

    Developing the clinical academic workforce of the future is a priority of international relevance. Despite a number of measures implemented to address this challenge, a small proportion of medical students engage in research. Lack of knowledge of available research opportunities, and difficulty finding projects and suitable mentors are key barriers to undergraduate medical research. To date, there is no consolidated source of information on undergraduate research training opportunities and their outcomes available to medical students in New Zealand. Based on a comprehensive review of the published and grey literature and the authors' personal experiences of research training activities as medical students, this article presents an overview of the research training opportunities available to medical students in New Zealand. Challenges facing medical student research involvement are discussed and current knowledge gaps in the literature are highlighted. The article concludes with suggested strategies to help promote research training opportunities and support students through their research experience.

  13. Research project: State and Stimulation of Developmet in Chidren Aged 8-9 Living Under War Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vranešić

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available The somatic, functional and metabolic characteristics of children at 8 years of age have been established. These children have, for the previous three years, lived under stressful conditions of direct shelling, poor nutrition and movement. At the same time there has been an evaluation of the effects of programmed physical activities which have been applied in the aim of stimulating natural physical dynamics and functional developments and the elimination of stagnation of development which occurs from conditions of unfavorable factors. The research and the program of physical activities included 41 boys, starting at an average age of 8 years and four months. The somatic characteristics of the boys, according to 25 antropo-metric measures (IBP, show a lag in the boy’s physical development according to their age group by one year. The lagging behind is especially evident in volume dimensions and underskin tissue fat (Przulj, 1991., Bonacin, 1995. Blaha, 1982.. An improvement of conditions and a greater scope of movement activities for the duration of 8 months did not significantly influence on the improvement of the somatic and functional status of the boys in comparison with the controlled group (N=21 of the same average age during another measurement period. While resting, on the level of aerobic threshold, anaerobic threshold and maximal oxygen uptake, the value of ergonometric, functional and metabolic parameters were confirmed: V02 stpd, Ve btps. Ve * V02-1, Ve*VC02-l, RQ, fc (beats*min-l, work load in Watts and on the basis of these relative indicators were completed. The gradual growth of work load was completed with the help of bicyklergometer (Monark. After 3 minutes of easy pedaling (warming-up an initial work load was given of Watt*body mass and increased by 1/3 of the mass*Watt every minute until the achievement of maximal oxygen uptake. Individual aerobic and anaerobic thresholds (Aep and (Anp, for each person examined were confirmed

  14. Demolishing the Competition: The Longitudinal Link between Competitive Video Games, Competitive Gambling, and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship…

  15. Putting competition into perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L. III.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the current level of competition in the electric industry in the context of the history of the industry and the development of electric markets in other counties. The topics of the paper include competition in the history of the American electric industry, the current state of competition, the competitive situation in Texas, competition in other electric markets, and competitive changes in the US market

  16. Competitive advantage and corporate communications

    OpenAIRE

    Mitić Sanja; Ognjanov Galjina

    2013-01-01

    Strategic importance of corporate communications and its role in the development of competitive advantage has attracted interest of numerous researchers in the fields of organization, management, marketing and public relations. Recent studies particularly emphasise the growing importance of soft factors, such as reputation in the development of competitive advantage. Concept of reputation is strongly connected with stakeholder theory, which stresses the importance of corporate communications ...

  17. Performance Enhancement by Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Gazerani

    2017-09-01

    et al., 2017 has summarized that overall brain stimulation by some techniques including TMS and tDCS seem to speed up motor learning, and motor skills in sport activities. Considering that performance enhancement can be seen (Colzato et al., 2017, one would ask how and by which mechanism. Davis proposed that there would be two ways that brain stimulation could possibly improve sport performance (Davis, 2013. One way is to benefit from brain stimulation before performance to, for instance, reduce stress level or muscle tension or to enhance focus for a quicker action. The other way would be potential use during training for athletic performance that can eventually help athletes to learn motor skills better. Presented research results are mainly based on the experimental set up; therefore, it is important to identify whether physical and mental performance gains under experimental conditions would also be meaningful in a real world competition. To study actual gain by brain stimulation, future investigations must properly be designed, include placebo and control arms, remain blinded until after data analysis, and include objective assessments in addition to subjective outcomes. Time-course of beneficial effect in certain sport competition is not clear. It has been shown that repetitive applications of tDCS can increase the effects of stimulation (Nitsche and Paulus, 2011; but, it is not clear if this is the case for athletic performance. There is no evidence on side effects especially for long term use of these techniques. Overall, these techniques are considered non-invasive and safe (Rossi et al., 2009. Under medical application, it has been notified that some individuals are highly responders while others do not respond well. This might be the case for athletes. Additive or synergistic effects of these techniques together with other techniques or methods of performance enhancement have not yet been investigated either. Therefore, further studies are required to

  18. RegionsТ Competition for Investment Projects in Forest Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Fedorovna Lapo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the problem of competition between regions for investments. It is hypothesized that the presence of legislative stimulating benefits in a particular region, ceteris paribus, promotes investment flows in forest projects from other regions and is an instrumentl of inter-regional competition. To test the hypotheses the researcher uses a modified model with spatial weighted exogenous variables in order to assess the spatial effects. The obtained estimates indicate the presence of spatial effects, both negative (an inter-regional competition for investment and positive (agglomeration effects. The author argues that the process of inter-regional competition for investment in projects on forest development is caused by benefits under taxes and payments into the regional budget, regulation of pricing (including actions by natural and local monopolies and depreciation policy and solutions to put some forest projects in the list of priority ones. Along with this, the paper identifies agglomeration effects induced by a number of benefits: direct dealings in investment by financing or property contribution, subsidies, state guarantees, credit security and partial payment of interest

  19. Productive and Unproductive Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories of com...... and socially optimal levels of competition in the full range of intermediate cases, as well as in the extremum cases of destructive and super-productive competition.......Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories...... of competition create a division of real-world situations into analytical categories that fails to recognize the entire spectrum of competitive activities. Taking the existing models of productive and unproductive competition as benchmark idealizations, this paper explores the relationship between the privately...

  20. The Impact of Personality Factors and Preceding User Comments on the Processing of Research Findings on Deep Brain Stimulation: A Randomized Controlled Experiment in a Simulated Online Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinkohl, Insa; Flemming, Danny; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2016-03-03

    Laypeople frequently discuss medical research findings on Web-based platforms, but little is known about whether they grasp the tentativeness that is inherent in these findings. Potential influential factors involved in understanding medical tentativeness have hardly been assessed to date. The research presented here aimed to examine the effects of personality factors and of other users' previous contributions in a Web-based forum on laypeople's understanding of the tentativeness of medical research findings, using the example of research on deep brain stimulation. We presented 70 university students with an online news article that reported findings on applying deep brain stimulation as a novel therapeutic method for depression, which participants were unfamiliar with. In a randomized controlled experiment, we manipulated the forum such that the article was either accompanied by user comments that addressed the issue of tentativeness, by comments that did not address this issue, or the article was accompanied by no comments at all. Participants were instructed to write their own individual user comments. Their scientific literacy, epistemological beliefs, and academic self-efficacy were measured. The outcomes measured were perceived tentativeness and tentativeness addressed in the participants' own comments. More sophisticated epistemological beliefs enhanced the perception of tentativeness (standardized β=.26, P=.034). Greater scientific literacy (stand. β=.25, P=.025) and greater academic self-efficacy (stand. β=.31, P=.007) were both predictors of a more extensive discussion of tentativeness in participants' comments. When forum posts presented in the experiment addressed the issue of tentativeness, participants' subsequent behavior tended to be consistent with what they had read in the forum, F2,63=3.66; P=.049, ηp(2)=.092. Students' understanding of the tentativeness of research findings on deep brain stimulation in an online forum is influenced by a

  1. COMPETITIVENESS IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: ROMANIAN STYLE

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia-Elena TUCLEA; Ana-Mihaela PADUREAN

    2008-01-01

    In this paper is presented one of the important sectors of the national economy, at least from its potential for development perspective: the hospitality industry. The research interest is related to finding out the main factors of competitiveness in this field. This research attempts to identify the essential aspects of competitiveness in the hospitality industry. The objectives pursued refer to: discovering the degree to which the concept of competitiveness is understood and capitalized on ...

  2. [Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for depression: Results of nearly a decade of clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, U; Ayache, S S; Padberg, F; Lefaucheur, J-P

    2016-02-01

    Since 2006 transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been investigated in the treatment of depression. In this review, we discuss the implications and clinical perspectives that tDCS may have as a therapeutic tool in depression from the results reported in this domain. A comprehensive literature review has found nearly thirty articles - all in English - on this topic, corresponding to clinical studies, placebo-controlled or not, case reports and reviews. Several meta-analyses showed that the antidepressant effects of active tDCS are significant against placebo, but variable, mainly due to the heterogeneity of the patients included in the studies, for example regarding the resistance to antidepressant treatment. Specific recommendations for the use of tDCS in treating depression may not yet be available, but some elements of good practice can be highlighted. Of particular note is that anodal tDCS of the left prefrontal cortex at 2mA for 20 minutes per day has a potential therapeutic value without risk of significant side effects: tDCS offers safe conditions for clinical use in the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Radio frequency energy harvesting from a feeding source in a passive deep brain stimulation device for murine preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosain, Md Kamal; Kouzani, Abbas Z; Tye, Susannah J; Samad, Mst Fateha; Kale, Rajas P; Bennet, Kevin E; Manciu, Felicia S; Berk, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the development of an energy harvesting circuit for use with a head-mountable deep brain stimulation (DBS) device. It consists of a circular planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) and a Schottky diode-based Cockcroft-Walton 4-voltage rectifier. The PIFA has the volume of π × 10(2) × 1.5 mm(3), resonance frequency of 915 MHz, and bandwidth of 16 MHz (909-925 MHz) at a return loss of -10 dB. The rectifier offers maximum efficiency of 78% for the input power of -5 dBm at a 5 kΩ load resistance. The developed rectenna operates efficiently at 915 MHz for the input power within -15 dBm to +5 dBm. For operating a DBS device, the DC voltage of 2 V is recorded from the rectenna terminal at a distance of 55 cm away from a 26.77 dBm transmitter in free space. An in-vitro test of the DBS device is presented. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Getting Competitive: Competitive Intelligence Is a Smart next Step for Information Pros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Cynthia Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Competitive Intelligence (CI) has become an attractive concept for Library and Information Science professionals, as information and research functions have become commoditized by end users, and financial, competitive, and performance pressures increase the need to demonstrate value. In the current competitive and cost-cutting environment,…

  5. Commercial Activity or Banking Competition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose-Marie Pușcaciu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the competition on the banking market and proposes an overview of debt collection companies through the economic crisis which has profoundly affected the banking sector. Article scroll through the main features of competition on the banking market as well as the domain weaknesses that negatively influenced the banking system performance. Even if there is not a sufficiently transparent and functional legal framework and debt recovery market is not supervised enough, it is among the few markets that increase from year to year. Increasing competition from adjacent companies that compete with banks, namely, a non-banking entity, it is stimulating the banking system which will thus become more constructive. It is estimated, that in terms of customers, there will be no differentiation between the banking industry and non-banking entities that will reshape the Romanian banking system soon. Also, the study aims to highlight the existence of debt collection companies, implicitly, the specific markets, it is only a consequence of excessive, unnecessary and dangerous borrowing from previous years. Avoiding bad loans from banks, a fair competition from banks and from non-banking institutions, in the long term, it will generate a balance in the market and it will support economic growth of Romania.

  6. Competition in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Porter; Mariko Sakakibara

    2004-01-01

    This article examines competition in Japan and its link to postwar economic prosperity. While Japan's industrial structure and competition policy seem to indicate that competition in Japan has been less intense, the empirical evidence does not support this conclusion. The sectors in which competition was restricted prove to be those where Japan was not internationally successful. In the internationally successful sectors, internal competition in Japan was invariably fierce. While the level of...

  7. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  8. Mixing, entropy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A Y

    2012-01-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices. (comment)

  9. Deep Brain Stimulation to Alleviate Freezing of Gait and Cognitive Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease: Update on Current Research and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuyi Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG is a gait disorder featured by recurrent episodes of temporary gait halting and mainly found in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD. FOG has a severe impact on the quality of life of patients with PD. The pathogenesis of FOG is unclear and considered to be related to several brain areas and neural circuits. Its close connection with cognitive disorder has been proposed and some researchers explain the pathogenesis using the cognitive model theory. FOG occurs concurrently with cognitive disorder in some PD patients, who are poorly responsive to medication therapy. Deep brain stimulation (DBS proves effective for FOG in PD patients. Cognitive impairment plays a role in the formation of FOG. Therefore, if DBS works by improving the cognitive function, both two challenging conditions can be ameliorated by DBS. We reviewed the clinical studies related to DBS for FOG in PD patients over the past decade. In spite of the varying stimulation parameters used in different studies, DBS of either subthalamic nucleus (STN or pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN alone or in combination can improve the symptoms of FOG. Moreover, the treatment efficacy can last for 1–2 years and DBS is generally safe. Although few studies have been conducted concerning the use of DBS for cognitive disorder in FOG patients, the existing studies seem to indicate that PPN is a potential therapeutic target to both FOG and cognitive disorder. However, most of the studies have a small sample size and involve sporadic cases, so it remains uncertain which nucleus is the optimal target of stimulation. Prospective clinical trials with a larger sample size are needed to systematically assess the efficacy of DBS for FOG and cognitive disorder.

  10. Deep Brain Stimulation to Alleviate Freezing of Gait and Cognitive Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease: Update on Current Research and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuyi; Chu, Heling; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiaoping

    2018-01-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is a gait disorder featured by recurrent episodes of temporary gait halting and mainly found in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). FOG has a severe impact on the quality of life of patients with PD. The pathogenesis of FOG is unclear and considered to be related to several brain areas and neural circuits. Its close connection with cognitive disorder has been proposed and some researchers explain the pathogenesis using the cognitive model theory. FOG occurs concurrently with cognitive disorder in some PD patients, who are poorly responsive to medication therapy. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) proves effective for FOG in PD patients. Cognitive impairment plays a role in the formation of FOG. Therefore, if DBS works by improving the cognitive function, both two challenging conditions can be ameliorated by DBS. We reviewed the clinical studies related to DBS for FOG in PD patients over the past decade. In spite of the varying stimulation parameters used in different studies, DBS of either subthalamic nucleus (STN) or pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) alone or in combination can improve the symptoms of FOG. Moreover, the treatment efficacy can last for 1-2 years and DBS is generally safe. Although few studies have been conducted concerning the use of DBS for cognitive disorder in FOG patients, the existing studies seem to indicate that PPN is a potential therapeutic target to both FOG and cognitive disorder. However, most of the studies have a small sample size and involve sporadic cases, so it remains uncertain which nucleus is the optimal target of stimulation. Prospective clinical trials with a larger sample size are needed to systematically assess the efficacy of DBS for FOG and cognitive disorder.

  11. Competition between and competition within

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsi, Armando Maria; Lockshin, Larry; Mueller, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to understand how five Producing Countries (PCs) – Australia, Chile, France, South Africa and the US –are perceived by consumers in five Consuming Countries (CCs) – UK, Ireland, US, Canada, and Sweden – in relation to the following product dimensions: taste profile and...... on the position occupied by a PC in the minds of consumers located in different CCs and the role played by different PCs in a specific CC. These results will be particularly useful for both public and private wine bodies when designing export strategies....... of product attributes to each of the five PCs. Deviations from the expected value greater than 5% characterise differences in perception by consumers in a specific CC to the PCs. Findings and Practical implications: The study shows the efficacy of the pick-any approach to simultaneously provide information...

  12. Export competitiveness of pakistani horticultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, W.; Akmal, N.; Shah, H.; Tahir, A.; Niazi, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Pakistan's competitiveness in export of selected horticulture commodities by employing set of revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and revealed competitive advantage indices with respect to global trade. Results demonstrate that Pakistan has comparative and competitive advantage over the period under analysis and indicates a transition from comparative and competitive disadvantage to comparative and competitive advantage during the period under analysis. Tangerines, mandarins, clem have maintained relatively higher revealed comparative advantage as compared to other categories for the whole period under analysis. Onion export has revealed comparative advantage with some fluctuations over time. The research indicates that Pakistan's comparative and competitive advantages have been increasing in all the selected commodities during period under analysis which indicates the potential of horticulture exports for foreign exchange earnings. There is need to strengthen comparative and competitive advantage in horticulture sector by policy support and facilitating role by all stakeholders. (author)

  13. News Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

  14. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation-that is, the competitiveness of its research system-and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of "markers" of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most "sophisticated" needs of the society.

  15. Robotics Competitions: The Choice Is up to You!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard T.; Londt, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Competitive robotics as an interactive experience can increase the level of student participation in technology education, inspire students to consider careers in technical fields, and enhance the visibility of technology education programs. Implemented correctly, a competitive robotics program can provide a stimulating learning environment for…

  16. Effects of N and P enrichment on competition between phytoplankton and benthic algae in shallow lakes: a mesocosm study : Environmental Science and Pollution Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Mei, Xueying; Gulati, Ramesh; Liu, Zhengwen

    2015-01-01

    Competition for resources between coexisting phytoplankton and benthic algae, but with different habitats and roles in functioning of lake ecosystems, profoundly affects dynamics of shallow lakes in the process of eutrophication. An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that combined

  17. Competition as a source of constraint on life history evolution in natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A J

    2014-01-01

    Competition among individuals is central to our understanding of ecology and population dynamics. However, it could also have major implications for the evolution of resource-dependent life history traits (for example, growth, fecundity) that are important determinants of fitness in natural populations. This is because when competition occurs, the phenotype of each individual will be causally influenced by the phenotypes, and so the genotypes, of competitors. Theory tells us that indirect genetic effects arising from competitive interactions will give rise to the phenomenon of 'evolutionary environmental deterioration', and act as a source of evolutionary constraint on resource-dependent traits under natural selection. However, just how important this constraint is remains an unanswered question. This article seeks to stimulate empirical research in this area, first highlighting some patterns emerging from life history studies that are consistent with a competition-based model of evolutionary constraint, before describing several quantitative modelling strategies that could be usefully applied. A recurrent theme is that rigorous quantification of a competition's impact on life history evolution will require an understanding of the causal pathways and behavioural processes by which genetic (co)variance structures arise. Knowledge of the G-matrix among life history traits is not, in and of itself, sufficient to identify the constraints caused by competition.

  18. The impact of HMO and hospital competition on hospital costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Mustafa Z; Rivers, Patrick A; Fottler, Myron D

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the impact of HMO penetration and competition on health system performance, as measured by hospital cost per adjusted admissions. The study population consisted of acute-care hospitals in the United States. The findings of this study suggest that there is no relationship between HMO competition and hospital cost per adjusted admission. Governmental efforts to stimulate competition in the hospital market, if focused on promoting HMOs, are not likely to produce cost-containing results quickly.

  19. Environmental regulation and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena

  20. Diversifying evolution of competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Sebastian A; Engqvist, Leif; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-10-29

    In many species, individuals express phenotypic characteristics that enhance their competitiveness, that is, the ability to acquire resources in competition with others. Moreover, the degree of competitiveness varies considerably across individuals and in time. By means of an evolutionary model, we provide an explanation for this finding. We make the assumption that investment into competitiveness enhances the probability to acquire a high-quality resource, but at the same time reduces the ability of exploiting acquired resources with maximal efficiency. The model reveals that under a broad range of conditions competitiveness either converges to a polymorphic state, where individuals differing in competitive ability stably coexist, or is subject to perpetual transitions between periods of high and low competitiveness. The dynamics becomes even more complex if females can evolve preferences for (or against) competitive males. In extreme cases, such preferences can even drive the population to extinction.

  1. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  2. Competition Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Cassey

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia does not have a national competition law. Competition is regulated at the sectoral level in the country. Two economic sectors have legal provisions for competition law but these have been relatively ineffectively enforced. The benefits of Malaysia's industrial policy as well as the policy reforms in regulation and trade have been compromised by the lack of a formal institution to address competition related issues. Hence, the future priority and direction of regulatory reform is obvi...

  3. Competitive strategy : Sorrin Puutarha

    OpenAIRE

    Haaristo, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    The thesis handles the fresh food product industry in Finland and especially one company operating in the industry and its competitive position. Sorrin Puutarha manufactures ready-to-use fresh cut salad bag, which is sold in the grocery stores. The objective of the thesis was to find competitive advantages of the case company. Once the competitive advantages were identified the purpose was to choose a fitting competitive strategy that would strengthen those advantages. The field study was con...

  4. Can competition reduce quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Kurt; Siciliani, Luigi; Straume, Odd Rune

    2017-01-01

    In a spatial competition setting there is usually a non-negative relationship between competition and quality. In this paper we offer a novel mechanism whereby competition leads to lower quality. This mechanism relies on two key assumptions, namely that the providers are motivated and risk-averse. We show that the negative relationship between competition and quality is robust to any given number of firms in the market and whether quality and price decisions are simultaneous or sequential. We...

  5. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The NCC publishes two annual competitiveness reports. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge focuses on the national competitiveness issues of most importance to the enterprise sector and identifies policy recommendations required to address these issues. The report focuses on pursuing policies to improve competitiveness, particularly those to reduce the cost base for enterprise, to enhance the performance of the entire education system, and to deliver meaningful public sector reform. Ireland's ...

  6. Competition policy and market leaders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maci, I.; Žigić, Krešimir

    -, č. 375 (2008), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : competition policy * market leaders * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp375.pdf

  7. Competition policy and market leaders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maci, Ilir; Žigić, K.

    -, č. 375 (2008), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : competition policy * market leaders * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp375.pdf

  8. Competition in spatial location models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webers, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Models of spatial competition are designed and analyzed to describe the fact that space, by its very nature, is a source of market power. This field of research, lying at the interface of game theory and economics, has attracted much interest because location problems are related to many aspects of

  9. Competition policy and market leaders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žigić, Krešimir; Maci, Ilir

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2011), s. 1042-1049 ISSN 0264-9993 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : competition policy * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.701, year: 2011

  10. Competition for Assistance Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is EPA policy to promote competition in the award of assistance agreements to the maximum extent practicable.When assistance agreements are awarded competitively, it is EPA policy that the competitive process be fair and open & that no applicant receive

  11. Clusters and the new economics of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M E

    1998-01-01

    Economic geography in an era of global competition poses a paradox. In theory, location should no longer be a source of competitive advantage. Open global markets, rapid transportation, and high-speed communications should allow any company to source any thing from any place at any time. But in practice, Michael Porter demonstrates, location remains central to competition. Today's economic map of the world is characterized by what Porter calls clusters: critical masses in one place of linked industries and institutions--from suppliers to universities to government agencies--that enjoy unusual competitive success in a particular field. The most famous example are found in Silicon Valley and Hollywood, but clusters dot the world's landscape. Porter explains how clusters affect competition in three broad ways: first, by increasing the productivity of companies based in the area; second, by driving the direction and pace of innovation; and third, by stimulating the formation of new businesses within the cluster. Geographic, cultural, and institutional proximity provides companies with special access, closer relationships, better information, powerful incentives, and other advantages that are difficult to tap from a distance. The more complex, knowledge-based, and dynamic the world economy becomes, the more this is true. Competitive advantage lies increasingly in local things--knowledge, relationships, and motivation--that distant rivals cannot replicate. Porter challenges the conventional wisdom about how companies should be configured, how institutions such as universities can contribute to competitive success, and how governments can promote economic development and prosperity.

  12. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  13. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  14. USING SCIENTIFIC PAPERS TO STIMULATE THE STUDY OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND THE UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION: THE RESEARCH ON ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Gagianone

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is characterized by mutations in very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA peroxisome transporter, leading to VLCFA accumulation in myelin sheath. In the 70’s and 80’s it was hypothesized that X-ALD is caused by enzymatic deficits in FA-coenzyme A connection, VLCFA degradation or FA elongation. The latter enabled Lorenzo’s oil (LO treatment, which became famous by the homonym movie. The apparent initial therapy effectiveness lead to LO administration in many patients, although with biochemical knowledge progress its relevance has been questioned.Objectives Our aim was to discuss X-ALD researches in “Lipids Metabolism” classes during 2014 Biochemistry courses to Biology and Biomedicine undergraduate students at Fluminense Federal University to illustrate how scientific knowledge is constructed.Materials and MethodsIn order to contrast the recent scientific advances with the information spread to society through “Lorenzo’s Oil”, the movie in edited version was presented to students followed by a questionnaire with Likert scale to evaluate the perception of scientific knowledge exposed by the movie. Afterwards, a Guided Study containing a brief history and discursive questions based upon a paper (Wiesingner et.al, J. Biol. Chem. 288:19269, 2013 was applied in class.Results and DiscussionFrom 58 students who filled in the questionnaire,72,4% considered the movie shows that X-ALD biochemical knowledge has been achieved. This notion was confirmed since 84,5% agreed LO is an effective alternative treatment if X-ALD is early detected. The same percentage agreed that based on the movie the biochemical deficiency relies on an enzyme involved in VLCFA degradation. Although the movie transmits the idea that the cure has been found, 67,2% believed X-ALD biochemical mechanisms are not fully comprehended. ConclusionsThe Guided Study/movie application was very effective because allowed the

  15. Theoretical aspects of competitive advantage and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Hudakova, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    The concept of competitive advantage is well-known for many of us and a number of literary resources focused on entrepreneurship and functioning of economies deal with it, either directly or indirectly. The understanding of the term competitive advantage though sometimes varies. One can only perceive it when looking at it as a whole, a live organism that is constantly developing in a complex dynamic entrepreneurial environment, the individual parts of which do not function when separated from...

  16. Competitive advantage, what does it really mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Haijing de Haan; Hongjue Yan

    2013-01-01

    Competitive advantage is probably the most popular business concept today (Mooney, 2007). This article aims to investigate critically the discourse on competitive advantage, as expressed by business literature, by locating its meanings in the public higher education sector. This research reveals

  17. Post-Colonialism Perspectives on Educational Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chuan-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Educational competition has always been the puzzle issue of educational researches. In this article, I analyze several aspects of educational competition within the perspective of post-colonialism discourse. In the political aspect, Taiwanese education is linked with political power, to present the post-colonial spirit by continuing dynastic…

  18. Agglomeration economies, competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance

    OpenAIRE

    Páger, Balázs; Komlósi, Éva

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to elaborate the role of agglomeration effects on countries' competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance. Our research contributes to the understanding of the relationship that exists between a country's urban system characterized by spatial agglomeration (concentration) or deglomeration (deconcentration) processes, and its competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance, respectively. Urbanization economies refer to considerable cost savings generated through the locating...

  19. Secondary Products (Markets, Competition, and Technological Improvements)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1988-01-01

    Competitiveness, imports, exports, and technological improvements--these are issues facing secondary wood-product manufacturers. The major problems focus on increasing foreign imports and the inability of U.S. industries to repell the imports. How and where should we, as researchers, allocate our efforts to enhance the competitiveness of secondary forest industries in...

  20. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... eliminate unfair competitive advantage, contractors that develop or draft specifications, requirements... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. Institutional Competitiveness in Media Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink

    a social science / leadership perspective - not from the perspective of a journalist or from the ideologically critical perspective of the license payer. Thirdly, we consider competition in the media market as an institutional phenomenon that is not solely conditioned by economic considerations. We aim...... emerged from a tradition based upon ideals of freedom of expression, democracy and the enlightenment of the general public. At the same time we stress the fact that the media worldwide is Big Business - and that this reality has an increasing effect on Danish competitiveness and business development......This inaugural address is a welcome opportunity to call your attention to a new area of research that the International Center for Business and Politics has chosen as one of five areas of special interest. By referring to this area of focus as'institutional competition in the media market' we also...

  2. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the most important microeconomic tools used in assessing antitrust and merger cases by the competition authorities. By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like “market power”, “critical loss” or “price elasticity of demand” are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get a practical perspective on the way that these concepts fit into the more general concept of “competition policy”. Extensive economic research has shown what are the market forces and economic factors that determine how cartels, which are at the core of antitrust policy, are established and sustained over time. One of the most important of these factors is the markets exposure to innovation, especially disruptive innovation. In these markets, the paradox, from a competition policy perspective, can be considered the fact that collusion is one of the least important concerns, due to the specific elements that determine the nature of competition.Instead, the main anticompetitive risk in the markets exposed to intensive innovation is unilateral conduct by which dominant incumbents can exclude competitors.

  3. COMPETITIVENESS THROUGH INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Daniela RIZEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence competitiveness has already started to build its road in the company’s long term strategies. Nonetheless, business executives continue to look for ways to apply information technology strategically to their businesses. Using information managers manage to communicate, to convey their knowledge about markets, competitors, products, services and operations. Even if data and information are all over there are few amounts of managers that realize the importance of them to the success of the business. This article will review competitive forces and competitive information systems strategies for gaining competitive advantages, explain concepts of value chain, value co-opetition (competition and cooperation, and discuss innovation strategy. Co-opetition is a strategy whereby companies cooperate and compete at the same time with their competitors, complementors (i.e. hardware and software businesses, customers, suppliers. The article discuss an important dimension of information system, identifies competitive advantages and enhancing competitive strategies thought information systems.

  4. Epidural Spinal Stimulation to Improve Bladder, Bowel, and Sexual Function in Individuals With Spinal Cord Injuries: A Framework for Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Roderic I; Heetderks, William J; Kelley, Christine A; Peng, Grace C Y; Krosnick, Steven H; Jakeman, Lyn B; Egan, Katharine D; Marge, Michael

    2017-02-01

    While some recent studies that apply epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS) have demonstrated a breakthrough in improvement of the health and quality of the life of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), the numbers of people who have received SCS are small. This is in sharp contrast to the thousands of persons worldwide living with SCI who have no practical recourse or hope of recovery of lost functions. Thus, the vision is to understand the full potential of this new intervention and to determine if it is safe and effective in a larger cohort, and if it is scalable so that it can be made available to all those who might benefit. To achieve this vision, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering called for and organized a consortium of multiple stakeholder groups: foundations addressing paralysis, federal and public agencies, industrial partners, academicians, and researchers, all interested in the same goal. Based on input from consortium participants, we have reasoned that a first step is to define a scalable SCS approach that is effective in restoring lost autonomic physiology, specifically bladder, bowel, and sexual function. These functions are most critical for improving the quality of life of persons living with SCI. This report outlines a framework for conducting the research needed to define such an effective SCS procedure that might seek Food and Drug Administration approval and be implemented at the population level.

  5. Transaction Evidence Appraisal: Competition in British Columbia's Stumpage Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niquidet, K.; Kooten, van G.C.; Cornelis, G.

    2006-01-01

    As a potential resolution to the softwood lumber dispute, the US Department of Commerce recommends that administered stumpage prices in Canada be determined using information from competitive timber auctions. Previous research indicates that the degree of competition significantly influences bidding

  6. GLOBAL COMPETITION AND ROMANIA’S NATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing products and services around us it is clear that most of them are the result of production factors, labor and capital becoming more international and increasingly less and less national. We are witnessing the globalization of markets and production, to a large global integration and interdependence, increase personalization of production and services as a result of new communication systems interaction and flexible production processes. Markets will continue to homogenize and diversify at the same time, so it is important that as a global marketer one addresses a market segment defined by income, age, and consumption habits and not by membership of a nation. The most visible and polarized is the premium segment fighting for high income clients where brand value plays an important role. Instead identification of large segments of customers offers the advantages of scale economy in production and marketing for global enterprises. Consumer profile is the dominant global consumer requesting and accepting global products and services easily. In fact, what can force an economic alignment to achieve the best performance, rather than the global consumer. The research methodology used includes literature review, comparative analysis, synthesis of data based on bibliographic resources and official documents.The aim of the paper is to highlight current models that underlie the competitive advantage of nations and assess the competitive advantage of Romania in the context of the global market. A case study is used to offer an overview of competitive advantage of Antibiotice Iasi SA, a competitive player, in a global pharmaceutical market with strong global competition. Countries moderate companies’ achievements of global efficiency objectives due to the countries’ rivalry. Romania has to understand that it is in competition with other countries in order to fulfill economic, political and social objectives. The scope in the end is the well

  7. Production and competition in the European electric sector. 4. report from the research project 'renewable energy in the community's internal market'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjersgaard, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim is to elucidate the dynamic interactive pricing, competition and market mechanisms that are valid for the European electric power market. The perspective in the report is to analyse the vertical flow of substance and values of energy, the interaction of the actors, and the economic relations. The first link in the vertical chain is the energy raw materials supplies: the reserves and production of fossil and nuclear fuels and the relation to globalization of electricity production. The next link is the production of electricity: the production technologies used and their positioning, the importance of large trans-national utilities in relation to technological changes. The third link is the market and the changes of the market between production, transmission, distribution and consumption of electricity, and the consequences of these changes. Two horizontal regulating sectional views are analysed: The European Union regulations of the electric power sector and the Danish regulations of power supplies. Finally, production and competition of electric power from renewable energy sources, i.e. wind power, in a future European energy market is put into perspective. (LN) 134 refs

  8. Research document no. 30. Introducing competition in the French electricity supply industry: the destabilization of a public hierarchy in an open institutional environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D

    2002-07-01

    The introduction of market rules in a electricity supply industry characterized by a vertically integrated monopoly and public ownership is not inherently doomed to failure if characteristics of the reform or other elements of industrial structures give room for enforcing market-rules. The organisation of the French ESI in a public monopoly was deeply rooted in French institutional peculiarities. The paper analyses how the governmental goal of preserving the national champion EDF have had two paradoxical effects in favour of competition development and the building of safeguards for the entrants: the creation of a credible regulatory governance structure with effective power of control on the network access, and which promoted market-rules and the creation of a power exchange for balancing the incumbent dominant position; and the enforcement of the credibility of the regulatory framework by the self control of the incumbent on the use of its dominant position and on the capture of the regulator. This two effects results from the influence of the European institutional environment which is superposed to the national one, in particular under the intensive scrutiny of the European Commission, on a model far behind the competitive model. The paper concludes to the originality of such an institutional model: a permanent regulatory threat on the incumbent for balancing the effects of public property and integration of industrial structures. (author)

  9. 电子商务对企业竞争力的影响研究%Research on Impacts of E- business on Competitive Domain of Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲伟俊; 梅姝娥; 梁美华; 罗定提

    2001-01-01

    A study is conducted of the method for analyzing the impacts of E - business on competitive domain of firrs. The analysis is performed at three levels. The impacts of E - business on the general competitive strategy of the firms are analyzed first. Its impacts on the customer relationship management and on the supply chain management are then studied, resepectively. The application of E- business to rums can be better made with this analysis.%提出了分析电子商务对企业竞争力影响的方法。这种分析从三个方面进行,首先分析电子商务对企业一般竞争战略的影响,然后分析其对客户关系管理的影响,再分析其对供应链管理的影响。通过这样的分析,帮助企业更合理地确定电子商务的应用领域,更好地发挥电子商务的作用。

  10. Research document no. 30. Introducing competition in the French electricity supply industry: the destabilization of a public hierarchy in an open institutional environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of market rules in a electricity supply industry characterized by a vertically integrated monopoly and public ownership is not inherently doomed to failure if characteristics of the reform or other elements of industrial structures give room for enforcing market-rules. The organisation of the French ESI in a public monopoly was deeply rooted in French institutional peculiarities. The paper analyses how the governmental goal of preserving the national champion EDF have had two paradoxical effects in favour of competition development and the building of safeguards for the entrants: the creation of a credible regulatory governance structure with effective power of control on the network access, and which promoted market-rules and the creation of a power exchange for balancing the incumbent dominant position; and the enforcement of the credibility of the regulatory framework by the self control of the incumbent on the use of its dominant position and on the capture of the regulator. This two effects results from the influence of the European institutional environment which is superposed to the national one, in particular under the intensive scrutiny of the European Commission, on a model far behind the competitive model. The paper concludes to the originality of such an institutional model: a permanent regulatory threat on the incumbent for balancing the effects of public property and integration of industrial structures. (author)

  11. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Subliminal Stimulation: Hoax or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trank, Douglas M.

    Subliminal stimulation is defined as that which is perceived by an individual below the threshold of awareness or cognizance. This article traces the history of research in subliminal stimulation to illustrate that under certain circumstances and conditions, this behavioral phenomenon does occur. Although subliminal stimuli do affect human…

  13. Stimulating Language: Insights from TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Joseph T.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, Pascual-Leone and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate speech production in pre-surgical epilepsy patients and in doing so, introduced a novel tool into language research. TMS can be used to non-invasively stimulate a specific cortical region and transiently disrupt information processing. These…

  14. PRICES IN COMPETITIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADUVA MARIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of competitive market determine rules for determining prices and their dynamics. Orientation prices to competition (competitive pricing is the strategy most frequently used in countries with market economies and especially for exports. Moreover, in an economy dominated by market competition it cannot be ignored without certain risks the prices resulting from competition between products bidders. Companies that use this type of strategy seek to maintain a level of prices linked to that charged by other competitors (or exporting producers generally no longer covering production costs or demand, relying on the assumption that the average market price is a reasonable basis of costs. But the way how practical guidance and reporting to the competition in every price strategy, will be determined by the company's market position, by the available power and enjoyed prestige, objectives and prospects of its market share etc. according to these elements, there may be several versions of pricing strategies oriented to competitors.

  15. Architectural Competition and BIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Øien, Turid Borgestrand

    2015-01-01

    on architecturalcompetitions, a series of interviews was conducted with building clients as well as architects, focusing on the impact of the above-mentioned changes within the building sector on architectural competitions as an institution. In the interviews, ICT and notleast BIM was a recurring theme that both parties saw...... as having a positive impact on competitions. But when looking closely into the answers, these revealed diverse understandings of how and why the impact of BIM on competitions could be said to be positive. The paper sheds light on the interaction between the actors (building clients, architects and client...... consultants) and the applied technologies (competition forms, ICT tools, directives) in architectural competitions in a theoretical actor-network perspective. The diverging understandings of the role of BIM are demonstrating one of many negotiations in progress in the network of architectural competitions...

  16. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA Ana Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in market characteristics and the technological innovations are common and faster challenges, resulting in products, processes and technologies. The competitive advantage is volatile, difficult to obtain and more difficult to maintain and strengthened with consumers who through their individual choices polarization confirms the recognition performance and award competitive advantages, thus causing the competitive ranking of companies present in a particular market. The competitive advantage lies in the focus of the performance of companies in competitive markets and innovation is a source for obtaining and consolidating it. Companies will need to demonstrate the capacity to adapt to changes in the business environment so as to maintain the helded positions. This paper treats this aspect behavior that companies should adopt to get on the account of innovation a sustainable competitive advantage. I started of the work in the elaboration from the theory of developed by Michael Porter in his book "Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance" we applied methods listed thus trying to point out possible ways of creating competitive advantage by companies. We have presented the sources of competitive advantage and the factors on which depends its creation. Walking theoretical research revealed how lack of competitive advantage leads to a lack of competitiveness of companies and the benefits that arise with the creation of this type of asset. Among the most important benefits is to increase performances. Once the competitive advantage is achieved, it must be maintained and updated market conditions and the methods that can be created a sustainable competitive advantage represent the answers to many of the companies questions are fighting for survival in an environment of fierce competition. The implementation of methods for obtaining competitive advantages, but also exist dangers, that every company should know them

  17. Competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.

    1996-01-01

    This article examines expanded wholesale and retail competition and the effect that they are likely to have on the electric power industry. The author believes that expanded wholesale competition is good and will bring immediate benefit to all electric consumers; however, based on the experience of the natural gas industry and the electric power industry in California and other parts of the world, the author counsels caution in moving toward expanded retail competition

  18. The Competitive Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, João Tiago

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to define what competitive perception is. Using Dufrenne’s phenomenological analysis of the art spectator’s experience, namely the concept of aesthetic perception, I will claim that it is useful to apply this phenomenological approach to the experience of watching sport events. I will argue that the concepts of uncertainty and auto teleology, being two main features in sport competition, are helpful to define competitive perception.

  19. Competitive versus comparative advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Neary, J. Peter

    2002-01-01

    I explore the interactions between comparative, competitive and absolute advantage in a two-country model of oligopoly in general equilibrium. Comparative advantage always determines the direction of trade, but both competitive and absolute advantage affect resource allocation, trade patterns and trade volumes. Competitive advantage in the sense of more home firms drives foreign firms out of marginal sectors but also makes some marginal home sectors uncompetitive. Absolute advantage in the se...

  20. A Company's Internal Potential to Implement a Strategy to Acquire a Competitive Advantage: Action-Research Within a Mexican CompanyHttp://Dx.Doi.Org/10.5585/Riae.V9i2.1657

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Gabriel Sánchez Trejo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The small business in Mexico made an important contribution to the economic and social development of the country. Nevertheless, they present constant difficulties to reach a global and durable performance due to its specific characteristics. The generation of an internal development constitutes an alternative to compete with enterprises of the same size and with big companies in an external environment increasingly competitively and unstably. This article presents an intervention-research in a medium company where the socioeconomic theory was applied and developed dynamical strategic capacities having a direct impact in the organizational and social performance of the company.

  1. Small, pale blue dot' wins photography competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2018-03-01

    An image of a single positively charged strontium atom held in an ion trap by electric fields has won a UK science photography competition organized by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).

  2. Competition between social and private rental housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennartz, C.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of shifting regulatory approaches and changing provision structures in many Western rental housing systems, the notion of competition between social and private rental housing has received increasing attention from practitioners and academic researchers. This thesis explores and

  3. Assessing the worth of electric products and services in a new competitive marketplace: A review of market research methodologies and analytic tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosgrove, S.J.; Spitzer, L. [AUS Consultants, Media, PA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    As electric utilities move from a heavily regulated environment to less regulated, differently regulated, or competitive environment, the importance of determining the relative value of products and services. We begin by examining the traditional method of assessing importance, rating scales. Then we look at other methodologies, such as multiple paired comparisons, constant sum, regression techniques, and hypothetical choice models. After discussing these methodologies, we demonstrate how they can be applied. We conclude by providing a summary of methods for assessing the worth of electric products and services. For most marketing studies, several criteria or attributes are identified as having an impact on the customer`s evaluation of a product and service. These criteria usually involve several aspects of both the product and service attributes.

  4. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18:] Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18: Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  6. The effect of swimming on oral health status: competitive versus non-competitive athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta D’ERCOLE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Young swimmers are particularly susceptible to the onset of oral diseases. Objective To evaluate the oral health status in young competitive and non-competitive swimmers, involving an assessment of salivary cariogenic bacteria and secretory IgA (S-IgA concentration. Material and Methods Before training sessions (T1, 54 competitive and 69 non-competitive swimmers had the following parameters assessed: decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT, Plaque Index (PlI, and Gingival Index (GI. At T1 and after training sessions (T2, stimulated saliva was collected and microbiological and immunological analyses were performed. Results Competitive swimmers trained 2.02±0.09 hours 5 times a week, while non-competitive swimmers trained 2.03±0.18 hours a week. A total of 14.7% of competitive swimmers suffered dental trauma related to sports. Only 11.76% of the competitive swimmers took a daily dose of fluoride, against 32.65% of non-competitive swimmers (p=0.029. Neither group followed an established diet or presented statistically significant differences in terms of nutritional supplement drink and chocolate intake. There were statistically significant differences in terms of oral hygiene. No significant difference in clinical indexes (DMFT, PlI, and GI was present. S. mutans was harbored by 18.6% of competitive and the 32.2% of non-competitive swimmers. S. sobrinus was detected in 22.03% of competitive and 91.6% of non-competitive swimmers (p<0.05. S. sanguinis was found only in the saliva of competitive swimmers. The average S-IgA of competitive swimmers decreased significantly at T2 (p<0.05. The pool water had a daily average pH of 7.22. Conclusions Microbial markers, immune status and sporting characteristics are important for establishing guidelines for management of training load in order to minimize physical stress and the risk of oral infection.

  7. Price competition on graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial

  8. The competitive challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the strategies necessary to succeed in the increasingly competitive independent power industry. The topics of the article include the factors encouraging mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures, the availability of financing, changes in the market, regulatory climate changes, competition and power planning, Not In My Back Yard and project siting, and the road ahead

  9. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structur...

  10. Competition: Was Kohn Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2010-01-01

    Alfie Kohn made the case for competition being destructive to education. The truth may be that there are two separate ways to contest: true competition, which is a healthy desire to excel, and decompetition, which is the unhealthy desire merely to beat the opponent. Decompetition leads to the ills that Kohn enumerated. Educators should teach their…

  11. Competition and PUHCA reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the national energy policy legislation being developed with respect to Public Utilities Holding Company Act issues. The topics of the article include the proposals to encourage competition among electric power producers, those involved in the process, qualifying facilities, independent power producers, competition and efficiency, and the outlook for reform

  12. The meaning of competition between social and market rented housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennartz, C.; Haffner, M.E.A.; Oxley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    When policy makers claim that rented housing has to become more competitive, there is no consensus on what competition in this context actually means. The same holds true for scientific housing research: Theories that have utilized the economic concept of competition tend to rely on implicit

  13. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...

  14. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  15. Crop–weed competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallandt, Eric R.; Weiner, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    importantly, weed density and time of emergence relative to the crop. Practices that (1) reduce the density of weeds, (2) maximise occupation of space or uptake of resources by the crop or (3) establish an early-season size advantage of the crop over the weeds will minimise the competitive effects of weeds...... on crops. Longer term management of crop–weed competition can be achieved through crop rotations, specifically crop sequences that reduce the weed seed bank, and therefore seedling density, and prevent proliferation of perennial weeds. Key ConceptsKey Concepts * Plant growth requires sunlight, water...... an early-season competitive advantage to the crop and (3) maximising resource capture by the crop using competitive species, competitive cultivars, high sowing densities, optimal spatial arrangement, intercropping complimentary species or transplanting....

  16. Sperm competition, immunity, selfish genes and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Z; Price, T A R; Wedell, N

    2008-10-01

    Sperm competition is widespread and has played an important role in shaping male reproductive characters such as testis size and numbers of sperm produced, and this is reflected in the rapid evolution of many reproductive genes. Additionally, sperm competition has been implicated in the rapid evolution of seminal fluids. However, our understanding of the molecular basis of many traits thought to be important in sperm competition is rudimentary. Furthermore, links between sperm competition and a range of issues not directly related to reproduction are only just beginning to be explored. These include associations between sperm competition and selfish genes, immunity and diseases such as cancer.We briefly review these topics and suggest areas we consider worthy of additional research.

  17. Changes in Subjective Sleep Quality Before a Competition and Their Relation to Competitive Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlenspiel, Felix; Erlacher, Daniel; Ziegler, Matthias

    2016-12-09

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of competitions on subjective sleep quality. Previous studies have been inconclusive and lack differentiated and standardized measurements of subjective sleep quality. Furthermore the temporal relation between precompetitive anxiety and sleep quality was investigated. Anxiety and nervousness associated with competitions are considered to cause sleep impairments. A convenience sample of N = 79 elite male athletes from various sports participated. In a time-to-event paradigm, sleep quality and competitive anxiety were assessed via standardized self-report measurements 4 days before a competition and on the day of the competition. Univariate analyses were used to examine differences between time points. To examine cross-lagged effects between anxiety and sleep quality a latent change score model (LCSM) was specified that tested an effect of anxiety on changes in sleep quality. Evaluations of nocturnal sleep deteriorated significantly from 4 days before competition to the day of competition, but there were no differences regarding perceptions of the restorative value of sleep. LCSM revealed that athletes who reported more intense worry symptoms 4 days before competition also reported greater deterioration in evaluations of nocturnal sleep. The findings support earlier reports of impaired subjective sleep quality before competitions. Precompetitive sleep impairments appear also to be preceded by cognitive anxiety. Whereas interventions should thus address worry-cognitions associated with competition and sleep, research should address the practical importance of these perceptions of sleep impairments.

  18. Logistics potentials in business competitive advantage creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Matwiejczuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Companies constantly search for ways to achieve and sustain long-term competitive advantage. Among the factors influencing the competitive advantage creation there are so called logistics potentials, which constitute a component part of a business strategic potentials. Logistics resources, logistics capabilities and logistics competences are the main components of the logistics potentials structure and hierarchy. Methods: In order to recognize the logistics potentials which determine the competitive advantage creation one may use the assumptions and elements of contemporary management concepts, including strategic management. In particular the article deals with Resource-Based View (RBV, Dynamic Capabilities Concept (DCC and - first of all - Competence-Based Management (CBM. Results and conclusions: Several significant research projects have presented a wide scope and a large number of possibilities of logistics potentials (and logistics competences in particular influence on business competitive advantage creation. The article briefly presents the research results conducted by: (1 Michigan State University (USA, (2 European Logistics Association (ELA in cooperation with A.T. Kearney, (3 Computer Sciences Corporation and (4 Capgemini. The research results have pointed out to differentiated but at the same distinctive symptoms of logistics competences influence on competitive advantage creation. The article also refers to the results of the research carried out by the Chair of Logistics & Marketing at Opole University (Poland in companies operating in Poland. The research has been mainly dealing with the significance of logistics competences in competitive advantage creation.

  19. Transcranial brain stimulation: closing the loop between brain and stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    -related and state-related variability. Fluctuations in brain-states can be traced online with functional brain imaging and inform the timing or other settings of transcranial brain stimulation. State-informed open-loop stimulation is aligned to the expression of a predefined brain state, according to prespecified......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent strategies for boosting the efficacy of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation to improve human brain function. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research exposed substantial intra- and inter-individual variability in response to plasticity-inducing transcranial brain...... stimulation. Trait-related and state-related determinants contribute to this variability, challenging the standard approach to apply stimulation in a rigid, one-size-fits-all fashion. Several strategies have been identified to reduce variability and maximize the plasticity-inducing effects of noninvasive...

  20. Brain stimulation in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighina, Filippo; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Fierro, Brigida

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a very prevalent disease with great individual disability and socioeconomic burden. Despite intensive research effort in recent years, the etiopathogenesis of the disease remains to be elucidated. Recently, much importance has been given to mechanisms underlying the cortical excitability that has been suggested to be dysfunctional in migraine. In recent years, noninvasive brain stimulation techniques based on magnetic fields (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) and on direct electrical currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) have been shown to be safe and effective tools to explore the issue of cortical excitability, activation, and plasticity in migraine. Moreover, TMS, repetitive TMS (rTMS), and tDCS, thanks to their ability to interfere with and/or modulate cortical activity inducing plastic, persistent effects, have been also explored as potential therapeutic approaches, opening an interesting perspective for noninvasive neurostimulation for both symptomatic and preventive treatment of migraine and other types of headache. In this chapter we critically review evidence regarding the role of noninvasive brain stimulation in the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine, delineating the advantages and limits of these techniques together with potential development and future application. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Concept analysis of competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychkovskii Andrei Yurevich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to determine the competitiveness of enterprises. The techniques of estimating the probability of bankruptcy as the lowest level of competitiveness of the organization. Asked to assess the competitiveness on the basis of the analysis of internal and external factors of the company. External factors are asked to provide a financial and economic, political, industrial, technological, social, environmental. Internal factors proposed to explore, using the model of "the golden rule of business economics" in conjunction with approaches for assessing the ability of the enterprise to create value.

  2. Competition in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Christensen, Søren

    Competition in education has two functions: selection and motivation. How do these two functions correlate, contradict or co-exist? How has the educational system reflected on the relation between competition as motivational technology and as a technology for selection? The aim of this paper...... is to formulate the problem of competition in education as a relation between selection and motivation and provide an analytical strategy to grasp this problem. Our ambition is to theorize the problem and give empirical illustrations of how the connection between selection and motivation has been articulated...... in various educational institutions and programs....

  3. Competitiveness: new economic paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Peñaloza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays competitiveness is made up of “the new” paradigm that allows to prevail in the global World. Thus, it is inevitable to ask, was it required to be competitive to be successful in the international trade arena? Recognizing the discussion about it and its theoretical-conceptual density, the present paper studies this old notion whose meaning, in essence, is always the same one. This applies even though new realities in the present world-wide atmosphere confer to it a distinguishing character and new and old players are forced to organize actions and bring efforts together to obtain the competitive supremacy.

  4. COMPETITIVENESS IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: ROMANIAN STYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia-Elena TUCLEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented one of the important sectors of the nationaleconomy, at least from its potential for development perspective: thehospitality industry. The research interest is related to finding out the mainfactors of competitiveness in this field. This research attempts to identify theessential aspects of competitiveness in the hospitality industry. Theobjectives pursued refer to: discovering the degree to which the concept ofcompetitiveness is understood and capitalized on by the managers in theRomanian hospitality industry; identifying a set of factors considered decisivein raising the competitiveness of Romanian firms in the hospitality industry;identifying the strategic concerns of firms operating in the Romanianhospitality industry, in order to establish the connection between strategy andthe competitiveness of the firms belonging to this sector.As a result, the hypotheses are: in the hospitality industry there areparticularities which influence the firms’ competitiveness and strategicorientation; preoccupation towards raising competitiveness and strategicorientation is influenced by the type of exploitation and the number of stars(level of comfort; in the hospitality industry, managers focus on cost controland service quality as decisive factors of competitiveness.

  5. Competitiveness factors of a tourism destination and impact on residents’ quality of life: The case of Cittaslow-Seferihisar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Günlü Küçükaltan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates whether tourism development related destination competitiveness have any direct effect on the quality of life of the residents. To reflect the developments in a destination, one of the best known recent trends that stimulates destination competitiveness and directly relates to an increase in the quality of life of the residents, “Cittaslow”, is preferred as a case study. Therefore, the developments in Seferihisar, the first Cittaslow of Turkey, are emphasized based on Enea and Tanasoiu (2009’s research which proposes the effects of tourism development and quality of life. Qualitative research is adapted where the techniques are prefered as case study and documentation. The originality of the paper results from the construction of the theory on a live sample that captures the practical evidences.

  6. Revised article: Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE REPLACES THAT PUBLISHED IN BULLETIN 27/2003, PAGE 8. "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition. The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund. Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at http://www.rainbowseedfund.com." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via ...

  7. COMPETITIVENESS IN THE SPHERE OF INNOVATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Reshetov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this article is relevant because in any economic doctrine of competition is seen as a driving force of the market. The ability of business entities, including entities of innovative entrepreneurship to compete for the market (consumers is a key factor in the development of this segment and the main factor stimulating the transition of the national economy to innovation-oriented development.The purpose: The aim of the article is in-depth and comprehensive analysis of the positions of Russian and foreign scientists-economists on the question of the essence of the concepts of «competition» and «competitiveness».Methods. Methodological basis of this paper are generalization of literary sources and comparative analysis methods. Results. Comprehensively analyzed the positions of leading scientists and economists in relation to the concepts of «competition and competitiveness», including and in such an important sector as innovative entrepreneurship. The identifi ed similarities, diff erences and their features.Conclusions / significance. Identifi ed and completed a substantial part of the economic category «competitiveness of innovative entrepreneurship». According to the authors, the competitiveness of innovative entrepreneurship should be considered as the ability of the subjects of this segment to compete in a superior degree with the manufacturers (sellers of a similar product (goods, works, services with the best (unique characteristics through effi cient and optimal use of knowledge and other resources to support the activities to maximize the economic benefi ts, not available to competitors of, or adjacent segment.

  8. Disentangling Competition Among Platform Driven Strategic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In platform-driven markets, competitive advantage is derived from superior platform design and configurations. For this reason, platform owners strive to create unique and inimitable platform configurals to maintain and extend their competitiveness within network economies. To disentangle firm...... competition within platform-driven markets, we opted for the UK mobile payment market as our empirical setting. By embracing the theoretical lens of strategic groups and digital platforms, this study supplements prior research by deriving a taxonomy of platform-driven strategic groups that is grounded...

  9. EDUCATION AND COMPETITIVENESS IN THE GLOBALIZATION ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Ioan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The educational system is one of the important factors in creating and developing the competitive forces of a country. The higher education provides the socio-economic environment with two basic services: teaching and research. The duality marks an entire history for higher education, but nowadays a new dilemma has emerged: economic efficiency (the university as an economic provider of services versus academic competitiveness (the university as a research forum. In addition, a new challenge seems to be altering the future of higher education, these stemming from the massive increase in the demand for university teaching services: elite higher education, thus efficient, highly competitive academically (competitiveness, or mass higher education, adapted to the demand, with the primary role of harnessing knowledge though professional training (effectiveness.

  10. Innovation and strategic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Mile B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discussed relationships of innovation to achieving strategic competitiveness in today globalized economic environment. Special attention is devoted to the nature of competitive advantages on global industries as well national level. Competitive advantage is a firm's ability to transform inputs into goods and services at a profit on a sustained basis, better than competitors. Comparative advantage resides in the factor endowments and created endowments of particular regions. Beside the traditional endowment approach (land, natural resources, labor and the size of the local population it is emphasized the importance of created one such as skilled labor, the technology and knowledge base, government support and culture. Creating corporate or country competitiveness roadmap there are no substantial difference - innovative as well strategic approach is essential.

  11. Competition Policy and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter; Lorentzen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance of the t......We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance...... of the topic. We move on to discuss the organisation of industriesin a dynamic context and draw out consequences for competition policy. We concludewith an outlook on the underlying tensions between technology alliances, competitionpolicy, and industrial policy.JEL codes: L4, L5, O31Keywords: Competition...

  12. Competition and Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ensure that judges receive specialized training in competition law . .... ensure good coverage and quality of service; banks are subject to prudential and other .... vendors who offer the best value do the most business and the customers benefit.

  13. DMEPOS Competitive Bidding

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DMEPOS Competitive Bidding Program was mandated by Congress through the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). The statute...

  14. More competition, less staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Staffing at US nuclear plants has been sharply reduced in recent years, as nuclear plants strive for aggressive cost reduction in a deregulating energy market. These steps have proved necessary to make nuclear plant production competitive with alternative sources. (author)

  15. Competition between herbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.; Bergh, van den J.P.

    1965-01-01

    Starting from work with annuals a model of competition between herbage plants is discussed. It is shown that their mutual interference can only be described adequately if they are grown in mixture and also in monoculture

  16. Competitivity of biofuels in heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flyktman, M.

    1996-01-01

    The competitivity of indigenous fuels in heating of residential houses in comparison with imported fuels, and both electricity and district heating, has been studied in this research, ordered by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry. Heating plants of residential house scale (20-1000 kW) have been investigated in the research. Only the new heating plants are included in the investigation. The heat generation calculations concerning the residential heating plants have been made for following indigenous fuels: sod peat, fuel-chips, peat and wood pellets, firewood and straw. In addition to these, the calculations have been made for light fuel-oil, electric heating, district heating and natural gas. The local energy tariffs have to be taken into account in electric heating, district heating and natural gas heating. A calculation model, based on flowsheet calculation, forms the main result of the project. By using the model it is possible to update the competitivity data rapidly. Of all the indigenous fuels, sod peat and fuel-chips appeared to be competitive with electric and district heating costs in nearly all scales investigated. The construction of the heat generation costs of solid indigenous fuels differs remarkably from those of electric and district heating. The main part of the heating costs of wood chips and sod peat is formed of fixed costs; i.e. of investment costs and of the costs of heating and control work. The energy costs are the highest costs items in electric an district heating, as well as in the oil heating. It is possible to improve the competitivity of biofuels by developing cheaper boilers and fuel processing and storage devices

  17. Competitive potential of trade organization : theoretical and methodological foundations of formation and realization

    OpenAIRE

    Serebryakova, Nadezhda A.; Semenenko, Sergey V.; Grishchenko, Natalya V.; Ulchenko, Tamara Y.

    2016-01-01

    Problematics of competitive potential of organization does not have any multi-disciplinary limitations of research. Study of competitive potential in connection with factors of its formation and conditions for realization, including competition, competitiveness, and competitive advantages of organization, was conducted by many scientists. At that, in view of sectorial specifics, there is domination of works devoted to study of competitive potential of production, not trade, organizations. Ide...

  18. ANALYSIS OF COMPETITION INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Egorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzed and systematized the definition of "competition" proposed by domestic and foreign scholars in the field of strategic management, based on these discovered and refined essence of the concept of "competition". We consider the price and non-price competition. Examples are given of the methods of competition used in the practice of industrial activities. Substantiated that the forms and methods of competition must be constantly improved through the search for new competitive advantages.

  19. COMPETITION AS MARKET MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of a competition as an objective law for development of the commodities production based on private ownership of the means of production and commodity exchange has been revealed in the paper. The paper presents an economic basis of market economy (private ownership which generates a corresponding production objective. Such purpose is a maximization of profit and a minimization of market subject expenses. Therefore, a struggle for the most favourable conditions on commodity production and sales is inevitable in such situation. The struggle is considered in the community with developed market economy as a competition.The competition is regarded not as an exogenic factor exerting its influence on market economic system from the outside, but as an objective phenomenon which is inherent to management market system in itself. Such treatment is substantiated by economic disintegration of individual commodity producers. Being an important engine of market economy, the competition does not establish its laws, and its role is to be an executive of data which are internally inherent in commodity production laws and firstly it concerns a profit maximization law which defines a purpose and guiding motif of economic entities in the given economy.The competition plays a contradictory role under conditions of market economy. On the one hand, it makes manufacturers constantly to aspire to expense reduction for the sake of profit increase. This has resulted in labour productivity increase, production cost decrease and a company receives an opportunity to reduce retail price for its products. Consequently, the competition acts as a potential factor for lowering of prices while increasing production efficiency. On the other hand, sellers have more freedom in price fixing under conditions of imperfect competition as they sell their products under the conditions of a monopolistic competition or an oligopoly. This is the main weakest point of the market

  20. 2000 FIRST Robotics Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purman, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2000 FIRST Robotics competition. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  1. Sperm competition in bats.

    OpenAIRE

    Hosken, D J

    1997-01-01

    Sperm competition is a widespread phenomenon influencing the evolution of male anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Bats are an ideal group for studying sperm competition. Females store fertile sperm for up to 200 days and the size of social groups varies from single animals to groups of hundreds of thousands. This study examines the relationship between social group size and investment in spermatogenesis across 31 species of microchiropteran bat using new and published data on testis mass and ...

  2. Competition between bank regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Dirk; Eggert, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines competition between bank regulators in open economies. We use a model where credit demand of firms is endogenous and show any tendency for downward competition in regulation policy is limited by the effect of regulation on profits of nonfinancial firms. Moreover, perfect mobility on loans and deposit markets fully eliminates the incentives of regulators to set bank regulation at ine±cient low levels.

  3. Costing and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, K; Brignall, S

    1994-01-01

    Working for patients established a new system of contracts between providers and purchasers of healthcare, with prices based on full costs, avoiding cross-subsidization. The new regime necessitates greatly improved costing systems, to improve the efficiency of service provision by creating price competition between providers. Ken Bates and Stan Brignall argue that non-price competition also occurs, with providers 'differentiating' on quality of service/product, flexibility or innovation.

  4. Economic Development and "National Competitive Advantage"

    OpenAIRE

    J.T., Goode

    2002-01-01

    Despite the preponderance of economic theory and research which argues to the contrary, the notion that national economies stand in a fundamentally competitive relationship with one another remains surprisingly widespread. In recent years, some of the most influential impetus for this misperception has come from Michael Porter's conceptualization of "the competitive advantage of nations" in relation to economic development and date theory. It is argued that Porter neither proposes nor demonst...

  5. Competitive intelligence in UK firms: A typology.

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Sheila; Pickton, David W.; Callow, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    There is a danger of allowing competitive analysis to receive less than adequate attention in the marketing planning process as it is subordinated to a customer driven focus. Clearly important though customers are, they should not dominate marketing strategy and planning to the exclusion of other influential groups, one of these being competitors. With this in mind, a pilot research project was undertaken to gain a better understanding of how UK companies conduct competitive intelligence. ...

  6. Competition in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Warren

    1995-01-01

    With changes occurring within both the gas and electricity industries and both sectors undergoing simultaneous reforms at the State and national levels it is timely to look at some major aspects of the energy-reform processes in Australia and to attempt to offer some perspectives from the viewpoint of an industry user of energy. From an industry user's viewpoint there is quantifiable evidence that competition in the energy sector will deliver major economic benefits to industry and the nation. The reform process currently in train will increase Australia's international competitiveness. Commonwealth-State collaboration is useful on economic issues which require a national consistent approach. Many significant and complex arrangement apply to the gas and electricity sectors which add to the complexity of the respective reform processes. More competitive arrangements are therefore required more quickly at several stages of the gas-sector reform process, such as in the commercialization of government utilities, resolving the issue of third-party transmission pricing, and the removal of State governments' impediments to competitive trading. The Hilmer Report on National Competition Policy will help deal with some difficult structural and transitional issues, e.g. third-party access, competitive structures, regulatory regimes, and a consistent national approach.(author). 1 fig., 1 photo

  7. The Competitive Advantages of Retail Enterprises: the Factor and the Result of Competitive Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorna Maryna V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at systematization and development of a conceptual-categorical apparatus of the essence of competitive advantages. The approaches to their interpretation have been allocated. The essential characteristics and stages of the life cycle of competitive advantages are considered. As active stages it is suggested to consider the following: formation, implementation, and development. The basic properties of competitive advantages such as dual character have been substantiated and supplemented. Both the factor and the effective nature of competitive advantages are characterized. On the basis of the mentioned approaches together with the identified features, a definition of the concept of «competitive advantages» as economic category has been proposed. Its use as a base along with taking into consideration the functional specificity of trade enterprises has allowed: clarifying the essence of competitive advantages of retail enterprises; suggesting their definition as a factor and as a result of competitive relations. The identification of dual character will increase the possibilities to assess competitive advantages. Prospects for further researches in this direction are connected with allocating of peculiarities and kinds of competitive advantages of retail trade enterprises with the purpose of increasing the of validity of decisions on their formation, implementation, and development.

  8. COMPETITIVENESS - KEY ISSUES OF THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Liliana, CIOBAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory that competitiveness plays an increasingly powerful role in creating prosperity, wealth, a large number of economists, researchers, scientists, highlight a number of approaches aimed, on the one hand, on the analysis of competitiveness at national or regional level, and on the other hand, on the ability of local firms to achieve competitive products and to commercialize them in the extern markets. In this context we aim to analyze and develop strategies and methods to help identify competitive areas at a national level. This is necessary because in our opinion the competitiveness of a company and / or country is more than wealth itself; it means a systematic process of wealth creation, plus a social system in which most citizens have access to material wealth. We consider in this respect that a country cannot automatically be considered competitive only if it is rich in natural resources. In our view, a competitive country creates wealth through labor, talent and organization and thus it manages to have a productive and creative potential making it independent of material resources.

  9. Reflections on Competition, Competition Regulation and the Current Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert; Wigger, Angela

    2013-01-01

    competition came to enjoy such an exalted status in Europe and then challenges conventional wisdom by bringing into focus the downsides of competition. It argues that excessive competition and neoliberal competition regulation have contributed to intensify the economic, political, social and environmental...

  10. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  11. Towards a More Competitive Italy in Clinical Research: The Survey of Attitudes towards Trial sites in Europe (The SAT-EU Study TM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gehring

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available  BackgroundItaly is Europe’s third largest pharmaceutical market, yet it ranks only ninth in the number of NIH-registered clinical trials per capita. The aim of our study was to explore stakeholders’ perception of Italy as place to undertake clinical trials, and to estimate the potential economic impact of selected reforms in terms of incremental trial activity.MethodsThe Survey of Attitudes towards Trials in Europe (SAT-EU Study was an anonymous, web-based survey which systematically assessed factors impacting clinical trial site selection in Europe. Estimates of Italian economic impact were developed in collaboration with AICRO (Association of Italian Contract Research Organisations.ResultsResponses were obtained from 485 professionals in 34 countries (15% residing in Italy representing over 100 institutions, spanning BioPharma Clinical Research Organizations (CROs, and Academic Clinical Trial Units (CTUs. Italy ranked tenth of twelve in terms of accessibility and transparency of information required to run clinical trials, and last with respect to predictability and speed of Ethics Committees. Costs of running clinical trials were not considered critical, whereas, fragmented and slow approval process was. Streamlined centralized trial authorization would translate into an estimated 1.1 billion Euros of incremental trial investments over three years. ConclusionsClinical trial professionals consider Italy’s governance of clinical research suboptimal, among the worst in Europe, and indicate that much could be done to make Italy more attractive for clinical trial investments. The present study also provides evidence about stakeholders’ willingness to invest in trials and its economic consequences provided effective reforms are put in place. 

  12. The Pitt Innovation Challenge (PInCh): Driving Innovation in Translational Research Through an Incentive-Based, Problem-Focused Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Nicole Edgar; Maier, John; Yasko, Laurel; Mathias, David; Qua, Kacy; Wagner, Erika; Miller, Elizabeth; Reis, Steven E

    2017-05-01

    Translational research aims to move scientific discoveries across the biomedical spectrum from the laboratory to humans, and to ultimately transform clinical practice and public health policies. Despite efforts to accelerate translational research through national initiatives, several major hurdles remain. The authors created the Pitt Innovation Challenge (PInCh) as an incentive-based, problem-focused approach to solving identified clinical or public health problems at the University of Pittsburgh Clinical and Translational Science Institute in spring 2014. With input from a broad range of stakeholders, PInCh leadership arrived at the challenge question: How do we empower individuals to take control of their own health outcomes? The authors developed the PInCh's three-round proposal submission and review process as well as an online contest management tool to support the process. Ninety-two teams submitted video proposals in round one. Proposals included mobile applications (29; 32%), other information technology (19; 21%), and community program (22; 24%) solutions. Ten teams advanced to the final round, where three were awarded $100,000 to implement their solution over 12 months. In a 6-month follow-up survey, 6/11 (55%) team leaders stated the PInCh helped to facilitate connections outside their normal sphere of collaborators. Additional educational training sessions related to problem-focused research will be developed. The PInCh will be expanded to engage investment and industry communities to facilitate the translation of solutions to clinical practice via commercialization pathways. External organizations and other universities will be engaged to use the PInCh as a mechanism to fuel innovation in their spaces.

  13. STRUCTURIZATION OF COMPETITIVE CAPACITY OF TRADE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sеrеbrуаkоvа

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern consumer market is characterized by a complex of immanent tendencies of development, the competitive relations reflecting specifics inherent in it. These tendencies of development of the competitive environment of the consumer market are in many respects caused by a state and extent of use of competitive capacity of the organizations functioning in this market. This obvious circumstance causes the necessity of complex scientific research of competitive capacity of trade organizations, including its structures, for definition of prospects of its sustainable strategic development. Immanent properties of competitive capacity of trade organization allowed to study in detail its structure, by means of the substantial review of the existing options of its representation and their systematization on specific, element and system signs. In development of specific structure of competitive potential its addition commercial, technological, communication, consumer and image the potentials reflecting functional and branch specifics of activity of trade organization is offered. The system of elements of competitive capacity of trade organization is given by its structure-forming types. It is proved that these elements aren't characterized by strict distribution by types of potentials, and separate from elements are universal, accepted for simultaneous use when forming all types of potential. Allocation of a system sign of structurization of competitive potential was based on situation that "systemacity" has to be provided not so much with hierarchy of hierarchy of types and elements of potential, their interrelations, how many possibility of the accounting of various classification signs allowing to typify competitive potential as system integrity, regardless of its separate types. Those signs were the stage of a demand and level of use in economic activity, economic feasibility of existence of unrealized potential, the origin nature.

  14. COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Sandu

    2013-01-01

    Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.

  15. Ecosystems Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. H.; Frame, M. T.; Ferriter, O.; Recker, J.

    2014-12-01

    Stimulating innovation and private sector entrepreneurship is an important way to advance the preparedness of communities, businesses and individuals for the impacts of climate change on certain aspects of ecosystems, such as: fire regimes; water availability; carbon sequestration; biodiversity conservation; weather-related hazards, and the spread of invasive species. The creation of tools is critical to help communities and natural resource managers better understand the impacts of climate change on ecosystems and the potential resulting implications for ecosystem services and conservation efforts. The Department of the Interior is leading an interagency effort to develop the Ecosystems Vulnerability theme as part of the President's Climate Action Plan. This effort will provide seamless access to relevant datasets that can help address such issues as: risk of wildfires to local communities and federal lands; water sensitivity to climate change; and understanding the role of ecosystems in a changing climate. This session will provide an overview of the proposed Ecosystem Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition, outlining the intended audience, scope, goals, and overall timeline. The session will provide an opportunity for participants to offer new ideas. Through the Challenge, access will be made available to critical datasets for software developers, engineers, scientists, students, and researchers to develop and submit applications addressing critical science issues facing our Nation today. Application submission criteria and guidelines will also be discussed. The Challenge will be open to all sectors and organizations (i.e. federal, non-federal, private sector, non-profits, and universities) within the United States. It is anticipated the Challenge will run from early January 2015 until spring of 2015.

  16. Research resource: new and diverse substrates for the insulin receptor isoform a revealed by quantitative proteomics after stimulation with igf-ii or insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morcavallo, Alaide; Gaspari, Marco; Pandini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    progression. We hypothesized that IGF-II binding to the IR-A elicits a unique signaling pathway. In order to obtain an unbiased evaluation of IR-A substrates differentially involved after IGF-II and insulin stimulation, we performed quantitative proteomics of IR-A substrates recruited to tyrosine......-phosphorylated protein complexes using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture in combination with antiphosphotyrosine antibody pull down and mass spectrometry. Using cells expressing only the human IR-A and lacking the IGF-I receptor, we identified 38 IR-A substrates. Only 10 were known IR mediators......, whereas 28 substrates were not previously related to IR signaling. Eleven substrates were recruited by stimulation with both ligands: two equally recruited by IGF-II and insulin, three more strongly recruited by IGF-II, and six more strongly recruited by insulin. Moreover, 14 substrates were recruited...

  17. Business plan competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Venture – Companies for tomorrow" is a business plan competition, which supports students and other junior entrepreneurs in developing their business plans. The sixth edition of the competition is now taking place. Venture 2008 highlights: - prize money totalling CHF 150’000; - possibility to optimize business ideas and business plans with the help of experienced coaches: around 200 coaches are available, with a wide range of backgrounds, entrepreneurs as well as venture capitalists; -\tpossibility to present business ideas and business plans to potential investors ("Investor Days" - 17 January and 7 May); - active involvement in the start-up community; -\tcontribution to potential independence. The competition consists of two phases: Phase I, Business idea, Deadline for submission of business idea: 5 December 2007 (online at http://www.venture.ch). Award Ceremony: 17 January 2008 Phase II, Business plan Deadline for submission of business plan: 2 April 2008 (online at...

  18. Price competition in procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisler, J.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1996-07-01

    When creating a private market to provide a public good, government agencies can influence the market's competitive characteristics. Markets have predictable, but often counterintuitive, behaviors. To succeed in applying available controls, and thereby reduce future costs, agencies must understand the behavior of the market. A model has been constructed to examine some issues in establishing competition for a structure in which there are economies of scale and government is obligated to purchase a fixed total quantity of a good. This model is used to demonstrate a way to estimate the cost savings from several alternative plans for a buyer exploring competitive procurement. The results are not and cannot be accurate for budgeting purposes; rather, they indicate the approximate magnitude of changes in cost that would be associated with changes in the market structure within which procurement occurs

  19. Marketing mix and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness cannot simply be viewed as a country's ability to export or generate trade surpluses, since these can be brought about at least temporarily by means of artificially lowering the exchange rate and/or compressing domestic expenditures, as has been done in recent years by many DC that have tried to adjust to diminished resource availability. Authors standpoint is that international competitiveness requires creating comparative advantage where it does not exist, and requires action on several levels including an emerging consensus on the importance of macroeconomic policy, role and accountability of the government as well as the imperative of developing and internalizing technology body of knowledge for achieving competitiveness. Particular attention is given to the role and impact of marketing instruments marketing mix.

  20. The power of competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuqua, G.L.; Pratt, J.H.; Elliot, J.

    1995-01-01

    The change-over from regulated monopolies to a non-regulated competitive market in the electric utility industry was discussed in terms of marketing and survival strategies for utilities it the newly competitive marketplace. The impact of low natural gas prices was prominently discussed as a danger to hydroelectricity generators because high efficiency turbine generators that are now available. Surplus power capacity in both the Canadian and US markets were discussed. The effects of independent power producers selling electricity wholesale to private utilities was also debated on account of its potential to change the role of the electric utility. The situation of the Bonneville Power Association (BPA), a self-financed government agency, as owner of 15 000 miles of transmission grid that is not allowed to own generation plants, was described. Strategies developed by BPA in an effort to adapt to the competitive market were described and were successful

  1. Thermally stimulated exoelectron emission from solid Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khyzhniy, I.V.; Grigorashchenko, O.N.; Savchenko, E.V.; Ponomarev, A.N.; Bondybey, V.E.

    2007-01-01

    Thermally-stimulated emission of exoelectrons and photons from solid Xe pre-irradiated by low-energy electrons were studied. A high sensitivity of thermally-stimulated luminescence (TSL) and thermally-stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) to sample prehistory was demonstrated. It was shown that electron traps in unannealed samples are characterized by much broader distribution of trap levels in comparison with annealed samples and their concentration exceeds in number that in annealed samples. Both phenomena, TSL and TSEE, were found to be triggered by release of electrons from the same kind of traps. The data obtained suggest a competition between two relaxation channels: charge recombination and electron transport terminated by TSL and TSEE. It was found that TSEE predominates at low temperatures while at higher temperatures TSL prevails. An additional relaxation channel, a photon-stimulated exoelectron emission pre-irradiated solid Xe, was revealed

  2. Price Competition on Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaan R. Soetevent

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand may occur. I show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs. I conjecture that this non-existence result holds...

  3. Price Competition on Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pim Heijnen; Adriaan Soetevent

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. We derive an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. These graph models of price competition may lead to spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand. We show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs and conjecture that this non-existence result holds more general...

  4. Competition and social cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Libertini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available "Competition" and "social cohesion" are both protected by E.U. and Italian laws. The author moves from the analysis of the meaning of these two concepts, in order to reflect on their compatibility and the way to conciliate them. The central problem - in the opinion of the Author - is to abandon the myth of spontaneous markets' order and to rebuild a political order able to maintain and support, as far as possible, the competitive market economy, but also to govern economic processes in critical moments and situations.

  5. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a stylized market for experience goods. If interaction is anonymous, such markets perform poorly: sellers are not trustworthy, and buyers do not trust sellers. If sellers are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples...... but is still at only a third of the first best. Adding more information by granting buyers access to all sellers’ complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  6. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a trust game. If trustees are anonymous, outcomes are poor: trustees are not trustworthy, and trustors do not trust. If trustees are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples but is still at only a third of the first...... best. Adding more information by granting trustors access to all trustees' complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  7. Competitive strategy for providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, M C

    1996-01-01

    National Health Service (NHS) Trusts are struggling to determine a long-term strategic direction for their organizations in response to the competitive pressures generated by the NHS reforms. The development of long-term strategic direction and the methods to implement this are presenting real challenges to the Trusts which have inherited service configurations based on bureaucratic planning frameworks rather than service configurations suited to a more competitive environment. Examines the strategic choices available to these organizations; explores the importance of identifying positive strategic choices; and discusses the advantages and disadvantages in the context of the NHS internal market.

  8. Amphetamine-type stimulants and HIV infection among men who have sex with men: implications on HIV research and prevention from a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu Vu, Nga Thi; Maher, Lisa; Zablotska, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV infections and the use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been increasing internationally, but the role of ATS use as a co-factor for HIV infection remains unclear. We aimed to summarize the association between ATS use and HIV infection among MSM. Methods We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, GLOBAL HEALTH and PsycINFO for relevant English, peer-reviewed articles of quantitative studies published between 1980 and 25 April 2013. Pooled estimates of the association – prevalence rate ratios (PRR, cross-sectional studies), odds ratio (OR, case-control studies) and hazard ratio (HR, longitudinal studies), with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) – were calculated using random-effects models stratified by study design and ATS group (meth/amphetamines vs. ecstasy). We assessed the existence of publication bias in funnel plots and checked for sources of heterogeneity using meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Results We identified 6710 article titles, screened 1716 abstracts and reviewed 267 full text articles. A total of 35 publications were eligible for data abstraction and meta-analysis, resulting in 56 records of ATS use. Most studies (31/35) were conducted in high-income countries. Published studies used different research designs, samples and measures of ATS use. The pooled association between meth/amphetamine use and HIV infection was statistically significant in all three designs (PRR=1.86; 95% CI: 1.57–2.17; OR=2.73; 95% CI: 2.16–3.46 and HR=3.43; 95% CI: 2.98–3.95, respectively, for cross-sectional, case-control and longitudinal studies). Ecstasy use was not associated with HIV infection in cross-sectional studies (PRR=1.15; 95% CI: 0.88–1.49; OR=3.04; 95% CI: 1.29–7.18 and HR=2.48; 95% CI: 1.42–4.35, respectively, for cross-sectional, case-control and longitudinal studies). Results in cross-sectional studies were highly heterogeneous due to issues with ATS measurement and

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... marketing strategy of an overall business model. In terms of marketing ... stated that competition would stimulates more innovation created to the world by using the advanced .... Policies for digital content platforms. Info, 2007 ...

  10. Economic Reform, Firm Survival and Competitiveness (Middle East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    During the 1980s, it was thought that liberalizing trade and exposing industries ... of some firms but a more productive and competitive industrial sector as a whole. ... to stimulate higher firm-level productivity in the Middle East and North Africa.

  11. Managing Multiple Sources of Competitive Advantage in a Complex Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Howard Henry Lapersonne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to review the literature on the topic of sustained and temporary competitive advantage creation, specifically in dynamic markets, and to propose further research possibilities. After having analyzed the main trends and scholars’ works on the subject, it was concluded that a firm which has been experiencing erosion of its core sources of economic rent generation, should have diversified its strategy portfolio in a search for new sources of competitive advantage, ones that could compensate for the decline of profits provoked by intensive competitive environments. This review concludes with the hypothesis that firms, who have decided to enter and manage multiple competitive environments, should have developed a multiple strategies framework approach. The management of this source of competitive advantage portfolio should have allowed persistence of a firm’s superior economic performance through the management of diverse temporary advantages lifecycle and through a resilient effect, where a very successful source of competitive advantage compensates the ones that have been eroded. Additionally, the review indicates that economies of emerging countries, such as the ones from the BRIC block, should present a more complex competitive environment due to their historical nature of cultural diversity, social contrasts and frequent economic disruption, and also because of recent institutional normalization that has turned the market into hypercompetition. Consequently, the study of complex competition should be appropriate in such environments.

  12. Exploring an Age Difference in Preschool Children’s Competitiveness Following a Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Literature suggests that resource acquisition compels competition in young children. However, little is still known about the development of preschool children’s competitiveness. In this preliminary study, 166 children (aged 2–4 and 5–6 years engaged in a dyadic competition which resulted in a winning and a losing group (in a control/non-competition group, participants engaged in a similar task which did not lead to winning/losing outcome, and then experimenters tracked their decisions to compete again with a rival (i.e., an individual they interacted in the previous competition task and a non-rival competitor (i.e., an anonymous classmate they did not interact in the previous competition task for a reward, respectively. As expected, results showed an age-related decreasing trend in the percentage of choices to compete with a competitor. However, this age difference was only significant in the control group when participants played with the partner with whom they interacted in the previous game and in the losing group when participants competed with a non-rival competitor. This study contributes to our knowledge of how competitiveness develop in preschool childhood, and calls for further research on the roles of motivation and cognitive control in children’s competitiveness.

  13. Exploring an Age Difference in Preschool Children’s Competitiveness Following a Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Zhu, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Literature suggests that resource acquisition compels competition in young children. However, little is still known about the development of preschool children’s competitiveness. In this preliminary study, 166 children (aged 2–4 and 5–6 years) engaged in a dyadic competition which resulted in a winning and a losing group (in a control/non-competition group, participants engaged in a similar task which did not lead to winning/losing outcome), and then experimenters tracked their decisions to compete again with a rival (i.e., an individual they interacted in the previous competition task) and a non-rival competitor (i.e., an anonymous classmate they did not interact in the previous competition task) for a reward, respectively. As expected, results showed an age-related decreasing trend in the percentage of choices to compete with a competitor. However, this age difference was only significant in the control group when participants played with the partner with whom they interacted in the previous game and in the losing group when participants competed with a non-rival competitor. This study contributes to our knowledge of how competitiveness develop in preschool childhood, and calls for further research on the roles of motivation and cognitive control in children’s competitiveness. PMID:29593610

  14. Exploring an Age Difference in Preschool Children's Competitiveness Following a Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Zhu, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Literature suggests that resource acquisition compels competition in young children. However, little is still known about the development of preschool children's competitiveness. In this preliminary study, 166 children (aged 2-4 and 5-6 years) engaged in a dyadic competition which resulted in a winning and a losing group (in a control/non-competition group, participants engaged in a similar task which did not lead to winning/losing outcome), and then experimenters tracked their decisions to compete again with a rival (i.e., an individual they interacted in the previous competition task) and a non-rival competitor (i.e., an anonymous classmate they did not interact in the previous competition task) for a reward, respectively. As expected, results showed an age-related decreasing trend in the percentage of choices to compete with a competitor. However, this age difference was only significant in the control group when participants played with the partner with whom they interacted in the previous game and in the losing group when participants competed with a non-rival competitor. This study contributes to our knowledge of how competitiveness develop in preschool childhood, and calls for further research on the roles of motivation and cognitive control in children's competitiveness.

  15. Competitive intelligence as an enabler for firm competitiveness: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maune

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an overview, from literature, about how competitive intelligence can be an enabler towards a firm’s competitiveness. This overview is done under the background of intense global competition that firms are currently experiencing. This paper used a qualitative content analysis as a data collection methodology on all identified journal articles on competitive intelligence and firm competitiveness. To identify relevant literature, academic databases and search engines were used. Moreover, a review of references in related studies led to more relevant sources, the references of which were further reviewed and analysed. To ensure reliability and trustworthiness, peer-reviewed journal articles and triangulation were used. The paper found that competitive intelligence is an important enabler of firm competitiveness. The findings from this paper will assist business managers to understand and improve their outlook of competitive intelligence as an enabler of firm competitiveness and will be of great academic value.

  16. ECONOMIC ESSENCE OF COMPETITIVENESS OF AGRO-FOOD PRODUCTS AND ITS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel COSER

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Approach of the competitiveness of food products can be found in many research studies in the field. They reveal the essence of agro-food competitiveness, while expressing management tools and method. At the level of agro-food competitiveness management, this article highlights also the possibility of influencing factors determining the defining characteristics of the respective competitiveness.

  17. Economic essence of competitiveness of agro-food products and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coser Cornel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Approach of the competitiveness of food products can be found in many research studies in the field. They reveal the essence of agro-food competitiveness, while expressing management tools and method. At the level of agro-food competitiveness management, this article highlights also the possibility of influencing factors determining the defining characteristics of the respective competitiveness.

  18. Competitive and rivalry behaviors in international business exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medlin, C. J.; Ellegaard, Chris

    In this paper we explore competition as a process between firms; rather than as a background economic variable. We consider past competitor research on structured contexts and socially constructed competition, and develop a research model based on the priority of firm’s line of action: whether pr...

  19. Sustainability and Competitiveness of Romanian Farms through Organic Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ionela Aceleanu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the development of any sector involves respecting the principles of sustainability, which means economic, social and environmental development. Moreover, organic farming is a very important field for ensuring sustainable development. Romania has great potential for the development of organic agriculture, especially due to the large number of available farmland and reduced use of fertilizers and other chemicals. However, the development of organic farming in Romania is in an early stage, due to the numerous problems that Romanian agriculture is still facing. Concern for the environment should be reflected at the level of production processes and consumption. As market demand influences and stimulates production, we can ask the question to what extent stimulating the consumption of organic products through green marketing can boost organic agriculture development and competitiveness of Romanian farms. Using several methods of research, such as analysis, synthesis, comparison, statistical methods and by calling on studies, reports and data series on organic farming in the EU and Romania, this paper highlights Romania's position in terms of the level of development of organic agriculture and recommends several ways to improve the outcomes obtained by Romania in the field. Moreover, based on regression equations, the trend of convergence of Romanian organic agriculture development in relation to the EU countries is analysed. The paper demonstrates that one of the measures that can be taken by Romanian farms is green marketing strategy development that can stimulate both consumption and production of organic products. Therefore, with increasing interest in the development of organic agriculture in Romania, green marketing can play an increasingly important role in promoting the benefits of consuming organic products, thus contributing to business development of organic products as well as to the development of Romanian agriculture

  20. COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT ON THE FINANCIAL - BANKING MARKET OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena FUIOR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Banking and finance sectors of the Republic of Moldova the same as in other states are of great importance for sustainable development of the whole economy. The existence of normal competitive environment on the banking sector would provide the national economy with necessary inexpensive financial resources and would support the creation of banking and financial systems able to cope with competitive pressures from outside the country. Recent publications regarding the establishment of Moldovan banking sector highlighted several deficiencies in the relevant competitive environment. In this context, we propose an analysis of the competitive environment on the banking sector of the Republic of Moldova, identifying elements limiting competition and guidelines for the improvement of competitive aspects of Moldovan banking sector taking into account the experience of other countries. The analysis of EU countries experience together with suggested recommendations is expected to stimulate competition in the Moldovan finance sector as well as discourage anti-competitive practices.

  1. ENTERPRISE PROACTIVITY AS ELEMENT OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra López Salazar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The businessman rol must be based on stimulate a change and the development of organizations counting on abilities and features needed to achieve this. Analyze the vision and business proactivity as corporate culture variables, has a great importance for survival and competitiveness of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises. This study aims to analyze the level of proactivity and vision that have 418 businessmen in the region of Celaya, and determine the relationship of these variables. Results show that there is a great aspiration of businessmen to achieve growth; however, their vision is not aligned with the level of proactivity that they use to manage their organizations.

  2. BMC Ecology image competition: the winning images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Simon; Wong, Yan; Baguette, Michel; Bonsall, Michael B; Clobert, Jean; Royle, Nick J; Settele, Josef

    2013-03-22

    BMC Ecology announces the winning entries in its inaugural Ecology Image Competition, open to anyone affiliated with a research institute. The competition, which received more than 200 entries from international researchers at all career levels and a wide variety of scientific disciplines, was looking for striking visual interpretations of ecological processes. In this Editorial, our academic Section Editors and guest judge Dr Yan Wong explain what they found most appealing about their chosen winning entries, and highlight a few of the outstanding images that didn't quite make it to the top prize.

  3. BMC Ecology image competition: the winning images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    BMC Ecology announces the winning entries in its inaugural Ecology Image Competition, open to anyone affiliated with a research institute. The competition, which received more than 200 entries from international researchers at all career levels and a wide variety of scientific disciplines, was looking for striking visual interpretations of ecological processes. In this Editorial, our academic Section Editors and guest judge Dr Yan Wong explain what they found most appealing about their chosen winning entries, and highlight a few of the outstanding images that didn’t quite make it to the top prize. PMID:23517630

  4. Competitiveness and Campaign '88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan-Schloss, Adam, Ed.; And Others

    This report profiles the positions of the six Democratic and six Republican 1988 presidential candidates on policy issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in the global economy. Candidate profiles are provided for: Bruce Babbitt, Michael Dukakis, Richard Gephardt, Albert Gore, Jr., Jesse Jackson, and Paul Simon (Democrats); and George Bush, Robert…

  5. Explaining competitive reaction effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    Changes in promotional expenditure decisions for a brand, as in other marketing decisions, should be based on the expected impact on purchase and consumption behavior as well as on the likely reactions by competitors. Purchase behavior may be predicted from estimated demand functions. Competitive

  6. Facing competitive pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrich, H.

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the problems facing the electric power industry and professional personnel as a result of economic downturn and the resulting down sizing of individual companies and utilities. The author proposes that the most efficient use of technology will have greater impact in making a utility more competitive than reducing the head count

  7. Competition Law in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Raj; Cynthia Lian; Wen-Ly Chin

    2015-01-01

    There is still some way for Malaysia to go and the lack of merger control (for the foreseeable future) remains a significant shortcoming in the Malaysian competition law regime at this stage. Anand Raj, Cynthia Lian, & Wen-Ly Chin (Shearn Delamore & Co., Kuala Lumpur)

  8. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining

  9. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  10. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...

  11. Catalogers and Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Norman

    1987-01-01

    Reports the results of a literature review and a survey of catalogers which were conducted to study the problem of the decline in quantity and quality of applications for entry-level cataloging jobs. Factors studied included: competition between types of library professionals, automation, library education, the women's movement, and library…

  12. Context Construction through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    This paper examines the relation between the evolution of statehood and institutionalised competition in the European context. The first half of the paper develops a historical-sociological view on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe while the second half the paper...

  13. Context Construction Through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how the instit...

  14. Recent progress in competitive intelligence, competitive technical intelligence and knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou Henri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of competitive intelligence and knowledge management to create, maintain and sustain competitive advantages. The triple helix model, based on the integration of the public sector (government, business models (private corporations and universities to promote innovation is examined. Research trends in competitive intelligence are presented. It concludes that the systematic use of the technology monitoring should support the comparison between various business models of companies that hold the market best practices and form a basis to knowledge for the decision making process and strategies development.

  15. COMPETITIVENESS OF DEFENSE INDUSTRY IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakki BILGEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has created some opportunities for the organisations in the defense industry to generate a suitable business and to ensure its sustainability. The domestic coverage ratio of defense system need in 2010 is aimed as 50%. To achieve this target depends on the defense industry competitiveness. In this study, the development plans, strategies and foreign trade are examined. Its contribution which has an important place in the research and development investment, is not at the level expected in Turkey’s economy. Turkey occupies 47th position in World Competitiveness Scoreboard, and 61st position in Global Competitiveness Index in 2009. The index factors are investigated to understand the competitiveness according to the Porter’s diamond model, applied in Turkey for the first time. As a result, the competitiveness analysis of Turkish defense industry is carried out and its global place and competitive advantage are exposed. Therefore, a framework is made to introduce a guide for decision-making by using a widely-accepted model, and to contribute to the plans and strategies

  16. Amphetamine-type stimulants and HIV infection among men who have sex with men: implications on HIV research and prevention from a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nga Thi Thu Vu; Lisa Maher; Iryna Zablotska

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: HIV infections and the use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been increasing internationally, but the role of ATS use as a co-factor for HIV infection remains unclear. We aimed to summarize the association between ATS use and HIV infection among MSM. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, GLOBAL HEALTH and PsycINFO for relevant English, peer-reviewed articles of quantitative studies published between 1980 and 2...

  17. Electrical stimulation in exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has a long history of use in medicine dating back to 46 A.D. when the Roman physician Largus found the electrical discharge of torpedo fishes useful in the treatment of pain produced by headache and gout. A rival Greek physician, Dioscorides, discounted the value of the torpedo fish for headache relief but did recommend its use in the treatment of hemorrhoids. In 1745, the Leyden jar and various sized electrostatic generators were used to treat angina pectoris, epilepsy, hemiplegia, kidney stones, and sciatica. Benjamin Franklin used an electrical device to treat successfully a young woman suffering from convulsive fits. In the late 1800's battery powered hydroelectric baths were used to treat chronic inflammation of the uterus while electrified athletic supporters were advertised for the treatment of male problems. Fortunately, such an amusing early history of the simple beginnings of electrical stimulation did not prevent eventual development of a variety of useful therapeutic and rehabilitative applications of electrical stimulation. Over the centuries electrical stimulation has survived as a modality in the treatment of various medical disorders with its primary application being in the rehabilitation area. Recently, a surge of new interest in electrical stimulation has been kindled by the work of a Russian sport scientist who reported remarkable muscle strength and endurance improvements in elite athletes. Yakov Kots reported his research on electric stimulation and strength improvements in 1977 at a Canadian-Soviet Exchange Symposium held at Concordia University in Montreal. Since then an explosion of new studies has been seen in both sport science and in medicine. Based upon the reported works of Kots and the present surge of new investigations, one could be misled as to the origin of electrical stimulation as a technique to increase muscle strength. As a matter of fact, electric stimulation has been used as a technique to improve

  18. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  19. Competition policy in patent cases and antitrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The article that follows examines the competition policy reflected in the decisions of the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in its patent cases. The court's views on this subject have been manifested most plainly in decisions that have transformed the law concerning infringement under the doctrine of equivalents and claim construction. In both categories, the court narrowed patent scope by reason of its desire to protect competitors. The article argues that the court's premise in prescribing narrower claim scope reflected an incomplete view of competition policy. The court's analysis overlooked the benefits to competition provided by patents, which stimulate inventions and their development. The article traces the development of antitrust jurisprudence and demonstrates how respect for the contribution of patents to competition and skepticism of free-riding has evolved, particularly beginning in the 1970s. The article draws a parallel between the Court's reasoning about competition policy, on the one hand, and the rejected views of Justices Hugo Black and William O. Douglas and abandoned patent-antitrust jurisprudence, on the other. The Federal Circuit's decision in Festo Corp. v. Shoketsu Kinzoku Kogyo Kabushiki Co., Ltd., 234 F.3d 558 (Fed. Cir. 2000), on the subject of equivalents is considered in the paper. In that decision, the majority adopted a new rule that completely barred infringement under the doctrine of equivalents of any claim limitation where, in prosecution, there had been a narrowing amendment relating to patentability. In the past, prosecution estoppel foreclosing equivalents had been subject to a "flexible bar," which, in some circumstances, allowed for equivalence notwithstanding such an amendment. The article points out that because almost all patents are amended during prosecution, the effect would be to allow widespread copying of patented inventions by trivial modifications of any narrowed claim limitation. The incentive to innovate

  20. Dancing in the Dark: Competition over the "Meaning of Competition"

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalfe John Stanley

    2009-01-01

    Competing concepts of competition provide a sharp divide between theories of economic order and theories of economic transformation. The shift from competition as a state of affairs and competition as a creative process provides the divergence of perspective that is the topic of this paper. We link the Smith Marshall approach of rivalry and open competition to the more modern evolutionary view based on variation cum selection perspectives on innovation and the adaptive role of market processe...

  1. Engagement sensitive visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Early detection during golden hour and treatment of individual neurological dysfunction in stroke using easy-to-access biomarkers based on a simple-to-use, cost-effective, clinically-valid screening tool can bring a paradigm shift in healthcare, both urban and rural. In our research we have designed a quantitative automatic home-based oculomotor assessment tool that can play an important complementary role in prognosis of neurological disorders like stroke for the neurologist. Once the patient has been screened for stroke, the next step is to design proper rehabilitation platform to alleviate the disability. In addition to the screening platform, in our research, we work in designing virtual reality based rehabilitation exercise platform that has the potential to deliver visual stimulation and in turn contribute to improving one’s performance.

  2. Competitiveness regulation of dairy products production in the Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domozhilkina Zh. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available the article outlines the results of studying the major problems concerning supporting competitiveness and quality of dairy products in the Crimea. The researchers compared the level of competitiveness of the dairy enterprise ltd. «Бег» with other brands of milk and suggested measures to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of competitiveness management of dairy products in this region.

  3. How winning changes motivation in multiphase competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Szu-Chi; Etkin, Jordan; Jin, Liyin

    2017-06-01

    What drives motivation in multiphase competitions? Adopting a dynamic approach, this research examines how temporary standing-being ahead of (vs. behind) one's opponent-in a multiphase competition shapes subsequent motivation. Six competitions conducted in the lab and in the field demonstrate that the impact of being ahead on contestants' motivation depends on when (i.e., in which phase of the competition) contestants learn they are in the lead. In the early phase, contestants are concerned about whether they can win; being ahead increases motivation by making winning seem more attainable. In the later phase, however, contestants are instead driven by how much additional effort they believe they need to invest; being ahead decreases motivation by reducing contestants' estimate of the remaining effort needed to win. Temporary standing thus has divergent effects on motivation in multiphase competitions, driven by a shift in contestants' main concern from the early to the later phase and thus the meaning they derive from being ahead of their opponent. By leveraging insights gained from approaching individuals' self-regulation as a dynamic process, this research advances understanding of how motivation evolves in a unique interdependent self-regulatory context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Power industry and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, H.

    1988-01-01

    A task group on antritrust law has been set in by the Federal Ministry of Economics in order to again investigate the position of the utilities within the framework of the law against restraints on competition, (GWB). The task group's report states that from the power industry's perspective, there is no reason to modify the existing system created by sections 103, 103a of the GWB. The EC internal market to come, and enhanced use of coal for power generation to be continued beyond the year 1995 are topics that will keep politicians, utilities, and lawmakers in this field busy enough. In such a situation, the legislator cannot afford a discovery trip into unexplored, theoretical impacts of enhanced competition on the power industry. (orig./DG) [de

  5. Canadian competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, J.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of the Canadian petrochemical industry was outlined, emphasizing the proximity to feedstocks as the principal advantage enjoyed by the industry over its international competitors. Annual sales statistics for 1995 were provided. Key players in the Canadian petrochemical industry (Nova, Dow, DuPont, Methanex, Esso, Union Carbide, Shell and Celanese), their share of the market and key products were noted. Manufacturing facilities are located primarily in Alberta, southern Ontario and Quebec. The feedstock supply infrastructure, historical and alternative ethane pricing in Canada and the US, the North American market for petrochemicals, the competitiveness of the industry, tax competitiveness among Canadian provinces and the US, the Canada - US unit labour cost ratio, ethylene facility construction costs in Canada relative to the US Gulf Coast, and projected 1997 financial requirements were reviewed. 19 figs

  6. Competitiveness and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, R.

    2006-01-01

    The author addresses the relationship between competitiveness and climate policy beyond the issue of emission quota trading, and with taking into account links between different activities. For some sectors, demand may depend on measures undertaken to reduce emissions in the transport and building sectors. According to the author, these interactions could transform the industry on a middle term, more than the required technical changes aimed at the reduction of emissions. After a detailed analysis on these issues, this paper discusses the results of several studies dealing with the relationship between environmental regulation and competitiveness, and with global assessments of carbon leakages. Then, the author discusses the European directive which introduces the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS)

  7. CORPORATE CULTURE AND COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROGOJANU Angela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Culture is one of those terms that are difficult to express distinctly, but everyone knows it when they sense it. Many articles have been written in recent years about corporate culture, which can be looked at as a system. Inputs include feedback from society, professions, laws, stories, heroes, values on competition or service, etc. Outputs are organizational behaviors, technologies, strategies, image, products, services, appearance, etc. Most organizations don't consciously try to create a certain culture, as it is typically created unconsciously, based on the values of the top management or the founders of an organization. In this paper we try to see whether corporate culture has any influence on competition and if it has, whether it is a positive one or a negative one.

  8. Competition, Regulation and Development Research Forum ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many developing countries have adopted market-oriented reforms as a part of the globalization and liberalization process. However, due to market distortions, the need to ensure proper access to essential services requires effective regulation. Accordingly, developing countries are legislating or revising their ...

  9. CASE STUDY: Uzbekistan — Competition research improves ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC Digital Library: ... Uzbek workers abroad find employment in fields as varied as construction, catering, industry, and agriculture ... These conditions created a golden opportunity for companies that specialize in international money transfers .... Durban, Mumbai et Rio illustrent la croissance rapide et la transformation qui ...

  10. Competition Research for Economic Development | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and disseminated by means of a high-profile communications program. ... Fiscalía Nacional Económica. Institution Country. Chile. Institution Website ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive growth solutions.

  11. International network competition

    OpenAIRE

    Tangerås, Thomas P.; Tåg, Joacim

    2014-01-01

    We analyse network competition in a market with international calls. National regulatory agencies (NRAs) have incentives to set regulated termination rates above marginal cost to extract rent from international call termination. International network ownership and deregulation are alternatives to combat the incentives of NRAs to distort termination rates. We provide conditions under which each of these policies increase efficiency and aggregate welfare. Our findings provide theoretical suppor...

  12. Competition and dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, J; Sørensen, R

    2000-07-01

    Dental services for adults are different from all other Norwegian health services in that they are provided by private producers (dentists) who have full freedom to establish a practice. They have had this freedom since the end of World War II. A further liberalization of the market for dental services occurred in November 1995, when the so-called normal tariff was repealed. The system changed from a fixed fee system to a deregulated fee system. In principle, the market for dental services for adults operates as a free competitive market, in which dentists must compete for a market share. The aim of this study was to study the short-term effects of competition. A comprehensive set of data on fees, practice characteristics, treatment profiles and factors that dentists take into account when determining fees was analysed. The main finding was that competition has a weak effect. No support was found for the theory that the level of fees is the result of monopolistic competition or monopoly. The results also provided some evidence against the inducement hypothesis. At this stage, it is interesting to notice that dentists do not seem to exploit the power they have to control the market. One explanation, which is consistent with the more recent literature, is that physicians' behaviour to a large extent is influenced by professional norms and caring concerns about their patients. Financial incentives are important, but these incentives are constrained by norms other than self-interest. The interpretation of the results should also take into account that the deregulation has operated for a short time and that dentists and patients may not yet have adjusted to changes in the characteristics of the market. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Brokers and Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Ryall; Olav Sorenson

    2007-01-01

    The broker profits by intermediating between two (or more) parties. Using a biform game, we examine whether such a position can confer a competitive advantage, as well as whether any such advantage could persist if actors formed relations strategically. Our analysis reveals that, if one considers exogenous the relations between actors, brokers can enjoy an advantage but only if (1) they do not face substitutes either for the connections they offer or the value they can create, (2) they interm...

  14. Competition: the answers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The correct answers to the Staff Association Competition are: How many women delegates are there currently in the Staff Council? -14 Who is the current President of the Staff Association? - Alessandro Raimondo Which year was the Nursery School established by the Staff Association at CERN?  -1965 How many CERN clubs are supported by the Staff Association? -44 What is the supreme representative body of the Staff Association ? -The Staff Council   The winners will be informed by email.

  15. Competitiveness - higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.

  16. Strategic Accessibility Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Bacchiega, Emanuele; Randon, Emanuela; Zirulia, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the effect of competition in market-accessibility enhancement among quality-differentiated firms. Firms are located in regions with different ex-ante transport costs to reach the final market. We characterize the equilibrium of the two-stage game in which firms first invest to improve market accessibility and then compete in prices. Efforts in accessibility improvement crucially depend on the interplay between the willingness to pay for the quality premium of the median consumer an...

  17. Economic competitiveness of windmills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapin, E E

    1977-01-01

    The conditions under which windmills become competitive with the generation of electric power from fossil fuels are examined. The influence of cost of construction, financing arrangements, and the future cost of fuels is shown. Energy storage and network arrangements for mills are considered briefly, as are alternate uses for mills, e.g., the utilization of mill output directly for heating or for the production of a fuel.

  18. Energy and Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bureau , Dominique; Fontagné , Lionel; Martin , Philippe

    2013-01-01

    When energy prices are expected to rise over the next twenty years, it is essential that industrial innovation efforts and the supply of goods and service off erings be directed towards energy-efficient technologies. However, a more significant increase in energy prices in France than in other countries would be detrimental to the short-term competitiveness of French industry. The present Note outlines the terms of the trade-off France has to confront between reserving a significant part of i...

  19. Is nuclear power competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandfon, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    In view of the current high cost of coal and nuclear plants and the unfavorable regulatory and financial conditions under which they've been built in the last decade, the Atomic Industrial Forum assembled a Study Group, with extensive experience in economic analysis to examine future cost possibilities. This paper summarizes the first phase of a two-phase study to address the competitiveness of electricity from new coal and nuclear plants with oil and natural gas in common markets

  20. Energy and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.; Flaman, L.; Beigie, C.

    1992-01-01

    Energy efficiency-related programs in two Canadian provinces are reviewed. The Ontario Ministry of Energy has implemented programs to improve industrial energy efficiency in order to contribute to future economic growth. Since 1987, the Industrial Energy Services Program provides energy audits, feasibility analysis grants, and project engineering grants for energy efficiency improvements. Results show that an industrial plant can cut its energy costs by an average of 10% with the proper help. To minimize electricity costs, Ontario Hydro has a demand management program that offers a combination of financial assistance for energy conservation measures, rate incentives, standards and regulation, and fuel substitution. Results in 1992 show 250 MW in saved and shifted load. In Alberta, a TransAlta Utilities program in supply side management has the objective of maximizing the production potential of existing plants. The resulting benefit is improved electric power production efficiency that leads to increased competitiveness. Side benefits include delay of new plant construction, reduced coal consumption, and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, Canada's economic competitiveness is reviewed historically and measures to improve this competitiveness are suggested. A new national policy strategy would include gradual elimination of all import tariffs, optimization of natural resources, securing energy availability at prices at or below world levels, and becoming a leader in transportation and communications. 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Endogeneous Risk in Monopolistic Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Vladislav Damjanovic

    2012-01-01

    We consider a model of financial intermediation with a monopolistic competition market structure. A non-monotonic relationship between the risk measured as a probability of default and the degree of competition is established.

  2. Analyzing Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Strategically Managing Resource Allocations to Achieve Operational Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Malek Nurul Aida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sense and respond, and sustainable competitive advantage models. These models help to describe, evaluate, and optimize resource allocation to meet the performance requirements in dynamic decision making. Furthermore, these models evaluate operational competitiveness for manufacturing strategies according to the multi-criteria priority. The results show that the adjustments of competitive priorities in manufacturing strategies by implementing the proposed holistic analytical models are helpful in strategically managing business operations. The discussion derives the most critical attributes in business operations while alignment of resource allocation with competitive priorities help to strategically focus those attributes. In conclusion, we argue that resource allocation and manufacturing strategies have become the most important capabilities in a business environment where companies focus to get a sustainable competitive advantage.

  3. Functional electrical stimulation and ankle foot orthoses provide equivalent therapeutic effects on foot drop: A meta-analysis providing direction for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Prenton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the randomized controlled trial evidence for therapeutic effects on walking of functional electrical stimulation and ankle foot orthoses for foot drop caused by central nervous system conditions. Data sources: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, REHABDATA, PEDro, NIHR Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Scopus and clinicaltrials.gov. Study selection: One reviewer screened titles/abstracts. Two independent reviewers then screened the full articles. Data extraction: One reviewer extracted data, another screened for accuracy. Risk of bias was assessed by 2 independent reviewers using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Data synthesis: Eight papers were eligible; 7 involving participants with stroke and 1 involving participants with cerebral palsy. Two papes reporting different measures from the same trial were grouped, resulting in 7 synthesized randomized controlled trials (n= 464. Meta-analysis of walking speed at final assessment (p = 0.46, for stroke participants (p = 0.54 and after 4–6 weeks’ use (p = 0.49 showed equal improvement for both devices. Conclusion: Functional electrical stimulation and ankle foot orthoses have an equally positive therapeutic effect on walking speed in non-progressive central nervous system diagnoses. The current randomized controlled trial evidence base does not show whether this improvement translates into the user’s own environment or reveal the mechanisms that achieve that change. Future studies should focus on measuring activity, muscle activity and gait kinematics. They should also report specific device details, capture sustained therapeutic effects and involve a variety of central nervous system diagnoses.

  4. Investigating the effect of emotional and social stimulants of store atmosphere and prices on the customers' satisfaction and loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mosayebi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is impossible for retailers to establish a competitive and successful store in the marketplace through making a distinction in the outer facades of their stores, altering the pricing system, and diversifying the products offered in the store, due to the intense competition emerged in retailing markets. This leads the retailing markets to a new concept of marketplace, which is called “teaser retailing”. In this research, we first explain some related variables such as emotional and social stimulants, emotional-perceptual indicators, price of product, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty. Then we investigate the impact of emotional and social stimulants and price of products on emotional-perceptual indicators as well as the relationship between emotional-perceptual indicators and customer satisfaction, and finally the relationship between customer satisfaction and his/her loyalty. The first hypothesis was associated with the effect of the store emotional stimulants on emotional-perceptual indicators and it was not confirmed. After investigation of the second hypothesis, it was cleared that the store social stimulants affects the buyer's emotional-perceptual indicators in purchasing point. On the other hand, the third hypothesis indicated that price of products affects the buyer's emotional-perceptual indicators in purchasing point. The fourth hypothesis indicated that emotional-perceptual indicators affect the customer satisfaction, and finally the fifth one indicated that the customer satisfaction leads to his/her loyalty.

  5. Competitiveness and Management of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ming Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper delves into competition and technology management as a means of economic development. Expanding from Porter's framework on competitiveness and using a novel framework of PTGE(People, Technology, Government and Environment), this paper argues that three types of competitive advantage could be created. These competitive advantages range from passive to active advantages, i.e. natural advantage, duplicated advantage and niche advantage. Technology and effective management of technolog...

  6. LENIENCY POLICY FOR COMPETITIVE ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie Moga

    2013-01-01

    A market driven economy is inconceivable without competition. In this system, the competition is beneficial firstly for consumers, but also for producers. The former have the ability to satisfy their needs according to taste and financial ability, while the latter are incentivized to innovate and increase efficiency. Competition induces natural selection among companies. This selection must adhere to strictly abiding by competition law regulation, while regulation must benefit both consumers ...

  7. Competitive coexistence caused by adaptive predators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivan, Vlastimil

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2003), s. 1163-1182 ISSN 1522-0613 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : adaptive foraging -competition Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.587, year: 2003

  8. Leading to Learning and Competitive Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Trong Tuan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine whether there is the chain effect from corporate social responsibility (CSR) and emotional intelligence (EI) to organizational learning and competitive intelligence in chemical companies in a Vietnam business setting. Design/methodology/approach: Structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to analyze…

  9. Nation branding and sustainable competitiveness of nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Kyung Mi

    2009-01-01

    Considering the importance of explaining how a nation brand is effectively managed and how nation branding aligns the nation's brand with country management so as to gain competitiveness, this research aims to assess the role of nation branding and to create a strategic management tool for nation

  10. Competitive Intelligence for MBA Students: Credit Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkwood, Hal P, Jr

    2016-01-01

    Poster was presented at the Business & Finance Division Poster Session at the Special Libraries Association Annual Conference in Philadelphia, PA, 2016. Focus of the poster is on the credit-level courses taught by Prof Hal Kirkwood to MBA students in the Krannert Graduate School of Management on the topics of international business research and an introduction to competitive intelligence.

  11. Drivers of Competitiveness and Strategies for Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will support capacity building, research studies and policy outreach with a focus on the following areas: the dynamics of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and their potential for job creation; enhancing the inclusiveness of export-led growth through innovation, technology and competitiveness; balancing ...

  12. An Examination of Regional Competitiveness: Early Findings from Banten, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holis, Y. M.; Syabri, I.; Prabatmojo, H.

    2018-05-01

    Over time, the regional development planning paradigm continues to change procedural, substantive, actor and institutional aspects. The increasing globalization and decentralized governance systems will continue to determine how a country or region can compete and even be able to take advantage of the positive value of economic globalization. This certainly provides challenges and opportunities for the renewal of regional development concepts, in particular, the concept of regional competitiveness. This concept still lacks a scientific basis and its interpretation is still in debate. To date, the clear scientific basis is the concepts of corporate and national competitiveness. Whereas, the concept of competitiveness at the meso-level, namely the competitiveness of the region, becomes very important. Regional competitiveness prepares a region and to survive in response to the more open dynamics of economic globalization and the system of decentralization of authority in Indonesia. The objective of this research is to complement the concept of competitiveness which is still at the level of microeconomics (business theory) and macroeconomy (theory of growth) with the concept of competitiveness at the regional level that focuses on (i) finding determinant factors at the regional level in Indonesia; (ii) profiling regional competitiveness in several regions; and (iii) assessing the role of local government (institutional and actor) on determinants of regional competitiveness. This research is carried out by using a mixed-methods approach with a concurrent triangulation strategy model. The research follows the stages of literature study to identify the determinant factors of regional competitiveness relevant to the purpose of research, followed by descriptive analysis of the variables and selected by statistics through Analytical Network Process (ANP) to become the determinant factor of competitiveness. In accordance with the concept and definition of regional

  13. Aversive Stimulation -- Criteria for Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Ohlson, Glenn A.

    Criteria for applying aversive stimulation with severely handicapped children are examined, and practical and ethical issues are considered. Factors seen to influence punishment outcomes include timing, intensity, and schedule of reinforcement. Suggested is the need for further research on the comparative effectiveness of positive and negative…

  14. News Competition: Physics Olympiad hits Thailand Report: Institute carries out survey into maths in physics at university Event: A day for everyone teaching physics Conference: Welsh conference celebrates birthday Schools: Researchers in Residence scheme set to close Teachers: A day for new physics teachers Social: Network combines fun and physics Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Competition: Physics Olympiad hits Thailand Report: Institute carries out survey into maths in physics at university Event: A day for everyone teaching physics Conference: Welsh conference celebrates birthday Schools: Researchers in Residence scheme set to close Teachers: A day for new physics teachers Social: Network combines fun and physics Forthcoming events

  15. News Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

  16. Etiology and Recovery of Neuromuscular Fatigue following Competitive Soccer Match-Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum G. Brownstein

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Previous research into the etiology of neuromuscular fatigue following competitive soccer match-play has primarily focused on peripheral perturbations, with limited research assessing central nervous system function in the days post-match. The aim of the present study was to examine the contribution and time-course of recovery of central and peripheral factors toward neuromuscular fatigue following competitive soccer match-play.Methods: Sixteen male semi-professional soccer players completed a 90-min soccer match. Pre-, post- and at 24, 48, and 72 h participants completed a battery of neuromuscular, physical, and perceptual tests. Maximal voluntary contraction force (MVC and twitch responses to electrical (femoral nerve and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS of the motor cortex during isometric knee-extension and at rest were measured to assess central nervous system (voluntary activation, VA and muscle contractile (potentiated twitch force, Qtw, pot function. Electromyography responses of the rectus femoris to single- and paired-pulse TMS were used to assess corticospinal excitability and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, respectively. Fatigue and perceptions of muscle soreness were assessed via visual analog scales, and physical function was assessed through measures of jump (countermovement jump height and reactive strength index and sprint performance.Results: Competitive match-play elicited significant post-match declines in MVC force (−14%, P < 0.001 that persisted for 48 h (−4%, P = 0.01, before recovering by 72 h post-exercise. VA (motor point stimulation was reduced immediately post-match (−8%, P < 0.001, and remained depressed at 24 h (−5%, P = 0.01 before recovering by 48 h post-exercise. Qtw,pot was reduced post-match (−14%, P < 0.001, remained depressed at 24 h (−6%, P = 0.01, before recovering by 48 h post-exercise. No changes were evident in corticospinal excitability or SICI. Jump performance

  17. Competition policy for health care provision in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Kurt R; Straume, Odd Rune

    2017-02-01

    Competition policy has played a very limited role for health care provision in Norway. The main reason is that Norway has a National Health Service (NHS) with extensive public provision and a wide set of sector-specific regulations that limit the scope for competition. However, the last two decades, several reforms have deregulated health care provision and opened up for provider competition along some dimensions. For specialised care, the government has introduced patient choice and (partly) activity (DRG) based funding, but also corporatised public hospitals and allowed for more private provision. For primary care, a reform changed the payment scheme to capitation and (a higher share of) fee-for-service, inducing almost all GPs on fixed salary contracts to become self-employed. While these reforms have the potential for generating competition in the Norwegian NHS, the empirical evidence is quite limited and the findings are mixed. We identify a set of possible caveats that may weaken the incentives for provider competition - such as the partial implementation of DRG pricing, the dual purchaser-provider role of regional health authorities, and the extensive consolidation of public hospitals - and argue that there is great scope for competition policy measures that could stimulate provider competition within the Norwegian NHS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How does the outcome of research training fellowships funded via the NHS compare with that from competitively funded fellowships from the MRC and other charities: a cross-sectional retrospective survey of trainees undertaking research training in the West Midlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybury, Charlotte; Morgan, Matthew David; Smith, Russell; Harper, Lorraine

    2018-01-23

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of research training funded via the National Health Service (NHS) on medical trainees compared with traditional clinical research training fellowships (CRTFs). Online survey of 221 clinical trainees who had completed a period of research during their clinical training between 2009 and 2015 in the West Midlands. Research outcomes. Overall response rate was 59%, of whom 72 participants were funded by CRTFs and 51 funded by the NHS. Although participants with CRTFs were more likely to be awarded a higher degree compared with those on NHS-administered funding (66/72 CRTFs and 37/51 NHS, P=0.005), similar proportions of NHS-funded and CRTF-funded participants entered clinical lecturer posts on completing initial research training (8/51 NHS and 16/72 CRTF, P=0.37). 77% of participants had three or more publications (CRTF 57 and NHS 39, P=0.72). 57 participants had completed clinical training; similar proportions of CRTF-funded and NHS-funded trainees had research included in their consultant contract (12/22 NHS and 14/26 CRTF, P=0.96) or were appointed to academic posts (3 of 25 NHS funded and 6 of 32 CRTF, P>0.05). 95% of participants would recommend to colleagues and 82% of participants felt the research experience improved their provision of clinical care with no difference between CRTF-funded and NHS-funded participants (P=0.49). Continuing to participate in clinical work during the research reduced reports of trainee difficulty on returning to clinical work (23/108 continued clinical work vs 12/22 no clinical work, P=0.001). Research training funded by the NHS provides a quality experience and contributes to the clinical academic capacity within the UK. More needs to be done to support NHS participants to successfully achieve a higher degree. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  19. [Competitiveness in science. Today, tomorrow, and forever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bold, A J

    2000-01-01

    Paternalistic governments and highly bureaucratized administrations produce mediocre science policy decisions that often allow for the co-existence of potentially competitive scientists alongside with those that are not. This invariably results in failure to produce significant research. It seems apparent therefore, that policy change aiming at improving science and technology must begin with intensification of the level of individual competitiveness. Nations that have internationally competitive levels of technical and scientific activity such as Japan, USA and Canada, share in common certain features that foster individual competitiveness despite the fact that their socioeconomic basis are vastly different. These common features include administrative continuity, very high academic standards and a highly educated work force. The scientist's emotional cost in competitive environments is high but there seems to be no alternative given the sophistication of the topics that are dealt with in formerly purely descriptive sciences such as biomedicine, and given the enormous speed of electronic communications. The role of governments in fostering science and technology should be mainly concerned with conducting a sound fiscal policy in order to provide for the needs of education and scientific activity. Governments can also play a key role in insuring that science remains competitive through the delineation of rules that increase individual competitiveness rather than with policy schemes that fail to directly address the responsibility of the individual. Policies to increase individuals' performance may prove costly to politicians given that these adjustments imply unpopular decisions regarding an increase in academic performance expectation beginning in high school and the re-assignment of functions of individuals or institutions that do not meet international productivity criteria.

  20. Spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007560.htm Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses ...

  1. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  2. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  3. Competition and quality in home health care markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoungrae; Polsky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Market-based solutions are often proposed to improve health care quality; yet evidence on the role of competition in quality in non-hospital settings is sparse. We examine the relationship between competition and quality in home health care. This market is different from other markets in that service delivery takes place in patients' homes, which implies low costs of market entry and exit for agencies. We use 6 years of panel data for Medicare beneficiaries during the early 2000s. We identify the competition effect from within-market variation in competition over time. We analyze three quality measures: functional improvements, the number of home health visits, and discharges without hospitalization. We find that the relationship between competition and home health quality is nonlinear and its pattern differs by quality measure. Competition has positive effects on functional improvements and the number of visits in most ranges, but in the most competitive markets, functional outcomes and the number of visits slightly drop. Competition has a negative effect on discharges without hospitalization that is strongest in the most competitive markets. This finding is different from prior research on hospital markets and suggests that market-specific environments should be considered in developing polices to promote competition. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. COMPETITION AND QUALITY IN HOME HEALTH CARE MARKETS†

    Science.gov (United States)

    JUNG, KYOUNGRAE; POLSKY, DANIEL

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Market-based solutions are often proposed to improve health care quality; yet evidence on the role of competition in quality in non-hospital settings is sparse. We examine the relationship between competition and quality in home health care. This market is different from other markets in that service delivery takes place in patients’ homes, which implies low costs of market entry and exit for agencies. We use 6 years of panel data for Medicare beneficiaries during the early 2000s. We identify the competition effect from within-market variation in competition over time. We analyze three quality measures: functional improvements, the number of home health visits, and discharges without hospitalization. We find that the relationship between competition and home health quality is nonlinear and its pattern differs by quality measure. Competition has positive effects on functional improvements and the number of visits in most ranges, but in the most competitive markets, functional outcomes and the number of visits slightly drop. Competition has a negative effect on discharges without hospitalization that is strongest in the most competitive markets. This finding is different from prior research on hospital markets and suggests that market-specific environments should be considered in developing polices to promote competition. PMID:23670849

  5. Competition Advocacy: the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rebecchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.

  6. Competitiveness of South Africa as a tourist destination | Saayman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-four tour operators participated in this survey and the results showed that the assurance of safety was identified as the most important factor globally in order to be competitive. This research also identified South Africa's strengths and weaknesses as well as its competitive advantages. Safety was indicated as South ...

  7. Product Image to Build the Core Competitiveness of Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new specialty research field, Product Image is being paid more attention. This article introduced the concept of Product Image and Core-competition, and illustrated how to conduct Core-competition of enterprise from two aspects of the foundation of Product Image and the communication of Product Image.

  8. Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…

  9. Mathematics and Engineering in Real Life through Mathematical Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, M.

    2018-01-01

    We bring out an experience of organizing mathematical competitions that can be used as a medium to motivate the student and teacher minds in new directions of thinking. This can contribute to fostering research, innovation and provide a hands-on experience of mathematical concepts with the real world. Mathematical competitions can be used to build…

  10. Relation between competence and competitive advantages of the firm

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Research paper was considered an aspect of competence as source of uniqueness organization and its competition advantages. It emphasizes the importance internal factors for get success of business. The article is divided into two parts: theoretical framework and case study, which suggests as the competence of the influence on the competitive advantages of firms in theory and practice.

  11. Shoulder injuries in competitive swimmers in KwaZulu- | Puckree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoulder injuries in competitive swimmers in KwaZulu-. T Puckree, KJ Thomas ... Conclusion. The incidence of shoulder injuries in competitive swimmers is high. This study shows the need for more research into swimming injuries, and the conditioning and rehabilitation of athletes in South Africa. South African Journal of ...

  12. Multiple helix ecosystems for sustainable competitiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, João; Farinha, Luís; Fernandes, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the main issues, challenges, opportunities, and trends involving the interactions between academia, industry, government and society. Specifically, it aims to explore how these interactions enhance the ways in which companies deliver products and services in order to achieve sustainable competitiveness in the marketplace. Sustainable competitiveness has been widely discussed by academics and practitioners, considering the importance of protecting the environment while sustaining the economic goals of organizations. The Quintuple Helix innovation model is a framework for facilitating knowledge, innovation and sustainable competitive advantage. It embeds the Triple and the Quadruple Helix models by adding a fifth helix, the “natural environment.” The Triple Helix model focuses on the university-industry-government triad, while the Quadruple adds civil society (the media- and culture-driven public) as a fourth helix. The Quintuple Helix model facilitates research, public policy, and pract...

  13. Conceptualizing distal drivers in land use competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niewhöner, Jörg; Nielsen, Jonas Ø; Gasparri, Gasparri

    2016-01-01

    This introductory chapter explores the notion of ‘distal drivers’ in land use competition. Research has moved beyond proximate causes of land cover and land use change to focus on the underlying drivers of these dynamics. We discuss the framework of telecoupling within human–environment systems...... as a first step to come to terms with the increasingly distal nature of driving forces behind land use practices. We then expand the notion of distal as mainly a measure of Euclidian space to include temporal, social, and institutional dimensions. This understanding of distal widens our analytical scope...... for the analysis of land use competition as a distributed process to consider the role of knowledge and power, technology, and different temporalities within a relational or systemic analysis of practices of land use competition. We conclude by pointing toward the historical and social contingency of land use...

  14. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  15. COMPETITIVENESS OF THE INDONESIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Budiwibowo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia’s construction industry is important to the national economy. However, its competitiveness is considered low due to the lack of success of its development strategy and policy. A new approach known as the cluster approach is being used to make strategy and policy in order to develop a stronger more competitive industry . This paper discusses the layout of the Indonesian construction cluster and its competitiveness. The archival analysis research approach was used to identify the construction cluster. The analysis was based on the I/O tables of the years 1995 and 2000, which were published by the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics. The results suggest that the Indonesian construction cluster consists of the industries directly involved in construction as the core, with the other related and supporting industries as the balance. The anatomy of the Indonesian construction cluster permits structural changes to happen within it. These changes depend on policies that regulate the cluster’s constituents.

  16. The Relational View of Interorganizational Competitive Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    Collaborating with external partners on R&D and forming strategic partnership for R&D have been popular phenomena for long, which leads new development in existing theories. Though the relational view of competitive advantage has been proposed for more than a decade, few in-depth empirical...... they generate relational rents (interorganizational competitive advantage) from this alliance? Based on this case study, we will propose some implications for the R&D collaboration between Chinese and Scandinavian countries. Also, the case will help us to test and enrich the existing theories...... on interorganizational competitive advantage. At the end of the paper, based on existing theories and the case study result, we will propose our conceptual framework on researching R&D strategic alliance between Scandinavian and Chinese firms....

  17. African Competition Forum: Promoting Open and Competitive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To achieve the project's goals, the ACF will develop a program of research, collaborative strategic planning, capacity building, and knowledge management. The training and consultative aspects of the work are expected to demonstrate value to the AFC's members, and show policy results. The project will be managed by a ...

  18. Modeling the cooperative and competitive contagions in online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yun-Bei; Chen, J. J.; Li, Zhi-hong

    2017-10-01

    The wide adoption of social media has increased the interaction among different pieces of information, and this interaction includes cooperation and competition for our finite attention. While previous research focus on fully competition, this paper extends the interaction to be both "cooperation" and "competition", by employing an IS1S2 R model. To explore how two different pieces of information interact with each other, the IS1S2 R model splits the agents into four parts-(Ignorant-Spreader I-Spreader II-Stifler), based on SIR epidemic spreading model. Using real data from Weibo.com, a social network site similar to Twitter, we find some parameters, like decaying rates, can both influence the cooperative diffusion process and the competitive process, while other parameters, like infectious rates only have influence on the competitive diffusion process. Besides, the parameters' effect are more significant in the competitive diffusion than in the cooperative diffusion.

  19. Socio-Cultural Factors and International Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madara Apsalone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Socio-cultural factors – shared values, norms and attitudes are significant, but less acknowledged sources of international competitiveness. Previous studies have found socio-cultural factors positively affecting various aspects of international competitiveness – entrepreneurship, innovation, productivity and international cooperation. These factors are more sustainable and less affected by external environment changes in comparison with the traditional factors. Socio-cultural factors provide an opportunity to develop competitiveness strategies based on unique advantages. This research aims to explore the impact of socio-cultural factors on international competiveness in small, open economies. Analysing relationship between 400 socio-cultural indicators and competitiveness indicators such as productivity, economic development, business and government efficiency, innovation capacity and infrastructure in 37 countries, six socio-cultural factors have emerged: Collectivism and Hierarchy; Future, Cooperation and Performance Orientation, Self-expression, Monochronism and Rationality, Economic Orientation and Social structure. The first factor – Collectivism and Hierarchy – tends to reduce the international competitiveness; the other five affect it positively.

  20. Competitive intransitivity promotes species coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert A; Schamp, Brandon S

    2006-08-01

    Using a spatially explicit cellular automaton model with local competition, we investigate the potential for varied levels of competitive intransitivity (i.e., nonhierarchical competition) to promote species coexistence. As predicted, on average, increased levels of intransitivity result in more sustained coexistence within simulated communities, although the outcome of competition also becomes increasingly unpredictable. Interestingly, even a moderate degree of intransitivity within a community can promote coexistence, in terms of both the length of time until the first competitive exclusion and the number of species remaining in the community after 500 simulated generations. These results suggest that modest levels of intransitivity in nature, such as those that are thought to be characteristic of plant communities, can contribute to coexistence and, therefore, community-scale biodiversity. We explore a potential connection between competitive intransitivity and neutral theory, whereby competitive intransitivity may represent an important mechanism for "ecological equivalence."

  1. Strategic Orientation of SMEs: Empirical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Minović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to identify the sources of competitive advantage of small and medium-sized enterprises in Serbia. Gaining a competitive advantage is the key priority of market-oriented enterprises regardless of their size and sector. Since business environment in Serbia is not stimulating enough for enterprises’ growth and development, the paper highlights the role of strategic orientation in business promotion and development. In order to identify the sources of competitive advantage, the empirical research is conducted by using the survey method. The research sample is created by using a selective approach, namely, the sample includes enterprises with more than ten employees, and enterprises identified to have the potential for growth and development. The research results indicate that small and medium-sized enterprises in Serbia are generally focused on costs as a source of competitive advantage, i.e., they gain competitive advantage in a selected market segment by offering low price and average quality products/services. In addition, the results of the research point out that the Serbian small and medium-sized enterprises are innovation-oriented. Organizations qualifying as middle-sized enterprises are predominantly focused on process innovations, while small businesses are primarily oriented towards product innovations. One of the limitations of the research refers to the small presence of the research sample within the category of middle-sized enterprises. The smaller sample presence than it was previously planned is mostly due to the lack of managers’ willingness to participate in the research, as well as to the fact that these enterprises account for the smaller share in the total number of enterprises in the small-and medium-sized enterprises’ sector. Taking into account that the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises generates around 30% of the country’s GDP, we consider the research results to be

  2. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  3. Entrepreneurship and corporate competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Božo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomics reforms are not enough for long-range stability. Transition enterprises in domestic economy hasn't prepare itself for the market economy. It has some specific characteristics which are analyzed in this paper. Entrepreneurship is the corner stone for enterprise development in the sense of achieving sustainable competitiveness in the contemporary globalized world economy. There are two possibilities to introduce it in transition enterprises: (a self-development (development by itself or evolution and (b create partnerships or alliance with some reputable competitor. In current situation, author proposal is for the second solution.

  4. Competitive Moves over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle; Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    its viability to survive in the marketplace. The study begins with a review of sourcing literature to position the Red Queen theory within the sourcing literature. It subsequently applies the framework to a case study of SAP AG to illustrate how sourcing strategies changed over time in response...... the firm; (c) organizations are reflexive and over time develop competitive hysteresis which allows them to become stronger competitors. In the case of SAP AG, various sourcing arrangements were selected over its 40-year history to respond to technological and market changes....

  5. Energy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The members of the Enquete Commission ''Future Energy Policy'' of the German Bundestag are introduced as well as the list of participants from industry and other organizations in the public heaving on 18 th December 1981. Then the catalogue of questions of the Enquete Commission is presented. The written answers of the 11 representatives of industry form the main part of the report. In the following the minutes of the public hearing of the Enquete Commission 'Future Energy Policy' of the German Bundestag on Friday, 18 th December 1981 on the topic of 'The Competitiveness of German economy in various energy supply structures' is presented. (UA) [de

  6. Competition in nonmarket environments

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve González, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Aquesta tesi doctoral avalua les institucions públiques en situacions competitives des de tres perspectives diferents. La primera contribució analitza una activitat ordinària de les institucions públiques, la contractació de serveis, on hi ha un problema de risc moral potencial. Una institució pública hauria d’esbiaixar les competicions futures a favor del guanyador passat si aquest va realitzar un servei d’alta qualitat, i aquest biaix hauria de ser additiu. Quan la linearitat es redueix lle...

  7. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  8. Competition and confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borloo, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    After a presentation of the new situation of the energy sector with the opening of European energy markets to competition, the author recalls the role of the French government in the organisation and operation of this market: reliable information and protection of consumers, security of supplies with reasonable gas prices, sound relations and partnerships with producing and transit countries. France agrees with the diagnostic of the European Commission about the necessity to improve the operation of the domestic energy markets but differs with the projects of the Commission on the means to be implemented to ensure transparency, non-discrimination, and efficiency in the operation of these markets. (J.S.)

  9. Consensus paper: combining transcranial stimulation with neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Bergmann, Til O; Bestmann, Sven

    2009-01-01

    neuroimaging (online approach), TMS can be used to test how focal cortex stimulation acutely modifies the activity and connectivity in the stimulated neuronal circuits. TMS and neuroimaging can also be separated in time (offline approach). A conditioning session of repetitive TMS (rTMS) may be used to induce...... information obtained by neuroimaging can be used to define the optimal site and time point of stimulation in a subsequent experiment in which TMS is used to probe the functional contribution of the stimulated area to a specific task. In this review, we first address some general methodologic issues that need......In the last decade, combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-neuroimaging studies have greatly stimulated research in the field of TMS and neuroimaging. Here, we review how TMS can be combined with various neuroimaging techniques to investigate human brain function. When applied during...

  10. Optical stimulation of peripheral nerves in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathon D.

    This dissertation documents the emergence and validation of a new clinical tool that bridges the fields of biomedical optics and neuroscience. The research herein describes an innovative method for direct neurostimulation with pulsed infrared laser light. Safety and effectiveness of this technique are first demonstrated through functional stimulation of the rat sciatic nerve in vivo. The Holmium:YAG laser (lambda = 2.12 mum) is shown to operate at an optimal wavelength for peripheral nerve stimulation with advantages over standard electrical neural stimulation; including contact-free stimulation, high spatial selectivity, and lack of a stimulation artifact. The underlying biophysical mechanism responsible for transient optical nerve stimulation appears to be a small, absorption driven thermal gradient sustained at the axonal layer of nerve. Results explicitly prove that low frequency optical stimulation can reliably stimulate without resulting in tissue thermal damage. Based on the positive results from animal studies, these optimal laser parameters were utilized to move this research into the clinic with a combined safety and efficacy study in human subjects undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy. The clinical Holmium:YAG laser was used to effectively stimulate human dorsal spinal roots and elicit functional muscle responses recorded during surgery without evidence of nerve damage. Overall these results predict that this technology can be a valuable clinical tool in various neurosurgical applications.

  11. The retail market : competition choice and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, J.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation includes a brief overview of the corporate structure of Veridian Corporation and discusses the concept of customer choice and competition regarding the electric power industry in Ontario. Pricing and price stability was also discussed with reference to the outlook of electricity retailing. The Veridian holding company employs a total of 149 employees within its corporate structure which includes Veridian Energy Inc., Veridian Connections Inc. (a local electric distribution company), and Firstsource Inc. (an energy retailing business). Veridian operates in the Ontario cities of Pickering, Ajax, Clarington, and Belleville. The author notes that true customer choice occurs when customers have accurate price information before they buy a product, or when they have choice regarding who they buy the product from. Likewise, true competition occurs when there are multiple suppliers, when there is sufficient supply, and when prices are determined by demand. Although the electricity market in Ontario was opened to competition on May 1, 2002, customers do not really have a choice, nor does true competition exist. The author suggests that the Pickering generating station must be brought back on-line, as well as an investment climate that will attract new investors in power generation to Ontario. It was noted that government intervention is not helpful in stimulating investment in the power system. Pricing and price stability was discussed with reference to current trends in the import/export balance. The volatility in prices is expected to get worse in the near future, which is particularly detrimental to large power users who are seeking the assurance of a fixed price so that they could predict their production costs. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  12. The retail market : competition choice and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, J. [Veridian Corp., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This presentation includes a brief overview of the corporate structure of Veridian Corporation and discusses the concept of customer choice and competition regarding the electric power industry in Ontario. Pricing and price stability was also discussed with reference to the outlook of electricity retailing. The Veridian holding company employs a total of 149 employees within its corporate structure which includes Veridian Energy Inc., Veridian Connections Inc. (a local electric distribution company), and Firstsource Inc. (an energy retailing business). Veridian operates in the Ontario cities of Pickering, Ajax, Clarington, and Belleville. The author notes that true customer choice occurs when customers have accurate price information before they buy a product, or when they have choice regarding who they buy the product from. Likewise, true competition occurs when there are multiple suppliers, when there is sufficient supply, and when prices are determined by demand. Although the electricity market in Ontario was opened to competition on May 1, 2002, customers do not really have a choice, nor does true competition exist. The author suggests that the Pickering generating station must be brought back on-line, as well as an investment climate that will attract new investors in power generation to Ontario. It was noted that government intervention is not helpful in stimulating investment in the power system. Pricing and price stability was discussed with reference to current trends in the import/export balance. The volatility in prices is expected to get worse in the near future, which is particularly detrimental to large power users who are seeking the assurance of a fixed price so that they could predict their production costs. 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Is nuclear power competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandfon, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The first phase of a two-phase study of the competitiveness of electricity from new coal and nuclear plants with oil and natural gas in common markets concludes that, with few exceptions throughout the country, overall levelized nuclear generating cost could be lower than coal generating costs by more than 40%. The study shows a wider margin of economic superiority for nuclear than has been seen in other recent studies. Capital and fuel costs are the major determinants of relative nuclear and coal economics. The only substantial difference in the input assumptions has related to a shorter lead time for both coal and nuclear units, which reduces capital costs. The study gives substance to the charge that delaying tactics by intervenors and an unstable licensing environment drove up lifetime costs of both coal and nuclear plants. This caused an increase in electric rates and affected the entire economy. The study shows that nuclear power is competitive when large baseload capacity is required. 14 figures

  14. Does competition influence safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamme, H.

    2000-01-01

    Competition in the deregulated electricity market does not leave nuclear power plants unaffected. Operators seek to run their plants at maximum availability and with optimized cost structures so that specific generating costs are minimized. The 'costs of safety', with their fixed-cost character, are elements of this cost structure. Hence the question whether safety is going to suffer under the cost pressure on the market. The study shows that the process of economic optimization does not permit cost minimization for its own sake in the area of operating costs which can be influenced by management or are 'avoidable'. The basis of assessment rather must be potential risks which could entail losses of availability. Prophylactic investments made in order to avoid losses of availability to a large extent also imply unchanged or even higher levels of safety. Economic viability and safety thus are closely correlated. Competition in a deregulated marekt so far has not done any direct harm to plant safety. An even more efficient use of scarce funds and, hopefully, a tolerable political environment should allow the safety level of nuclear power plants to be upheld, and safety culture to be maintained, also in the future. (orig.) [de

  15. The Impact of Personality Factors and Preceding User Comments on the Processing of Research Findings on Deep Brain Stimulation: A Randomized Controlled Experiment in a Simulated Online Forum

    OpenAIRE

    Feinkohl, Insa; Flemming, Danny; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Background Laypeople frequently discuss medical research findings on Web-based platforms, but little is known about whether they grasp the tentativeness that is inherent in these findings. Potential influential factors involved in understanding medical tentativeness have hardly been assessed to date. Objective The research presented here aimed to examine the effects of personality factors and of other users? previous contributions in a Web-based forum on laypeople?s understanding of the tenta...

  16. To promote the engineering innovative abilities of undergraduates by taking projects as the guidance and competitions as the promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yishen; Wu, Di; Chen, Daqing; Gu, Jihua; Gao, Lei

    2017-08-01

    According to the inherent requirements of education for talents' knowledge, quality and comprehensive ability and the major training goals of optoelectronics information science and engineering, in order to enhance the undergraduates' comprehensive practical ability and consciousness of innovation, we carried out the reforms of teaching method and teaching mode, which took the training programs of innovation and entrepreneurship for undergraduates, extracurricular academic research fund, "Chun-Tsung Scholar" program or research projects of their tutors as the guidance, and took the all levels of relevant discipline competitions as the promotion. And the training mainline of engineering innovation talents as "undergraduate's tutorial system ->innovative training program or tutor's research project ->academic competition ->graduation projects (thesis)" was constructed stage by stage by combining the undergraduates' graduation projects and their participated academic competition into one for improving the quality of the graduation projects (thesis). The practical results of the last several years illuminate that the proposed training model can effectively stimulate the students' awareness of autonomous learning, enhance their comprehensive ability of analyzing and solving problems and improve their ability of engineering practice and innovation as well as their teamwork spirit.

  17. Stimulation of innovations - Increase of the research of renewable energies. Recommendations of Fraunhofer ISE for the research politics Renewable Energies in the legislative period 2009-2013. Position paper 1/2009; Innovationen stimulieren - Regenerative Energien-Forschung steigern. Empfehlungen des Fraunhofer ISE fuer die Forschungspolitik Regenerative Energien in der Legislaturperiode 2009-2013. Positionspapier 1/2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    In the past years, the renewable energies became a relevant quantity in the German power supply. Germany is in the increasing competition around its leading position in technology and production particularly with the U.S.A., Peoples Republic of China and other Asian states. In order to meet the challenges, technological innovations are necessary. Under this aspect, the following recommendations of the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany) result for the research policy and launching of renewable energies in the legislative period 2009 - 2013: (a) A distinct increase of the research funding for renewable energies; (b) Increase of the amount of the fundamental research and preliminary research within the range of the renewable energy; (c) Adoption of a renewably aligned energy research program; (d) Continuation and adjustment of the launching politics.

  18. EVALUATION OF COMPETITION CONDITIONS IN THE HOTEL SECTOR IN ISTANBUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazım Ozan ÖZER

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The various dimensions of the concept of the competitiveness in service sectors have drawn attention of many researchers. Discipline of business concerns firm, sector and the international dimensions of national level competition. This study focus on explaining the competitiveness of Istanbul Hotel Sector by considering the dynamics connected to the sectoral competitiveness of Tourism. For the analysis, different data collection techniques have been used. As for the secondary data, literature review has been done about Michael Porter’s Five Forces Model that is mostly prefered for this kind of researches. For the primary data, senior managers of hotels in Istanbul Hotel Sector were applied to the interviews and formal interviews. As a result of this study it’s seen that Istanbul Hotel Sector has profitability rates that attract new entrants and the competition conditions are available for new entrants to the Istanbul Hotel Sector.

  19. Competitive differentiation through brand extensions in the era of hyper competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu-Catalin Munteanu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the era of hyper competition, competitive differentiation has become increasingly important. Brand extensions are used by companies across various industries for competitive differentiation. But in the era of hyper competition, a successful differentiation strategy requires that a brand emphasizes on uniqueness rather than commoditization. In this article, we make a case for creating a meaningful differentiation strategy. We emphasize the role of brand extensions for competitive differentiation and highlight the main perils of using brand extensions as a primary differentiation strategy. By using qualitative research, we identify primary objectives for brand extensions in practice. This investigation uses in-depth interviews with 14 senior brand managers across various industries to highlight brand portfolio strategies in relation to the brand differentiation strategy. Findings reveal that for business at the base of the pyramid, in markets such as Romania, brand managers are using brand extensions to increase sales or to boost short-term revenue rather than to implement a coherent differentiation strategy. We conclude with multiple recommendations for improving brand extension usage as a strategic instrument for creating meaningful differentiation in the era of hyper competition.

  20. Placebo effects in competitive sport: qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedie, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the placebo effect in sports performance. The possibility that the placebo effect is a more common phenomenon than the quantity of published research would suggest is briefly addressed. It is suggested that the placebo control design often used in sports performance research masks any placebo effects and thus presents a false picture of the mechanisms underlying performance-enhancing interventions in the real world. An electronic survey was sent to 48 competitive, international and professional athletes. Questions related to the placebo effect in competitive sport. Thirty responses were received. Data indicate that the majority (97%) of respondents believe that the placebo effect can exert an influence on sports performance, and that a significant number (73%) have experienced what they defined as a placebo effect. Inductive content analysis reveals that these experiences fall into several categories such as explicit placebo effects, inadvertent false beliefs, ritual and reverse placebo effects. Furthermore, 10 respondents (33%) offer explanations as to the nature of the placebo effect. Again, inductive content analysis reveals that these explanations fall into several categories including deliberate changes in competitive strategy, belief/expectancy, faith in a third party, and marketing. Overall, responses support previous experimental research and anecdotal reports that have found a relationship between belief and sports performance. It is suggested that further research be structured to not simply control for the placebo effect, but to elucidate it. Key pointsA survey of 30 athletes revealed that 73% have experienced a placebo effect in sport.Athletes suggest several potential explanations for these effects.Findings support the idea that placebo effects might be common in sport.Researchers and practitioners should be aware of the possible impact of these effects on research findings and competitive performance.