.... The end user has had to evolve and will continue evolving as well; from someone with low level technical skills to someone with a high level of technical knowledge and information managerial skills...
Luís Kalb Roses
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to identify the antecedents of end-user satisfaction with an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP system, in the context of a transnational Bank. The Information System (IS success theory is applied for the end-user computing satisfaction (EUCS assessment. Quantitative data is analyzed through multivariate statistical techniques whereas qualitative data is analyzed through content analysis technique. The results indicate that the EUCS model is pertinent to the context of ERP systems for a fast data collection and overall perception of user satisfaction; nevertheless it is suggested the continuity of its evaluation in other research contexts and additional categories should be considered as antecedents to IS enduser satisfaction.
Oser, Carrie; Leukefeld, Carl; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Duvall, Jamieson; Garrity, Thomas; Stoops, William; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert; Sexton, Rocky; Wright, Patricia; Booth, Brenda
Despite the increase in media attention on “meth cooking” in rural areas of the United States, little is known about rural stimulant use, particularly the criminality associated with stimulant use. Data were collected from community stimulant users in rural Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky (N=709). Findings from three logistic regression models indicate that younger stimulant users (x =32.55, SD = 10.35), those with more convictions, and those who used crack frequently were significantly more lik...
Oser, Carrie; Leukefeld, Carl; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Duvall, Jamieson; Garrity, Thomas; Stoops, William; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert; Sexton, Rocky; Wright, Patricia; Booth, Brenda
Despite the increase in media attention on "meth cooking" in rural areas of the United States, little is known about rural stimulant use--particularly, the criminality associated with stimulant use. Data were collected from community stimulant users in rural Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky (N = 709). Findings from three logistic regression…
Olusola I. Akinbobola
Full Text Available Several studies extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM by examining the antecedents of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use; the present study looks at demographic aspect of external variables in virtual library use among undergraduate students. The purpose of this study is to identify the demographic factors sex, level of study, cumulative grade point average, and computer knowledge that act as external factors that are antecedents of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. The university management makes a large investment in the provision of a virtual library; investigation of the virtual library acceptance by students is important. TAM and theory of reasoned action (TRA are utilised to theoretically test a model for the extension and to predict virtual library acceptance and usage. In a survey study, data was collected by using a structured questionnaire given to 394 randomly selected participants in a private university. Data were analysed by Pearson product moment correlation, multiple and hierarchical regression. The result of the study is consistent with TAM factors examined for explaining virtual library usage. The extension model accounts for 2.5% variance in perceived usefulness, 2.1% in perceived ease of use, 11.7% - 15.2% on intention to use and 7.2% on actual use of virtual library. Implications of the findings of the study on user’s virtual library training are discussed.
Jacobsen, Lina; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina
This study contributes to the understanding of online user communities as a potential source of innovation. That would require an interest from users in interacting in such communities. In order to establish interaction, users must provide as well as consume information. However, depending...... on the innovation task, one may be more important than the other. It is therefore important to understand, how companies can increase user willingness to engage in these different interaction forms. This study investigates the influence of various motivation factors and user interests on intention to provide...... or consume information in online food communities. A survey was conducted among 1009 respondents followed by analysis based on Structural Equation Modelling. Results revealed the effect of motivation factors to be stronger than basic consumer interests indicating that companies can influence the intended...
Full Text Available Objectives: Early maladaptive schemas are valid representations of unpleasant childhood experiences that shape a person’s viewpoints of the world, and lead to clinical symptoms such as depression, personality disorders, and substance abuse. Given the importance of this matter, we conducted a research on early maladaptive schemas in substance-abusers, to allow more appropriate preventive measures to be taken with a better understanding of the issue. Methods: For this descriptive-comparative study, 115 patients (91 opiate users and 24 stimulant users visiting drug addiction treatment centers were selected through convenience sampling from persons who were admitted to substance abuse treatment centers (Methadone Maintenance therapy centers, addiction treatment camps and self-help groups and Narcotics Anonymous (NA of Yasuj. Data were collected using a Demographic Information Questionnaire and Young’s Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF. Data analysis was done with ANOVA and t-tests. Results: The results showed a significant difference (P<0.05 between users of opiates and stimulants in terms of vulnerability to harm or illness, enmeshment, subjugation, emotional inhibition, entitlement, insufficient self-control/self-discipline, emotional deprivation, social isolation, defectiveness, failure/shame, and dependence. The average score of the stimulant-users was higher than that of opiate-users in all the schemas except for the dimensions of abandonment, mistrust, and unrelenting standards. Discussion: Stimulant users have more early maladaptive schemas and are at a greater risk of psychological vulnerability. Early maladaptive schemas can be used by clinicians and researchers as a psychopathology and treatment method for substance dependence disorder.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Antecedent Rivers - Ganga Is Older Than Himalaya. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 55-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0055-0063 ...
Franklin Gyamfi Agyemang
Full Text Available Transformational leadership and its relationship with knowledge sharing have been well noted in knowledge management literature. However, how the individual dimensions within Transformational leadership theory contribute to knowledge sharing has been scarcely investigated. This paper explores whether Intellectual stimulation, Idealised Influence and individualised consideration affect knowledge sharing among employees in Ghana. A cross–sectional survey design was employed. The study employed a convenience sampling technique to select a sample size of 500. However, out of the 500 questionnaires distributed, 283 were used in the final analysis; thus, those that were correctly filled. Data was analyzed using multiple regression. The study found that there is a significant positive relationship between idealised influence and knowledge sharing. However, the relationship between intellectual stimulation and individualised consideration and knowledge sharing was found to be insignificant.
Bahmer, Andreas; Baumann, Uwe
Triphasic pulse stimulation prevents from facial nerve stimulation (FNS) because of a different electromyographic input-output function compared with biphasic pulse stimulation. FNS is sometimes observed in cochlear implant users as an unwanted side effect of electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. The common stimulation applied in current cochlear implant consists of biphasic pulse patterns. Two common clinical remedies to prevent unpleasant FNS caused by activation of certain electrodes are to expand their pulse phase duration or simply deactivate them. Unfortunately, in some patients these methods do not provide sufficient FNS prevention. In these patients triphasic pulse can prevent from FNS. The underlying mechanism is yet unclear. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of muscles innervated by the facial nerve (musculi orbicularis ori and oculi) were applied to quantitatively assess the effects on FNS. Triphasic and biphasic fitting maps were compared in four subjects with severe FNS. Based on the recordings, a model is presented which intends to explain the beneficial effects of triphasic pulse application. Triphasic stimulation provided by fitting of an OPUS 2 speech processor device. For three patients, EMG was successfully recorded depending on stimulation level up to uncomfortable and intolerable FNS stimulation as upper boarder. The obtained EMG recordings demonstrated high individual variability. However, a difference between the input-output function for biphasic and triphasic pulse stimulation was visually observable. Compared with standard biphasic stimulation, triphasic pulses require higher stimulation levels to elicit an equal amount of FNS, as reflected by EMG amplitudes. In addition, we assume a steeper slope of the input-output function for biphasic pulse stimulation compared with triphasic pulse stimulation. Triphasic pulse stimulation prevents from FNS because of a smaller gradient of EMG input-output function compared with biphasic pulse
Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Crosby, Ross D; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Ecker, Anthony H; Richter, Ashley
Cannabis remains the most commonly used illicit substance and use rates are rising. Notably, the prevalence of cannabis use disorders (CUD) nearly equals that of other illicit substance use disorders combined. Thus, the present study aimed to identify cognitive, affective, and situational predictors and consequences of ad-lib cannabis use in a racially diverse sample. The sample consisted of 93 current cannabis users (34.4% female; 57.1% non-Hispanic Caucasian), 87.1% of whom evinced a current CUD. Ecological Momentary Assessment was used to collect frequent ratings of cannabis withdrawal, craving, affect, cannabis use motives, and peer cannabis use over two weeks. Mixed effects linear models examined within- and between-day correlates and consequences of cannabis use. Withdrawal and craving were higher on cannabis use days than non-use days. Withdrawal, craving, and positive and negative affect were higher immediately prior to cannabis use compared to non-use episodes. Withdrawal and craving were higher among those who subsequently used cannabis than those who did not. Cannabis use resulted in less subsequent withdrawal, craving, and negative affect. Enhancement and coping motives were the most common reasons cited for use. Withdrawal and negative affect were related to using cannabis for coping motives and social motives. Participants were most likely to use cannabis if others were using, and withdrawal and craving were greater in social situations when others were using. Data support the contention that cannabis withdrawal and craving and affect and peer use play important roles in the maintenance of cannabis use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Siegal, Harvey A.; Draus, Paul J.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan
Context: Although the nonmedical use of stimulant drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine is increasingly common in many rural areas of the United States, little is known about the health beliefs of people who use these drugs. Purpose: This research describes illicit stimulant drug users' views on health and health-related concepts that may…
Woyceichoski, Iverson Ernani Cogo; Costa, Carlos Henrique; de Araújo, Cristiano Miranda; Brancher, João Armando; Resende, Luciane Grochocki; Vieira, Iran; de Lima, Antonio Adilson Soares
Crack cocaine is the freebase form of cocaine that can be smoked. The use of this drug has been considered a public health problem in many countries. The aim of this study was to assess the stimulated salivary flow rate (SSFR), pH, and the buffer capacity of saliva in crack cocaine users. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 54 selected crack cocaine users and 40 non-users. All samples were analyzed for SSFR, pH, and buffer capacity. SSFR was analyzed by gravimetric method. The buffer capacity and pH were determined using a digital pH meter. The crack cocaine users demonstrated higher buffer capacity than the control group (P > 0.05). Salivary pH was lower in crack cocaine users (P 0.05). Crack cocaine users might exhibit a significant decrease in salivary pH, but not in salivary flow rate or buffer capacity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Hulka, Lea M; Wagner, Michael; Preller, Katrin H; Jenni, Daniela; Quednow, Boris B
Specific blue-yellow colour vision impairment has been reported in dependent cocaine users and it was postulated that drug-induced changes in retinal dopamine neurotransmission are responsible. However, it is unclear whether these changes are confined to chronic cocaine users, whether they are specific for dopaminergic stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine and whether they are related to cognitive functions such as working memory, encoding and consolidation. In 47 occasional and 29 dependent cocaine users, 23 MDMA (commonly known as 'ecstasy') users and 47 stimulant-naive controls, colour vision discrimination was measured with the Lanthony Desaturated Panel D-15 Test and memory performance with the Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Both occasional and dependent cocaine users showed higher colour confusion indices than controls. Users of the serotonergic stimulant MDMA (26%), occasional (30%) and dependent cocaine users (34%) exhibited more frequent blue-yellow colour vision disorders compared to controls (9%). Inferior performance of MDMA users was caused by a subgroup with high amphetamine co-use (55%), while MDMA use alone was not associated with decreased blue-yellow discrimination (0%). Cognitive performance was worse in cocaine users with colour vision disorder compared to users and controls with intact colour vision and both colour vision impairment and cognitive deficits were related to cocaine use. Occasional cocaine and amphetamine use might induce blue-yellow colour vision impairment, whereas the serotonergic stimulant MDMA does not impair colour vision. The association between colour vision impairment and cognitive deficits in cocaine users may reflect that retinal and cerebral dopamine alterations are linked to a certain degree.
Rybicki, E.F.; Luiskutty, C.T.; Sutrick, J.S.; Palmer, I.D.; Shah, G.H.; Tomutsa, L.
This User's Manual contains information for four fracture/proppant models. TUPROP1 contains a Geertsma and de Klerk type fracture model. The section of the program utilizing the proppant fracture geometry data from the pseudo three-dimensional highly elongated fracture model is called TUPROPC. The analogous proppant section of the program that was modified to accept fracture shape data from SA3DFRAC is called TUPROPS. TUPROPS also includes fracture closure. Finally there is the penny fracture and its proppant model, PENNPROP. In the first three chapters, the proppant sections are based on the same theory for determining the proppant distribution but have modifications to support variable height fractures and modifications to accept fracture geometry from three different fracture models. Thus, information about each proppant model in the User's Manual builds on information supplied in the previous chapter. The exception to the development of combined treatment models is the penny fracture and its proppant model. In this case, a completely new proppant model was developed. A description of how to use the combined treatment model for the penny fracture is contained in Chapter 4. 2 refs.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including "what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?" and "what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?" Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.
Anand, Pranav; Hardt, Daniel
Sluicing is an elliptical process where the majority of a question can go unpronounced as long as there is a salient antecedent in previous discourse. This paper considers the task of antecedent selection: finding the correct antecedent for a given case of sluicing. We argue that both syntactic...... and discourse relationships are important in antecedent selection, and we construct linguistically sophisticated features that describe the relevant relationships. We also define features that describe the relation of the content of the antecedent and the sluice type. We develop a linear model which achieves...... accuracy of 72.4%, a substantial improvement over a strong manually constructed baseline. Feature analysis confirms that both syntactic and discourse features are important in antecedent selection....
Westover, Arthur N; Nakonezny, Paul A; Halm, Ethan A; Adinoff, Bryon
Non-medical use of prescribed stimulant medications is a growing concern. This study's aims were to ascertain the demographics of stimulant medication users compared with non-users, examine temporal trends of stimulant medication use and estimate risk factors for development of amphetamine use disorder (AUD) and mortality among new users of stimulant medications. Cox proportional hazards regression in a retrospective cohort adjusted by baseline covariates. United States, national administrative database of the Veterans Affairs (VA) health-care system. Adult incident users of stimulant medications (n = 78 829) from fiscal years (FY) 2001 to 2012. Primary outcomes were time-to-event: (1) occurrence of AUD diagnosis and (2) death. Baseline covariates included demographic information, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved indications for stimulant use, substance use disorders (SUD) and depression. Stimulant users compared with non-users were younger, more likely to be non-Hispanic white and female. Incident stimulant medication users increased threefold from FY2001-FY2012 and eightfold among adults aged 18-44 years. Nearly one in 10 incident users in FY2012 had a comorbid baseline SUD. Off-label use was common-nearly three of every five incident users in FY2012. Comorbid SUDs among incident stimulant medication users were risk factors for occurrence of AUD during follow-up, with adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) estimates ranging from 1.54 to 2.83 (Ps users in the Veterans Affairs health-care system, measured from fiscal years 2001 to 2012, comorbid substance use disorders were common and were risk factors for development of an amphetamine use disorder (AUD). Increased mortality risk among incident users of stimulant medications was observed among both those who developed an AUD later and those whose use was defined as off-label. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Murphy, Fiona; Murphy, Sheigla; Sales, Paloma; Lau, Nicholas
In the US, prescription stimulants are prescribed for a variety of conditions including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Over the last two decades, dramatic increases in stimulant prescriptions have led to greater availability and increased risk for diversion and nonmedical use. Our own and other investigators' findings indicate that many drug "suppliers" do not fit into the traditional image of drug "dealers." These suppliers typically do not identify themselves as "dealers," but instead understand their drug distribution as sharing with people they know. Coomber and colleagues' (2007; 2013) concept of "social supply" raises the question: When friends supply or facilitate supply of drugs to friends, is this really dealing? Further, if dealing and supplying are distinct kinds of social transactions, should different types of criminal justice approaches be applied? Social supply extends our understanding of drug dealing as a complex social activity. In this article, we examine the issue of social supply among nonmedical users of prescription stimulants. We conducted a 36-month National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded project to conduct a qualitative, mixed methods study of 150 adult nonmedical prescription stimulant users in the San Francisco Bay Area. We explore intersecting factors, including life stage and social location, that contribute to decisions to use prescription stimulants nonmedically, motivations to use, knowledge about risks and benefits of prescription stimulant use, any adverse health or social consequences experienced, availability, acquisition and diversion of prescription stimulants, and differences in attitudes and behaviours. For this analysis, we rely on participants' narratives concerning prescription stimulant acquisition practices and how they understood these interactions, purchases, and exchanges with the suppliers of prescription stimulants in their social networks. The authors argue that acknowledging the
Ellen M. Leslie
Full Text Available Background: Very high levels of alcohol consumption have been observed in young adult amphetamine-type stimulant (i.e., ecstasy and methamphetamine users. The reasons for this association are poorly understood. Objective: To examine predictors of hazardous alcohol consumption in a sample of young adult amphetamine-type stimulant users after 30 months of follow-up, controlling for potential confounders. Method: Analysis of longitudinal data from a population-derived sample of Australian young adult amphetamine-type stimulant users (n = 292. A prediction model of alcohol use at 30 months was developed using generalized linear latent and mixed modeling (GLLAMM. Results: Concurrently using ecstasy (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.67, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = [1.41, 5.07], frequently attending nightclubs (AOR = 2.53, 95% CI = [1.04, 6.16], high baseline alcohol use patterns (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI = [1.32, 3.20], and being male (AOR = 3.60, 95% CI = [1.48, 8.78] were associated with an increased likelihood of hazardous alcohol use at 30 months. Conclusion: Concurrent, but not baseline, ecstasy use was associated with hazardous alcohol use, suggesting that combined use of these substances may have an instrumental role in terms of the social functions of drug use (e.g., increasing capacity to drink. Integration of educational interventions concerning alcohol and stimulants is warranted.
Gransier, Robin; Deprez, Hanne; Hofmann, Michael; Moonen, Marc; van Wieringen, Astrid; Wouters, Jan
Previous studies have shown that objective measures based on stimulation with low-rate pulse trains fail to predict the threshold levels of cochlear implant (CI) users for high-rate pulse trains, as used in clinical devices. Electrically evoked auditory steady-state responses (EASSRs) can be elicited by modulated high-rate pulse trains, and can potentially be used to objectively determine threshold levels of CI users. The responsiveness of the auditory pathway of profoundly hearing-impaired CI users to modulation frequencies is, however, not known. In the present study we investigated the responsiveness of the auditory pathway of CI users to a monopolar 500 pulses per second (pps) pulse train modulated between 1 and 100 Hz. EASSRs to forty-three modulation frequencies, elicited at the subject's maximum comfort level, were recorded by means of electroencephalography. Stimulation artifacts were removed by a linear interpolation between a pre- and post-stimulus sample (i.e., blanking). The phase delay across modulation frequencies was used to differentiate between the neural response and a possible residual stimulation artifact after blanking. Stimulation artifacts were longer than the inter-pulse interval of the 500pps pulse train for recording electrodes ipsilateral to the CI. As a result the stimulation artifacts could not be removed by artifact removal on the bases of linear interpolation for recording electrodes ipsilateral to the CI. However, artifact-free responses could be obtained in all subjects from recording electrodes contralateral to the CI, when subject specific reference electrodes (Cz or Fpz) were used. EASSRs to modulation frequencies within the 30-50 Hz range resulted in significant responses in all subjects. Only a small number of significant responses could be obtained, during a measurement period of 5 min, that originate from the brain stem (i.e., modulation frequencies in the 80-100 Hz range). This reduced synchronized activity of brain stem
Smith, D G; Jones, P S; Bullmore, E T; Robbins, T W; Ersche, K D
Cognitive and neural abnormalities are known to accompany chronic drug abuse, with impairments in cognition and changes in cortical structure seen in stimulant-dependent individuals. However, premorbid differences have also been observed in the brains and behavior of individuals at risk for substance abuse, before they develop dependence. Endophenotype research has emerged as a useful method for assessing preclinical traits that may be risk factors for pathology by studying patient populations and their undiagnosed first-degree relatives. This study used the color-word Stroop task to assess executive functioning in stimulant-dependent individuals, their unaffected biological siblings and unrelated healthy control volunteers using a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm. Both the stimulant-dependent and sibling participants demonstrated impairments in cognitive control and processing speed on the task, registering significantly longer response latencies. However, the two groups generated very different neural responses, with the sibling participants exhibiting a significant decrease in activation in the inferior frontal gyrus compared with both stimulant-dependent individuals and control participants. Both target groups also demonstrated a decrease in hemispheric laterality throughout the task, exhibiting a disproportionate increase in right hemispheric activation, which was associated with their behavioral inefficiencies. These findings not only suggest a possible risk factor for stimulant abuse of poor inhibitory control and cortical inefficiency but they also demonstrate possible adaptations in the brains of stimulant users.
Young, Sean D; Shoptaw, Steve
High stimulant-using and at-risk HIV populations, such as African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), are increasingly using social networking technologies. However, no known research has explored associations between stimulant use, sexual risk behaviors, and social networking among these populations. Participants were recruited using the Facebook Connect software application, which narrowed the sample to 118 (primarily African American and Latino MSM) active Facebook users. Participants completed demographic, Internet and social media use, and drug use survey items. Participants reported high rates of cocaine and methamphetamine use (both more than 15% within the past 12 months). More than 70% of participants reported using social networking technologies to meet people, and more than 30% used them to find sexual partners. A multivariate logistic regression showed that (1) participants using social networks to find sexual partners were more likely to have used methamphetamines within the past 12 months and (2) those who were more comfortable talking online compared to face-to-face had over 4 times the odds of methamphetamine use and over 6 times the odds of cocaine use within the past 12 months. Minority MSM who used social networks to meet men and find sexual partners had high risk for stimulant use. Understanding drug use among minority social networking users will provide insights to incorporate these technologies into drug prevention interventions.
Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Patrick S; Bruner, Natalie R; Vandrey, Ryan; Johnson, Matthew W
Use of amphetamine-type stimulants (e.g., methamphetamine) is associated with acute sleep disruptions. No prior reports have characterized the acute effects of methamphetamine on sleep using polysomnography, the gold standard for objective sleep monitoring. Recreational stimulant users (n=19) completed a baseline assessment, which included questionnaires assessing demographic and substance use characteristics, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which assesses sleep quality over the past month. Participants were administered 0mg (placebo), 20mg, or 40mg oral methamphetamine at 08:15h on study days, using a double-blind, randomized, within-subjects design. Sleep was monitored using polysomnography from 22:20 that evening until 06:15 the following morning. PSQI scores indicated more than half of participants reported poor sleep quality at baseline. Methamphetamine dose-dependently increased sleep latency, and decreased total sleep time, sleep efficiency, time in NREM 2 sleep, number of REM periods, and total time in REM sleep. Sleep under placebo conditions was consistent with what would be expected from healthy adults. Morning oral administration of methamphetamine produces robust disruptions in nighttime sleep. Future research should examine relations between stimulant use and sleep disruption in naturalistic settings, with regard to both stimulant abuse and licit prescription use. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Bogers, Marcel; Foray, Dominique
Previous research has shown that innovation can have various sources and different forms. Innovation can thus be developed by different types of organizations or individuals for several reasons, and it can be related to product or process technologies. One particular stream of research has explored the role of users as a source of innovation. Examples of user innovations can be found in a variety of fields and settings such as mountain biking, snowboarding, open source software, scientific in...
Ghadeer Mohamed Badr ElDin Aboul-Ela
Full Text Available Employees are the key resources of organizational success. Developing and maintaining job embeddedness is a cornerstone success in the workplace. The purpose of this research study is to analyze selected antecedents of job embeddedness. Role ambiguity, training, and demographics (age groups, gender and education were identified from the extant literature as the selected antecedents for this study. An in-depth statistical analysis of the job embeddedness sub-dimensions was conducted in relation to the selected antecedents. Questionnaires were administered among the employees working in the private banks in Egypt. Results revealed a negative relationship between role ambiguity and job embeddedness, a positive relationship between training and job embeddedness, elder employees held higher level of embeddedness compared to young employees, females possessed higher level of embeddedness compared to males, and no significant differences among the various education levels and job embeddedness.
This paper merges economic geography and relational capital perspective in order to analyze the proximity-based antecedents of relational assets in brokerage. It investigates empirically the role and interplay of geographical and cognitive proximity between a broker and her buyers in a quantitative...... for buyers characteristics. Lastly, I make use the under-researched empirical field of brokers....
Rajala, Risto; Westerlund, Mika
The paper presents a hierarchical construct PLS structural equation model to analyze mobile advertisement acceptance. Hypotheses are established and tested about the hierarchical structure and the effects of the factors that precede consumers' behavioral intention to accept mobile advertisement....... The results suggest that valuable content and trust in advertisers are key predictors of mobile device users' acceptance of mobile advertising. In addition, subjective value of the ads and subjective norms mediate these antecedent-acceptance relationships. The results are invaluable to both scholars...
Atluri, Sravya; Frehlich, Matthew; Mei, Ye; Garcia Dominguez, Luis; Rogasch, Nigel C.; Wong, Willy; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Farzan, Faranak
Concurrent recording of electroencephalography (EEG) during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an emerging and powerful tool for studying brain health and function. Despite a growing interest in adaptation of TMS-EEG across neuroscience disciplines, its widespread utility is limited by signal processing challenges. These challenges arise due to the nature of TMS and the sensitivity of EEG to artifacts that often mask TMS-evoked potentials (TEP)s. With an increase in the complexity of data processing methods and a growing interest in multi-site data integration, analysis of TMS-EEG data requires the development of a standardized method to recover TEPs from various sources of artifacts. This article introduces TMSEEG, an open-source MATLAB application comprised of multiple algorithms organized to facilitate a step-by-step procedure for TMS-EEG signal processing. Using a modular design and interactive graphical user interface (GUI), this toolbox aims to streamline TMS-EEG signal processing for both novice and experienced users. Specifically, TMSEEG provides: (i) targeted removal of TMS-induced and general EEG artifacts; (ii) a step-by-step modular workflow with flexibility to modify existing algorithms and add customized algorithms; (iii) a comprehensive display and quantification of artifacts; (iv) quality control check points with visual feedback of TEPs throughout the data processing workflow; and (v) capability to label and store a database of artifacts. In addition to these features, the software architecture of TMSEEG ensures minimal user effort in initial setup and configuration of parameters for each processing step. This is partly accomplished through a close integration with EEGLAB, a widely used open-source toolbox for EEG signal processing. In this article, we introduce TMSEEG, validate its features and demonstrate its application in extracting TEPs across several single- and multi-pulse TMS protocols. As the first open-source GUI-based pipeline
Atluri, Sravya; Frehlich, Matthew; Mei, Ye; Garcia Dominguez, Luis; Rogasch, Nigel C; Wong, Willy; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Farzan, Faranak
Concurrent recording of electroencephalography (EEG) during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an emerging and powerful tool for studying brain health and function. Despite a growing interest in adaptation of TMS-EEG across neuroscience disciplines, its widespread utility is limited by signal processing challenges. These challenges arise due to the nature of TMS and the sensitivity of EEG to artifacts that often mask TMS-evoked potentials (TEP)s. With an increase in the complexity of data processing methods and a growing interest in multi-site data integration, analysis of TMS-EEG data requires the development of a standardized method to recover TEPs from various sources of artifacts. This article introduces TMSEEG, an open-source MATLAB application comprised of multiple algorithms organized to facilitate a step-by-step procedure for TMS-EEG signal processing. Using a modular design and interactive graphical user interface (GUI), this toolbox aims to streamline TMS-EEG signal processing for both novice and experienced users. Specifically, TMSEEG provides: (i) targeted removal of TMS-induced and general EEG artifacts; (ii) a step-by-step modular workflow with flexibility to modify existing algorithms and add customized algorithms; (iii) a comprehensive display and quantification of artifacts; (iv) quality control check points with visual feedback of TEPs throughout the data processing workflow; and (v) capability to label and store a database of artifacts. In addition to these features, the software architecture of TMSEEG ensures minimal user effort in initial setup and configuration of parameters for each processing step. This is partly accomplished through a close integration with EEGLAB, a widely used open-source toolbox for EEG signal processing. In this article, we introduce TMSEEG, validate its features and demonstrate its application in extracting TEPs across several single- and multi-pulse TMS protocols. As the first open-source GUI-based pipeline
den Uyl, T.E.
In this PhD project we investigated a new intervention in which we combined brain stimulation with cognitive training. We used a form of training called cognitive bias modification (CBM) aimed at retraining dysfunctional automatic reactions towards alcohol. We investigated whether transcranial
Full Text Available Concurrent recording of electroencephalography (EEG during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is an emerging and powerful tool for studying brain health and function. Despite a growing interest in adaptation of TMS-EEG across neuroscience disciplines, its wide-spread utility is limited by signal processing challenges. These challenges arise due to the nature of TMS and the sensitivity of EEG to artifacts that often mask TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs. With an increase in the complexity of data processing methods and a growing interest in multi-site data integration, analysis of TMS-EEG data requires the development of a standardized method to recover TEPs from various sources of artifacts. This paper introduces TMSEEG, an open-source MATLAB application comprised of multiple algorithms organized to facilitate a step-by-step procedure for TMS-EEG signal processing. Using a modular design and interactive GUIs, this toolbox aims to streamline TMS-EEG signal processing for both novice and experienced users. Specifically, TMSEEG provides (i targeted removal of TMS-induced and general EEG artifacts, (ii a step-by-step modular workflow with flexibility to modify existing algorithms and add customized algorithms, (iii a comprehensive display and quantification of artifacts, (iv quality control check points with visual feedback of TEPs throughout the data processing workflow, and (v capability to label and store a database of artifacts. In addition to these features, the software architecture of TMSEEG ensures minimal user effort in initial setup and configuration of parameters for each processing step. This is partly accomplished through a close integration with EEGLAB, a widely used open-source toolbox for EEG signal processing. In this paper we introduce TMSEEG, validate its features, and demonstrate its application in extracting TEPs across several single- and multi-pulse TMS protocols. As the first open-source GUI-based pipeline for TMS-EEG signal
Pan, Lizhi; Zhang, Dingguo; Jiang, Ning; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang
Objective. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and user training (UT) are two types of methods to improve myoelectric control performance for amputees. In this study, we compared the independent effect between tDCS and UT, and investigated the combined effect of tDCS and UT. Approach. An online paradigm of simultaneous and proportional control (SPC) based on electromyography (EMG) was adopted. The proposed experiments were conducted on six naïve unilateral trans-radial amputees. The subjects each received three types of 20 min interventions: active tDCS with motor training (tDCS + UT), active tDCS with quiet sitting (tDCS), and sham tDCS with motor training (UT). The interventions were applied at one week intervals in a randomized order. The subjects performed online control of a feedback arrow with two degrees of freedom (DoFs) to accomplish target reaching motor tasks in pre-sessions and post-sessions. We compared the performance, measured by completion rate, completion time, and efficiency coefficient, between pre-sessions and post-sessions. Main results. The results showed that the intervention tDCS + UT and tDCS significantly improved the online SPC performance (i.e. improved the completion rate; reduced the completion time; and improved the efficiency coefficient), while intervention UT did not significantly change the performance. The results also showed that the online SPC performance after intervention tDCS + UT and tDCS was not significantly different, but both were significantly better than that after intervention UT. Significance. tDCS could be an effective intervention to improve the online SPC performance in a short time.
Maruster, Laura; Faber, Niels R.; van Haren, Rob J.; Salvendy, G; Smith, MJ
Creating adaptive systems becomes increasingly attractive in the context of specific groups of users, such as agricultural users. This group of users seems to differ with respect to information processing, knowledge management and learning styles. In this work we aim to offer directions toward
Rijsdijk, S.A.; Langerak, F.; Hultink, E.J.
This paper investigates the antecedents and consequences of two product advantage components: product meaningfulness and product superiority. Product meaningfulness concerns the benefits that users receive from buying and using a new product, whereas product superiority concerns the extent to which
Leslie, Ellen M; Smirnov, Andrew; Cherney, Adrian; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert; Najman, Jake M
Illicit stimulants are often combined with alcohol in nightlife entertainment districts, an environment where aggressive behaviour commonly occurs. While alcohol and methamphetamine use are each associated with aggressive behaviour, relatively little is known about the impact of the combined use of alcohol and amphetamine-type stimulants (i.e., ecstasy [MDMA] and methamphetamine) on aggression. Analysis of longitudinal data from a population-based sample of Australian young adult amphetamine-type stimulant users (n=248) to examine: (a) prevalence and timing of simultaneous alcohol and amphetamine-type stimulant use and (b) predictors of ecstasy- and methamphetamine-related aggression and hostility. Prediction models of ecstasy- and methamphetamine-related aggression and hostility were developed using multivariate logistic regression. Simultaneous alcohol consumption and amphetamine-type stimulant use was prevalent, with drinking generally occurring before consuming amphetamine-type stimulants and while 'high'. Methamphetamine-related aggression and hostility was significantly associated with recurrent risky simultaneous methamphetamine and alcohol use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.74, 95% CI 1.09-6.89), a high frequency and increasing use methamphetamine trajectory (AOR 7.23, 95% CI 1.27-41.03), and high trait aggression (AOR 5.78, 95% CI 2.53-13.20). In contrast, only trait aggression (moderate: AOR 3.01, 95% CI 1.55-5.84; high: AOR 5.02, 95% CI 2.38-10.61) was associated with ecstasy-related aggression and hostility. These findings indicate a link between risky patterns of simultaneous alcohol and methamphetamine use and methamphetamine-related aggression and hostility, independent of separate use of alcohol, methamphetamine and cannabis, trait aggression, psychosis, and gender. The policy challenges of amphetamine-type stimulant and alcohol use require a targeted, multidisciplinary approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krüger, Benjamin; Büchner, Andreas; Nogueira, Waldo
Ipsilateral electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) is becoming increasingly important in cochlear implant (CI) treatment. Improvements in electrode designs and surgical techniques have contributed to improved hearing preservation during implantation. Consequently, CI implantation criteria have been expanded toward people with significant residual low-frequency hearing, who may benefit from the combined use of both the electric and acoustic stimulation in the same ear. However, only few studies have investigated the mutual interaction between electric and acoustic stimulation modalities. This work characterizes the interaction between both stimulation modalities using psychophysical masking experiments and cone beam computer tomography (CBCT). Two psychophysical experiments for electric and acoustic masking were performed to measure the hearing threshold elevation of a probe stimulus in the presence of a masker stimulus. For electric masking, the probe stimulus was an acoustic tone while the masker stimulus was an electric pulse train. For acoustic masking, the probe stimulus was an electric pulse train and the masker stimulus was an acoustic tone. Five EAS users, implanted with a CI and ipsilateral residual low-frequency hearing, participated in the study. Masking was determined at different electrodes and different acoustic frequencies. CBCT scans were used to determine the individual place-pitch frequencies of the intracochlear electrode contacts by using the Stakhovskaya place-to-frequency transformation. This allows the characterization of masking as a function of the difference between electric and acoustic stimulation sites, which we term the electric-acoustic frequency difference (EAFD). The results demonstrate a significant elevation of detection thresholds for both experiments. In electric masking, acoustic-tone thresholds increased exponentially with decreasing EAFD. In contrast, for the acoustic masking experiment, threshold elevations were present
Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas
To end business relationships, or to more actively terminate relationships, has long been acknowledged as part of customer relationship management. However, compared to other elements such as initiation and maintenance of relationships, little is known about the termination of business...... relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines......, and motivation as significant antecedents. Because of this, managers need to develop their organizations in order to use relationship termination as a vital strategy....
This paper is a contribution towards Mair and Noboa ‘s (2006) model of the antecedents of social entrepreneurial intentions. The Mair/Noboa model builds on Krueger’s (1993) proposal of a theory of planned behavior for entrepreneurial intention formation by suggesting that social entrepreneurial...... intentions are driven by an individual’s perceived desirability and perceived feasibility of starting a social venture. This article proposes and validates measures of the antecedents of social entrepreneurial behavior with a sample of nascent social entrepreneurs. The measures developed adapt constructs...
This dissertation explores the internal antecedents of the phenomenon labeled management innovation. Management innovation refers to the implementation of new management practices, processes, techniques or structures that alter the way the work of management is performed. In other words, management...... innovation refers to changes in what managers do and how they do it....
Ahn, Woo-Young; Vasilev, Georgi; Lee, Sung-Ha; Busemeyer, Jerome R; Kruschke, John K; Bechara, Antoine; Vassileva, Jasmin
Substance dependent individuals (SDI) often exhibit decision-making deficits; however, it remains unclear whether the nature of the underlying decision-making processes is the same in users of different classes of drugs and whether these deficits persist after discontinuation of drug use. We used computational modeling to address these questions in a unique sample of relatively "pure" amphetamine-dependent (N = 38) and heroin-dependent individuals (N = 43) who were currently in protracted abstinence, and in 48 healthy controls (HC). A Bayesian model comparison technique, a simulation method, and parameter recovery tests were used to compare three cognitive models: (1) Prospect Valence Learning with decay reinforcement learning rule (PVL-DecayRI), (2) PVL with delta learning rule (PVL-Delta), and (3) Value-Plus-Perseverance (VPP) model based on Win-Stay-Lose-Switch (WSLS) strategy. The model comparison results indicated that the VPP model, a hybrid model of reinforcement learning (RL) and a heuristic strategy of perseverance had the best post-hoc model fit, but the two PVL models showed better simulation and parameter recovery performance. Computational modeling results suggested that overall all three groups relied more on RL than on a WSLS strategy. Heroin users displayed reduced loss aversion relative to HC across all three models, which suggests that their decision-making deficits are longstanding (or pre-existing) and may be driven by reduced sensitivity to loss. In contrast, amphetamine users showed comparable cognitive functions to HC with the VPP model, whereas the second best-fitting model with relatively good simulation performance (PVL-DecayRI) revealed increased reward sensitivity relative to HC. These results suggest that some decision-making deficits persist in protracted abstinence and may be mediated by different mechanisms in opiate and stimulant users.
Full Text Available Substance dependent individuals (SDI often exhibit decision-making deficits; however, it remains unclear whether the nature of the underlying decision-making processes is the same in users of different classes of drugs and whether these deficits persist after discontinuation of drug use. We used computational modeling to address these questions in a unique sample of relatively pure amphetamine-dependent (N=38 and heroin-dependent individuals (N=43 who were currently in protracted abstinence, and in 48 healthy controls. A Bayesian model comparison technique, a simulation method, and parameter recovery tests were used to compare three cognitive models: (1 Prospect Valence Learning with decay reinforcement learning rule (PVL-DecayRI, (2 PVL with delta learning rule (PVL-Delta, and (3 Value-Plus-Perseverance (VPP models based on Win-Stay-Lose-Switch (WSLS strategy. The model comparison results indicated that the VPP model, a hybrid model of reinforcement learning (RL and a heuristic strategy of perseverance had the best post hoc model fit, but the two PVL models showed better simulation performance. Computational modeling results suggested that overall all three groups relied more on RL than on a WSLS strategy. Heroin users displayed reduced loss aversion relative to healthy controls across all three models, which suggests that their decision-making deficits are longstanding (or pre-existing and may be driven by reduced sensitivity to loss. In contrast, amphetamine users showed comparable cognitive functions to healthy controls with the VPP model, whereas the second best-fitting model with relatively good simulation performance (PVL-DecayRI revealed increased reward sensitivity relative to healthy controls. These results suggest that some decision-making deficits persist in protracted abstinence and may be mediated by different mechanisms in opiate and stimulant users.
Thompson, Geir; Glasø, Lars; Martinsen, Øyvind
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual attributes and envy, and to determine how envy may impact personal response variables in the workplace. To address these issues we apply Vecchio's theory on antecedents and consequences of envy (1995) as a theoretical framework. The present study relied on a cross-sectional measurement design. A total of 135 leaders and 772 followers employed in business organizations participated. SEM analysis shows that span of supervision serves as an important antecedent of envy, where span of supervision is significantly associated to envy via supportive leadership. Furthermore, envy seems to be indirectly and negatively related to self-esteem via distress and directly related to social loafing. The implications of these findings are discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined.
Boggio, Paulo S; Zaghi, Soroush; Villani, Ana Beatriz; Fecteau, Shirley; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Fregni, Felipe
Cognitive deficits that are reported in heavy marijuana users (attention, memory, affect perception, decision-making) appear to be completely reversible after a prolonged abstinence period of about 28 days. However, it remains unclear whether the reversibility of these cognitive deficits indicates that (1) chronic marijuana use is not associated with long-lasting changes in cortical networks or (2) that such changes occur but the brain adapts to and compensates for the drug-induced changes. Therefore, we examined whether chronic marijuana smokers would demonstrate a differential pattern of response in comparison to healthy volunteers on a decision-making paradigm (Risk Task) while undergoing sham or active transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-five chronic marijuana users who were abstinent for at least 24h were randomly assigned to receive left anodal/right cathodal tDCS of DLPFC (n=8), right anodal/left cathodal tDCS of DLPFC (n=9), or sham stimulation (n=8); results on Risk Task during sham/active tDCS were compared to healthy volunteers from a previously published dataset. Chronic marijuana users demonstrated more conservative (i.e. less risky) decision-making during sham stimulation. While right anodal stimulation of the DLPFC enhanced conservative decision-making in healthy volunteers, both right anodal and left anodal DLPFC stimulation increased the propensity for risk-taking in marijuana users. These findings reveal alterations in the decision-making neural networks among chronic marijuana users. Finally, we also assessed the effects of tDCS on marijuana craving and observed that right anodal/left cathodal tDCS of DLPFC is significantly associated with a diminished craving for marijuana. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Engaging customer is the burning issue for companies especially the service sector, either online or offline. Minimizing the customer disengagement is the same like reducing dissatisfaction or churn. Customer disengagement may be caused by many factors, ad skepticism is one of them; ad skepticism has two main antecedents personality variable and consumption/influencing varia-bles. This research explores the relationship of ad skepticism with customer disengagement through personality variables which are cynicism, reactance and self-esteem. The unit of analysis is the telecom and banking industry of Pakistan which is foreseeing an era of virtual currency and both are customer oriented industries. Only offline disengagement is researched and data is collected from the Business centers of telecom and banking branches dealing with virtual curren-cy in Pakistan. Hypothetical model is given after digging the relevant literature; model is tested through confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Eight hypotheses were purposed from the connections of model, all hypotheses are accepted except the cynicism posi-tive effect on social ad skepticism. This can be due to commonality of social and charity in Paki-stani society, Muslims consider charity as a pious act and they do not think for cynic behavior in charity or social related works. The results manifest that customers in telecom industry are hav-ing ad skepticism and that is becoming the cause of their disengagement. Further, social ad skep-ticism has more impact on the customer disengagement than the general ad skepticism. While the reactance has more effect on general ad skepticism than other antecedents and cynicism has the lowest impact on social ad skepticism than other antecedents.
Li, Peter Ping; Bai, Yuntao; Xi, Youmin
In this article we seek to explore the contextual antecedents of organizational trust. In light of the complex links between organizational contexts and organizational behaviours, we focus on the effects of the three most critical contextual antecedents, i.e., leadership role, structural rule...... in China, lent support for our multidimensional cross-level model of context–trust–behaviour link. We extend the research on organizational trust by treating it as a cross-level phenomenon and by specifying its core contextual antecedents and behavioural consequences....
This research examined the role of motivation in predicting peer and trainer ratings of student performance and contrasted the relative importance of various antecedents for peer and trainer ratings...
Bloemer, J.M.M.; Odekerken-Schröder, G.J.
The primary objective of this study is to assess the impact of three psychological antecedents (position involvement, volitional choice and informational complexity) on affective commitment in a financial service setting. Furthermore, this study addresses the consequences of affective commitment on
Burcharth, Ana Luiza de Araújo; Lettl, Christopher; Ulhøi, John Parm
on organizational characteristics that encourage experimentation. Specifically, we argue that characteristics such as slack resources, tolerance for failure, willingness to cannibalize and external openness are important organizational antecedents for knowledge absorption activities as they prevent inertia. Drawing...
de la Guía, Elena; Lozano, María D.; Penichet, Víctor M. R.
Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience behavioural and learning problems at home and at school, as well as a lack of self-control in their lives. We can take advantage of the evolution of new technologies to develop applications with the aim of enhancing and stimulating the learning process of children with ADHD.…
Feinkohl, Insa; Flemming, Danny; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim
Laypeople frequently discuss medical research findings on Web-based platforms, but little is known about whether they grasp the tentativeness that is inherent in these findings. Potential influential factors involved in understanding medical tentativeness have hardly been assessed to date. The research presented here aimed to examine the effects of personality factors and of other users' previous contributions in a Web-based forum on laypeople's understanding of the tentativeness of medical research findings, using the example of research on deep brain stimulation. We presented 70 university students with an online news article that reported findings on applying deep brain stimulation as a novel therapeutic method for depression, which participants were unfamiliar with. In a randomized controlled experiment, we manipulated the forum such that the article was either accompanied by user comments that addressed the issue of tentativeness, by comments that did not address this issue, or the article was accompanied by no comments at all. Participants were instructed to write their own individual user comments. Their scientific literacy, epistemological beliefs, and academic self-efficacy were measured. The outcomes measured were perceived tentativeness and tentativeness addressed in the participants' own comments. More sophisticated epistemological beliefs enhanced the perception of tentativeness (standardized β=.26, P=.034). Greater scientific literacy (stand. β=.25, P=.025) and greater academic self-efficacy (stand. β=.31, P=.007) were both predictors of a more extensive discussion of tentativeness in participants' comments. When forum posts presented in the experiment addressed the issue of tentativeness, participants' subsequent behavior tended to be consistent with what they had read in the forum, F2,63=3.66; P=.049, ηp(2)=.092. Students' understanding of the tentativeness of research findings on deep brain stimulation in an online forum is influenced by a
Quittner, Alexandra L; Cruz, Ivette; Barker, David H; Tobey, Emily; Eisenberg, Laurie S; Niparko, John K
To examine the effects of observed maternal sensitivity (MS), cognitive stimulation (CS), and linguistic stimulation on the 4-year growth of oral language in young, deaf children receiving a cochlear implant. Previous studies of cochlear implants have not considered the effects of parental behaviors on language outcomes. In this prospective, multisite study, we evaluated parent-child interactions during structured and unstructured play tasks and their effects on oral language development in 188 deaf children receiving a cochlear implant and 97 normal-hearing children as controls. Parent-child interactions were rated on a 7-point scale using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Early Childcare Study codes, which have well-established psychometric properties. Language was assessed using the MacArthur Bates Communicative Development Inventories, the Reynell Developmental Language Scales, and the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language. We used mixed longitudinal modeling to test our hypotheses. After accounting for early hearing experience and child and family demographics, MS and CS predicted significant increases in the growth of oral language. Linguistic stimulation was related to language growth only in the context of high MS. The magnitude of effects of MS and CS on the growth of language was similar to that found for age at cochlear implantation, suggesting that addressing parenting behaviors is a critical target for early language learning after implantation. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Institóris, László; Árok, Zsófia; Seprenyi, Katalin; Varga, Tibor; Sára-Klausz, Gabriella; Keller, Éva; Tóth, Réka A; Sala, Leonardo; Kereszty, Éva; Róna, Kálmán
Identification of abuse and frequency patterns of stimulant designer drugs (SDDs) provides important information for their risk assessment and legislative control. In the present study urine and/or blood samples of suspected drug users in criminal cases were analysed by GC-MS for 38 SDDs, and for the most frequent illicit and psychoactive licit drugs in Hungary. Between July 2012 and June 2013, 2744 suspected drug users were sampled in Budapest and during 2012 and 2013, 774 persons were sampled in South-East Hungary (Csongrád County - neighbour the Romanian and Serbian borders). In Budapest 71.4% of cases, and in South-East Hungary 61% of cases were positive for at least one substance. Pentedrone was the most frequent SDD in both regions; however, the frequency distribution of the remaining drugs was highly diverse. SDDs were frequently present in combination with other drugs - generally with amphetamine or other stimulants, cannabis and/or benzodiazepines. The quarterly distribution of positive samples indicated remarkable seasonal changes in the frequency and pattern of consumption. Substances placed on the list of illicit drugs (mephedrone, 4-fluoro-amphetamine, MDPV, methylone, 4-MEC) showed a subsequent drop in frequency and were replaced by other SDDs (pentedrone, 3-MMC, methiopropamine, etc.). Newly identified compounds from seized materials were added to the list of new psychoactive substances ("Schedule C"). While the risk assessment of substances listed in Schedule C has to be performed within 2 years after scheduling, continuous monitoring of their presence and frequency among drug users is essential. In summary, our results suggest which substances should be dropped from the list of SDDs measured in biological samples; while the appearance of new substances from seized materials indicate the need for developing adequate standard analytical methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
van der Weegen, Sanne; Verwey, Renée; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Tange, Huibert; van der Weijden, Trudy; de Witte, Luc
Physical activity is an important aspect in the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or type-2 diabetes. A monitoring and feedback tool combined with guidance by a primary care provider might be a successful method to enhance the level of physical activity in these patients. As a prerequisite for useful technology, it is important to involve the end-users in the design process from an early stage. The aim of this study was to investigate the user requirements for a tool to stimulate physical activity, embedded in primary care practice. The leading principle of this tool is to change behavior by self-monitoring, goal-setting, and feedback. The research team collected qualitative data among 15 patients, 16 care professionals, and several experts. A prototype was developed in three stages. In stage 1, the literature was searched to identify end-users and context. In stage 2, the literature, experts and patient representatives were consulted to set up a use case with the general idea of the innovation. In stage 3, individual interviews and focus groups were held to identify the end-user requirements. Based on these requirements a prototype was built by the engineering team. The development process has led to a tool that generally meets the requirements of the end-users. A tri-axial activity sensor, worn on the hip, is connected by Bluetooth to a smartphone. In an app, quantitative feedback is given about the amount of activity and goals reached by means of graphical visualization, and an image shows a sun when the goal is reached. Overviews about activity per half an hour, per day, week, and month are provided. In the menu of the app and on a secured website, patients can enter information in individual sessions or read feedback messages generated by the system. The practice nurse can see the results of all patients on a secure webpage and can then discuss the results and set personalized goals in consultation with the patient. This study
Wiggins, James D.; Lederer, Doris A.
Investigated antecedents of marital infidelity for individuals (N=59) involved with coworkers or others. Data suggested that persons involved with coworkers had more satisfying marriages and scored higher on the Compatibility Index than those involved with others. The number of liaisons was not correlated with age or age at marriage. (JAC)
Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind
This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…
Mäkikangas, Anne; Bakker, Arnold B.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.
This study investigated potential antecedents of team job crafting defined as the extent to which team members engage together in increasing (social and structural) job resources and challenges, and decreasing hindering job demands. Mindful of the teamwork literature, we hypothesized that individual
Picci, Patrizia; Battistelli, Adalgisa
The current work seeks to focus on the innovative work behavior and, in particular, on the stage of idea generation. An important factor that stimulates the individual to carry out the various emergent processes of change and innovation within the organization is known as intrinsic motivation, but under certain conditions, the presence of different forms of extrinsic motivation, as external regulation, introjection, identification and integration, positively influences innovative behavior at work, specifically the creative stage of the process. Starting from this evidence, the organizational environment could be capable of stimulating or indeed inhibiting potential creativity and innovation of individuals. About 100 individuals employees of a local government health department in Central Italy were given an explicit questionnaire. The results show that among external factors that effect the individual such as control, rewards and recognition for work well done, controlled motivation influences overall innovative behavior whereas autonomous motivation plays a significant role in the specific behavior of idea generation. At the same time, it must also be acknowledged that a clearly articulated task which allows an individual to identify with said task, seems to favor overall innovative behavior, whilst a task which allows a fair degree of autonomy influences the behavior of generating ideas.
Drawing from cognitive dissonance and neutralization theories, this study seeks to improve the understanding on consumer decision-making between the current legal and illegal video consumption alternatives. We develop and test a research model featuring Subscription Video on Demand (SVOD) satisfaction and various dimensions of SVOD quality as antecedents of video piracy neutralizations and attitudes. Based on results from an online survey among Finnish SVOD users, SVOD satisfaction is primari...
Recently the Telecom Industry experienced an economic boom & bust cycle that hampered new service development & deployment. Consequently, there are significant problems in capturing key requirements for new network-based services and in educating CIO-IT leaders so they can promote investment proposals with their enterprise business leadership. This paper outlines a multi-functional initiative that Lucent Technologies established to engage and exchange with key Enterprises & their Telecom Suppliers views of future network technologies. This experiment is unique because it is facilitated by the corporate CIO-IT leadership & is focused on the latest 3G wireless technologies. CIO-IT provides externally facing resources that collaborate directly with Enterprises, and Service Providers while facilitating internal interactions with Bell Labs, Business Units and Sales teams. This program embodies a Zen Marketing approach since it seeks to create flashes of enlightenment with IT & business leaders by exercising all the knowledge, culture & behaviors available to an IT end user. The paper summarizes several organizational challenges & benefits uncovered by a program that is focused on transforming Mobility Provider relationships with their customers and expanding the overall awareness of the latest 3G wireless technologies.
Durach, Christian F.; Wieland, Andreas; Machuca, Jose A.D.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide groundwork for an emerging theory of supply chain robustness – which has been conceptualized as a dimension of supply chain resilience – through reviewing and synthesizing related yet disconnected studies. The paper develops a formal definition of supply chain robustness to build a framework that captures the dimensions, antecedents and moderators of the construct as discussed in the literature. Design/methodology/approach – The...
Bernstein, D P; Cohen, P; Skodol, A; Bezirganian, S; Brook, J S
The purpose of this study was to investigate the childhood antecedents of personality disorders that are diagnosed in adolescence. A randomly selected community sample of 641 youths was assessed initially in childhood and followed longitudinally over 10 years. Childhood behavior ratings were based on maternal report; diagnoses of adolescent personality disorders were based on data obtained from both maternal and youth informants. Four composite measures of childhood behavior problems were used: conduct problems, depressive symptoms, anxiety/fear, and immaturity. Adolescent personality disorders were considered present only if the disorders persisted over a 2-year period. For all analyses, personality disorders were grouped into the three clusters (A, B, and C) of DSM-III-R. Logistic regression analyses indicated that all four of the putative childhood antecedents were associated with greater odds of an adolescent personality disorder 10 years later. Childhood conduct problems remained an independent predictor of personality disorders in all three clusters, even when other childhood problems were included in the same regression model. Additionally, depressive symptoms emerged as an independent predictor of cluster A personality disorders in boys, while immaturity was an independent predictor of cluster B personality disorders in girls. No moderating effects of age at time of childhood assessment were found. These results support the view that personality disorders can be traced to childhood emotional and behavioral disturbances and suggest that these problems have both general and specific relationships to adolescent personality functioning.
Young, Tamera; Turner, Jean; Denny, George; Young, Michael
Objectives: To identify antecedents of teen pregnancy. Methods: Data from the National Education Longitudinal Study were analyzed. This data set allowed us to identify eighth-grade antecedents of teen pregnancy/childbearing. Results: The variables that were found to be most predictive of later pregnancy were reflective of internal poverty (locus…
Yang, Jinbi; Sia, Choon Ling; Ou, Carol
It has been widely accepted that distrust is qualitatively different from trust. Yet scholarly knowledge about the antecedents of distrust is scarce, while the antecedents of trust have received extensive attention. Furthermore, little empirical research has explored how website factors impact on
Understanding antecedents to superintendent leadership development is crucial for the continued improvement of schools. This qualitative study seeks to identify skills superintendents consider critical to their position, antecedents that developed those skills, and provide an increased understanding of the methods needed for developing current and…
Full Text Available Prior studies on online sentence processing have shown that the parser can resolve non-local dependencies rapidly and accurately. This study investigates the interaction between the processing of two such non-local dependencies: wh-filler-gap dependencies (WhFGD and reflexive-antecedent dependencies. We show that reflexive-antecedent dependency resolution is sensitive to the presence of a WhFGD, and argue that the filler-gap dependency established by WhFGD resolution is selected online as the antecedent of a reflexive dependency. We investigate the processing of constructions like (1, where two NPs might be possible antecedents for the reflexive, namely which cowgirl and Mary. Even though Mary is linearly closer to the reflexive, the only grammatically licit antecedent for the reflexive is the more distant wh-NP, which cowgirl. 1. Which cowgirl did Mary expect to have injured herself due to negligence?Four eye-tracking text-reading experiments were conducted on examples like (1, differing in whether the embedded clause was non-finite (1 and 3 or finite (2 and 4, and in whether the tail of the wh-dependency intervened between the reflexive and its closest overt antecedent (1 and 2 or the wh-dependency was associated with a position earlier in the sentence (3 and 4.The results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicate the parser accesses the result of WhFGD formation during reflexive antecedent search. The resolution of a wh-dependency alters the representation that reflexive antecedent search operates over, allowing the grammatical but linearly distant antecedent to be accessed rapidly. In the absence of a long-distance WhFGD (Exp. 3 and 4, wh-NPs were not found to impact reading times of the reflexive, indicating that the parser's ability to select distant wh-NPs as reflexive antecedents crucially involves syntactic structure.
Full Text Available Purpose - This study aims to examine the antecedents of perceived value in the Airbnb context using the variables of perceived benefits (i.e. monetary saving, hedonic benefit, novelty and social interaction and perceived risks (i.e. performance, physical, psychological and time. Design/methodology/approach - The study population was Airbnb users in South Korea. This study applied a survey research method using a questionnaire. A link to the survey was sent via e-mail to panel members of a multinational research company. Findings - The results revealed the positive influence of monetary saving, hedonic benefit and novelty on perceived value and the negative influence of psychological risk on perceived value. Research limitations/implications - The results of this study, which identified the specific factors that influence Airbnb users’ perception of value, can assist Airbnb managers and Airbnb hosts in developing appropriate marketing plans and strategies to enhance the value of their offerings. Originality/value - This study provided empirical support to the inclusion of affective factors and risk in determining perceived value. Moreover, while previous Airbnb studies focused on consumers from Western countries (e.g. USA and Canada, this study used a sample of South Korean consumers.
as to identify possibly issues with cross-loadings. Next confirmatory factor analysis was used on the second sample to verify the goodness of fit for the model. Finally, nomological validity was confirmed. Findings – First, this article develops and refines measures of empathy, moral obligation, self......Purpose – This paper aims to develop and validate measures of four constructs that have often been identified as antecedents of social entrepreneurial behavior: empathy with marginalized people, a feeling of moral obligation to help these, a high level of self-efficacy concerning the ability...... to effect social change and perceived availability of social support. Nomological validity is demonstrated by showing that, as specified by Mair and Noboa (2006), empathy and moral obligation are positively Associated with perceived desirability and self-efficacy and social support with perceived...
Mari Jansen van Rensburg
Full Text Available This paper develops a multi-dimensional model of retention to provide a more complete and integrated view of client retention and its determinants in service contexts. To uncover the antecedents of client retention, social and economic exchanges were reviewed under the fundamental ideas of the Social Exchange Theory. Findings from a survey of senior South African advertising executives suggest that client retention is the result of evaluative as well as relational factors that can influence client responses. Despite contractual obligations, advertisers are willing to pay the costs and make the sacrifices of switching should their expectations be unmet. An important contribution of this study is the use of multi-item scales to measure retention. The model developed provides valuable insight to agencies on client retention management and the optimal allocation of resources for maximum customer equity. This model may also be applied to other service organisations to provide insight to client retention.
Waldner, Florian; Poetz, Marion; Grimpe, Christoph
evidence seems to be confined to firm-level antecedents and pays little attention to the impact of industry structure. This study investigates how different stages of an industry’s life cycle and levels of industry competition affect firms’ business model innovation, and how such innovation translates...... into innovation performance. Based on a cross-industry sample of 1,242 Austrian firms, we introduce a unique measure for the degree of innovation in a firm’s business model. The results indicate that the degree of business model innovation is highest toward the beginning of an industry life cycle, that is......What makes firms innovate their business models? Why do they engage in innovating how they create, deliver, and capture value? And how does such innovation translate into innovation performance? Despite the importance of business model innovation for achieving competitive advantage, existing...
Plant, E Ashby; Devine, Patricia G
Drawing on previous theorizing from both the prejudice and social anxiety literatures, a model of the antecedents and implications of intergroup anxiety is offered. It is argued that a lack of positive previous experiences with outgroup members creates negative expectancies about interracial interactions, which result in intergroup anxiety. This anxiety is posited to result in heightened hostility toward outgroup members and a desire to avoid interacting with outgroup members. Study 1 examined White participants' responses to interacting with Black people using a range of self-report measures; the associations between these responses supported the relationships outlined in the model. Study 2 explored White participants' responses to an anticipated interaction with a Black person or a White person. The findings revealed that high levels of anxiety about an interaction with a Black person, but not a White person, were associated with a lower likelihood of returning for the interaction.
Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Patall, Erika A; Messersmith, Emily E
There is a growing body of research on situational interest (SI). Yet, we still know relatively little about how SI is supported in the classroom and the academic benefits of SI. The current study investigated (1) contextual antecedents of SI; (2) potential benefits of SI for academic outcomes; and (3) SI as a mediator of classroom practices to academic outcomes. Participants were 126 male and female adolescents (mean age = 14.6 years) who took part in a science course during a 3-week residential summer programme for talented adolescents. Participants completed self-report measures prior to the start of the summer programme and at the end of the programme. Summer programme instructors completed ratings of students' engagement during the programme. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the three study aims. After controlling for initial individual interest, perceived choice, instructor approachability, and course connections to real life were statistically significant predictors of SI during the summer programme, with varying associations observed based on the form of SI (triggered, maintained-feeling, and maintained-value). SI was positively related to individual interest and perceived competence in science at the end of the programme as well as teacher-rated engagement; SI also mediated the associations of classroom practices with these outcomes. Results suggest that classroom practices shape SI. In turn, SI supports motivation and engagement. Moreover, differentiated antecedents and outcomes of the three sub-components of SI were identified, highlighting the utility of this three-component approach for studying SI. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Customer relationship management, as a process to manage customer relationship initiation, maintenance and termination to maximize the value of the relationship portfolio, is an evolving process. In recent years, the development of interactive technologies (social media have revolutionized the interaction between firms and their customers and between customers. The impact of technology on CRM is improving ways of collecting and processing customer information and transforming communication with customers. In the context of the development of social networks, the introduction of social media applications in customer relationship management activities bring important changes in this area. Thus, managers need to pay attention to the interaction management as an important process of CRM and enhance the customer relationship management capabilities. The study propose a conceptual research model of several antecedents of customer relationship managements capabilities and provide the linkage between this antecedents and CRM capabilities. First, following review of existing research literature related to customer relationship management, there are some conceptual clarification on customer relationship management. Second, are presented the working concepts: the adoption of interactive technologies, customer concept, customer empowerment, customer relationship orientation and customer-centric management system. Then, it is proposed the conceptual model and finally are presented conclusions, managerial implications, limitations and research directions. From a theoretical perspective, this paper highlights the importance of marketing actions at the individual customer level and reveal the impact of adoption by companies of interactive technologies so that organizations have the opportunity to engage in conversations with customers and respond in real time the requirements that they launched the online environment. Nowadays, customers feel empowered and play
Mark A. Stone
Full Text Available Denying the antecedent is an invalid form of reasoning that is typically identified and frowned upon as a formal fallacy. Contrary to arguments that it does not or at least should not occur, denying the antecedent is a legitimate and effective strategy for undermining a position. Since it is not a valid form of argument, it cannot prove that the position is false. But it can provide inductive evidence that this position is probably false. In this role, it is neither defective nor deceptive. Denying the antecedent provides inductive support for rejecting a claim as improbable.
Investigation of the effect of cochlear implant electrode length on speech comprehension in quiet and noise compared with the results with users of electro-acoustic-stimulation, a retrospective analysis.
Büchner, Andreas; Illg, Angelika; Majdani, Omid; Lenarz, Thomas
This investigation evaluated the effect of cochlear implant (CI) electrode length on speech comprehension in quiet and noise and compare the results with those of EAS users. 91 adults with some degree of residual hearing were implanted with a FLEX20, FLEX24, or FLEX28 electrode. Some subjects were postoperative electric-acoustic-stimulation (EAS) users; the other subjects were in the groups of electric stimulation-only (ES-only). Speech perception was tested in quiet and noise at 3 and 6 months of ES or EAS use. Speech comprehension results were analyzed and correlated to electrode length. While the FLEX20 ES and FLEX24 ES groups were still in their learning phase between the 3 to 6 months interval, the FLEX28 ES group was already reaching a performance plateau at the three months appointment yielding remarkably high test scores. EAS subjects using FLEX20 or FLEX24 electrodes outscored ES-only subjects with the same short electrodes on all 3 tests at each interval, reaching significance with FLEX20 ES and FLEX24 ES subjects on all 3 tests at the 3-months interval and on 2 tests at the 6- months interval. Amongst ES-only subjects at the 3- months interval, FLEX28 ES subjects significantly outscored FLEX20 ES subjects on all 3 tests and the FLEX24 ES subjects on 2 tests. At the-6 months interval, FLEX28 ES subjects still exceeded the other ES-only subjects although the difference did not reach significance. Among ES-only users, the FLEX28 ES users had the best speech comprehension scores, at the 3- months appointment and tendentially at the 6 months appointment. EAS users showed significantly better speech comprehension results compared to ES-only users with the same short electrodes.
Zencius, A H; Wesolowski, M D; Burke, W H; McQuade, P
Three brain-injured clients failed to respond significantly to consequence management programmes designed to increase attendance, use of a cane, and to reduce unauthorized breaks. When antecedent stimulus control procedures were applied, attendance and use of a cane increased and unauthorized breaks decreased. The study shows that antecedent control may be the treatment of choice when treating brain-injured clients with memory loss.
Full Text Available Cataphoric dependencies where a pronoun precedes its antecedent appear to call on different mechanisms in language comprehension from forward dependencies where the antecedent precedes the pronoun. Previous research has shown that the resolution of cataphoric dependencies involves predictive processes such as the Active Search Mechanism, which hypothesizes the automatic search for an antecedent immediately after encountering a cataphoric pronoun. The current study employs gender mismatch to investigate whether the active search for an antecedent of a cataphoric pronoun is restricted only to grammatically licit positions. We present results from an event-related potential experiment on the reading comprehension of cataphoric dependencies in Dutch. Results show that gender mismatch gives rise to an anterior negativity at grammatically licit antecedent positions only. We hypothesize that this negativity reflects the prediction failure for an antecedent after encountering a pronoun, rather than a gender mismatch. We discuss the timing, topography and functionality of this negativity with respect to previous studies and how this relates to the ERPs elicited in the processing of structural constraints on pronoun resolution.
Shiva Prasad H. C.
Full Text Available Software professionals’ (SPs' performance is often understood narrowly in terms of input–output productivity. This study approaches performance from a broader perspective and examines whether the emotional intelligence competencies (EICs of SPs, the leadership style of team leaders, social capital among team members, and human resource management (HRM practices of software firms affect performance of SPs. It also tests whether the value of and opportunities for knowledge sharing moderate such relationships. Data were collected from 441 Indian SPs in a questionnaire survey. Fifty-five team leaders assessed the performance of SPs, and SPs assessed the other constructs. Results revealed that EICs, transformational leadership style, social capital, and HRM practices positively affect performance. EICs are the most important predictors of performance. Under high (low value of and high (low opportunities for knowledge sharing, the antecedents influencing performance are strengthened (attenuated or nullified. The value of and opportunities for knowledge sharing are quasi-moderators. These findings have significant implications for organizing effective work teams.
Oliva, E. M.; Keyes, M.; Iacono, W. G.
personality and age-18 substance use in a community sample of 1,298 twins (96% Caucasian, 49% male). Personality measures at ages 11 and 18 assessed positive emotionality (agentic and communal), negative emotionality, and constraint. Substance use groupsabstainers, experimenters, and problem userswere created......This study attempted to extend Shedler and Block's () influential study, which found that adolescent drug experimenters had the healthiest personality functioning compared to abstainers and frequent users. Using a prospective design, we examined the relationship between antecedent and concurrent...... at age 18. Age-18 substance use groups differed in age-11 and age-18 constraint such that problem users were lower than experimenters, who were lower than abstainers. Age-18 substance use groups did not differ in age-18 positive emotionality. However, abstainers were significantly lower than...
Full Text Available The fundamental objective of this paper was to identify and analyze the main antecedents of sales organization effectiveness in order to offer the guidelines for improving the standard sales practice. In addition to the customary challenges of achieving anticipated sales results, rising pressures of the contemporary business environment underscore the importance of establishing a more effective sales organization. The aim of the empirical research was to identify the sources of effectiveness of sales organizations based on the comparison between two groups of organizations, namely, the relatively high and low performing ones. The concept of sales performance was observed through five distinct factors: sales management activities, sales force characteristics, sales organization design and sales force effectiveness with regard to the sales outcome of these organizations and their behavior. The analysis of the results led to the conclusion that the most important sources of sales effectiveness are the activities of sales managers targeted towards monitoring and rewarding. Moreover, sales managers in relatively more effective organizations reported much higher satisfaction with the design of sales territories. Sales people in effective companies are highly motivated and committed to the organization. In addition, they are also considerably better at achieving high levels of outcome performance. The research presents an addition to a number of similar studies conducted worldwide but, more importantly, it contributes to the exceptionally small number of sales management studies carried out in Croatia. For a more complete analysis it would be necessary to include the variables of the external environment and examine the potential moderating impact of product type and industry on the overall sales effectiveness.
Oliva, Elizabeth M; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
This study attempted to extend Shedler and Block's (1990) influential study, which found that adolescent drug experimenters had the healthiest personality functioning compared to abstainers and frequent users. Using a prospective design, we examined the relationship between antecedent and concurrent personality and age-18 substance use in a community sample of 1,298 twins (96% Caucasian, 49% male). Personality measures at ages 11 and 18 assessed positive emotionality (agentic and communal), negative emotionality, and constraint. Substance use groups-abstainers, experimenters, and problem users-were created at age 18. Age-18 substance use groups differed in age-11 and age-18 constraint such that problem users were lower than experimenters, who were lower than abstainers. Age-18 substance use groups did not differ in age-18 positive emotionality. However, abstainers were significantly lower than experimenters in communal positive emotionality, whereas female abstainers scored higher in agentic positive emotionality than female experimenters, who scored higher than female problem users. Experimenters were significantly lower in negative emotionality than problem users. Our findings are inconsistent with the notion that experimenters had the healthiest personality functioning and instead suggest different strengths and weaknesses for each group. Future studies should examine agentic and communal positive emotionality separately. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Smit, C. A. J.; Zwinkels, M.; van Dijk, T.; de Groot, S.; Stolwijk-Swuste, J. M.; Janssen, T. W. J.
Background: Prolonged high ischial tuberosities pressure (IT pressure), decreased regional blood flow (BF) and oxygenation (%SO2) are risk factors for developing pressure ulcers (PUs) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Electrical stimulation (ES)-induced gluteal and hamstring muscle
Ery Tri Djatmika
Full Text Available Global era is characterized by highly competitive advantage market demand. Responding to the challenge of rapid environmental changes, organizational learning is becoming a strategic way and solution to empower people themselves within the organization in order to create a novelty as valuable positioning source. For research purposes, determining the influential antecedents that affect organizational learning is vital to understand research-based solutions given for practical implications. Accordingly, identification of variables examined by asymmetrical relationships is critical to establish. Possible antecedent variables come from organizational and personal point of views. It is also possible to include a moderating one. A proposed theoretical model of asymmetrical effects of organizational learning and its antecedents is discussed in this article.
Niina Ning Zhang
Full Text Available In this paper, I propose a syntactic derivation for Split Antecedent Relative Clause Constructions such as Mary met a man and John met a woman who knew each other well. I claim that the two antecedents of such a construction are originally two conjuncts of a coordinate nominal. Then each has undergone a sideward movement, landed in a new working site, and been selected by a verb. After that, a coordinate clausal complex is constructed. In the old working site, a complex nominal is also constructed, in which the relative clause takes the remnant coordinate nominal as its antecedent. Finally, the complex nominal adjoins to the coordinate clausal complex. This analysis shows how the freedom in the selection of the landing site gained from sideward movement makes the syntactic derivations of this special type of relative clause construction possible, while at the same time avoiding the problems of the alternative three-dimensional analysis.
Liebe, Jan-David; Esdar, Moritz; Thye, Johannes; Hübner, Ursula
CIOs' innovation capability is regarded as a precondition of successful HIT adoption in hospitals. Based on the data of 142 CIOs, this study aimed at identifying antecedents of perceived innovation capability. Eight features describing the status quo of the hospital IT management (e.g. use of IT governance frameworks), four features of the hospital structure (e.g. functional diversification) and four CIO characteristics (e.g. duration of employment) were tested as potential antecedents in an exploratory stepwise regression approach. Perceived innovation capability in its entirety and its three sub-dimensions served as criterion. The results show that CIOs' perceived innovation capability could be explained significantly (R2=0.34) and exclusively by facts that described the degree of formalism and structure of IT management in a hospital, e.g. intensive and formalised strategic communication, the existence of an IT strategy and the use of IT governance frameworks. Breaking down innovation capability into its constituents revealed that "innovative organisational culture" contributed to a large extent (R2=0.26) to the overall result sharing several predictors. In contrast, "intrapreneurial personality" (R2=0.11) and "openness towards users" (R2=0.18) could be predicted less well. These results hint at the relationship between working in a well-structured, formalised and strategy oriented environment and the overall feeling of being capable to promote IT innovation.
Full Text Available The purpose of this literature review is to provide a better understanding of the antecedents of organisational creativity with a multi-level approach. Organisational creativity is a sum total of the creativity accounted for by the individual employees of the organisation, the cumulative creativity of a team or group and creativity arising out of different structural components of an organisation. Some of the antecedents identified from the literature include personality, intrinsic motivation, group cohesion, social inhibition, cognitive interference, leader member exchange, organisational culture and climate, amongst others at individual, group and organisational level. Based on the literature review, suggestions for future research and research propositions have been proposed.
Smith, Pernille; Ulhøi, John Parm; Kesting, Peter
Research on employee-driven innovation (EDI) is still in its infancy, and as yet there is no independent body of literature on the topic. The aim of this paper is to review existing insights into the key antecedents of EDI in other research contexts. In particular, we focus on: leader support......, autonomy, collaboration, and organisational norms of exploration. The main contribution of this paper is to discuss how these key antecedents apply to the specific case of EDI and to identify an agenda for new research....
Gladwell, P. W.; Badlan, K.; Cramp, F. A.; Palmer, S.
Background There is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) for chronic musculoskeletal pain or chronic low back pain. A recent review of previous trial methodology identified significant problems with low treatment fidelity. There is little information available to guide selection of Patient Reported Outcome Measures appropriate for TENS evaluation.\\ud \\ud Objectives To explore the experiences of secondary care Pain Clinic patients who s...
Feinkohl, Insa; Flemming, Danny; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim
Background Laypeople frequently discuss medical research findings on Web-based platforms, but little is known about whether they grasp the tentativeness that is inherent in these findings. Potential influential factors involved in understanding medical tentativeness have hardly been assessed to date. Objective The research presented here aimed to examine the effects of personality factors and of other users? previous contributions in a Web-based forum on laypeople?s understanding of the tenta...
Pettit, Gregory S.; Laird, Robert D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Criss, Michael M.
Examined early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control during early adolescence. Found that monitoring was anteceded by proactive parenting style and advantageous family-ecological characteristics. Psychological control was anteceded by harsh parenting and mothers' report of earlier child…
The purpose of this phenomenological exploration was to shed light on the constellation of factors anteceding young women's sexual risk taking during their tourist experiences. A total of 15 in-depth interviews (1.5 to 2.5 hours each) with 13 women were conducted and analyzed through the lens of transcendental phenomenology. An analysis of antecedent factors revealed a confluence of sociopersonal characteristics (e.g., sexual definitions, attitudes, double standards, and age) and touristic attributes (e.g., the sense of temporariness/ephemerality, anonymity, and fun-oriented mentality depending on length, destination, and type of tourist experience) that underlie women's proclivity for and perceptions of sexual risk taking in certain travel scenarios. These result in myriad effects on physical, sexual health, sociocultural, mental, and emotional aspects of women's health and well-being. While the sociopersonal antecedents highlight the cross-pollination between sex-related perceptions in everyday life and touristic environments, the touristic antecedents emphasize the uniqueness of tourist experiences as the contexts for sexual risk taking. The findings address an underresearched topic in sex and tourism scholarship and offer implications for health education and intervention programs, pointing to the value of constructing the context-specific and gender-sensitive sexual health messages underpinned by the ideas of women's empowerment and sexual agency.
Perin, Marcelo Gattermann; Sampaio, Claudio Hoffmann; Simoes, Claudia; de Polvora, Rosiane Polvora
The purpose of this investigation is to understand the antecedents of student loyalty in the Brazilian context. In particular we address the impact of student trust, commitment and quality perception on loyalty. A quantitative study was conducted among business management student majors from two private Brazilian Higher Education Institutions…
This article adopts the inflection device in fabulous theatre (Abubakar, 2006) to measure the efficacy or otherwise of the aforementioned qualities in Femi Osofisan's handling of three major historical events in The Chattering and the Song (Osofisan, 1977) and Once Upon Four Robbers (Osofisan, 1991). The antecedents are ...
Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Sayfouri, Nasrin
Engaged nurses have high levels of energy and are enthusiastic about their work which impacts quality of health care services. However, in the context of Iran, due to observed burnout, work engagement among nurses necessitates immediate exploration. This investigation aimed to identify a suitable work engagement model in nursing profession in hospitals according to the hypothesized model and to determine antecedents and consequences related to work engagement among nurses. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was given to 279 randomly-selected nurses working in two general teaching hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran) to measure antecedents and consequences of work engagement using the Saks's (2005) model. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the model fitness. Two paths were added using LISREL software. The resulting model showed good fitness indices (χ(2) = 23.62, AGFI = 0.93, CFI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.07) and all the coefficients of the paths were significant (t ≥ 2, t ≤ -2). A significant correlation was found between work engagement and model variables. Paying adequate attention to the antecedents of work engagement can enhance the quality of performance among nurses. Additionally, rewards, organizational and supervisory supports, and job characteristics should be taken into consideration to establish work engagement among nurses. Further researches are required to identify other probable antecedents and consequences of nursing work engagement, which might be related to specific cultural settings.
Losee, Robert M.
This paper provides an historical overview of the theoretical antecedents leading to information theory, specifically those useful for understanding and teaching information science and systems. Information may be discussed in a philosophical manner and at the same time be measureable. This notion of information can thus be the subject of…
Russell, Elizabeth Morgan; Williams, Sue W.; Gleason-Gomez, Cheryl
The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the degree to which teachers' age, perceptions of fair pay, receipt of employer-sponsored health insurance, and administrative support, as operationalized by the Competing Values Framework, predicted antecedents of turnover. Teachers' thoughts of leaving their current job and commitment to a center…
Arim, Rubab G.; Tramonte, Lucia; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Dahinten, V. Susan; Willms, J. Douglas
The purpose of this study was to examine both the family antecedents and the outcomes of early puberty, with a particular focus on factors related to family socioeconomic status (SES). The study employed a comprehensive measurement of pubertal development and longitudinal data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth.…
Buri, John R; And Others
While forgiveness has long been a crucial concept in the churches' formulations for the establishment and the preservation of spiritual, social, and emotional health, consideration of forgiveness by psychology pales in comparison. Research is needed to identify the psychological factors in mothers and fathers which serve as antecedents of the…
Jugert, P.; Feddes, A.R.; Rutland, A.; Nesdale, D.; Brown, C.S.
This chapter reviews recent research on the antecedents of cross-ethnic friendships, on friendship stability and quality, as well as on their consequences. It discusses structural, intergroup, and family factors and its relationship to cross-ethnic friendships. Research shows that cross-ethnic
Jones, Russell W.
This document consists of the report of a study undertaken to establish the existence of any gender specific differences in the perceived antecedents of academic stress. The definition of stress as a negative emotion strongly associated with doubt about coping is suggested to be particularly relevant to the academic arena where students…
Neghina, C.; Caniels, M.; Bloemer, J.M.M.; Birgelen, M.J.H. van
The purpose of this article is to further develop the conceptualization of value co-creation and discuss its dimensions and antecedents. We propose that in service interactions, value co-creation should be understood as a joint collaborative activity between service employees and customers
Russ-Eft, Darlene; And Others
Antecedents and consequences of adolescent parenting were examined using a representative national sample of 1,000 30-year-olds. It was found that 10 percent of men and 31 percent of women had had a child during adolescence. Higher incidences of adolescent parenting occurred among Blacks and low socio-economic status and low ability groups.…
This reference brief deals with the childhood antecedents to atherosclerosis and hypertension. While diet is related to the development of coronary artery diseases, there is some disagreement about what dietary changes are necessary or desirable in children to prevent their development, and at what age such changes should be made. Fifty-five…
Krantz, David S.; And Others
Provides an overview of research on the biobehavioral antecedents of coronary heart disease, including stressful occupational settings characterized by high demands and little control over the job, and the Type A pattern, particularly hostility and mode of anger expression (anger-in). Discusses research on physiologic responsiveness (reactivity)…
This paper provides a systematic review of 165 empirical studies on the antecedents of performance in international strategic alliances. It provides the most detailed display of definitions, rationales, measures and findings currently available. Hence, this state-of-the art literature review...
Ip, Ching Yin; Wu, Shih-Chia; Liu, Huei-Ching; Liang, Chaoyun
This study examined how empathy, moral obligation, social entrepreneurial self-efficacy, perceived social support, and prior experience with social problems are associated with social entrepreneurial intentions. Through a survey, a sample of 252 Hong Kong students was used for analyses. Factor analyses supported that the antecedents of social…
Wilkinson, Dawn; Abraham, Charles
Reviews have called for integrative, theoretically informed models of the 'hundreds of associations' (Miller & Slap, 1989, p. 131) between psychosocial measures and adolescent smoking (e. g. Tyas & Pederson, 1998). Such a model was tested. A prospective, classroom-based survey measuring previously identified correlates of smoking allowed comparison of the strength of relationships between antecedents and smoking status six months later. The prospective sample included 225 13 to 14-year-olds. Measures of behaviour-specific cognitions derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)-as well as personality, self-esteem, parental support and parental control, sociodemographic factors, and descriptive norms-were included. Relationships between antecedents were explored using path analyses. High initial rates of smoking were observed. Of the variance in smoking six months later, 56% was explained by seven direct predictors: intention, perceived ease of smoking, estimated number of friends smoking, percentage of older brothers smoking, self-esteem, extraversion and car access. Results emphasize the importance of behaviour-specific cognitions specified by the TPB but suggest that other factors, including extraversion and self-esteem, need to be included in models of the antecedents of smoking. The findings also imply that some antecedents, such as parental support, may indirectly influence adolescent smoking through their effect on other variables.
Full Text Available Although the last decade has witnessed social networking sites of varied flavors, Facebook’s user growth continues to balloon, and relatedly, Facebook remains popular among the college populace. While there has been a growing body of work on ascertaining antecedents of Facebook use among college students, Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel (CEGEP students’ acceptance of Facebook remains underexplored. The purpose of this study was to analyze CEGEP students’ acceptance of Facebook using the technology acceptance model (TAM. Structural equation modeling was conducted on data from a survey of 214 CEGEP students. We find that Facebook use is motivated by the core TAM constructs as well as the added factors of peer influence, perceived enjoyment, perceived self-efficacy, relative advantage, risk, and trust.
Research indicated that in order for properly utilizing recommendation agents (RAs), customers must rationally evaluate capability and suggestions of RAs during the interaction process. However, enjoying interactive processes and interface is also important. Methods for increasing user enjoyment of RAs are yet unknown. This study investigated the influences of utilitarian and hedonic factors on intention to adopt RAs suggestions and their antecedents. Involvement influences relative importance of utilitarian and hedonic factors. Contrary to common assumptions, customers may make unplanned purchases, rather than rational purchase. A field experiment with 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design reveals main findings. First, information diagnosticity and enjoyment enhance adoption intention simultaneously. Information diagnosticity is more important than enjoyment. Diagnosticity was determined by outcome similarity, and enjoyment was determined by both outcome similarity and atmospherics. The context of interacting with RAs is important. Outcome similarity even directly affects adoption intention. Second, highly involved users considered enjoyment and diagnosticity when forming adoption intentions, while users with low involvement only considered enjoyment. Third, information cascades altered the relationship between adoption intention and unplanned purchases. Most customers change selection after seeing ratings from other customers, even if they originally strongly want to adoption suggestion from RAs. Theoretical and managerial implications are proposed.
This study investigates the influences of the antecedent factors on the complaints and resulting behaviors of 582 university library users in South Korea. There were statistically significant relationships between personal norms and negative word of mouth and indirect voice behaviors, between service importance and negative word-of-mouth behavior,…
Full Text Available This study is meant to examine the relationships of several antecedents of actual purchase of herbal product in Malaysia. Actual purchase is considered to have a vital link to a business success. The study identified eight antecedents of consumer actual purchase such as intention, attitude, social influence, product safety and culture belief. A total of 473 respondents (about 82% completed and returned the questionnaire. A seven point Likert scale was used to measure responses. The data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares (PLS path modeling. The path coefficient results supported the direct influence of intention, attitude, social influence and product safety on actual buying. Moreover, the findings reveal that attitude, social influence, product safety, and culture belief also influenced buying intention.
Stephanie J Law
Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the antecedents and processes that impact job interviewees’ decisions to engage in deceptive impression management (i.e. interview faking. Willingness and capacity to engage in faking were found to be the processes underlying the decision to use deceptive impression management in the interview. We also examined a personality antecedent to this behaviour, Honesty-Humility, which was negatively related to the use of deceptive impression management through increased willingness to engage in these behaviours. We also tested a possible intervention to reduce IM. In particular, we found that warnings against faking – specifically, an identification warning - reduced both the perceived capacity to engage in interview faking, and subsequent use of several faking behaviors. Moreover, this warning reduced faking without adversely impacting applicant reactions.
Bergkvist, Lars; Bech-Larsen, Tino
Brand love is a recent marketing construct, which has been shown to influence important marketing variables such as brand loyalty and word-of-mouth. Although this knowledge is academically interesting, its managerial relevance depends on the identification of actionable antecedents of brand love....... This study adds to the understanding of the managerial potential of brand love by proposing and testing two actionable antecedents of brand love: Brand identification and sense of community. The study uses the Partial Least Squares approach to structural equation modelling to analyze data from two survey......-based studies. The study tests two conceptual models using data for six different brands. The results show that brand identification and sense of community both have a positive influence on brand love, which in turn has a positive influence on brand loyalty and active engagement. These findings form the basis...
Rodkin, Philip C; Espelage, Dorothy L; Hanish, Laura D
This article reviews current research on the relational processes involved in peer bullying, considering developmental antecedents and long-term consequences. The following themes are highlighted: (a) aggression can be both adaptive and maladaptive, and this distinction has implications for bullies' functioning within peer social ecologies; (b) developmental antecedents and long-term consequences of bullying have not been well-distinguished from the extant research on aggressive behavior; (c) bullying is aggression that operates within relationships of power and abuse. Power asymmetry and repetition elements of traditional bullying definitions have been hard to operationalize, but without these specifications and more dyadic measurement approaches there may be little rationale for a distinct literature on bullying--separate from aggression. Applications of a relational approach to bullying are provided using gender as an example. Implications for future research are drawn from the study of relationships and interpersonal theories of developmental psychopathology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Gladwell, Peter William; Badlan, Kathryn; Cramp, Fiona; Palmer, Shea
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) could offer a non-drug form of pain relief, but there is no consensus regarding its effectiveness for chronic musculoskeletal pain or chronic low back pain. A recent review of previous trial methods identified significant problems with low treatment fidelity. There is little information available to inform the development of a pragmatic implementation design for a TENS evaluation. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of patients who were receiving secondary care in a pain clinic and who had expertise in using TENS to manage chronic musculoskeletal pain. These key informants were selected because they had the potential to generate knowledge that could inform research design and clinical practice. A qualitative method using individual semistructured interviews with open questions was selected for its capacity to generate rich data. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 9 patients (6 women, 3 men). Thematic analysis was used as the primary data analysis method, and this analysis was enhanced by a case-level analysis of the context and processes of TENS use of each individual. Data analysis indicated that patients learned to address a range of problems in order to optimize TENS use. Patients may need to personalize the positioning of electrodes and the TENS settings and to readjust them over time. Patients learned to use TENS in a strategic manner, and the outcomes of each strategy varied. The findings indicated that a pragmatic TENS evaluation may need to incorporate a learning phase to allow patients to optimize this complex pattern of TENS usage, and evaluation may need to be sensitive to the outcomes of strategic use. These findings also have implications for clinical practice. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.
Gladwell, Peter William; Badlan, Kathryn; Cramp, Fiona; Palmer, Shea
There is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for management of chronic musculoskeletal pain or chronic low back pain. A recent review of previous trial methodology identified significant problems with low treatment fidelity. There is little information available to guide selection of patient-reported outcome measures appropriate for TENS evaluation. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of patients at a secondary care pain clinic who successfully used TENS to help manage chronic musculoskeletal pain. These key informants were selected because they had the potential to generate knowledge that could inform research design and clinical practice. A qualitative method using individual semistructured interviews with open questions was selected for its capacity to generate rich data. A mini focus group informed the development of a discussion guide for semistructured interviews with 9 patients (6 women, 3 men). Thematic analysis was used as the primary data analysis method, and this analysis was enhanced by a case-level analysis of the context and processes of TENS use of each individual. Data analysis indicated that distraction from pain and a reduction in the sensations associated with muscle tension or spasm should be considered as separate outcomes from pain relief. These direct benefits led to a wide range of indirect benefits dependent on patient decision making, including medication reduction, enhanced function, psychological benefits, and enhanced ability to rest. The findings indicate that evaluating TENS using a unidimensional pain scale is likely to overlook potential benefits. The complex pattern of TENS usage, as well as multiple direct and indirect outcomes, indicates that TENS could be considered as a complex intervention. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.
Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.
Herpes zoster and an associated complication, postherpetic neuralgia, are both attributable to the varicella zoster virus. This virus, which lies dormant within the affected sensory ganglia after an initial infection, appears to be triggered in part by a decrease in immunity. According to available research, stress, stressful life events, and depressive symptoms are identified antecedents to outbreaks of herpes zoster. Likewise, the development of postherpetic neuralgia has been associated wi...
Chin, Shih Yuan
This research explores the antecedents and outcome of brand love. Consumer-brand relationship constructs, brand trust, brand credibility and brand equity may influence consumers' brand love. Brand love in turn may have positive impact towards brand commitment. Quantitative survey research is employed to test the hypotheses involving brand love and brand commitment. Results show that brand trust, brand experience, brand credibility and brand equity relates positively towards brand love. Consum...
Libânia Melo Nunes Fialho; Ricardo Silva Pinho; Jaime Lin; Thais Soares Cianciarullo Minett; Maria Sylvia de Souza Vitalle; Mauro Fisberg; Mario Fernando Prieto Peres; Luiz Celso Pereira Vilanova; Marcelo Rodrigues Masruha
Migraines and sleep terrors (STs) are highly prevalent disorders with striking similarities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the antecedent of STs by comparing adolescents suffering from migraines with healthy controls in a large consecutive series. METHODS: All patients were subjected to a detailed headache questionnaire and were instructed to keep a headache diary during a two-month period. The age range was 10 to 19 years. The diagnosis of STs was defined according to t...
302–314. Cannon, J. P., & Perreault, W. D., Jr. (1999). Buyer–seller relationships in business markets. Journal of Marketing Research , 36, 439–460...some antecedents of opportunism in a marketing channel. Journal of Marketing Research , 21(3), 278–289. Kelman, S. (2010). Three ways to revitalize...supplier fairness on vulnerable resellers. Journal of Marketing Research , 32(1), 54–65. Lambe, J. C., Wittmann, C. M., & Spekman, R. E. (2001
P. Athanasopoulou; J. Douvis; V. Kyriakis
(a) Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify the types of CSR initiatives employed by sports organisations; their antecedents, and their consequences for the company and society. (b) Design/methodology/approach: This study is exploratory in nature. Two detailed case studies were conducted involving the football team and the basketball team of one professional, premier league club in Greece and their CSR initiatives. Both teams have the same name...
Araújo Neto, Antonio Herculano de; Patrício, Anna Cláudia Freire de Araújo; Ferreira, Milenna Azevedo Minhaqui; Rodrigues, Brenda Feitosa Lopes; Santos, Thayná Dias dos; Rodrigues, Thays Domingos de Brito; Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo da
ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the occurrence of falls in institutionalized elderly addressing the risks, consequences and antecedents. Method: Cross-sectional study carried out with 45 older adults in Long-Term Care Facilities for the Older adult in João Pessoa, Brazil, in June and July 2016. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the Berg Balance Scale were applied, classifying as risk of fall scores lower than 45. Descriptive statistics and tests were conducted: independent t-test, Anova ...
Frei, Irina; Grund, Christian
Despite the ongoing public debate about precarious working conditions in academia, there is only little evidence on working hours and overtime work for the group of (non-tenured) junior academics. By using unique longitudinal survey data on the occupational situation and careers of doctoral students and doctorate holders in STEM fields in Germany, we explore potential antecedents of overtime. We find that overtime hours are less pronounced among firm employees holding a doctorate and among po...
Chiu, Shun-Po; Chou, Huey-Wen; Chiu, Chao-Min
The success of a business largely depends upon customers' intentions to continue to purchase, but this can be a challenge for vendors in online markets. This study proposes a model which identifies an initial set of justice antecedents and evaluates their relation to perceived justice, trust, and repurchase intention in online markets. The theoretical model is tested by using structural equation modeling on a data set of 424 buyers in Yahoo! Kimo online auction market. The results demonstrate that three dimensions of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional) are positively and significantly related to trust, which in turn affects buyers' intention to repurchase. Moreover, among the three dimensions of justice judgments, distributive justice and interactional justice are relatively more important than procedural justice in predicting buyers' trust in sellers. In terms of the antecedents of justice, this study provides evidence that product quality and delivery performance are significantly related to distributive justice, while information quality and contact channel are important antecedents of procedural justice. This study also finds that responsiveness is important in enhancing buyers' judgments of interactional justice.
Dijker, A J; Koomen, W; van den Heuvel, H; Frijda, N H
It is argued that the aspects of intergroup relations that potentially can arouse emotions in the perceiver are likely to become central and motivationally relevant elements of group stereotypes. Asking participants to report on the perceived antecedents of their emotional reactions to in-group and out-group members should therefore be an especially useful method to reveal the content of stereotypes. Native Dutch participants reported both the frequencies with which different emotions were felt in different intergroup relations and the perceived causes of these emotions. Analysis of self-reported antecedents of emotional reactions revealed that (a) despite a general in-group favourability bias, both the in-group and the two out-groups employed arouse different kinds of negative and positive emotions; and (b) differences in emotional reactions to the two out-groups are related to salient differences in perceived antecedents between these groups. Theoretical and practical implications of the present emphasis on the cognitive foundation of emotion in intergroup relations are discussed.
Full Text Available The water retention capacity of a landscape, usually measured for a catchment basin, is a very important and decisive characteristic to identify the runoff amount from the catchment area and, in consequence, for antierosion and flood protection measures. Besides, creating water reserves in the landscape and keeping the water in them is also rather important.Soil humidity contributes to the calculation of potential water retention through modelling the runoff amount and peak discharge from the catchment basin within an area not larger than 5–10 km2. This method is based on curve number values (CN, which are tabulated according to hydrological characteristics of soils, land use, vegetation cover, tillage, antierosion measures and soil humidity, estimated as a 5-day sum of preceding precipitation values. This estimation is known as the antecedent precipitation index and it is divided into 3 degrees – I, II, III. Degree I indicates dry soil but still moist enough to till, whereas degree III means that the soil is oversaturated by water from preceding rainfall. Degree II is commonly used in this context as the antecedent precipitation index. The aim of this paper is to obtain real antecedent precipitation index values in given climatological stations (Brno, Dačice, Holešov, Náměšť nad Oslavou, Strážnice, Telč – Kostelní Myslová, Velké Meziříčí, Znojmo – Kuchařovice for the period of years 1961 – 2009. Daily precipitation sums higher than 30 mm were considered to be the best candidate for such precipitation value since this occurs approximately once a year in studied areas. The occurence of these sums was also analysed for each month within the growing season (April to October. The analysed data was tabulated by climatological stations in order to check the real occurence of all antecedent precipitation index degrees within the studied period.Finally, the effects of different antecedent precipitation index values on the
Health websites are important sources of information for consumers. In choosing websites, trust in websites largely determines which website to access and how to best utilize the information. Thus, it is critical to understand why consumers trust certain websites and distrust others. A systematic literature review was conducted with the goal of identifying the antecedents of trust in health information websites. After four rounds of screening process, 20 articles between 2000 and 2013 were harvested. Factors that determine trust are classified into individual difference antecedents, website-related antecedents, and consumer-to-website interaction-related antecedents. The most frequently studied antecedents were socio-demographics, information quality, appearance, and perceived reputation of the website. Each antecedent of trust are discussed in detail and future research directions are proposed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Fitriani, Apris; Nawawiwetu, Erwin Dyah
Background : Safety behaviour is an act worker to minimize the possibility of accidents in workplace. Based on the Antecedents-Behaviour-Consequence (ABC) theory, safety behaviour of worker related with the antecedent and consequence factors. Purpose : The purpose of this research was to study the association between antecedent and consequence factors with safety behaviour of workers in Ring Frame Unit Spinning II PT. X. Methods : This was an observational descriptive research with cross sect...
Jiang, Lihong; Herzog, Raimund I; Mason, Graeme F; de Graaf, Robin A; Rothman, Douglas L; Sherwin, Robert S; Behar, Kevin L
The objective of this study was to characterize the changes in brain metabolism caused by antecedent recurrent hypoglycemia under euglycemic and hypoglycemic conditions in a rat model and to test the hypothesis that recurrent hypoglycemia changes the brain's capacity to utilize different energy substrates. Rats exposed to recurrent insulin-induced hypoglycemia for 3 days (3dRH rats) and untreated controls were subject to the following protocols: [2-(13)C]acetate infusion under euglycemic conditions (n = 8), [1-(13)C]glucose and unlabeled acetate coinfusion under euglycemic conditions (n = 8), and [2-(13)C]acetate infusion during a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp (n = 8). In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to monitor the rise of(13)C-labeling in brain metabolites for the calculation of brain metabolic fluxes using a neuron-astrocyte model. At euglycemia, antecedent recurrent hypoglycemia increased whole-brain glucose metabolism by 43 +/- 4% (P glucose utilization in neurons. Although acetate metabolism remained the same, control and 3dRH animals showed a distinctly different response to acute hypoglycemia: controls decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) flux in astrocytes by 64 +/- 20% (P = 0.01), whereas it increased by 37 +/- 3% in neurons (P = 0.01). The 3dRH animals decreased PDH flux in both compartments (-75 +/- 20% in astrocytes, P neurons, P = 0.005). Thus, acute hypoglycemia reduced total brain tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in 3dRH animals (-37 +/- 4%, P = 0.001), but not in controls. Our findings suggest that after antecedent hypoglycemia, glucose utilization is increased at euglycemia and decreased after acute hypoglycemia, which was not the case in controls. These findings may help to identify better methods of preserving brain function and reducing injury during acute hypoglycemia.
Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate antecedents and outcomes of meaningful work among school teachers. Motivation for the study: Meaningful work underpins people’s motivation and affects their well-being and job satisfaction. Furthermore, it is a significant pathway to healthy and authentic organisations. However, a research gap exists regarding the effects of different antecedents and outcomes of meaningful work. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey was used with a convenience sample of 513 teachers. The Work-Life Questionnaire, Revised Job Diagnostic Survey, Co-worker Relations Scale, Work and Meaning Inventory, Personal Resources Scale, Work Engagement Scale, Turnover Intention Scale and a measure of self-rated performance were administered. Main findings: A calling orientation, job design and co-worker relations were associated with meaningful work. A low calling orientation and poor co-worker relationships predicted burnout. A calling orientation, a well-designed job, good co-worker relationships and meaningful work predicted work engagement. Job design was moderately associated with self-ratings of performance. The absence of a calling orientation predicted teachers’ intention to leave the organisation. Practical/managerial implications: Educational managers should consider implementing interventions to affect teachers’ calling orientation (through job crafting, perceptions of the nature of their jobs (by allowing autonomy and co-worker relations (through teambuilding to promote perceptions of meaningful work. Promoting perceptions of meaningful work might contribute to lower burnout, higher work engagement, better self-ratings of performance and retention of teachers. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding the effects of three antecedents, namely a calling orientation, job design and co-worker relationships on meaningful work. It also contributed to knowledge
Riisberg, Vibeke; Bang, Anne Louise
with the biggest sense organ – our skin. Thus, the aim of our research is to develop new dialogue tools for teaching fashion and textile students in order to stimulate new ways of thinking and engaging with users. By developing and employing participatory design methods in the field of fashion and textiles, we...
Full Text Available Recent work on conditional reasoning argues that denying the antecedent [DA] and affirming the consequent [AC] are defeasible but cogent patterns of argument, either because they are effective, rational, albeit heuristic applications of Bayesian probability, or because they are licensed by the principle of total evidence. Against this, we show that on any prevailing interpretation of indicative conditionals, the premises of DA and AC arguments do not license their conclusions without additional assumptions. The cogency of DA and AC inferences rather depends on contingent factors extrinsic to, and independent of, what is asserted by DA and AC arguments.
Lily Suriani Mohd Arif
Full Text Available The literature on the relationship of social integration and time spent onlineprovides conflicting evidence of the relationship of social integration with timespent online. The study identifies and highlightsthe controversy and attempts toclarify the relationship of social integration withtime spent online bydecomposing the construct social integration into its affective and behavioraldimensions . Thestudy tests antecedents and effects of time spent online in arandom sample of senior level undergraduate students at a public university inMalaysia. The findings indicated that while self-report measures of behavioralsocial integration did not predict time spent online, and, the affective socialintegration had an inverse relationship with time spent online.
Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Golander, Hava; Cohen, Rinat
An in-depth analysis of qualitative data regarding antecedents, consequences, and descriptions of delusions of persons with dementia (PwD) provided by family caregivers is presented. Three broad classifications of reasons given behind types of delusions are included, namely environmental factors, personal factors, and dementia, with dementia being the most prominent factor. We observed an overlap between known cognitive symptoms of dementia and the characteristics of the reported "delusions" in dementia. It therefore appears that what is often classified as a delusion of a seemingly psychotic nature is in fact the PwD's disorientation combined with an attempt to fill in gaps caused by cognitive deficiencies.
Chou, Hsuan-Yi; Lien, Nai-Hwa; Liang, Kuan-Yu
This article investigates 2 possible antecedents of thought confidence and explores the effects of confidence induced before or during ad exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that both consumers' dispositional optimism and spokesperson attractiveness have significant effects on consumers' confidence in thoughts that are generated after viewing the advertisement. Higher levels of thought confidence will influence the quality of the thoughts that people generate, lead to either positively or negatively polarized message processing, and therefore induce better or worse advertising effectiveness, depending on the valence of thoughts. The authors posit the belief-polarization hypothesis to explain these findings.
Sloan, Frank A; Ostermann, Jan; Conover, Christopher J
This study assesses the determinants of conversions in hospital ownership from 1986 through 1996. To place such changes in context, we also analyze causes of hospital mergers and closures, which are often alternatives to hospital ownership conversion. A consistent result from our analysis is that an important antecedent of ownership conversions is a low profit margin. Conversions from private nonprofit or government ownership to for-profit status are preceded by chronically low margins and high debt-to-asset ratios. By contrast, conversions from for-profit ownership occur quickly following declines in margins. Many mergers seem motivated by a desire to increase market power--a consideration not evident for conversions.
Jurie Van Vuuren
Full Text Available Previous research suggests that the market driving behaviour of firms is linked to exceptional performance. However, the elements of market driving, its antecedents and outcomes, have so far not been empirically measured. The primary objectives of this study are to identify factors that describe market driving, develop a conceptual model, and then consider influencing factors and performance indicators drawn from the entrepreneurship and marketing literature. The model has been empirically tested using a sample of managers in the South African healthcare industry. A fully structured questionnaire was used to address the objective of this study. The realised sample of n=328 was used to analyse the conceptual model applying a partial least squares path modelling approach (PLS-PM. The results revealed that market driving is a firm behaviour and is distinguished by three distinct concepts: market sensing, influencing customer preferences and alliance formation. Three out of four antecedents: strategic orientation, entrepreneurial capital and entrepreneurial behaviour, influenced market driving ability positively. The study also demonstrated that market driving behaviour positively influences firm performance and relative competitive strength
Combe, I.; Rudd, J.M.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Greenley, G.E.
Purpose - Current conceptualisations of strategic flexibility and its antecedents are theory-driven, which has resulted in a lack of consensus. To summarise this domain the paper aims to develop and present an a priori conceptual model of the antecedents and outcomes of strategic flexibility.
Jong, G.; Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.
In this study we investigate the institutional arrangements of innovation processes in high-tech alliances, focusing on the role of trust. A major strength of the research is the opportunity to address antecedents as well as performance effects of trust. The antecedents of interorganizational trust
Rezaei-Zadeh, Mohammad; Darwish, Tamer K.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrated framework to indicate which antecedents of absorptive capacity (AC) influence its learning processes, and to propose testing of this model in future work. Design/methodology/approach Relevant literature into the antecedents of AC was critically reviewed and analysed with the objective…
Bemelmans, Jeroen; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Vos, Bart; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore both the antecedents and the impact of a buying company having preferred customer status. Specific attention is paid to an, until now, unexplored antecedent: the buyer’s maturity as perceived by the supplier. In terms of impact, the focus is on the
Bemelmans, Jeroen; Voordijk, J.T.; Vos, Bart; Dewulf, Geert
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore both the antecedents and the impact of a buying company having preferred customer status. Specific attention is paid to an, until now, unexplored antecedent: the buyer’s maturity as perceived by the supplier. In terms of impact, the focus is on the
Varamäki, Elina; Joensuu, Sanna; Viljamaa, Anmari
Entrepreneurial intentions (EIs) and their antecedents have been extensively studied in student populations. The results suggest that higher education does not promote the formation of EI in students. This article examines the antecedents of intentions in two different student populations: those who are currently starting a firm and those who are…
St. Louis, Erik K.; Faber, Kevin
A 23-year-old woman without history of antecedent vocal, respiratory, or sleep disorders received vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy for refractory partial epilepsy and developed sleep-related stridor during the course of parameter titration. Reduction of VNS current during polysomnography completely eliminated stridor. We conclude that VNS may cause sleep-related stridor in rare cases, expanding the spectrum of known sleep-disordered breathing disorders associated with VNS therapy. Parame...
Internet-enabled mobile devices have increased the accessibility of learning content for students. Given the ubiquitous nature of mobile computing technology, a thorough understanding of the acceptance factors that impact a learner's intention to use mobile technology as an augment to their studies is warranted. Student acceptance of mobile…
Paulo Ribeiro Cardoso
Full Text Available This study analyzes how “Knowledge about environmental problems,” "Perceived consumer effectiveness,” and "Recycling behavior” can predict “Reported purchase of green products in general,” and “Reported purchase of specific green products.” Another objective of this study is to identify different consumer segments based on antecedents of green purchasing behavior, observing demographic profiles and willingness to buy this type of products. The data was collected in Portugal with the use of an online survey and the instrument was composed of five scales, adapted from previous studies. The results confirm the existence of a positive relationship between the constructs. It is also possible to identify three segments of consumers: “Less involved,” “Moderate,” and “Ecologists.” This study has some practical implications, showing that consumption of green products can be stimulated if consumers are more aware of environmental problems and understand the importance of their individual behavior to prevent them.
Kye, S Y; Shim, M; Kim, Y C; Park, K
This study aimed to examine the motives, topics and antecedents for sharing health information online among Korean Internet users. Eight hundred adults completed a web-based survey exploring the motives; topics; physical, cognitive, affective and environmental factors; and experiences relating to sharing health information online. The motives for not sharing information included information absence and inappropriateness. The most preferred topic was disease. Good subjective health was significantly associated with frequent information sharing while individuals with a history of disease involving themselves or family members were more likely to share health information than were those without such a history. Further, a higher level of depressed mood was related to a higher level of sharing. Internet-related self-efficacy and trust in information delivery channels were positively related to sharing. Future research could extend the factors related to information sharing to include the evaluation of shared information. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Paul Feyerabend has been considered a very radical philosopher of science for proposing that we may advance hypotheses contrary to well-confirmed experimental results, that observations make theoretical assumptions, that all methodological rules have exceptions, that ordinary citizens may challenge the judgment of experts, and that human happiness should be a key value for science. As radical as these theses may sound, they all have historical antecedents. In defending the Copernican view, Galileo exemplified the first two; Mill, Aristotle and Machiavelli all argued for pluralism; Aristotle gave commonsense reasons for why ordinary citizens may be able to judge the work of experts; and a combination of Plato's and Aristotle's views can offer strong support for the connection between science and happiness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Emine Yilmaz Karakoc
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate budget related antecedents of job performance of managers. For this purpose, relationships among budgetary participation, budget goal commitment, information sharing, and job performance of managers were examined. The sample consists of managers who are responsible from the budgets of their units in different private enterprises located in Turkey. Survey data was analyzed with confirmatory factor analyses and Structural Equation Modeling. Results indicate that budgetary participation has statistically significant and positive impact on job performance. It also positively affects budget goal commitment and information sharing. Budget goal commitment and information sharing have significant and positive impact on job performance. In addition, budget goal commitment positively affects information sharing of managers. Analyses also revealed that budget goal commitment and information sharing have partial mediation effect on the relationship between budgetary participation and job performance.
Peltier, James W; Pointer, Lucille; Schibrowsky, John A
Employee satisfaction and retention are critical issues that influence the success of any organization. Yet, one of the most critical problems facing the worldwide health care industry is the shortage of qualified nurses. Recent calls have been made within the traditional nursing literature for research that utilizes marketing and business models to better understand nurse satisfaction and retention. The purpose of this study is to develop scales that can be used to empirically test a model of the proposed antecedents of nurse job satisfaction and loyalty which have been used widely in the internal marketing and the relationship-marketing literature. Specifically, the study will investigate the degree to which structural bonding, social bonding, financial bonding activities, and quality of care impact how well nurses are satisfied with their job and their commitment to the organization. The results show that quality of care most impacted nurse satisfaction and loyalty, followed by structural, social, and financial bonds.
Full Text Available A study was conducted in the North eastern agro-climatic zone of Tamil Nadu, India to analyze the possible impact of the psychological antecedents of attitude towards Indigenous Wetland Practices(IWPs among the farming community. Two hundred and nine farmers were selected at random from ten blocks in three districts of the state. Their psychological characteristics and attitude towards IWPs were assessed. The mean attitude score and the mean attitude index were analysed. The highest variable index was found in the case of Progressivism and Traditionalism, followed by Self-Reliance. Environmental orientation and Decision making ability had a positive and highly significant relationship while Scientific Orientation had a negative and highly significant relationship with attitude towards Indigenous Wetland Practices.
Kotzab, Herbert; Teller, Christoph; Grant, David B.
through a survey of 174 senior supply chain managers representing the biggest organisations within a central European country. Findings – Using structural equation modelling the hypothesised hierarchical order of three proposed antecedents is verified: “internal SCM conditions”, that affect “joint......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that includes drivers of supply chain management (SCM) adoption and execution identified in the literature, provide a set of measurement scales that operationalise constructs within this model, empirically verify a hierarchical......-specific supply chain setting. Practical implications – The findings provide a hierarchical focus for financial, personnel and management initiatives to increase integration within a supply chain and improve competitiveness. Originality/value – The major contribution of this paper is that it provides empirical...
Libânia Melo Nunes Fialho
Full Text Available Migraines and sleep terrors (STs are highly prevalent disorders with striking similarities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the antecedent of STs by comparing adolescents suffering from migraines with healthy controls in a large consecutive series. METHODS: All patients were subjected to a detailed headache questionnaire and were instructed to keep a headache diary during a two-month period. The age range was 10 to 19 years. The diagnosis of STs was defined according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. RESULTS: A total of 158 participants were evaluated. Of these participants, 50 suffered from episodic migraines (EMs, 57 had chronic migraines (CMs and 51 were control subjects (CG. Participants who had a history of STs had significantly more migraines than participants who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Migraine is strongly associated with a history of STs in the adolescent population independent of demographics and pain intensity.
Prockl, Günter; Teller, Christoph; Kotzab, Herbert
is statistically significant. Financial and nonfinancial job properties affect satisfaction with one's employer whereas the former shows a lower impact compared to the latter. Satisfaction with the job and one's employer impacts retention proneness. The contribution of this study was to (1) add...... to the understanding of the factors that predict retention of truck drivers in relationship to job satisfaction and (2) highlight the different roles of financial and nonfinancial job properties in this specific work context.......The aim of this study was to (1) explore the antecedents of truck drivers’ job satisfaction, (2) identify the impact of financial and nonfinancial job properties on satisfaction with the job and with one's employer, and (3) the drivers’ proneness to retaining their jobs. Based on the extant...
Legree, Peter J; Heffner, Tonia S; Psotka, Joseph; Martin, Daniel E; Medsker, Gina J
Researchers have rarely examined stressful environments and psychological characteristics as predictors of driving behavior in the same study. The authors hypothesized that (a) safer drivers more accurately assess physical and emotional traffic hazards and (b) stress and emotional states elevate crash risk. The hypotheses were evaluated with procedural and declarative tacit driving knowledge tests requiring assessment of emotional and contextual hazards and with accident reports describing crash antecedents, including stressful events and environmental conditions. Analyses identified separate driving knowledge factors corresponding to emotional and contextual hazards that were significantly related to the crash criteria. Accident report analyses show that stress significantly elevates at-fault crash risk. The results demonstrate the importance of experiential knowledge acquired without instruction (procedural or tacit knowledge) and provide safety recommendations.
Diefendorff, James M; Richard, Erin M
Central to all theories of emotional labor is the idea that individuals follow emotional display rules that specify the appropriate expression of emotions on the job. This investigation examined antecedents and consequences of emotional display rule perceptions. Full-time working adults (N = 152) from a variety of occupations provided self-report data, and supervisors and coworkers completed measures pertaining to the focal employees. Results using structural equation modeling revealed that job-based interpersonal requirements, supervisor display rule perceptions, and employee extraversion and neuroticism were predictive of employee display rule perceptions. Employee display rule perceptions, in turn, were related to self-reported job satisfaction and coworker ratings of employees' emotional displays on the job. Finally, neuroticism had direct negative relationships with job satisfaction and coworker ratings of employees' emotional displays.
Adams, Richard; Tranfield, David; Denyer, David
The purpose of the study is to test the utility of a taxonomy of innovation based on perceived characteristics in the context of healthcare by exploring the extent to which discrete innovation types could be distinguished from each other in terms of process antecedents. A qualitative approach was adopted to explore the process antecedents of nine exemplar cases of "challenging", "under-cover" and "readily-adopted" healthcare innovations. Data were collected by semi-structured interview and from secondary sources, and content analysed according to a theoretically informed framework of innovation process. Cluster analysis was applied to determine whether innovation types could be distinguished on the basis of process characteristics. The findings provide moderate support for the proposition that innovations differentiated on the basis of the way they are perceived by potential users exhibit different process characteristics. Innovations exhibiting characteristics previously believed negatively to impact adoption may be successfully adopted but by a different configuration of processes than by innovations exhibiting a different set of characteristics. The findings must be treated with caution because the sample consists of self-selected cases of successful innovation and is limited by sample size. Nevertheless, the study sheds new light on important process differences in healthcare innovation. The paper offers a heuristic device to aid clinicians and managers to better understand the relatively novel task of promoting and managing innovation in healthcare. The paper advances the argument that there is under-exploited opportunity for cross-disciplinary organisational learning for innovation management in the NHS. If efficiency and quality improvement targets are to be met through a strategy of encouraging innovation, it may be advantageous for clinicians and managers to reflect on what this study found mostly to be absent from the processes of the innovations studied
Demir, Defne; Rodwell, John
To test a full model of the antecedents to and consequences of various forms of workplace aggression, considering psychosocial factors, for hospital nursing staff. Cross-sectional survey design. Two hundred and seven nurses and midwives working across wards within a medium to large Australian hospital completed the survey. The survey response rate was 26.9%. High frequencies of nurses reported exposure to workplace bullying and internal and external emotional abuse violence types. In terms of antecedents, bullying was linked to high negative affectivity (NA), as well as low supervisor support and coworker support. Internal emotional abuse was associated with low levels of these support variables, as well as high outside work support and low job control. External threat of assault was related to high job demands and NA. In terms of consequences, bullying and verbal sexual harassment were linked to increased psychological distress levels. Bullying and internal emotional abuse were related to lowered organizational commitment. Changes in job satisfaction were not found for any of the workplace aggression types. NA was a significant covariate for all analyses examining consequences of aggression. Different combinations of work conditions (job demands-resources) and individual levels of NA predicted certain types of aggression. Further, nurse perceptions of psychological distress and organizational commitment were affected by exposure to several types of aggression, even after controlling for NA as a potential perceptual bias. This study therefore extends previous research on workplace bullying as a stressor to other types of workplace aggression for nurses. The findings highlight factors that are important in considering effective prevention and intervention of workplace aggression among nursing staff, particularly those working in hospital settings. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva
As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, exposure to global cultures affords individuals opportunities to develop global identities. In two studies, we examine the antecedents and outcomes of identifying with a superordinate identity--global citizen. Global citizenship is defined as awareness, caring, and embracing cultural diversity while promoting social justice and sustainability, coupled with a sense of responsibility to act. Prior theory and research suggest that being aware of one's connection with others in the world (global awareness) and embedded in settings that value global citizenship (normative environment) lead to greater identification with global citizens. Furthermore, theory and research suggest that when global citizen identity is salient, greater identification is related to adherence to the group's content (i.e., prosocial values and behaviors). Results of the present set of studies showed that global awareness (knowledge and interconnectedness with others) and one's normative environment (friends and family support global citizenship) predicted identification with global citizens, and global citizenship predicted prosocial values of intergroup empathy, valuing diversity, social justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and a felt responsibility to act for the betterment of the world. The relationship between antecedents (normative environment and global awareness) and outcomes (prosocial values) was mediated by identification with global citizens. We discuss the relationship between the present results and other research findings in psychology, the implications of global citizenship for other academic domains, and future avenues of research. Global citizenship highlights the unique effect of taking a global perspective on a multitude of topics relevant to the psychology of everyday actions, environments, and identity.
Nelson, David B.; Lucke, Ashley M.; McIntire, Donald D.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Chalak, Lina F.
Objective Obstetric antecedents were analyzed in births where the infant received whole-body cooling for neonatal encephalopathy. Methods This retrospective cohort study included all live-born singleton infants delivered at or beyond 36 weeks gestation from October 2005 through December 2011. Infants who had received whole-body cooling identified by review of a prospective neonatal registry were compared to a control group comprising the remaining obstetric population delivered at greater than 36 weeks but not cooled. Univariable analysis was followed by a staged, stepwise selection of variables with the intent to rank significant risk factors for cooling. Results A total of 86,371 women delivered during the study period and 98 infants received whole-body cooling (1.1/1,000 livebirths). Of these 98 infants, 80 (88%) newborns had moderate encephalopathy and 10 (12%) had severe encephalopathy prior to cooling. Maternal age less than or equal to 15 years, low parity, maternal body habitus (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2), diabetes, preeclampsia, induction, epidural analgesia, chorioamnionitis, length of labor, and mode of delivery were associated with significantly increased risk of infant cooling during univariable analysis. Catastrophic events to include umbilical cord prolapse (OR 14; 95%CI, 3–72), placental abruption (OR 17; 95%CI, 7–44), uterine rupture (OR 130; 95%CI, 11–1477) were the strongest factors associated with infant cooling after staged-stepwise logistic analysis. Conclusion A variety of intrapartum characteristics were associated with infant cooling for neonatal encephalopathy with the most powerful antecedents being umbilical cord prolapse, placental abruption, and uterine rupture. PMID:24530976
Many plant and ecosystem processes in arid and semiarid systems may be affected by antecedent environmental conditions (e.g., precipitation patterns, soil water availability, temperature) that integrate over past days, weeks, months, seasons, or years. However, the importance of such antecedent exogenous effects relative to conditions occurring at the time of the observed process is relatively unexplored. Even less is known about the potential importance of antecedent endogenous effects that describe the influence of past ecosystem states on the current ecosystem state; e.g., how is current ecosystem productivity related to past productivity patterns? We hypothesize that incorporation of antecedent exogenous and endogenous factors can improve our predictive understanding of many plant and ecosystem processes, especially in arid and semiarid ecosystems. Furthermore, the common approach to quantifying the effects of antecedent (exogenous) variables relies on arbitrary, deterministic definitions of antecedent variables that (1) may not accurately describe the role of antecedent conditions and (2) ignore uncertainty associated with applying deterministic definitions. In this study, we employ a stochastic framework for (1) computing the antecedent variables that estimates the relative importance of conditions experienced each time unit into the past, also providing insight into potential lag responses, and (2) estimating the effect of antecedent factors on the response variable of interest. We employ this approach to explore the potential roles of antecedent exogenous and endogenous influences in three settings that illustrate the: (1) importance of antecedent precipitation for net primary productivity in the shortgrass steppe in northern Colorado, (2) dependency of tree growth on antecedent precipitation and past growth states for pinyon growing in western Colorado, and (3) influence of antecedent soil water and prior root status on observed root growth in the Mojave
Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.
Identified the main factor influencing urban rainfall-runoff pollution provides a scientific basis for urban rainfall-runoff pollution control and management. Therefore, starting in May 2006, a study was conducted to characterize water quality from representative land uses types in Zhenjiang to analyse the effect of antecedent dry period on stormwater runoff quality. The results show that the beginning of rainfall, with the increase of antecedent dry periods, the percentages of less than 40 microm is increased, the correlation of the water quality parameters (TN, TP, Zn, Pb, Cu, TSS and COD) and antecedent dry period shows a significant positive correlation, dissolved pollutants in the initial period surface runoff is increased. These findings show that facilitating the recognition of antecedent dry periods is the main factor influencing the change in concentration and partitioning of pollutants to provide the scientific basis for non-point source pollution control and management.
Public service motivation has rapidly become one of the important concepts in contemporary public administration research. However, until now, research has mainly focused on its measurement and its consequences, whereas relatively ignoring its origins. This study investigates where the antecedents
O'Reilly, M.F.; Fragale, C.; Gainey, S.; Kang, S.Y.; Koch, H.; Shubert, J.; El Zein, F.; Longino, D.; Chung, M.; Xu, Z.W.; White, P.J.; Lang, R.B.; Davis, T.; Rispoli, M.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.; Healy, O.; Kagohara, D.; Meer, L. van der; Sigafoos, J.
We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. individual
Steenkamp, JBEM; ter Hofstede, F; Wedel, M
The authors examine antecedents of consumer innovativeness in a cross-national context. They propose a framework that distinguishes individual difference variables and national cultural variables. Two types of individual difference variables are considered: personal values and
Walsh, Jennifer M
We sought to compare the incidence and antecedents of neonatal brachial plexus injury (BPI) in 2 different 5-year epochs a decade apart following the introduction of specific staff training in the management of shoulder dystocia.
Brocca, L.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.; Morbidelli, R.
SummarySoil moisture is widely recognized as a key parameter in environmental processes mainly for the role of rainfall partitioning into runoff and infiltration. Therefore, for storm rainfall-runoff modeling the estimation of the antecedent wetness conditions ( AWC) is one of the most important aspect. In this context, this study investigates the potential of scatterometer on board of the ERS satellites for the assessment of wetness conditions in three Tiber sub-catchments (Central Italy), of which one includes an experimental area for soil moisture monitoring. The satellite soil moisture data are taken from the ERS/METOP soil moisture archive. First, the scatterometer-derived soil wetness index ( SWI) data are compared with two on-site soil moisture data sets acquired by different methodologies on areas of different extension ranging from 0.01 km 2 to ˜60 km 2. Moreover, the reliability of SWI to estimate the AWC at a catchment scale is investigated considering the relationship between SWI and the soil potential maximum retention parameter, S, of the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) method for abstraction. Several flood events occurred from 1992 to 2005 are selected for this purpose. Specifically, the performance of the SWI for S estimation is compared with two antecedent precipitation indices ( API) and one base flow index ( BFI). The S values obtained through the observed direct runoff volume and rainfall depth are used as benchmark. Results show the great reliability of the SWI for the estimation of wetness conditions both at the plot and catchment scale despite the complex orography of the investigated areas. As far as the comparison with on site soil moisture data set is concerned, the SWI is found quite reliable in representing the soil moisture at layer depth of 15 cm, with a mean correlation coefficient equal to 0.81. The characteristic time length parameter variations, as expected, is depended on soil type, with values in accordance with
ter Huurne, Maarten; Ronteltap, Amber; Corten, R.; Buskens, V.W.
Users and potential users of the sharing economy need to place a considerable amount of trust in both the person and the platform with which they are dealing. The consequences of transaction partners’ opportunism may be severe, for example damage to goods or endangered personal safety. Trust is,
Lee, Lena; Wong, Poh Kam; Chua, Bee Leng; Chen, Jennifer
The existing literature identifies a number of antecedent factors that positively influence the propensity of individuals to become entrepreneurs. Key among these are self-efficacy, prior knowledge of other entrepreneurs and perception of opportunities. At the same time, policy makers commonly identify fear of failure as a major deterrent factor for entrepreneurs taking the entrepreneurial plunge. This paper examines the relative impacts of these antecedents and deterrent factor on entre...
Frankenberger, Karolin; Weiblen, Tobias; Gassmann, Oliver
Firms engage increasingly in open business models. While most research has previously focused on typologies or challenges of open business models, their specific antecedents have not been studied so far. We use data from eight open business model cases to explore this question and identify five main antecedents of open business models: (1) business model inconsistency, (2) need to create and capture new value, (3) previous experience with collaboration, (4) open business model patterns, and ...
Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur
With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of
Sliter, Michael; Jones, Morgan
Customer incivility is known to have a negative impact on employees working in service jobs. Despite an understanding of the negative outcomes of customer incivility (e.g., burnout, disengagement, absenteeism), little research has investigated antecedents of this low-intensity deviant behavior. This is a clear oversight, given that understanding antecedents of customer incivility is essential for determining methods for reducing this stressor. As such, we conducted 2 studies examining these antecedents. For Study 1, we used a qualitative approach, assessing customer incivility from the perspective of the customer. Three overall themes (with 13 subthemes) emerged that could potentially lead to customer incivility: characteristics of the customer, characteristics of the organization/environment, and characteristics of the service employee. In Study 2, we conducted a quantitative study to investigate-from the perspective of the service employee-customer incivility antecedents that could be potentially controlled by the organization, either through changing the work environment or the employee (through training and selection). The results of a 2 time-point survey study showed that the service environment, service rep incivility, service orientation, agreeableness, and neuroticism served as antecedents to customer incivility. Practical implications are discussed, identifying options for organizational leaders interested in reducing customer incivility, and advice is provided for researchers seeking to further examine the antecedents of customer incivility. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This article examines the antecedents and consequences of residential choice and school transfers within one of the eight largest urban school districts in Texas. This study is based on survey data from a representative sample of parents of K-12 students enrolled in this district. In addition to demographic characteristics of the family, the parent decision-making model of Schneider, Teske, & Marschall (2000 was examined to determine if aspects of this model were useful in understanding the school choices made at the beginning of the school year and the parents' motivation to move to another school at the end. The results provide some support for the view that residential choice is related to enhanced achievement and satisfaction; while, within-district transfers were used more by better educated White parents who did not qualify as low income. Parents' motivation to move their children to another school was greater when they perceived the school as less receptive to their involvement and their children as less successful in school.
Eva Susann Becker
Full Text Available Using a preexisting, but as yet empirically untested theoretical model, the present study investigated antecedents of teachers’ emotions in the classroom. More specifically, the relationships between students’ motivation and discipline and teachers’ enjoyment and anger were explored, as well as if these relationships are mediated by teachers’ subjective appraisals (goal conduciveness and coping potential. The study employed an intraindividual approach by collecting data through a diary. The sample consisted of 39 teachers who each participated with one of their 9th or 10th grade mathematics classes (N = 758 students. Both teachers and students filled out diaries for two to three weeks pertaining to 8.10 lessons on average (N = 316 lessons. Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that students’ motivation and discipline explained 24% of variance in teachers’ enjoyment and 26% of variance in teachers’ anger. In line with theoretical assumptions, after introducing teachers’ subjective appraisals as a mediating mechanism into the model, the explained variance systematically increased to 65% and 61%, for teachers’ enjoyment and anger respectively. The effects of students’ motivation and discipline level on teachers’ emotions were partially mediated by teachers’ appraisals of goal conduciveness and coping potential. The findings imply that since teachers’ emotions depend to a large extent on subjective evaluations of a situation, teachers should be able to directly modify their emotional experiences during a lesson through cognitive reappraisals.
Becker, Eva S.; Keller, Melanie M.; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Taxer, Jamie L.
Using a preexisting, but as yet empirically untested theoretical model, the present study investigated antecedents of teachers’ emotions in the classroom. More specifically, the relationships between students’ motivation and discipline and teachers’ enjoyment and anger were explored, as well as if these relationships are mediated by teachers’ subjective appraisals (goal conduciveness and coping potential). The study employed an intraindividual approach by collecting data through a diary. The sample consisted of 39 teachers who each participated with one of their 9th or 10th grade mathematics classes (N = 758 students). Both teachers and students filled out diaries for 2–3 weeks pertaining to 8.10 lessons on average (N = 316 lessons). Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that students’ motivation and discipline explained 24% of variance in teachers’ enjoyment and 26% of variance in teachers’ anger. In line with theoretical assumptions, after introducing teachers’ subjective appraisals as a mediating mechanism into the model, the explained variance systematically increased to 65 and 61%, for teachers’ enjoyment and anger respectively. The effects of students’ motivation and discipline level on teachers’ emotions were partially mediated by teachers’ appraisals of goal conduciveness and coping potential. The findings imply that since teachers’ emotions depend to a large extent on subjective evaluations of a situation, teachers should be able to directly modify their emotional experiences during a lesson through cognitive reappraisals. PMID:26042067
Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Wright, Matthew R; Hammersmith, Anna M
Increasingly, older adults are experiencing divorce, yet little is known about the risk factors associated with divorce after age 50 (termed "gray divorce"). Guided by a life course perspective, our study examined whether key later life turning points are related to gray divorce. We used data from the 1998-2012 Health and Retirement Study to conduct a prospective, couple-level discrete-time event history analysis of the antecedents of gray divorce. Our models incorporated key turning points (empty nest, retirement, and poor health) as well as demographic characteristics and economic resources. Contrary to our expectations, the onset of an empty nest, the wife's or husband's retirement, and the wife's or husband's chronic conditions were unrelated to the likelihood of gray divorce. Rather, factors traditionally associated with divorce among younger adults were also salient for older adults. Marital duration, marital quality, home ownership, and wealth were negatively related to the risk of gray divorce. Gray divorce is especially likely to occur among couples who are socially and economically disadvantaged, raising new questions about the consequences of gray divorce for individual health and well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Attachment theory is one of the most popular and empirically grounded theories relating to parenting. The purpose of the present article is to review some pertinent aspects of attachment theory and findings from attachment research. Attachment is one specific aspect of the relationship between a child and a parent with its purpose being to make a child safe, secure and protected. Attachment is distinguished from other aspects of parenting, such as disciplining, entertaining and teaching. Common misconceptions about what attachment is and what it is not are discussed. The distinction between attachment and bonding is provided. The recognized method to assess infant-parent attachment, the Strange Situation procedure, is described. In addition, a description is provided for the four major types of infant-parent attachment, ie, secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-resistant and insecure-disorganized. The antecedents and consequences of each of the four types of infant-parent attachment are discussed. A special emphasis is placed on the description of disorganized attachment because of its association with significant emotional and behavioural problems, and poor social and emotional outcomes in high-risk groups and in the majority of children who have disorganized attachment with their primary caregiver. Practical applications of attachment theory and research are presented.
Carlson, Marcia J; VanOrman, Alicia G; Pilkauskas, Natasha V
Despite the dramatic rise in U.S. nonmarital childbearing in recent decades, limited attention has been paid to factors affecting nonmarital fatherhood (beyond studies of young fathers). In this article, we use data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort to examine the antecedents of nonmarital fatherhood, as compared to marital fatherhood. Overall, we find the strongest support across both data sets for education and race/ethnicity as key predictors of having a nonmarital first birth, consistent with prior literature about women's nonmarital childbearing and about men's early/teenage fatherhood. Education is inversely related to the risk of nonmarital fatherhood, and minority (especially black) men are much more likely to have a child outside of marriage than white men. We find little evidence that employment predicts nonmarital fertility, although it does strongly (and positively) predict marital fertility. High predicted earnings are also associated with a greater likelihood of marital childbearing but with a lower likelihood of nonmarital childbearing. Given the socioeconomic disadvantage associated with nonmarital fatherhood, this research suggests that nonmarital fatherhood may be an important aspect of growing U.S. inequality and stratification both within and across generations.
Becker, Eva S; Keller, Melanie M; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C; Taxer, Jamie L
Using a preexisting, but as yet empirically untested theoretical model, the present study investigated antecedents of teachers' emotions in the classroom. More specifically, the relationships between students' motivation and discipline and teachers' enjoyment and anger were explored, as well as if these relationships are mediated by teachers' subjective appraisals (goal conduciveness and coping potential). The study employed an intraindividual approach by collecting data through a diary. The sample consisted of 39 teachers who each participated with one of their 9th or 10th grade mathematics classes (N = 758 students). Both teachers and students filled out diaries for 2-3 weeks pertaining to 8.10 lessons on average (N = 316 lessons). Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that students' motivation and discipline explained 24% of variance in teachers' enjoyment and 26% of variance in teachers' anger. In line with theoretical assumptions, after introducing teachers' subjective appraisals as a mediating mechanism into the model, the explained variance systematically increased to 65 and 61%, for teachers' enjoyment and anger respectively. The effects of students' motivation and discipline level on teachers' emotions were partially mediated by teachers' appraisals of goal conduciveness and coping potential. The findings imply that since teachers' emotions depend to a large extent on subjective evaluations of a situation, teachers should be able to directly modify their emotional experiences during a lesson through cognitive reappraisals.
Almost, Joan; Doran, Diane M; McGillis Hall, Linda; Spence Laschinger, Heather K
To test a theoretical model linking selected antecedent variables to intra-group conflict among nurses, and subsequently conflict management style, job stress and job satisfaction. A contributing factor to the nursing shortage is job dissatisfaction as a result of conflict among nurses. To develop strategies to reduce conflict, research is needed to understand the causes and outcomes of conflict in nursing work environments. A predictive, non-experimental design was used in a random sample of 277 acute care nurses. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the hypothesised model. Nurses' core self-evaluations, complexity of care and relationships with managers and nursing colleagues influenced their perceived level of conflict. Conflict management style partially mediated the relationship between conflict and job satisfaction. Job stress had a direct effect on job satisfaction and core self-evaluation had a direct effect on job stress. Conflict and its associated outcomes is a complex process, affected by dispositional, contextual and interpersonal factors. How nurses manage conflict may not prevent the negative effects of conflict, however, learning to manage conflict using collaboration and accommodation may help nurses experience greater job satisfaction. Strategies to manage and reduce conflict include building interactional justice practices and positive interpersonal relationships. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sheik Abdullah S.
Full Text Available This paper has attempted to study the theoretical antecedents of CRM in banks and validate the instrument scale for CRM especially for customer perspective. The researcher has developed the hypothetical model of CRM Practices for banks. Due to insufficient literature in CRM model development study, the researcher has concentrated universal study to focus and form the study conundrum. The research design of the present study is both descriptive and empirical in nature. The sample was identified with the help of online sample service portal. The study data collected with the sample size of 384 with judgment sampling method. At the time of analyzing the data for envisage the results the researcher applies training and hold out sample method was adopted for better results. To achieve the validity aspects of scale used for this study evaluated with factor analysis. Both factor analysis methods were adopted. To check the existing theory latent construct Exploratory Factor Analysis is conducted and its results validated through Confirmatory Factor Analysis. At the end of the process the researcher offers recommendation for better development and practices for CRM in banks of India.
L'Hermitte, Cécile; Brooks, Benjamin; Bowles, Marcus; Tatham, Peter H
This study investigates the strategic antecedents of operational agility in humanitarian logistics. It began by identifying the particular actions to be taken at the strategic level of a humanitarian organisation to support field-level agility. Next, quantitative data (n=59) were collected on four strategic-level capabilities (being purposeful, action-focused, collaborative, and learning-oriented) and on operational agility (field responsiveness and flexibility). Using a quantitative analysis, the study tested the relationship between organisational capacity building and operational agility and found that the four strategic-level capabilities are fundamental building blocks of agility. Collectively they account for 52 per cent of the ability of humanitarian logisticians to deal with ongoing changes and disruptions in the field. This study emphasises the need for researchers and practitioners to embrace a broader perspective of agility in humanitarian logistics. In addition, it highlights the inherently strategic nature of agility, the development of which involves focusing simultaneously on multiple drivers. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.
Martin, David W.
This paper deals with an experimental calculation of a satellite-based antecedent precipitation index (API). The index is also derived from daily rain images produced from infrared images using an improved version of GSFC's Convective/Stratiform Technique (CST). API is a measure of soil moisture, and is based on the notion that the amount of moisture in the soil at a given time is related to precipitation at earlier times. Four different CST programs as well as the Geostationary Operational Enviroment Satellite (GOES) Precipitation Index developed by Arkin in 1979 are compared to experimental results, for the Mississippi Valley during the month of July. Rain images are shown for the best CST code and the ARK program. Comparisons are made as to the accuracy and detail of the results for the two codes. This project demonstrates the feasibility of running the CST on a synoptic scale. The Mississippi Valley case is well suited for testing the feasibility of monitoring soil moisture by means of CST. Preliminary comparisons of CST and ARK indicate significant differences in estimates of rain amount and distribution.
Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter
Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this “gender paradox” in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others’ or one’s own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one’s ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727
Antonio Herculano de Araújo Neto
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the occurrence of falls in institutionalized elderly addressing the risks, consequences and antecedents. Method: Cross-sectional study carried out with 45 older adults in Long-Term Care Facilities for the Older adult in João Pessoa, Brazil, in June and July 2016. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the Berg Balance Scale were applied, classifying as risk of fall scores lower than 45. Descriptive statistics and tests were conducted: independent t-test, Anova (Tukey, Chi-square, Mann Whitney. Statistically significance was p <0.05. Data were processed in SPSS version 19.0. Results: A total of 66.7% (30 falls occurred, 20% (9 of them in the external area, with 66.7% (30 of the participants having hypertension as a previous disease and, as consequence, the fracture was highlighted with 11.2% (5. The Berg Scale had different scores when compared to the falls suffered by the elderly and previous diseases influenced the occurrence of falls (p <0.05. Conclusion: It is necessary to implement public financing policies or partnerships that allow environments adaptations aiming at reducing the risks of falls.
This article introduces the concept of motivating operation (MO) to the field of online consumer research. A conjoint analysis was conducted to assess the motivating impact of antecedent stimuli on online purchasing. Stimuli tested were in-stock status, price, other customers' reviews, order confirmation procedures, and donation to charity. The…
... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...
Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo
Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... tested in library contexts and the aim of this article is to identify the main approaches and to discuss their perspectives, including their strenghts and weaknesses in, especially, public library contexts. The purpose is also to prsent and discuss the results of a recent - 2014 - Danish library user...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....
Agarwal, V.; Wo, S.; Lagemann, G.M.; Tsay, J.; Delfyett, W.T.
Aim: To evaluate the effect of antecedent antimicrobial therapy on diagnostic yield from percutaneous image-guided disc-space sampling. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the electronic health records of all patients who underwent image-guided percutaneous sampling procedures for suspected discitis/osteomyelitis over a 5-year period was performed. One hundred and twenty-four patients were identified. Demographics, medical history, and culture results were recorded as well as duration of presenting symptoms and whether antecedent antibiotic therapy had been administered. Results: Of the 124 patients identified who underwent image-guided percutaneous disc-space sampling, 73 had received antecedent antibiotic treatment compared with 51 who had not. The overall positive culture rate for the present study population was 24% (n=30). The positive culture rate from patients previously on antibiotics was 21% (n=15) compared with 29% (n=15) for patients who had not received prior antibiotic treatment, which is not statistically significant (p=0.26). Eighty-six percent (n=63) of patients who had antecedent antibiotics received treatment for 4 or more days prior to their procedure, whereas 14% (n=10) received treatment for 1–3 days prior to their procedure. The difference in culture positivity rate between these two groups was not statistically significant (p=0.43). Culture results necessitated a change in antibiotic therapy in a third of the patients who had received antecedent antibiotic therapy. Conclusion: Antecedent antibiotic therapy, regardless of duration, did not result in significantly diminished diagnostic yield from percutaneous sampling for suspected discitis/osteomyelitis. The present results suggest that percutaneous biopsy may nonetheless yield positive diagnostic information despite prior antimicrobial therapy. If the diagnostic information may impact choice of therapeutic regimen, percutaneous biopsy should still be considered in cases where
Full Text Available As the most-studied form of leadership across disciplines in both Western and Chinese contexts, transformational school leadership has the potential to suit diverse national and cultural contexts. Given the growing evidence showing the positive effects of transformational leadership on various school outcomes as it relates to school environment, teacher and student achievement, we wanted to explore the factors that gave rise to transformational leadership. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the antecedents fostering transformational leadership in the contexts of both the United States and China. This paper reviews and discusses the empirical studies of the last two decades, concentrating on the variables that are antecedent to transformational leadership mainly in the educational context, but also in public management, business and psychology. Results show that transformational leadership is related to three sets of antecedents, which include: (1 the leader’s qualities (e.g., self-efficacy, values, traits, emotional intelligence; (2 organizational features (e.g., organization fairness; and (3 the leader’s colleagues’ characteristics (e.g., follower’s initial developmental level. Some antecedents were common to both contexts, while other antecedents appeared to be national context specific. The implications of the findings for future research and leader preparation in different national contexts are discussed.
Caykoylu, Sinan; Egri, Carolyn P; Havlovic, Stephen; Bradley, Christine
The purpose of this paper is to develop a causal model that explains the antecedents and mediating factors predicting the organizational commitment of healthcare employees in different work roles. This study tests an integrative causal model that consists of a number of direct and indirect relationships for antecedents of organizational commitment. It is proposed that the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment is best understood by focusing on the three interrelated facets of job satisfaction, i.e. satisfaction with career advancement, satisfaction with supervisor, and satisfaction with co-workers. However, the model also advances that these job satisfaction facets have different mediating effects for other antecedents of organizational commitment. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) path analysis showed that the job satisfaction facets of career advancement and satisfaction with supervisor had a direct impact on organizational commitment. Employee empowerment, job-motivating potential, effective leadership, acceptance by co-workers, role ambiguity and role conflict were also important determinants of organizational commitment. Interestingly, post hoc analyses showed that satisfaction with co-workers only had an indirect impact on organizational commitment. While there has been extensive research on organizational commitment and its antecedents in healthcare organizations, most previous studies have been limited either to a single employee group or to a single time frame. This study proposes a practical causal model of antecedents of organizational commitment that tests relationships across time and across different healthcare employee groups.
Mercer, Audrey; Thomson, Alex M.
Studying neocortex and hippocampus in parallel, we are struck by the similarities. All three to four layered allocortices and the six layered mammalian neocortex arise in the pallium. All receive and integrate multiple cortical and subcortical inputs, provide multiple outputs and include an array of neuronal classes. During development, each cell positions itself to sample appropriate local and distant inputs and to innervate appropriate targets. Simpler cortices had already solved the need to transform multiple coincident inputs into serviceable outputs before neocortex appeared in mammals. Why then do phylogenetically more recent cortices need multiple pyramidal cell layers? A simple answer is that more neurones can compute more complex functions. The dentate gyrus and hippocampal CA regions—which might be seen as hippocampal antecedents of neocortical layers—lie side by side, albeit around a tight bend. Were the millions of cells of rat neocortex arranged in like fashion, the surface area of the CA pyramidal cell layers would be some 40 times larger. Even if evolution had managed to fold this immense sheet into the space available, the distances between neurones that needed to be synaptically connected would be huge and to maintain the speed of information transfer, massive, myelinated fiber tracts would be needed. How much more practical to stack the “cells that fire and wire together” into narrow columns, while retaining the mechanisms underlying the extraordinary precision with which circuits form. This demonstrably efficient arrangement presents us with challenges, however, not the least being to categorize the baffling array of neuronal subtypes in each of five “pyramidal layers.” If we imagine the puzzle posed by this bewildering jumble of apical dendrites, basal dendrites and axons, from many different pyramidal and interneuronal classes, that is encountered by a late-arriving interneurone insinuating itself into a functional circuit, we can
than in CG. The results of Life Traumatic Events Questionnaire (LEQ demonstrated that the impact of traumatic events index (p<0.05 and the trauma index (TI (p<0.05 in EG were significantly higher than in the CG. As a result of the comparison of the correlation matrices of the E1 and the E2, it was found that the groups differ both in the number of statistically significant links and in the correlation structure. Conclusion. In this study, the psychopathological features of patients with ASW were determined in comparison with healthy control group. It was confirmed that the patients with primary ASW differ from patients with secondary ASW and have other antecedents of this behaviour.
Araújo, Antonio Herculano de; Patrício, Anna Cláudia Freire de Araújo; Ferreira, Milenna Azevedo Minhaqui; Rodrigues, Brenda Feitosa Lopes; Santos, Thayná Dias Dos; Rodrigues, Thays Domingos de Brito; Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo da
To analyze the occurrence of falls in institutionalized elderly addressing the risks, consequences and antecedents. Cross-sectional study carried out with 45 older adults in Long-Term Care Facilities for the Older adult in João Pessoa, Brazil, in June and July 2016. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the Berg Balance Scale were applied, classifying as risk of fall scores lower than 45. Descriptive statistics and tests were conducted: independent t-test, Anova (Tukey), Chi-square, Mann Whitney. Statistically significance was p falls occurred, 20% (9) of them in the external area, with 66.7% (30) of the participants having hypertension as a previous disease and, as consequence, the fracture was highlighted with 11.2% (5). The Berg Scale had different scores when compared to the falls suffered by the elderly and previous diseases influenced the occurrence of falls (p risks of falls. Analisar a ocorrência de quedas em idosos institucionalizados quanto aos riscos, consequências e antecedentes. Estudo transversal, realizado com 45 idosos em Instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos em João Pessoa/PB, Brasil, em junho e julho de 2016. Aplicou-se questionário sociodemográfico e Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg classificando risco de quedas quando escore inferior a 45. Realizou-se estatística descritiva e testes: t independente, Anova (Tukey), Qui-quadrado, Mann Whitney. Considerado significativamente estatístico p < 0,05 e processados no SPSS versão 19.0. As quedas ocorreram em 66,7% (30), sendo 20% (9) na área externa, 66,7% (30) com doença prévia hipertensão e como consequência destacou-se fratura com 11,2% (5). A Escala de Berg avaliou pontuações diferentes (p < 0,05) quando comparadas às quedas sofridas pelos idosos, e as doenças prévias influenciaram ocorrência de quedas (p < 0,05). Necessita-se implementar políticas públicas de financiamento ou parcerias que possibilitem adaptação dos ambientes visando a redução dos riscos de quedas.
Fotis C, Kafatos; Ulrich, K.U.; Weib, S.; Rossberg, A.; Scheinost, A.C.; Foerstendorf, H.; Zanker, H.; Meyerheim, H.L.; Sander, D.; Popescu, R.; Kirschner, J.; Robach, O.; Ferrer, S.; Lyman, P.F.; Shneerson, V.L.; Fung, R.; Harder, R.J.; Parihar, S.S.; Johnson-Steigelman, H.T.; Lu, E.D.; Saldin, D.K.; Eastwood, D.S.; Atkinson, D.; Tanner, B.K.; Hase, T.P.A.; Van Kampen, M.; Hjorvarsson, B.; Brown, S.; Thompson, P.; Konovalov, O.; Saint-Martin, E.; Daillant, J.; Luzet, D.; Szlachetko, J.; Barrett, R.; Berset, M.; Dousse, J.C.; Fennane, K.; Hoszowska, J.; Kubala-Kukus, A.; Pajek, M.; Szlachetko, M.; Monaco, A.; Chumakov, A.; Crichton, W.; Van Buerck, I.; Wortmann, G.; Meyer, A.; Ponkratz, U.; Ruffer, R.; Sakurai, Y.; Hiraoka, N.; Itou, M.; Buslaps, T.; Honkimki, V.; Maeno, Y.; Collart, E.; Shukla, A.; Rueff, J.P.; Leininger, Ph.; Ishii, H.; Cai, Y.; Cheong, S.W.; Martins, R.M.S.; Schell, N.; Beckers, M.; Silva, R.; Braz Fernandes, F.M.; Acapito, F.; Seta, M. de; Capelini, G.; Giorgi, M.; Schorr, G.; Geandier, G.; Alves Marques, M.; Barros Marquesa, M.I. de; Cabaco, M.I.; Gaspara, A.M.; Marques, M.P.M.; Amado, A.M.; Amorim da Costa, A.M.; Bruneseaux, F.; Weisbecker, P.; Brandao, M.J.; Aeby-Gautier, E.; Simmonds, H.; Lei, C.; Das, A.; Trolley, D.; Thomas, H.E.; Macdonald, J.E.; Wiegart, L.; Tolan, M.; Struth, B.; Petukhov, A.V.; Thijssen, J.H.J.; Hart, D.C.; Imhof, A.; Van Blaaderen, A.; Dolbnya, I.P.; Snigirev, A.; Mossaid, A.; Snigireva, I.; Reconditi, M.; Brunello, E
This document gathers the posters presented on the one day and a half long plenary meeting workshop. This meeting workshop is a privileged forum where ESRF users can exchange their views on the latest scientific and technical development involving synchrotron radiation. One poster deals with the investigation of colloid composition and uranium bond structure to see whether the migration of contaminants from abandoned mines could be stimulated or attenuated by colloids. Another poster is dedicated to the investigation of the uranium speciation in covered mine tailings by a combination of micro-spectroscopic and wet chemical approaches. 2 posters deal with the contribution of synchrotron radiation to radiotherapy.
Fotis C, Kafatos; Ulrich, K.U.; Weib, S.; Rossberg, A.; Scheinost, A.C.; Foerstendorf, H.; Zanker, H.; Meyerheim, H.L.; Sander, D.; Popescu, R.; Kirschner, J.; Robach, O.; Ferrer, S.; Lyman, P.F.; Shneerson, V.L.; Fung, R.; Harder, R.J.; Parihar, S.S.; Johnson-Steigelman, H.T.; Lu, E.D.; Saldin, D.K.; Eastwood, D.S.; Atkinson, D.; Tanner, B.K.; Hase, T.P.A.; Van Kampen, M.; Hjorvarsson, B.; Brown, S.; Thompson, P.; Konovalov, O.; Saint-Martin, E.; Daillant, J.; Luzet, D.; Szlachetko, J.; Barrett, R.; Berset, M.; Dousse, J.C.; Fennane, K.; Hoszowska, J.; Kubala-Kukus, A.; Pajek, M.; Szlachetko, M.; Monaco, A.; Chumakov, A.; Crichton, W.; Van Buerck, I.; Wortmann, G.; Meyer, A.; Ponkratz, U.; Ruffer, R.; Sakurai, Y.; Hiraoka, N.; Itou, M.; Buslaps, T.; Honkimki, V.; Maeno, Y.; Collart, E.; Shukla, A.; Rueff, J.P.; Leininger, Ph.; Ishii, H.; Cai, Y.; Cheong, S.W.; Martins, R.M.S.; Schell, N.; Beckers, M.; Silva, R.; Braz Fernandes, F.M.; Acapito, F.; Seta, M. de; Capelini, G.; Giorgi, M.; Schorr, G.; Geandier, G.; Alves Marques, M.; Barros Marquesa, M.I. de; Cabaco, M.I.; Gaspara, A.M.; Marques, M.P.M.; Amado, A.M.; Amorim da Costa, A.M.; Bruneseaux, F.; Weisbecker, P.; Brandao, M.J.; Aeby-Gautier, E.; Simmonds, H.; Lei, C.; Das, A.; Trolley, D.; Thomas, H.E.; Macdonald, J.E.; Wiegart, L.; Tolan, M.; Struth, B.; Petukhov, A.V.; Thijssen, J.H.J.; Hart, D.C.; Imhof, A.; Van Blaaderen, A.; Dolbnya, I.P.; Snigirev, A.; Mossaid, A.; Snigireva, I.; Reconditi, M.; Brunello, E.
This document gathers the posters presented on the one day and a half long plenary meeting workshop. This meeting workshop is a privileged forum where ESRF users can exchange their views on the latest scientific and technical development involving synchrotron radiation. One poster deals with the investigation of colloid composition and uranium bond structure to see whether the migration of contaminants from abandoned mines could be stimulated or attenuated by colloids. Another poster is dedicated to the investigation of the uranium speciation in covered mine tailings by a combination of micro-spectroscopic and wet chemical approaches. 2 posters deal with the contribution of synchrotron radiation to radiotherapy
Lucas, Brian J; Galinsky, Adam D
Philosophers and psychologists have long been interested in identifying factors that influence moral judgment. In the current analysis, we compare the literatures on moral psychology and decision making under uncertainty to propose that utilitarian choices are driven by the same forces that lead to risky choices. Spanning from neurocognitive to hormonal to interpersonal levels of analysis, we identify six antecedents that increase both utilitarian and risky choices (ventromedial prefrontal cortex brain lesions, psychopathology, testosterone, incidental positive affect, power, and social connection) and one antecedent that reduces these choices (serotonin activity). We identify the regulation of negative affect as a common mechanism through which the effects of each antecedent on utilitarian and risky choices are explained. By demonstrating that the same forces and the same underlying mechanism that produce risky choices also promote utilitarian choices, we offer a deeper understanding of how basic psychological systems underlie moral judgment. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Oculomotor events such as blinks and saccades transiently interrupt the visual input and, even though this mostly goes undetected, these brief interruptions could still influence the percept. In particular, both blinking and saccades facilitate switching in ambiguous figures such as the Necker cube. To investigate the neural state antecedent to these oculomotor events during the perception of an ambiguous figure, we measured the human scalp electroencephalogram (EEG. When blinking led to perceptual switching, antecedent occipital alpha band activity exhibited a transient increase in amplitude. When a saccade led to switching, a series of transient increases and decreases in amplitude was observed in the antecedent occipital alpha band activity. Our results suggest that the state of occipital alpha band activity predicts the impact of oculomotor events on the percept.
Brown, Anahita; Sewell, Katherine; Fisher, Caroline A
To systematically review aggression in an inpatient Huntington's cohort examining rates, types and antecedents. Although the prevalence of aggression in Huntington's disease is high, research into this problematic behaviour has been limited. Few studies have investigated the nature of aggressive behaviour in Huntington's disease or antecedents that contribute to its occurrence. A systematic, double-coded, electronic medical file audit. The electronic hospital medical records of 10 people with Huntington's disease admitted to a brain disorders unit were audited for a 90-day period using the Overt Aggression Scale-Modified for Neurorehabilitation framework, yielding 900 days of clinical data. Nine of 10 clients exhibited aggression during the audit period. Both verbal (37·1%) aggression and physical aggression were common (33·8%), along with episodes of mixed verbal and physical aggression (15·2%), while aggression to objects/furniture was less prevalent (5·5%). The most common antecedent was physical guidance with personal care, far exceeding any other documented antecedents, and acting as the most common trigger for four of the nine clients who exhibited aggression. For the remaining five clients, there was intraindividual heterogeneity in susceptibility to specific antecedents. In Huntington's sufferers at mid- to late stages following disease onset, particular care should be made with personal care assistance due to the propensity for these procedures to elicit an episode of aggression. However, given the degree of intraindividual heterogeneity in susceptibility to specific antecedents observed in the present study, individualised behaviour support plans and sensory modulation interventions may be the most useful in identifying triggers and managing aggressive episodes. Rates of aggression in Huntington's disease inpatients can be high. Knowledge of potential triggers, such as personal care, is important for nursing and care staff, so that attempts can be
Tinuke M. Fapohunda
Full Text Available Presenteeism is a predicament that has gained attention in business and human resource management literature and research. This study examines the antecedents and corollaries of presenteeism in the workplace and offers strategy modifications that could decrease its occurrence. The study adopted the survey research design using a total sample of three hundred and fifty respondents made up of 180 males and 170 females, randomly selected from five manufacturing firms. Nine independent variables of presenteeism were tested and found to be significantly and positively correlated with presenteeism for both females and males. No significant gender disparities in the antecedents of presenteeism were found.
Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Wanberg, Connie R
This 4-wave longitudinal study of newcomers in 7 organizations examined preentry knowledge, proactive personality, and socialization influences as antecedents of both proximal (task mastery, role clarity, work group integration, and political knowledge) and distal (organizational commitment, work withdrawal, and turnover) indicators of newcomer adjustment. Results suggest that preentry knowledge, proactive personality, and socialization influences from the organization, supervisors, and coworkers are independently related to proximal adjustment outcomes, consistent with a theoretical framework highlighting distinct dimensions of organizational and work task adjustment. The proximal adjustment outcomes partially mediated most of the relationships between the antecedents of adjustment and organizational commitment, work withdrawal, and turnover.
Dewi, Erni R.; Bundu, Patta; Tahmir, Suradi
This study aims at analysing whether the antecedent variable directly affects the performance of the high school teachers or not. In addition, this research strives to find out whether the antecedent variable indirectly affects the teachers' performance through the achievement motivation of the high school teachers. It was a quantitative research…
Porras, Jari; Heikkinen, Kari; Kinnula, Marianne
an effect on their future needs. Human needs have been studied much longer than user generations per se. Psychologist Maslow presented a characterization of human needs as early as 1943. This basic characterization was later studied with an evolving environment in mind. Although the basic needs have...
Roberts, James A.
This study investigated the incidence, antecedents, consequences, and policy implications of compulsive buying among college students (n=300). Details contributing factors and discusses the relationship between credit card use and compulsive buying. Discusses the implications for consumer policy and suggestions for further research. (JOW)
Malone, Fergal D
This month, we focus on current research in obstetric antecedents of chronic disease. Dr Malone discusses four recent publications, and each is concluded with a "bottom line" that is the take-home message. The complete reference for each can be found in on this page along with direct links to the abstracts.
van Herk, H.; Poortinga, Y.H.
This study analyzes differences on two value dimensions, conservation and self-enhancement, at both the individual and regional level across Europe. Within-country regions represent "cultunits" that often have belonged to different nation-states in history. Eight antecedent variables are explored.
Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…
Grotto, Angela R.; Lyness, Karen S.
This study examined job characteristics and organizational supports as antecedents of negative work-to-nonwork spillover for 1178 U.S. employees. Based on hierarchical regression analyses of 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce data and O*NET data, job demands (requirements to work at home beyond scheduled hours, job complexity, time and…
Numerous studies have reported on the innovative and effective delivery of online course content by community colleges, but not much has been done on how learning management systems (LMS) can deliver real-time (immediate data delivery) antecedents that inform students of performance requirements. This pilot study used Blackboard's™ interactive…
Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi
By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…
Schaffer, Bryan S.; Manegold, Jennifer G.
The authors investigated the antecedents of team task cohesiveness in service learning classroom environments. Focusing on task commitment and task attraction as key dependent variables representing cohesiveness, and task interdependence as the primary independent variable, the authors position three important task action phase processes as…
Seevers, Matthew T.; Johnson, Bryan R.; Darnold, Todd C.
This study examines personality factors as antecedents of student social capital. We hypothesize relationships between two constructs taken from the five-factor model of personality (agreeableness and extraversion) and two variables that reflect a student's social capital (quantity of ties and strength of ties) in an academic setting. Analysis of…
This paper elucidates how business-to-business (B2B) small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can manage antecedents to the application of social media for potential contributions to their business. This in-depth qualitative research study was conducted at four plastic-producing SMEs from Octobe...
Cheung, Raysen; Arnold, John
In this study we investigate the antecedents of career exploration. We apply the perspectives of Flum and Blustein [Flum, H., & Blustein, D. L. (2000). Reinvigorating the study of vocational exploration: A framework for research. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56", 380-404] for the first time in Hong Kong, and we also test…
Li, Li-qing; Yin, Cheng-qing; Kong, Ling-li; He, Qing-ci
Twelve storm events were surveyed at Shilipu catchment in Wuhan City through three-year monitoring regime. The flow discharges, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in runoff were measured to study the mechanism of urban stormwater runoff pollution. The relationship between the event pollution load and the antecedent dry weather period was identified to discuss the influence of the urban surface sanitation management, operation of sewer pipe maintenance and rainfall characteristics on the urban stormwater runoff pollution. It was found that the antecedent dry weather period and runoff amount were the important determining factors in the generation of urban stormwater runoff pollution. The event pollution load was positively correlated to the antecedent dry weather period between two rainfall events (R2 = 0.95, p pollution loads. The best regression equation to estimate pollution load for storm events was developed based on the antecedent dry weather period and runoff depth. Source control including improving urban street sweeping activities and operation of sewer pipe maintenance should be made to reduce the amount of available pollutant over the dry days. It is important alternative to control urban stormwater runoff pollution for Hanyang District.
Jong, de A.; Ruyter, de J.C.; Lemmink, J.G.A.M.
In this article, the authors examine antecedents and consequences of the service climate in boundary-spanning self-managing teams (SMTs) that deliver financial services. Using data from members of 61 SMTs and their customers, the authors show a differential impact of the SMT service climate on
Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq
Guided by theories of cultural participation, the authors examined mother-child, father-child, and triadic interactive behaviors in 141 Israeli and Palestinian couples and their firstborn child at 5 and 33 months as antecedents of children's social competence. Four parent-child measures (parent sensitivity, child social engagement, parental…
Liu, Yongmei; Ferris, Gerald R.; Zinko, Robert; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Weitz, Bart; Xu, Jun
We developed a four-study research plan to examine the dispositional antecedents of political skill and its job performance consequences, and also to incorporate the mediating role of reputation, drawing upon a recent theoretical model of political skill in organizations. Study 1 established the psychometric properties of the two reputation scales…
This study of 29 adopted children examines the consequences of parental rights termination (PRT) for neglected or abused children in relation to antecedent characteristics of children, parents, and circumstances in the foster care process. Suggests alternative plans for children whose PRT has not been followed by permanent adoptive placement.…
Böger, Anne; Huxhold, Oliver
Loneliness is a stressful experience that appears to interfere with health and social integration (SI). Recently, researchers proposed that both antecedents and consequences of loneliness may change across the life span. To fully understand the processes related to loneliness it may thus be crucial to adopt an age-differentiated perspective. This…
O'Reilly, Mark; Fragale, Christina; Gainey, Summer; Kang, Soyeon; Koch, Heather; Shubert, Jennifer; El Zein, Farah; Longino, Deanna; Chung, Moon; Xu, Ziwei; White, Pamela; Lang, Russell; Davis, Tonya; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Healy, Olive; Kagohara, Deborah; van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff
We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. Individual participant multielement and reversal designs were used…
Matsumoto, David; And Others
Examines the degree of cultural similarity and specificity in the emotional experiences of subjects from the United States and Japan. Found a high degree of cultural agreement in the antecedent/evaluation process, but some differences in relative/expressive aspects of emotion. (Author/BJV)
Kacmar, K. Michele; Carlson, Dawn S.; Bratton, Virginia K.
This study examined both situational and dispositional antecedents of four ingratiatory behaviors: other-enhancing, opinion conformity, favor rendering, and self-promotion. The two situational variables (i.e., role ambiguity and leader-member exchange) and the four dispositional variables (i.e., self-esteem, need for power, job involvement, and…
Mbogo, Rosemary Wahu
This paper reports the findings of a Master's level thesis work that was done in 1997 to assess the antecedent factors affecting the academic performance of graduate students at the Nairobi Evangelical School of Theology (N.E.G.S.T.), which is currently Africa International University (AIU). The paper reviews the effect of lack of finance on…
Kyndt, Eva; Baert, Herman
Involvement in work-related learning seems to be more complex than a simple supply-demand fit. An interplay of several factors can influence this involvement at different stages of the decision-making process of the employee. The aim of this systematic review is to examine which antecedents of work-related learning have been identified in previous…
Dayan, M.; Benedetto, Di A.C.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the quality of interactions among new product development team members, wherein functional diversity, team stability, and transactive memory system are antecedents of teamwork quality. Three measures of outcomes are used (team learning, speed to
Moller, Lora C.; Serbin, Lisa A.
Possible antecedents of toddler gender separation were studied with 57 toddlers with a mean age of 35 months. There were no differences between gender-segregating and nonsegregating children regarding gender toy preferences or gender awareness, but teachers saw gender-segregating girls as more socially sensitive. (SLD)
Rutjens, Bastiaan T.; Sutton, Robbie M.; van der Lee, Romy
Many topics that scientists investigate speak to people’s ideological worldviews. We report three studies—including an analysis of large-scale survey data—in which we systematically investigate the ideological antecedents of general faith in science and willingness to support science, as well as of
Ruyter, de J.C.; Jong, de A.; Wetzels, M.G.M.
The authors examine antecedents and consequences of environmental stewardship in frontline business-to-business teams. On the basis of data from members of 34 teams organized into regional networks, they demonstrate the differential impact of team environmental stewardship on customer satisfaction
Stichter, Janine P.; Randolph, Jena K.; Kay, Denise; Gage, Nicholas
Evidence continues to maintain that the use of antecedent variables (i.e., instructional practices, and environmental characteristics) increase prosocial and adaptive behaviors of students with disabilities (e.g., Kern et al. in J Appl Behav Anal 27(1):7-19, 1994; Stichter et al. in Behav Disord 30:401-418, 2005). This study extends the literature…
Siemer, William F.; Knuth, Barbara A.
Investigates fishing and aquatic stewardship outcomes associated with different levels of program exposure among n=619 participants in a national fishing education program (Hooked on Fishing-Not on Drugs) designed for youth in Grades 6-8. Supports the assumption that such programs are more likely to influence antecedents to environmentally…
Chai, K.H.; Wang, Q; Song, Michael; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Brombacher, A.C.; Brombacher, A.C.
While previous studies have shed light on the benefits and antecedents of platform-based product development, there is still much to be learned on the subject, particularly through an empirical approach. Based on the literature, this study proposes the concept of product platform competency and
Chai, K.H.; Wang, Q.; Song, M.; Halman, J.I.M.; Brombacher, A.C.
While previous studies have shed light on the benefits and antecedents of platform-based product development, there is still much to be learned on the subject, particularly through an empirical approach. Based on the literature, this study proposes the concept of product platform competency and
Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung
A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among teachers'…
Mohd Daud, Norzaidi; Zakaria, Halimi
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of antecedent factors on collaborative technologies usage among academic researchers in Malaysian research universities. Design/methodology/approach: Data analysis was conducted on data collected from 156 academic researchers from five Malaysian research universities. This study…
Ploum, Lisa; Blok, Vincent; Lans, Thomas; Omta, Onno
When dealing with complex value-driven problems such as sustainable development, individuals need to have values and norms that go beyond the appropriation of tangible business outcomes for themselves. This raises the question of the role played by individual moral antecedents in the entrepreneurial
Rodkin, Philip C.; Roisman, Glenn I.
This study identified correlates and developmental antecedents that distinguish popular-aggressive elementary school children from other youth. Drawing on the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1022), popular-aggressive children were identified through teacher ratings over…
Moerk, Ernst L.
The antecedents of verbal behavior, together with the teaching skills of the adult linguistic community, probably constitute all the necessary bases for language acquisition. As they seemed to be sufficient for the explanation of all the known phenomena, an assumption of an innate linguistic language acquisition device was rejected as superfluous.…
van der Meer, J. T.; Thompson, J.; Valkenburg, H. A.; Michel, M. F.
BACKGROUND: The reported frequency with which endocarditis is ascribed to an antecedent dental or medical procedure varies from 3% to 62%. METHODS: We performed a nationwide prospective study of the epidemiology of bacterial endocarditis in the Netherlands. During a 2-year period, all consecutively
Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen; Casablancas-Segura, Carme; Llonch, Joan
This study, based on institutional theory, dynamic capabilities, and stakeholder theory, investigates the relationships between the antecedents of responsive and proactive stakeholder orientation and their consequences in the public university context. The results obtained mainly stress that the mimetic effect of copying successful university…
DiRenzo, Marco S.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Weer, Chisty H.
Although substantial research has examined the conflict that employees experience between their work and family roles, the literature has not investigated the prevalence and antecedents of work-family conflict for individuals who work at different levels of an organization. This study examines differences in work-family conflict (work interference…
Kretschmer, Tina; Veenstra, René; Dekovíc, Maja; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
In contrast to victimization, prior research on the antecedents and outcomes of bullying perpetration has provided little conclusive knowledge. Some adolescent bullies may be well adjusted and popular among peers, while other bullies are rejected and lack self-control. There is also great variation
Cohrs, Corey M.; Shriver, Mark D.; Burke, Raymond V.; Allen, Keith D.
We evaluated the impact of antecedent specificity in goal statements on adherence to positive behavior-management strategies. Teaching staff were recruited from 2 different school settings where there were routine expectations to use behavior-specific praise in the classroom, but adherence was poor. In a concurrent multiple baseline design, the…
Watson, T.; Dufrene, Brad; Weaver, Adam; Butler, Tonya; Meeks, Caroline
The purpose of this study was to determine if specific classroom antecedents were associated with motor and vocal tics in two males diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome. A functional assessment consisting of teacher and student interviews, direct observations, brief functional analysis, and confirmatory naturalistic observations indicated that…
Salahuddin, Lizawati; Ismail, Zuraini
This paper provides a systematic review of safety use of health information technology (IT). The first objective is to identify the antecedents towards safety use of health IT by conducting systematic literature review (SLR). The second objective is to classify the identified antecedents based on the work system in Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model and an extension of DeLone and McLean (D&M) information system (IS) success model. A systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted from peer-reviewed scholarly publications between January 2000 and July 2014. SLR was carried out and reported based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. The related articles were identified by searching the articles published in Science Direct, Medline, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases. Data extracted from the resultant studies included are to be analysed based on the work system in Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model, and also from the extended DeLone and McLean (D&M) information system (IS) success model. 55 articles delineated to be antecedents that influenced the safety use of health IT were included for review. Antecedents were identified and then classified into five key categories. The categories are (1) person, (2) technology, (3) tasks, (4) organization, and (5) environment. Specifically, person is attributed by competence while technology is associated to system quality, information quality, and service quality. Tasks are attributed by task-related stressor. Organisation is related to training, organisation resources, and teamwork. Lastly, environment is attributed by physical layout, and noise. This review provides evidence that the antecedents for safety use of health IT originated from both social and technical aspects. However, inappropriate health IT usage potentially increases the incidence of errors and produces new safety risks. The review cautions future
Bart, Ryan; Hope, Allen
Baseflow recession rates vary inter-seasonally in many watersheds. This variability is generally associated with changes in evapotranspiration; however, an additional and less studied control over inter-seasonal baseflow recession rates is the effect of aquifer antecedent storage. Understanding the role of aquifer antecedent storage on baseflow recession rates is crucial for Mediterranean-climate regions, where seasonal asynchronicity of precipitation and energy levels produces large inter-seasonal differences in aquifer storage. The primary objective of this study was to elucidate the relation between aquifer antecedent storage and baseflow recession rates in four central California watersheds using antecedent streamflow as a surrogate for watershed storage. In addition, a parsimonious storage-discharge model consisting of two nonlinear stores in parallel was developed as a heuristic tool for interpreting the empirical results and providing insight into how inter-seasonal changes in aquifer antecedent storage may affect baseflow recession rates. Antecedent streamflow cumulated from the beginning of the wateryear was found to be the strongest predictor of baseflow recession rates, indicating that inter-seasonal differences in aquifer storage are a key control on baseflow recession rates in California watersheds. Baseflow recession rates and antecedent streamflow exhibited a negative power-law relation, with baseflow recession rates decreasing by up to two orders of magnitude as antecedent streamflow levels increased. Inference based on the storage-discharge model indicated that the dominant source of recession flow shifted from small, rapid response aquifers at the beginning of the wet season to large, seasonal aquifers as the wet season progressed. Aquifer antecedent storage in California watersheds should be accounted for along with evapotranspiration when characterizing baseflow recession rates.
Rafael Alves Guimarães
Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0.Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9 reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0 and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8, alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3, antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2 were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases.Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases.
Thune, J.J.; Signorovitch, J.; Velazquez, E.J.
myocardial infarction in the Valsartan in Myocardial Infarction Trial. We assessed the relationship between antecedent hypertension and outcomes and the association between elevated (systolic: >140 mm Hg) or low blood pressure (systolic:
Aryee, Samuel; Srinivas, E S; Tan, Hwee Hoon
This study examined antecedents and outcomes of a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance in terms of the direction of influence (work-family vs. family-work) and type of effect (conflict vs. facilitation). Respondents were full-time employed parents in India. Confirmatory factor analysis results provided evidence for the discriminant validity of M. R. Frone's (2003) fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance. Results of moderated regression analysis revealed that different processes underlie the conflict and facilitation components. Furthermore, gender had only a limited moderating influence on the relationships between the antecedents and the components of work-family balance. Last, work-family facilitation was related to the work outcomes of job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Singh, Vijay P.
This paper investigates the variation of the popular curve number (CN) values given in the National Engineering Hand Book-Section 4 (NEH-4) of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) with antecedent moisture condition (AMC) and soil type. Using the volumetric concept, involving soil, water, and air, a significant condensation of the NEH-4 tables is achieved. This leads to a procedure for determination of CN for gauged as well as ungauged watersheds. The rainfall-runoff events derived from daily data of four Indian watersheds exhibited a power relation between the potential maximum retention or CN and the 5-day antecedent rainfall amount. Including this power relation, the SCS-CN method was modified. This modification also eliminates the problem of sudden jumps from one AMC level to the other. The runoff values predicted using the modified method and the existing method utilizing the NEH-4 AMC criteria yielded similar results.
Fitzgerald, L F; Drasgow, F; Hulin, C L; Gelfand, M J; Magley, V J
Sexual harassment of women in organizational settings has recently become a topic of interest to researchers and the general public alike. Although numerous studies document its frequency, the development of conceptual models identifying antecedents and consequences of harassment has proceeded at a slower pace. In this article, an empirical test of a recently proposed conceptual model is described. According to the model, organizational climate for sexual harassment and job gender context are critical antecedents of sexual harassment; harassment, in turn, influences work-related variables (e.g., job satisfaction); psychological states (e.g., anxiety and depression); and physical health. On the basis of a sample of women employed at a large, regulated utility company, the model's predictions were generally supported.
Jos\\u00E9 M. S\\u00E1nchez
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the coach-athlete relationship by analyzing the determinants of the quality of that relationship, the components emerged from previous constraints and the outcomes of the relationship. We accomplished a qualitative study using semistructured in-depth interviews with a total of 4 dyads (2 coaches and 4 players selected deliberately. The data obtained suggested that the coach-athlete relationship in basketball is organized into three layers: a relationship antecedent variables (coach's and athlete's behaviour and values wanted, b components (behaviours, feelings, cognitions, improvement and maintenance strategies, and management of differences and c the consequences or outcomes (the coach and the player. In conclusion, we found that the different antecedents determine the components of the relationship, generating, in the case of positive relationships, satisfaction, wellbeing and performance, representing a personal and professional growth in both members of the dyad.
Florina D. Spânu
Full Text Available This study is a systematic review of the field research conducted in medical settings investigating collective learning behaviors. The review was driven by several research foci. Our main interest was in identifying antecedents and consequences of collective learning in hospitals. We also report results on the types of research questions addressed, research designs used, and types of medical teams investigated. Twelve studies met our inclusion criteria. Our findings revealed that highly contextualized studies that use different ways of measuring learning, different ways of conceptualizing medical teams, and different research methodologies, discuss similar antecedents. Variables like leadership behaviors, unit interpersonal climate, and hierarchical position were found to play a role in explaining organizational learning in hospitals across studies. We also found that despite an intense public discourse on the link between collective learning processes and patients’ safety and medical organizations’ performance, few studies actually report empirical data supporting this relationship.
Ibidunni Ayodotun Stephen
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of antecedent factors on business level strategies of Nigerian agro-based firms. The study made use of survey method over one hundred and ninety-three respondents. Pearson’s correlation and regression analysis were used to analyze the data obtained. The existing relationship stemming from the results revealed that top management factor, organizational system, and departmental connectivity are important antecedent factors that determine the success or otherwise of strategic orientation dimensions. The study recommends that the calibre of the top management personnel and the internal cohesion between departments should be considered a critical variable in the adoption of particular orientation.
Coussens, Adam Howard; Rees, Tim; Freeman, Paul
Although social support is integral to the coaching process, there is only a limited understanding of the antecedents of perceived coach support. We applied generalizability theory to examine perceived coach support and its antecedents at perceiver, provider, and relational levels of analysis. Two studies were conducted in which athletes rated the degree to which they identified with a selection of coaches, and the personality, competency, and supportiveness of those coaches. Univariate analyses demonstrated that the relational component accounted for a significant amount of variance in perceived coach support in both studies. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that when athletes perceive specific coaches to be highly agreeable, competent, and individuals with whom they share a common identity, they also perceive these same coaches to be particularly supportive in comparison with other coaches.
Rodwell, John; Demir, Defne; Gulyas, Andre
Employees in aged care are at high risk of workplace aggression. Research rarely examines the individual and contextual antecedents of aggression for specific types of workers within these settings, such as nurses and certified nursing assistants (CNAs). The study aimed to explore characteristics of the job demands-resources model (JD-R), negative affectivity (NA) and demographics related to workplace aggression for aged care workers. The survey study was based on 208 nurses and 83 CNAs working within aged care. Data from each group were analysed separately using ordinal regressions. Both aged care nurses and CNAs reported high rates of bullying, external emotional abuse, threat of assault and physical assault. Elements of the JD-R model and individual characteristics were related to aggression types for both groups. Characteristics of the JD-R model, NA and demographics are important in understanding the antecedents of aggression observed among aged care workers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Zohar, Dov; Tenne-Gazit, Orly
In order to test the social mechanisms through which organizational climate emerges, this article introduces a model that combines transformational leadership and social interaction as antecedents of climate strength (i.e., the degree of within-unit agreement about climate perceptions). Despite their longstanding status as primary variables, both antecedents have received limited empirical research. The sample consisted of 45 platoons of infantry soldiers from 5 different brigades, using safety climate as the exemplar. Results indicate a partially mediated model between transformational leadership and climate strength, with density of group communication network as the mediating variable. In addition, the results showed independent effects for group centralization of the communication and friendship networks, which exerted incremental effects on climate strength over transformational leadership. Whereas centralization of the communication network was found to be negatively related to climate strength, centralization of the friendship network was positively related to it. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Handayani, Sri; Anggraeni, Ade Irma; Suharnomo, Andriyansah; Rahardja, Edy
Nowadays, employee is considered essential in an organization. The active role of the employee should be concerned by practitioners and academicians. This study aimed to investigate the antecedent and consequent variables of employee engagement. Distributive justice, absorptive capacity, and job design were believed as the antecedent factors influencing work engagement. Meanwhile, organizational citizenship behavior was believed as the consequent or output factor of employee engagement. Th...
Abdolrahimi, Mahbobeh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Zakerimoghadam, Masoumeh; Ebadi, Abbas
In recent years, particular attention has been paid to nursing students’ therapeutic communication (TC) with patients, due to a strong emphasis on patient-centered education in the Iranian healthcare reform. However, various studies have highlighted the poor communication of future nurses. Therefore, researchers have used qualitative methodology to shed light on the antecedents and consequences of nursing students’ TC and promote it. We carried out a conventional content analysis using semist...
Kahana, Eva; Kahana, Boaz; Zhang, Jianping
Future orientation is considered as a motivational antecedent of late-life proactivity. In a panel study of 453 old-old adults, we linked future orientation to exercise, a key component of late-life proactivity. Findings based on hierarchical linear modeling reveal that future orientation at baseline predicts changes in exercise during the subsequent four years. Whereas exercise behavior generally declined over time, future orientation and female gender were associated with smaller decline. T...
Fernando de Oliveira Santini; Wagner Júnior Ladeira; Cláudio Hoffmann Sampaio; Clécio Falcão Araújo
Purpose – Materialism has been gaining ground in the academic field, especially from the 1980s on, given the relevance of understanding sentiments connected to possessing and acquiring goods. Thus, this meta-analysis was carried out to assess the antecedents and consequents of materialism. Design/methodology/approach – Based on a systematic review, we gathered a total 77 articles that examined those aspects, generating 99 effects-sizes and a cumulative sample of 40,288 studied individuals...
Voigt, Emily Anne
This research expanded understanding of the key antecedents of intention to leave and employee turnover in a sample of retail banking employees from a large Australian-based financial institution. In three empirical studies, this research provided unique insights into today‘s workforce and deepened understanding of how work related factors influence intention to leave and turnover. The first study compared the relationships between work attitudes and intention to leave for part-time and f...
Matsumoto, David; Kudoh, Tsutomu; Scherer, Klaus R.; Wallbott, Harald
In this study, we examined the degree of cultural similarity and specificity in emotional experience by asking subjects in the United States and Japan to report their experiences and reactions concerning seven different emotions. The data used for this study were part of a larger cross-cultural study of emotion antecedents and reaxtions involving more than 2 000 subjects in 27 countries (Wallbott & Scherer, 1986). The American-Japanese comparison is a particularly interesting onem given t...
Hongliang Chen Department of Communication, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: This study investigates the factors predicting positive self-disclosure on social networking sites (SNSs). There is a formidable body of empirical research relating to online self-disclosure, but very few studies have assessed the antecedents of positive self-disclosure. To address this literature gap, the current study tests the effects of self-esteem, life satisfact...
Mohamed A. Abou-Shouk; Mahamoud M. Hewedi
This study extends technology acceptance model (TAM) to investigate the antecedents and consequences of social media adoption by tourists and travel agents. It compares their perceptions on social media adoption and its consequences. Online survey was addressed to tourists and travel agents for data collection purposes. Structural equation modelling was employed for analysis purposes. The findings revealed that the majority of tourists and travel agents involved in the study believe in the us...
Mbawuni Joseph; Simon Gyasi Nimako
This paper assesses the antecedent and consequence of consumer perceived deception (CPD) on consumer trust, satisfaction, attitude recommendation and intentions to acquire future loans from financial service providers. The proposed research model was tested using data from a survey of 371 loan customers of leading financial service providers in Ghana. Data were analysed using SmartPLS 2.0 for Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling. The results show high information quality could ...
Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki-Joon; Hodgins, David C.; Lee, Tae Kyung
Objective This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of gambling passion using structural equation modeling to examine relationships among gambling motivation, passion, emotion, and behavioral intentions in the horse racing industry. Methods An onsite survey was conducted with 447 patrons at a horseracing park in South Korea. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Gambling Passion Scale was valid and reliable, resulting in two sub-scales: obsessive passion (OP) and harmo...
Ganefi, Marliza; Ratih, Sri Wulan Windu; Harmoni, Ati
The purpose of this study is to examine and identify antecedents of female student entrepreneurial intention. This research attempts to investigate whether self-efficacy, perceptions of opportunities, prior knowledge of other entrepreneurs, and fear of failure are predictors of female student intention to be entrepreneur. As much as 233 students in their final year, selected proportionally from 12 study programs in Gunadarma University participated in the survey. Data was collected using ques...
Hsiang-Ming Lee; Tsai Chen
Based on the smart phone and 3G communication boom in recent years, mobile commerce has become increasingly popular. This study empirically investigated the continuance usage intention of m-commerce consumers. The proposed model is an extension of the expectation-confirmation model, with perceived quality as the antecedent variable of confirmation and perceived usefulness. This model employed three dimensions of perceived quality from DeLone and Mclean’s IS success model. Survey data were col...
Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Depolo, Marco; Morales Domínguez, J Francisco
Although mobbing has been extensively studied, empirical research has not led to firm conclusions regarding its antecedents and consequences, both at personal and organizational levels. An extensive literature search yielded 86 empirical studies with 93 samples. The matrix correlation obtained through meta-analytic techniques was used to test a structural equation model. Results supported hypotheses regarding organizational environmental factors as main predictors of mobbing.
Balasubramanian, Siva K.; Moon, Wanki; Rimal, Arbindra; Coker, Kesha
We propose a structural model of antecedent factors that affect the frequency of soy consumption. This model, suggests that soy-general knowledge influences perceptions about nutrition concern, health benefits of soy, soy related personal beliefs and personal attitudes toward soy. Health benefits of soy, in turn, impacts soy-related personal beliefs and personal attitudes toward soy. Additionally, soy-related personal beliefs influence personal attitudes toward soy. Finally, both nutrition co...
Tavassoli, Tara; Suñé Torrents, Albert
This paper examines the impact of work-life balance (WLB) on individual outcomes of full time employees in Iran. This research aims to identify the influence of WLB on job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and turnover intentions. Moreover, this paper aims to identify the influence of a selected group of antecedents (job autonomy, work demands and supervisor work-family support) on WLB. Structural equation modeling in AMOS is used to analyze data from a sample of 203 full time workers in I...
Au, Wee Chan
Work-life balance is an issue of increasing importance to organizations in their attempt to build sustainable competitive advantage through effective management and leverage of human capital. As Malaysia progresses along its path of economic transformation, the issue of work-life balance is becoming highly critical in its aim of becoming a developed economy. This study aims to explore the antecedents and consequences of work-life balance among the Malaysian workforce. Two opposing theori...
Seykora, Joseph T.
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited MBA Professional Report The project explores and seeks to identify relationships among four trust antecedents, two organizational structures, and two performance outcomes. The results will help to further explain associations between trust level (high or low) and organizational structure. Past research found that the edge organization operating in a high trust environment produces the most accurate results in the least amount of time. ...
Trépanier, Sarah-Geneviève; Fernet, Claude; Austin, Stéphanie; Boudrias, Valérie
This review paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge on work environment antecedents of workplace bullying and proposes an integrative model of bullying applied to registered nurses. A literature search was conducted on the databases PsycInfo, ProQuest, and CINAHL. Included in this review were empirical studies pertaining to work-related antecedents of workplace bullying in nurses. A total of 12 articles were maintained in the review. An examination of these articles highlights four main categories of work-related antecedents of workplace bullying: job characteristics, quality of interpersonal relationships, leadership styles, and organizational culture. A conceptual model depicting the interplay between these factors in relation to bullying is also presented. Suggestions regarding other factors to incorporate within the model (e.g., individual factors, outcomes of bullying) are provided to increase our understanding of bullying in registered nurses. This paper hopes to guide future efforts in order to effectively prevent and/or address this problem and ultimately ensure patient safety and quality of care provided by health care organizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Helzer, J E; Robins, L N; Davis, D H
Previous studies of predictors of narcotic abuse have been retrospective and based on samples of long-term addicts obtained from legal or medical channels. There are several methodological problems in this approach. The present study is an attempt to test certain alleged predictors of narcotic use in a cohort of 898 Vietnam veterans. The design overcomes several of the methodological weaknesses of previous studies. Eight variables which have been reported as predictors of drug use or addiction in the drug literature were inquired about during a personal interview which included the premilitary life of each subject. The antecedent variables were socioeconomic background, inner city residence, psychiatric illness, broken home, race, employment history, education and antisocial history. Using information obtained from interviews and military records, we then tested the predictive value of each of these antecedents by comparing narcotic used and addiction in Vietman and use after Vietnam in men differing with respect to each antecedent. Results indicate that some of the variables were very poor, and others very good predictors of the various levels of narcotic involvement. The predictive value and overall importance of each of the variables we tested are discussed.
Thompson, Geir; Buch, Robert; Glasø, Lars
The present study tests the validity of Robert P. Vecchio's seminal work on antecedents and consequences of jealousy. Specifically, we examine whether antecedents such as in-group status, supervisory considerateness, and supervisory differentiation of subordinates are associated with jealousy. In addition, we examine whether jealousy is associated with the outcome variable of social loafing. Leaders (n = 73) and their followers (n = 303) working in business organizations in Norway contributed data. Multilevel analyses showed that a high-quality working relationship with one's supervisor was inversely related to reports of jealousy. In addition, supervisors who displayed high levels of considerateness, for example, by providing followers with positive emotional support, were better able to reduce subordinate jealousy. This is a novel observation since previous research failed to demonstrate such a relationship. Finally, jealousy was positively associated with social loafing, suggesting that jealous followers engaged in an active counterproductive resistance response. The present study contributes to the extant literature by identifying unexamined antecedents of jealousy and a dysfunctional behavioral response to jealousy in the form of social loafing in the workplace.
Jończyk Joanna Anna
Full Text Available The aim of the study presented in this article is to show correspondence analysis as a method useful in the diagnosis of coexistence of category variables in antecedents of innovativeness, with the positions of the respondents representing various medical professions in hospitals. Primary data obtained in the course of empirical research, carried out using a questionnaire study on a sample of 459 respondents representing 8 public hospitals in Poland, is used to this aim. To follow up on the achievements of the analysis, literature on the issue of innovativeness and its antecedents was also used. The results of the correspondence analysis allows one to confirm the thesis of the different opinions of doctors, nurses/midwives and managers regarding the level of significance of antecedents of innovativeness, where for doctors and managers in this context the most important is financial optimization, and for nurses the improvement of the quality of medical services. The results may provide an important clue to the chief executives of hospitals in the context of further changes and innovativeness necessary to achieve the desired efficiency of these organizations.
Thoma, David P.; Munson, Seth M.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Witwicki, Dana L.; Bunting, Erin
Questions Can we improve understanding of vegetation response to water availability on monthly time scales in semi-arid environments using remote sensing methods? What climatic or water balance variables and antecedent windows of time associated with these variables best relate to the condition of vegetation? Can we develop credible near-term forecasts from climate data that can be used to prepare for future climate change effects on vegetation? Location Semi-arid grasslands in Capitol Reef National Park, Utah, USA. Methods We built vegetation response models by relating the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from MODIS imagery in Mar–Nov 2000–2013 to antecedent climate and water balance variables preceding the monthly NDVI observations. We compared how climate and water balance variables explained vegetation greenness and then used a multi-model ensemble of climate and water balance models to forecast monthly NDVI for three holdout years. Results Water balance variables explained vegetation greenness to a greater degree than climate variables for most growing season months. Seasonally important variables included measures of antecedent water input and storage in spring, switching to indicators of drought, input or use in summer, followed by antecedent moisture availability in autumn. In spite of similar climates, there was evidence the grazed grassland showed a response to drying conditions 1 mo sooner than the ungrazed grassland. Lead times were generally short early in the growing season and antecedent window durations increased from 3 mo early in the growing season to 1 yr or more as the growing season progressed. Forecast accuracy for three holdout years using a multi-model ensemble of climate and water balance variables outperformed forecasts made with a naïve NDVI climatology. Conclusions We determined the influence of climate and water balance on vegetation at a fine temporal scale, which presents an opportunity to forecast vegetation
Alilyyani, Bayan; Wong, Carol A; Cummings, Greta
Leaders are essential in every organization to achieve patient safety and healthy work environments. Authentic leadership is a relational leadership style purported to promote healthy work environments that influence staff performance and organizational outcomes. Given recent growth in authentic leadership research in healthcare and the importance of new knowledge to inform leadership development, there is an obligation to determine what is known about the antecedents and outcomes of authentic leadership in healthcare settings and clarify mechanisms by which authentic leadership affects healthcare staff and patient outcomes. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the antecedents, mediators and outcomes associated with authentic leadership in healthcare. Systematic review. The search strategy included 11 electronic databases: ABI Inform Dateline, Academic Search Complete, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. The search was conducted in January 2017. Published English-only quantitative research that examined the antecedents, mediators and outcomes of authentic leadership practices of leaders in healthcare settings was included. Quality assessment, data extractions, and analysis were completed on all included studies. Data extracted from included studies were analyzed through descriptive and narrative syntheses. Content analysis was used to group antecedents, outcomes and mediators into categories which were then compared to authentic leadership theory. 1036 titles and abstracts were screened yielding 136 manuscripts for full-text review which resulted in 21 included studies reported in 38 manuscripts. Significant associations between authentic leadership and 43 outcomes were grouped into two major themes: healthcare staff outcomes with 5 subthemes (personal psychological states, satisfaction with work, work environment factors, health & well-being, and
Justine is the graphical user interface to the Los Alamos Radiation Modeling Interactive Environment (LARAMIE). It provides LARAMIE customers with a powerful, robust, easy-to-use, WYSIWYG interface that facilitates geometry construction and problem specification. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with LARAMIE, and the transport codes available, i.e., MCNPTM and DANTSYSTM. No attempt is made in this manual to describe these codes in detail. Information about LARAMIE, DANTSYS, and MCNP are available elsewhere. It i also assumed that the reader is familiar with the Unix operating system and with Motif widgets and their look and feel. However, a brief description of Motif and how one interacts with it can be found in Appendix A.
the current UHF Follow-On ( UFO ) constellation. MUOS includes the satellite constellation, a ground control and network management system, and a new...MUOS CAI. Each MUOS satellite carries a legacy payload similar to that flown on UFO -11. These legacy payloads will continue to support legacy...Antecedent Information The antecedent system to MUOS was the Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Follow-on ( UFO ) satellite communications program. Comparisons
Vidal, Jose; Ghovanloo, Maysam
We have developed a novel 4-channel prototype stimulation circuit for implantable neurological stimulators (INS). This Switched-Capacitor based Stimulator (SCS) aims to utilize charge storage and charge injection techniques to take advantage of both the efficiency of conventional voltage-controlled stimulators (VCS) and the safety and controllability of current-controlled stimulators (CCS). The discrete SCS prototype offers fine control over stimulation parameters such as voltage, current, pulse width, frequency, and active electrode channel via a LabVIEW graphical user interface (GUI) when connected to a PC through USB. Furthermore, the prototype utilizes a floating current sensor to provide charge-balanced biphasic stimulation and ensure safety. The stimulator was analyzed using an electrode-electrolyte interface (EEI) model as well as with a pair of pacing electrodes in saline. The primary motivation of this research is to test the feasibility and functionality of a safe, effective, and power-efficient switched-capacitor based stimulator for use in Deep Brain Stimulation. PMID:21095987
) for a stimulator ASIC testing purposes. The ECU consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) from the PC, a data transceiver and a power transmitter. The GUI was developed using MATLAB for stimulation data setup. The data transceiver was ...
Echenique, Ana Maria; Graffigna, Juan Pablo; Mut, Vicente
This work is an assistive technology for people with visual disabilities and aims to facilitate access to written information in order to achieve better social inclusion and integration into work and educational activities. Two methods of electrical stimulation (by current and voltage) of the mechanoreceptors was tested to obtain tactile sensations on the fingertip. Current and voltage stimulation were tested in a Braille cell and line prototype, respectively. These prototypes are evaluated in 33 blind and visually impaired subjects. The result of experimentation with both methods showed that electrical stimulation causes sensations of touch defined in the fingertip. Better results in the Braille characters reading were obtained with current stimulation (85% accuracy). However this form of stimulation causes uncomfortable sensations. The latter feeling was minimized with the method of voltage stimulation, but with low efficiency (50% accuracy) in terms of identification of the characters. We concluded that electrical stimulation is a promising method for the development of a simple and unexpensive Braille reading system for blind people. We observed that voltage stimulation is preferred by the users. However, more experimental tests must be carry out in order to find the optimum values of the stimulus parameters and increase the accuracy the Braille characters reading.
Rozenbroek, Katelyn; Rothstein, William G
To examine medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants taken individually and in combination. Undergraduates at an urban mid-Atlantic university with 12,000 students. A questionnaire administered in classes provided 413 responses, with a usable response rate of 94%. Nonmedical users obtained prescription drugs from friends and took them with friends. More nonmedical users than medical users took combinations of drugs. Nonmedical users did not show strong preferences for particular drugs. Nonmedical users compared to medical users who took only 1 drug were more likely to take stimulants and less likely to take opioids. The nonmedical use of prescription drugs by college students is a social activity that involves sharing drugs and taking combinations of drugs with friends. Discouraging nonmedical use must focus on the dangers of combining drugs, sharing drugs, and using social gatherings to consume drugs.
Roulin, Nicolas; Bourdage, Joshua S
Research has examined the antecedents of applicants' use of impression management (IM) tactics in employment interviews. All existing empirical studies have measured IM in one particular interview. Yet, applicants generally interview multiple times for different positions, and thus have multiple opportunities to engage in IM, before they can secure a job. Similarly, recent theoretical advances in personnel selection and IM research have suggested that applicant behaviors should be considered as dynamic and adaptive in nature. In line with this perspective, the present study is the first to examine the role of individual differences in both applicants' use of IM tactics and the variability in IM use across multiple interviews. It also highlights which honest and deceptive IM tactics remain stable vs. vary in consecutive interviews with different interviewers and organizations. Results suggest that applicants high in Extraversion or core self-evaluations tend to engage in more honest self-promotion but do not adapt their IM approach across interviews. In contrast, applicants who possess more undesirable personality traits (i.e., low on Honesty-Humility and Conscientiousness, but high on Machiavellianism, Narcissism, Psychopathy, or Competitive Worldviews) tend to use more deceptive IM (and especially image creation tactics) and are also more likely to adapt their IM strategy across interviews. Because deceptive IM users can obtain better evaluations from interviewers and the personality profile of those users is often associated with undesirable workplace outcomes, this study provides additional evidence for the claim that deceptive IM (or faking) is a potential threat for organizations.
Searle, Amelia K; Van Hooff, Miranda; Lawrence-Wood, Ellie R; Grace, Blair S; Saccone, Elizabeth J; Davy, Carol P; Lorimer, Michelle; McFarlane, Alexander C
Both traumatic deployment experiences and antecedent traumas increase personnel's risk of developing PTSD and depression. However, only cross-sectional studies have assessed whether antecedent trauma moderates stress reactions to deployment experiences. This study prospectively examines whether antecedent trauma moderates the association between deployment trauma and post-deployment PTSD and depressive symptoms after accounting for antecedent mental health problems, in a large Australian Defence Force (ADF) sample. In the ADF Middle East Area of Operations Prospective Study, currently-serving military personnel deployed to Afghanistan across 2010-2012 (n = 1122) completed self-reported measures at pre-deployment and post-deployment. Within multivariable regressions, associations between deployment trauma and PTSD and depressive symptoms at post-deployment were stronger for personnel with greater antecedent trauma. However, once adjusting for antecedent mental health problems, these significant interaction effects disappeared. Instead, deployment-related trauma and antecedent mental health problems showed direct associations with post-deployment mental health problems. Antecedent trauma was also indirectly associated with post-deployment mental health problems through antecedent mental health problems. Similar associations were seen with prior combat exposure as a moderator. Antecedent and deployment trauma were reported retrospectively. Self-reports may also suffer from social desirability bias, especially at pre-deployment. Our main effects results support the pervasive and cumulative negative effect of trauma on military personnel, regardless of its source. While antecedent trauma does not amplify personnel's psychological response to deployment trauma, it is indirectly associated with increased post-deployment mental health problems. Antecedent mental health should be considered within pre-deployment prevention programs, and deployment-trauma within post
Puertas, A; Pures, P; Echenique, A M; Ensinck, J P Graffigna y G
Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards
Puertas, A.; Purés, P.; Echenique, A. M.; Ensinck, J. P. Graffigna y. G.
Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards.
Puertas, A; Pures, P; Echenique, A M; Ensinck, J P Graffigna y G [Gabinete de TecnologIa Medica. Universidad N. de San Juan (Argentina)
Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards.
Baum, Rex L.; Fischer, Sarah J.; Vigil, Jacob C.
Precipitation thresholds are used in many areas to provide early warning of precipitation-induced landslides and debris flows, and the software distribution THRESH is designed for automated tracking of precipitation, including precipitation forecasts, relative to thresholds for landslide occurrence. This software is also useful for analyzing multiyear precipitation records to compare timing of threshold exceedance with dates and times of historical landslides. This distribution includes the main program THRESH for comparing precipitation to several kinds of thresholds, two utility programs, and a small collection of Python and shell scripts to aid the automated collection and formatting of input data and the graphing and further analysis of output results. The software programs can be deployed on computing platforms that support Fortran 95, Python 2, and certain Unix commands. The software handles rainfall intensity-duration thresholds, cumulative recent-antecedent precipitation thresholds, and peak intensity thresholds as well as various measures of antecedent precipitation. Users should have predefined rainfall thresholds before running THRESH.
in the elicitation process. Cases and user requirement elements discussed in the book include: User requirements elicitation processes for children, construction workers, and farmers User requirements for personalized services of a broadcast company Variations in user involvement Practical elements of user...
Hye Rim Lee; Eui Jun Jeong
This study makes an integrated investigation on how life satisfaction is associated with the Korean game users' psychological variables (self-esteem, game and life self- efficacy), social variables (bonding and bridging social capital), and demographic variables (age, gender). The data used for the empirical analysis came from a representative sample survey conducted in South Korea. Results show that self-esteem and game efficacy were an important antecedent to the degree...
Pathiraja, S.; Westra, S.; Sharma, A.
Continuous simulation for design flood estimation is increasingly becoming a viable alternative to traditional event-based methods. The advantage of continuous simulation approaches is that the catchment moisture state prior to the flood-producing rainfall event is implicitly incorporated within the modeling framework, provided the model has been calibrated and validated to produce reasonable simulations. This contrasts with event-based models in which both information about the expected sequence of rainfall and evaporation preceding the flood-producing rainfall event, as well as catchment storage and infiltration properties, are commonly pooled together into a single set of "loss" parameters which require adjustment through the process of calibration. To identify the importance of accounting for antecedent moisture in flood modeling, this paper uses a continuous rainfall-runoff model calibrated to 45 catchments in the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Flood peaks derived using the historical daily rainfall record are compared with those derived using resampled daily rainfall, for which the sequencing of wet and dry days preceding the heavy rainfall event is removed. The analysis shows that there is a consistent underestimation of the design flood events when antecedent moisture is not properly simulated, which can be as much as 30% when only 1 or 2 days of antecedent rainfall are considered, compared to 5% when this is extended to 60 days of prior rainfall. These results show that, in general, it is necessary to consider both short-term memory in rainfall associated with synoptic scale dependence, as well as longer-term memory at seasonal or longer time scale variability in order to obtain accurate design flood estimates.
Full Text Available In the present study we report two self-paced reading experiments that investigate antecedent retrieval processes in sentence comprehension by contrasting the real-time processing behavior of two different reflexive anaphors in Mandarin Chinese. Previous work has suggested that comprehenders initially evaluate the fit between the morphologically simple long-distance reflexive 'ziji' and the closest available subject position, only subsequently considering more structurally distant antecedents (Dillon et al., 2014; Gao et al., 2005; Liu, 2009; Li & Zhou, 2010; cf. Chen et al., 2012. In this paper, we investigate whether this locality bias effect obtains for other reflexive anaphors in Mandarin Chinese, or if it is associated specifically with the morphologically simple reflexive ziji. We do this by comparing the processing of ziji to the processing of the morphologically complex reflexive ta-ziji (lit. s/he-self. In Experiment 1, we investigate the processing of ziji, and replicate the finding of a strong locality bias effect for ziji in self-paced reading measures. In Experiment 2, we investigate the processing of the morphologically complex reflexive ta-ziji in the same structural configurations as Experiment 1. A comparison of our experiments reveals that ta-ziji shows a significantly weaker locality bias effect than ziji does. We propose that this results from the difference in the number of morphological and semantic features on the anaphor ta-ziji relative to ziji. Specifically, we propose that the additional retrieval cues associated with ta-ziji reduce interference from irrelevant representations in memory, allowing it to more reliably access an antecedent regardless its linear or structural distance. This reduced interference in turn leads to a diminished locality bias effect for the morphologically complex anaphor ta-ziji.
McCabe, Nancy; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Butler, Javed; Higgins, Melinda; Book, Wendy; Reilly, Carolyn
Background Adults with congenital heart defects (ACHD) face long-term complications related to prior surgery, abnormal anatomy, and acquired cardiovascular conditions. Although self-care is an important part of chronic illness management, few studies have explored self-care in the ACHD population. The purpose of this study is to describe self-care and its antecedents in the ACHD population. Methods Persons with moderate or severe ACHD (N=132) were recruited from a single ACHD center. Self-care (health maintenance behaviors, monitoring and management of symptoms), and potential antecedents including sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, ACHD knowledge, behavioral characteristics (depressive symptoms and self-efficacy), and family-related factors (parental overprotection and perceived family support) were collected via self-report and chart review. Multiple regression was used to identify antecedents of self-care maintenance, monitoring, and management. Results Only 44.7%, 27.3%, and 23.3% of participants performed adequate levels of self-care maintenance, monitoring and management, respectively. In multiple regression analysis, self-efficacy, education, gender, perceived family support, and comorbidities explained 25% of the variance in self-care maintenance (R2=.248, F(5, 123)=9.44, p<.001). Age, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and NYHA Class explained 23% of the variance in self-care monitoring (R2=.232, F(2, 124)=10.66, p<.001). Self-efficacy and NYHA Class explained 9% of the variance in self-care management (R2=.094, F(2, 80)=5.27, p=.007). Conclusions Low levels of self-care are common among persons with ACHD. Multiple factors, including modifiable factors of self-efficacy, depressive symptoms, and perceived family support, are associated with self-care and should be considered in designing future interventions to improve outcomes in the ACHD population. PMID:26340127
McCaughey, Deirdre; Kimmel, Ashley; Savage, Grant; Lukas, Tiana; Walsh, Erin; Halbesleben, Jonathon
The U.S. Department of Labor has identified the health care industry as a major source of all U.S. workplace injuries. Studies have shown that injury within the health care workforce is related to high turnover rates, burnout, poor job satisfaction, and leaving the health care workforce permanently, thus contributing to the existing health care workforce shortages. The purpose of this synthesis of the literature was twofold. The first was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the occupational health and safety literature to determine the key antecedents to health care provider injury. The second was to utilize the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) framework to organize the findings. Empirical studies published between 1985 and 2013 examining work-related injuries sustained by nurses and nurses' aides were systematically reviewed and evaluated for inclusion in the synthesis of the literature. Thirty-six studies met the criteria for inclusion. Using the NIOSH framework, antecedent variables to workplace injury were identified and then grouped into three broad categories that were highlighted during the synthesis: organization of work, job characteristics, and safety programs and training. A fourth category, individual characteristics, was added based on its use by many studies. Over half of the studies (n = 20) included factors within the organization of work category. Over two thirds of the studies (n = 26) included job characteristics such as task and demand. Nine studies contained information related to safety programs and training, whereas 17 studies included information on individual factors. The findings suggest that the NIOSH framework, with the addition of individual characteristics, provide a foundation for conceptually organizing occupational health and safety studies. Health care administrators and leaders should be aware and understand the antecedents to workplace injury that will assist their organizations in developing
Full Text Available Background: Sympathetic ophthalmitis (SO has been reported following vitrectomy; however, there is a lack of data on the role of antecedent penetrating ocular trauma impacting the disease manifestation in eyes developing SO following vitrectomy. Aim: To report differences in the presentation and outcomes of SO in eyes with or without a history of antecedent penetrating trauma; SO being diagnosed after vitreoretinal (VR surgery. Design: Comparative case series. Methods: Seventeen consecutive patients presenting with SO following VR surgery, diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 were included. Eyes with and without prior penetrating injury were included in Group I (n = 7 and Group II (n = 10, respectively. All Group I patients had received systemic steroids prior to presentation. Demographic and clinical parameters were evaluated. Results: Differences were observed between Group I and Group II mainly with regards to time interval between VR surgery and diagnosis of SO (1.5 months vs. 8 months, P = 0.10, presence of neurosensory detachments (100% vs. 30%, P = 0.01, and the inciting eye vision at presentation (nil light perception in 28.5% vs. 80%, P = 0.049. Other differences observed though not statistically significant were optic disc and retinal vessel involvement (42% vs. 70%, P = 0.28, Dalen-Fuchs nodules (localized vs. diffuse and leaks on fundus fluorescein angiography (pin-head vs. pin-point leak. Conclusion: SO in patients with antecedent penetrating ocular trauma present early with the central serous chorioretinopathy-like picture. Prior use of systemic steroids might have a bearing on the differences in presentation and the visual acuities between the two groups.
Full Text Available In northern Morocco are located most of the dams and reservoirs of the country, while this region is affected by severe rainfall events causing floods. To improve the management of the water regulation structures, there is a need to develop rainfall–runoff models to both maximize the storage capacity and reduce the risks caused by floods. In this study, a model is developed to reproduce the flood events for a 655 km2 catchment located upstream of the 6th largest dam in Morocco. Constrained by data availability, a standard event-based model combining a SCS-CN (Soil Conservation Service Curve Number loss model and a Clark unit hydrograph was developed for hourly discharge simulation using 16 flood events that occurred between 1984 and 2008. The model was found satisfactory to reproduce the runoff and the temporal evolution of floods, even with limited rainfall data. Several antecedent wetness conditions estimators for the catchment were compared with the initial condition of the model. Theses estimators include an antecedent discharge index, an antecedent precipitation index and a continuous daily soil moisture accounting model (SMA, based on precipitation and evapotranspiration. The SMA model performed the best to estimate the initial conditions of the event-based hydrological model (R2 = 0.9. Its daily output has been compared with ASCAT and AMSR-E remote sensing data products, which were both able to reproduce with accuracy the daily simulated soil moisture dynamics at the catchment scale. This same approach could be implemented in other catchments of this region for operational purposes. The results of this study suggest that remote sensing data are potentially useful to estimate the soil moisture conditions in the case of ungauged catchments in Northern Africa.
McCalley, C. K.; Al Graiti, T.; Williams, T.; Huang, S.; McGowan, M. B.; Eddingsaas, N. C.; Tyler, A. C.
Land-use legacies and their interaction with both management actions and climate variability has a poorly characterized impact on the development of ecosystem functions and the trajectory of climate-carbon feedbacks. The complex structure-function relationships in wetlands foster delivery of valuable, climate sensitive, ecosystem services (carbon sequestration, nutrient removal, flood control, etc.) but also make them susceptible to colonization by invasive plants and lead to emission of key greenhouse gases. This project uses created wetland ecosystems as a model to understand how heterogeneity in antecedent conditions interacts with management options to create unique structure-function scenarios and a range of climate feedback outcomes. We utilized ongoing experiments in created wetlands that differ in antecedent conditions (crop agriculture, livestock grazing) and investigated how management options (invasive species removal, organic matter addition) interact with legacy impacts to promote key ecosystem functions, including greenhouse gas emissions, carbon sequestration, denitrification and plant biodiversity. The effects of antecedent land-use on soil chemistry, coupled with hydrologic patterns resulted in wetlands with divergent C and N dynamics despite their similar creation history. Additionally, the occurrence of extreme weather events (drought and excessive flooding) during the study period highlighted the overarching role that increased climate variability will play in determining key ecosystem processes in wetlands. Responses to management were linked to hydro-period: while organic matter addition successfully increased soil organic matter to more closely replicate natural systems at all sites, it had the largest impact on C and N cycling when soils were saturated. Overall, environmental conditions that promoted saturated soils, both those shaped by human activities or climate extremes, enhanced primary productivity, nutrient removal and greenhouse gas
Full Text Available The research examines service delivery innovation architecture and its role in achieving sustainable competitive advantage of firms. The study develops and empirically examines an antecedent based model of service delivery innovation. We collected data from 203 service sector professionals working in Mexican financial and information technology firms, and tested the proposed relationship. Further, the study investigates the moderating role of customer orientation on innovation driven performance outcomes. Results show that customer orientation strengthens the service delivery–performance relationship. This paper aims to contribute to the strategic planning of service firms by guiding their resource allocation to ensure sustainable growth.
Chotpitayasunondh, Varoth; Douglas, Karen M.
Smartphones allow people to connect with others from almost anywhere at any time. However, there is\\ud growing concern that smartphones may actually sometimes detract, rather than complement, social\\ud interactions. The term “phubbing” represents the act of snubbing someone in a social setting by\\ud concentrating on one’s phone instead of talking to the person directly. The current study was designed to\\ud examine some of the psychological antecedents and consequences of phubbing behavior. We...
Yu, Hongbo; Gao, Xiaoxue; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Xiaolin
Gratitude is a typical social-moral emotion that plays a crucial role in maintaining human cooperative interpersonal relationship. Although neural correlates of gratitude have been investigated, the neurocognitive processes that lead to gratitude, namely, the representation and integration of its cognitive antecedents, remain largely unknown. Here, we combined fMRI and a human social interactive task to investigate how benefactor's cost and beneficiary's benefit, two critical antecedents of gratitude, are encoded and integrated in beneficiary's brain, and how the neural processing of gratitude is converted to reciprocity. A coplayer decided whether to help a human participant (either male or female) avoid pain at his/her own monetary cost; the participants could transfer monetary points to the benefactor with the knowledge that the benefactor was unaware of this transfer. By independently manipulating monetary cost and the degree of pain reduction, we could identify the neural signatures of benefactor's cost and recipient's benefit and examine how they were integrated. Recipient's self-benefit was encoded in reward-sensitive regions (e.g., ventral striatum), whereas benefactor-cost was encoded in regions associated with mentalizing (e.g., temporoparietal junction). Gratitude was represented in perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), the strength of which correlated with trait gratitude. Dynamic causal modeling showed that the neural signals representing benefactor-cost and self-benefit passed to pgACC via effective connectivities, suggesting an integrative role of pgACC in generating gratitude. Moreover, gyral ACC plays an intermediary role in converting gratitude representation into reciprocal behaviors. Our findings provide a neural mechanistic account of gratitude and its role in social-moral life. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Gratitude plays an integral role in subjective well-being and harmonious interpersonal relationships. However, the neurocognitive
de Carvalho, Paulo Victor R; Ferreira, Bemildo
In this article we present a model of some functions and activities of the Brazilian Air traffic Control System (ATS) in the period in which occurred a mid-air collision between flight GLO1907, a commercial aircraft Boeing 737-800, and flight N600XL, an executive jet EMBRAER E-145, to investigate key resilience characteristics of the ATM. Modeling in some detail activities during the collision and related them to overall behavior and antecedents that stress the organization uncover some drift into failure mechanisms that erode safety defenses provided by the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), enabling a mid-air collision to be happen.
This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....
Full Text Available The concept of organizational citizen behaviour (OCB has grown in popularity in the literature, and has received a great deal of theoretical and empirical study. However, various authors have emphasized the need of gaining a greater understanding of the antecedents of each dimension that makes up this construct, as few authors have focused on these aspects (Podsakoff et al., 2000. Hence, this study aims at analyzing the individualized consideration of leadership, the innovative organizational climate and the proactive personality, as possible antecedents of change-oriented and altruist organizational citizenship behaviors, by means of a revision and extension of the main studies that have dealt with such constructs. In this sense, the present study develops various propositions, derived from a conceptual model, whose aim is to advance the understanding related with OCB antecedents, so that future research can test them from an empirical point of view, using qualitative or quantitative methods.
far north of the high NandaDevi (7,817 m) - Api Nampa. (7,132 m) range of the Himadri. The Sindhu flows northwestwards, the Satluj goes west, the Karnali takes the southerly course and the Tsangpo flows east. These rivers flow through their pristine channels, carved out at the very outset about 50 to 55 m.y (million years) ...
Hopkins, Nick; Kahani-Hopkins, Vered
This paper takes as its focus the perception of community. This is analysed through reference to the literature concerning the adoption of more inclusive, superordinate social categories. Whilst most research tends to focus on the consequences of these social categories for self and other perception, we focus on their antecedents. These are typically hypothesized to include such issues as the perception of the subordinate groups' common fate and factors affecting their perceptual differentiation (e.g. their similarity and entitativity). However, rather than conceiving of such issues as pre-given antecedent variables, we explore how these issues (and others) are actively constructed in and through discourse. More specifically, we explore how such issues are sites of contestation as activists with different political projects seek to construct quite different versions of the relevant superordinate community identity. Our data are qualitative and are drawn from contemporary debates amongst British Muslims concerning their relations with non-Muslim Britons and non-British Muslims across the globe. A key issue in these deliberations concerns the nature of British Muslims' identity and the superordinate identifications that best facilitate its expression and realization. We suggest that constructions of common fate, similarity, entitativity etc., far from being 'givens', are the means through which different definitions of Muslim identity are constructed and different forms of collective action mobilized.
Full Text Available Objective: Based on extensive literature review, this paper aims to establish if, why and how, in given environmental and market contexts, social entrepreneurship (SE opportunities are discovered and exploited. It positions social problems as sources of entrepreneurial opportunity. The article presents an integrated process-based view of SE opportunity antecedents and concludes with a dynamic model of SE opportunity. Research Design & Methods: To fulfil its goal, the paper establishes opportunity as unit of research and explores the dynamics of opportunity recognition. To identify the components of SE opportunity through a process-based view, the study follows the steps of critical literature review method. The literature review follows with logical reasoning and inference, which results in the formulation of a model proposition of social entrepreneurship opportunity. Findings: The paper presents a holistic perspective on opportunity antecedents in SE context and introduces social problems, information, social awareness and entrepreneurial mindset as fundamental components of social entrepreneurship opportunity equation. Implications & Recommendations: It is necessary to remember for policy makers, investors and partners involved within the social sector, that social problems can be the source of entrepreneurial opportunity. Training, assisting and engaging socially aware entrepreneurs is a promising line of development for all communities. Contribution & Value Added: The major contribution of this study lies in extending the existing body of social entrepreneurship research by providing a new perspective, placing social problem as opportunity in the centre of the discussion.
Shacklock, Kate; Brunetto, Yvonne; Teo, Stephen; Farr-Wharton, Rod
The study used Social Exchange Theory as a lens to examine associations between nurses' support antecedents (supervisor-nurse relationships and perceived organizational support) and their job attitudes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment and engagement). Similar to many other westernized countries, there is a shortage of nurses working as nurses in Australia. The attrition of nurses from the workplace continues to be a challenge for many countries, with resultant calls for improved retention rates. The design employed in this study was a Survey. A self-report survey of 1600 nurses employed in five private sector hospitals throughout Australia was completed during 2010-2011, resulting in 510 completed surveys. A mediation path model was developed to test the hypotheses and results of Partial Least Squares analysis showed that both support antecedents (supervisor-nurse relationships and perceived organizational support) positively led to engagement and job satisfaction. Subsequently, nurses more satisfied with their jobs were also more committed to their organizations, ultimately leading to lower intentions to quit. In addition, job satisfaction was found to mediate the relationships between organizational commitment and turnover intentions, plus between supervisor-subordinate relationships and turnover intentions. In the context of a shortage of nurses and higher than average turnover rates, the findings suggest that it is important to improve nurses' job satisfaction and organizational commitment to improve retention. However, the findings also suggest that workplace relationships and organizational management are currently far from ideal. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fernando de Oliveira Santini
Full Text Available Purpose – Materialism has been gaining ground in the academic field, especially from the 1980s on, given the relevance of understanding sentiments connected to possessing and acquiring goods. Thus, this meta-analysis was carried out to assess the antecedents and consequents of materialism. Design/methodology/approach – Based on a systematic review, we gathered a total 77 articles that examined those aspects, generating 99 effects-sizes and a cumulative sample of 40,288 studied individuals. Findings – The antecedents of materialism that showed a significant relationship with this construct were: perceived hedonic value, interpersonal influence, life satisfaction, and income. As for the consequents, we observed significance for purchase intention, impulsive buying, compulsive buying, conspicuous consumption, status consumption, and consumer involvement. Regarding the moderating effect, we observed that small samples produce greater effects. Furthermore, for the relationship between materialism and purchase intention, there are stronger effects for surveys conducted in Western countries. Originality/value – Based on the methodology applied in this study, we expected a solid and generalizable contribution regarding construct materialism.
Dehghani, Ali; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid; Ebadi, Abbas
Due to many physical and mental disorders that occur in multiple sclerosis patients, identifying the factors affecting coping based on the experiences of patients using qualitative study is essential to improve their quality of life. This study was conducted to explore the antecedents of coping with the disease in patients with multiple sclerosis. This is a qualitative study conducted on 11 patients with multiple sclerosis in 2015 in Tehran, Iran. These patients were selected based on purposive sampling. Data were collected using semi-structured and in-depth interviews and coded. These data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis. The rigor of qualitative data using the criteria proposed by Guba and Lincoln were assessed. Five main categories were revealed: (1) social support, (2) lenience, (3) reliance on faith, (4) knowledge of multiple sclerosis and modeling, and (5) economic and environmental situation. Each category had several distinct sub-categories. The results of this study showed that coping with multiple sclerosis is a complex, multidimensional and contextual concept that is affected by various factors in relation to the context of Iran. The findings of the study can provide the healthcare professionals with deeper recognition and understanding of these antecedents to improve successful coping in Iranian patients suffering from multiple sclerosis.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to identify key antecedents of the perceived image. The paper presents a new model in which switching barriers play specific role. They have been highlighted as a potential moderator of relationship between the perceived image and its drivers. The survey was conducted on a sample of 221 respondents. The suitability of conceptual model was tested using confirmative factor analysis. When examining relations between the variables of the proposed model the main and interaction effects are determined. The paper provides useful managerial implications. Findings of the research indicate the factors that impact the perception of the image, where the intensity of the impact of each individual factor is established. The positioning of the image as dependent variable in the model gives the paper a certain specificity, since there are numerous examples of works in the field of services marketing in which authors identify the key drivers of customer satisfaction and loyalty. There are few studies which have analyzed the antecedents of the perceived image. Furthermore, the importance of the switching barriers as a potential moderator between certain variables is examined in the market of financial services, hotel and restaurant management, but so far it has not attracted greater attention of authors when it comes to the business of cable operators.
Arizon Peretz, Renana; Luria, Gil
In order to reduce road accidents rates, studies around the globe have attempted to shed light on the antecedents for unsafe road behaviors. The aim of the current research is to contribute to this literature by offering a new organizational antecedent of driver's unsafe behavior: The driver's relationships with his or her peers, as reflected in three types of social networks: negative relationships network, friendship networks and advice networks (safety consulting). We hypothesized that a driver's position in negative relationship networks, friendship networks, and advice networks will predict unsafe driving. Additionally, we hypothesized the existence of mutual influences among the driver's positions in these various networks, and suggested that the driver's positions interact to predict unsafe driving behaviors. The research included 83 professional drivers from four different organizations. Driving behavior data were gathered via the IVDR (In-Vehicle Data Recorder) system, installed in every truck to measure and record the driver's behavior. The findings indicated that the drivers' position in the team networks predicts safe driving behavior: Centrality in negative relationship networks is positively related to unsafe driving, and centrality in friendship networks is negatively related to unsafe driving, while centrality in advice networks is not related to unsafe driving. Furthermore, we found an interaction effect between negative network centrality and centrality in friendship networks. The relation between negative networks and unsafe behavior is weaker when high levels of friendship network centrality exist. The implications will be presented in the Discussion section. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Research purpose: This study aimed at investigating motivations to volunteer, perceived graduate competencies, extent of participating in volunteering, along with gender and faculty of registration, as antecedents of perceived graduate employability among student volunteers and to compare the relative contributions of these antecedences in predicting perceived employability. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional research design and a quantitative data collection method were used. The relative weights analysis was conducted to answer the research question. Main findings: Overall, the results demonstrated, firstly, that different sets of predictors statistically significantly predict Perceived External Employability and Perceived Internal Employability, respectively. In the case of Perceived External Employability, a biographical predictor (faculty of registration is the strongest predictor, whereas in the case of Internal Employability, a questionnaire measurement (of Social Motivation comes out on top. Practical implications/managerial implications: The social motivation factor as a predictor of perceived internal employability suggests that the more students valued the social interactions brought about by their volunteering activities, the better they saw themselves equipped for employment. This gives some weight to the argument that engaging in volunteer activities can help equip students with competencies that make them more prepared for the world of work. Contribution/value-add: The study provided support for the construct validity of the scale for the measurement of perceived employability and evidence that different sets of predictors contribute to perceived internal and external employability.
Kretschmer, Tina; Veenstra, René; Deković, Maja; Oldehinkel, Albertine J
In contrast to victimization, prior research on the antecedents and outcomes of bullying perpetration has provided little conclusive knowledge. Some adolescent bullies may be well adjusted and popular among peers, while other bullies are rejected and lack self-control. There is also great variation in the outcomes, with a number of studies (but not all) showing increased risk for externalizing and internalizing problems. We used a developmental framework and data from 2,230 participants of the Dutch Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) to examine bullying perpetration across adolescence, to test the links with various antecedents in preadolescence, and to elucidate the outcomes in early adulthood. Latent growth models indicated significant variance in initial bullying perpetration levels and an overall decrease between pre- and late adolescence. Individual, family, and peer factors were associated with initial levels and partially associated with bullying development over time. Bullying perpetration was linked to later maladjustment and substance use, although only in girls. Finally, bullying perpetration appears to function as an intermediate variable between preadolescent individual, family, and peer risk and substance use more than 10 years later. These results have important implications for understanding the gender-specific nature of bullying perpetration and its outcomes and for demonstrating that bullying carries early risk into adulthood.
Carretero Domínguez, Noelia; Gil-Monte, Pedro Rafael; Luciano Devis, Juan Vicente
Most studies focusing on the antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying have used a cross-sectional design, which impedes determining the causality of the relationships. In the present work, we analyzed, by means of structural equation models, the relationship between workplace bullying and some variables that are considered antecedents (interpersonal conflicts, role ambiguity, role conflict, and workplace social support) or consequences (health complaints and inclination to absenteeism from work) of this phenomenon. Multicenter study with two phases. The sample consisted of 696 employees from 66 centers. Workplace bullying was assessed by means of the "Mobbing-UNIPSICO" questionnaire, and the other variables with frequency scales. The cross-sectional models indicated a significant association between role conflict, workplace social support, and workplace bullying in both study periods. Concerning the longitudinal relationships, only workplace social support was a significant predictor of workplace bullying, which, in turn, was a cross-sectional and longitudinal predictor of workers' health complaints. Our results show the mediating effect of workplace bullying between certain work conditions and health complaints, and it is recommendable to replicate these findings in a multi-occupational sample.
Full Text Available Objective: The study goal was the investigation of relationships between accelerated internationalisation descriptors and antecedent firm- and entrepreneur-related factors in Polish and Czech SMEs. Research Design & Methods: In order to compare Polish and Czech companies, the data collected in two independent studies were used. The study of 233 Polish companies was conducted with the use of CATI method in 2014; 108 Czech companies were surveyed in 2013/2014 with the use of CAWI method. In both samples half of the surveyed SME-exporters were conforming to the accelerated internationalisation criteria. Findings: In both samples the “global vision” elements and company internationalisation scale and speed were interrelated. In the Polish companies this relationship was moderated by company size. There was the lack of strong positive relationships between innovativeness and internationalisation speed and scale in both samples. Implications & Recommendations:The managerial mindset has a decisive role for accelerated internationalisation in both Czech and Polish SMEs. The innovativeness of offering is not indispensable for fast foreign expansion. Larger companies may expand abroad faster if they have internationally oriented managers. Contribution & Value Added:This work addresses a research gap concerning idiosyncrasies of internationalisation antecedents in Polish and Czech enterprises. As the results show, there is no common internationalisation pattern for Polish and Czech SMEs.
Beck, Ariane L; Lakkaraju, Kiran; Rai, Varun
The wealth of information available on seemingly every topic creates a considerable challenge both for information providers trying to rise above the noise and discerning individuals trying to find relevant, trustworthy information. We approach this information problem by investigating how passive versus interactive information interventions can impact the antecedents of behavior change using the context of solar energy adoption, where persistent information gaps are known to reduce market potential. We use two experiments to investigate the impact of both passive and interactive approaches to information delivery on the antecedents (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control in the Theory of Planned Behavior) of intentions and behavior, as well as their effect on intentions and behavior directly. The passive information randomized control trial delivered via Amazon Mechanical Turk tests the effectiveness of delivering the same content in a single message versus multiple shorter messages. The interactive information delivery uses an online (mobile and PC) trivia-style gamification platform. Both experiments use the same content and are carried out over a two-week time period. Our findings suggest that interactive, gamified information has greater impact than passive information, and that shorter multiple messages of passive information are more effective than a single passive message.
Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Eisuke
Since Keefer published the paper on earthquake magnitude and affected area, maximum epicentral/fault distance of induced landslide distribution in 1984, showing the envelope of plots, a lot of studies on this topic have been conducted. It has been generally supposed that landslides have been triggered by shallow quakes and more landslides are likely to occur with heavy rainfalls immediately before the quake. In order to confirm this, we have collected 22 case records of earthquake-induced landslide distribution in Japan and examined the effect of hypocenter depth and antecedent precipitation. Earthquake magnitude by JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) of the cases are from 4.5 to 9.0. Analysis on hycpocenter depth showed the deeper quake cause wider distribution. Antecedent precipitation was evaluated using the Soil Water Index (SWI), which was developed by JMA for issuing landslide alert. We could not find meaningful correlation between SWI and the earthquake-induced landslide distribution. Additionally, we found that smaller minimum size of collected landslides results in wider distribution especially between 1,000 to 100,000 m2.
Wunderli, Michael D; Vonmoos, Matthias; Fürst, Marina; Schädelin, Katrin; Kraemer, Thomas; Baumgartner, Markus R; Seifritz, Erich; Quednow, Boris B
Chronic use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") has repeatedly been associated with deficits in working memory, declarative memory, and executive functions. However, previous findings regarding working memory and executive function are inconclusive yet, as in most studies concomitant stimulant use, which is known to affect these functions, was not adequately controlled for. Therefore, we compared the cognitive performance of 26 stimulant-free and largely pure (primary) MDMA users, 25 stimulant-using polydrug MDMA users, and 56 MDMA/stimulant-naïve controls by applying a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Neuropsychological tests were grouped into four cognitive domains. Recent drug use was objectively quantified by 6-month hair analyses on 17 substances and metabolites. Considerably lower mean hair concentrations of stimulants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylphenidate, cocaine), opioids (morphine, methadone, codeine), and hallucinogens (ketamine, 2C-B) were detected in primary compared to polydrug users, while both user groups did not differ in their MDMA hair concentration. Cohen's d effect sizes for both comparisons, i.e., primary MDMA users vs. controls and polydrug MDMA users vs. controls, were highest for declarative memory (d primary =.90, d polydrug =1.21), followed by working memory (d primary =.52, d polydrug =.96), executive functions (d primary =.46, d polydrug =.86), and attention (d primary =.23, d polydrug =.70). Thus, primary MDMA users showed strong and relatively discrete declarative memory impairments, whereas MDMA polydrug users displayed broad and unspecific cognitive impairments. Consequently, even largely pure chronic MDMA use is associated with decreased performance in declarative memory, while additional deficits in working memory and executive functions displayed by polydrug MDMA users are likely driven by stimulant co-use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly
The aim of this study was to analyse the content, design, and readability of printed hearing aid user guides to determine their suitability for older adults, who are the main users of hearing aids. Hearing aid user guides were assessed using four readability formulae and a standardized tool to assess content and design (SAM - Suitability Assessment of Materials). A sample of 36 hearing aid user guides (four user guides from nine different hearing aid manufacturers) were analysed. Sixty nine percent of user guides were rated 'not suitable' and 31% were rated 'adequate' for their suitability. Many scored poorly for scope, vocabulary, aspects of layout and typography, and learning stimulation and motivation. The mean reading grade level for all user guides was grade 9.6 which is too high for older adults. The content, design, and readability of hearing aid user guides are not optimal for older adults and thus may serve as a barrier to successful hearing aid outcomes for this population.
Shin, Dong-Hee; Kim, Won-Yong; Kim, Won-Young
This study explores attitudinal and behavioral patterns when using Cyworld by adopting an expanded Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A model for Cyworld acceptance is used to examine how various factors modified from the TAM influence acceptance and its antecedents. This model is examined through an empirical study involving Cyworld users using structural equation modeling techniques. The model shows reasonably good measurement properties and the constructs are validated. The results not only confirm the model but also reveal general factors applicable to Web2.0. A set of constructs in the model can be the Web2.0-specific factors, playing as enhancing factor to attitudes and intention.
Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille
User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude.......User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude....
Turcotte, Melissa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Juston Shane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
User Behaviour Analytics is the tracking, collecting and assessing of user data and activities. The goal is to detect misuse of user credentials by developing models for the normal behaviour of user credentials within a computer network and detect outliers with respect to their baseline.
Irena P. Ilieva
Full Text Available Psychostimulants like Adderall and Ritalin are widely used for cognitive enhancement by people without ADHD, although the empirical literature has shown little conclusive evidence for effectiveness in this population. This paper explores one potential explanation of this discrepancy: the possibility that the benefit from enhancement stimulants is at least in part motivational, rather than purely cognitive. We review relevant laboratory, survey and interview research and present the results of a new survey of enhancement users with the goal of comparing perceived cognitive and motivational effects. These users perceived stimulant effects on motivationally-related factors, especially energy and motivation, and reported motivational effects to be at least as pronounced as cognitive effects, including effects on "attention."
Failure to detect variant (CRM+) plasma thromboplastin antecedent (factor XI) molecules in hereditary plasma thromboplastin antecedent deficiency: a study of 125 patients of several ethnic backgrounds.
Saito, H; Ratnoff, O D; Bouma, B N; Seligsohn, U
Plasma samples of 125 patients from 80 kindreds with hereditary plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, factor XI) deficiency were tested by factor XI radioimmunoassay (RIA) and electroimmunoassay (EIA) in an attempt to detect variant molecules. Ninety-six patients (70 kindreds) were Jewish, and 29 (10 kindreds) were of other ethnic backgrounds, namely, Japanese, black American, Korean, Arab, Indian, and English. Seventy-eight patients were homozygotes, and 47 were heterozygotes. Both non-Jewish homozygotes and heterozygotes had lower factor XI activity than respective Jewish subjects. Twenty-eight homozygotes whose factor XI clotting activities (XI:C) were 1.5% to 13% had factor XI-related antigen (XI:RAG) levels less than 10% by EIA. In 72 homozygotes, including 22 patients who were also tested with EIA, XI:C was 2.9% +/- 3.0% (mean +/- SD) and XI:RAG tested by RIA, 2.9% +/- 3.0%. In 47 heterozygotes, XI:C and XI:RAG tested by RIA were 51.9% +/- 16.6% and 51.0% +/- 16.2%, respectively. Similar results were obtained when only unrelated patients (62 homozygotes and 27 heterozygotes) were analyzed. There was a highly significant correlation between XI:C and XI:RAG (RIA) in 38 homozygotes and 47 heterozygotes (r = 0.94, n = 85, P less than 0.001). Thus, we failed to identify functionally abnormal factor XI molecules (CRM+ variant) in these patients with hereditary factor XI deficiency.
In this position paper we suggest that a user will most often choose the solution (device) that will fulfill her (information) needs with the least effort. We call this “lazy user behavior”. We suggest that the principle components responsible for solution selection are the user need and the user state. User need is the user’s detailed (information) need (urgency, type, depth, etc.) and user state is the situation, in which the user is at the moment of the need (location, time, etc.); the use...
Eegunranti, B A; Fatoye, F O; Morakinyo, O
The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and pattern of stimulant use and its association with 'brain fag syndrome' among secondary school students in Osogbo, Osun State. The study also aimed to determine the association of socio-demographic variables (of the students and their parents) with stimulant use. A questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic variables, the stimulant use section of the WHO Student Drug Use Questionnaire and the Brain Fag Syndrome Scale (BFSS) was administered on randomly selected students of the two Local Government Areas of Osogbo. The prevalence rates of stimulant use were calculated and the association of stimulant use with Brain Fag Syndrome (BFS) and socio-demographic variables was determined. The 30-day prevalence rate of stimulant use was 20.3%. Users engaged more in the use of common and cheap stimulants (coffee and kola nut). Majority of users started at age 13 years or below. There was a very high relationship between stimulant use and the symptoms of the BFS (pfather and the description of mother as being too permissive. The findings suggest the need to increase the awareness of the dangers of stimulant use among students. Control programmes are urgently needed to prevent student wastage.
Brown, Christopher A
Bilateral cochlear implant (BCI) users receive limited binaural cues and, thus, show little improvement to speech intelligibility from spatial cues. The feasibility of a method for enhancing the binaural cues available to BCI users is investigated. This involved extending interaural differences of levels, which typically are restricted to high frequencies, into the low-frequency region. Speech intelligibility was measured in BCI users listening over headphones and with direct stimulation, with a target talker presented to one side of the head in the presence of a masker talker on the other side. Spatial separation was achieved by applying either naturally occurring binaural cues or enhanced cues. In this listening configuration, BCI patients showed greater speech intelligibility with the enhanced binaural cues than with naturally occurring binaural cues. In some situations, it is possible for BCI users to achieve greater speech intelligibility when binaural cues are enhanced by applying interaural differences of levels in the low-frequency region.
Full Text Available Electronic Customer relationship management performance E-CRM is a comprehensive business and marketing strategy that integrates people, process, technology and all business activities for attracting and retaining customers over the internet and mobile phone to reduce costs and increase profitability by consolidation the principles of customer loyalty. Therefore, the results of E-CRM performance are repeat purchase, word of mouth, retention, cross buying, brand loyalty and customer satisfaction. The keen competitive in the communication and mobile phone service market place and the increasing numbers of mobile phone users all over the world has influence the researchers to investigate ease of use, usability, enjoyment and e- service quality as antecedents of electronic customer relationship management performance in mobile phone services industry. 488 questionnaires have returned and analyzed. Four factors been tested to investigate the relationship with E-CRM performance. The analysis shown that e- service quality, ease of use and usability was positively significant towards E-CRM performance. Enjoyment has failed to predict E-CRM performance. This paper makes a theoretical and methodological contribution and suggestion for the managers in improving their E-CRM performance in mobile phone service industry. Key words: E-customer relationship management performance, Mobile Phone Services, e- service quality, ease of use, enjoyment and usability.Key words: relationship management, CRM
Bischiniotis, Konstantinos; van den Hurk, Bart; Coughlan de Perez, Erin; Jongman, Brenden; Veldkamp, Ted; Aerts, Jeroen
Traditionally, flood risk management has focused on long-term flood protection measures. However, many countries are often not able to afford hard infrastructure that provides sufficient safety levels due to the high investment costs. As a consequence, they rely more on post disaster response and timely warning systems. Most early warning systems have predominantly focused on precipitation as the main predictive factor, having usually lead times of hours or days. However, other variables could also play a role. For instance, anomalous positive water storage, soil saturation and evapotranspiration are physical factors that may influence the length of the flood build-up period. This period can vary from some days to several months before the event and it is particularly important in flood risk management since longer flood warning lead times during this period could result in better flood preparation actions. This study addresses how the antecedent conditions of historical reported flood events over the period 1980 to 2010 in sub-Saharan Africa relate to flood generation. The seasonal-scale conditions are reflected in the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which is calculated using monthly precipitation and temperature data and accounts for the wetness/dryness of an area. Antecedent conditions are separated into a) a short term 'weather-scale' period (0-7 days) and b) a 'seasonal-scale' period (up to 6 months) before the flood event in such a way that they do not overlap. Total 7-day precipitation, which is based on daily meteorological data, was used to evaluate the short-term weather-scale conditions. Using a pair of coordinates, derived from the NatCatSERVICE database on global flood losses, each flood event is positioned on a 0.5°x 0.5° grid cell. The antecedent SPEI conditions of the two periods and their joint influence in flood generation are compared to the same period conditions of the other years of the dataset. First results
Millar, Samantha L; Chambers, Mary; Giles, Melanie
The concept of service user involvement is an evolving concept in the mental health-care literature. This study sought to explore and analyse the concept of service user involvement as used in within the field of mental health care. An evolutionary concept analysis was conducted using a literature-based sample extracted from an electronic database search. One hundred and thirty-four papers met the inclusion criteria and were analysed to discover key attributes, antecedents and consequences of service user involvement and to produce a definition of the concept. Five key attributes of service user involvement within the context of mental health care were identified: a person-centred approach, informed decision making, advocacy, obtaining service user views and feedback and working in partnership. Clarity of the attributes and definition of the concept of service user involvement aims to promote understanding of the concept among key stakeholders including mental health professionals, service users and community and voluntary organizations. The findings of the research have utility in the areas of theory and policy development, research on service user involvement in mental health care and service user involvement in mental health practice. Directions for further research regarding the concept are identified. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
von Schulz, Jonna H.; Dufrene, Brad A.; LaBrot, Zachary C.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe; Radley, Keith; Mitchell, Rachel; Maldonado, Aimee
Although there is substantial functional behavioral assessment (FBA) literature suggesting that function-based interventions are effective for improving problem behavior, only a limited number of studies have examined the effectiveness of function-based antecedent versus consequent interventions. Additionally, although there has been a recent…
Designers are increasingly playing a strategic role in innovation projects. They can do this, amongst others, by more effectively collaborating with the managers of these projects. This thesis investigates the antecedents and consequences of effective collaboration between designers and managers in
Stevens, Daphne Pedersen; Minnotte, Krista Lynn; Mannon, Susan E.; Kiger, Gary
This study extends previous research by Dilworth by examining antecedents of both positive and negative family-to-work spillover--a long-neglected area of research. It also uses an extended definition of domestic labor that includes emotion work and status enhancement. Using data from a random sample of dual-earner couples, the study found gender…
Ibrahim, Mikail; Baharun, Hazleena; Harun, Haliza; Othman, Normah
Purpose: This study examined the interrelationships between a set of antecedent academic intrinsic motivations and metacognitive strategy such as goal orientation, perceived value and religiosity in Fundamental Knowledge for Matriculation courses (FKM). It also investigated the relationship between intrinsic motivation and metacognitive strategy…
Crosland, Kimberly A.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schroeder, Stephen; Zarcane, Troy; Fowler, Stephen
Stereotyped movements displayed by 6 participants and tics displayed by 6 children were evaluated using an antecedent behavioral analysis and a force sensitive platform. We found that tics occurred more often in an alone condition when compared to high preference toy and play conditions, whereas stereotyped movements were more variable across…
Walailak Rattanawong; Nuttida Suwanno
The objectives of this study was to investigate the relationships between the antecedents affecting service innovation, namely, entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, service co-production, information technology adoption, human resource practice, and their relationships with service innovation affecting consequences, which was service performance taking into consideration business environments in selecting strategic factors leading to organizational competitive potential developmen...
Eby, Lillian Turner de Tormes; Allen, Tammy D.; Hoffman, Brian J.; Baranik, Lisa E.; Sauer, Julia B.; Baldwin, Sean; Morrison, M. Ashley; Kinkade, Katie M.; Maher, Charleen P.; Curtis, Sara; Evans, Sarah C.
This meta-analysis summarized youth, academic, and workplace research on the potential antecedents (demographics, human capital, and relationship attributes), correlates (interaction frequency, relationship length, performance, motivation, and social capital), and consequences (attitudinal, behavioral, career-related, and health-related outcomes)…
Raza, Hendra; Maksum, Azhar; Erlina; Lumban Raja, Prihatin
Azhar Maksum This study aims to examine empirically the antecedents of individual performance on its consequences of turnover intention in public accounting firms. There are eight variables measured which consists of auditors' empowerment, innovation professionalism, role ambiguity, role conflict, organizational commitment, individual performance and turnover intention. Data analysis is based on 163 public accountant using the Structural Equation Modeling assisted with an appli...
Mengel, S.; Wouters, M.
This study motivates and tests hypotheses about the antecedents of the use of financial planning and control systems in very small and young start-up firms, and, in turn, the effect of this on firm performance. This setting is of particular interest since theory on financial planning and control in
Beldad, Ardion Daroca; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Steehouder, M.F.
Trust is generally assumed to be an important precondition for people’s adoption of electronic services. This paper provides an overview of the available research into the antecedents of trust in both commercial and non-commercial online transactions and services. A literature review was conducted
Poll, L.H.D.; Waterham, R.P.
From February 1992 until the end of 1993, the authors ((IPO) Institute for Perception Research) participated in a European ((TIDE) Technology Initiative for Disabled and Elderly) project which addressed the problem arising for visually disabled computer-users from the growing use of Graphical User
Hurtz, Gregory M; Williams, Kevin J
This study investigated factors influencing ongoing participation in employee development activities. A multiple-indicator structural equation model building on the theory of planned behavior and prior employee development literature was tested with a survey across 4 organizations on 2 occasions. The model uses reactions to past participation and past supportiveness of the social and organizational environment as indirect antecedents of participation, filtered through their impact on attitudes and behavioral intentions toward future participation. Learning goal orientation also influenced attitudes toward participation. Whereas personal control over participation and higher levels of voluntariness were negatively related to participation, intentions to participate and availability of opportunities arose as strong predictors of higher participation rates. Many significant hypothesized paths were found, and 85% of the variance in participation was explained by the model variables. Increasing employee awareness of opportunities and managing positive attitudes toward those opportunities are recommended as key factors for increasing participation rates. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Catania, A Charles
Skinner's Science and Human Behavior marked a transition from a treatment of behavior that took physics as its reference science to one that emphasized behavior as a fundamental part of the subject matter of biology. The book includes what may be Skinner's earliest statement about the similarity of operant selection to Darwinian natural selection in phylogeny. Other major topics discussed in the book included multiple causation, private events, the self, and social contingencies. Among the important antecedents were Skinner's own Behavior of Organisms and Keller & Schoenfeld's Pincinples of Psychology. Current developments in education, behavioral economics, and some behavior therapies can be attributed at least in part to Skinner's seminal work. The effective behavioral analysis of governmental and religious systems will probably depend on elaborations of our understanding of verbal behavior.
Fashion retail is recognised for its strong capabilities in product innovation, while also having the potential to improve the governance of technology-based process innovation. This chapter proposes a model perspective in management of technology and innovation, including special requirements...... of fashion retailing. In particular, this chapter discusses the context of fashion retailing understood as product and brand-based characteristics. A case study-based methodology is then used to guide an analysis of antecedents and (expected) outcome of fashion retail innovation. IT-based innovation...... dominates, but innovation is suggested to include a broader scope of technologies. Contrary to innovation maturity models, this chapter proposes to consider innovation as a continuous refinement between dynamic capabilities and absorptive capacity where technologies must be adapted to the special...
Heidenreich, Stefan; Puck, Jonas F.; Nell, Phillip C.
their internal as well as their external environment. Our hypotheses are tested using three-stage least squares with detailed data from 156 subsidiaries in emerging markets. Results contribute to theory by differentiating effects from internal vs. external isomorphic pressures on political strategies. We also......This paper analyzes antecedents and performance consequences of political strategies deployed by MNC subsidiaries in emerging markets. Following institutional theory reasoning, we point towards institutional duality subsidiaries are confronted with, entailing isomorphic pressures stemming from...... deliver a deeper level of understanding of the latter relationship by differentiating the general concept of external isomorphic pressures into pressures from national public and national private stakeholders. Finally, we find significant support for a positive effect of political strategies on subsidiary...
Fernández-Muñiz, Beatriz; Montes-Peón, José Manuel; Vázquez-Ordás, Camilo José
The occupational health and safety standard OHSAS 18001 has gained considerable acceptance worldwide, and firms from diverse sectors and of varying sizes have implemented it. Despite this, very few studies have analysed safety management or the safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organisations. The current work aims to analyse the safety climate in these organisations, identify its dimensions, and propose and test a structural equation model that will help determine the antecedents and consequences of employees' safety behaviour. For this purpose, the authors carry out an empirical study using a sample of 131 OHSAS 18001-certified organisations located in Spain. The results show that management's commitment, and particularly communication, have an effect on safety behaviour and on safety performance, employee satisfaction, and firm competitiveness. These findings are particularly important for management since they provide evidence about the factors that should be encouraged to reduce risks and improve performance in this type of organisation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper explores how small and medium enterprises (SMEs operating in Northern Italy and Slovenia used their innovative potential to expan business across the border while their home markets suffered from the great recession that started in 2007. The background of the study is an analysis of the antecedents to export performance and internationlization, which specifically asked whether innovating incrementally or innovating radically contributes to export performance in foreign markets and how this ultimately interacts with strategic considerations and the propensity to take risks. The findings of the study showed that export performance is positively influenced by incremental innovation and risk preference and that there is a relationship between innovation and export performance. These findings contribute to the question whether classical internationalization theories such as the Uppsala Internationalization Model and the Innovation-related Model, can be applied in contingency situations of economic crisis.
Michael A. Gyensare
Full Text Available Guided by the theory of reasoned action, this study found support for the hypothesized inverse relationship between work-related factors and employee turnover intention on the one hand, and turnover intention and perceptions of accountable absence legitimacy on the other hand. Specifically, the higher employees’ turnover intent, the lower their perceptions about the accountability of their absence behavior and vice versa. The findings highlight the need to consider turnover intention as a salient construct that plays a dual role, first as a consequence variable to job satisfaction, affective and normative commitments, and next as an antecedent to accountable absence legitimacy in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion on the significance of lessening employee turnover intent as a means of mitigating the perceptions of absence legitimacy in the workplace.
Rebeca Formiga Figueira
Full Text Available Studies in the field of marketing and society that address consumer debt are relevant for helping the consumer to preserve his/her financial health. This manuscript analyzed the antecedents of consumer debt by means of attitude towards money, attitude towards credit card, self-control, compulsive buyings, impulsive buyings, and debt propensity. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and structural equations modeling. The sample consisted of 301 respondents that provided their perceptions through a Google Docs online form. The direct influence of the attitude towards credit card on debt propensity was accepted. Some hypotheses were not confirmed, which can be explained by the specific characteristics of Brazilian consumers. Findings suggest that marketing should pay attention to the actual practices and the legislation about credit card use.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide an integrative review of the literature on work-family conflict (WFC in nursing, assessing the antecedents and consequences of nurses’ productivity, physical and psychological health, and well-being. We searched electronic databases, focusing on articles published in English and Italian during the period of 2005 to 2017. From the 1,180 studies found, we selected 28 papers for this integrative review. The findings, expressed as narrative synthesis, show that WFC is a stressor in nursing and most analyzed risk factors centered on the workplace. Some shortcomings of our review include methodological aspects and depth, although our synthesis of the 28 studies provides an evidence base for further insights into WFC in nursing.
Sermanet, L.; Goethals, F.; Carugati, Andrea
the classic Information Systems success model of DeLone and McLean to IS success with children. They carried out a survey of a sample of 76 children aged 11 to 14, located in various cities in France. The results show that children get higher brand awareness if they are more satisfied with the kids website...... of the brand. The chapter finds the satisfaction with the site depends upon the personalization that is possible and the presence of dynamic elements on the site. Characters and animations that help navigatin the site are also appreciated. A good presentation of the site’s rules could not be shown...... to be a significant antecedent of satisfaction. Qualitative data that was gathered suggests that children are not really aware of the link between symbols they see on the site and products that are sold....
De Clercq, Barbara; De Fruyt, Filip
The present contribution reviews evidence that supports the relevance of childhood antecedents of personality disorders, and advocates that the validity of a Five-Factor Model framework for describing general trait differences in childhood can be extended towards the field of developmental personality difficulties. In addition, we suggest that several traditional childhood Axis I conditions include a substantial trait component that may be responsible for the recurring finding that childhood Axis I disorders are predictive for adult Axis II disorders. Given the valuable information provided by a trait assessment, we further propose to integrate dimensional personality and personality pathology measures as standard tools in mental health assessments at a young age. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Twenty Italian six-year-olds and 20 eight-year-olds were asked to interpret eight ambiguous and eight clear definite descriptions. All ambiguous descriptions could refer to three drawings, one of which had been described by the subjects immediately before the comprehension task. In half of the trials with ambiguous messages the children's interlocutor was present while the children were describing the drawings; in the other half he was absent. In both conditions subjects showed a preference for the referents they had already described, indicating that they applied egocentrically a comprehension strategy based on the Maxim of Antecedent (Jackson & Jacobs, 1982). Children's failures to differentiate their responses in the two conditions are considered to be due to difficulties in taking account of the given-new distinction for relevant information.
Fisher, David M; Bell, Suzanne T; Dierdorff, Erich C; Belohlav, James A
Team mental models (TMMs) have received much attention as important drivers of effective team processes and performance. Less is known about the factors that give rise to these shared cognitive structures. We examined potential antecedents of TMMs, with a specific focus on team composition variables, including various facets of personality and surface-level diversity. Further, we examined implicit coordination as an important outcome of TMMs. Results suggest that team composition in terms of the cooperation facet of agreeableness and racial diversity were significantly related to team-focused TMM similarity. TMM similarity was also positively predictive of implicit coordination, which mediated the relationship between TMM similarity and team performance. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant interaction between the trust facet of agreeableness and racial diversity in predicting TMM similarity. Results are discussed in terms of facilitating the emergence of TMMs and corresponding implications for team-related human resource practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Heidenreich, Stefan; Puck, Jonas F.; Nell, Phillip C.
This paper analyzes antecedents of political activities deployed by MNC subsidiaries in emerging markets and subsequently examines their effect on subsidiary performance. Following institutional theory reasoning, we point towards institutional duality subsidiaries are confronted with, entailing...... isomorphic pressures stemming from their internal as well as their external environment. Our hypotheses are tested using a three-stage least squares method with data from 156 subsidiaries in emerging markets. Results contribute to theory by providing evidence on the effects stemming from internal vs....... external isomorphic pressures on political activities, and delivering a deeper-level understanding of the latter relationship by differentiating the higher-level concept of external isomorphic pressures into pressures from national public and national private stakeholders. Finally, we find significant...
Rutjens, Bastiaan T.; Sutton, Robbie M.; van der Lee, Romy
Many topics that scientists investigate speak to people’s ideological worldviews. We report three studies—including an analysis of large-scale survey data—in which we systematically investigate the ideological antecedents of general faith in science and willingness to support science, as well as of science skepticism of climate change, vaccination, and genetic modification (GM). The main predictors are religiosity and political orientation, morality, and science understanding. Overall, science understanding is associated with vaccine and GM food acceptance, but not climate change acceptance. Importantly, different ideological predictors are related to the acceptance of different scientific findings. Political conservatism best predicts climate change skepticism. Religiosity, alongside moral purity concerns, best predicts vaccination skepticism. GM food skepticism is not fueled by religious or political ideology. Finally, religious conservatives consistently display a low faith in science and an unwillingness to support science. Thus, science acceptance and rejection have different ideological roots, depending on the topic of investigation. PMID:29191107
Aryee, Samuel; Chen, Zhen Xiong; Sun, Li-Yun; Debrah, Yaw A
The authors examined antecedents of abusive supervision and the relative importance of interactional and procedural justice as mediators of the relationship between abusive supervision and the work outcomes of affective organizational commitment and individual- and organization-directed citizenship behaviors. Data were obtained from subordinate-supervisor dyads from a telecommunication company located in southeastern China. Results of moderated regression analysis revealed that authoritarian leadership style moderated the relationship between supervisors' perceptions of interactional justice and abusive supervision such that the relationship was stronger for supervisors high rather than low in authoritarian leadership style. In addition, results of structural equation modeling analysis revealed that subordinates' perceptions of interactional but not procedural justice fully mediated the relationship between abusive supervision and the work outcomes. Implications for future investigations of abusive supervision are discussed. 2007 APA, all rights reserved
Fraley, R Chris; Griffin, Brian N; Belsky, Jay; Roisman, Glenn I
The study reported here examined the developmental antecedents of conservative versus liberal ideologies using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and a follow-up study conducted when the sample was 18 years old. Specifically, we examined variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies at age 18 years as a function of parenting attitudes and child temperament during the first 5 years of life. Consistent with long-standing theories on the development of political attitudes, our results showed that parents' authoritarian attitudes assessed when children were 1 month old predicted conservative attitudes in those children more than 17 years later. Consistent with the findings of Block and Block (2006), our results also showed that early childhood temperament predicted variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies.
firms’ decision to engage in university-industry collaboration. This paper contribute to the antecedents of U-I collaboration by investigating whether a scientific oriented knowledge base is an important factor for explaining the intensity of collaborations. In line with the theory, we expect...... of citations, on the intensity of university industry collaboration, in terms of share of university collaborators. We control for program fixed effect and previous co-patenting with university. We expect a positive relationship between scientific orientation and intensity of collaboration with universities.......University-industry collaboration has attracted in the last decades an increasing attention both from scholars and public policy. An increasing number of national and European programs has been designed to increase public-private collaboration. The extensive literature on University Industry...
Heidenreich, Stefan; Puck, Jonas F.; Nell, Phillip C.
deliver a deeper level of understanding of the latter relationship by differentiating the general concept of external isomorphic pressures into pressures from national public and national private stakeholders. Finally, we find significant support for a positive effect of political strategies on subsidiary......This paper analyzes antecedents and performance consequences of political strategies deployed by MNC subsidiaries in emerging markets. Following institutional theory reasoning, we point towards institutional duality subsidiaries are confronted with, entailing isomorphic pressures stemming from...... their internal as well as their external environment. Our hypotheses are tested using three-stage least squares with detailed data from 156 subsidiaries in emerging markets. Results contribute to theory by differentiating effects from internal vs. external isomorphic pressures on political strategies. We also...
Saito, H.; Goldsmith, G.H. Jr.
A specific, sensitive, and reproducible radioimmunoassay for human plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, factor XI) has been developed with purified PTA and monospecific rabbit antiserum. Precise measurements of PTA antigen were possible for concentrations as low as 0.3% of that in normal pooled plasma. Normal plasma contained approximately 6 μg PTA/ml. A good correlation (correlation coefficient 0.68) existed between the PTA procoagulant assays and radioimmunoassays among 50 normal adults (25 males and 25 females). PTA antigen was markedly reduced in plasma of 13 patients with congenital homozygous PTA deficiency (range <0.003-0.128 U/ml) and 9 patients with hepatic cirrhosis (0.35 +- 0.17 U/ml), but was normal in those of 9 patients under treatment with warfarin, 8 patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation and 16 patients with other congenital clotting factor abnormalities, including prekallikrein deficiency (Fletcher trait) and high molecular weight kininogen deficiency
Huh, Jisu; Delorme, Denise E; Reid, Leonard N
Given the importance of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the health care marketplace and lack of systematic research on OTC drug advertising (OTCA) effects, this study tested a theory-based, product category-specific OTCA effects model. Structural equation modeling analysis of data for 1 OTC drug category, analgesics, supported the proposed model, explaining the OTCA effect process from key consumer antecedents to ad involvement, from ad involvement to ad attention, from ad attention to cognitive responses, then to affective/evaluative responses, leading to the final behavioral outcome. Several noteworthy patterns also emerged: (a) Product involvement was directly linked to ad attention, rather than exerting an indirect influence through ad involvement; (b) ad attention was significantly related to both cognitive and affective/evaluative responses to different degrees, with stronger links to cognitive responses; and (c) ad-prompted actions were influenced by both ad trust and ad attitude.
This study investigates the factors predicting positive self-disclosure on social networking sites (SNSs). There is a formidable body of empirical research relating to online self-disclosure, but very few studies have assessed the antecedents of positive self-disclosure. To address this literature gap, the current study tests the effects of self-esteem, life satisfaction, social anxiety, privacy concerns, public self-consciousness (SC), and perceived collectivism on positive self-disclosure on SNSs. Data were collected online via Qualtrics in April 2013. Respondents were undergraduate students from the University of Connecticut. Using ordinary least squares regression, the current study found that self-esteem and perceived collectivism increased positive self-disclosure, life satisfaction, and privacy concerns decreased positive self-disclosure, and the effects of social anxiety and public SC were not significant.
Malti, Tina; Buchmann, Marlis
Socialization and individual differences were examined as antecedents of moral motivation in representative samples of 15-year-old adolescents (N = 1,258; 54% female) and 21-year-old young adults (N = 584; 53% female). The adolescents' primary caregivers (N = 1,056) also participated. The strength of moral motivation was rated by participants' responses to two hypothetical moral dilemmas in terms of action decisions, emotion attributions, and justifications. Socialization was measured by the perceived quality of friendship, parent-child relationships, and educational background. The importance attached to social justice and various personality traits were also assessed. Adolescents' moral motivation was positively associated with the quality of their parent-child relationship and the importance of social justice. Young adults' moral motivation was predicted by the perceived quality of friendships, the importance of social justice, and agreeableness. For both groups, moral motivation was greater in females. The theoretical implications of the findings for the development of moral motivation are discussed.
Petrocelli, John V; Whitmire, Melanie B
Previous research demonstrates that attitude certainty influences the degree to which an attitude changes in response to persuasive appeals. In the current research, decoding emotions from facial expressions and incidental processing fluency, during attitude formation, are examined as antecedents of both attitude certainty and attitude change. In Experiment 1, participants who decoded anger or happiness during attitude formation expressed their greater attitude certainty, and showed more resistance to persuasion than participants who decoded sadness. By manipulating the emotion decoded, the diagnosticity of processing fluency experienced during emotion decoding, and the gaze direction of the social targets, Experiment 2 suggests that the link between emotion decoding and attitude certainty results from incidental processing fluency. Experiment 3 demonstrated that fluency in processing irrelevant stimuli influences attitude certainty, which in turn influences resistance to persuasion. Implications for appraisal-based accounts of attitude formation and attitude change are discussed.
Topa, Gabriela; Depolo, Marco; Alcover, Carlos-Maria
Early or voluntary retirement (ER) can be defined as the full exit from an organizational job or career path of long duration, decided by individuals of a certain age at the mid or late career before mandatory retirement age, with the aim of reducing their attachment to work and closing a process of gradual psychological disengagement from working life. Given the swinging movements that characterize employment policies, the potential effects of ER—both for individuals and society—are still controversial. This meta-analysis examined the relationships between ER and its antecedent and subsequent correlates. Our review of the literature was generated with 151 empirical studies, containing a total number of 706,937 participants, with a wide range of sample sizes (from N = 27 to N = 127,384 participants) and 380 independent effect sizes (ESs), which included 171 independent samples. A negligible ES value for antecedent correlates of early retirement (family pull, job stress, job satisfaction, and income) was obtained (which ranged from r = −0.13 to 0.19), while a fair ES was obtained for workplace timing for retirement, organizational pressures, financial security, and poor physical and mental health, (ranging from r = 0.28 to 0.25). Regarding ER subsequent correlates, poor ESs were obtained, ranging from r = 0.08 to 0.18 for the relationships with subsequent correlates, and fair ESs only for social engagement (r = −0.25). Examination of the potential moderator variables has been conducted. Only a reduced percentage of variability of primary studies has been explained by moderators. Although potential moderator factors were examined, there are several unknown or not measurable factors which contribute to ER and about which there are very little data available. The discussion is aimed to offer theoretical and empirical implications suggestion in order to improve employee's well-being. PMID:29354075
Full Text Available In recent years, particular attention has been paid to nursing students’ therapeutic communication (TC with patients, due to a strong emphasis on patient-centered education in the Iranian healthcare reform. However, various studies have highlighted the poor communication of future nurses. Therefore, researchers have used qualitative methodology to shed light on the antecedents and consequences of nursing students’ TC and promote it. We carried out a conventional content analysis using semistructured interviews with a purposefully selected sample of 18 participants, including nursing instructors, students, and patients in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. “Communication readiness,” “predisposing factors,” and “continuity of care” were identified as the three major themes. “Communication readiness” consisted of “physical readiness,” “academic readiness,” and “developmental readiness.” “Predisposing factors” included “contextual factors” and “educational condition.” “Continuity of care” included “patient satisfaction” and “improving nursing student’s motivation to communicate with patients.” “Communication readiness” and “predisposing factors” constitute the antecedents of nursing student’s TC with patients, and “continuity of care” is considered as its consequence. More attention needs to be paid by the regulators to TC instruction in both theoretical and clinical educational curriculum. Furthermore, all nurses must be informed about the importance of TC in promoting patient outcomes and quality of care.
Research purpose: The objective was to determine the relationship between work resources,home resources, work engagement, family engagement and work-family enrichment. The aim was also to test two models representing work-to-family and family-to-work enrichment as mediators. Motivation for the study: By investigating work-family enrichment, as a new research concept,and its antecedents and outcomes, this study will add to the positive side of the work-family interface literature and provide information to organisations.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used in this study with a sample of female workers (N = 420 in South Africa. Polychoric correlations, fit indices, structural equation modelling and testing mediation were used to analyse the data.Omegas and alpha coefficients were employed to determine the reliability. Main findings: A positive relationship between work-family enrichment and its antecedents and outcomes was found. Furthermore, work-family enrichment (W-FE mediated (large effectthe relationship between work resources and work engagement and family-work enrichment mediated (small effect the relationship between home resources and family engagement. Practical/managerial implications: The results provide more insight and understanding to organisations and female workers on the benefits of being involved in both the domain of work life and the domain of family life. Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the limited research undertaken on work family enrichment within the South African context. The present study also contributes to the literature on the use of the newly developed MACE Work-Family Enrichment Instrument.
Golding, Jean; Gregory, Steven; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Nowicki, Stephen
Background : External locus of control orientation (ELOC) is a powerful predictor of adverse consequences in regard to health, educational attainment, inter-personal relationships and well-being. Although many cross-sectional studies have been carried out, relatively little is known about antecedent factors influencing the development of ELOC. Methods : Over 12,000 pregnant women who enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in south-west England, had completed a brief version of the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External LOC scale, together with detailed questions concerning their own parents and childhood. A series of hypothesis-free structured backwards stepwise logistic regression analyses used an exposome approach with ELOC as the outcome. Results : Significant positive associations were found with smoking of the parents of the surveyed women, including prenatal exposure, and their own onset of regular smoking in mid-childhood (6-11 years). Increased odds of ELOC were also found with the absence of their fathers in early childhood, presence of older siblings, and with being born and brought up in the same area as they resided in at the time surveyed. Protective influences in the surveyed women included positive rating of their mother's care, having a relatively educated mother, attending boarding school, their own age (the older they were, the less likely were they to have an external orientation), having a mentally ill parent, a sibling hospitalized or a relative die. Conclusions : There are two conclusions: (i) that not all stressful events contribute to the development of ELOC and it would be essential for models of antecedents of ELOC to take note of this complexity, and (ii) there are consistent (albeit unexpected) findings that highlight associations with cigarette smoke exposure of the woman from fetal life through to when starting to smoke regularly herself in mid-childhood. It is important that these findings
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to fill the existing gap in consumer behavior literature by demonstrating the comprehensive antecedents of consumer misbehavior model. Consequently, this paper contributes to elucidate the salient factors that lead customers to misbehave. Data were collected from a survey of chain stores in Iran, Tehran (Hyperstar, Hyperme, shahrvand(n=384. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were utilized to analyze the data. This study represents associations between past consumer misbehaviors, Personality variables (Machiavellianism, self-esteem, sensation seeking, aggressiveness, Consumer Alienation, Environmental variables (Layout and design, atmospherics, Perceptions of employee service, Exterior environment, Situational variables (Loyalty Intention, Severity of dysfunctional misbehavior, Perceived opportunity, Perceived risk service and motivational variables (financial motivation, Ego gain motivation, Revenge motivation. our empirical results offer support for the forwarded research model and demonstrate that future misbehaviors intention is considerably affected by past misbehaviors. Summary of statement of contribution: The novelty point of this study is to illuminate the antecedent of misbehavior for the first time based on the background of Iranian culture. Furthermore, no study has been observed to explore the association between customers' motives, personality, contextual and environmental factors with past and future intentions. This paper puts forward some suggestion for future research. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA
Najafi, Fereshteh; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Dalvandi, Asghar; Rahgozar, Mehdi
To explore Iranian nurses' perceptions of and experiences with the antecedents and consequences of workplace violence perpetrated by patients, patients' relatives, colleagues and superiors. Workplace violence against nurses is a common problem worldwide, including in Iran. Although many studies have reviewed the antecedents and consequences of workplace violence, limited information is available on this topic. An understanding of the predisposing factors for violence and the consequences of violence is essential to developing programs to prevent and manage workplace violence. Qualitative descriptive design. In this qualitative study, 22 unstructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with registered nurses who had experienced workplace violence and who were selecting using purposive sampling in nine hospitals. Inductive content analysis was used to analyse the data. Five categories emerged as predisposing factors: unmet expectations of patients/relatives, inefficient organisational management, inappropriate professional communication, factors related to nurses and factors related to patients, patients' relatives and colleagues. Individual, familial and professional consequences were identified as outcomes of workplace violence against nurses. Workplace violence by patients/their relatives and colleagues/superiors is affected by various complicated factors at the individual and organisational levels. In addition to negatively affecting nurses' individual and family lives, workplace violence may lead to a lower quality of patient care and negative attitudes towards the nursing profession. Identifying factors, which lead to workplace violence, could help facilitate documenting and reporting such incidents as well as developing the necessary interventions to reduce them. Furthermore, native instruments must be developed to predict and monitor violence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nelson, David B; Lucke, Ashley M; McIntire, Donald D; Sánchez, Pablo J; Leveno, Kenneth J; Chalak, Lina F
Obstetric antecedents were analyzed in births in which the infant received whole-body cooling for neonatal encephalopathy. This retrospective cohort study included all live-born singleton infants delivered at or beyond 36 weeks' gestation from October 2005 through December 2011. Infants who had received whole-body cooling identified by review of a prospective neonatal registry were compared with a control group comprising the remaining obstetric population delivered at greater than 36 weeks but not cooled. Univariable analysis was followed up by a staged, stepwise selection of variables with the intent to rank significant risk factors for cooling. A total of 86,371 women delivered during the study period and 98 infants received whole-body cooling (1.1 per 1000 live births). Of these 98 infants, 80 newborns (88%) had moderate encephalopathy and 10 (12%) had severe encephalopathy prior to cooling. Maternal age of 15 years or younger, low parity, maternal body habitus (body mass index of ≥40 kg/m(2)), diabetes, preeclampsia, induction, epidural analgesia, chorioamnionitis, length of labor, and mode of delivery were associated with significantly increased risk of infant cooling during a univariable analysis. Catastrophic events to include umbilical cord prolapse (odds ratio [OR], 14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3-72), placental abruption (OR, 17; 95% CI, 7-44), uterine rupture (OR, 130; 95% CI, 11-1477) were the strongest factors associated with infant cooling after staged-stepwise logistic analysis. A variety of intrapartum characteristics were associated with infant cooling for neonatal encephalopathy, with the most powerful antecedents being umbilical cord prolapse, placental abruption, and uterine rupture. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Early or voluntary retirement (ER can be defined as the full exit from an organizational job or career path of long duration, decided by individuals of a certain age at the mid or late career before mandatory retirement age, with the aim of reducing their attachment to work and closing a process of gradual psychological disengagement from working life. Given the swinging movements that characterize employment policies, the potential effects of ER—both for individuals and society—are still controversial. This meta-analysis examined the relationships between ER and its antecedent and subsequent correlates. Our review of the literature was generated with 151 empirical studies, containing a total number of 706,937 participants, with a wide range of sample sizes (from N = 27 to N = 127,384 participants and 380 independent effect sizes (ESs, which included 171 independent samples. A negligible ES value for antecedent correlates of early retirement (family pull, job stress, job satisfaction, and income was obtained (which ranged from r = −0.13 to 0.19, while a fair ES was obtained for workplace timing for retirement, organizational pressures, financial security, and poor physical and mental health, (ranging from r = 0.28 to 0.25. Regarding ER subsequent correlates, poor ESs were obtained, ranging from r = 0.08 to 0.18 for the relationships with subsequent correlates, and fair ESs only for social engagement (r = −0.25. Examination of the potential moderator variables has been conducted. Only a reduced percentage of variability of primary studies has been explained by moderators. Although potential moderator factors were examined, there are several unknown or not measurable factors which contribute to ER and about which there are very little data available. The discussion is aimed to offer theoretical and empirical implications suggestion in order to improve employee's well-being.
Walter, H.C.; Adrion, L.; Frosch, R.; Salzmann, M.
In 1981 the ''Green Book'' of SIN was distributed, a User Handbook serving the needs of people already working at SIN as well as informing new users about our installations. An update of the Green Book is necessary because many beams have disappeared, been modified or added, and the installation has been upgraded in intensity and versatility quite considerably. The spectrum of users has shifted away from nuclear and particle physics; applications in medicine, solid state physics and materials science have gained in importance. This Users' Guide is intended to inform our users about the changes, and to interest potential new users in coming to PSI. (author) figs., tabs
Tormos, J M; Catalá, M D; Pascual-Leone, A
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) permits stimulation of the cerebral cortex in humans without requiring open access to the brain and is one of the newest tools available in neuroscience. There are two main types of application: single-pulse TMS and repetitive TMS. The magnetic stimulator is composed of a series of capacitors that store the voltage necessary to generate a stimulus of the sufficient intensity of generate an electric field in the stimulation coil. The safety of TMS is supported by the considerable experience derived from studies involving electrical stimulation of the cortex in animals and humans, and also specific studies on the safety of TMS in humans. In this article we review historical and technical aspects of TMS, describe its adverse effects and how to avoid them, summarize the applications of TMS in the investigation of different cerebral functions, and discuss the possibility of using TMS for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.
Martins, H R; Romao, M; Placido, D; Provenzano, F; Tierra-Criollo, C J
The technological improvement helps many medical areas. The audiometric exams involving the auditory evoked potentials can make better diagnoses of auditory disorders. This paper proposes the development of a stimulator based on Digital Signal Processor. This stimulator is the first step of an auditory evoked potential system based on the ADSP-BF533 EZ KIT LITE (Analog Devices Company - USA). The stimulator can generate arbitrary waveform like Sine Waves, Modulated Amplitude, Pulses, Bursts and Pips. The waveforms are generated through a graphical interface programmed in C++ in which the user can define the parameters of the waveform. Furthermore, the user can set the exam parameters as number of stimuli, time with stimulation (Time ON) and time without stimulus (Time OFF). In future works will be implemented another parts of the system that includes the acquirement of electroencephalogram and signal processing to estimate and analyze the evoked potential
Martins, H R; Romao, M; Placido, D; Provenzano, F; Tierra-Criollo, C J [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica (DEE), Nucleo de Estudos e Pesquisa em Engenharia Biomedica NEPEB, Av. Ant. Carlos, 6627, sala 2206, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31.270-901 (Brazil)
The technological improvement helps many medical areas. The audiometric exams involving the auditory evoked potentials can make better diagnoses of auditory disorders. This paper proposes the development of a stimulator based on Digital Signal Processor. This stimulator is the first step of an auditory evoked potential system based on the ADSP-BF533 EZ KIT LITE (Analog Devices Company - USA). The stimulator can generate arbitrary waveform like Sine Waves, Modulated Amplitude, Pulses, Bursts and Pips. The waveforms are generated through a graphical interface programmed in C++ in which the user can define the parameters of the waveform. Furthermore, the user can set the exam parameters as number of stimuli, time with stimulation (Time ON) and time without stimulus (Time OFF). In future works will be implemented another parts of the system that includes the acquirement of electroencephalogram and signal processing to estimate and analyze the evoked potential.
The user interface (UI) of HYPGEN is developed using Panel Library to shorten the learning curve for new users and provide easier ways to run HYPGEN for casual users as well as for advanced users. Menus, buttons, sliders, and type-in fields are used extensively in UI to allow users to point and click with a mouse to choose various available options or to change values of parameters. On-line help is provided to give users information on using UI without consulting the manual. Default values are set for most parameters and boundary conditions are determined by UI to further reduce the effort needed to run HYPGEN; however, users are free to make any changes and save it in a file for later use. A hook to PLOT3D is built in to allow graphics manipulation. The viewpoint and min/max box for PLOT3D windows are computed by UI and saved in a PLOT3D journal file. For large grids which take a long time to generate on workstations, the grid generator (HYPGEN) can be run on faster computers such as Crays, while UI stays at the workstation.
IDRC Extranet home page, which is an umbrella for a number of applications available to IDRC external users. ... IDRC Connect is not formatted for mobile users. ..... Thesis. • Training Material. • Website. • Working Paper. • Workshop Report.
User interest profile presents items that the users are interested in. Typically those items can be listed or grouped. Listing is good but it does not possess interests at different abstraction levels - the higher-level interests are more general, while the lower-level ones are more specific. Furthermore, more general interests, in some sense, correspond to longer-term interests, while more specific interests correspond to shorter-term interests. This hierarchical user interest profile has obvious advantages: specifying user's specific interests and general interests and representing their relationships. Current user interest profile structures mostly do not use implicit method, nor use an appropriate clustering algorithm especially for conceptually hierarchical structures. This research studies building a hierarchical user interest profile (HUIP) and the hierarchical divisive algorithm (HDC). Several users visit hundreds of web pages and each page is recorded in each users profile. These web pages are used t...
This NPAS Users Guide is primarily intended as a source of information about policies, procedures, and facilities appropriate for users in the program of Nuclear Physics at SLAC (NPAS). General policies and practices are described, the preparation of proposals is discussed, and the services for users is outlined. SLAC experimental facilities are described, and contacts are listed
Ughratdar, Ismail; Samuel, Michael; Ashkan, Keyoumars
Functional and stereotactic neurosurgery has always been regarded as a subspecialty based on and driven by technological advances. However until recently, the fundamentals of deep brain stimulation (DBS) hardware and software design had largely remained stagnant since its inception almost three decades ago. Recent improved understanding of disease processes in movement disorders as well clinician and patient demands has resulted in new avenues of development for DBS technology. This review describes new advances both related to hardware and software for neuromodulation. New electrode designs with segmented contacts now enable sophisticated shaping and sculpting of the field of stimulation, potentially allowing multi-target stimulation and avoidance of side effects. To avoid lengthy programming sessions utilising multiple lead contacts, new user-friendly software allows for computational modelling and individualised directed programming. Therapy delivery is being improved with the next generation of smaller profile, longer-lasting, re-chargeable implantable pulse generators (IPGs). These include IPGs capable of delivering constant current stimulation or personalised closed-loop adaptive stimulation. Post-implantation Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has long been an issue which has been partially overcome with 'MRI conditional devices' and has enabled verification of DBS lead location. Surgical technique is considering a shift from frame-based to frameless stereotaxy or greater role for robot assisted implantation. The challenge for these contemporary techniques however, will be in demonstrating equivalent safety and accuracy to conventional methods. We also discuss potential future direction utilising wireless technology allowing for miniaturisation of hardware.
Brătilă, F; Moldovan, C
Harmonic Medicine is the model using the theory that the body rhythms synchronize to an outer rhythm applied for therapeutic purpose, can restores the energy balance in acupuncture channels and organs and the condition of well-being. The purpose of this scientific work was to demonstrate the role played by harmonic sounds in the stimulation of the Lung (LU) Meridian (Shoutaiyin Feijing) and of the Kidney (KI) Meridian (Zushaoyin Shenjing). It was used an original method that included: measurement and electronic sound stimulation of the Meridian Entry Point, measurement of Meridian Exit Point, computer data processing, bio feed-back adjustment of the music stimulation parameters. After data processing, it was found that the sound stimulation of the Lung Meridian Frequency is optimal between 122 Hz and 128 Hz, with an average of 124 Hz (87% of the subjects) and for Kidney Meridian from 118 Hz to 121 Hz, with an average of 120 Hz (67% of the subjects). The acupuncture stimulation was more intense for female subjects (> 7%) than for the male ones. We preliminarily consider that an informational resonance phenomenon can be developed between the acupuncture music stimulation frequency and the cellular dipole frequency, being a really "resonant frequency signature" of an acupoint. The harmonic generation and the electronic excitation or low-excitation status of an acupuncture point may be considered as a resonance mechanism. By this kind of acupunctural stimulation, a symphony may act and play a healer role.
Young, M.L.; Chanin, D.
This document describes the DOSFAC2 code, which is used for generating dose-to-source conversion factors for the MACCS2 code. DOSFAC2 is a revised and updated version of the DOSFAC code that was distributed with version 1.5.11 of the MACCS code. included are (1) an overview and background of DOSFAC2, (2) a summary of two new functional capabilities, and (3) a user`s guide. 20 refs., 5 tabs.
Andersen, Simon Engedal; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.
and output variables. This feature requires special attention when designing the user interface and a special approach for controlling the user selection of input and output variables are developed. To obtain a consistent system description the different input variables are grouped corresponding......When designing a user interface for a simulation model there are several important issues to consider: Who is the target user group, and which a priori information can be expected. What questions do the users want answers to and what questions are answered using a specific model?When developing...... the user interface of EESCoolTools these issues led to a series of simulation tools each with a specific purpose and a carefully selected set of input and output variables. To allow a more wide range of questions to be answered by the same model, the user can change between different sets of input...
Edens, Ellen L; Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A
Recent research suggests low-demand housing (i.e., not contingent upon abstinence) is effective in helping people exit homelessness, even among recent active substance users. Whether active users of illicit drugs and stimulants have worse housing outcomes than primary alcohol users, however, is unknown. A total of 149 participants in a multisite supportive housing program who reported high levels of active substance use at program entry were classified as either (1) predominantly "Alcohol Use" (>10 of 30 days alcohol, but not >10 days of drug use) or (2) "Illicit Drug Use" (>10 of 30 days any single illicit drug use with or without alcohol use). Sub-analysis of the "Illicit Drug Use" group compared participants reporting high levels of "Stimulant Use" (>10 days cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine use) to those with high levels of "Non-stimulant Use" (>10 days marijuana or other non-stimulant drug use). Group differences in housing outcomes were examined with mixed model multivariate regression. During 24-month follow-up, days housed increased dramatically for both the "Alcohol Use" and the "Illicit Drug Use" groups without significant differences. Sub-analysis of illicit drug users showed stimulant use was associated with fewer days housed (p = .01) and more days homeless (p = .02) over time. Among illicit drug users, stimulant users have somewhat less successful housing outcomes than other active drug and alcohol users, though both groups maintained substantial housing improvements in low-demand housing. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Meyer, M Renée Umstattd; Wu, Cindy; Walsh, Shana M
Time spent sitting has been associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cancer, obesity, and mental health impairments. However, 75% of Americans spend most of their days sitting, with work-sitting accounting for 63% of total daily sitting time. Little research examining theory-based antecedents of standing or sitting has been conducted. This lack of solid groundwork makes it difficult to design effective intervention strategies to decrease sitting behaviors. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as our theoretical lens to better understand factors related with beneficial standing behaviors already being practiced, we examined relationships between TPB constructs and time spent standing at work among "positive deviants" (those successful in behavior change). Experience sampling methodology (ESM), 4 times a day (midmorning, before lunch, afternoon, and before leaving work) for 5 consecutive workdays (Monday to Friday), was used to assess employees' standing time. TPB scales assessing attitude (α = 0.81-0.84), norms (α = 0.83), perceived behavioral control (α = 0.77), and intention (α = 0.78) were developed using recommended methods and collected once on the Friday before the ESM surveys started. ESM data are hierarchically nested, therefore we tested our hypotheses using multilevel structural equation modeling with Mplus. Hourly full-time university employees (n = 50; 70.6% female, 84.3% white, mean age = 44 (SD = 11), 88.2% in full-time staff positions) with sedentary occupation types (time at desk while working ≥6 hours/day) participated. A total of 871 daily surveys were completed. Only perceived behavioral control (β = 0.45, p work-standing at the event-level (model fit: just fit); mediation through intention was not supported. This is the first study to examine theoretical antecedents of real-time work-standing in a naturalistic field setting among positive deviants. These relationships should be further examined, and behavioral intervention
Mamedov, A. I.; Huang, C.; Levy, G. J.
Water infiltration, seal formation, runoff and erosion depend on the soil's inherent properties and surface conditions. Most erosion models consider only soil inherent properties (mainly texture) in assessing infiltration and erosion without consideration of spatial and temporary variation in the surface condition, particularly the antecedent moisture content. We studied the interaction of two different surface conditions, i.e. antecedent moisture content (AMC) and aging (timing after wetting) on infiltration (IR), seal formation (runoff generation) and erosion in four soils varying from loam to clay. Soil samples were packed in erosion box and wetted with different amounts of water (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, or 16 mm) to obtain a wide moisture range (i.e., pF 0-6.2, or from air dry to full saturation). The boxes were put in plastic bags and allowed to age for 0.01, 1, 3, or 7 days. Then the soil in the erosion box exposed to 60 mm of rain. At no aging final IR of soils did not change significantly, but runoff volume (a measure for seal development) and soil loss increased with an increase in AMC mainly because of aggregate breakdown. For any given aging, the highest IR and smallest runoff volume and soil loss were obtained at the intermediate AMC levels (pF 2.4-4.2, between wilting point and field capacity). For instance, in the clay soil to which 3 mm of water (pF~2.7) was added, as aging increased from one to seven days, final IR increased from 5.3 to 7.9 mm h-1, while runoff and soil loss decreased from 34 mm to 22 mm, and from 630 to 360 g m2 respectively. At this AMC range, increasing aging time resulted in up to 40% increase in IR and decrease in runoff or soil loss. This tendency significantly more pronounced for clay soils because water-filled pores in the clay fabric were considered active in the stabilization process and the development of cohesive bonds between and within particles during the aging period. The results of this study are important for soil
M. Renée Umstattd Meyer
Full Text Available Time spent sitting has been associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cancer, obesity, and mental health impairments. However, 75% of Americans spend most of their days sitting, with work-sitting accounting for 63% of total daily sitting time. Little research examining theory-based antecedents of standing or sitting has been conducted. This lack of solid groundwork makes it difficult to design effective intervention strategies to decrease sitting behaviors. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB as our theoretical lens to better understand factors related with beneficial standing behaviors already being practiced, we examined relationships between TPB constructs and time spent standing at work among “positive deviants” (those successful in behavior change. Experience sampling methodology (ESM, 4 times a day (midmorning, before lunch, afternoon, and before leaving work for 5 consecutive workdays (Monday to Friday, was used to assess employees’ standing time. TPB scales assessing attitude (α = 0.81–0.84, norms (α = 0.83, perceived behavioral control (α = 0.77, and intention (α = 0.78 were developed using recommended methods and collected once on the Friday before the ESM surveys started. ESM data are hierarchically nested, therefore we tested our hypotheses using multilevel structural equation modeling with Mplus. Hourly full-time university employees (n = 50; 70.6% female, 84.3% white, mean age = 44 (SD = 11, 88.2%in full-time staff positions with sedentary occupation types (time at desk while working ≥6 hours/day participated. A total of 871 daily surveys were completed. Only perceived behavioral control (β = 0.45, p < 0.05 was related with work-standing at the event-level (model fit: just fit; mediation through intention was not supported. This is the first study to examine theoretical antecedents of real-time work-standing in a naturalistic field setting among positive deviants. These relationships should be further
Holland, Kristin M; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Logan, Joseph E; Leemis, Ruth W
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for youth aged 11 to 15, taking over 5,500 lives from 2003 to 2014. Suicide among this age group is linked to risk factors such as mental health problems, family history of suicidal behavior, biological factors, family problems, and peer victimization and bullying. However, few studies have examined the frequency with which such problems occur among youth suicide decedents or the context in which decedents experience these risk factors and the complex interplay of risk that results in a decedent's decision to take his/her own life. Data from a random sample of 482 youth (ages 11-15) suicide cases captured in the National Violent Death Reporting System from 2003 to 2014 were analyzed. The sample had fewer girls than boys (31 vs. 69 %) and comprised primarily White youth (79 %), but also African Americans (13 %), Asians (4 %), and youth of other races (4 %). Narrative data from coroner/medical examiner and law enforcement investigative reports were coded and analyzed to identify common behavioral patterns that preceded suicide. Emergent themes were quantified and examined using content and constant comparative analysis. Themes regarding antecedents across multiple levels of the social ecology emerged. Relationship problems, particularly with parents, were the most common suicide antecedent. Also, a pattern demonstrating a consistent progression toward suicidal behavior emerged from the data. Narratives indicated that youth were commonly exposed to one or more problems, often resulting in feelings of loneliness and burdensomeness, which progressed toward thoughts and sometimes plans for or attempts at suicide. Continued exposure to negative experiences and thoughts/plans about suicide, and/or self-injurious acts resulted in an acquired capacity to self-harm, eventually leading to suicide. These findings provide support for theories of suicidal behavior and highlight the importance of multi-level, comprehensive
Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Logan, Joseph E.; Leemis, Ruth W.
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for youth aged 11 to 15, taking over 5,500 lives from 2003 to 2014. Suicide among this age group is linked to risk factors such as mental health problems, family history of suicidal behavior, biological factors, family problems, and peer victimization and bullying. However, few studies have examined the frequency with which such problems occur among youth suicide decedents or the context in which decedents experience these risk factors and the complex interplay of risk that results in a decedent’s decision to take his/her own life. Data from a random sample of 482 youth (ages 11–15) suicide cases captured in the National Violent Death Reporting System from 2003 to 2014 were analyzed. The sample had fewer girls than boys (31 vs. 69 %) and comprised primarily White youth (79 %), but also African Americans (13 %), Asians (4 %), and youth of other races (4 %). Narrative data from coroner/medical examiner and law enforcement investigative reports were coded and analyzed to identify common behavioral patterns that preceded suicide. Emergent themes were quantified and examined using content and constant comparative analysis. Themes regarding antecedents across multiple levels of the social ecology emerged. Relationship problems, particularly with parents, were the most common suicide antecedent. Also, a pattern demonstrating a consistent progression toward suicidal behavior emerged from the data. Narratives indicated that youth were commonly exposed to one or more problems, often resulting in feelings of loneliness and burdensomeness, which progressed toward thoughts and sometimes plans for or attempts at suicide. Continued exposure to negative experiences and thoughts/plans about suicide, and/or self-injurious acts resulted in an acquired capacity to self-harm, eventually leading to suicide. These findings provide support for theories of suicidal behavior and highlight the importance of multi-level, comprehensive
Quass, Gunnar Lennart; Kurt, Simone; Hildebrandt, Jannis; Kral, Andrej
Auditory midbrain implant users cannot achieve open speech perception and have limited frequency resolution. It remains unclear whether the spread of excitation contributes to this issue and how much it can be compensated by current-focusing, which is an effective approach in cochlear implants. The present study examined the spread of excitation in the cortex elicited by electric midbrain stimulation. We further tested whether current-focusing via bipolar and tripolar stimulation is effective with electric midbrain stimulation and whether these modes hold any advantage over monopolar stimulation also in conditions when the stimulation electrodes are in direct contact with the target tissue. Using penetrating multielectrode arrays, we recorded cortical population responses to single pulse electric midbrain stimulation in 10 ketamine/xylazine anesthetized mice. We compared monopolar, bipolar, and tripolar stimulation configurations with regard to the spread of excitation and the characteristic frequency difference between the stimulation/recording electrodes. The cortical responses were distributed asymmetrically around the characteristic frequency of the stimulated midbrain region with a strong activation in regions tuned up to one octave higher. We found no significant differences between monopolar, bipolar, and tripolar stimulation in threshold, evoked firing rate, or dynamic range. The cortical responses to electric midbrain stimulation are biased towards higher tonotopic frequencies. Current-focusing is not effective in direct contact electrical stimulation. Electrode maps should account for the asymmetrical spread of excitation when fitting auditory midbrain implants by shifting the frequency-bands downward and stimulating as dorsally as possible. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Law, Stephanie J.; Bourdage, Joshua; O’Neill, Thomas A.
In the present study, we examined the antecedents and processes that impact job interviewees’ decisions to engage in deceptive impression management (i.e., interview faking). Willingness and capacity to engage in faking were found to be the processes underlying the decision to use deceptive impression management in the interview. We also examined a personality antecedent to this behavior, Honesty-Humility, which was negatively related to the use of deceptive impression management through increased willingness to engage in these behaviors. We also tested a possible intervention to reduce IM. In particular, we found that warnings against faking – specifically, an identification warning - reduced both the perceived capacity to engage in interview faking, and subsequent use of several faking behaviors. Moreover, this warning reduced faking without adversely impacting applicant reactions. PMID:27895609
Full Text Available In the last few years retail industry in Indonesia has been grown rapidly by three main factors, namely economic, demographic and socio-cultural. If a retail business can gain success in Malaysia, it may not gain the same success in Indonesia. A research is conducted using associative analysis by correlation test with path analysis technique and Pearson Product Moment correlation. The results of this research show that three antecedents of service variables – interaction quality, the quality of physical environment, and outcome quality – are related to each other and simultaneously influence consumer’s trust. Regarding to the partial analysis, it is found that the quality of physical environment and consumer’s trust has significant effects on post-purchase behavior. Path analysis shows that three antecedents of service indirectly contribute to consumer post-purchase behavior through consumer’s trust. However, the outcome quality provides the largest contribution on it.
Hu, Jia; Liden, Robert C
Integrating theories of self-regulation with team and leadership literatures, this study investigated goal and process clarity and servant leadership as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team effectiveness, operationalized as team performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Our sample of 304 employees represented 71 teams in 5 banks. Results showed that team-level goal and process clarity as well as team servant leadership served as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior. Furthermore, we found that servant leadership moderated the relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency, such that the positive relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency were stronger in the presence of servant leadership.
Faber, Adrianne; Kalverdijk, Luuk J.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tobi, Hilde
Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe current practices around initiation and follow-up care of stimulant treatment among stimulant-treated children in a nationwide survey among parents. Methods: A total of 115 pharmacies detected current stimulant users <16 years old in their pharmacy
Baik, Joo Hyun; Kim, Hyeong Heon
The simplification philosophy, as an example, that both of EPRI-URD and EUR emphasize is treated mostly for the cost reduction of the nuclear power plants, but not for the simplification of the structure of user's tasks, which is one of the principles of user-centered design. A user-centered design is a philosophy based on the needs and interests of the user, with an emphasis on making products usable and understandable. However, the nuclear power plants offered these days by which the predominant reactor vendors are hardly user-centered but still designer-centered or technology-centered in viewpoint of fulfilling user requirements. The main goal of user-centered design is that user requirements are elicited correctly, reflected properly into the system requirements, and verified thoroughly by the tests. Starting from the user requirements throughout to the final test, each requirement should be traceable. That's why requirement traceability is a key to the user-centered design, and main theme of a requirement management program, which is suggested to be added into EPRI-URD and EUR in the section of Design Process. (author)
Roantree, Christina F; Kennedy, Craig H
Previous studies have shown that presession attention for problem behavior can serve as an abolishing operation when attention functions as a positive reinforcer. In the current study, we show that the stereotypy of a child with severe disabilities was undifferentiated during standard analogue functional analysis conditions. However, when noncontingent presession attention was provided, stereotypy occurred for social attention as a positive reinforcer, suggesting that the antecedent manipulat...
Haar, Jarrod M.; Suñé Torrents, Albert; Russo, Marcello; Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane
Drawing on the perceived work–family fit and balance perspective, this study investigates demands and resources as antecedents of work–life balance (WLB) across four countries (New Zealand, France, Italy and Spain), so as to provide empirical cross-national evidence. Using structural equation modelling analysis on a sample of 870 full time employees, we found that work demands, hours worked and family demands were negatively related to WLB, while job autonomy and supervisor support were posit...
Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl
This study used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,019) to examine family, employment, and individual antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood. Work-family conflict and important confounding factors were controlled. From the family domain, higher income-to-needs ratio and social support were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the employment domain, greater job rewards, benefits of employment for children, and work commitment were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the individual domain, higher maternal education and extroversion were associated with higher work-family enrichment. No family, employment, and individual characteristics were associated with work-family conflict across time except for partner intimacy. In general, the results supported antecedents of work-family enrichment that supply needed resources. The present study contributed to the literature by identifying antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment across early child developmental stages, which goes beyond examinations of particular life stages and a work-family conflict perspective. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl
This study used data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,019) to examine family, employment, and individual antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood. Work-family conflict and important confounding factors were controlled. From the family domain, higher income-to-needs ratio and social support were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the employment domain, greater job rewards, benefits of employment for children, and work commitment were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the individual domain, higher maternal education and extroversion were associated with higher work-family enrichment. No family, employment, and individual characteristics were associated with work-family conflict across time except for partner intimacy. In general, the results supported antecedents of work-family enrichment that supply needed resources. The present study contributed to the literature by identifying antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment across early child developmental stages, which goes beyond examinations of particular life stages and a work-family conflict perspective. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:26641483
Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben
In this report, we present the results of a research project about international user studies. The project has been carried out by researchers from the Center for Persona Research and –Application, The IT University in Copenhagen and the Department of Learning and Philosophy, Aalborg University...... in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all...... the countries/regions they operate in. Instead, they focus on a few strategic markets. International user studies tend to be large-scale studies that involve the effort of many both internal and external/local human resources. The studies typically cover 2-4 countries/regions and many end users in each country...
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the antecedents of brand-related online word-of-mouth (WOM communication from the memorable experience concept perspective. This paper considers the factors that are behind the willingness to participate in brand-consumer interaction when passing on messages, generating content, and sharing online communication. The study is built on complementary sources of information, employing a mixed methods approach. The results show that sharing and generating positive online communication involves reciprocal patterns, while a memorable experience, good brand experience, and interaction in value co-creation drive willingness to help the brand. The gratitude-related reciprocal online behaviour is a “virtual praise”. The findings provide insight into how meaningful experience, interaction in value co-creation, and reciprocity, which are the key concepts of experience marketing, cause and have an impact on sharing online communication. From a theoretical viewpoint, this study offers insights into the links between constructs of meaningful experience concepts and brand-related online communication. Understanding the experiential aspects of consumers' online behaviour, such as willingness to co-create value together with brands, offers an implication for marketing management.
Presenteeism is attending work when ill. This study examined the antecedents and correlates of presenteeism, absenteeism, and productivity loss attributed to presenteeism. Predictors included work context, personal characteristics, and work experiences. Business school graduates employed in a variety of work positions (N = 444) completed a Web-based survey. Presenteeism was positively associated with task significance, task interdependence, ease of replacement, and work to family conflict and negatively associated with neuroticism, equity, job security, internal health locus of control, and the perceived legitimacy of absence. Absenteeism was positively related to task significance, perceived absence legitimacy, and family to work conflict and negatively related to task interdependence and work to family conflict. Those high on neuroticism, the unconscientious, the job-insecure, those who viewed absence as more legitimate, and those experiencing work-family conflict reported more productivity loss. Overall, the results reveal the value of a behavioral approach to presenteeism over and above a strict medical model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT, with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate-intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity.
Cristiane Pizzutti dos Santos
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the antecedents and consequences of consumer trust after complaint handling episodes about services. A cross-sectional study was carried out with complainers of banks and airline companies. The respondents were approached at an International Airport in Brazil. Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the hypotheses developed. The building of consumer trust was sensitive to perceptions of justice regarding the way complaints were handled by the company. More specifically, the perception of interactional fairness strongly impacted consumer trust in the employees which, in turn, revealed a high impact on trust in the company. Insofar as satisfaction with complaint handling does not mediate the relationship between the dimensions of fairness and trust, following a conflict it loses part of its importance. Finally, both repurchase intention and word-of-mouth communication were influenced by trust in the company, satisfaction with complaint handling and perceived value. The company should attentively observe the interactional aspect in terms of developing relationships with customers. Appropriate complaint handling and the consequent trust created between the parties is an efficient form of developing and maintaining solid relationships with customers.
Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki-Joon; Hodgins, David C; Lee, Tae Kyung
This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of gambling passion using structural equation modeling to examine relationships among gambling motivation, passion, emotion, and behavioral intentions in the horse racing industry. An onsite survey was conducted with 447 patrons at a horseracing park in South Korea. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Gambling Passion Scale was valid and reliable, resulting in two sub-scales: obsessive passion (OP) and harmonious passion (HP). Study results indicated that extrinsic motivation influenced OP whereas intrinsic motivation significantly affected HP. Furthermore, OP was correlated with negative emotion, whereas HP was related to positive emotion. Gamblers' satisfaction was found to be influenced positively by positive emotion and negatively by negative emotion. Finally, satisfaction appeared to affect gamblers' behavioral intentions. Study results echoed the notion of distinct and separate gambling motivations and passions among horse racing gamblers. Furthermore, results identified specific areas to which horse racing operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling.
Kraimer, Maria L; Seibert, Scott E; Wayne, Sandy J; Liden, Robert C; Bravo, Jesus
This study examines antecedents and behavioral outcomes of employees' perceptions of organizational support for development. We first propose that employees' past participation in formal developmental activities and experience with developmental relationships positively relate to their perceptions of organizational support for development. We then propose that perceived career opportunity within the organization moderates the relationship between organizational support for development and employee performance and turnover. Using a sample of 264 exempt-level employees and their supervisors, we found that participation in training classes, leader-member exchange, and career mentoring were each positively related to employees' perceptions of organizational support for development. We also found support for the moderator hypotheses. Specifically, development support positively related to job performance, but only when perceived career opportunity within the organization was high. Further, development support was associated with reduced voluntary turnover when perceived career opportunity was high, but it was associated with increased turnover when perceived career opportunity was low. Our study demonstrates that social exchange and career motivation theory work together to explain when and how employees' perceptions of organizational support for development relate to turnover and job performance.
Full Text Available With more organizations looking for employees who take initiative and respond creatively to the challenges of the job, engagement becomes important at both individual and organizational levels. Engaged employees are generally more satisfied with their work, committed and effective at work. According to the JDR model (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004, engagement may be produced by two types of working conditions: job demands (i.e., role stress and job resources (i.e., self-efficacy. This study examines the role of role stress (role ambiguity and role conflict and work engagement as antecedents of job satisfaction. A cross sectional study using online questionnaires was conducted. The sample consisted of 312 Portuguese workers. Hierarchical multiple regressions analyses have revealed that job satisfaction was significantly predicted by role conflict and work engagement. Results support JDR model by showing that positive outcomes, such as job satisfaction, may be predicted by motivational process and job demands. On a practical level, JDR model provides a framework for understanding motivating workplaces and engaged and satisfied employees.
Full Text Available Purpose: According to the Job Demands-Resources (JDR model, engagement and job satisfaction may be produce by two types of working conditions: job demands (i.e. role stress and job resources (i.e. self-efficacy. This study examines the role of role stress and work engagement as antecedents of job satisfaction in a sample of Spanish workers. Design/methodology/approach: This study comprised a sample of 435 Spanish workers. A cross sectional study was used to examine the relationship between role stress, work engagement and job satisfaction. Data were gathered based on personal administered questionnaires. Findings and Originality/value: Hierarchical multiple regression models have revealed that job satisfaction was significantly predicted by role stress and work engagement. Results support JDR model by showing that positive outcomes, such as job satisfaction can be predicted by motivational process and job demands. Research limitations/implications: The cross-sectional design cannot evidence of causal relationships. This study relies on self-reports, which might increase the risk of common method variance. Practical implications: On a practical level, the JDR model provides a framework for understanding motivating workplaces and engaged and satisfied employees. Originality/value: The JDR model could be useful in designing strategies for which engaged employees may be advantageous to improving the quality of services, while at the same time increasing employees’ job satisfaction and well-being.
Zhang, Yixiang; Wang, Zhaohua; Zhou, Guanghui
China is one of the major energy-consuming countries, and is under great pressure to promote energy saving and reduce domestic energy consumption. Employees constitute an important target group for energy saving. However, only a few research efforts have been paid to study what drives employee energy saving behavior in organizations. To fill this gap, drawing on norm activation model (NAM), we built a research model to study antecedents of employee electricity saving behavior in organizations. The model was empirically tested using survey data collected from office workers in Beijing, China. Results show that personal norm positively influences employee electricity saving behavior. Organizational electricity saving climate negatively moderates the effect of personal norm on electricity saving behavior. Awareness of consequences, ascription of responsibility, and organizational electricity saving climate positively influence personal norm. Furthermore, awareness of consequences positively influences ascription of responsibility. This paper contributes to the energy saving behavior literature by building a theoretical model of employee electricity saving behavior which is understudied in the current literature. Based on the empirical results, implications on how to promote employee electricity saving are discussed. - Highlights: • We studied employee electricity saving behavior based on norm activation model. • The model was tested using survey data collected from office workers in China. • Personal norm positively influences employee′s electricity saving behavior. • Electricity saving climate negatively moderates personal norm′s effect. • This research enhances our understanding of employee electricity saving behavior
Full Text Available The present paper seeks to offer the most decipherable and widely applicable antecedents of customer loyalty. It explores the extant literature on customer loyalty and brings out seven variableswhich are responsible for formation of customer loyalty. Further, the relative importance of these variables has been ascertained through Multiple Regression Analysis which revealed that service quality and commitment are the strongest predictors of customer loyalty in theIndian life insurance industry. The paper also attempts to assess the loyalty status of life insurance customers in India and draw a comparison between public and private sector life insurancecompanies in order to provide significant insights to the life insurance companies that may assist them in devising better loyalty practices. The findings suggest that Indian customers do care about the public sector status of a financial service provider as it entails a sense of security and stability and thus creates a difference between customer loyalty of public sector life insurerand that of private sector life insurer. The paper holds significant implications for academicians interested in dynamics of customer loyalty as well as the marketers of life insurance services whoare concerned with customer relationships.
Detert, James R; Treviño, Linda Klebe; Sweitzer, Vicki L
This article advances understanding of the antecedents and outcomes of moral disengagement by testing hypotheses with 3 waves of survey data from 307 business and education undergraduate students. The authors theorize that 6 individual differences will either increase or decrease moral disengagement, defined as a set of cognitive mechanisms that deactivate moral self-regulatory processes and thereby help to explain why individuals often make unethical decisions without apparent guilt or self-censure (Bandura, 1986). Results support 4 individual difference hypotheses, specifically, that empathy and moral identity are negatively related to moral disengagement, while trait cynicism and chance locus of control orientation are positively related to moral disengagement. Two additional locus of control orientations are not significantly related to moral disengagement. The authors also hypothesize and find that moral disengagement is positively related to unethical decision making. Finally, the authors hypothesize that moral disengagement plays a mediating role between the individual differences they studied and unethical decisions. Their results offer partial support for these mediating hypotheses. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for future research and for practice. Copyright 2008 APA
Vergara Bai, A.A.
The present article pretends to summarize the initial stage of the development of national uranium resources - focusing the labor done by the Escuela Superior de Ingenieria en Combustible of the Universidad Nacional de Cuyo - between the years 1951 and 1955 - feeling that it is necessary to describe the situations that were originated during the development of the uranium's mineral investigation. This was started by the Escuela Superior de Ingenieria en Combustible of U.N. de Cuyo, which facilitated the connection with CNEA, that had been created in 1950. This leaded to the economical help from CNEA until 1955, for the realization and execution of the programmed works. The national antecedents are described, taking into account the existence of deposits in this country. The historical evolution of the exloration of uranium in Cuyo is divided in three periods, which are described in detail in this work. First and foremost, the period that goes from 1951 to 1955 (U.N. de Cuyo and CNEA); then, the period that goes from 1956 to 1961 (CNEA) where the achievements obtained determined the new modern structures done by the CNEA in order to continue with the development of the uranium resources of the country. After this, the period that goes from 1961 to 1968 (activities and successes of the West Delegation) is pointed out. Finally, the evolution of the factories of uranium mineral treatment, i n the period between 1952 and 1990, is also described in this article. (Author) [es
Mahoney, John W; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Mallett, Cliff J; Mallet, Cliff J
We argue that basic psychological needs theory (BPNT) offers impetus to the value of mental toughness as a mechanism for optimizing human functioning. We hypothesized that psychological needs satisfaction (thwarting) would be associated with higher (lower) levels of mental toughness, positive affect, and performance and lower (higher) levels of negative affect. We also expected that mental toughness would be associated with higher levels of positive affect and performance and lower levels of negative affect. Further, we predicted that coaching environments would be related to mental toughness indirectly through psychological needs and that psychological needs would indirectly relate with performance and affect through mental toughness. Adolescent cross-country runners (136 male and 85 female, M(age) = 14.36) completed questionnaires pertaining to BPNT variables, mental toughness, and affect. Race times were also collected. Our findings supported our hypotheses. We concluded that BPNT is generative in understanding some of the antecedents and consequences of mental toughness and is a novel framework useful for understanding mental toughness.
Ana Paula Miotto
Full Text Available Through two complementary and exploratory studies – one qualitative and one quantitative – this research aims to understand the ways in which lower-middle-class families in Brazil manage their household finances. The study proposes an integrated framework that brings together various previously disconnected theoretical fragments. Based on a survey with a sample of 165 lower-middle-class female consumers of a retail company in São Paulo, we explored and tested, via a quantitative study, how antecedents such as personal characteristics affect the financial management process, as well as its consequences, either negatively as defaults or positively as savings. The model calibration and analysis were derived from a series of regression analyses. The results revealed the mediator role that financial management plays in the relationship between personal characteristics and defaults and savings. Compared to previous studies with consumers of more affluent countries, we identified peculiar findings among Brazilian lower-middle-class consumers: inadequate attention to control, weak or no focus on short- or long-range planning, widespread absence of budget surplus, and influence of critical events on episodes of default.
Lemmens, K P H; Abraham, C; Ruiter, R A C; Veldhuizen, I J T; Dehing, C J G; Bos, A E R; Schaalma, H P
Understanding blood donation motivation among non-donors is prerequisite to effective recruitment. Two studies explored the psychological antecedents of blood donation motivation and the generalisability of a model of donation motivation across groups differing in age and educational level. An older well-educated population and a younger less well-educated population were sampled. The studies assessed the role of altruism, fear of blood/needles and donation-specific cognitions including attitudes and normative beliefs derived from an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Across both samples, results showed that affective attitude, subjective norm, descriptive norm, and moral norm were the most important correlates of blood donation intentions. Self-efficacy was more important among the younger less well-educated group. Altruism was related to donation motivation but only indirectly through moral norm. Similarly, fear of blood/needles only had an indirect effect on motivation through affective attitude and self-efficacy. Additional analyses with the combined data set found no age or education moderation effects, suggesting that this core model of donation-specific cognitions can be used to inform future practical interventions recruiting new blood donors in the general population.
Mehra, Rinku; Raman, Ramesh; Bayless, Margaret L; Sivitz, William I
In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that calories consumed at a prior meal (lunch) may impair glycemic control after a subsequent meal (supper) even if the pre-supper glucose did not differ regardless of the size of the lunch meal. Nine subjects with Type 1 diabetes using continuous subcutaneous (s.c.) insulin infusion (CSII) therapy were studied on two separate days. Lunch (1200 h) was randomly assigned as 25% or 50% of the usual daily intake on alternate study days. The CSII was stopped at 1000 h on the day of the study and glucose was controlled until supper by adjusting the rate of intravenous (i.v.) insulin based on glucose measurements every 15 min. The CSII was restarted 1 h before supper and i.v. insulin discontinued 15 min before the first bite of supper. An identical supper meal and pre-supper s.c. bolus of short-acting insulin were administered on both visits. Pre-supper glycemia was nearly identical on each of the two study days. However, the post-supper glucose area under the curve was 27.5% greater on the day of the antecedent large lunch compared with the small lunch (P = 0.0039). For optimal postprandial glucose control, people with Type 1 diabetes may need to consider not only anticipated meal calories, but also prior food intake, a practice not commonly recommended based on currently used insulin dosing algorithms.
Full Text Available Hongliang Chen Department of Communication, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: This study investigates the factors predicting positive self-disclosure on social networking sites (SNSs. There is a formidable body of empirical research relating to online self-disclosure, but very few studies have assessed the antecedents of positive self-disclosure. To address this literature gap, the current study tests the effects of self-esteem, life satisfaction, social anxiety, privacy concerns, public self-consciousness (SC, and perceived collectivism on positive self-disclosure on SNSs. Data were collected online via Qualtrics in April 2013. Respondents were undergraduate students from the University of Connecticut. Using ordinary least squares regression, the current study found that self-esteem and perceived collectivism increased positive self-disclosure, life satisfaction, and privacy concerns decreased positive self-disclosure, and the effects of social anxiety and public SC were not significant. Keywords: positive self-disclosure, self-esteem, life satisfaction, social anxiety, privacy concerns, public self-consciousness, perceived collectivism
Full Text Available An extensive body of vocational research has been dedicated to the topic of career-decision making behavior. Work is integral to human functioning, and all psychologists need to understand the role of work in people’s lives. Understanding factors influencing work choices and helping individuals effectively make career decisions is the focus of vocational psychologists. The external changes, such as shifts in the economy and labour force, as well as initiatives within the field are challenging the assumptions within vocational psychology. Under such circumstances, it becomes more important to study career decisiveness and more importantly examine the process of career planning which eventually leads to career decisiveness. So there is a need to assess attitudes, expectations, and emotions about one’s career in the form of Career Future Inventory to measure career choice or career decisiveness. Career decisiveness (CD has been an instrumental tool for vocational psychologists and a phenomenon of interest to parents, faculty, school counsellors, and others who advise young adults on their career choices. The current study shall investigate the antecedents and consequences of career decisiveness using the Motivational Systems Theory (MST. The major rational of applying MST is to understand career choice has its impetus both on the individual and contextual factors.
Wright, David; Flis, Nathan; Gupta, Mona
Many western industrialized countries are currently suffering from a crisis in health human resources, one that involves a debate over the recruitment and licensing of foreign-trained doctors and nurses. The intense public policy interest in foreign-trained medical personnel, however, is not new. During the 1960s, western countries revised their immigration policies to focus on highly-trained professionals. During the following decade, hundreds of thousands of health care practitioners migrated from poorer jurisdictions to western industrialized countries to solve what were then deemed to be national doctor and nursing 'shortages' in the developed world. Migration plummeted in the 1980s and 1990s only to re-emerge in the last decade as an important debate in global health care policy and ethics. This paper will examine the historical antecedents to this ethical debate. It will trace the early articulation of the idea of a 'brain drain', one that emerged from the loss of NHS doctors to other western jurisdictions in the 1950s and 1960s. Only over time did the discussion turn to the 'manpower' losses of 'third world countries', but the inability to track physician migration, amongst other variables, muted any concerted ethical debate. By contrast, the last decade's literature has witnessed a dramatically different ethical framework, informed by globalization, the rise of South Africa as a source donor country, and the ongoing catastrophe of the AIDS epidemic. Unlike the literature of the early 1970s, recent scholarship has focussed on a new framework of global ethics.
Ahearne, Michael; Bhattacharya, C B; Gruen, Thomas
This article presents an empirical test of organizational identification in the context of customer-company (C-C) relationships. It investigates whether customers identify with companies and what the antecedents and consequences of such identification are. The model posits that perceived company characteristics, construed external image, and the perception of the company's boundary-spanning agent lead to C-C identification. In turn, such identification is expected to impact both in-role behavior (i.e., product utilization) as well as extra-role behavior (i.e., citizenship). The model was tested in a consultative selling context of pharmaceutical sales reps calling on physicians. Results from the empirical test indicated that customers do indeed identify with organizations and that C-C identification positively impacts both product utilization behavior and extra-role behavior even when the effect of brand perception is accounted for. Second, the study found that the organization's characteristics as well as the salesperson's characteristics contributed to the development of C-C identification.
F K Bondinuba
Full Text Available Effective and efficient management of suppliers within a supply chain is an essential requirement for improving organisational performance within construction companies. However, factors inherent within the supply chain of supplier-buyer exchanges such as culture, politics, dependence and trust may influence supplier relationship quality (SRQ. This research therefore seeks to identify the influence that these factors have upon SRQ in the Ghanaian construction industry and develop a conceptual framework that explains the interconnectivity between them. A literature review is used to develop a conceptual framework of the antecedents influencing supplier relationship quality. Primary ‘perception’ data obtained from 152 building material suppliers is used to test the proposed model using Partial Least Squares (PLS. Findings reveal that culture, politics, dependence and trust have a significant influence on relationship quality in supply chain collaborations amongst purchasers and suppliers of building materials. While politics has a strong influence on dependence, it also generates a negative influence on SRQ and trust. The research confirms the positive effect of trust and dependence in SRQ management and extends understanding of the influence of culture and politics. Practical implications suggest that managers of building material suppliers should focus upon building trust and dependence and be discouraged from over-reliance upon politics and political affiliations as a basis for long-term relationship building.
Magee, Christopher A; Caputi, Peter; Lee, Jeong Kyu
This paper investigated distinct longitudinal trajectories of absenteeism over time, and underlying demographic, work, and health antecedents. Data from the Household, Income, and Labor Dynamics in Australia Survey were used; this is a panel study of a representative sample of Australian households. This paper focused on 2,481 full-time employees across a 5-year period. Information on annual sick leave and relevant sociodemographic, work, and health-related factors was collected through interviews and self-completed surveys. Growth mixture modeling indicated 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism over time. The moderate absenteeism trajectory (34.8%) of the sample had 4-5 days of sick leave per year and was used as the reference group. The low absenteeism trajectory (33.5%) had 1-2 days of absenteeism per year, while the no absenteeism trajectory (23.6%) had very low rates of absenteeism (absenteeism (>11 days per year). Compared with the moderate absenteeism trajectory, the high absenteeism trajectory was characterized by poor health; the no absenteeism and low absenteeism trajectories had better health but may also reflect processes relating to presenteeism. These results provide important insights into the nature of absenteeism in Australian employees, and suggest that different patterns of absenteeism over time could reflect a range of demographic, work, and health related factors. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Calciolari, Stefano; Ilinca, Stefania
In recent decades, consensus has grown on the need to organize health systems around the concept of care integration to better confront the challenges associated with demographic trends and financial sustainability. However, care integration remains an imprecise umbrella term in both the academic and policy arenas. In addition, little substantive knowledge exists on the success factors for integration initiatives. We propose a composite measure of care integration and a conceptual framework suggesting its relationships with three types of antecedents: contextual, cultural, and organizational factors. Our framework was tested using data from the Italian National Health System (NHS). We administered an ad-hoc questionnaire to all Italian local health units (LHUs), with a 60.4% response rate, and used structural equation modeling to assess the relationships between the relevant latent constructs. The results validated our measure of care integration and supported the hypothesized relationships. In particular, integration was found to be fostered by results-oriented institutional settings, a professional culture conducive to inclusiveness and shared goals, and organizational arrangements promoting clear expectations among providers. Thus, integration improves care and mediates the effects of specific operating means on care enhancement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Complaints delivered directly to a firm will not be a problem if they can be handled properly, while the ones that are not disclosed directly to the firm but to a third party or even warnings to others not to use particular products or services, will be negative word-of-mouth communication. It can damage the image of the firm and be very detrimental. The purpose of this study was to analyze the antecedents of intention to engage in negative online word-of-mouth communication that includes dissatisfaction, service importance, success of complaint, complaint benefit, self confidence, altruism, retaliatory intention, and complaint cost. Medical services were selected considering the impact caused by the negligence of the service provider possibly giving rise to negative word-of-mouth communication. The online environment has been considered because of the developments in technology which provide opportunities for consumers to communicate with ach other. In addition, the dissemination of information through online media can spread incredibly widely and rapidly. The samples in this study comprised consumers of medical services who had disappointing experiences in using those services either directly or indirectly. A total of 123 questionnaires were analyzed with multiple regression analysis to test the research hypothesis. The results showed that the factors influencing the intentions behind negative online word-of-mouth communication were success of complaint, altruism, retaliatory intention, and complaint cost.
Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige
This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender's grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors' plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige
This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender’s grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors’ plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. PMID:24313297
Moerder, Daniel D.
MADS (Minimization Assistant for Dynamical Systems) is a trajectory optimization code in which a user-specified performance measure is directly minimized, subject to constraints placed on a low-order discretization of user-supplied plant ordinary differential equations. This document describes the mathematical formulation of the set of trajectory optimization problems for which MADS is suitable, and describes the user interface. Usage examples are provided.
L.B. Gobena (Lemessa Bayissa)
markdownabstractThis thesis explores the integrative effect of social psychological factors among themselves as well as with economic deterrent factors in stimulating voluntary tax compliance, contributing to the tax compliance literature a theoretically relevant integrative approach that bridges
Lalmas, Mounia; Yom-Tov, Elad
User engagement refers to the quality of the user experience that emphasizes the positive aspects of interacting with an online application and, in particular, the desire to use that application longer and repeatedly. User engagement is a key concept in the design of online applications (whether for desktop, tablet or mobile), motivated by the observation that successful applications are not just used, but are engaged with. Users invest time, attention, and emotion in their use of technology, and seek to satisfy pragmatic and hedonic needs. Measurement is critical for evaluating whether online
Fleron, Benedicte; Rasmussen, Rasmus; Simonsen, Jesper
Systems development has been claimed to benefit from user participation, yet user participation in implementation activities may be more common and is a growing focus of participatory-design work. We investigate the effect of the extensive user participation in the implementation of a clinical...... experienced more uncertainty and frustration than management and non-participating staff, especially concerning how to run an implementation process and how to understand and utilize the configuration possibilities of the system. This suggests that user participation in implementation introduces a need...
Kamiyama, Takashi; Ikeda, Yujiro
The user program of J-PARC/MLF is overviewed. Since MLF will be one of the major neutron facilities in the world, an international standard system for the user program is expected. It is also expected to establish a system to promote users from industries. The MLF user program is based on the IUPAP recommendation on the selection of proposals. Both open and closed accesses, biannual, regular, rapid accesses, etc. will be provided. All the features in the system are being introduced to maximize both scientific and engineering outputs from MLF. (author)
Buma, D.G.; Buma, Dorindo G.; Buitenweg, Jan R.; Veltink, Petrus H.
Electrotactile displays deliver information to the user by means of electrocutaneous stimulation. If such displays are used in prostheses, the functionality depends on long term stability of this information channel. The perceived sensation, however, decays within 15 min due to central adaptation if
Describes the user interface and its functionality in a prototype system used for a virtual seminar session. The functionality is restricted to what is needed for a distributed seminar discussion among not too many people. The system is designed to work with the participants distributed at several...
The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.
Stanley C Flavel
Full Text Available Use of illicit stimulants such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy is a significant health problem. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime estimates that 14-57 million people use stimulants each year. Chronic use of illicit stimulants can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans but the long-term functional consequences are not well understood. Stimulant users self-report problems with tremor whilst abstinent. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term effect of stimulant use on human tremor during rest and movement. We hypothesized that individuals with a history of stimulant use would exhibit abnormally large tremor during rest and movement. Tremor was assessed in abstinent ecstasy users (n = 9; 22 ± 3 yrs and abstinent users of amphetamine-like drugs (n = 7; 33 ± 9 yrs and in two control groups: non-drug users (n = 23; 27 ± 8 yrs and cannabis users (n = 12; 24 ± 7 yrs. Tremor was measured with an accelerometer attached to the index finger at rest (30 s and during flexion and extension of the index finger (30 s. Acceleration traces were analyzed with fast-Fourier transform. During movement, tremor amplitude was significantly greater in ecstasy users than in non-drug users (frequency range 3.9-13.3 Hz; P<0.05, but was unaffected in cannabis users or users of amphetamine-like drugs. The peak frequency of tremor did not significantly differ between groups nor did resting tremor. In conclusion, abstinent ecstasy users exhibit an abnormally large tremor during movement. Further work is required to determine if the abnormality translates to increased risk of movement disorders in this population.
This document provides pieces of information about new user communities that directly or indirectly take advantage of EMI Products. Each user community is described via one specific EMI product use case to understand and communicate the current usage of EMI Products in practice.
Rorschach, H.E.; Hayter, J.B.
This paper summarizes the conclusions of a discussion group on users' needs held at the Workshop on an Advanced Steady-State Neutron Facility. The discussion was devoted to reactor characteristics, special facilities and siting considerations suggested by user needs. (orig.)
Christiansen, John K.; Gasparin, Marta; Varnes, Claus J.
of the hybrid collective to include the press and distribution channels to want it back. All actors in collective actions can become lead users when supported by establishing alliances. This perspective is different from Von Hippel (1986) who is claiming that the trend needs to be defined before the lead users...
Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A
User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface e...
Most formal problem-solving studies use verbal protocol and observational data of problem solvers working on a task. In user-centred product-design projects, observational studies of users are frequently used too. In the latter case, however, systematic control of conditions, indepth analysis and
Full Text Available User frustrations are an excellent source of new product ideas. Starting with this observation, this article describes an approach that entrepreneurs can use to discover business opportunities. Opportunity discovery starts with a problem that the user has, but may not be able to articulate. User-centered design techniques can help elicit those latent needs. The entrepreneur should then try to understand how users are solving their problem today, before proposing a solution that draws on the unique skills and technical capabilities available to the entrepreneur. Finally, an in-depth understanding of the user allows the entrepreneur to hone in on the points of difference and resonance that are the foundation of a strong customer value proposition.
Lewis, Clayton; Wilde, Nick
Space construction will require heavy investment in the development of a wide variety of user interfaces for the computer-based tools that will be involved at every stage of construction operations. Using today's technology, user interface development is very expensive for two reasons: (1) specialized and scarce programming skills are required to implement the necessary graphical representations and complex control regimes for high-quality interfaces; (2) iteration on prototypes is required to meet user and task requirements, since these are difficult to anticipate with current (and foreseeable) design knowledge. We are attacking this problem by building a user interface development tool based on extensions to the spreadsheet model of computation. The tool provides high-level support for graphical user interfaces and permits dynamic modification of interfaces, without requiring conventional programming concepts and skills.
Coram, Jamie L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morrow, James D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perkins, David Nikolaus [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
This document describes the PANTHER R&D Application, a proof-of-concept user interface application developed under the PANTHER Grand Challenge LDRD. The purpose of the application is to explore interaction models for graph analytics, drive algorithmic improvements from an end-user point of view, and support demonstration of PANTHER technologies to potential customers. The R&D Application implements a graph-centric interaction model that exposes analysts to the algorithms contained within the GeoGraphy graph analytics library. Users define geospatial-temporal semantic graph queries by constructing search templates based on nodes, edges, and the constraints among them. Users then analyze the results of the queries using both geo-spatial and temporal visualizations. Development of this application has made user experience an explicit driver for project and algorithmic level decisions that will affect how analysts one day make use of PANTHER technologies.
Boyack, B.E.; Stumpf, H.; Lime, J.F.
This guide has been prepared to assist users in applying the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC). TRAC is an advanced best-estimate systems code for analyzing transients in thermal-hydraulic systems. The code is very general. Because it is general, efforts to model specific nuclear power plants or experimental facilities often present a challenge to the TRAC user. This guide has been written to assist first-time or intermediate users. It is specifically written for the TRAC version designated TRAC-PF1/MOD1. The TRAC User's Guide should be considered a companion document to the TRAC Code Manual; the user will need both documents to use TRAC effectively. 18 refs., 45 figs., 19 tabs
Neuhauser, K.S.; Kanipe, F.L.
RADTRAN 4 is used to evaluate radiological consequences of incident-free transportation, as well as the radiological risks from vehicular accidents occurring during transportation. This User Guide is Volume 3 in a series of four volume of the documentation of the RADTRAN 4 computer code for transportation risk analysis. The other three volumes are Volume 1, the Executive Summary; Volume 2, the Technical Manual; and Volume 4, the Programmer's Manual. The theoretical and calculational basis for the operations performed by RADTRAN 4 are discussed in Volume 2. Throughout this User Guide the reader will be referred to Volume 2 for detailed discussions of certain RADTRAN features. This User Guide supersedes the document ''RADTRAN III'' by Madsen et al. (1983). This RADTRAN 4 User Guide specifies and describes the required data, control inputs, input sequences, user options, program limitations, and other activities necessary for execution of the RADTRAN 4 computer code
Ardesch, J.J.; Sikken, J.R.; Veltink, Petrus H.; van der Aa, H.E.; Hageman, G.; Buschman, H.P.J.
Purpose Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for medically refractory epilepsy can give hoarseness due to stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. For a group of VNS-therapy users this side-effect interferes severely with their daily activities. Our goal was to investigate the severity of
Easley, Jacob J.
Presents daily activities that facilitate complete sentence response, promote oral production, and aid the learning of vocabulary in foreign-language classes. Because speech is the primary form of communication in the foreign-language classroom, it is important to stimulate students to converse as soon as possible. (Author/CK)
Mar 26, 2012 ... 2), in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The level of NO production was analyzed using Griess reaction. The release of PGE2 was determined using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay ...
Brighina, Filippo; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Fierro, Brigida
Migraine is a very prevalent disease with great individual disability and socioeconomic burden. Despite intensive research effort in recent years, the etiopathogenesis of the disease remains to be elucidated. Recently, much importance has been given to mechanisms underlying the cortical excitability that has been suggested to be dysfunctional in migraine. In recent years, noninvasive brain stimulation techniques based on magnetic fields (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) and on direct electrical currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) have been shown to be safe and effective tools to explore the issue of cortical excitability, activation, and plasticity in migraine. Moreover, TMS, repetitive TMS (rTMS), and tDCS, thanks to their ability to interfere with and/or modulate cortical activity inducing plastic, persistent effects, have been also explored as potential therapeutic approaches, opening an interesting perspective for noninvasive neurostimulation for both symptomatic and preventive treatment of migraine and other types of headache. In this chapter we critically review evidence regarding the role of noninvasive brain stimulation in the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine, delineating the advantages and limits of these techniques together with potential development and future application. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gaudie, Jennifer; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David; Stanley, Fiona J; Silburn, Sven R; Zubrick, Stephen R
Many western nations continue to have high rates of teenage pregnancies and births, which can result in adverse outcomes for both mother and child. This study identified possible antecedents of teenage pregnancy using linked data from administrative sources to create a 14-year follow-up from a cross-sectional survey. Data were drawn from two sources - the 1993 Western Australian Child Health Survey (WACHS), a population-based representative sample of 2,736 children aged 4 to 16 years (1,374 girls); and administrative data relating to all their subsequent births and hospital admissions. We used weighted population estimates to examine differences between rates for teenage pregnancy, motherhood and abortion. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to model risk for teenage pregnancy. There were 155 girls aged less than 20 years at the time of their first recorded pregnancy. Teenage pregnancy was significantly associated with: family type; highest school year completed by primary carer; combined carer income; whether the primary carer was a smoker; and whether the girl herself displayed aggressive and delinquent behaviours. An age-interaction analysis on the association with aggressive and delinquent behaviours found that while girls with aggressive and delinquent behaviours who were older at the time of the survey were at highest risk of teenage pregnancy, there was elevated risk for future teenage pregnancy across all ages. Our findings suggest that interventions to reduce teenage pregnancy rates could be introduced during primary school years, including those that are focused on the prevention and management of aggressive and delinquent behaviour.
Price, Owen F.; Bradstock, Ross A.; Keeley, Jon E.; Syphard, Alexandra D.
Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed burning is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the area of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between annual wildfire area and antecedent fire area in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for annual variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire area resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire area was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-annual variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation burns each year and so wildfires rarely encounter burned patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed burning is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this area, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ∼ 0.25).
Spörrle, Matthias; Försterling, Friedrich
We investigated naive theories regarding the association among beliefs, emotions and behaviours to test Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy's (REBT) assumption that rational cognitions and adaptive emotions lead to functional behaviours whereas irrational cognitions and maladaptive emotions trigger dysfunctional reactions. We applied an experimental between-subjects design. Participants read newspaper articles about the defeat of a boxer. In one condition, the authentic article informed participants that he committed suicide and in the other, a fictitious article about the same defeat described the athlete as successfully continuing his career. Different question formats were employed to assess participants' assumptions about the stimulus person's defeat-related cognitions and emotions: rating scales, sentence completion and free responses. Participants assumed significantly more irrational beliefs (e.g. I absolutely have to win) on the side of the boxer in the suicide scenario than in the non-suicide version. This finding was obtained by directive and non-directive assessment methods. Additionally, participants expected the suicidal stimulus person to be experiencing maladaptive emotions (e.g. depression, guilt) whereas a successful resumption of his career lead to expectations of adaptive affects (e.g. sadness, concern). Ratings of the functionality revealed that sadness, fear, annoyance and concern were expected to be more functional than depression, anxiety, rage and guilt. The results show that naive psychological theories about the antecedents of dysfunctional behaviour are in accordance with theoretical assumptions of REBT: Irrational beliefs are viewed to be connected with maladaptive emotions and to result in dysfunctional behaviour, and adaptive emotions are thought to be of higher functional value than their maladaptive counterparts. The use of different question formats and a between-subject design excluded that results are due to methodological
Meyer, M. Renée Umstattd; Wu, Cindy; Walsh, Shana M.
Time spent sitting has been associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cancer, obesity, and mental health impairments. However, 75% of Americans spend most of their days sitting, with work-sitting accounting for 63% of total daily sitting time. Little research examining theory-based antecedents of standing or sitting has been conducted. This lack of solid groundwork makes it difficult to design effective intervention strategies to decrease sitting behaviors. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as our theoretical lens to better understand factors related with beneficial standing behaviors already being practiced, we examined relationships between TPB constructs and time spent standing at work among “positive deviants” (those successful in behavior change). Experience sampling methodology (ESM), 4 times a day (midmorning, before lunch, afternoon, and before leaving work) for 5 consecutive workdays (Monday to Friday), was used to assess employees' standing time. TPB scales assessing attitude (α = 0.81–0.84), norms (α = 0.83), perceived behavioral control (α = 0.77), and intention (α = 0.78) were developed using recommended methods and collected once on the Friday before the ESM surveys started. ESM data are hierarchically nested, therefore we tested our hypotheses using multilevel structural equation modeling with Mplus. Hourly full-time university employees (n = 50; 70.6% female, 84.3% white, mean age = 44 (SD = 11), 88.2% in full-time staff positions) with sedentary occupation types (time at desk while working ≥6 hours/day) participated. A total of 871 daily surveys were completed. Only perceived behavioral control (β = 0.45, p deviance approach to enhance perceived behavioral control, in addition to implementing environmental changes like installing standing desks. PMID:29546189
Wendsche, Johannes; Lohmann-Haislah, Andrea
Detachment from work has been proposed as an important non-work experience helping employees to recover from work demands. This meta-analysis (86 publications, k = 91 independent study samples, N = 38,124 employees) examined core antecedents and outcomes of detachment in employee samples. With regard to outcomes, results indicated average positive correlations between detachment and self-reported mental (i.e., less exhaustion, higher life satisfaction, more well-being, better sleep) and physical (i.e., lower physical discomfort) health, state well-being (i.e., less fatigue, higher positive affect, more intensive state of recovery), and task performance (small to medium sized effects). However, average relationships between detachment and physiological stress indicators and work motivation were not significant while associations with contextual performance and creativity were significant, but negative. Concerning work characteristics, as expected, job demands were negatively related and job resources were positively related to detachment (small sized effects). Further, analyses revealed that person characteristics such as negative affectivity/neuroticism (small sized effect) and heavy work investment (medium sized effect) were negatively related to detachment whereas detachment and demographic variables (i.e., age and gender) were not related. Moreover, we found a medium sized average negative relationship between engagement in work-related activities during non-work time and detachment. For most of the examined relationships heterogeneity of effect sizes was moderate to high. We identified study design, samples' gender distribution, and affective valence of work-related thoughts as moderators for some of these aforementioned relationships. The results of this meta-analysis point to detachment as a non-work (recovery) experience that is influenced by work-related and personal characteristics which in turn is relevant for a range of employee outcomes.
Papagiannopoulou, C.; Miralles, D. G.; Dorigo, W. A.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Depoorter, M.; Waegeman, W.
Quantifying environmental controls on vegetation is critical to predict the net effect of climate change on global ecosystems and the subsequent feedback on climate. Following a non-linear Granger causality framework based on a random forest predictive model, we exploit the current wealth of multi-decadal satellite data records to uncover the main drivers of monthly vegetation variability at the global scale. Results indicate that water availability is the most dominant factor driving vegetation globally: about 61% of the vegetated surface was primarily water-limited during 1981-2010. This included semiarid climates but also transitional ecoregions. Intra-annually, temperature controls Northern Hemisphere deciduous forests during the growing season, while antecedent precipitation largely dominates vegetation dynamics during the senescence period. The uncovered dependency of global vegetation on water availability is substantially larger than previously reported. This is owed to the ability of the framework to (1) disentangle the co-linearities between radiation/temperature and precipitation, and (2) quantify non-linear impacts of climate on vegetation. Our results reveal a prolonged effect of precipitation anomalies in dry regions: due to the long memory of soil moisture and the cumulative, non-linear, response of vegetation, water-limited regions show sensitivity to the values of precipitation occurring three months earlier. Meanwhile, the impacts of temperature and radiation anomalies are more immediate and dissipate shortly, pointing to a higher resilience of vegetation to these anomalies. Despite being infrequent by definition, hydro-climatic extremes are responsible for up to 10% of the vegetation variability during the 1981-2010 period in certain areas, particularly in water-limited ecosystems. Our approach is a first step towards a quantitative comparison of the resistance and resilience signature of different ecosystems, and can be used to benchmark Earth
Stanley Fiona J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many western nations continue to have high rates of teenage pregnancies and births, which can result in adverse outcomes for both mother and child. This study identified possible antecedents of teenage pregnancy using linked data from administrative sources to create a 14-year follow-up from a cross-sectional survey. Methods Data were drawn from two sources - the 1993 Western Australian Child Health Survey (WACHS, a population-based representative sample of 2,736 children aged 4 to 16 years (1,374 girls; and administrative data relating to all their subsequent births and hospital admissions. We used weighted population estimates to examine differences between rates for teenage pregnancy, motherhood and abortion. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to model risk for teenage pregnancy. Results There were 155 girls aged less than 20 years at the time of their first recorded pregnancy. Teenage pregnancy was significantly associated with: family type; highest school year completed by primary carer; combined carer income; whether the primary carer was a smoker; and whether the girl herself displayed aggressive and delinquent behaviours. An age-interaction analysis on the association with aggressive and delinquent behaviours found that while girls with aggressive and delinquent behaviours who were older at the time of the survey were at highest risk of teenage pregnancy, there was elevated risk for future teenage pregnancy across all ages. Conclusions Our findings suggest that interventions to reduce teenage pregnancy rates could be introduced during primary school years, including those that are focused on the prevention and management of aggressive and delinquent behaviour.
Wright, David; Flis, Nathan; Gupta, Mona
Many western industrialized countries are currently suffering from a crisis in health human resources, one that involves a debate over the recruitment and licensing of foreign-trained doctors and nurses. The intense public policy interest in foreign-trained medical personnel, however, is not new. During the 1960s, western countries revised their immigration policies to focus on highly-trained professionals. During the following decade, hundreds of thousands of health care practitioners migrated from poorer jurisdictions to western industrialized countries to solve what were then deemed to be national doctor and nursing 'shortages' in the developed world. Migration plummeted in the 1980s and 1990s only to re-emerge in the last decade as an important debate in global health care policy and ethics. This paper will examine the historical antecedents to this ethical debate. It will trace the early articulation of the idea of a 'brain drain', one that emerged from the loss of NHS doctors to other western jurisdictions in the 1950s and 1960s. Only over time did the discussion turn to the 'manpower' losses of 'third world countries', but the inability to track physician migration, amongst other variables, muted any concerted ethical debate. By contrast, the last decade's literature has witnessed a dramatically different ethical framework, informed by globalization, the rise of South Africa as a source donor country, and the ongoing catastrophe of the AIDS epidemic. Unlike the literature of the early 1970s, recent scholarship has focussed on a new framework of global ethics. PMID:19000306
Teng, W.L.; Wang, J.R.; Doraiswamy, P.C.
Satellite microwave brightness temperatures (TB 'S) have been shown, in previous studies for semi-arid environments, to correlate well with the antecedent precipitation index (API), a soil moisture indicator. The current study, using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), continued this work for parts of the U.S. Corn and Wheat Belts, which included areas with a more humid climate, a denser natural vegetation cover, and a different mix of agricultural crop types. Four years (1987-1990) of SSM/I data at 19 and 37GHz, daily precipitation and temperature data from weather stations, and API calculated from the weather data were processed, geo-referenced, and averaged to equation pending latitude-longitude grid quadrants. Correlation results between TB at 19 GHz and API were highly dependent on geographical location. Correlation coefficients (r values) ranged from —0-6 to —0-85 for the semi-arid parts of the study area and from —03 to —0-7 for the more humid and more densely vegetated parts. R values were also higher for the very dry and very wet years (—0-5 to —085) than for the 'normal’ year (—0-3 to —0-65). Similar to previous results, the Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI), based on the 37 GHz data, was found to correspond to variations in vegetation cover. The MPDI was used to develop a linear regression model to estimate API from TB . Correlation between estimated and calculated APIs was also geographically and time dependent. Comparison of API with some field soil moisture measurements showed a similar trend, which provided some degree of confidence in using API as an indicator of soil moisture
Wendsche, Johannes; Lohmann-Haislah, Andrea
Detachment from work has been proposed as an important non-work experience helping employees to recover from work demands. This meta-analysis (86 publications, k = 91 independent study samples, N = 38,124 employees) examined core antecedents and outcomes of detachment in employee samples. With regard to outcomes, results indicated average positive correlations between detachment and self-reported mental (i.e., less exhaustion, higher life satisfaction, more well-being, better sleep) and physical (i.e., lower physical discomfort) health, state well-being (i.e., less fatigue, higher positive affect, more intensive state of recovery), and task performance (small to medium sized effects). However, average relationships between detachment and physiological stress indicators and work motivation were not significant while associations with contextual performance and creativity were significant, but negative. Concerning work characteristics, as expected, job demands were negatively related and job resources were positively related to detachment (small sized effects). Further, analyses revealed that person characteristics such as negative affectivity/neuroticism (small sized effect) and heavy work investment (medium sized effect) were negatively related to detachment whereas detachment and demographic variables (i.e., age and gender) were not related. Moreover, we found a medium sized average negative relationship between engagement in work-related activities during non-work time and detachment. For most of the examined relationships heterogeneity of effect sizes was moderate to high. We identified study design, samples' gender distribution, and affective valence of work-related thoughts as moderators for some of these aforementioned relationships. The results of this meta-analysis point to detachment as a non-work (recovery) experience that is influenced by work-related and personal characteristics which in turn is relevant for a range of employee outcomes. PMID:28133454
Full Text Available Abstract Many western industrialized countries are currently suffering from a crisis in health human resources, one that involves a debate over the recruitment and licensing of foreign-trained doctors and nurses. The intense public policy interest in foreign-trained medical personnel, however, is not new. During the 1960s, western countries revised their immigration policies to focus on highly-trained professionals. During the following decade, hundreds of thousands of health care practitioners migrated from poorer jurisdictions to western industrialized countries to solve what were then deemed to be national doctor and nursing 'shortages' in the developed world. Migration plummeted in the 1980s and 1990s only to re-emerge in the last decade as an important debate in global health care policy and ethics. This paper will examine the historical antecedents to this ethical debate. It will trace the early articulation of the idea of a 'brain drain', one that emerged from the loss of NHS doctors to other western jurisdictions in the 1950s and 1960s. Only over time did the discussion turn to the 'manpower' losses of 'third world countries', but the inability to track physician migration, amongst other variables, muted any concerted ethical debate. By contrast, the last decade's literature has witnessed a dramatically different ethical framework, informed by globalization, the rise of South Africa as a source donor country, and the ongoing catastrophe of the AIDS epidemic. Unlike the literature of the early 1970s, recent scholarship has focussed on a new framework of global ethics.
Satellite communication systems which allow a multitude of user-to-user, point-to-point, and multipoint connections, are presented. The bit rates are 64 kbit/sec and multiples, up to 1.92 Mbit/sec. If required, the ground-stations are installed at the customer's site or at suitable locations in order to serve several customers. However, technical requirements for station location have also to be fulfulled, in order to avoid interference with terrestrial radio services. The increasing number of participants to Satellite Multi Service and INTELSAT Business Services imposes the solution of the problem of communication using cheap techniques. The changes of the German Federal Post Office also permit the economic use of satellite radio techniques for short distances.
Fu, Pengchen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Settgast, Randolph R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, Scott M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walsh, Stuart D.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morris, Joseph P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ryerson, Frederick J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
GEOS is a massively parallel, multi-physics simulation application utilizing high performance computing (HPC) to address subsurface reservoir stimulation activities with the goal of optimizing current operations and evaluating innovative stimulation methods. GEOS enables coupling of di erent solvers associated with the various physical processes occurring during reservoir stimulation in unique and sophisticated ways, adapted to various geologic settings, materials and stimulation methods. Developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as a part of a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Strategic Initiative (SI) project, GEOS represents the culmination of a multi-year ongoing code development and improvement e ort that has leveraged existing code capabilities and sta expertise to design new computational geosciences software.
Rozenbroek, Katelyn; Rothstein, William G.
Objectives: To examine medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants taken individually and in combination. Participants: Undergraduates at an urban mid-Atlantic university with 12,000 students. Methods: A questionnaire administered in classes provided 413 responses, with a usable response…
De Bruyne, E.; De Jong, A.
This paper describes the Workplace Game and its development. Changing the workplace layout alone appears to be insufficient to change office user behaviour. Through prototyping the game was designed as a tool to stimulate discussion and provide new and concrete insights into the behavioural
Evaluating interactive systems for their user experience (UX) is a standard approach in industry and research today. This book explores the areas of game design and development and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) as ways to understand the various contributing aspects of the overall gaming experience. Fully updated, extended and revised this book is based upon the original publication Evaluating User Experience in Games, and provides updated methods and approaches ranging from user- orientated methods to game specific approaches. New and emerging methods and areas explored include physiologi
CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a Safety Flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the Flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. Link: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department
CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a safety flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. The flyer is available at: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department
Designing for User Engagement on the Web: 10 Basic Principles is concerned with making user experience engaging. The cascade of social web applications we are now familiar with - blogs, consumer reviews, wikis, and social networking - are all engaging experiences. But engagement is an increasingly common goal in business and productivity environments as well. This book provides a foundation for all those seeking to design engaging user experiences rich in communication and interaction. Combining a handbook on basic principles with case studies, it provides readers with a ric
Randhawa, Gurprit K
A conceptual model for exploring the relationship between end-user support (EUS) and electronic medical record (EMR) use by primary care physicians is presented. The model was developed following a review of conceptual and theoretical frameworks related to technology adoption/use and EUS. The model includes (a) one core construct (facilitating conditions), (b) four antecedents and one postcedent of facilitating conditions, and (c) four moderators. EMR use behaviour is the key outcome of the model. The proposed conceptual model should be tested. The model may be used to inform planning and decision-making for EMR implementations to increase EMR use for benefits realization.
Choo, Hao Yu; Li, Yao; Cao, Feng; Sato, Hirotaka
Some researchers have long been interested in reconstructing natural insects into steerable robots or vehicles. However, until recently, these so-called cyborg insects, biobots, or living machines existed only in science fiction. Owing to recent advances in nano/micro manufacturing, data processing, and anatomical and physiological biology, we can now stimulate living insects to induce user-desired motor actions and behaviors. To improve the practicality and applicability of airborne cyborg insects, a reliable and controllable flight initiation protocol is required. This study demonstrates an electrical stimulation protocol that initiates flight in a beetle (Mecynorrhina torquata, Coleoptera). A reliable stimulation protocol was determined by analyzing a pair of dorsal longitudinal muscles (DLMs), flight muscles that oscillate the wings. DLM stimulation has achieved with a high success rate (> 90%), rapid response time (cyborg insects or biobots.
Mylius, V; Ayache, S S; Teepker, M; Kappus, C; Kolodziej, M; Rosenow, F; Nimsky, C; Oertel, W H; Lefaucheur, J P
Non-invasive and invasive cortical stimulation allows the modulation of therapy-refractory neuropathic pain. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the contralateral motor cortex yields therapeutic effects at short-term and predicts the benefits of epidural motor cortex stimulation (MCS). The present article summarizes the findings on application, mechanisms and therapeutic effects of cortical stimulation in neuropathic pain.
This viewgraph presentation describes the development of user interfaces for OS/2 versions of computer codes for the analysis of seals. Current status, new features, work in progress, and future plans are discussed.
Sacramento, A.M. do.
This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)
Learn how EPA's three web user personas (Information Consumer, Information Intermediary, and Information Interpreter) can help you identify appropriate top audiences and top tasks for a topic or web area.
This report is a users manual on the Bevalac accelerator facility. This paper discuses: general information; the Bevalac and its operation; major facilities and experimental areas; and experimental equipment
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Preferences service provides a means to store, retrieve, and manage user preferences. The service supports definition of enterprise wide preferences, as well as...
AVERT is a flexible modeling framework with a simple user interface designed specifically to meet the needs of state air quality planners and other interested stakeholders. Use this guide to get started.
Kotz, Arnold; Redondo, Rory
Presented is the user's manual for the Educational Manpower Information Sources Project (EMAP), an information file containing approximately 325 document abstracts related to the field of educational planning. (The EMAP file is described in document SP 006 747.) (JB)
Peterson, S.R.; Hostetler, C.J.; Deutsch, W.J.; Cowan, C.E.
This manual will aid the user in applying the MINTEQ geochemical computer code to model aqueous solutions and the interactions of aqueous solutions with hypothesized assemblages of solid phases. The manual will provide a basic understanding of how the MINTEQ computer code operates and the important principles that are incorporated into the code and instruct a user of the MINTEQ code on how to create input files to simulate a variety of geochemical problems. Chapters 2 through 8 are for the user who has some experience with or wishes to review the principles important to geochemical computer codes. These chapters include information on the methodology MINTEQ uses to incorporate these principles into the code. Chapters 9 through 11 are for the user who wants to know how to create input data files to model various types of problems. 35 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs
Dubetsky, B.; Berman, P.R.; Sleator, T.
A theory of a grating simulated echo (GTE) is developed. The GSE involves the sequential excitation of atoms by two counterpropagating traveling waves, a standing wave, and a third traveling wave. It is shown that the echo signal is very sensitive to small changes in atomic velocity, much more sensitive than the normal stimulated echo. Use of the GSE as a collisional probe or accelerometer is discussed
Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.
Arlinah Abd Rashid
Full Text Available The good and service tax (GST in Malaysia was implemented in 2015 as a tax reform program to generate a stable source of revenue. This study explores the respondents’ behaviour towards GST, a week post-implementation. The partial least square (PLS modelling was used to establish the relationship between acceptance, knowledge and feelings towards GST as well as the household quality of life. There is a positive relationship between the antecedents and the quality of life. Acceptance of GST exerts a significant relationship towards feelings and quality of life. The study concludes that Malaysians, in general, accept GST that ensures a better quality of life in the future.
Thunberg, R L; Sexstone, A J; Calabrese, J P; Bissonnette, G K
In vitro laboratory studies were performed to assess the effects of antecedent growth conditions on the recovery of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 following chloramine disinfection. Six- and 18-h cultures of each organism were grown under aerobic, fermentative, and nitrate-reducing conditions prior to disinfection. At predetermined time intervals during a 10-min exposure to chloramine, survivors were surface plated on nonselective recovery media to determine C(n)t values. It was observed that nitrate-reducing growth predisposed the test organisms towards an increased sensitivity to chloramine stress over cells grown under fermentation or aerobic conditions (p < 0.01).
Bretherton, F.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Singley, P.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
An analysis is presented of the uses of metadata from four aspects of database operations: (1) search, query, retrieval, (2) ingest, quality control, processing, (3) application to application transfer; (4) storage, archive. Typical degrees of database functionality ranging from simple file retrieval to interdisciplinary global query with metadatabase-user dialog and involving many distributed autonomous databases, are ranked in approximate order of increasing sophistication of the required knowledge representation. An architecture is outlined for implementing such functionality in many different disciplinary domains utilizing a variety of off the shelf database management subsystems and processor software, each specialized to a different abstract data model.
Jin, Jiahua; Yan, Xiangbin; Li, Yijun; Li, Yumei
The emergence of social media technology has led to the creation of many online healthcare communities, where patients can easily share and look for healthcare-related information from peers who have experienced a similar problem. However, with increased user-generated content, there is a need to constantly analyse which content should be trusted as one sifts through enormous amounts of healthcare information. This study aims to explore patients' healthcare information seeking behavior in online communities. Based on dual-process theory and the knowledge adoption model, we proposed a healthcare information adoption model for online communities. This model highlights that information quality, emotional support, and source credibility are antecedent variables of adoption likelihood of healthcare information, and competition among repliers and involvement of recipients moderate the relationship between the antecedent variables and adoption likelihood. Empirical data were collected from the healthcare module of China's biggest Q&A community-Baidu Knows. Text mining techniques were adopted to calculate the information quality and emotional support contained in each reply text. A binary logistics regression model and hierarchical regression approach were employed to test the proposed conceptual model. Information quality, emotional support, and source credibility have significant and positive impact on healthcare information adoption likelihood, and among these factors, information quality has the biggest impact on a patient's adoption decision. In addition, competition among repliers and involvement of recipients were tested as moderating effects between these antecedent factors and the adoption likelihood. Results indicate competition among repliers positively moderates the relationship between source credibility and adoption likelihood, and recipients' involvement positively moderates the relationship between information quality, source credibility, and adoption
Fadi Abdelmuniem Abdelfattah
Full Text Available Purpose: This research aim to investigate the influence of service quality attributes towards customers’ loyalty on health insurance products. In addition, this research also tested the mediation role of perceived value in between service quality and customers’ loyalty on health insurance products. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the literature review, this research developed a conceptual model of customers loyalty embedded with service quality and perceived value. The study surveyed 342 healthcare insurance customers. Apart from assessing the reliability and validity of the constructs through confirmatory factor analysis, this research also used structural equation modelling (SEM approach to test the proposed hypothesis. Findings: The results from the inferential statistics revealed that the healthcare insurance customers are highly influenced by service quality followed by the perceived value in reaching their loyalty towards a particular health insurance service provider. Research limitations/implications: The sample for this study is based on health insurance customers only and it is suggested that future studies enlarge the scope to include others type of customers of different insurance products. Practical implications: In order to encourage the customers to more loyal towards their service providers, this research will add value for the mangers to understand the items of service quality and considering the perceived value of the target customers in order to optimize their loyalty. As whole, the outcome of this research will assist managers for better understanding of the customers’ loyalty antecedents under the perspective of healthcare insurance products. Originality/value: This paper has tried to provide a comprehensive understanding about customers’ loyalty under the perspective of service quality and perceived values context in the Malaysian health care insurance industry. Since there was a lack of such research in
Hao Yu Choo
Full Text Available Some researchers have long been interested in reconstructing natural insects into steerable robots or vehicles. However, until recently, these so-called cyborg insects, biobots, or living machines existed only in science fiction. Owing to recent advances in nano/micro manufacturing, data processing, and anatomical and physiological biology, we can now stimulate living insects to induce user-desired motor actions and behaviors. To improve the practicality and applicability of airborne cyborg insects, a reliable and controllable flight initiation protocol is required. This study demonstrates an electrical stimulation protocol that initiates flight in a beetle (Mecynorrhina torquata, Coleoptera. A reliable stimulation protocol was determined by analyzing a pair of dorsal longitudinal muscles (DLMs, flight muscles that oscillate the wings. DLM stimulation has achieved with a high success rate (> 90%, rapid response time (< 1.0 s, and small variation (< 0.33 s; indicating little habituation. Notably, the stimulation of DLMs caused no crucial damage to the free flight ability. In contrast, stimulation of optic lobes, which was earlier demonstrated as a successful flight initiation protocol, destabilized the beetle in flight. Thus, DLM stimulation is a promising secure protocol for inducing flight in cyborg insects or biobots.
Antal, Andrea; Alekseichuk, I; Bikson, M
Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...
Ahlin, Kristina; Jacobsson, Bo; Nilsson, Staffan; Himmelmann, Kate
Antecedents of accompanying impairments in cerebral palsy and their relation to neuroimaging patterns need to be explored. A population-based study of 309 children with cerebral palsy born at term between 1983 and 1994. Prepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum variables previously studied as antecedents of cerebral palsy type and motor severity were analyzed in children with cerebral palsy and cognitive impairment and/or epilepsy, and in children with cerebral palsy without these accompanying impairments. Neuroimaging patterns and their relation to identified antecedents were analyzed. Data were retrieved from the cerebral palsy register of western Sweden, and from obstetric and neonatal records. Children with cerebral palsy and accompanying impairments more often had low birthweight (kg) (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.3-0.8), brain maldevelopment known at birth (p = 0.007, odds ratio ∞) and neonatal infection (odds ratio 5.4, 95% confidence interval 1.04-28.4). Moreover, neuroimaging patterns of maldevelopment (odds ratio 7.2, 95% confidence interval 2.9-17.2), cortical/subcortical lesions (odds ratio 5.3, 95% confidence interval 2.3-12.2) and basal ganglia lesions (odds ratio 7.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4-41.3) were more common, wheras white matter injury was found significantly less often (odds ratio 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.5). In most children with maldevelopment, the intrapartum and postpartum periods were uneventful (p Cerebral maldevelopment was associated with prepartum antecedents, whereas subcortical/cortical and basal ganglia lesions were associated with intrapartum and postpartum antecedents. No additional factor other than those related to motor impairment was associated with epilepsy and cognitive impairment in cerebral palsy. Timing of antecedents deemed important for the development of cerebral palsy with accompanying impairments were supported by neuroimaging patterns. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics