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Sample records for stiffeners suichoku hokozai

  1. Formulation of an improved smeared stiffener theory for buckling analysis of grid-stiffened composite panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaunky, Navin; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1995-01-01

    A smeared stiffener theory for stiffened panels is presented that includes skin-stiffener interaction effects. The neutral surface profile of the skin-stiffener combination is developed analytically using the minimum potential energy principle and statics conditions. The skin-stiffener interaction is accounted for by computing the stiffness due to the stiffener and the skin in the skin-stiffener region about the neutral axis at the stiffener. Buckling load results for axially stiffened, orthogrid, and general grid-stiffened panels are obtained using the smeared stiffness combined with a Rayleigh-Ritz method and are compared with results from detailed finite element analyses.

  2. Aeroelastic Wingbox Stiffener Topology Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.

    2017-01-01

    This work considers an aeroelastic wingbox model seeded with run-out blade stiffeners along the skins. Topology optimization is conducted within the shell webs of the stiffeners, in order to add cutouts and holes for mass reduction. This optimization is done with a global-local approach in order to moderate the computational cost: aeroelastic loads are computed at the wing-level, but the topology and sizing optimization is conducted at the panel-level. Each panel is optimized separately under stress, buckling, and adjacency constraints, and periodically reassembled to update the trimmed aeroelastic loads. The resulting topology is baselined against a design with standard full-depth solid stiffener blades, and found to weigh 7.43% less.

  3. Stiffened Composite Fuselage Barrel Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movva, R. G.; Mittal, A.; Agrawal, K.; Upadhyay, C. S.

    2012-07-01

    In a typical commercial transport aircraft, Stiffened skin panels and frames contribute around 40% of the fuselage weight. In the current study a stiffened composite fuselage skin panel optimization engine is developed for optimization of the layups of composite panels and stringers using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The skin and stringers of the fuselage section are optimized for the strength and the stability requirements. The selection of the GA parameters considered for the optimization is arrived by performing case studies on selected problems. The optimization engine facilitates in carrying out trade studies for selection of the optimum ply layup and material combination for the configuration being analyzed. The optimization process is applied on a sample model and the results are presented.

  4. Buckling optimization of steering stiffeners for grid-stiffened composite structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, D.; Abdalla, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Grid-stiffened composite structures, where the skin is stiffened by a lattice of stiffeners, not only allow for significant reduction in structural weight but are also competitive in terms of structural stability and damage tolerance compared with sandwich composite structures. As the development of

  5. Manufacturing Theory for Advanced Grid Stiffened Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huybrechts, Steven M; Meink, Troy E; Wegner, Peter M; Ganley, Jeff M

    2002-01-01

    Lattices of rigidly connected ribs, known as advanced grid stiffened (AGS) structures, have many advantages over traditional construction methods, which use panels, sandwich cores and/or expensive frameworks...

  6. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Allen, Benjamin; Jensen, Katharine E.; Foote, Henry P.; Wettlaufer, John S.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby’s inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite’s bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby’s theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet’s deformation is strongly size-dependent, with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straightforward extension of Eshelby’s theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive stiffening of solids by fluid inclusions is expected whenever inclusion radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young’s modulus of the solid matrix. These results suggest that surface tension can be a simple and effective mechanism to cloak the far-field elastic signature of inclusions.

  7. Buckling Analysis of Grid-Stiffened Composite Shells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, D.; Abdalla, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in grid-stiffened composite structures; they are not only competitive with conventional stiffened constructions and sandwich shells in terms of weight but also enjoy superior damage tolerance properties. In this paper, both global and local structural instabilities are investigated for grid-stiffened composite panels using homogenization theory. Characteristic cell configurations with periodic boundary constraints are employed for orthogrid- and isogrid-stiffened s...

  8. Effects of Joint Stiffening on the Dynamic Response of Frames ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the stiffened portion to that of the flexible portion of the left and right ends of a member respectively. In the absence of joint stiffeners (i.e. α = β = 0) the obtained modified ... An earlier work showed that stiffening of joints enhances stability.

  9. Compressive Strength of Longitudinally Stiffened GRP Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhme, J.; Noury, P.; Riber, Hans Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    A structural analysis of a cross stiffened orthotropic GRP panel subjected to uniaxial compressive loads is carried out. Analytical solutions to the buckling of such structures are proposed and validated by a finite element analysis. Both analytical and finite element approaches confirm an identi...

  10. Buckling Optimization of Thick Stiffened Cylindrical Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Hassan Bader

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the critical pressure due to buckling was calculated numerically by using ANSYS15 for both stiffened and un-stiffened cylinder for various locations and installing types , strengthening of the cylinder causes a more significant increase in buckling pressures than non reinforced cylinder . The optimum design of structure was done by using the ASYS15 program; in this step the number of design variables 21 DVs. These variables are Independent variables that directly affect. The design variables represented the thickness of the cylinder and( height and width of 10 stiffeners. State variables (SVs, these variables are dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs and are necessary to constrain the design. The objective function is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized. In this case the state variable is critical pressure (CP and the objective function is the total (volume of the structure. The optimum weight of the structure with reasonable required conditions for multi types of structure was found. The result shows the best location of stiffener at internal side with circumferential direction. In this case the critical pressure can be increased about 18.6% and the total weight of the structure decreases to 15.8%.

  11. Behaviour of a stiffened circular slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.G.; Subramanian, K.V.

    1975-01-01

    Configuration of intake structure for cooling water system for Madras Atomic Power Project was studied on a hydraulic model and it was recommended to provide a circular slab in the structure to give directional property to the inflow and reduce air entrainment. This slab, as indicated by hydraulic model tests was required to withstand hydrodynamic pressures of the order of 10T/m 2 due to breaking waves of about 6 m height. Analysis of this circular cover slab, Stiffened by radial and circumferential beams, carried with the help of an analysis based on grid idealisation is presented. Results of approximate design analysis to assess behaviour of radial stiffener have been compared. Actual design is based on judgement of actual degree of fixity possessed by the supports or restraints. (author)

  12. Elastic tripping analysis of corroded stiffeners in stiffened plate with irregular surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbarranji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Tripping of stiffeners is one of the buckling modes of stiffened panels which could rapidly lead to its catastrophic failure. Loss of thickness in the web and flange of stiffeners due to corrosion reduces elastic buckling strength. It is common practice to assume a uniform thickness reduction for corroded surfaces. To estimate the remaining strength of a corroded structure, a much higher level of accuracy is required since corroded surfaces are irregular. Finite element method is employed to analyze elastic tripping stress of corroded stiffeners with irregular surfaces. Comparing the results with elastic tripping stress of un-corroded stiffener, a reduction factor is introduced. It is found that for flat-bars and angle-bars the reduction factor increases by increasing corrosion loss; however, for tee-bars remains almost unchanged. Surface roughness has no significant effect on reduction of tripping Euler stress of angle-bars and flat-bars; however, it has an effect on reduction of tripping Euler stress of small flat-bars. For high values of corrosion loss, reduction of tripping Euler stress is higher in flat-bars than angle-bars. Corrosion at the mid-length or ends of flat-bars is more detrimental than full length. Corrosion at the ends of angle-bars is more detrimental than full length and mid-length.

  13. Flexible neural interfaces with integrated stiffening shank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooker, Angela C.; Felix, Sarah H.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Shah, Kedar G.; Sheth, Heeral; Tolosa, Vanessa

    2017-10-17

    A neural interface includes a first dielectric material having at least one first opening for a first electrical conducting material, a first electrical conducting material in the first opening, and at least one first interconnection trace electrical conducting material connected to the first electrical conducting material. A stiffening shank material is located adjacent the first dielectric material, the first electrical conducting material, and the first interconnection trace electrical conducting material.

  14. Flexible neural interfaces with integrated stiffening shank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooker, Angela C.; Felix, Sarah H.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Shah, Kedar G.; Sheth, Heeral; Tolosa, Vanessa

    2016-07-26

    A neural interface includes a first dielectric material having at least one first opening for a first electrical conducting material, a first electrical conducting material in the first opening, and at least one first interconnection trace electrical conducting material connected to the first electrical conducting material. A stiffening shank material is located adjacent the first dielectric material, the first electrical conducting material, and the first interconnection trace electrical conducting material.

  15. Carbon fiber reinforced hierarchical orthogrid stiffened cylinder: Fabrication and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Lai, Changlian; Sun, Fangfang; Li, Ming; Ji, Bin; Wei, Weiyi; Liu, Debo; Zhang, Xi; Fan, Hualin

    2018-04-01

    To get strong, stiff and light cylindrical shell, carbon fiber reinforced hierarchical orthogrid stiffened cylinders are designed and fabricated. The cylinder is stiffened by two-scale orthogrid. The primary orthogrid has thick and high ribs and contains several sub-orthogrid cells whose rib is much thinner and lower. The primary orthogrid stiffens the bending rigidity of the cylinder to resist the global instability while the sub-orthogrid stiffens the bending rigidity of the skin enclosed by the primary orthogrid to resist local buckling. The cylinder is fabricated by filament winding method based on a silicone rubber mandrel with hierarchical grooves. Axial compression tests are performed to reveal the failure modes. With hierarchical stiffeners, the cylinder fails at skin fracture and has high specific strength. The cylinder will fail at end crushing if the end of the cylinder is not thickened. Global instability and local buckling are well restricted by the hierarchical stiffeners.

  16. Unitized Stiffened Composite Textile Panels: Manufacturing, Characterization, Experiments, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosztowny, Cyrus Joseph Robert

    Use of carbon fiber textiles in complex manufacturing methods creates new implementations of structural components by increasing performance, lowering manufacturing costs, and making composites overall more attractive across industry. Advantages of textile composites include high area output, ease of handling during the manufacturing process, lower production costs per material used resulting from automation, and provide post-manufacturing assembly mainstreaming because significantly more complex geometries such as stiffened shell structures can be manufactured with fewer pieces. One significant challenge with using stiffened composite structures is stiffener separation under compression. Axial compression loading conditions have frequently observed catastrophic structural failure due to stiffeners separating from the shell skin. Characterizing stiffener separation behavior is often costly computationally and experimentally. The objectives of this research are to demonstrate unitized stiffened textile composite panels can be manufactured to produce quality test specimens, that existing characterization techniques applied to state-of-the-art high-performance composites provide valuable information in modeling such structures, that the unitized structure concept successfully removes stiffener separation as a primary structural failure mode, and that modeling textile material failure modes are sufficient to accurately capture postbuckling and final failure responses of the stiffened structures. The stiffened panels in this study have taken the integrally stiffened concept to an extent such that the stiffeners and skin are manufactured at the same time, as one single piece, and from the same composite textile layers. Stiffener separation is shown to be removed as a primary structural failure mode for unitized stiffened composite textile panels loaded under axial compression well into the postbuckling regime. Instead of stiffener separation, a material damaging and

  17. Viscoelastic Analysis of Thermally Stiffening Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Andrew; Rende, Deniz; Senses, Erkan; Akcora, Pinar; Ozisik, Rahmi

    Poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, filled with silica nanoparticles coated with poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, was shown to present thermally stiffening behavior above the glass transition temperature of both PEO and PMMA. In the current study, the viscoelastic beahvior of this nanocomposite system is investigated via nanoindenation experiments to complement on going rheological studies. Results were compared to neat polymers, PEO and PMMA, to understand the effect of coated nanoparticles. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1538730.

  18. Buckling Analysis of Grid-Stiffened Composite Shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, D.; Abdalla, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in grid-stiffened composite structures; they are not only competitive with conventional stiffened constructions and sandwich shells in terms of weight but also enjoy superior damage tolerance properties. In this paper, both global and local structural instabilities are

  19. Strength of Ship Stiffened Panels under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weicheng, Cui; Wang, Young-jun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    A ship's hull is a box girder structure composed of stiffened panels and therefore, strength of stiffened panels plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of s...

  20. Instability behavior of stiffened dome liners under construction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefts, A.R.; Guha-Majumdar, S.; Wanchoo, M.K.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present techniques related to stability analysis, design concepts and behavior of dome liners. Various stiffening systems are examined from economy, schedule and constructablity point of view. The various failure modes can be classified as either buckling due to local instability or to an overall instability of the shell. Local instability may occur due to buckling of liner panel between a pair of rings and stringers or torsional and lateral buckling of the stiffeners. Methods are developed for proportioning stiffening system to preclude local buckling. Overall stability is a function of concrete pour height and thickness, loading distribution, time elapse between successive placements, rate of concrete placement, arrangement of stiffeners and other external supports. A computer program based on system energy minimization is used to study the overall instability of stiffened domes. Modelling techniques, effect of temperature and lack of bond, and their influence on results are discussed. Results for a self-standing stiffened hemispherical dome are presented in the form of mode shapes and buckling loads. Based on the results, a pouring scheme is recommended for an economical stiffening system. Recommendations are made to select the stiffening system and predict the buckling loads for preliminary analysis and design of the dome liner. Existing methods and code provisions related to tolerance, design criteria etc. are examined and recommendations made from practical considerations

  1. Crack turning in integrally stiffened aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Richard Glen

    Current emphasis in the aircraft industry toward reducing manufacturing cost has created a renewed interest in integrally stiffened structures. Crack turning has been identified as an approach to improve the damage tolerance and fail-safety of this class of structures. A desired behavior is for skin cracks to turn before reaching a stiffener, instead of growing straight through. A crack in a pressurized fuselage encounters high T-stress as it nears the stiffener---a condition favorable to crack turning. Also, the tear resistance of aluminum alloys typically varies with crack orientation, a form of anisotropy that can influence the crack path. The present work addresses these issues with a study of crack turning in two-dimensions, including the effects of both T-stress and fracture anisotropy. Both effects are shown to have relation to the process zone size, an interaction that is central to this study. Following an introduction to the problem, the T-stress effect is studied for a slightly curved semi-infinite crack with a cohesive process zone, yielding a closed form expression for the future crack path in an infinite medium. For a given initial crack tip curvature and tensile T-stress, the crack path instability is found to increase with process zone size. Fracture orthotropy is treated using a simple function to interpolate between the two principal fracture resistance values in two-dimensions. An extension to three-dimensions interpolates between the six principal values of fracture resistance. Also discussed is the transition between mode I and mode II fracture in metals. For isotropic materials, there is evidence that the crack seeks out a direction of either local symmetry (pure mode I) or local asymmetry (pure mode II) growth. For orthotropic materials the favored states are not pure modal, and have mode mixity that is a function of crack orientation. Drawing upon these principles, two crack turning prediction approaches are extended to include fracture

  2. Tension Stiffened and Tendon Actuated Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, William R. (Inventor); Dorsey, John T. (Inventor); Ganoe, George G. (Inventor); King, Bruce D. (Inventor); Jones, Thomas C. (Inventor); Mercer, Charles D. (Inventor); Corbin, Cole K. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A tension stiffened and tendon actuated manipulator is provided performing robotic-like movements when acquiring a payload. The manipulator design can be adapted for use in-space, lunar or other planetary installations as it is readily configurable for acquiring and precisely manipulating a payload in both a zero-g environment and in an environment with a gravity field. The manipulator includes a plurality of link arms, a hinge connecting adjacent link arms together to allow the adjacent link arms to rotate relative to each other and a cable actuation and tensioning system provided between adjacent link arms. The cable actuation and tensioning system includes a spreader arm and a plurality of driven and non-driven elements attached to the link arms and the spreader arm. At least one cable is routed around the driven and non-driven elements for actuating the hinge.

  3. Calculation of mechanical vibration frequencies of stiffened superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.J.; Spalek, G.

    1992-01-01

    We calculated the frequencies of transverse and longitudinal mechanical-vibration modes of the HEPL- modified, CERN/DESY four-cell superconducting cavity, using finite-element techniques. We compared the results of these calculations, including the stiffening of the cavity with rods, with mode frequencies measured at HEPL. The correlation between data was significant. The same techniques were also used to design and optimize the stiffening scheme for the seven-cell 805-MHz superconducting cavity being developed at Los Alamos. In this report, we describe the final stiffening scheme and the results of our calculations

  4. Calculation of mechanical vibration frequencies of stiffened superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.J.; Spalek, G.

    1992-01-01

    We calculated the frequencies of transverse and longitudinal mechanical-vibration modes of the HEPL-modified, CERN/DESY four-cell superconducting cavity, using finite-element techniques. We compared the results of these calculations, including the stiffening of the cavity with rods, with mode frequencies measured at HEPL. The correlation between data was significant. The same techniques were also used to design and optimize the stiffening scheme for the seven-cell 805-MHz superconducting cavity being developed at Los Alamos. In this report, we describe the final stiffening scheme and the results of our calculations. (Author) 6 figs., 5 tabs., 4 refs

  5. Elastic buckling analysis of corroded stiffened plates with irregular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Numerical simulation is used to study the influence of corrosion damage ... For the structural safety assessment of corroded structures, strength reduction ... The main aim of the present work is to determine Euler stress of stiffened plates with.

  6. Damage tolerant evaluation of cracked stiffened panels under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stiffened panels; stress intensity factor; fatigue and fracture; damage .... Extensive work on fracture analysis of structural components was carried out by using the ... respectively), in view of the transformation matrices related to MQL9S2 FE.

  7. Margination of Stiffened Red Blood Cells Regulated By Vessel Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Li, Donghai; Li, Yongjian; Wan, Jiandi; Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng

    2017-11-10

    Margination of stiffened red blood cells has been implicated in many vascular diseases. Here, we report the margination of stiffened RBCs in vivo, and reveal the crucial role of the vessel geometry in the margination by calculations when the blood is seen as viscoelastic fluid. The vessel-geometry-regulated margination is then confirmed by in vitro experiments in microfluidic devices, and it establishes new insights to cell sorting technology and artificial blood vessel fabrication.

  8. Guided wave crack detection and size estimation in stiffened structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Md Yeasin; Faisal Haider, Mohammad; Poddar, Banibrata; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2018-03-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) deals with the nondestructive inspection of defects, corrosion, leaks in engineering structures by using ultrasonic guided waves. In the past, simplistic structures were often considered for analyzing the guided wave interaction with the defects. In this study, we focused on more realistic and relatively complicated structure for detecting any defect by using a non-contact sensing approach. A plate with a stiffener was considered for analyzing the guided wave interactions. Piezoelectric wafer active transducers were used to produce excitation in the structures. The excitation generated the multimodal guided waves (aka Lamb waves) that propagate in the plate with stiffener. The presence of stiffener in the plate generated scattered waves. The direct wave and the additional scattered waves from the stiffener were experimentally recorded and studied. These waves were considered as a pristine case in this research. A fine horizontal semi-circular crack was manufactured by using electric discharge machining in the same stiffener. The presence of crack in the stiffener produces additional scattered waves as well as trapped waves. These scattered waves and trapped wave modes from the cracked stiffener were experimentally measured by using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV). These waves were analyzed and compared with that from the pristine case. The analyses suggested that both size and shape of the horizontal crack may be predicted from the pattern of the scattered waves. Different features (reflection, transmission, and mode-conversion) of the scattered wave signals are analyzed. We found direct transmission feature for incident A0 wave mode and modeconversion feature for incident S0 mode are most suitable for detecting the crack in the stiffener. The reflection feature may give a better idea of sizing the crack.

  9. Applying a Stiffened Stitched Concept to Shear-Loaded Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    2014-01-01

    NASA and The Boeing Company have worked to develop new low-cost, lightweight composite structures for aircraft. A stitched carbon-epoxy material system was developed to reduce the weight and cost of transport aircraft structure, first in the NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program in the 1990's and now in the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. By stitching through the thickness of a dry carbon fiber material prior to cure, the need for mechanical fasteners is almost eliminated. Stitching also provides the benefit of reducing or eliminating delaminations, including those between stiffener flanges and skin. The stitched panel concept used in the ACT program used simple blade-stiffeners as stringers, caps, and clips. Today, the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept is being developed for application to advanced vehicle configurations. PRSEUS provides additional weight savings through the use of a stiffener with a thin web and a unidirectional carbon rod at the top of the web which provides structurally efficient stiffening. Comparisons between stitched and unstitched structure and between blade-stiffened and rod-stiffened structure are presented focusing on a panel loaded in shear. Shear loading is representative of spar loading in wing structures.

  10. Emergent Strain Stiffening in Interlocked Granular Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Denis; Houze, Maurine; Rambach, Paul; Salez, Thomas; Patinet, Sylvain; Damman, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    Granular chain packings exhibit a striking emergent strain-stiffening behavior despite the individual looseness of the constitutive chains. Using indentation experiments on such assemblies, we measure an exponential increase in the collective resistance force F with the indentation depth z and with the square root of the number N of beads per chain. These two observations are, respectively, reminiscent of the self-amplification of friction in a capstan or in interleaved books, as well as the physics of polymers. The experimental data are well captured by a novel model based on these two ingredients. Specifically, the resistance force is found to vary according to the universal relation log F ˜μ √{N }Φ11 /8z /b , where μ is the friction coefficient between two elementary beads, b is their size, and Φ is the volume fraction of chain beads when semidiluted in a surrounding medium of unconnected beads. Our study suggests that theories normally confined to the realm of polymer physics at a molecular level can be used to explain phenomena at a macroscopic level. This class of systems enables the study of friction in complex assemblies, with practical implications for the design of new materials, the textile industry, and biology.

  11. Design and Analysis of a Stiffened Composite Structure Repair Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam

    2011-01-01

    A design and analysis of a repair concept applicable to a stiffened thin-skin composite panel based on the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure is presented. Since the repair concept is a bolted repair using metal components, it can easily be applied in the operational environment. Initial analyses are aimed at validating the finite element modeling approach by comparing with available test data. Once confidence in the analysis approach is established several repair configurations are explored and the most efficient one presented. Repairs involving damage to the top of the stiffener alone are considered in addition to repairs involving a damaged stiffener, flange and underlying skin. High fidelity finite element modeling techniques such as mesh-independent definition of compliant fasteners, elastic-plastic metallic material properties and geometrically nonlinear analysis are utilized in the effort. The results of the analysis are presented and factors influencing the design are assessed and discussed.

  12. Design aids for stiffened composite shells with cutouts

    CERN Document Server

    Sahoo, Sarmila

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the free vibrations of graphite-epoxy laminated composite stiffened shells with cutout both in terms of the natural frequencies and mode shapes. The dynamic analysis of shell structures, which may have complex geometry and arbitrary loading and boundary conditions, is solved efficiently by the finite element method, even including cutouts in shells. The results may be readily used by practicing engineers dealing with stiffened composite shells with cutouts. Several shell forms viz. cylindrical shell, hypar shell, conoidal shell, spherical shell, saddle shell, hyperbolic paraboloidal shell and elliptic paraboloidal shell are considered in the book. The dynamic characteristics of stiffened composite shells with cutout are described in terms of the natural frequency and mode shapes. The size of the cutouts and their positions with respect to the shell centre are varied for different edge constraints of cross-ply and angle-ply laminated composite shells. The effects of these parametric variat...

  13. Sensitivity analysis on ultimate strength of aluminium stiffened panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigo, P.; Sarghiuta, R.; Estefen, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an extensive sensitivity analysis carried out by the Committee III.1 "Ultimate Strength" of ISSC?2003 in the framework of a benchmark on the ultimate strength of aluminium stiffened panels. Previously, different benchmarks were presented by ISSC committees on ul...

  14. Prediction of Vibrational Behavior of Grid-Stiffened Cylindrical Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A unified analytical approach is applied to investigate the vibrational behavior of grid-stiffened cylindrical shells with different boundary conditions. A smeared method is employed to superimpose the stiffness contribution of the stiffeners with those of shell in order to obtain the equivalent stiffness parameters of the whole panel. Theoretical formulation is established based on Sanders’ thin shell theory. The modal forms are assumed to have the axial dependency in the form of Fourier series whose derivatives are legitimized using Stoke's transformation. A 3D finite element model is also built using ABAQUS software which takes into consideration the exact geometric configuration of the stiffeners and the shell. The achievements from the two types of analyses are compared with each other and good agreement has been obtained. The Influences of variations in shell geometrical parameters, boundary condition, and changes in the cross stiffeners angle on the natural frequencies are studied. The results obtained are novel and can be used as a benchmark for further studies. The simplicity and the capability of the present method are also discussed.

  15. Flexural-torsional buckling analysis of angle-bar stiffened plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Rahbar Ranji [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The interaction of flexural-torsional buckling modes is critical for stiffened plates with asymmetric stiffeners. However, this interaction is ignored in all design rules because it is complex to characterize. In the literature, the presence of an attached plate is ignored, and stiffened plate is treated as an ordinary asymmetric beam. In the flexural buckling mode, stiffener and the attached plate buckle together; in the torsional buckling mode, the attached plate cannot freely rotate with stiffener. Basic equations of the flexural-torsional buckling modes are deduced based on hybrid beam concept and a new strain distribution assumption for sideway bending of stiffeners. Elastic buckling stresses of different angle-bar stiffened plates are calculated and compared with those generated by the Finite element method (FEM) and those available in the literature. The present method has better agreements with FEM.

  16. Design and evaluation of a foam-filled hat-stiffened panel concept for aircraft primary structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Damodar R.

    1995-01-01

    A structurally efficient hat-stiffened panel concept that utilizes a structural foam as stiffener core has been designed for aircraft primary structural applications. This stiffener concept utilizes a manufacturing process that can be adapted readily to grid-stiffened structural configurations which possess inherent damage tolerance characteristics due to their multiplicity of load paths. The foam-filled hat-stiffener concept in a prismatically stiffened panel configuration is more efficient than most other stiffened panel configurations in a load range that is typical for both fuselage and wing structures. The prismatically stiffened panel concept investigated here has been designed using AS4/3502 preimpregnated tape and Rohacell foam core and evaluated for its buckling and postbuckling behavior with and without low-speed impact damage. The results from single-stiffener and multi-stiffener specimens suggest that this structural concept responds to loading as anticipated and has good damage tolerance characteristics.

  17. Compensatory Effect between Aortic Stiffening and Remodelling during Ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guala

    Full Text Available The arterial tree exhibits a complex spatio-temporal wave pattern, whose healthy behaviour depends on a subtle balance between mechanical and geometrical properties. Several clinical studies demonstrated that such a balance progressively breaks down during ageing, when the aorta stiffens and remodels by increasing its diameter. These two degenerative processes however, have different impacts on the arterial wave pattern. They both tend to compensate for each other, thus reducing the detrimental effect they would have had if they had arisen individually. This remarkable compensatory mechanism is investigated by a validated multi-scale model, with the aim to elucidate how aortic stiffening and remodelling quantitatively impact the complex interplay between forward and reflected backward waves in the arterial network. We focus on the aorta and on the pressure at the ventricular-aortic interface, which epidemiological studies demonstrate to play a key role in cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Compensatory Effect between Aortic Stiffening and Remodelling during Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guala, Andrea; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The arterial tree exhibits a complex spatio-temporal wave pattern, whose healthy behaviour depends on a subtle balance between mechanical and geometrical properties. Several clinical studies demonstrated that such a balance progressively breaks down during ageing, when the aorta stiffens and remodels by increasing its diameter. These two degenerative processes however, have different impacts on the arterial wave pattern. They both tend to compensate for each other, thus reducing the detrimental effect they would have had if they had arisen individually. This remarkable compensatory mechanism is investigated by a validated multi-scale model, with the aim to elucidate how aortic stiffening and remodelling quantitatively impact the complex interplay between forward and reflected backward waves in the arterial network. We focus on the aorta and on the pressure at the ventricular-aortic interface, which epidemiological studies demonstrate to play a key role in cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Numerical analysis of stiffener for hybrid drive unite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubovičová Lenka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The matter of this article is a stress-strain analysis of hybrid drive prototype unit connected directly to convention Concrete Transit Mixer Gearbox. The unite was developed with intention to do field test on existing convection machines with possibility to use existing interfaces. The hybrid drive unit consists from electric and hydrostatic motor connected through addition mechanical transmission gearbox. The question is if today standard interface is good enough or need additional support a “stiffener”. Two engineering design were analysed. The first one includes using the stiffener to fixate the construction of hybrid drive unite connected to the planetary gear. The second one is without the stiffener. For strain-stress analysis, a finite element software ANSYS Workbench was used.

  20. Tensile behavior and tension stiffening of reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2001-03-01

    For the ultimate behavior analysis of containment buildings under severe accident conditions, a clear understanding of tensile behaviors of plain and reinforced concrete is necessary. Nonlinear models for tensile behaviors of concrete are also needed. This report describe following items: tensile behaviors of plain concrete, test results of reinforced concrete panels in uniaxial and biaxial tension, tension stiffening. The tensile behaviors of reinforced concrete are significantly influenced by the properties of concrete and reinforcing steel. Thus, for a more reliable evaluation of tensile behavior and ultimate pressure capacity of a reinforced or prestressed concrete containment building, an advanced concrete model which can be considered rebar-concrete interaction effects should be developed. In additions, a crack behavior analysis method and tension stiffening models, which are based on fracture mechanics, should be developed. The model should be based on the various test data from specimens considering material and sectional properties of the containment building

  1. Stiffening mechanisms in amorphous polyamide bio-nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, Walter W. [Institute of Applied Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa); Macheca, Afonso D. [Institute of Applied Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Chemical Engineering, Eduardo Mondlane University, P.O. Box 257, Maputo (Mozambique); Benhamida, Aida; Kaci, Mustapha [Laboratoire des Matériaux Polymères Avancés (LMPA), Université de Bejaia 06000 (Algeria)

    2016-05-18

    Dimer fatty acid polyamide nanocomposites based on flake- or needle-shaped nanoparticles were prepared via melt compounding. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of both individually dispersed particles and particle agglomerates in the polymer matrix. Dynamic mechanical analysis suggests that three stiffening mechanisms were operating. The reinforcing effect of the high stiffness inorganic filler particles is the primary contributor. Together with the chain confinement effect, that expresses itself in an apparent increase in the glass transition temperature, this provided an adequate rationalization of the stiffness variation below Tg. However, an additional stiffening effect is indicated at temperatures above Tg. The mechanism may involve dynamic network formation based on fluctuating hydrogen bonding interactions between the polymer chains and the filler particles.

  2. Compressive Behavior of Frame-Stiffened Composite Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovanof, Nicolette P.; Jegley, Dawn C.

    2011-01-01

    New technologies are being developed under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program aimed at reducing fuel burn and emissions in large commercial aircraft. A Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept is being developed which offers advantages over traditional metallic structure. In this concept a stitched carbon-epoxy material system is employed with the potential for reducing the weight and cost of transport aircraft structure by eliminating fasteners and producing a more damage tolerant design. In addition, by adding unidirectional carbon rods to the top of stiffeners and minimizing the interference between the sandwich frames and the rod-stiffened stringers, the panel becomes more structurally efficient. This document describes the results of experimentation on a PRSEUS panel in which the frames are loaded in unidirectional compression beyond the local buckling of the skin of a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft. A comparison with analytical predictions and the relationship between these test results and the global aircraft design is presented.

  3. On solutions to equilibrium problems for systems of stiffened gases

    OpenAIRE

    Flåtten, Tore; Morin, Alexandre; Munkejord, Svend Tollak

    2011-01-01

    We consider an isolated system of N immiscible fluids, each following a stiffened-gas equation of state. We consider the problem of calculating equilibrium states from the conserved fluid-mechanical properties, i.e., the partial densities and internal energies. We consider two cases; in each case mechanical equilibrium is assumed, but the fluids may or may not be in thermal equilibrium. For both cases, we address the issues of existence, uniqueness, and physical validity of equilibrium soluti...

  4. The Noble-Abel Stiffened-Gas equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Métayer, Olivier; Saurel, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Hyperbolic two-phase flow models have shown excellent ability for the resolution of a wide range of applications ranging from interfacial flows to fluid mixtures with several velocities. These models account for waves propagation (acoustic and convective) and consist in hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations. In this context, each phase is compressible and needs an appropriate convex equation of state (EOS). The EOS must be simple enough for intensive computations as well as boundary conditions treatment. It must also be accurate, this being challenging with respect to simplicity. In the present approach, each fluid is governed by a novel EOS named "Noble Abel stiffened gas," this formulation being a significant improvement of the popular "Stiffened Gas (SG)" EOS. It is a combination of the so-called "Noble-Abel" and "stiffened gas" equations of state that adds repulsive effects to the SG formulation. The determination of the various thermodynamic functions and associated coefficients is the aim of this article. We first use thermodynamic considerations to determine the different state functions such as the specific internal energy, enthalpy, and entropy. Then we propose to determine the associated coefficients for a liquid in the presence of its vapor. The EOS parameters are determined from experimental saturation curves. Some examples of liquid-vapor fluids are examined and associated parameters are computed with the help of the present method. Comparisons between analytical and experimental saturation curves show very good agreement for wide ranges of temperature for both liquid and vapor.

  5. Fracture Analysis of the FAA/NASA Wide Stiffened Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, B. R.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Dawicke, D. S.; Young, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the fracture analyses conducted on the FAA/NASA stiffened and unstiffened panels using the STAGS (STructural Analysis of General Shells) code with the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. The STAGS code with the "plane-strain" core option was used in all analyses. Previous analyses of wide, flat panels have shown that the high-constraint conditions around a crack front, like plane strain, has to be modeled in order for the critical CTOA fracture criterion to predict wide panel failures from small laboratory tests. In the present study, the critical CTOA value was determined from a wide (unstiffened) panel with anti-buckling guides. The plane-strain core size was estimated from previous fracture analyses and was equal to about the sheet thickness. Rivet flexibility and stiffener failure was based on methods and criteria, like that currently used in industry. STAGS and the CTOA criterion were used to predict load-against-crack extension for the wide panels with a single crack and multiple-site damage cracking at many adjacent rivet holes. Analyses were able to predict stable crack growth and residual strength within a few percent (5%) of stiffened panel tests results but over predicted the buckling failure load on an unstiffened panel with a single crack by 10%.

  6. Electrostatic stiffening and induced persistence length for coassembled molecular bottlebrushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Ingeborg M.; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen; de Vries, Renko; Leermakers, Frans A. M.

    2018-03-01

    A self-consistent field analysis for tunable contributions to the persistence length of isolated semiflexible polymer chains including electrostatically driven coassembled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) bottlebrushes is presented. When a chain is charged, i.e., for polyelectrolytes, there is, in addition to an intrinsic rigidity, an electrostatic stiffening effect, because the electric double layer resists bending. For molecular bottlebrushes, there is an induced contribution due to the grafts. We explore cases beyond the classical phantom main-chain approximation and elaborate molecularly more realistic models where the backbone has a finite volume, which is necessary for treating coassembled bottlebrushes. We find that the way in which the linear charge density or the grafting density is regulated is important. Typically, the stiffening effect is reduced when there is freedom for these quantities to adapt to the curvature stresses. Electrostatically driven coassembled bottlebrushes, however, are relatively stiff because the chains have a low tendency to escape from the compressed regions and the electrostatic binding force is largest in the convex part. For coassembled bottlebrushes, the induced persistence length is a nonmonotonic function of the polymer concentration: For low polymer concentrations, the stiffening grows quadratically with coverage; for semidilute polymer concentrations, the brush chains retract and regain their Gaussian size. When doing so, they lose their induced persistence length contribution. Our results correlate well with observed physical characteristics of electrostatically driven coassembled DNA-bioengineered protein-polymer bottlebrushes.

  7. The influence of stiffeners on axial crushing of glass-fabric-reinforced epoxy composite shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vasanthanathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A generic static and impact experimental procedure has been developed in this work aimed at improving the stability of glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell structures by bonding with axial stiffeners. Crashworthy structures fabricated from composite laminate with stiffeners would offer energy absorption superior to metallic structures under compressive loading situations. An experimental material characterisation of the glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite under uni-axial tension has been carried out in this study. This work provides a numerical simulation procedure to describe the static and dynamic response of unstiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell (without stiffeners and stiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell (with axial stiffeners under static and impact loading using the Finite Element Method. The finite element calculation for the present study was made with ANSYS®-LS-DYNA® software. Based upon the experimental and numerical investigations, it has been asserted that glass fabric reinforced epoxy shells stiffened with GFRP stiffeners are better than unstiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell and glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell stiffened with aluminium stiffeners. The failure surfaces of the glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell structures tested under impact were examined by SEM.

  8. Reduction of initial stress stiffening by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippine, M. A.; Sigmund, Ole; Rebeiz, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Topology optimization is a rigorous method of obtaining non-intuitive designs. We use it to obtain a capacitive RF switch that stiffens little in response to an increase of the in-plane biaxial stresses that typically develop during MEMS fabrication. The actuation voltage is closely related...... level. We include a volume constraint and a compliance constraint. Topology optimized designs are compared to an intuitively-designed RF switch. The switches contain similar features. The compliance constraint is varied such that the topology optimized switch performance approaches the intuitively......-designed one. Finally, the importance of the compliance constraint and of the robust formulation are discussed....

  9. Implementation and efficiency of two geometric stiffening approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugris, Urbano; Naya, Miguel A.; Perez, Jose A.; Cuadrado, Javier

    2008-01-01

    When the modeling of flexible bodies is required in multibody systems, the floating frame of reference formulations are probably the most efficient methods available. In the case of beams undergoing high speed rotations, the geometric stiffening effect can appear due to geometric nonlinearities, and it is often not captured by the aforementioned methods, since it is common to linearize the elastic forces assuming small deformations. The present work discusses the implementation of different existing methods developed to consider such geometric nonlinearities within a floating frame of reference formulation in natural coordinates, making emphasis on the relation between efficiency and accuracy of the resulting algorithms, seeking to provide practical criteria of use

  10. Evaluation of tension stiffening effect on the crack width calculation of flexural RC members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said M. Allam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Building codes consider the tension stiffening when calculating the crack width of the flexural members. A simple analytical procedure is proposed for the determination of forces, stresses and strains acting on a reinforced concrete section subjected to flexure considering the concrete contribution in tension up to tensile concrete strain corresponding to the cracking strength of concrete. This analytical method gives the minimum value (lower bound of tension stiffening. Also, a commercial Finite Element Program (ABAQUS 2007 was used to perform non-linear analysis in order to evaluate the total contribution of the tensioned concrete in carrying loads which may be considered as the upper bound of tension stiffening. In addition, a comparison is carried out among the different codes using four reinforced concrete rectangular models to compare and evaluate the tension stiffening with proposed analytical lower bound tension stiffening and upper bound as obtained by ABAQUS. The models include different percentages of flexural steel ratio. The comparison revealed that the codes’ equations always consider tension stiffening lying between lower and upper bound of tension stiffening proposed in this study. Also, the study showed that the tension stiffening decreases with the increase of the percentage of the flexural reinforcement ratio.

  11. Models for stiffening in cross-linked biopolymer networks : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dillen, T.; Onck, P. R.; Van der Giessen, E.

    In a recent publication, we studied the mechanical stiffening behavior in two-dimensional (2D) cross-linked networks of semiflexible biopolymer filaments under simple shear [Onck, P.R., Koeman, T., Van Dillen, T., Van der Giessen, E., 2005. Alternative explanation of stiffening in cross-linked

  12. Minimum stiffness criteria for ring frame stiffeners of space launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Linus; Schröder, Kai-Uwe

    2016-12-01

    Frame stringer-stiffened shell structures show high load carrying capacity in conjunction with low structural mass and are for this reason frequently used as primary structures of aerospace applications. Due to the great number of design variables, deriving suitable stiffening configurations is a demanding task and needs to be realized using efficient analysis methods. The structural design of ring frame stringer-stiffened shells can be subdivided into two steps. One, the design of a shell section between two ring frames. Two, the structural design of the ring frames such that a general instability mode is avoided. For sizing stringer-stiffened shell sections, several methods were recently developed, but existing ring frame sizing methods are mainly based on empirical relations or on smeared models. These methods do not mandatorily lead to reliable designs and in some cases the lightweight design potential of stiffened shell structures can thus not be exploited. In this paper, the explicit physical behaviour of ring frame stiffeners of space launch vehicles at the onset of panel instability is described using mechanical substitute models. Ring frame stiffeners of a stiffened shell structure are sized applying existing methods and the method suggested in this paper. To verify the suggested method and to demonstrate its potential, geometrically non-linear finite element analyses are performed using detailed finite element models.

  13. On buckling of double-shell-stiffened cylindrical steel structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.J.; Chiu, K.D.; Odar, E.

    1981-01-01

    Buckling analysis methods and acceptance criteria for single shells of various configurations are well documented and adequately covered by many codes. There are, however, no guidelines or criteria for large Double-Shell-Stiffened (DSS) structures, which have been used recently in nuclear power plant applications. The existing codes for buckling analysis cannot be directly utilized because of the uniqueness of structural configuration and complexity of loading. This paper discusses a method for determining the critical buckling loads for this type of structure under a multitude load and suggests buckling criteria for the design of DSS structures. The method commonly used to determine the critical buckling loads for a single shell with or without stiffeners applies reduction factors to the theoretical results. The capacity reduction factors, which are often obtained from experimental results, include plasticity corrections and account for the difference between actual and theoretical buckling loads resulting from the effects of imperfections and nonlinearities. The interaction formulas derived from experimental results can be used to compute the interaction effects of three stress components. This paper extends these concepts and discusses their applicability to a DSS cylindrical structure. (orig./HP)

  14. Arterial stiffening precedes systolic hypertension in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Robert M; Shiang, Tina; Al Sayah, Leona; Fry, Jessica L; Bajpai, Saumendra; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A; Lob, Heinrich E; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Mitchell, Gary; Cohen, Richard A; Seta, Francesca

    2013-12-01

    Stiffening of conduit arteries is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. Aortic wall stiffening increases pulsatile hemodynamic forces that are detrimental to the microcirculation in highly perfused organs, such as the heart, brain, and kidney. Arterial stiffness is associated with hypertension but presumed to be due to an adaptive response to increased hemodynamic load. In contrast, a recent clinical study found that stiffness precedes and may contribute to the development of hypertension although the mechanisms underlying hypertension are unknown. Here, we report that in a diet-induced model of obesity, arterial stiffness, measured in vivo, develops within 1 month of the initiation of the diet and precedes the development of hypertension by 5 months. Diet-induced obese mice recapitulate the metabolic syndrome and are characterized by inflammation in visceral fat and aorta. Normalization of the metabolic state by weight loss resulted in return of arterial stiffness and blood pressure to normal. Our findings support the hypothesis that arterial stiffness is a cause rather than a consequence of hypertension.

  15. Advanced grid-stiffened composite shells for applications in heavy-lift helicopter rotor blade spars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan Nampy, Sreenivas

    Modern rotor blades are constructed using composite materials to exploit their superior structural performance compared to metals. Helicopter rotor blade spars are conventionally designed as monocoque structures. Blades of the proposed Heavy Lift Helicopter are envisioned to be as heavy as 800 lbs when designed using the monocoque spar design. A new and innovative design is proposed to replace the conventional spar designs with light weight grid-stiffened composite shell. Composite stiffened shells have been known to provide excellent strength to weight ratio and damage tolerance with an excellent potential to reduce weight. Conventional stringer--rib stiffened construction is not suitable for rotor blade spars since they are limited in generating high torsion stiffness that is required for aeroelastic stability of the rotor. As a result, off-axis (helical) stiffeners must be provided. This is a new design space where innovative modeling techniques are needed. The structural behavior of grid-stiffened structures under axial, bending, and torsion loads, typically experienced by rotor blades need to be accurately predicted. The overall objective of the present research is to develop and integrate the necessary design analysis tools to conduct a feasibility study in employing grid-stiffened shells for heavy-lift rotor blade spars. Upon evaluating the limitations in state-of-the-art analytical models in predicting the axial, bending, and torsion stiffness coefficients of grid and grid-stiffened structures, a new analytical model was developed. The new analytical model based on the smeared stiffness approach was developed employing the stiffness matrices of the constituent members of the grid structure such as an arch, helical, or straight beam representing circumferential, helical, and longitudinal stiffeners. This analysis has the capability to model various stiffening configurations such as angle-grid, ortho-grid, and general-grid. Analyses were performed using an

  16. The Tension-Stiffening Contribution of NSM CFRP to the Behavior of Strengthened RC Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Azim Shukri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tension stiffening is a characteristic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams which is directly affected by the bond-slip property of steel bar and concrete interfaces. A beam strengthened with a near-surface mounted (NSM technique would be even more affected by tension stiffening, as the NSM reinforcement also possess a bond-slip property. Yet assessing how much the tension stiffening of NSM contributes to the behavior of RC beams is difficult due to the fact that bond-slip effects cannot be directly incorporated into a strain-based moment-curvature analysis. As such, the tension stiffening is typically incorporated through various empirical formulations, which can require a great deal of testing and calibrations to be done. In this paper a relatively new method, which can be called the mechanics-based segmental approach, is used to directly simulate the tension stiffening effect of NSM reinforcements on RC beams, without the need for empirical formulations to indirectly simulate the tension stiffening. Analysis shows that the tension stiffening of NSM fiber reinforced polymer (FRP contributes a significant portion to the stiffness and strength of the strengthened RC beam not only during serviceability, but at all load levels.

  17. The Tension-Stiffening Contribution of NSM CFRP to the Behavior of Strengthened RC Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukri, Ahmad Azim; Darain, Kh Mahfuz Ud; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2015-07-08

    Tension stiffening is a characteristic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams which is directly affected by the bond-slip property of steel bar and concrete interfaces. A beam strengthened with a near-surface mounted (NSM) technique would be even more affected by tension stiffening, as the NSM reinforcement also possess a bond-slip property. Yet assessing how much the tension stiffening of NSM contributes to the behavior of RC beams is difficult due to the fact that bond-slip effects cannot be directly incorporated into a strain-based moment-curvature analysis. As such, the tension stiffening is typically incorporated through various empirical formulations, which can require a great deal of testing and calibrations to be done. In this paper a relatively new method, which can be called the mechanics-based segmental approach, is used to directly simulate the tension stiffening effect of NSM reinforcements on RC beams, without the need for empirical formulations to indirectly simulate the tension stiffening. Analysis shows that the tension stiffening of NSM fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) contributes a significant portion to the stiffness and strength of the strengthened RC beam not only during serviceability, but at all load levels.

  18. Influence of Impact Damage on Carbon-Epoxy Stiffener Crippling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory and The Boeing Company have worked to develop new low-cost, light-weight composite structures for aircraft. A Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept has been developed which offers advantages over traditional metallic structure. In this concept a stitched carbon-epoxy material system has been developed with the potential for reducing the weight and cost of transport aircraft structure by eliminating fasteners, thereby reducing part count and labor. By adding unidirectional carbon rods to the top of stiffeners, the panel becomes more structurally efficient. This combination produces a more damage tolerant design. This document describes the results of experimentation on PRSEUS specimens loaded in unidirectional compression subjected to impact damage and loaded in fatigue and to failure. A comparison with analytical predictions for pristine and damaged specimens is included.

  19. Experimental Behavior of Fatigued Single Stiffener PRSEUS Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    2009-01-01

    NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory and The Boeing Company have worked to develop new low-cost, light-weight composite structures for aircraft. A Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept has been developed which offers advantages over traditional metallic structure. In this concept a stitched carbon-epoxy material system has been developed with the potential for reducing the weight and cost of transport aircraft structure by eliminating fasteners, thereby reducing part count and labor. By adding unidirectional carbon rods to the top of stiffeners, the panel becomes more structurally efficient. This combination produces a more damage tolerant design. This document describes the results of experimentation on PRSEUS specimens loaded in unidirectional compression in fatigue and to failure.

  20. Tension stiffening in partially prestressed concrete flexural members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oukaili, K. N.

    2000-01-01

    Concrete tensile strength is not being zero, cracking does not extend to the neutral axis as assumed in standard cracked section analysis. In addition, un cracked concrete, which exists above the crack tip in the tension zone, contributes to the stiffness of the member. This paper discusses the influence of concrete tensile stress below the neut ural axis position at the cracked section on the tension stiffening phenomenon and deflection of progressively cracking partially prestressed concrete flexural members. The computation of the neutral axis location, which takes into consideration the effect of concrete in tension, can be achieved by solving iteratively tow simultaneous equation derived from forces and moments equilibrium, strain compatibility and linear stress - strain relationship in concrete across the section depth. Once the section depth after cracking is known, it can be used to calculate the effective moment of inertia for deflection analysis. (author). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 table

  1. Modal analysis of a stiffened toroidal shell sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerreta, R.; Di Pietro, E.; Pizzuto, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the modal analysis of a sector of the toroidal vacuum vessel of a new experimental machine for research in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion (FTU - Frascati Tokamak Upgrade). The vacuum vessel, one of the most critical components of the experimental device, consist of 12 stainless steel toroidal sectors, and it is designed to withstand pulsed electromagnetic loads during operation. Results of the modal analysis of the stiffened toroidal shell sector are compared and discussed with regard to the experimental data. Theoretical eigenvalues and eigenvectors have been predicted by means of ABAQUS finite element code. Experimental analysis has been carried out on a full scale model and natural frequencies have been measured. Satisfactory agreement between experimental and theoretical eigenvalues has been found

  2. Finite element predictions of active buckling control of stiffened panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Danniella M.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Materials systems and structures that can respond 'intelligently' to their environment are currently being proposed and investigated. A series of finite element analyses was performed to investigate the potential for active buckling control of two different stiffened panels by embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) rods. Changes in the predicted buckling load increased with the magnitude of the actuation level for a given structural concept. Increasing the number of actuators for a given concept yielded greater predicted increases in buckling load. Considerable control authority was generated with a small number of actuators, with greater authority demonstrated for those structural concepts where the activated SMA rods could develop greater forces and moments on the structure. Relatively simple and inexpensive analyses were performed with standard finite elements to determine such information, indicating the viability of these types of models for design purposes.

  3. Impact damage and residual strength analysis of composite panels with bonded stiffeners. [for primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Ram C.; Shuart, Mark J.

    1990-01-01

    Blade-stiffened, compression-loaded cover panels were designed, manufactured, analyzed, and tested. All panels were fabricated from IM6/1808I interleafed graphite-epoxy. An orthotropic blade stiffener and an orthotropic skin were selected to satisfy the design requirements for an advanced aircraft configuration. All specimens were impact damaged prior to testing. Experimental results were obtained for three- and five-stiffener panels. Analytical results described interlaminar forces caused by impact and predicted specimen residual strength. The analytical results compared reasonably with the experimental results for residual strength of the specimens.

  4. Aircraft interior noise models - Sidewall trim, stiffened structures, and cabin acoustics with floor partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.; Willis, C. M.; Mayes, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the continuing development of an aircraft interior noise prediction model, in which a discrete modal representation and power flow analysis are used, theoretical results are considered for inclusion of sidewall trim, stiffened structures, and cabin acoustics with floor partition. For validation purposes, predictions of the noise reductions for three test articles (a bare ring-stringer stiffened cylinder, an unstiffened cylinder with floor and insulation, and a ring-stringer stiffened cylinder with floor and sidewall trim) are compared with measurements.

  5. Sound transmission through stiffened double-panel structures lined with elastic porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Gopal P.; Tran, Boi N.; Bolton, J. S.; Shiau, Nae-Ming

    This paper presents transmission loss prediction models for a periodically stiffened panel and stiffened double-panel structures using the periodic structure theory. The inter-panel cavity in the double-panels structures can be modeled as being separated by an airspace or filled with an elastic porous layer in various configurations. The acoustic behavior of elastic porous layer is described by a theory capable of accounting fully for multi-dimensional wave propagation in such materials. The predicted transmission loss of a single stiffened panel is compared with the measured data.

  6. Post-Buckling and Ultimate Strength Analysis of Stiffened Composite Panel Base on Progressive Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guofan; Sun, Xiasheng; Sun, Zhonglei

    Stiffened composite panel is the typical thin wall structure applied in aerospace industry, and its main failure mode is buckling subjected to compressive loading. In this paper, the development of an analysis approach using Finite Element Method on post-buckling behavior of stiffened composite structures under compression was presented. Then, the numerical results of stiffened panel are obtained by FE simulations. A thorough comparison were accomplished by comparing the load carrying capacity and key position strains of the specimen with test. The comparison indicates that the FEM results which adopted developed methodology could meet the demand of engineering application in predicting the post-buckling behavior of intact stiffened structures in aircraft design stage.

  7. Strongly nonlinear free vibration of four edges simply supported stiffened plates with geometric imperfections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhaoting; Wang, Rong Hui; Chen, Li; Dong, Chung Uang [School of Civil Engineering and Transportation, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-08-15

    This article investigated the strongly nonlinear free vibration of four edges simply supported stiffened plates with geometric imperfections. The von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relationships are applied. The nonlinear vibration of stiffened plate is reduced to a one-degree-of-freedom nonlinear system by assuming mode shapes. The Multiple scales Lindstedt-Poincare method (MSLP) and Modified Lindstedt-Poincare method (MLP) are used to solve the governing equations of vibration. Numerical examples for stiffened plates with different initial geometric imperfections are presented in order to discuss the influences to the strongly nonlinear free vibration of the stiffened plate. The results showed that: the frequency ratio reduced as the initial geometric imperfections of plate increased, which showed that the increase of the initial geometric imperfections of plate can lead to the decrease of nonlinear effect; by comparing the results calculated by MSLP method, using MS method to study strongly nonlinear vibration can lead to serious mistakes.

  8. Ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Li Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrated on the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral load and also studied the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experiments on longitudinal stiffened panel with rectangular opening subjected to the combined load have been selected as test models. The finite element analysis package, ABAQUS, is used for simulation with considering the large elasticplastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels. The feasibility of the numerical procedure is verified by a good agreement of experimental results and numerical results. More cases studies are executed employing nonlinear finite element method to analyze the influence of design variables on the ultimate strength of stiffened panel with opening under combined pressure. Based on data, two design formulae corresponding to different opening types are fitted, and accuracy of them is illustrated to demonstrate that they could be applied to basic design of practical engineering structure.

  9. Out-of-autoclave manufacturing of a stiffened thermoplastic carbon fibre PEEK panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, M.; Goggins, J.; Doyle, A.; Weafer, B.; Ward, M.; Bizeul, M.; Canavan, R.; O'Bradaigh, C.; Doyle, K.; Harrison, N.

    2017-10-01

    Out-of-Autoclave manufacturing methods, specifically Automated Tape Placement (ATP) and induction welding, used in the fabrication of a stiffened thermoplastic demonstrator panel, are presented in this study. The demonstrator panel consists of two stiffeners induction welded to a flat skin, to form a typical load bearing aerospace sub-component. The skin of the panel is manufactured from uni-directional Carbon Fibre (CF) Polyetheretherkeytone (PEEK) using laser assisted Automated Tape Placement (ATP) and the stiffeners are press formed from woven CF-PEEK. The stiffeners are fusion bonded to the skin using a continuous induction welding process. A susceptor material is used at the interface to ensure the required heating is concentrated at the weldline. Microscopy was used to examine the manufactured coupons for defects. Destructive testing was carried out to evaluate the strength of the overall assembly. The work shows that assemblies manufactured using continuous induction welding and ATP are suitable for load bearing aerospace applications.

  10. Application of Ultrasonic Phased Array Technology to the Detection of Defect in Composite Stiffened-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan-Qi; Zhan, Li-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Composite stiffened-structure consists of the skin and stringer has been widely used in aircraft fuselage and wings. The main purpose of the article is to detect the composite material reinforced structure accurately and explore the relationship between defect formation and structural elements or curing process. Based on ultrasonic phased array inspection technology, the regularity of defects in the manufacture of composite materials are obtained, the correlation model between actual defects and nondestructive testing are established. The article find that the forming quality of deltoid area in T-stiffened structure is obviously improved by pre-curing, the defects of hat-stiffened structure are affected by the mandrel. The results show that the ultrasonic phased array inspection technology can be an effectively way for the detection of composite stiffened-structures, which become an important means to control the defects of composite and improve the quality of the product.

  11. Buckling analysis for structural sections and stiffened plates reinforced with laminated composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Soong, T.-C.; Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A classical buckling analysis is developed for stiffened, flat plates composed of a series of linked flat plate and beam elements. Plates are idealized as multilayered orthotropic elements; structural beads and lips are idealized as beams. The loaded edges of the stiffened plate are simply supported and the conditions at the unloaded edges can be prescribed arbitrarily. The plate and beam elements are matched along their common junctions for displacement continuity and force equilibrium in an exact manner. Offsets between elements are considered in the analysis. Buckling under uniaxial compressive load for plates, sections and stiffened plates is investigated. Buckling loads are found as the lowest of all possible general and local failure modes and the mode shape is used to determine whether buckling is a local or general instability. Numerical correlations with existing analysis and test data for plates, sections and stiffened plates including boron-reinforced structures are discussed. In general, correlations are reasonably good.

  12. Buckling analysis for axially compressed flat plates, structural sections, and stiffened plates reinforced with laminated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Soong, T.; Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A classical buckling analysis is developed for stiffened, flat plates composed of a series of linked plate and beam elements. Plates are idealized as multilayered orthotropic elements. Structural beads and lips are idealized as beams. The loaded edges of the stiffened plate are simply-supported and the conditions at the unloaded edges can be prescribed arbitrarily. The plate and beam elements are matched along their common junctions for displacement continuity and force equilibrium in an exact manner. Offsets between elements are considered in the analysis. Buckling under uniaxial compressive load for plates, sections, and stiffened plates is investigated. Buckling loads are the lowest of all possible general and local failure modes, and the mode shape is used to determine whether buckling is a local or general instability. Numerical correlations with existing analysis and test data for plates, sections, and stiffened plates including boron-reinforced structures are discussed. In general correlations are reasonably good.

  13. Design and Testing of the Minotaur Advanced Grid-Stiffened Fairing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, John; Wegner, Peter; Viisoreanu, Adrian; Sanford, Greg

    2004-01-01

    .... Various failure modes were examined for the composite grid-stiffened structure. The controlling criterion for this design was a joint failure in tension between the ribs and skin of the structure...

  14. New interpretation of arterial stiffening due to cigarette smoking using a structurally motivated constitutive model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Majken; Henneberg, K-A; Jensen, J A

    2011-01-01

    these effects using a single stiffening parameter similar to the approach in isotropic continuum damage mechanics. There is a pressing need, however, for more detailed histological information coupled with more complete biaxial mechanical data for a broader range of systemic arteries....... published for rat pulmonary arteries. A structurally motivated "four fiber family" constitutive relation was used to fit the available biaxial data and associated best-fit values of material parameters were estimated using multivariate nonlinear regression. Results suggested that arterial stiffening caused...

  15. Multilevel Optimization Framework for Hierarchical Stiffened Shells Accelerated by Adaptive Equivalent Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Tian, Kuo; Zhao, Haixin; Hao, Peng; Zhu, Tianyu; Zhang, Ke; Ma, Yunlong

    2017-06-01

    In order to improve the post-buckling optimization efficiency of hierarchical stiffened shells, a multilevel optimization framework accelerated by adaptive equivalent strategy is presented in this paper. Firstly, the Numerical-based Smeared Stiffener Method (NSSM) for hierarchical stiffened shells is derived by means of the numerical implementation of asymptotic homogenization (NIAH) method. Based on the NSSM, a reasonable adaptive equivalent strategy for hierarchical stiffened shells is developed from the concept of hierarchy reduction. Its core idea is to self-adaptively decide which hierarchy of the structure should be equivalent according to the critical buckling mode rapidly predicted by NSSM. Compared with the detailed model, the high prediction accuracy and efficiency of the proposed model is highlighted. On the basis of this adaptive equivalent model, a multilevel optimization framework is then established by decomposing the complex entire optimization process into major-stiffener-level and minor-stiffener-level sub-optimizations, during which Fixed Point Iteration (FPI) is employed to accelerate convergence. Finally, the illustrative examples of the multilevel framework is carried out to demonstrate its efficiency and effectiveness to search for the global optimum result by contrast with the single-level optimization method. Remarkably, the high efficiency and flexibility of the adaptive equivalent strategy is indicated by compared with the single equivalent strategy.

  16. Time reversed Lamb wave for damage detection in a stiffened aluminum plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijudas, C R; Mitra, M; Mujumdar, P M

    2013-01-01

    According to the concept of time reversibility of the Lamb wave, in the absence of damage, a Lamb wave signal can be reconstructed at the transmitter location if a time reversed signal is sent back from the receiver location. This property is used for baseline-free damage detection, where the presence of damage breaks down the time reversibility and the mismatch between the reconstructed and the input signal is inferred as the presence of damage. This paper presents an experimental and a simulation study of baseline-free damage detection in a stiffened aluminum plate by time reversed Lamb wave (TRLW). In this study, single Lamb wave mode (A 0 ) is generated and sensed using piezoelectric (PZT) transducers through specific transducer placement and amplitude tuning. Different stiffening configurations such as plane and T-stiffeners are considered. Damage cases of disbonding of stiffeners from the base plate, and vertical and embedded cracks in the stiffened plate, are studied. The results show that TRLW based schemes can efficiently identify the presence of damage in a stiffened plate. (paper)

  17. Behavior of Frame-Stiffened Composite Panels with Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory and The Boeing Company have worked to develop new low-cost, light-weight composite structures for aircraft. A Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept has been developed which offers advantages over traditional metallic structures. In this concept, a stitched carbon-epoxy material system has been developed with the potential for reducing the weight and cost of transport aircraft structure by eliminating fasteners, thereby reducing part count and labor. Stitching and the use of thin skins with rod-stiffeners to move loading away from the morevulnerable outer surface produces a structurally efficient, damage tolerant design. This study focuses on the behavior of PRSEUS panels loaded in the frame direction and subjected to severe damage in the form of a severed central frame in a three-frame panel. Experimental results for a pristine two-frame panel and analytical predictions for pristine two-frame and three-frame panels as well as damaged three-frame panels are described.

  18. Arterial stiffening provides sufficient explanation for primary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas H Pettersen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the most common age-related chronic disorders, and by predisposing individuals for heart failure, stroke, and kidney disease, it is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Its etiology remains enigmatic despite intense research efforts over many decades. By use of empirically well-constrained computer models describing the coupled function of the baroreceptor reflex and mechanics of the circulatory system, we demonstrate quantitatively that arterial stiffening seems sufficient to explain age-related emergence of hypertension. Specifically, the empirically observed chronic changes in pulse pressure with age and the impaired capacity of hypertensive individuals to regulate short-term changes in blood pressure arise as emergent properties of the integrated system. The results are consistent with available experimental data from chemical and surgical manipulation of the cardio-vascular system. In contrast to widely held opinions, the results suggest that primary hypertension can be attributed to a mechanogenic etiology without challenging current conceptions of renal and sympathetic nervous system function.

  19. Magnetic field exposure stiffens regenerating plant protoplast cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneda, Toshihiko; Fujimura, Yuu; Iino, Masaaki

    2006-02-01

    Single suspension-cultured plant cells (Catharanthus roseus) and their protoplasts were anchored to a glass plate and exposed to a magnetic field of 302 +/- 8 mT for several hours. Compression forces required to produce constant cell deformation were measured parallel to the magnetic field by means of a cantilever-type force sensor. Exposure of intact cells to the magnetic field did not result in any changes within experimental error, while exposure of regenerating protoplasts significantly increased the measured forces and stiffened regenerating protoplasts. The diameters of intact cells or regenerating protoplasts were not changed after exposure to the magnetic field. Measured forces for regenerating protoplasts with and without exposure to the magnetic field increased linearly with incubation time, with these forces being divided into components based on the elasticity of synthesized cell walls and cytoplasm. Cell wall synthesis was also measured using a cell wall-specific fluorescent dye, and no changes were noted after exposure to the magnetic field. Analysis suggested that exposure to the magnetic field roughly tripled the Young's modulus of the newly synthesized cell wall without any lag.

  20. Active vibration reduction by optimally placed sensors and actuators with application to stiffened plates by beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daraji, A H; Hale, J M

    2014-01-01

    This study concerns new investigation of active vibration reduction of a stiffened plate bonded with discrete sensor/actuator pairs located optimally using genetic algorithms based on a developed finite element modeling. An isotropic plate element stiffened by a number of beam elements on its edges and having a piezoelectric sensor and actuator pair bonded to its surfaces is modeled using the finite element method and Hamilton’s principle, taking into account the effects of piezoelectric mass, stiffness and electromechanical coupling. The modeling is based on the first order shear deformation theory taking into account the effects of bending, membrane and shear deformation for the plate, the stiffening beam and the piezoelectric patches. A Matlab finite element program has been built for the stiffened plate model and verified with ANSYS and also experimentally. Optimal placement of ten piezoelectric sensor/actuator pairs and optimal feedback gain for active vibration reduction are investigated for a plate stiffened by two beams arranged in the form of a cross. The genetic algorithm was set up for optimization of sensor/actuator placement and feedback gain based on the minimization of the optimal linear quadratic index as an objective function to suppress the first six modes of vibration. Comparison study is presented for active vibration reduction of a square cantilever plate stiffened by crossed beams with two sensor/actuator configurations: firstly, ten piezoelectric sensor/actuator pairs are located in optimal positions; secondly, a piezoelectric layer of single sensor/actuator pair covering the whole of the stiffened plate as a SISO system. (paper)

  1. Vibration isolation design for periodically stiffened shells by the wave finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; He, Xueqing; Zhang, Dayi; Zhang, Bing; Ma, Yanhong

    2018-04-01

    Periodically stiffened shell structures are widely used due to their excellent specific strength, in particular for aeronautical and astronautical components. This paper presents an improved Wave Finite Element Method (FEM) that can be employed to predict the band-gap characteristics of stiffened shell structures efficiently. An aero-engine casing, which is a typical periodically stiffened shell structure, was employed to verify the validation and efficiency of the Wave FEM. Good agreement has been found between the Wave FEM and the classical FEM for different boundary conditions. One effective wave selection method based on the Wave FEM has thus been put forward to filter the radial modes of a shell structure. Furthermore, an optimisation strategy by the combination of the Wave FEM and genetic algorithm was presented for periodically stiffened shell structures. The optimal out-of-plane band gap and the mass of the whole structure can be achieved by the optimisation strategy under an aerodynamic load. Results also indicate that geometric parameters of stiffeners can be properly selected that the out-of-plane vibration attenuates significantly in the frequency band of interest. This study can provide valuable references for designing the band gaps of vibration isolation.

  2. Analysis of Stiffened Penstock External Pressure Stability Based on Immune Algorithm and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical external pressure stability calculation of stiffened penstock in the hydroelectric power station is very important work for penstock design. At present, different assumptions and boundary simplification are adopted by different calculation methods which sometimes cause huge differences too. In this paper, we present an immune based artificial neural network model via the model and stability theory of elastic ring, we study effects of some factors (such as pipe diameter, pipe wall thickness, sectional size of stiffening ring, and spacing between stiffening rings on penstock critical external pressure during huge thin-wall procedure of penstock. The results reveal that the variation of diameter and wall thickness can lead to sharp variation of penstock external pressure bearing capacity and then give the change interval of it. This paper presents an optimizing design method to optimize sectional size and spacing of stiffening rings and to determine penstock bearing capacity coordinate with the bearing capacity of stiffening rings and penstock external pressure stability coordinate with its strength safety. As a practical example, the simulation results illustrate that the method presented in this paper is available and can efficiently overcome inherent defects of BP neural network.

  3. Influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on residual ultimate strength of stiffened plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Ships and offshore platforms serve in the harsh sea environment for a long time. Cracks and pitting corrosion will occur in such a structure and the damage will affect its ultimate strength.[Methods] To investigate the influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on ultimate bearing capacity, the ultimate strength of a structure under axial compression is studied by using a nonlinear finite element. The mesh size of a stiffened plate with cracks and pitting corrosion is first discussed. Then the influence of the relative positions of cracks and pitting corrosion, number of corrosion points and crack length impact on the residual ultimate strength of damaged stiffened plates is discussed via a series of calculations.[Results] The results indicate that the increase in crack length and pitting corrosion significantly decreases the ultimate strength of a stiffened plate. [Conclusions] This provides a useful reference for designing and maintaining ships and offshore structures in their life cycles.

  4. Theories and experiments on the stiffening effect of high-frequency excitation for continuous elastic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2003-01-01

    theories, each providing valuable insight. One of these is capable of predicting the vertical string lift due to stiffening in terms of simple expressions, with results that agree very well with experimental measurements for a wide range of conditions. It appears that resonance effects cannot be ignored...... for demonstrating and measuring the stiffening effect in a simple setting, in the form of a horizontal piano string subjected to longitudinal high-frequency excitation at the clamped base and free at the other end. A simplest possible theoretical model is set up and analyzed using a hierarchy of three approximating......, as was done in a few related studies¿¿unless the system has very low modal density or heavy damping; thus first-order consideration to resonance effects is included. Using the specific example with experimental support to put confidence on the proposed theory, expressions for predicting the stiffening effect...

  5. Analysis for stresses and buckling of heated composite stiffened panels and other structures, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Tamekuni, M.

    1973-01-01

    Analytical methods based on linear theory are presented for predicting the thermal stresses in and the buckling of heated structures with arbitrary uniform cross section. The structure is idealized as an assemblage of laminated plate-strip elements, curved and planar, and beam elements. Uniaxially stiffened plates and shells of arbitrary cross section are typical examples. For the buckling analysis the structure or selected elements may be subjected to mechanical loads, in additional to thermal loads, in any desired combination of inplane transverse load and axial compression load. The analysis is also applicable to stiffened structures under inplane loads varying through the cross section, as in stiffened shells under bending. The buckling analysis is general and covers all modes of instability. The analysis has been applied to a limited number of problems and the results are presented. These while showing the validity and the applicability of the method do not reflect its full capability.

  6. A fracture mechanics analysis of bonded repaired skin/stiffener structures with inclined central crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Ki Hyun; Yang, Won Ho; Kim, Cheol; Heo, Sung Pil; Ko, Myung Hoon

    2001-01-01

    Composite patch repair of cracked aircraft structures has been accepted as one of improving fatigue life and attaining better structural integrity. Analysis for the stress intensity factor at the skin/stiffener structure with inclined central crack repaired by composite stiffened panels are developed. A numerical investigation was conducted to characterize the fracture behavior and crack growth behavior. In order to investigate the crack growth direction, Maximum Tangential Stress(MTS) criteria is used. The main objective of this research is the validation of the inclined crack patching design. In this paper, the reduction of stresses intensity factors at the crack-tip and prediction of crack growth direction are determined to evaluate the effects of various non-dimensional design parameter including; composite patch thickness and stiffener distance. The research on cracked structure subjected to mixed mode loading is accomplished and it is evident that more work using different approaches is necessary

  7. Simplified Procedure For The Free Vibration Analysis Of Rectangular Plate Structures With Holes And Stiffeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Dae Seung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thin and thick plates, plates with holes, stiffened panels and stiffened panels with holes are primary structural members in almost all fields of engineering: civil, mechanical, aerospace, naval, ocean etc. In this paper, a simple and efficient procedure for the free vibration analysis of such elements is presented. It is based on the assumed mode method and can handle different plate thickness, various shapes and sizes of holes, different framing sizes and types as well as different combinations of boundary conditions. Natural frequencies and modes are determined by solving an eigenvalue problem of a multi-degree-of-freedom system matrix equation derived by using Lagrange’s equations. Mindlin theory is applied for a plate and Timoshenko beam theory for stiffeners. The applicability of the method in the design procedure is illustrated with several numerical examples obtained by the in-house developed code VAPS. Very good agreement with standard commercial finite element software is achieved.

  8. New interpretation of arterial stiffening due to cigarette smoking using a structurally motivated constitutive model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    to capture these effects using a single stiffening parameter similar to the approach in isotropic continuum damage mechanics. There is a pressing need, however, for more detailed histological information coupled with more complete biaxial mechanical data for a broader range of systemic arteries....... published for rat pulmonary arteries. A structurally motivated ‘‘four fiber family’’ constitutive relation was used to fit the available biaxial data and associated best-fit values of material parameters were estimated using multivariate nonlinear regression. Results suggested that arterial stiffening...

  9. Ultimate pressure capacity assessment of R FRC PCCV based on the tension stiffening tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Choun, Young Sun

    2012-01-01

    The use of fibers in concrete or cement composites can enhance the performance of structural elements. Fibers have been used for a cement mixture to increase the toughness and tensile strength, and to improve the cracking and deformation characteristics. The addition of fibers into concrete can improve the ductility and increase the tensile resistance of concrete structures. Recently, the application of fibers to prestressed concrete containment vessels (PCCVs) has been a major research topic. However, the tensile stiffening behavior of reinforced - fiber reinforced concrete (RFRC) is not fully developed yet especially for specimens using large diameter re bars. In nuclear power plant (NPP) PCCVs, large diameter re bars are applied. Therefore, the tensile stiffening behavior model should be developed to assess ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of R FRC PCCVs. In this study, we modeled the tensile stiffening behavior of R FRC PCCVs by using recently developed model, and assessed the UPC of R FRC PCCVs. To do this, we performed tension stiffening test of R FRC with large diameter re bar

  10. Vibro-Acoustic modulation based damage identification in a composite skin-stiffener structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooijevaar, T.H.; Loendersloot, Richard; Rogge, M.D.; Akkerman, Remko; Tinga, Tiedo; Le Cam, V.; Mevel, L.; Schoefs, F.

    2014-01-01

    The vibro-acoustic modulation method is applied to a composite skin-stiffener structure to investigate the possibilities to utilise this method for damage identification in terms of detection, localisation and damage quantification. The research comprises a theoretical part and an experimental part.

  11. Structural Damage Identification in Stiffened Plate Fatigue Specimens Using Piezoelectric Active Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    isolated AO mode first arrival, recorded at PZT 2, is shown at 3 different fatigue levels. Figure 5. The area under the PSD curve, calculated twice...Structural Damage Identification in Stiffened Plate Fatigue Specimens Using Piezoelectric Active Sensing B. L. GRISSO, G. PARK, L. W. SALVINO...with several challenges including limited performance knowledge of the materials, aluminum sensitization, structural fatigue performance, and

  12. Effect of longitudinal stiffening on bridge girder webs at incremental launching stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Graciano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patch loading is a predominant load case at incremental bridge launching. Bridge girder webs are frequently provided with longitudinal stiffeners to increase in-service shear and bending strength, and its effect has been included in design codes. However, no straightforward rules are given to account for the influence of such stiffeners on improving the patch loading resistance. This paper presents a review of some available formulae found in the literature to estimate the girder ultimate strength including the provisions of the European, American and Colombian design codes. Additionally, a nonlinear finite element analysis is conducted on three case studies related to actual launched bridges. The case studies are also used to study the influence of the longitudinal stiffener and girder depth on the girder capacity. Different load-displacement responses are observed depending on the girder depth. Finally, the finite element analysis shows to what extent the longitudinal stiffeners can increase the patch loading capacity of bridge girder webs during launching.

  13. High-Fat, High-Sugar Diet-Induced Subendothelial Matrix Stiffening is Mitigated by Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Julie C; Azar, Julian; Seta, Francesca; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2018-03-01

    Consumption of a high-fat, high-sugar diet and sedentary lifestyle are correlated with bulk arterial stiffening. While measurements of bulk arterial stiffening are used to assess cardiovascular health clinically, they cannot account for changes to the tissue occurring on the cellular scale. The compliance of the subendothelial matrix in the intima mediates vascular permeability, an initiating step in atherosclerosis. High-fat, high-sugar diet consumption and a sedentary lifestyle both cause micro-scale subendothelial matrix stiffening, but the impact of these factors in concert remains unknown. In this study, mice on a high-fat, high-sugar diet were treated with aerobic exercise or returned to a normal diet. We measured bulk arterial stiffness through pulse wave velocity and subendothelial matrix stiffness ex vivo through atomic force microscopy. Our data indicate that while diet reversal mitigates high-fat, high-sugar diet-induced macro- and micro-scale stiffening, exercise only significantly decreases micro-scale stiffness and not macro-scale stiffness, during the time-scale studied. These data underscore the need for both healthy diet and exercise to maintain vascular health. These data also indicate that exercise may serve as a key lifestyle modification to partially reverse the deleterious impacts of high-fat, high-sugar diet consumption, even while macro-scale stiffness indicators do not change.

  14. Experimental buckling investigation of ring-stiffened cylindrical shells under unsymmetrical axial loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.E.; Babock, C.D.; Bennett, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Six steel shells having nuclear containment-like features were fabricated and loaded to failure with an offset axial load. The shells of R/t = 500 buckled plastically. Four of the shells had reinforced circular cutouts. These penetrations were sized to cut no ring-stiffener, a single, two- or three-ring stiffeners. Reinforcing and framing around the penetrations were based upon the area-replacement rule of the applicable portion of the American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and were of a design to stimulate actual practice for nuclear steel containments. Prior to testing, imperfections were measured and strain gages were applied to determine information on load distribution at the ends of the cylinder and strain fields at areas likely to buckle. Buckling loads were determined for an axial load applied with an eccentricity of R/2 where R is the cylinder radius. The results showed that the buckling load and mode for the shell having a penetration that did not cut a ring stiffener were essentially the same as those for the unpenetrated shell. The buckling loads for the penetrated shells in which stiffeners were interrupted were less than that for the unpenetrated shells. Results of all tests are compared to numerical solutions carried out using a nonlinear collapse analysis and to the predictions of ASME Code Case N-284

  15. Ultimate pressure capacity assessment of R FRC PCCV based on the tension stiffening tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Choun, Young Sun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The use of fibers in concrete or cement composites can enhance the performance of structural elements. Fibers have been used for a cement mixture to increase the toughness and tensile strength, and to improve the cracking and deformation characteristics. The addition of fibers into concrete can improve the ductility and increase the tensile resistance of concrete structures. Recently, the application of fibers to prestressed concrete containment vessels (PCCVs) has been a major research topic. However, the tensile stiffening behavior of reinforced - fiber reinforced concrete (RFRC) is not fully developed yet especially for specimens using large diameter re bars. In nuclear power plant (NPP) PCCVs, large diameter re bars are applied. Therefore, the tensile stiffening behavior model should be developed to assess ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of R FRC PCCVs. In this study, we modeled the tensile stiffening behavior of R FRC PCCVs by using recently developed model, and assessed the UPC of R FRC PCCVs. To do this, we performed tension stiffening test of R FRC with large diameter re bar.

  16. Computer program for buckling loads of orthotropic laminated stiffened panels subjected to biaxial in-place loads (BUCLASP 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Tamekuni, M.

    1974-01-01

    General-purpose program performs exact instability analyses for structures such as unidirectionally-stiffened, rectangular composite panels. Program was written in FORTRAN IV and COMPASS for CDC-series computers.

  17. Experimental buckling investigation of ring-stiffened cyclindrical shells under unsymmetrical axial loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.E.; Bennett, J.G.; Babcock, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    Six steel shells having nuclear containment-like features were fabricated and loaded to failure with an offset axial load. The shells of R/t = 500 buckled plastically. Four of the shells had reinforced circular cutouts. These penetrations were sized to cut no ring-stiffener, a single, two- or three-ring stiffeners. Reinforcing and framing around the penetrations were based upon the area-replacement rule of the applicable portion of the American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and were of a design to simulate actual practice for nuclear steel containments. Prior to testing, imperfections were measured and strain gages were applied to determine information on load distribution at the ends of the cylinder and strain fields at areas likely to buckle. Buckling loads were determined for an axial load applied with an eccentricity of R/2 where R is the cylinder radius

  18. Transmission loss of orthogonally rib-stiffened double-panel structures with cavity absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, F X; Lu, T J

    2011-04-01

    The transmission loss of sound through infinite orthogonally rib-stiffened double-panel structures having cavity-filling fibrous sound absorptive materials is theoretically investigated. The propagation of sound across the fibrous material is characterized using an equivalent fluid model, and the motions of the rib-stiffeners are described by including all possible vibrations, i.e., flexural displacements, bending, and torsional rotations. The effects of fluid-structure coupling are account for by enforcing velocity continuity conditions at fluid-panel interfaces. By taking full advantage of the periodic nature of the double-panel, the space-harmonic approach and virtual work principle are applied to solve the sets of resultant governing equations, which are eventually truncated as a finite system of simultaneous algebraic equations and numerically solved insofar as the solution converges. To validate the proposed model, a comparison between the present model predictions and existing numerical and experimental results for a simplified version of the double-panel structure is carried out, with overall agreement achieved. The model is subsequently employed to explore the influence of the fluid-structure coupling between fluid in the cavity and the two panels on sound transmission across the orthogonally rib-stiffened double-panel structure. Obtained results demonstrate that this fluid-structure coupling affects significantly sound transmission loss (STL) at low frequencies and cannot be ignored when the rib-stiffeners are sparsely distributed. As a highlight of this research, an integrated optimal algorithm toward lightweight, high-stiffness and superior sound insulation capability is proposed, based on which a preliminary optimal design of the double-panel structure is performed.

  19. Effects of solvents on the early stage stiffening rate of demineralized dentin matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Fernanda C P; Otsuki, Masayuki; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R; Carvalho, Ricardo M

    2005-05-01

    To monitor the stiffening rate of demineralized dentin matrix at the early stages after exposure to different neat solvents. Dentin beams approximately 0.8x0.7x8.0 mm were obtained from human third molars. After covering their ends with resin composite, the middle exposed length of 4.0mm (gauge-length) was demineralized in 0.5 M EDTA (pH 7.0) for 7 days. The specimens were gripped by a testing machine, pre-loaded to 10 g and cyclically stressed in tension to 5% strain, for 30 repeated cycles (total 20 min) at 0.6 mm/min while immersed in water (control). Then, water was replaced by either 100% acetone, methanol, ethanol, propanol, HEMA or air and the specimens subjected to the same cyclic protocol. The maximum apparent modulus of elasticity (E(Max)) was calculated for every cycle, plotted as a function of time and subjected to regression analysis. Stiffening rate was calculated as changes in E (min). Regression analysis examined the relationship between E and time for each solvent. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test at alpha=0.05. Regression analysis showed that E increased significantly with time in all water-free solvents (R2=0.8-0.99). Stiffening rate was higher for acetone (0.9 MPa/min) and ethanol (0.8 MPa/min), intermediate for air (0.7 MPa/min), methanol (0.6 MPa/min) and propanol (0.5 MPa/min), lower for HEMA (0.2 MPa/min) and practically none for water (0.07 MPa/min) with prate of demineralized dentin matrix is both time and solvent-dependent. The ability of solvents to promptly stiffen the demineralized dentin matrix may be important in maintaining the resin-infiltrated matrix expanded during the solvent evaporation stage of resin bonding.

  20. Structural design of nuclear power plant using stiffened steel plate concrete structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Ilhwan; Kim, Sungmin; Mun, Taeyoup; Kim, Keunkyeong; Sun, Wonsang

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power is an alternative energy source that is conducive to mitigate the environmental strains. The countries having nuclear power plants are encouraging research and development sector to find ways to construct safer and more economically feasible nuclear power plants. Modularization using Steel Plate Concrete(SC) structure has been proposed as a solution to these efforts. A study of structural modules using SC structure has been performed for shortening of construction period and enhancement of structural safety of NPP structures in Korea. As a result of the research, the design code and design techniques based on limit state design method has been developed. The design code has been developed through various structural tests and theoretical studies, and it has been modified by application design of SC structure for NPP buildings. The code consists of unstiffened SC wall design, stiffened SC wall design, Half-SC slab design, stud design, connection design and so on. The stiffened steel plate concrete(SSC) wall is SC structure whose steel plates with ribs are composed on both sides of the concrete wall, and this structure was developed for improved constructability and safety of SC structure. This paper explains a design application of SC structure for a sample building specially devised to reflect all of major structural properties of main buildings of APR1400. In addition, Stiffening effect of SSC structure is evaluated and structural efficiency of SSC structure is verified in comparison with that of unstiffened SC structure. (author)

  1. Correction of malfunctioning peritoneal dialysis catheter with guidewire and stiffener under fluoroscopic guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ryong; Baek, Kyong Hee; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Rim, Hark

    1997-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of correction of a malfunctioning peritoneal dialysis catheter with guidewire and stiffener under fluoroscopic guidance. Between November 1994 and March 1997, we performed 15 manipulations in 12 patients in whom a dual-cuff, straight Tenckhoff peritoneal dialysis catheter had been implanted due to chronic renal failure. The causes of catheter malfunctioning were inadequate drainage of the dialysate(n=14) and painful dialysis(n=1). Under fluoroscopic guidance, adhesiolysis and repositioning of the malfunctioning catheter were performed with an Amplatz Super Stiff guidewire and the stiffener from a biliary drainage catheter. The results of procedures were categorized as either immediate or durable success, this latter being defined as adequate catheter function for at least one month after the procedure. Immediate success was achieved in 14 of 15 procedures (93%), and durable success in 7 of 15(47%). The mean duration of catheter function was 157 (range, 30 to 578) days. After manipulation, abdominal pain developed in eight patients and peritonitis in two, but with conservative treatment, these symptoms improved. The correction of a malfunctioning peritoneal dialysis catheter with guidewire and stiffener under fluoroscopic guidance is an effective means of restoring catheter function and may be an effective alternative to surgical reimplantation of the catheter, or hemodialysis

  2. The dynamic behavior of chemically "stiffened" red blood cells in microchannel flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Alison M; Wan, Jiandi; Ristenpart, William D; Stone, Howard A

    2010-07-01

    The rigidity of red blood cells (RBCs) plays an important role in whole blood viscosity and is correlated with several cardiovascular diseases. Two chemical agents that are commonly used to study cell deformation are diamide and glutaraldehyde. Despite diamide's common usage, there are discrepancies in the literature surrounding diamide's effect on the deformation of RBCs in shear and pressure-driven flows; in particular, shear flow experiments have shown that diamide stiffens cells, while pressure-driven flow in capillaries did not give this result. We performed pressure-driven flow experiments with RBCs in a microfluidic constriction and quantified the cell dynamics using high-speed imaging. Diamide, which affects RBCs by cross-linking spectrin skeletal membrane proteins, did not reduce deformation and showed an unchanged effective strain rate when compared to healthy cells. In contrast, glutaraldehyde, which is a non-specific fixative that acts on all components of the cell, did reduce deformation and showed increased instances of tumbling, both of which are characteristic features of stiffened, or rigidified, cells. Because glutaraldehyde increases the effective viscosity of the cytoplasm and lipid membrane while diamide does not, one possible explanation for our results is that viscous effects in the cytoplasm and/or lipid membrane are a dominant factor in dictating dynamic responses of RBCs in pressure-driven flows. Finally, literature on the use of diamide as a stiffening agent is summarized, and provides supporting evidence for our conclusions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The genetic basis for altered blood vessel function in disease: large artery stiffening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Agrotis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Alex AgrotisThe Cell Biology Laboratory, Baker Heart Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: The progressive stiffening of the large arteries in humans that occurs during aging constitutes a potential risk factor for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is accompanied by an elevation in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. While the underlying basis for these changes remains to be fully elucidated, factors that are able to influence the structure and composition of the extracellular matrix and the way it interacts with arterial smooth muscle cells could profoundly affect the properties of the large arteries. Thus, while age and sex represent important factors contributing to large artery stiffening, the variation in growth-stimulating factors and those that modulate extracellular production and homeostasis are also being increasingly recognized to play a key role in the process. Therefore, elucidating the contribution that genetic variation makes to large artery stiffening could ultimately provide the basis for clinical strategies designed to regulate the process for therapeutic benefit.Keywords: arterial stiffness, genes, polymorphism, extracellular matrix proteins

  4. Coupled Thermo-Electro-Magneto-Elastic Response of Smart Stiffened Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the procedures developed for incorporating smart laminate and panel analysis capabilities within the HyperSizer aerospace structural sizing software package. HyperSizer analyzes stiffened panels composed of arbitrary composite laminates through stiffener homogenization, or "smearing " techniques. The result is an effective constitutive equation for the stiffened panel that is suitable for use in a full vehicle-scale finite element analysis via MSC/NASTRAN. The existing thermo-elastic capabilities of HyperSizer have herein been extended to include coupled thermo-electro-magneto-elastic analysis capabilities. This represents a significant step toward realization of design tools capable of guiding the development of the next generation of smart aerospace structures. Verification results are presented that compare the developed smart HyperSizer capability with an ABAQUS piezoelectric finite element solution for a facesheet-flange combination. These results show good agreement between HyperSizer and ABAQUS, but highlight a limitation of the HyperSizer formulation in that constant electric field components are assumed.

  5. Lamb Wave Line Sensing for Crack Detection in a Welded Stiffener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Kyu An

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Lamb wave line sensing technique for crack detection in a welded stiffener. The proposed technique overcomes one of the biggest technical challenges of Lamb wave crack detection for real structure applications: crack-induced Lamb waves are often mixed with multiple reflections from complex waveguides. In particular, crack detection in a welded joint, one of the structural hot spots due to stress concentration, is accompanied by reflections from the welded joint as well as a crack. Extracting and highlighting crack-induced Lamb wave modes from Lamb wave responses measured at multi-spatial points along a single line can be accomplished through a frequency-wavenumber domain analysis. The advantages of the proposed technique enable us not only to enhance the crack detectability in the welded joint but also to minimize false alarms caused by environmental and operational variations by avoiding the direct comparison with the baseline data previously accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure. The proposed technique is experimentally and numerically validated in vertically stiffened metallic structures, revealing that it successfully identifies and localizes subsurface cracks, regardless of the coexistence with the vertical stiffener.

  6. Correction of malfunctioning peritoneal dialysis catheter with guidewire and stiffener under fluoroscopic guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Ryong; Baek, Kyong Hee; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Rim, Hark [Kosin Medical College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-11-01

    To determine the efficacy of correction of a malfunctioning peritoneal dialysis catheter with guidewire and stiffener under fluoroscopic guidance. Between November 1994 and March 1997, we performed 15 manipulations in 12 patients in whom a dual-cuff, straight Tenckhoff peritoneal dialysis catheter had been implanted due to chronic renal failure. The causes of catheter malfunctioning were inadequate drainage of the dialysate(n=14) and painful dialysis(n=1). Under fluoroscopic guidance, adhesiolysis and repositioning of the malfunctioning catheter were performed with an Amplatz Super Stiff guidewire and the stiffener from a biliary drainage catheter. The results of procedures were categorized as either immediate or durable success, this latter being defined as adequate catheter function for at least one month after the procedure. Immediate success was achieved in 14 of 15 procedures (93%), and durable success in 7 of 15(47%). The mean duration of catheter function was 157 (range, 30 to 578) days. After manipulation, abdominal pain developed in eight patients and peritonitis in two, but with conservative treatment, these symptoms improved. The correction of a malfunctioning peritoneal dialysis catheter with guidewire and stiffener under fluoroscopic guidance is an effective means of restoring catheter function and may be an effective alternative to surgical reimplantation of the catheter, or hemodialysis.

  7. A Virtual Tool for Minimum Cost Design of a Wind Turbine Tower with Ring Stiffeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Karpat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, renewable energy resources are becoming more important to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase energy efficiency. Researchers have focused on all components of wind turbines to increase reliability and minimize cost. In this paper, a procedure including a cost analysis method and a particle swarm optimization algorithm has been presented to efficiently design low cost steel wind turbine towers. A virtual tool is developed in MATLAB for the cost optimization of wind turbine steel towers with ring stiffeners using a particle swarm optimization algorithm. A wind turbine tower optimization problem in the literature is solved using the developed computer program. In the optimization procedure the optimization results match very well with the optimization results obtained previously. The wall thickness of the shell segments and the dimensions of the ring stiffeners are selected as the design variables, and the limits of the local buckling for the flat ring stiffeners, the local shell buckling limit, the panel ring buckling limit and the limitation of the frequency are considered the design constraints. Numerical examples are presented to understand the impacts of the design variables on the total cost of the wind turbine tower.

  8. Behavior of Shear Link of WF Section with Diagonal Web Stiffener of Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF of Steel Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurisman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of numerical and experimental study of shear link behavior, utilizing diagonal stiffener on web of steel profile to increase shear link performance in an eccentric braced frame (EBF of a steel structure system. The specimen is to examine the behavior of shear link by using diagonal stiffener on web part under static monotonic and cyclic load. The cyclic loading pattern conducted in the experiment is adjusted according to AISC loading standards 2005. Analysis was carried out using non-linear finite element method using MSC/NASTRAN software. Link was modeled as CQUAD shell element. Along the boundary of the loading area the nodal are constraint to produce only one direction loading. The length of the link in this analysis is 400mm of the steel profile of WF 200.100. Important parameters considered to effect significantly to the performance of shear link have been analyzed, namely flange and web thicknesses, , thickness and length of web stiffener, thickness of diagonal stiffener and geometric of diagonal stiffener. The behavior of shear link with diagonal web stiffener was compared with the behavior of standard link designed based on AISC 2005 criteria. Analysis results show that diagonal web stiffener is capable to increase shear link performance in terms of stiffness, strength and energy dissipation in supporting lateral load. However, differences in displacement ductility’s between shear links with diagonal stiffener and shear links based on AISC standards have not shown to be significant. Analysis results also show thickness of diagonal stiffener and geometric model of stiffener to have a significant influence on the performance of shear links. To perform validation of the numerical study, the research is followed by experimental work conducted in Structural Mechanic Laboratory Center for Industrial Engineering ITB. The Structures and Mechanics Lab rotary PAU-ITB. The experiments were carried out using three test

  9. Simulation of Detecting Damage in Composite Stiffened Panel Using Lamb Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John T.; Ross, Richard W.; Huang, Guo L.; Yuan, Fuh G.

    2013-01-01

    Lamb wave damage detection in a composite stiffened panel is simulated by performing explicit transient dynamic finite element analyses and using signal imaging techniques. This virtual test process does not need to use real structures, actuators/sensors, or laboratory equipment. Quasi-isotropic laminates are used for the stiffened panels. Two types of damage are studied. One type is a damage in the skin bay and the other type is a debond between the stiffener flange and the skin. Innovative approaches for identifying the damage location and imaging the damage were developed. The damage location is identified by finding the intersection of the damage locus and the path of the time reversal wave packet re-emitted from the sensor nodes. The damage locus is a circle that envelops the potential damage locations. Its center is at the actuator location and its radius is computed by multiplying the group velocity by the time of flight to damage. To create a damage image for estimating the size of damage, a group of nodes in the neighborhood of the damage location is identified for applying an image condition. The image condition, computed at a finite element node, is the zero-lag cross-correlation (ZLCC) of the time-reversed incident wave signal and the time reversal wave signal from the sensor nodes. This damage imaging process is computationally efficient since only the ZLCC values of a small amount of nodes in the neighborhood of the identified damage location are computed instead of those of the full model.

  10. Tissue stiffening coordinates morphogenesis by triggering collective cell migration in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Elias H; Franze, Kristian; Charras, Guillaume; Mayor, Roberto

    2018-02-22

    Collective cell migration is essential for morphogenesis, tissue remodelling and cancer invasion. In vivo, groups of cells move in an orchestrated way through tissues. This movement involves mechanical as well as molecular interactions between cells and their environment. While the role of molecular signals in collective cell migration is comparatively well understood, how tissue mechanics influence collective cell migration in vivo remains unknown. Here we investigated the importance of mechanical cues in the collective migration of the Xenopus laevis neural crest cells, an embryonic cell population whose migratory behaviour has been likened to cancer invasion. We found that, during morphogenesis, the head mesoderm underlying the cephalic neural crest stiffens. This stiffening initiates an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in neural crest cells and triggers their collective migration. To detect changes in their mechanical environment, neural crest cells use mechanosensation mediated by the integrin-vinculin-talin complex. By performing mechanical and molecular manipulations, we show that mesoderm stiffening is necessary and sufficient to trigger neural crest migration. Finally, we demonstrate that convergent extension of the mesoderm, which starts during gastrulation, leads to increased mesoderm stiffness by increasing the cell density underneath the neural crest. These results show that convergent extension of the mesoderm has a role as a mechanical coordinator of morphogenesis, and reveal a link between two apparently unconnected processes-gastrulation and neural crest migration-via changes in tissue mechanics. Overall, we demonstrate that changes in substrate stiffness can trigger collective cell migration by promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in vivo. More broadly, our results raise the idea that tissue mechanics combines with molecular effectors to coordinate morphogenesis.

  11. Mechanical interaction between concrete and structural reinforcement in the tension stiffening process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus Helgi; Fischer, Gregor; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    as Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC), have been combined with steel and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) reinforcement to contrast the effects of brittle and ductile cement matrices as well as elastic/plastic and elastic reinforcement on the tension stiffening process. Particular focus...... investigated using an image-based deformation measurement and analysis system. This allowed for detailed view of surface deformations and the implications on the resulting response of the member in tension. In this study, conventional concrete and a ductile, strain hardening cement composite, known...

  12. Parameter survey of a rib stiffened wooden floor using sinus modes model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjökvist, Lars-Göran; Brunskog, Jonas; Jacobsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    of the sound insulation for lightweight buildings have the possibility to speed up the development of new techniques and in the end give tenants better quality of life. This study uses Fourier sinus series to calculate the vibrations on a rib stiffened plate. The beams are modelled as line forces and moments......In buildings built with new techniques there exists a need for better understanding of their acoustical performance. The development of large wooden houses slows down by the uncertainty and costly testing that have to be performed many times before gaining good results. A greater understanding...

  13. Experimental Study on Temperature Behavior of SSC (Stiffened Steel Plate Concrete) Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. J.; Ham, K. W.; Park, D. S.; Kwon, K. J.

    2008-01-01

    SSC(Stiffened Steel plate Concrete) module method uses steel plate instead of reinforcing bar and mold in existing RC structure. Steel plate modules are fabricated in advance, installed and poured with concrete in construction field, so construction period is remarkably shortened by SC module technique. In case of existence of temperature gap between internal and external structure surface such as containment building, thermal stress is taken place and as a result of it, structural strength is deteriorated. In this study, we designed two test specimens and several tests with temperature heating were conducted to evaluate temperature behavior of SSC structures and RC structure

  14. Mitigation of Flanking Noise in Double-Plate Panel Structures by Periodic Stiffening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Andersen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    , the air enclosed in the cavities within the structure is taken into consideration, whereas the external air has been disregarded. A fully coupled analysis is performed in which solid finite elements are adopted for the structure, whereas the acoustic medium within the panel is discretized into fluid...... continuum elements. The computations are carried out in frequency domain in the range below 500 Hz and the load acts as a concentrated force on one side of one of the panels. The responses of the same panel as well as the adjacent wall are studied. The position of the load relative to the stiffeners...

  15. Degradation of the compressive strength of unstiffened/stiffened steel plates due to both-sides randomly distributed corrosion wastage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorareh Hadj Mohammad

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of the influence of randomly distributed corrosion wastage on the collapse strength and behaviour of unstiffened/stiffened steel plates in longitudinal compression. A series of elastic-plastic large deflection finite element analyses is performed on both-sides randomly corroded steel plates and stiffened plates. The effects of general corrosion are introduced into the finite element models using a novel random thickness surface model. Buckling strength, post-buckling behaviour, ultimate strength and post-ultimate behaviour of the models are investigated as results of both-sides random corrosion.

  16. Repair Concepts as Design Constraints of a Stiffened Composite PRSEUS Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam

    2012-01-01

    A design and analysis of a repair concept applicable to a stiffened thin-skin composite panel based on the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure is presented. The concept is a bolted repair using metal components, so that it can easily be applied in the operational environment. The damage scenario considered is a midbay-to-midbay saw-cut with a severed stiffener, flange and skin. In a previous study several repair configurations were explored and their feasibility confirmed but refinement was needed. The present study revisits the problem under recently revised design requirements and broadens the suite of loading conditions considered. The repair assembly design is based on the critical tension loading condition and subsequently its robustness is verified for a pressure loading case. High fidelity modeling techniques such as mesh-independent definition of compliant fasteners, elastic-plastic material properties for metal parts and geometrically nonlinear solutions are utilized in the finite element analysis. The best repair design is introduced, its analysis results are presented and factors influencing the design are assessed and discussed.

  17. Nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete beam with/without tension stiffening effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dede, T.; Ayvaz, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to do materially nonlinear failure analysis of RC beam by using finite element method. In the finite element modeling, two different approaches and different tension stress-strain models with/without tension stiffening effect are used by considering two different mesh sizes. In the first approach, the material matrices of concrete and reinforcement are constructed separately, and then superimposed to obtain the element stiffness matrix. In the second approach, the reinforcement is assumed to be uniformly distributed throughout the beam. So, the beam is modeled as a single composite element with increasing the modulus of elasticity of concrete by considering the reinforcement ratio. For these two approaches, elastic-perfectly plastic stress-strain relationship is used for concrete in compression. For the concrete in tension, a stress-strain relationship with/without tension stiffening is used. It is concluded that the approaches and the models considered in this study can be effectively used in the materially nonlinear analysis of RC beams.

  18. Feedback amplification of fibrosis through matrix stiffening and COX-2 suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Mih, Justin D.; Shea, Barry S.; Kho, Alvin T.; Sharif, Asma S.; Tager, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue stiffening is a hallmark of fibrotic disorders but has traditionally been regarded as an outcome of fibrosis, not a contributing factor to pathogenesis. In this study, we show that fibrosis induced by bleomycin injury in the murine lung locally increases median tissue stiffness sixfold relative to normal lung parenchyma. Across this pathophysiological stiffness range, cultured lung fibroblasts transition from a surprisingly quiescent state to progressive increases in proliferation and matrix synthesis, accompanied by coordinated decreases in matrix proteolytic gene expression. Increasing matrix stiffness strongly suppresses fibroblast expression of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) and synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an autocrine inhibitor of fibrogenesis. Exogenous PGE2 or an agonist of the prostanoid EP2 receptor completely counteracts the proliferative and matrix synthetic effects caused by increased stiffness. Together, these results demonstrate a dominant role for normal tissue compliance, acting in part through autocrine PGE2, in maintaining fibroblast quiescence and reveal a feedback relationship between matrix stiffening, COX-2 suppression, and fibroblast activation that promotes and amplifies progressive fibrosis. PMID:20733059

  19. Nonlinear force propagation, anisotropic stiffening and non-affine relaxation in a model cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Daisuke; Head, David; Ikebe, Emi; Nakamasu, Akiko; Kinoshita, Suguru; Peijuan, Zhang; Ando, Shoji

    2013-03-01

    Forces are generated heterogeneously in living cells and transmitted through cytoskeletal networks that respond highly non-linearly. Here, we carry out high-bandwidth passive microrheology on vimentin networks reconstituted in vitro, and observe the nonlinear mechanical response due to forces propagating from a local source applied by an optical tweezer. Since the applied force is constant, the gel becomes equilibrated and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem can be employed to deduce the viscoelasticity of the local environment from the thermal fluctuations of colloidal probes. Our experiments unequivocally demonstrate the anisotropic stiffening of the cytoskeletal network behind the applied force, with greater stiffening in the parallel direction. Quantitative agreement with an affine continuum model is obtained, but only for the response at certain frequency ~ 10-1000 Hz which separates the high-frequency power law and low-frequency elastic behavior of the network. We argue that the failure of the model at lower frequencies is due to the presence of non-affinity, and observe that zero-frequency changes in particle separation can be fitted when an independently-measured, empirical nonaffinity factor is applied.

  20. Energy transmission through a double-wall curved stiffened panel using Green's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subha; Bhattacharya, Partha

    2015-04-01

    It is a common practice in aerospace and automobile industries to use double wall panels as fuselage skins or in window panels to improve acoustic insulation. However, the scientific community is yet to develop a reliable prediction method for a suitable vibro-acoustic model for sound transmission through a curved double-wall panel. In this quest, the present work tries to delve into the modeling of energy transmission through a double-wall curved panel. Subsequently the radiation of sound power into the free field from the curved panel in the low to mid frequency range is also studied. In the developed model to simulate a stiffened aircraft fuselage configuration, the outer wall is provided with longitudinal stiffeners. A modal expansion theory based on Green's theorem is implemented to model the energy transmission through an acoustically coupled double-wall curved panel. An elemental radiator approach is implemented to calculate the radiated energy from the curved surface in to the free field. The developed model is first validated with various numerical models available. It has been observed in the present study that the radius of curvature of the surface has a prominent effect on the behavior of radiated sound power into the free field. Effect of the thickness of the air gap between the two curved surfaces on the sound power radiation has also been noted.

  1. Field testing of stiffened deep cement mixing piles under lateral cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raongjant, Werasak; Jing, Meng

    2013-06-01

    Construction of seaside and underground wall bracing often uses stiffened deep cement mixed columns (SDCM). This research investigates methods used to improve the level of bearing capacity of these SDCM when subjected to cyclic lateral loading via various types of stiffer cores. Eight piles, two deep cement mixed piles and six stiffened deep cement mixing piles with three different types of cores, H shape cross section prestressed concrete, steel pipe, and H-beam steel, were embedded though soft clay into medium-hard clay on site in Thailand. Cyclic horizontal loading was gradually applied until pile failure and the hysteresis loops of lateral load vs. lateral deformation were recorded. The lateral carrying capacities of the SDCM piles with an H-beam steel core increased by 3-4 times that of the DCM piles. This field research clearly shows that using H-beam steel as a stiffer core for SDCM piles is the best method to improve its lateral carrying capacity, ductility and energy dissipation capacity.

  2. Buckling behaviour of imperfect ring-stiffened cone-cylinder intersections under internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Cone-cylinder intersections are used commonly in pressure vessels and piping. In the case of a cone large end-to-cylinder intersection under internal pressure, the intersection is subject to a large circumferential compressive force. While both the cone and the cylinder may be locally thickened to strengthen the intersection, it is often desirable and convenient to provide an annular plate ring at the cone-to-cylinder joint to supplement local thickening or as an alternative strengthening measure, leading to a ring-stiffened cone-cylinder intersection. Only limited work has been carried out specifically on ring-stiffened cone-cylinder intersections under internal pressure. This paper presents the first experimental study on such intersections. In addition to the presentation of test results including geometric imperfections, failure behaviour and the determination of buckling mode and load based on displacement measurements, results from nonlinear bifurcation analysis using the perfect shape and nonlinear analysis using the measured imperfect shape are presented and compared with the experimental results

  3. Buckling Response of a Large-Scale, Seamless, Orthogrid-Stiffened Metallic Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Michelle Tillotson; Hilburger, Mark W.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Lindell, Michael C.; Gardner, Nathaniel W.; Schultz, Marc R.

    2018-01-01

    Results from the buckling test of a compression-loaded 8-ft-diameter seamless (i.e., without manufacturing joints), orthogrid-stiffened metallic cylinder are presented. This test was used to assess the buckling response and imperfection sensitivity characteristics of a seamless cylinder. In addition, the test article and test served as a technology demonstration to show the application of the flow forming manufacturing process to build more efficient buckling-critical structures by eliminating the welded joints that are traditionally used in the manufacturing of large metallic barrels. Pretest predictions of the cylinder buckling response were obtained using a finite-element model that included measured geometric imperfections. The buckling load predicted using this model was 697,000 lb, and the test article buckled at 743,000 lb (6% higher). After the test, the model was revised to account for measured variations in skin and stiffener geometry, nonuniform loading, and material properties. The revised model predicted a buckling load of 754,000 lb, which is within 1.5% of the tested buckling load. In addition, it was determined that the load carrying capability of the seamless cylinder is approximately 28% greater than a corresponding cylinder with welded joints.

  4. Ultimate strength analysis of ring-stiffened cylinders subjected to hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chi Mo

    1990-01-01

    In this study, ultimate strength analysis of ring-stiffened cylinders have been performed, considering the elasto-plastic large deflection. In the elasto-plastic analysis, von Mises yield criteria, the plastic flow theory and the layered approach have been adopted. In order to take into account the follower force effect of the hydrostatic pressure, the incremental load components have been updated at every loading step. As collapse modes, axisymmetric yielding, interframe shell buckling and general buckling are considered, while local buckling of ring-stiffener is not considered. Initial shape imperfection is assumed to be the elastic buckling mode to obtain the lower bound of the ultimate strength. Results of numerical analysis are compared with the experimental results to show the validity of the present approach. It has been drawn that the present numerical results are closely correlated with the experimental results. On the other hand, the effects of initial shape imperfection and condition on the ultimate strength have been investigated. (Author)

  5. Structure-Property Correlations in Al-Li Alloy Integrally Stiffened Extrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish the relationship between mechanical property anisotropy, microstructure and crystallographic texture in integrally 'T'-stiffened extruded panels fabricated from the Al-Li alloys 2195, 2098 and 2096. In-plane properties were measured as a function of orientation at two locations in the panels, namely mid-way between (Skin), and directly beneath (Base), the integral 'T' stiffeners. The 2195 extrusion exhibited the best combination of strength and toughness, but was the most anisotropic. The 2098 extrusion exhibited lower strength and comparable toughness, but was more isotropic than 2195. The 2096 extrusion exhibited the lowest strength and poor toughness, but was the most isotropic. All three alloys exhibited highly elongated grain structures and similar location-dependent variations in grain morphology. The textural characteristics comprised a beta + fiber texture, similar to rolled product, in the Skin regions and alpha + fiber texture, comparable to axisymmetric extruded product, in the Base regions. In an attempt to quantitatively correlate texture with yield strength anisotropy, the original 'full constraint' Taylor model and a variant of the 'relaxed constraint' model, explored by Wert et al., were applied to the data. A comparison of the results revealed that the Wert model was consistently more accurate than the Taylor model.

  6. Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, R. G.; Wang, J. J.; Toh, C.

    2000-01-01

    The continual need to reduce airframe cost and the emergence of high speed machining and other manufacturing technologies has brought about a renewed interest in large-scale integral structures for aircraft applications. Applications have been inhibited, however, because of the need to demonstrate damage tolerance, and by cost and manufacturing risks associated with the size and complexity of the parts. The Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) Program identified a feasible integrally stiffened fuselage concept and evaluated performance and manufacturing cost compared to conventional designs. An integral skin/stiffener concept was produced both by plate hog-out and near-net extrusion. Alloys evaluated included 7050-T7451 plate, 7050-T74511 extrusion, 6013-T6511 extrusion, and 7475-T7351 plate. Mechanical properties, structural details, and joint performance were evaluated as well as repair, static compression, and two-bay crack residual strength panels. Crack turning behavior was characterized through panel tests and improved methods for predicting crack turning were developed. Manufacturing cost was evaluated using COSTRAN. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current technology baseline.

  7. Local and global deformations in a strain-stiffening fibrin gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Qi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Basu, Anindita [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Winer, Jessamine P [Institute for Medicine and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Yodh, Arjun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Janmey, Paul A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Extracellular matrices composed of filamentous biopolymers like collagen and fibrin have viscoelastic properties that differ from those of rubberlike elastomers or hydrogels formed by flexible polymers. Compared to flexible polymer gels, filamentous biopolymer networks generally have larger elastic moduli, a striking increase in elastic modulus with increasing strain, and a pronounced negative normal stress when deformed in simple shear. All three of these unusual features can be accounted for by a theory that extends concepts of entropic elasticity to a regime where the polymer chains are already significantly extended in the absence of external forces because of their finite bending stiffness. An essential assumption of the theories that relate microscopic structural parameters such as persistence length and mesh size of biopolymer gels to their macroscopic rheology is that the deformation of these materials is affine: that is, the macroscopic strain of the bulk material is equal to the local strain within the material at each point. The validity of this assumption for the dilute open meshworks of most biopolymer gels has been experimentally tested by embedding micron diameter fluorescent beads within the networks formed by fibrin and quantifying their displacements as the macroscopic samples are deformed in a rheometer. Measures of non-affine deformation are small at small strains and decrease as strain increases and the sample stiffens. These results are consistent with the entropic model for non-linear elasticity of semiflexible polymer networks and show that strain-stiffening does not require non-affine deformations.

  8. A backing device based on an embedded stiffener and retractable insertion tool for thin-film cochlear arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Radheshyam

    Intracochlear trauma from surgical insertion of bulky electrode arrays and inadequate pitch perception are areas of concern with current hand-assembled commercial cochlear implants. Parylene thin-film arrays with higher electrode densities and lower profiles are a potential solution, but lack rigidity and hence depend on manually fabricated permanently attached polyethylene terephthalate (PET) tubing based bulky backing devices. As a solution, we investigated a new backing device with two sub-systems. The first sub-system is a thin poly(lactic acid) (PLA) stiffener that will be embedded in the parylene array. The second sub-system is an attaching and detaching mechanism, utilizing a poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-block-poly(d,l-lactide) (PVP-b-PDLLA) copolymer-based biodegradable and water soluble adhesive, that will help to retract the PET insertion tool after implantation. As a proof-of-concept of sub-system one, a microfabrication process for patterning PLA stiffeners embedded in parylene has been developed. Conventional hot-embossing, mechanical micromachining, and standard cleanroom processes were integrated for patterning fully released and discrete stiffeners coated with parylene. The released embedded stiffeners were thermoformed to demonstrate that imparting perimodiolar shapes to stiffener-embedded arrays will be possible. The developed process when integrated with the array fabrication process will allow fabrication of stiffener-embedded arrays in a single process. As a proof-of-concept of sub-system two, the feasibility of the attaching and detaching mechanism was demonstrated by adhering 1x and 1.5x scale PET tube-based insertion tools and PLA stiffeners embedded in parylene using the copolymer adhesive. The attached devices survived qualitative adhesion tests, thermoforming, and flexing. The viability of the detaching mechanism was tested by aging the assemblies in-vitro in phosphate buffer solution. The average detachment times, 2.6 minutes and 10 minutes

  9. Computer program for stresses and buckling of heated composite-stiffened panels and other structures (BUCLASP 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Tamekuni, M.; Tripp, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    General-purpose program is intended for thermal stress and instability analyses of structures such as axially-stiffened curved panels. Two types of instability analyses can be effected by program: (1) thermal buckling with temperature variation as specified and (2) buckling due to in-plane biaxial loading.

  10. Influence of Tension Stiffening on the Flexural Stiffness of Reinforced Concrete Circular Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Francesco; Amico, Cosimo; Salvatore, Walter; Squeglia, Nunziante; Stacul, Stefano

    2017-06-18

    Within this paper, the assessment of tension stiffening effects on a reinforced concrete element with the circular sections subjected to axial and bending loads is presented. To this purpose, an enhancement of an analytical model already present within the actual technical literature is proposed. The accuracy of the enhanced method is assessed by comparing the experimental results carried out in past research and the numerical ones obtained by the model. Finally, a parametric study is executed in order to study the influence of axial compressive force on the flexural stiffness of reinforced concrete elements that are characterized by a circular section, comparing the secant stiffness evaluated at yielding and at maximum resistance, considering and not considering the effects of tension stiffness.

  11. Influence of Tension Stiffening on the Flexural Stiffness of Reinforced Concrete Circular Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Morelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper, the assessment of tension stiffening effects on a reinforced concrete element with the circular sections subjected to axial and bending loads is presented. To this purpose, an enhancement of an analytical model already present within the actual technical literature is proposed. The accuracy of the enhanced method is assessed by comparing the experimental results carried out in past research and the numerical ones obtained by the model. Finally, a parametric study is executed in order to study the influence of axial compressive force on the flexural stiffness of reinforced concrete elements that are characterized by a circular section, comparing the secant stiffness evaluated at yielding and at maximum resistance, considering and not considering the effects of tension stiffness.

  12. Evaluation of the Behavior of Technova Corporation Rod-Stiffened Stitched Compression Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    2013-01-01

    Under Space Act Agreement 1347 between NASA and Technova Corporation, Technova designed and fabricated two carbon-epoxy crippling specimens and NASA loaded them to failure in axial compression. Each specimen contained a pultruded rod stiffener which was held to the specimen skin with through-the-thickness stitches. One of these specimens was designed to be nominally the same as pultruded rod stitched specimens fabricated by Boeing under previous programs. In the other specimen, the rod was prestressed in a Technova manufacturing process to increase its ability to carrying compressive loading. Experimental results demonstrated that the specimen without prestressing carried approximately the same load as the similar Boeing specimens and that the specimen with prestressing carried significantly more load than the specimen without prestressing.

  13. Free vibration of laminated composite stiffened hyperbolic paraboloid shell panel with cutout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarmila

    2016-08-01

    Composite shell structures are extensively used in aerospace, civil, marine and other engineering applications. In practical civil engineering applications, the necessity of covering large column free open areas is often an issue and hyperbolic paraboloid shells are used as roofing units. Quite often, to save weight and also to provide a facility for inspection, cutouts are provided in shell panels. The paper considers free vibration characteristics of stiffened composite hyperbolic paraboloid shell panel with cutout in terms of natural frequency and mode shapes. A finite element code is developed for the purpose by combining an eight noded curved shell element with a three noded curved beam element. The size of the cutouts and their positions with respect to the shell centre are varied for different edge conditions to arrive at a set of inferences of practical engineering significances.

  14. Investigation Analysis of Crack Growth Arresting with Fasteners in Hybrid Laminated Skin-Stiffener Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevan Kumar, N.; Ramesh Babu, P.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years carbon fibre-reinforced polymers (CFRP) emerged its increasing demand in aerospace engineering. Due to their high specific strength to weight ratio, these composites offer more characteristics and considerable advantages compared to metals. Metals, unlike composites, offer plasticity effects to evade high stress concentrations during postbuckling. Under compressive load, composite structures show a wide range of damage mechanisms where a set of damage modes combined together might lead to the eventual structural collapse. Crack is one of the most critical damages in fiber composites, which are being employed in primary aircraft structures. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the arrest mechanism of the delamination or crack growth with installation of multiple fasteners when the delamination is embedded in between the skin and stiffener interface.

  15. Self-healing of sandwich structures with a grid stiffened shape memory polymer syntactic foam core

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Manu; Li, Guoqiang

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, a new sandwich with an orthogrid stiffened shape memory polymer (SMP) based syntactic foam core was proposed, fabricated, programmed, impacted, healed (sealed), and compression tested, for the purposes of healing impact damage repeatedly and almost autonomously. Two prestrain levels (3% and 20%), two impact energy levels (30.0 and 53.3 J), and two recovery (healing) conditions (2D confined and 3D confined) were employed in this paper. Up to seven impact-healing cycles were conducted. Macroscopic and microscopic damage-healing observation and analysis were implemented. Residual strength was evaluated using an anti-buckling compression test fixture. It was found that the healing efficiency was over 100% for almost all the impact-healing cycles; programming using 20% prestrain led to higher residual strength than that with 3% prestrain; 3D confined recovery resulted in higher residual strength than 2D confined recovery; and as the impact energy increased, the healing efficiency slightly decreased.

  16. Nonlinear Dynamic Behavior of Impact Damage in a Composite Skin-Stiffener Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooijevaar, T. H.; Rogge, M. D.; Loendersloot, R.; Warnet, L.; Akkerman, R.; deBoer, A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the key issues in composite structures for aircraft applications is the early identification of damage. Often, service induced damage does not involve visible plastic deformation, but internal matrix related damage, like delaminations. A wide range of technologies, comprising global vibration and local wave propagation methods can be employed for health monitoring purposes. Traditional low frequency modal analysis based methods are linear methods. The effectiveness of these methods is often limited since they rely on a stationary and linear approximation of the system. The nonlinear interaction between a low frequency wave field and a local impact induced skin-stiffener failure is experimentally demonstrated in this paper. The different mechanisms that are responsible for the nonlinearities (opening, closing and contact) of the distorted harmonic waveforms are separated with the help of phase portraits. A basic analytical model is employed to support the observations.

  17. Chameleon-like elastomers with molecularly encoded strain-adaptive stiffening and coloration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah-Varnosfaderani, Mohammad; Keith, Andrew N.; Cong, Yidan; Liang, Heyi; Rosenthal, Martin; Sztucki, Michael; Clair, Charles; Magonov, Sergei; Ivanov, Dimitri A.; Dobrynin, Andrey V.; Sheiko, Sergei S.

    2018-03-01

    Active camouflage is widely recognized as a soft-tissue feature, and yet the ability to integrate adaptive coloration and tissuelike mechanical properties into synthetic materials remains elusive. We provide a solution to this problem by uniting these functions in moldable elastomers through the self-assembly of linear-bottlebrush-linear triblock copolymers. Microphase separation of the architecturally distinct blocks results in physically cross-linked networks that display vibrant color, extreme softness, and intense strain stiffening on par with that of skin tissue. Each of these functional properties is regulated by the structure of one macromolecule, without the need for chemical cross-linking or additives. These materials remain stable under conditions characteristic of internal bodily environments and under ambient conditions, neither swelling in bodily fluids nor drying when exposed to air.

  18. Analysis of an Orthotropic Deck Stiffened with a Cement-Based Overlay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Rasmus; Olesen, John Forbes; Stang, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    decks. A solution might be to enhance the stiffness of the traditional orthotropic bridge deck by using a cement-based overlay. In this paper, an orthotropic steel bridge deck stiffened with a cement-based overlay is analyzed. The analysis is based on nonlinear fracture mechanics, and utilizes......Over the past years, with increasing traffic volumes and higher wheel loads, fatigue damage in steel parts of typical orthotropic steel bridge decks has been experienced on heavily trafficked routes. A demand exists to find a durable system to increase the fatigue safety of orthotropic steel bridge...... the finite-element method. The stiffness of the steel deck reinforced with an overlay depends highly on the composite action. The composite action is closely related to cracking of the overlay and interfacial cracking between the overlay and underlying steel plate (debonding). As an example, a real size...

  19. Buckling Analysis for Stiffened Anisotropic Circular Cylinders Based on Sanders Nonlinear Shell Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear and bifurcation buckling equations for elastic, stiffened, geometrically perfect, right-circular cylindrical, anisotropic shells subjected to combined loads are presented that are based on Sanders' shell theory. Based on these equations, a three-parameter approximate Rayleigh-Ritz solution and a classical solution to the buckling problem are presented for cylinders with simply supported edges. Extensive comparisons of results obtained from these solutions with published results are also presented for a wide range of cylinder constructions. These comparisons include laminated-composite cylinders with a wide variety of shell-wall orthotropies and anisotropies. Numerous results are also given that show the discrepancies between the results obtained by using Donnell's equations and variants of Sanders' equations. For some cases, nondimensional parameters are identified and "master" curves are presented that facilitate the concise representation of results.

  20. Theoretical Analysis of Stress Distribution in Bonded Single Strap and Stiffened Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Ghoddous

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, distribution of peeling stress in two types of adhesively-bonded joints is investigated. The joints are a single strap and a stiffened joint. Theses joints are under uniform tensile load and materials are assumed orthotropic. Layers can be identical or different in mechanical or geometrical properties. A two-dimensional elasticity theory that includes the complete stress-strain and the complete strain-displacement relations for adhesive and adherends is used in this analysis. The displacement is assumed to be linear in the adhesive layer. A set of differential equations was derived and solved by using appropriate boundary conditions. Results revealed that the peak peeling stress developed within the adhesive layer is a function of geometrical and mechanical properties. FEM solution is used as the second method to verify the analytical results. A good agreement is observed between analytical and FEM solutions.

  1. Dynamic Softening or Stiffening a Supramolecular Hydrogel by Ultraviolet or Near-Infrared Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhao; Hu, Jingjing; Wang, Hui; Huang, Junlin; Yu, Yihua; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Yiyun

    2017-07-26

    The development of light-responsive hydrogels that exhibit switchable size and mechanical properties with temporal and spatial resolution is of great importance in many fields. However, it remains challenging to prepare smart hydrogels that dramatically change their properties in response to both ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) lights. Here, we designed a dual-light responsive supramolecular gel by integrating UV light-switchable host-guest recognition, temperature responsiveness, and NIR photothermal ability in the gel. The gel could rapidly self-heal and is capable of both softening and stiffening controlled by UV and NIR lights, respectively. Besides stiffness modulation, the bending direction of the gel can be controlled by UV or NIR light irradiation. The smart gel makes it possible to generate dynamic materials that respond to both UV and NIR lights and represents a useful tool that might be used to modulate cellular microenvironments with spatiotemporal resolution.

  2. Free vibration of laminated composite stiffened hyperbolic paraboloid shell panel with cutout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Sarmila

    2016-01-01

    Composite shell structures are extensively used in aerospace, civil, marine and other engineering applications. In practical civil engineering applications, the necessity of covering large column free open areas is often an issue and hyperbolic paraboloid shells are used as roofing units. Quite often, to save weight and also to provide a facility for inspection, cutouts are provided in shell panels. The paper considers free vibration characteristics of stiffened composite hyperbolic paraboloid shell panel with cutout in terms of natural frequency and mode shapes. A finite element code is developed for the purpose by combining an eight noded curved shell element with a three noded curved beam element. The size of the cutouts and their positions with respect to the shell centre are varied for different edge conditions to arrive at a set of inferences of practical engineering significances. (paper)

  3. Influence of MSD crack pattern on the residual strength of flat stiffened sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, K.-F.

    A parameter study of the residual strength for a multiple site damaged (MSD) stiffened sheet is presented. The analysis is based on an elastic-plastic fracture analysis using the yield-strip model for interaction between a lead crack and the smaller MSD cracks. Two crack growth criteria, one with a pronounced crack growth resistance and one with no crack growth resistance and five different MSD crack patterns, are analysed for different sizes of the lead crack and the smaller MSD cracks. The analysis indicates that the residual strength reduction depends on all these parameters and that MSD may totally erode the crack arrest capability of a tear strap. Another important outcome is that for certain combinations also very small MSD cracks may induce a significant residual strength reduction.

  4. Galectin-3: A Link between Myocardial and Arterial Stiffening in Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Radu Ioan; Darabantiu, Dan; Pilat, Luminita; Puschita, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Heart failure is accompanied by abnormalities in ventricular-vascular interaction due to increased myocardial and arterial stiffness. Galectin-3 is a recently discovered biomarker that plays an important role in myocardial and vascular fibrosis and heart failure progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether galectin-3 is correlated with arterial stiffening markers and impaired ventricular-arterial coupling in decompensated heart failure patients. A total of 79 inpatients with acute decompensated heart failure were evaluated. Serum galectin-3 was determined at baseline, and during admission, transthoracic echocardiography and measurements of vascular indices by Doppler ultrasonography were performed. Elevated pulse wave velocity and low arterial carotid distensibility are associated with heart failure in patients with preserved ejection fraction (p = 0.04, p = 0.009). Pulse wave velocity, carotid distensibility and Young's modulus did not correlate with serum galectin-3 levels. Conversely, raised galectin-3 levels correlated with an increased ventricular-arterial coupling ratio (Ea/Elv) p = 0.047, OR = 1.9, 95% CI (1.0‑3.6). Increased galectin-3 levels were associated with lower rates of left ventricular pressure rise in early systole (dp/dt) (p=0.018) and raised pulmonary artery pressure (p = 0.046). High galectin-3 levels (p = 0.038, HR = 3.07) and arterial pulmonary pressure (p = 0.007, HR = 1.06) were found to be independent risk factors for all-cause mortality and readmissions. This study showed no significant correlation between serum galectin-3 levels and arterial stiffening markers. Instead, high galectin-3 levels predicted impaired ventricular-arterial coupling. Galectin-3 may be predictive of raised pulmonary artery pressures. Elevated galectin-3 levels correlate with severe systolic dysfunction and together with pulmonary hypertension are independent markers of outcome.

  5. Analysis of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modak, Partha; Hossain, M. Jamil, E-mail: jamil917@gmail.com; Ahmed, S. Reaz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    An accurate stress analysis has been carried out to investigate the suitability of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners. Three different balanced laminates composed of dissimilar ply material as well as fiber orientations are considered for a thick beam on simple supports with stiffened lateral ends. A displacement potential based elasticity approach is used to obtain the numerical solution of the corresponding elastic fields. The overall laminate stresses as well as individual ply stresses are analysed mainly in the perspective of laminate hybridization. Both the fiber material and ply angle of individual laminas are found to play dominant roles in defining the design stresses of the present composite beam.

  6. Stiffeners in variational-difference method for calculating shells with complex geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Vyacheslav Nikolaevich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We have already considered an introduction of reinforcements in the variational-difference method (VDM of shells analysis with complex shape. At the moment only ribbed shells of revolution and shallow shells can be calculated with the help of developed analytical and finite-difference methods. Ribbed shells of arbitrary shape can be calculated only using the finite element method (FEM. However there are problems, when using FEM, which are absent in finite- and variational-difference methods: rigid body motion; conforming trial functions; parameterization of a surface; independent stress strain state. In this regard stiffeners are entered in VDM. VDM is based on the Lagrange principle - the principle of minimum total potential energy. Stress-strain state of ribs is described by the Kirchhoff-Clebsch theory of curvilinear bars: tension, bending and torsion of ribs are taken into account. Stress-strain state of shells is described by the Kirchhoff-Love theory of thin elastic shells. A position of points of the middle surface is defined by curvilinear orthogonal coordinates α, β. Curved ribs are situated along coordinate lines. Strain energy of ribs is added into the strain energy to account for ribs. A matrix form of strain energy of ribs is formed similar to a matrix form of the strain energy of the shell. A matrix of geometrical characteristics of a rib is formed from components of matrices of geometric characteristics of a shell. A matrix of mechanical characteristics of a rib contains rib’s eccentricity and geometrical characteristics of a rib’s section. Derivatives of displacements in the strain vector are replaced with finite-difference relations after the middle surface of a shell gets covered with a grid (grid lines coincide with the coordinate lines of principal curvatures. By this case the total potential energy functional becomes a function of strain nodal displacements. Partial derivatives of unknown nodal displacements are

  7. Setting and stiffening of cementitious components in Cast Stone waste form for disposal of secondary wastes from the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Chun, Jaehun, E-mail: jaehun.chun@pnnl.gov; Um, Wooyong; Sundaram, S.K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-04-01

    Cast Stone is a cementitious waste form, a viable option to immobilize secondary nuclear liquid wastes generated from the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. However, no study has been performed to understand the flow and stiffening behavior, which is essential to ensure proper workability and is important to safety in a nuclear waste field-scale application. X-ray diffraction, rheology, and ultrasonic wave reflection methods were used to understand the specific phase formation and stiffening of Cast Stone. Our results showed a good correlation between rheological properties of the fresh mixture and phase formation in Cast Stone. Secondary gypsum formation was observed with low concentration simulants, and the formation of gypsum was suppressed in high concentration simulants. A threshold concentration for the drastic change in stiffening was found at 1.56 M Na concentration. It was found that the stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. Highlights: • A combination of XRD, UWR, and rheology gives a better understanding of Cast Stone. • Stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. • A drastic change in stiffening of Cast Stone was found at 1.56 M Na concentration.

  8. Finite Element and Analytical Analysis of Cracks in Thick Stiffened Plates Repaired with a Single Sided Composite Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    DC,Tech. Rep. CG-D-05–00, 2000. [16] S. Kou, Welding Metallurgy , 2nd edition, Hoboken: Wiley Interscience, 2003. [17] C. Poe, “Stress intensity...continuous aluminum superstructure welded to the deck. The shape of the superstructure created numerous stress concentration areas. Of the greatest concern...study as it will help provide a conservative estimate. In marine applications almost all stiffening members are attached by welding . Unlike a

  9. Erection of the stiffening girder of the Akashi Kaikyo bridge; Akashi Kaikyo Ohashi hokoketa (sono 2) koji no genchi seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuki, M.; Inoue, M.; Ueno, Y.; Matsumura, T.; Oe, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1998-12-20

    The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge is 3,911m long with a center span of 1,991m, making it the longest suspension bridge in the world. Much careful attention has been given to the erection planning details in order to construct the bridge to withstand the harsh environmental conditions of that area. This report details the characteristics of the bridge stiffening girder and erection procedure, and the effects of the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. (author)

  10. The ring-stiffened shell of the ISAR II nuclear power plant natural-draught cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Form, J.

    1986-01-01

    The natural-draught cooling tower of the ISAR II nuclear power plant is one of the largest in the world. The bid specifications provided for an unstiffened cooling tower shell. For the execution, however, it was decided to adopt a shell with three additional stiffening rings. The present contribution deals with the static and dynamic calculations of the execution and, in particular, with the working technique employed for the construction of the rings. (author)

  11. Packaging, deployment, and panel design concepts for a truss-stiffened 7-panel precision deployable reflector with feed boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Collins, Timothy J.; Dyess, James W.; Kenner, Scott; Bush, Harold G.

    1993-01-01

    A concept is presented for achieving a remotely deployable truss-stiffened reflector consisting of seven integrated sandwich panels that form the reflective surface, and an integrated feed boom. The concept has potential for meeting aperture size and surface precision requirements for some high-frequency microwave remote sensing applications. The packaged reflector/feed boom configuration is a self-contained unit that can be conveniently attached to a spacecraft bus. The package has a cylindrical envelope compatible with typical launch vehicle shrouds. Dynamic behavior of a deployed configuration having a 216-inch focal length and consisting of 80-inch-diameter, two-inch-thick panels is examined through finite-element analysis. Results show that the feed boom and spacecraft bus can have a large impact on the fundamental frequency of the deployed configuration. Two candidate rib-stiffened sandwich panel configurations for this application are described, and analytical results for panel mass and stiffness are presented. Results show that the addition of only a few rib stiffeners, if sufficiently deep, can efficiently improve sandwich panel stiffness.

  12. Residual Strength Pressure Tests and Nonlinear Analyses of Stringer- and Frame-Stiffened Aluminum Fuselage Panels with Longitudinal Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard D.; Rouse, Marshall; Ambur, Damodar R.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The results of residual strength pressure tests and nonlinear analyses of stringer- and frame-stiffened aluminum fuselage panels with longitudinal cracks are presented. Two types of damage are considered: a longitudinal crack located midway between stringers, and a longitudinal crack adjacent to a stringer and along a row of fasteners in a lap joint that has multiple-site damage (MSD). In both cases, the longitudinal crack is centered on a severed frame. The panels are subjected to internal pressure plus axial tension loads. The axial tension loads are equivalent to a bulkhead pressure load. Nonlinear elastic-plastic residual strength analyses of the fuselage panels are conducted using a finite element program and the crack-tip-opening-angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. Predicted crack growth and residual strength results from nonlinear analyses of the stiffened fuselage panels are compared with experimental measurements and observations. Both the test and analysis results indicate that the presence of MSD affects crack growth stability and reduces the residual strength of stiffened fuselage shells with long cracks.

  13. AFM-based detection of glycocalyx degradation and endothelial stiffening in the db/db mouse model of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targosz-Korecka, Marta; Jaglarz, Magdalena; Malek-Zietek, Katarzyna E; Gregorius, Aleksandra; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Sitek, Barbara; Rajfur, Zenon; Chlopicki, Stefan; Szymonski, Marek

    2017-11-21

    Degradation of the glycocalyx and stiffening of endothelium are important pathophysiological components of endothelial dysfunction. However, to our knowledge, these events have not been investigated in tandem in experimental diabetes. Here, the mechanical properties of the glycocalyx and endothelium in ex vivo mouse aorta were determined simultaneously in indentation experiments with an atomic force microscope (AFM) for diabetic db/db and control db/+ mice at ages of 11-19 weeks. To analyze highly heterogeneous aorta samples, we developed a tailored classification procedure of indentation data based on a bi-layer brush model supplemented with Hertz model for quantification of nanomechanics of endothelial regions with and without the glycocalyx surface. In db/db mice, marked endothelial stiffening and reduced glycocalyx coverage were present already in 11-week-old mice and persisted in older animals. In contrast, reduction of the effective glycocalyx length was progressive and was most pronounced in 19-week-old db/db mice. The reduction of the glycocalyx length correlated with an increasing level of glycated haemoglobin and decreased endothelial NO production. In conclusion, AFM nanoindentation analysis revealed that stiffening of endothelial cells and diminished glycocalyx coverage occurred in early diabetes and were followed by the reduction of the glycocalyx length that correlated with diabetes progression.

  14. Parameter-free method for the shape optimization of stiffeners on thin-walled structures to minimize stress concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang; Shibutan, Yoji [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Shimoda, Masatoshi [Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    This paper presents a parameter-free shape optimization method for the strength design of stiffeners on thin-walled structures. The maximum von Mises stress is minimized and subjected to the volume constraint. The optimum design problem is formulated as a distributed-parameter shape optimization problem under the assumptions that a stiffener is varied in the in-plane direction and that the thickness is constant. The issue of nondifferentiability, which is inherent in this min-max problem, is avoided by transforming the local measure to a smooth differentiable integral functional by using the Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser function. The shape gradient functions are derived by using the material derivative method and adjoint variable method and are applied to the H{sup 1} gradient method for shells to determine the optimal free-boundary shapes. By using this method, the smooth optimal stiffener shape can be obtained without any shape design parameterization while minimizing the maximum stress. The validity of this method is verified through two practical design examples.

  15. Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Reservoir with Circumferential Stiffeners Strips by Particle Swarm Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GholamReza Havaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete reservoirs (RCR have been used extensively in municipal and industrial facilities for several decades. The design of these structures requires that attention be given not only to strength requirements, but to serviceability requirements as well. These types of structures will be square, round, and oval reinforced concrete structures which may be above, below, or partially below ground. The main challenge is to design concrete liquid containing structures which will resist the extremes of seasonal temperature changes, a variety of loading conditions, and remain liquid tight for useful life of 50 to 60 years. In this study, optimization is performed by particle swarm algorithm basd on structural design. Firstly by structural analysis all range of shell thickness and areas of rebar find. In the second step by parameter identification system interchange algorithm, source code which developed in particle swarm algorithm by MATLAB software linked to analysis software. Therefore best and optimized thicknesses and total area of bars for each element find. Lastly with circumferential stiffeners structure optimize and show 19% decrease in weight of rebar, 20% decrease in volume of concrete, and 13% minimum cost reduction in construction procedure compared with conventional 10,000 m3 RCR structures.

  16. Skeletal stiffening in an amphibious fish out of water is a response to increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, Andy J; Kültz, Dietmar; Fudge, Douglas; Croll, Roger P; Smith, Frank M; Stoyek, Matthew R; Wright, Patricia A

    2017-10-15

    Terrestrial animals must support their bodies against gravity, while aquatic animals are effectively weightless because of buoyant support from water. Given this evolutionary history of minimal gravitational loading of fishes in water, it has been hypothesized that weight-responsive musculoskeletal systems evolved during the tetrapod invasion of land and are thus absent in fishes. Amphibious fishes, however, experience increased effective weight when out of water - are these fishes responsive to gravitational loading? Contrary to the tetrapod-origin hypothesis, we found that terrestrial acclimation reversibly increased gill arch stiffness (∼60% increase) in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus when loaded normally by gravity, but not under simulated microgravity. Quantitative proteomics analysis revealed that this change in mechanical properties occurred via increased abundance of proteins responsible for bone mineralization in other fishes as well as in tetrapods. Type X collagen, associated with endochondral bone growth, increased in abundance almost ninefold after terrestrial acclimation. Collagen isoforms known to promote extracellular matrix cross-linking and cause tissue stiffening, such as types IX and XII collagen, also increased in abundance. Finally, more densely packed collagen fibrils in both gill arches and filaments were observed microscopically in terrestrially acclimated fish. Our results demonstrate that the mechanical properties of the fish musculoskeletal system can be fine-tuned in response to changes in effective body weight using biochemical pathways similar to those in mammals, suggesting that weight sensing is an ancestral vertebrate trait rather than a tetrapod innovation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Effect of High-Fat Diet upon Inflammatory Markers and Aortic Stiffening in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bento Chaves Santana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in lifestyle such as increase in high-fat food consumption are an important cause for vascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of ACE and TGF-β in the aorta stiffness induced by high-fat diet. C57BL/6 male mice were divided in two groups according to their diet for 8 weeks: standard diet (ST and high-fat diet (HF. At the end of the protocol, body weight gain, adipose tissue content, serum lipids and glucose levels, and aorta morphometric and biochemical measurements were performed. Analysis of collagen fibers by picrosirius staining of aorta slices showed that HF diet promoted increase of thin (55% and thick (100% collagen fibers deposition and concomitant disorganization of these fibers orientations in the aorta vascular wall (50%. To unravel the mechanism involved, myeloperoxidase (MPO and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE were evaluated by protein expression and enzyme activity. HF diet increased MPO (90% and ACE (28% activities, as well as protein expression of ACE. TGF-β was also increased in aorta tissue of HF diet mice after 8 weeks. Altogether, we have observed that the HF diet-induced aortic stiffening may be associated with increased oxidative stress damage and activation of the RAS in vascular tissue.

  18. Topological optimization of opening fence brackets on ring-stiffened cylindrical shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Xiaofei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Stress concentration is prone to take place at connections between the opening fence and ring ribs of a ring-stiffened cylindrical shell under external pressure. [Methods] In this paper, a topological optimization method for the brackets that connect the fence to the ring ribs is proposed in order to effectively reduce the local high stress in the brackets. The sub-model technique is used to analyze the stress of the connecting brackets. In the design, the connection brackets are used as design variables and the stress of the shell, fence and ribs are used as constraints. The maximum stress of the bracket is minimized as the objective function. The topology optimization results are engineered to obtain the final form of the brackets. [Results] The calculation results show that brackets of which the panel is partially widened can effectively reduce the stress concentration position of the opening fence transverse offset if the side of the bracket away from the longitudinal section is longer; the opening fence is offset relative to the brackets, and the symmetrical design of the brackets is feasible. [Conclusions] This research provides a reference for similar structural design.

  19. Stiffening of Red Blood Cells Induced by Cytoskeleton Disorders: A Joint Theory-Experiment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lipeng; Xu, Xiaofeng; Lim, Chwee Teck; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-12-01

    The functions and elasticities of the cell are largely related to the structures of the cytoskeletons underlying the lipid bilayer. Among various cell types, the red blood cell (RBC) possesses a relatively simple cytoskeletal structure. Underneath the membrane, the RBC cytoskeleton takes the form of a two-dimensional triangular network, consisting of nodes of actins (and other proteins) and edges of spectrins. Recent experiments focusing on the malaria-infected RBCs (iRBCs) show that there is a correlation between the elongation of spectrins in the cytoskeletal network and the stiffening of the iRBCs. Here we rationalize the correlation between these two observations by combining the wormlike chain model for single spectrins and the effective medium theory for the network elasticity. We specifically focus on how the disorders in the cytoskeletal network affect its macroscopic elasticity. Analytical and numerical solutions from our model reveal that the stiffness of the membrane increases with increasing end-to-end distances of spectrins, but has a nonmonotonic dependence on the variance of the end-to-end distance distributions. These predictions are verified quantitatively by our atomic force microscopy and micropipette aspiration measurements of iRBCs. The model may, from a molecular level, provide guidelines for future identification of new treatment methods for RBC-related diseases, such as malaria infection. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Monte Carlo reliability analysis of tophat stiffened composite plate structures under out of plane loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobey, A.J.; Blake, J.I.R.; Shenoi, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Composite materials are often utilised for their high strength to weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, etc. but are also characterised by variabilities and uncertainties in their mechanical properties owing to the material make-up, process and fabrication techniques. It is essential that modelling techniques continue to be developed to take account of these variabilities and uncertainties and as more complicated structures are developed it is important to have rapid assessment methods to determine the reliability of these structures. Grillage analysis methods have been previously used for assessment of tophat stiffened composite structures using simple failure criteria. As new criteria are introduced, such as by the World Wide Failure Exercise, the response of more complex topologies must be introduced. This paper therefore assesses the reliability of composite grillages using Navier grillage method incorporating up to date failure criteria. An example, taken from boatbuilding, is used to show the results of using these more complex assessment methods showing that it is of high importance to use the correct assessment criteria.

  1. Non-linear general instability of ring-stiffened conical shells under external hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, C T F; Kubelt, C; McLaughlin, I; Etheridge, A; Turner, K; Paraskevaides, D; Little, A P F

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the experimental results for 15 ring-stiffened circular steel conical shells, which failed by non-linear general instability. The results of these investigations were compared with various theoretical analyses, including an ANSYS eigen buckling analysis and another ANSYS analysis; which involved a step-by-step method until collapse; where both material and geometrical nonlinearity were considered. The investigation also involved an analysis using BS5500 (PD 5500), together with the method of Ross of the University of Portsmouth. The ANSYS eigen buckling analysis tended to overestimate the predicted buckling pressures; whereas the ANSYS nonlinear results compared favourably with the experimental results. The PD5500 analysis was very time consuming and tended to grossly underestimate the experimental buckling pressures and in some cases, overestimate them. In contrast to PD5500 and ANSYS, the design charts of Ross of the University of Portsmouth were the easiest of all these methods to use and generally only slightly underestimated the experimental collapse pressures. The ANSYS analyses gave some excellent graphical displays.

  2. A network model of correlated growth of tissue stiffening in pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cláudio L N; Suki, Béla; Bates, Jason H T

    2014-01-01

    During the progression of pulmonary fibrosis, initially isolated regions of high stiffness form and grow in the lung tissue due to collagen deposition by fibroblast cells. We have previously shown that ongoing collagen deposition may not lead to significant increases in the bulk modulus of the lung until these local remodeled regions have become sufficiently numerous and extensive to percolate in a continuous path across the entire tissue (Bates et al 2007 Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 176 617). This model, however, did not include the possibility of spatially correlated deposition of collagen. In the present study, we investigate whether spatial correlations influence the bulk modulus in a two-dimensional elastic network model of lung tissue. Random collagen deposition at a single site is modeled by increasing the elastic constant of the spring at that site by a factor of 100. By contrast, correlated collagen deposition is represented by stiffening the springs encountered along a random walk starting from some initial spring, the rationale being that excess collagen deposition is more likely in the vicinity of an already stiff region. A combination of random and correlated deposition is modeled by performing random walks of length N from randomly selected initial sites, the balance between the two processes being determined by N. We found that the dependence of bulk modulus, B(N,c), on both N and the fraction of stiff springs, c, can be described by a strikingly simple set of empirical equations. For c<0.3, B(N,c) exhibits exponential growth from its initial value according to B(N,c)≈B 0 exp(2c)[1+c β ln(N a I )], where β=0.994± 0.024 and a I =0.54±0.026. For intermediate concentrations of stiffening, 0.3⩽c⩽0.8, another exponential rule describes the bulk modulus as B(N,c)=4B 0 exp[a II (c−c c )], where a II and c c are parameters that depend on N. For c>0.8, B(N,c) is linear in c and independent of N, such that B(N,c)=100 B 0 −100a III (1−c)B 0

  3. Angiotensin II-induced arterial thickening, fibrosis and stiffening involves elevated arginase function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Bhatta

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness (AS is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Smooth muscle cell (SMC proliferation and increased collagen synthesis are key features in development of AS. Arginase (ARG, an enzyme implicated in many cardiovascular diseases, can compete with nitric oxide (NO synthase for their common substrate, L-arginine. Increased arginase can also provide ornithine for synthesis of polyamines via ornithine decarboxylase (ODC and proline/collagen via ornithine aminotransferase (OAT, leading to vascular cell proliferation and collagen formation, respectively. We hypothesized that elevated arginase activity is involved in Ang II-induced arterial thickening, fibrosis, and stiffness and that limiting its activity can prevent these changes.We tested this by studies in mice lacking one copy of the ARG1 gene that were treated with angiotensin II (Ang II, 4 weeks. Studies were also performed in rat aortic Ang II-treated SMC. In WT mice treated with Ang II, we observed aortic stiffening (pulse wave velocity and aortic and coronary fibrosis and thickening that were associated with increases in ARG1 and ODC expression/activity, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, hydroxyproline levels, and collagen 1 protein expression. ARG1 deletion prevented each of these alterations. Furthermore, exposure of SMC to Ang II (1 μM, 48 hrs increased ARG1 expression, ARG activity, ODC mRNA and activity, cell proliferation, collagen 1 protein expression and hydroxyproline content. Treatment with ABH prevented these changes.Arginase 1 is crucially involved in Ang II-induced SMC proliferation and arterial fibrosis and stiffness and represents a promising therapeutic target.

  4. Setting and Stiffening of Cementitious Components in Cast Stone Waste Form for Disposal of Secondary Wastes from the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Chun, Jaehun; Um, Wooyong; Sundaram, S. K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-04-01

    Cast stone is a cementitious waste form, a viable option to immobilize secondary nuclear liquid wastes generated from Hanford vitrification plant. While the strength and radioactive technetium leaching of different waste form candidates have been reported, no study has been performed to understand the flow and stiffening behavior of Cast Stone, which is essential to ensure the proper workability, especially considering necessary safety as a nuclear waste form in a field scale application. The rheological and ultrasonic wave reflection (UWR) measurements were used to understand the setting and stiffening Cast Stone batches. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to find the correlation between specific phase formation and the stiffening of the paste. Our results showed good correlation between rheological properties of the fresh Cast Stone mixture and phase formation during hydration of Cast Stone. Secondary gypsum formation originating from blast furnace slag was observed in Cast Stone made with low concentration simulants. The formation of gypsum was suppressed in high concentration simulants. It was found that the stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. A threshold concentration for the drastic change in stiffening was found at 1.56 M Na concentration.

  5. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuates aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction through preserving aortic mitochondrial function in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Ma, Yan-Ping; Liu, Jian-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ze

    2014-08-01

    Aging leads to large vessel arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, which are important determinants of cardiovascular risk. The aim of present work was to assess the effects of chronic aerobic exercise training on aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction in aged rats and investigate the underlying mechanism about mitochondrial function. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuated aortic stiffening with age marked by reduced collagen concentration, increased elastin concentration and reduced pulse wave velocity (PWV), and prevented aging-related endothelial dysfunction marked by improved endothelium-mediated vascular relaxation of aortas in response to acetylcholine. Chronic aerobic exercise training abated oxidative stress and nitrosative stress in aortas of aged rats. More importantly, we found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats preserved aortic mitochondrial function marked by reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondrial swelling, increased ATP formation and mitochondrial DNA content, and restored activities of complexes I and III and electron-coupling capacity between complexes I and III and between complexes II and III. In addition, it was found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats enhanced protein expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2), prohibitin (PHB) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in aortas. In conclusion, chronic aerobic exercise training preserved mitochondrial function in aortas, which, at least in part, explained the aorta-protecting effects of exercise training in aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A network model of correlated growth of tissue stiffening in pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cláudio L. N.; Bates, Jason H. T.; Suki, Béla

    2014-06-01

    During the progression of pulmonary fibrosis, initially isolated regions of high stiffness form and grow in the lung tissue due to collagen deposition by fibroblast cells. We have previously shown that ongoing collagen deposition may not lead to significant increases in the bulk modulus of the lung until these local remodeled regions have become sufficiently numerous and extensive to percolate in a continuous path across the entire tissue (Bates et al 2007 Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 176 617). This model, however, did not include the possibility of spatially correlated deposition of collagen. In the present study, we investigate whether spatial correlations influence the bulk modulus in a two-dimensional elastic network model of lung tissue. Random collagen deposition at a single site is modeled by increasing the elastic constant of the spring at that site by a factor of 100. By contrast, correlated collagen deposition is represented by stiffening the springs encountered along a random walk starting from some initial spring, the rationale being that excess collagen deposition is more likely in the vicinity of an already stiff region. A combination of random and correlated deposition is modeled by performing random walks of length N from randomly selected initial sites, the balance between the two processes being determined by N. We found that the dependence of bulk modulus, B(N,c), on both N and the fraction of stiff springs, c, can be described by a strikingly simple set of empirical equations. For c0.8, B(N,c) is linear in c and independent of N, such that B(N,c)=100\\;{{B}_{0}}-100{{a}_{III}}(1-c){{B}_{0}}, where {{a}_{III}}=2.857. For small concentrations, the physiologically most relevant regime, the forces in the network springs are distributed according to a power law. When c = 0.3, the exponent of this power law increases from -4.5, when N = 1, and saturates to about -2, as N increases above 40. These results suggest that the spatial correlation of

  7. Obesity-induced vascular dysfunction and arterial stiffening requires endothelial cell arginase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Anil; Yao, Lin; Xu, Zhimin; Toque, Haroldo A; Chen, Jijun; Atawia, Reem T; Fouda, Abdelrahman Y; Bagi, Zsolt; Lucas, Rudolf; Caldwell, Ruth B; Caldwell, Robert W

    2017-11-01

    Elevation of arginase activity has been linked to vascular dysfunction in diabetes and hypertension by a mechanism involving decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability due to L-arginine depletion. Excessive arginase activity also can drive L-arginine metabolism towards the production of ornithine, polyamines, and proline, promoting proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and collagen formation, leading to perivascular fibrosis. We hypothesized that there is a specific involvement of arginase 1 expression within the vascular endothelial cells in this pathology. To test this proposition, we used models of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Studies were performed using wild type (WT), endothelial-specific arginase 1 knockout (EC-A1-/-) and littermate controls(A1con) mice fed high fat-high sucrose (HFHS) or normal diet (ND) for 6 months and isolated vessels exposed to palmitate-high glucose (PA/HG) media. Some WT mice or isolated vessels were treated with an arginase inhibitor, ABH [2-(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid. In WT mice, the HFHS diet promoted increases in body weight, fasting blood glucose, and post-prandial insulin levels along with arterial stiffening and fibrosis, elevated blood pressure, decreased plasma levels of L-arginine, and elevated L-ornithine. The HFHS diet or PA/HG treatment also induced increases in vascular arginase activity along with oxidative stress, reduced vascular NO levels, and impaired endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation. All of these effects except obesity and hypercholesterolemia were prevented or significantly reduced by endothelial-specific deletion of arginase 1 or ABH treatment. Vascular dysfunctions in diet-induced obesity are prevented by deletion of arginase 1 in vascular endothelial cells or arginase inhibition. These findings indicate that upregulation of arginase 1 expression/activity in vascular endothelial cells has an integral role in diet-induced cardiovascular dysfunction and metabolic syndrome. Published

  8. Stripe-PZT Sensor-Based Baseline-Free Crack Diagnosis in a Structure with a Welded Stiffener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Kyu An

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a stripe-PZT sensor-based baseline-free crack diagnosis technique in the heat affected zone (HAZ of a structure with a welded stiffener. The proposed technique enables one to identify and localize a crack in the HAZ using only current data measured using a stripe-PZT sensor. The use of the stripe-PZT sensor makes it possible to significantly improve the applicability to real structures and minimize man-made errors associated with the installation process by embedding multiple piezoelectric sensors onto a printed circuit board. Moreover, a new frequency-wavenumber analysis-based baseline-free crack diagnosis algorithm minimizes false alarms caused by environmental variations by avoiding simple comparison with the baseline data accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure. The proposed technique is numerically as well as experimentally validated using a plate-like structure with a welded stiffener, reveling that it successfully identifies and localizes a crack in HAZ.

  9. Stripe-PZT Sensor-Based Baseline-Free Crack Diagnosis in a Structure with a Welded Stiffener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yun-Kyu; Shen, Zhiqi; Wu, Zhishen

    2016-09-16

    This paper proposes a stripe-PZT sensor-based baseline-free crack diagnosis technique in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of a structure with a welded stiffener. The proposed technique enables one to identify and localize a crack in the HAZ using only current data measured using a stripe-PZT sensor. The use of the stripe-PZT sensor makes it possible to significantly improve the applicability to real structures and minimize man-made errors associated with the installation process by embedding multiple piezoelectric sensors onto a printed circuit board. Moreover, a new frequency-wavenumber analysis-based baseline-free crack diagnosis algorithm minimizes false alarms caused by environmental variations by avoiding simple comparison with the baseline data accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure. The proposed technique is numerically as well as experimentally validated using a plate-like structure with a welded stiffener, reveling that it successfully identifies and localizes a crack in HAZ.

  10. Remote monitoring of bond line defects between a composite panel and a stiffener using distributed piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xudong; Fan, Zheng; Puliyakote, Sreedhar; Castaings, Michel

    2018-03-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) using ultrasonic guided waves has proven to be attractive for the identification of damage in composite plate-like structures, due to its realization of both significant propagation distances and reasonable sensitivity to defects. However, topographical features such as bends, lap joints, and bonded stiffeners are often encountered in these structures, and they are susceptible to various types of defects as a consequence of stress concentration and cyclic loading during the service life. Therefore, the health condition of such features has to be assessed effectively to ensure the safe operation of the entire structure. This paper proposes a novel feature guided wave (FGW) based SHM strategy, in which proper FGWs are exploited as a screening tool to rapidly interrogate the representative stiffener-adhesive bond-composite skin assembly. An array of sensors permanently attached to the vicinity of the feature is used to capture scattered waves from the localized damage occurring in the bond line. This technique is combined with an imaging approach, and the damage reconstruction is achieved by the synthetic focusing algorithm using these scattered signals. The proposed SHM scheme is implemented in both the 3D finite element simulation and the experiment, and the results are in good agreement, demonstrating the feasibility of such SHM strategy.

  11. Experimental investigation of the influence of internal frames on the vibroacoustic behavior of a stiffened cylindrical shell using wavenumber analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, V.; Maxit, L.; Renou, Y.; Audoly, C.

    2017-09-01

    The understanding of the influence of non-axisymmetric internal frames on the vibroacoustic behavior of a stiffened cylindrical shell is of high interest for the naval or aeronautic industries. Several numerical studies have shown that the non-axisymmetric internal frame can increase the radiation efficiency significantly in the case of a mechanical point force. However, less attention has been paid to the experimental verification of this statement. That is why this paper proposes to compare the radiation efficiency estimated experimentally for a stiffened cylindrical shell with and without internal frames. The experimental process is based on scanning laser vibrometer measurements of the vibrations on the surface of the shell. A transform of the vibratory field in the wavenumber domain is then performed. It allows estimating the far-field radiated pressure with the stationary phase theorem. An increase of the radiation efficiency is observed in the low frequencies. Analysis of the velocity field in the physical and wavenumber spaces allows highlighting the coupling of the circumferential orders at the origin of the increase in the radiation efficiency.

  12. Research on Free Vibration Frequency Characteristics of Rotating Functionally Graded Material Truncated Conical Shells with Eccentric Functionally Graded Material Stringer and Ring Stiffeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Van Dung

    Full Text Available Abstract In this research work, an exact analytical solution for frequency characteristics of the free vibration of rotating functionally graded material (FGM truncated conical shells reinforced by eccentric FGM stringers and rings has been investigated by the displacement function method. Material properties of shell and stiffeners are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution. The change of spacing between stringers is considered. Using the Donnell shell theory, Leckhnisky smeared stiffeners technique and taking into account the influences of centrifugal force and Coriolis acceleration the governing equations are derived. For stiffened FGM conical shells, it is difficult that free vibration equations are a couple set of three variable coefficient partial differential equations. By suitable transformations and applying Galerkin method, this difficulty is overcome in the paper. The sixth order polynomial equation for w is obtained and it is used to analyze the frequency characteristics of rotating ES-FGM conical shells. Effects of stiffener, geometrics parameters, cone angle, vibration modes and rotating speed on frequency characteristics of the shell forward and backward wave are discussed in detail. The present approach proves to be reliable and accurate by comparing with published results available in the literature.

  13. Dual-Use Transducer for Use with a Boundary-Stiffened Panel and Method of Using the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Noah H. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A transducer for use with a boundary-stiffened panel has an inter-digitated electrode (IDE) and a piezoelectric wafer portion positioned therebetween. The IDE and/or the wafer portion are triangular, with one edge or side aligned with a boundary edge of the panel. The transducer generates and transmits an output force to the panel in response to an input voltage signal from a sensor, which can be another transducer as described above or an accelerometer. A controller can generate an output force signal in response to the input voltage signal to help cancel the input voltage signal. A method of using the transducer minimizes vibration in the panel by connecting multiple transducers around a perimeter thereof. Motion is measured at different portions of the panel, and a voltage signal determined from the motion is transmitted to the transducers to generate an output force at least partially cancelling or damping the motion.

  14. BUCLASP 2: A computer program for instability analysis of biaxially loaded composite stiffened panels and other structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, L. L.; Tamekuni, M.; Viswanathan, A. V.

    1973-01-01

    The use of the computer program BUCLASP2 is described. The program is intended for linear instability analyses of structures such as unidirectionally stiffened panels. Any structure that has a constant cross section in one direction, that may be idealized as an assemblage of beam elements and laminated flat and curved plant strip elements can be analyzed. The loadings considered are combinations of axial compressive loads and in-plane transverse loads. The two parallel ends of the panel must be simply supported and arbitrary elastic boundary conditions may be imposed along any one or both external longitudinal side. This manual consists of instructions for use of the program with sample problems, including input and output information. The theoretical basis of BUCLASP2 and correlations of calculated results with known solutions, are presented.

  15. A Simplified Model for the Effect of Weld-Induced Residual Stresses on the Axial Ultimate Strength of Stiffened Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bai-Qiao; Guedes Soares, C.

    2018-03-01

    The present work investigates the compressive axial ultimate strength of fillet-welded steel-plated ship structures subjected to uniaxial compression, in which the residual stresses in the welded plates are calculated by a thermo-elasto-plastic finite element analysis that is used to fit an idealized model of residual stress distribution. The numerical results of ultimate strength based on the simplified model of residual stress show good agreement with those of various methods including the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) Common Structural Rules (CSR), leading to the conclusion that the simplified model can be effectively used to represent the distribution of residual stresses in steel-plated structures in a wide range of engineering applications. It is concluded that the widths of the tension zones in the welded plates have a quasi-linear behavior with respect to the plate slenderness. The effect of residual stress on the axial strength of the stiffened plate is analyzed and discussed.

  16. Three Point Bending of Top-Hat Stiffened Chopped Short Fibre Ramie/HDPE Thermoplastic Composite Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Bambang K.; Nuril, Yogie S.

    2018-04-01

    The use of natural fibre and thermoplastic matrices in composite materials increased significantly during the last decade especially in the automotive industries. Ramie is one of these potential natural fibres. In this paper, a three point bending of top-hat beam made of ramie/HDPE (High-Density-Polyethylene) composites was performed. Top-hat stiffened structures were common structures found in the aerospace industries. Nevertheless, these structures are beginning to be applied in automotive structures in the forms of chassis and bumpers. The ramie/HDPE composite was manufactured using hot-press technique. The temperature was set to be 135°C and the pressure was 6 bars. Chopped short ramie fibre was used, due to good drape ability characteristics. The experiments showed that the beams produced a large non-linearity. Linear Finite Element Analysis was carried out to be compared with the experimental data. The differences are reasonable.

  17. Aortic Blood Flow Reversal Determines Renal Function: Potential Explanation for Renal Dysfunction Caused by Aortic Stiffening in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Junichiro; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2015-07-01

    Aortic stiffness determines the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and predicts the progressive decline of the GFR. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanism remains obscure. Recent evidence has shown a close link between aortic stiffness and the bidirectional (systolic forward and early diastolic reverse) flow characteristics. We hypothesized that the aortic stiffening-induced renal dysfunction is attributable to altered central flow dynamics. In 222 patients with hypertension, Doppler velocity waveforms were recorded at the proximal descending aorta to calculate the reverse/forward flow ratio. Tonometric waveforms were recorded to measure the carotid-femoral (aortic) and carotid-radial (peripheral) pulse wave velocities, to estimate the aortic pressure from the radial waveforms, and to compute the aortic characteristic impedance. In addition, renal hemodynamics was evaluated by duplex ultrasound. The estimated GFR was inversely correlated with the aortic pulse wave velocity, reverse/forward flow ratio, pulse pressure, and characteristic impedance, whereas it was not correlated with the peripheral pulse wave velocity or mean arterial pressure. The association between aortic pulse wave velocity and estimated GFR was independent of age, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and antihypertensive medication. However, further adjustment for the aortic reverse/forward flow ratio and pulse pressure substantially weakened this association, and instead, the reverse/forward flow ratio emerged as the strongest determinant of estimated GFR (P=0.001). A higher aortic reverse/forward flow ratio was also associated with lower intrarenal forward flow velocities. These results suggest that an increase in aortic flow reversal (ie, retrograde flow from the descending thoracic aorta toward the aortic arch), caused by aortic stiffening and impedance mismatch, reduces antegrade flow into the kidney and thereby deteriorates renal function. © 2015 American Heart Association

  18. Normal and Fibrotic Rat Livers Demonstrate Shear Strain Softening and Compression Stiffening: A Model for Soft Tissue Mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Perepelyuk

    Full Text Available Tissues including liver stiffen and acquire more extracellular matrix with fibrosis. The relationship between matrix content and stiffness, however, is non-linear, and stiffness is only one component of tissue mechanics. The mechanical response of tissues such as liver to physiological stresses is not well described, and models of tissue mechanics are limited. To better understand the mechanics of the normal and fibrotic rat liver, we carried out a series of studies using parallel plate rheometry, measuring the response to compressive, extensional, and shear strains. We found that the shear storage and loss moduli G' and G" and the apparent Young's moduli measured by uniaxial strain orthogonal to the shear direction increased markedly with both progressive fibrosis and increasing compression, that livers shear strain softened, and that significant increases in shear modulus with compressional stress occurred within a range consistent with increased sinusoidal pressures in liver disease. Proteoglycan content and integrin-matrix interactions were significant determinants of liver mechanics, particularly in compression. We propose a new non-linear constitutive model of the liver. A key feature of this model is that, while it assumes overall liver incompressibility, it takes into account water flow and solid phase compressibility. In sum, we report a detailed study of non-linear liver mechanics under physiological strains in the normal state, early fibrosis, and late fibrosis. We propose a constitutive model that captures compression stiffening, tension softening, and shear softening, and can be understood in terms of the cellular and matrix components of the liver.

  19. Buckling of steel containment shells. Task 4. Use of the PANDA program for simple buckling analyses of stiffened cylindrical shells. Final report, 25 August 1980-30 September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnell, D.

    1982-12-01

    Under Task 4 the PANDA computer program was modified to permit calculation of critical load interaction curves for buckling of stiffened cylindrical shells with stiffeners running axially or circumferentially or both. Knockdown factors for geometric imperfections and plasticity reduction factors were introduced so that interaction curves can now be calculated for imperfect elastic-plastic shells. The knockdown factors and plasticity reduction factors are computed from a modified form of ASME Code Case N-284. The new version of PANDA was checked by making numerous comparisons with tests on fabricated stiffened cylinders

  20. Prefabricated Vertical Drain (PVD) and Deep Cement Mixing (DCM)/Stiffened DCM (SDCM) techniques for soft ground improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergado, D. T.; Long, P. V.; Chaiyaput, S.; Balasubramaniam, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Soft ground improvement techniques have become most practical and popular methods to increase soil strength, soil stiffness and reduce soil compressibility including the soft Bangkok clay. This paper focuses on comparative performances of prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) using surcharge, vacuum and heat preloading as well as the cement-admixed clay of Deep Cement Mixing (DCM) and Stiffened DCM (SDCM) methods. The Vacuum-PVD can increase the horizontal coefficient of consolidation, Ch, resulting in faster rate of settlement at the same magnitudes of settlement compared to Conventional PVD. Several field methods of applying vacuum preloading are also compared. Moreover, the Thermal PVD and Thermal Vacuum PVD can increase further the coefficient of horizontal consolidation, Ch, with the associated reduction of kh/ks values by reducing the drainage retardation effects in the smear zone around the PVD which resulted in faster rates of consolidation and higher magnitudes of settlements. Furthermore, the equivalent smear effect due to non-uniform consolidation is also discussed in addition to the smear due to the mechanical installation of PVDs. In addition, a new kind of reinforced deep mixing method, namely Stiffened Deep Cement Mixing (SDCM) pile is introduced to improve the flexural resistance, improve the field quality control, and prevent unexpected failures of the Deep Cement Mixing (DCM) pile. The SDCM pile consists of DCM pile reinforced with the insertion of precast reinforced concrete (RC) core. The full scale test embankment on soft clay improved by SDCM and DCM piles was also analysed. Numerical simulations using the 3D PLAXIS Foundation finite element software have been done to understand the behavior of SDCM and DCM piles. The simulation results indicated that the surface settlements decreased with increasing lengths of the RC cores, and, at lesser extent, increasing sectional areas of the RC cores in the SDCM piles. In addition, the lateral movements

  1. Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) Method for Fabricating Stiffened Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Marie L.; Domack, Marcia S.; Stoner, Mary Cecilia; Hehir, Austin R.

    2016-01-01

    Low Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and high levels of uncertainty make it challenging to develop cost estimates of new technologies in the R&D phase. It is however essential for NASA to understand the costs and benefits associated with novel concepts, in order to prioritize research investments and evaluate the potential for technology transfer and commercialization. This paper proposes a framework to perform a cost-benefit analysis of a technology in the R&D phase. This framework was developed and used to assess the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) manufacturing process for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. The ANNST method was compared with the conventional multi-piece metallic construction and composite processes for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. Following the definition of a case study for a cryogenic tank cylinder of specified geometry, data was gathered through interviews with Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), with particular focus placed on production costs and process complexity. This data served as the basis to produce process flowcharts and timelines, mass estimates, and rough order-of-magnitude cost and schedule estimates. The scalability of the results was subsequently investigated to understand the variability of the results based on tank size. Lastly, once costs and benefits were identified, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to assess the relative value of these achieved benefits for potential stakeholders. These preliminary, rough order-of-magnitude results predict a 46 to 58 percent reduction in production costs and a 7-percent reduction in weight over the conventional metallic manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison. Compared to the composite manufacturing technique, these results predict cost savings of 35 to 58 percent; however, the ANNST concept was heavier. In this study, the predicted return on investment of equipment required for the ANNST method was ten cryogenic tank barrels

  2. Evaluation and Optimization of a Hybrid Manufacturing Process Combining Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing with Milling for the Fabrication of Stiffened Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid WAAM (wire arc additive manufacturing and milling process (HWMP, and highlights its application in the fabrication of stiffened panels that have wide applications in aviation, aerospace, and automotive industries, etc. due to their light weight and strong load-bearing capability. In contrast to existing joining or machining methods, HWMP only deposits stiffeners layer-by-layer onto an existing thin plate, followed by minor milling of the irregular surfaces, which provides the possibility to significantly improve material utilization and efficiency without any loss of surface quality. In this paper, the key performances of HWMP in terms of surface quality, material utilization and efficiency are evaluated systematically, which are the results of the comprehensive effects of the deposition parameters (e.g., travel speed, wire-feed rate and the milling parameters (e.g., spindle speed, tool-feed rate. In order to maximize its performances, the optimization is also performed to find the best combination of the deposition and the milling parameters. The case study shows that HWMP with the optimal process parameters improves the material utilization by 57% and the efficiency by 32% compared against the traditional machining method. Thus, HWMP is believed to be a more environmental friendly and sustainable method for the fabrication of stiffened panels or other similar structures.

  3. Effect of Web Holes and Bearing Stiffeners on Flexural-Shear Interaction Strength of Steel Cold-Formed C-Channel Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Faridmehr

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an investigation on interaction equation between the required flexural strength, M, and the required shear strength, V, of cold-formed C-channels with web holes and bearing stiffeners. The primarily shear condition test was employed to study total 8 back to back lipped C channel sections of 95 and 100 mm depth when bearing stiffeners and circular holes were placed at center and both ends of specimens. The interaction equation were evaluated via Direct Strength Method, DSM, in accordance with the American Iron and Steel Institute for the design of cold-formed steel structural members, AISI 2007. A nonlinear finite element model was developed and verified against the test results in terms of failure buckling modes. It was concluded that the M-V interaction equation for specimens with web stiffeners was conservative where these specimens experienced plastic failure mode rather than local (Msl or distortional (Msd buckling mode. Moreover, the results indicated that proposed M-V interaction equation calculated by local buckling strength (Msl adequately predicted the behavior of specimens with circular web holes.

  4. Composite multi-modal vibration control for a stiffened plate using non-collocated acceleration sensor and piezoelectric actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shengquan; Li, Juan; Mo, Yueping; Zhao, Rong

    2014-01-01

    A novel active method for multi-mode vibration control of an all-clamped stiffened plate (ACSP) is proposed in this paper, using the extended-state-observer (ESO) approach based on non-collocated acceleration sensors and piezoelectric actuators. Considering the estimated capacity of ESO for system state variables, output superposition and control coupling of other modes, external excitation, and model uncertainties simultaneously, a composite control method, i.e., the ESO based vibration control scheme, is employed to ensure the lumped disturbances and uncertainty rejection of the closed-loop system. The phenomenon of phase hysteresis and time delay, caused by non-collocated sensor/actuator pairs, degrades the performance of the control system, even inducing instability. To solve this problem, a simple proportional differential (PD) controller and acceleration feed-forward with an output predictor design produce the control law for each vibration mode. The modal frequencies, phase hysteresis loops and phase lag values due to non-collocated placement of the acceleration sensor and piezoelectric patch actuator are experimentally obtained, and the phase lag is compensated by using the Smith Predictor technology. In order to improve the vibration control performance, the chaos optimization method based on logistic mapping is employed to auto-tune the parameters of the feedback channel. The experimental control system for the ACSP is tested using the dSPACE real-time simulation platform. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed composite active control algorithm is an effective approach for suppressing multi-modal vibrations. (paper)

  5. Predicting welding distortion in a panel structure with longitudinal stiffeners using inherent deformations obtained by inverse analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Murakawa, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Welding-induced deformation not only negatively affects dimension accuracy but also degrades the performance of product. If welding deformation can be accurately predicted beforehand, the predictions will be helpful for finding effective methods to improve manufacturing accuracy. Till now, there are two kinds of finite element method (FEM) which can be used to simulate welding deformation. One is the thermal elastic plastic FEM and the other is elastic FEM based on inherent strain theory. The former only can be used to calculate welding deformation for small or medium scale welded structures due to the limitation of computing speed. On the other hand, the latter is an effective method to estimate the total welding distortion for large and complex welded structures even though it neglects the detailed welding process. When the elastic FEM is used to calculate the welding-induced deformation for a large structure, the inherent deformations in each typical joint should be obtained beforehand. In this paper, a new method based on inverse analysis was proposed to obtain the inherent deformations for weld joints. Through introducing the inherent deformations obtained by the proposed method into the elastic FEM based on inherent strain theory, we predicted the welding deformation of a panel structure with two longitudinal stiffeners. In addition, experiments were carried out to verify the simulation results.

  6. Loss of an actin crosslinker uncouples cell spreading from cell stiffening on gels with a gradient of stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qi; Byfield, Fitzroy J.; Nordstrom, Kerstin; Arratia, Paulo E.; Miller, R. Tyler; Janmey, Paul A.

    2009-03-01

    We use microfluidics techniques to produce gels with a gradient of stiffness to show the essential function of the actin crosslinker filamin A in cell responses to mechanical stimuli. M2 melanoma cells null for filamin A do not alter their adherent area in response to increased substrate stiffness when they link to the substrate only through collagen receptors, but change adherent area normally when bound through fibronectin receptors. In contrast, filamin A-replete A7 cells change adherent area on both substrates and respond more strongly to collagen 1-coated gels than to fibronectin-coated gels. A7 cells alter their stiffness, as measured by atomic force microscopy, to match the elastic modulus of the substrate immediately adjacent to them on the gradient. M2 cells, in contrast, maintain a constant stiffness on all substrates that is as low as that of A7 cells on the softest gels achievable (1000 Pa). By contrasting the responses of these cell types to different adhesive substrates, cell spreading can be dissociated from stiffening.

  7. Correlating confocal microscopy and atomic force indentation reveals metastatic cancer cells stiffen during invasion into collagen I matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Jack R.; Doss, Bryant L.; Lindsay, Stuart; Ros, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical interactions between cells and their microenvironment dictate cell phenotype and behavior, calling for cell mechanics measurements in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices (ECM). Here we describe a novel technique for quantitative mechanical characterization of soft, heterogeneous samples in 3D. The technique is based on the integration of atomic force microscopy (AFM) based deep indentation, confocal fluorescence microscopy, finite element (FE) simulations and analytical modeling. With this method, the force response of a cell embedded in 3D ECM can be decoupled from that of its surroundings, enabling quantitative determination of the elastic properties of both the cell and the matrix. We applied the technique to the quantification of the elastic properties of metastatic breast adenocarcinoma cells invading into collagen hydrogels. We found that actively invading and fully embedded cells are significantly stiffer than cells remaining on top of the collagen, a clear example of phenotypical change in response to the 3D environment. Treatment with Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor significantly reduces this stiffening, indicating that actomyosin contractility plays a major role in the initial steps of metastatic invasion.

  8. BUCLASP 3: A computer program for stresses and buckling of heated composite stiffened panels and other structures, user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, L. L.; Tamekuni, M.; Viswanathan, A. V.

    1973-01-01

    The use of the computer program BUCLASP3 is described. The code is intended for thermal stress and instability analyses of structures such as unidirectionally stiffened panels. There are two types of instability analyses that can be effected by PAINT; (1) thermal buckling, and (2) buckling due to a specified inplane biaxial loading. Any structure that has a constant cross section in one direction, that may be idealized as an assemblage of beam elements and laminated flat and curved plate strip-elements can be analyzed. The two parallel ends of the panel must be simply supported, whereas arbitrary elastic boundary conditions may be imposed along any one or both external longitudinal side. Any variation in the temperature rise (from ambient) through the cross section of a panel is considered in the analyses but it must be assumed that in the longitudinal direction the temperature field is constant. Load distributions for the externally applied inplane biaxial loads are similar in nature to the permissible temperature field.

  9. Anomalous phonon stiffening associated with the (1 1 1) antiphase boundary in L12 Ni3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manga, Venkateswara Rao; Shang, Shun-Li; Wang, William Yi; Wang, Yi; Liang, Jiang; Crespi, Vincent H.; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Antiphase boundaries (APBs) play a crucial role in the anomalous yield behavior exhibited by Ni 3 Al with L1 2 structure. We investigated the changes in the vibrational properties associated with the formation of (0 0 1) and (1 1 1) APBs in Ni 3 Al by employing first-principles calculations. The phonon density of states of Ni 3 Al with and without (0 0 1) and (1 1 1) APBs revealed an interesting result: the (0 0 1) APB softens the phonons in its vicinity, while the (1 1 1) stiffens them. We also calculated the finite-temperature (0 0 1) and (1 1 1) APB Gibbs free energies from the first-principles quasi-harmonic approximation. The vibrational entropy of formation is positive (e.g. 0.053 mJ K −1 m −2 at 300 K) for the (0 0 1) APB and is negative (e.g. −0.0157 mJ K −1 m −2 at 300 K) for the (1 1 1) APB over the entire temperature range. We also find a significant change in the thermal electronic free energy due to the creation of the (0 0 1) or (1 1 1) APB. The anisotropy ratio of the APB energies, i.e. the ratio of the (1 1 1) APB free energy to the (0 0 1) APB free energy, changes from 2.9 at 300 K to 15.9 at 1000 K

  10. Phonon stiffen and soften at zigzag- and armchair-dominated edges of exfoliated bilayer graphene ribbon presented by Raman spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Minggang; Zhou, Xiaohua; Xin, Duqiang; Xu, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The Raman spectra at the edge of the exfoliated bilayer graphene ribbon (GR) were investigated in detail. Results show that both G and 2D phonons stiffen (wave number increases) at zigzag-dominated edge, while they soften at armchair-dominated edge compared with those at the middle position in the GR. Furthermore, the full widths at half maximum intensity of both G and 2D Raman peaks narrow at the zigzag-dominated edge, while they broaden at the armchair-dominated edge. The stiffness and softness are attributed to the C-C bonds at the edge. For zigzag-dominated edge, the stiffness may originate in the increase of the force constant induced by the shrinking of C-C bond. For armchair-dominated edge, the softness may be due to the decrease of the force constant induced by the unsaturated hanging bonds at edge, which is different from Kohn anomaly and charge doping. The analysis is in agreement well with others calculation results about C-C bonds and the edge energy. These results may be useful to understand physical properties at the bilayer graphene edge and for applications in the device by taking advantage of the edge states in bilayer graphene.

  11. Glyphosate-induced stiffening of HaCaT keratinocytes, a Peak Force Tapping study on living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heu, Celine; Berquand, Alexandre; Elie-Caille, Celine; Nicod, Laurence

    2012-04-01

    The skin is the first physiological barrier, with a complex constitution, that provides defensive functions against multiple physical and chemical aggressions. Glyphosate is an extensively used herbicide that has been shown to increase the risk of cancer. Moreover there is increasing evidence suggesting that the mechanical phenotype plays an important role in malignant transformation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged within the last decade as a powerful tool for providing a nanometer-scale resolution imaging of biological samples. Peak Force Tapping (PFT) is a newly released AFM-based investigation technique allowing extraction of chemical and mechanical properties from a wide range of samples at a relatively high speed and a high resolution. The present work uses the PFT technology to investigate HaCaT keratinocytes, a human epidermal cell line, and offers an original approach to study chemically-induced changes in the cellular mechanical properties under near-physiological conditions. These experiments indicate glyphosate induces cell membrane stiffening, and the appearance of cytoskeleton structures at a subcellular level, for low cytotoxic concentrations whereas cells exposed to IC50 (inhibitory concentration 50%) treatment exhibit control-like mechanical behavior despite obvious membrane damages. Quercetin, a well-known antioxidant, reverses the glyphosate-induced mechanical phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro model to study the effects of matrix stiffening on Ca2+ handling and myofilament function in isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deel, Elza D; Najafi, Aref; Fontoura, Dulce; Valent, Erik; Goebel, Max; Kardux, Kim; Falcão-Pires, Inês; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2017-07-15

    This paper describes a novel model that allows exploration of matrix-induced cardiomyocyte adaptations independent of the passive effect of matrix rigidity on cardiomyocyte function. Detachment of adult cardiomyocytes from the matrix enables the study of matrix effects on cell shortening, Ca 2+ handling and myofilament function. Cell shortening and Ca 2+ handling are altered in cardiomyocytes cultured for 24 h on a stiff matrix. Matrix stiffness-impaired cardiomyocyte contractility is reversed upon normalization of extracellular stiffness. Matrix stiffness-induced reduction in unloaded shortening is more pronounced in cardiomyocytes isolated from obese ZSF1 rats with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction compared to lean ZSF1 rats. Extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffening is a key element of cardiac disease. Increased rigidity of the ECM passively inhibits cardiac contraction, but if and how matrix stiffening also actively alters cardiomyocyte contractility is incompletely understood. In vitro models designed to study cardiomyocyte-matrix interaction lack the possibility to separate passive inhibition by a stiff matrix from active matrix-induced alterations of cardiomyocyte properties. Here we introduce a novel experimental model that allows exploration of cardiomyocyte functional alterations in response to matrix stiffening. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were cultured for 24 h on matrices of tuneable stiffness representing the healthy and the diseased heart and detached from their matrix before functional measurements. We demonstrate that matrix stiffening, independent of passive inhibition, reduces cell shortening and Ca 2+ handling but does not alter myofilament-generated force. Additionally, detachment of adult cultured cardiomyocytes allowed the transfer of cells from one matrix to another. This revealed that stiffness-induced cardiomyocyte changes are reversed when matrix stiffness is normalized. These matrix stiffness-induced changes in cardiomyocyte

  13. Combined effects of scaffold stiffening and mechanical preconditioning cycles on construct biomechanics, gene expression, and tendon repair biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalanandhan, Victor Sanjit; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia; Shearn, Jason T; Boivin, Gregory P; Galloway, Marc T; Gooch, Cynthia; Bradica, Gino; Butler, David L

    2009-08-01

    Our group has previously reported that in vitro mechanical stimulation of tissue-engineered tendon constructs significantly increases both construct stiffness and the biomechanical properties of the repair tissue after surgery. When optimized using response surface methodology, our results indicate that a mechanical stimulus with three components (2.4% strain, 3000 cycles/day, and one cycle repetition) produced the highest in vitro linear stiffness. Such positive correlations between construct and repair stiffness after surgery suggest that enhancing structural stiffness before surgery could not only accelerate repair stiffness but also prevent premature failures in culture due to poor mechanical integrity. In this study, we examined the combined effects of scaffold crosslinking and subsequent mechanical stimulation on construct mechanics and biology. Autologous tissue-engineered constructs were created by seeding mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from 15 New Zealand white rabbits on type I collagen sponges that had undergone additional dehydrothermal crosslinking (termed ADHT in this manuscript). Both constructs from each rabbit were mechanically stimulated for 8h/day for 12 consecutive days with half receiving 100 cycles/day and the other half receiving 3000 cycles/day. These paired MSC-collagen autologous constructs were then implanted in bilateral full-thickness, full-length defects in the central third of rabbit patellar tendons. Increasing the number of in vitro cycles/day delivered to the ADHT constructs in culture produced no differences in stiffness or gene expression and no changes in biomechanical properties or histology 12 weeks after surgery. Compared to MSC-based repairs from a previous study that received no additional treatment in culture, ADHT crosslinking of the scaffolds actually lowered the 12-week repair stiffness. Thus, while ADHT crosslinking may initially stiffen a construct in culture, this specific treatment also appears to mask any benefits

  14. Test and Analysis Correlation of a Large-Scale, Orthogrid-Stiffened Metallic Cylinder without Weld Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Michelle T.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Lindell, Michael C.; Gardner, Nathaniel W.; Schultz, Marc R.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor Project (SBKF) was established in 2007 by the NESC with the primary objective to develop analysis-based buckling design factors and guidelines for metallic and composite launch-vehicle structures.1 A secondary objective of the project is to advance technologies that have the potential to increase the structural efficiency of launch-vehicles. The SBKF Project has determined that weld-land stiffness discontinuities can significantly reduce the buckling load of a cylinder. In addition, the welding process can introduce localized geometric imperfections that can further exacerbate the inherent buckling imperfection sensitivity of the cylinder. Therefore, single-piece barrel fabrication technologies can improve structural efficiency by eliminating these weld-land issues. As part of this effort, SBKF partnered with the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch (AMPB) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), the Mechanical and Fabrication Branch at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and ATI Forged Products to design and fabricate an 8-ft-diameter orthogrid-stiffened seamless metallic cylinder. The cylinder was subjected to seven subcritical load sequences (load levels that are not intended to induce test article buckling or material failure) and one load sequence to failure. The purpose of this test effort was to demonstrate the potential benefits of building cylindrical structures with no weld lands using the flow-formed manufacturing process. This seamless barrel is the ninth 8-ft-diameter metallic barrel and the first single-piece metallic structure to be tested under this program.

  15. Force spectroscopy measurements show that cortical neurons exposed to excitotoxic agonists stiffen before showing evidence of bleb damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Zou

    Full Text Available In ischemic and traumatic brain injury, hyperactivated glutamate (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid, NMDA and sodium (Nav channels trigger excitotoxic neuron death. Na(+, Ca(++ and H2O influx into affected neurons elicits swelling (increased cell volume and pathological blebbing (disassociation of the plasma membrane's bilayer from its spectrin-actomyosin matrix. Though usually conflated in injured tissue, cell swelling and blebbing are distinct processes. Around an injury core, salvageable neurons could be mildly swollen without yet having suffered the bleb-type membrane damage that, by rendering channels leaky and pumps dysfunctional, exacerbates the excitotoxic positive feedback spiral. Recognizing when neuronal inflation signifies non-lethal osmotic swelling versus blebbing should further efforts to salvage injury-penumbra neurons. To assess whether the mechanical properties of osmotically-swollen versus excitotoxically-blebbing neurons might be cytomechanically distinguishable, we measured cortical neuron elasticity (gauged via atomic force microscopy (AFM-based force spectroscopy upon brief exposure to hypotonicity or to excitotoxic agonists (glutamate and Nav channel activators, NMDA and veratridine. Though unperturbed by solution exchange per se, elasticity increased abruptly with hypotonicity, with NMDA and with veratridine. Neurons then invariably softened towards or below the pre-treatment level, sometimes starting before the washout. The initial channel-mediated stiffening bespeaks an abrupt elevation of hydrostatic pressure linked to NMDA or Nav channel-mediated ion/H2O fluxes, together with increased [Ca(++]int-mediated submembrane actomyosin contractility. The subsequent softening to below-control levels is consistent with the onset of a lethal level of bleb damage. These findings indicate that dissection/identification of molecular events during the excitotoxic transition from stiff/swollen to soft/blebbing is warranted and should be

  16. Increased rate of arterial stiffening with obesity in adolescents: a five-year follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Dangardt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We prospectively and longitudinally determined the effects of childhood obesity on arterial stiffening and vascular wall changes. Changes in arterial stiffness measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV and vascular morphology of the radial (RA and dorsal pedal arteries (DPA were examined in obese adolescents compared to lean subjects in a 5-year follow-up study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 28 obese subjects and 14 lean controls participated in both baseline (14 years old and follow-up studies. PWV was measured by tonometer (SphygmoCor® and recorded at RA and carotid artery, respectively. Intima thickness (IT, intima-media thickness (IMT and RA and DPA diameters were measured using high-resolution ultrasound (Vevo 770™. Over the course of 5 years, PWV increased by 25% in the obese subjects as compared to 3% in the controls (p = 0.01. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP increased by 23% in the obese subjects as opposed to 6% in controls (p = 0.009. BMI increased similarly in both groups, as did the IT and IMT. The change in PWV was strongly associated to the baseline BMI z -score (r = 0.51, p<0.001, as was the change in DBP (r = 0.50, p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: During the transition from early to late adolescence, there was a general increase in arterial stiffness, which was aggravated by childhood obesity. The increase in arterial stiffness and DBP after 5 years was closely correlated to the baseline BMI z -score, indicating that childhood obesity has an adverse impact on vascular adaptation.

  17. mTOR (Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin) Inhibition Decreases Mechanosignaling, Collagen Accumulation, and Stiffening of the Thoracic Aorta in Elastin-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Li, Guangxin; Li, Qingle; Ali, Rahmat; Qin, Lingfeng; Li, Wei; Qyang, Yibing; Greif, Daniel M; Geirsson, Arnar; Humphrey, Jay D; Tellides, George

    2017-09-01

    Elastin deficiency because of heterozygous loss of an ELN allele in Williams syndrome causes obstructive aortopathy characterized by medial thickening and fibrosis and consequent aortic stiffening. Previous work in Eln -null mice with a severe arterial phenotype showed that inhibition of mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), a key regulator of cell growth, lessened the aortic obstruction but did not prevent early postnatal death. We investigated the effects of mTOR inhibition in Eln -null mice partially rescued by human ELN that manifest a less severe arterial phenotype and survive long term. Thoracic aortas of neonatal and juvenile mice with graded elastin deficiency exhibited increased signaling through both mTOR complex 1 and 2. Despite lower predicted wall stress, there was increased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, suggestive of greater integrin activation, and increased transforming growth factor-β-signaling mediators, associated with increased collagen expression. Pharmacological blockade of mTOR by rapalogs did not improve luminal stenosis but reduced mechanosignaling (in delayed fashion after mTOR complex 1 inhibition), medial collagen accumulation, and stiffening of the aorta. Rapalog administration also retarded somatic growth, however, and precipitated neonatal deaths. Complementary, less-toxic strategies to inhibit mTOR via altered growth factor and nutrient responses were not effective. In addition to previously demonstrated therapeutic benefits of rapalogs decreasing smooth muscle cell proliferation in the absence of elastin, we find that rapalogs also prevent aortic fibrosis and stiffening attributable to partial elastin deficiency. Our findings suggest that mTOR-sensitive perturbation of smooth muscle cell mechanosensing contributes to elastin aortopathy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Analytical prediction of the interior noise for cylindrical models of aircraft fuselages for prescribed exterior noise fields. Phase 2: Models for sidewall trim, stiffened structures and cabin acoustics with floor partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.

    1982-01-01

    An airplane interior noise prediction model is developed to determine the important parameters associated with sound transmission into the interiors of airplanes, and to identify apropriate noise control methods. Models for stiffened structures, and cabin acoustics with floor partition are developed. Validation studies are undertaken using three test articles: a ring stringer stiffened cylinder, an unstiffened cylinder with floor partition, and ring stringer stiffened cylinder with floor partition and sidewall trim. The noise reductions of the three test articles are computed using the heoretical models and compared to measured values. A statistical analysis of the comparison data indicates that there is no bias in the predictions although a substantial random error exists so that a discrepancy of more than five or six dB can be expected for about one out of three predictions.

  19. Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome on Endothelial Function, Arterial Stiffening, and Serum Inflammatory Markers: An Updated Meta-analysis and Metaregression of 18 Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayang; Yu, Wenyuan; Gao, Mingxin; Zhang, Fan; Gu, Chengxiong; Yu, Yang; Wei, Yongxiang

    2015-11-13

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been indicated to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that OSAS may be associated with cardiovascular disease by elevating serum levels of inflammatory markers and causing arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction. Related scientific reports published from January 1, 2006, to June 30, 2015, were searched in the following electronic literature databases: PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, ISI Web of Science, Directory of Open Access Journals, and the Cochrane Library. The association of OSAS with serum levels of inflammatory markers, endothelial dysfunction, and arterial stiffening were investigated. Overall, 18 eligible articles containing 736 patients with OSAS and 424 healthy persons were included in this meta-analysis. Flow-mediated dilation in patients with moderate-severe OSAS was significantly lower than that in controls (standardized mean difference -1.02, 95% CI -1.31 to -0.73, Preactive protein and C-reactive protein (standardized mean difference 0.58, 95% CI 0.42-0.73, P<0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with OSAS than in controls. OSAS, particularly moderate-severe OSAS, appeared to reduce endothelial function, increase arterial stiffness, and cause chronic inflammation, leading to the development of cardiovascular disease. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  20. Discussion about effecting of stiffener in four bolts in a row end plate connection for long span and heavy load steel structures in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Khang T.; Nguyen, Cung H.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, steel structure industry in Vietnam is in strong development. The construction of steel structure becomes larger span and heavier load. The issue spawned a number of issues arise from optimizing connections. Typical of steel connections in prefabricated steel structure that is an end plate (face plate) bolted connection. When the connection carried a heavy load, then the number of bolts is required much more. Increasing the number of rows bolts will less effective because can still not enough strength requirements, the bolts in row near rotational center will level arm reduction, then it cannot carry heavy loads. The current solution is doing multiple bolts in a row. Current standards such as EN [1], AISC [2] are no specific guidelines for calculating the connection four bolts in a row that primarily assumes the way works like a T-stub of the two bolts a row. Some articles studied T-stub four bolts in a row [3], [4], [5], [6] by component method but it has some components which weren’t considered. In this paper, in order to provide a contribution to improve the T-stub four bolts in a row, the stiffener component in T-stub will be added and compared with T-stub without stiffener by the finite element model to demonstrate effectiveness in reducing stress and displacement of T-stub. It gives ideas for the economic design of four bolts in a row end plate connection in Vietnam for future.

  1. Study on buckling and plastic collapse behavior of a continuous stiffened plate subjected to in-plane compression loads; Mennai asshuku kaju wo ukeru renzoku bodo panel no zakutsu sosei hokai kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, T; Fujikubo, M; Yanagihara, D [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-04-10

    A hull structure is constituted by thin panels, and reinforced longitudinally and laterally by stiffened members to increase the effectiveness of the structure. In order to attain findings on buckling and plastic collapse behavior of stiffened plates, this paper describes analysis of elasto-plastic large deflection by using the finite element method on thin stiffened plates having flat-bars and angle-bars. The analysis includes the case of an aspect ratio being 5.0 and the case to consider welding residual stress. Considerations were given on cross sectional shape, panel aspect ratio and effects of initial welding imperfections against the buckling and plastic collapse behavior of the stiffened plates. The angle-bars tend to cause secondary buckling more easily because it has greater bending and twisting rigidity, and stronger constraint against deflection than the flat-bars. When the aspect ratio is larger and the span is longer, the ultimate strength declines, and the withstand power after the ultimate strength decreases rapidly. Existence of the residual stress tends to make the secondary buckling occur more easily. The secondary buckling affects little the withstand power after the ultimate strength. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Buckling Test Results and Preliminary Test and Analysis Correlation from the 8-Foot-Diameter Orthogrid-Stiffened Cylinder Test Article TA02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Waters, W. Allen, Jr.; Haynie, Waddy T.; Thornburgh, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    Results from the testing of cylinder test article SBKF-P2-CYL-TA02 (referred to herein as TA02) are presented. TA02 is an 8-foot-diameter (96-inches), 78.0-inch-long, aluminum-lithium (Al-Li), orthogrid-stiffened cylindrical shell similar to those used in current state-of-the-art launch-vehicle structures and was designed to exhibit global buckling when subjected to combined compression and bending loads. The testing was conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), February 3-6, 2009, in support of the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor Project (SBKF). The test was used to verify the performance of a newly constructed buckling test facility at MSFC and to verify the test article design and analysis approach used by the SBKF researchers.

  3. A low-frequency chip-scale optomechanical oscillator with 58 kHz mechanical stiffening and more than 100th-order stable harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongjun; Flores, Jaime Gonzalo Flor; Cai, Ziqiang; Yu, Mingbin; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Wen, Guangjun; Churchill, Layne; Wong, Chee Wei

    2017-06-29

    For the sensitive high-resolution force- and field-sensing applications, the large-mass microelectromechanical system (MEMS) and optomechanical cavity have been proposed to realize the sub-aN/Hz 1/2 resolution levels. In view of the optomechanical cavity-based force- and field-sensors, the optomechanical coupling is the key parameter for achieving high sensitivity and resolution. Here we demonstrate a chip-scale optomechanical cavity with large mass which operates at ≈77.7 kHz fundamental mode and intrinsically exhibiting large optomechanical coupling of 44 GHz/nm or more, for both optical resonance modes. The mechanical stiffening range of ≈58 kHz and a more than 100 th -order harmonics are obtained, with which the free-running frequency instability is lower than 10 -6 at 100 ms integration time. Such results can be applied to further improve the sensing performance of the optomechanical inspired chip-scale sensors.

  4. Buckling Test Results from the 8-Foot-Diameter Orthogrid-Stiffened Cylinder Test Article TA01. [Test Dates: 19-21 November 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Waters, W. Allen, Jr.; Haynie, Waddy T.

    2015-01-01

    Results from the testing of cylinder test article SBKF-P2-CYLTA01 (referred to herein as TA01) are presented. The testing was conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), November 19?21, 2008, in support of the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project.i The test was used to verify the performance of a newly constructed buckling test facility at MSFC and to verify the test article design and analysis approach used by the SBKF project researchers. TA01 is an 8-foot-diameter (96-inches), 78.0-inch long, aluminum-lithium (Al-Li), orthogrid-stiffened cylindrical shell similar to those used in current state-of-the-art launch vehicle structures and was designed to exhibit global buckling when subjected to compression loads. Five different load sequences were applied to TA01 during testing and included four sub-critical load sequences, i.e., loading conditions that did not cause buckling or material failure, and one final load sequence to buckling and collapse. The sub-critical load sequences consisted of either uniform axial compression loading or combined axial compression and bending and the final load sequence subjected TA01 to uniform axial compression. Traditional displacement transducers and strain gages were used to monitor the test article response at nearly 300 locations and an advanced digital image correlation system was used to obtain low-speed and high-speed full-field displacement measurements of the outer surface of the test article. Overall, the test facility and test article performed as designed. In particular, the test facility successfully applied all desired load combinations to the test article and was able to test safely into the postbuckling range of loading, and the test article failed by global buckling. In addition, the test results correlated well with initial pretest predictions.

  5. Dimerization site 2 of the bacterial DNA-binding protein H-NS is required for gene silencing and stiffened nucleoprotein filament formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yuki; Winardhi, Ricksen S; Yamauchi, Erika; Nishiyama, So-Ichiro; Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Yan, Jie; Kawagishi, Ikuro; Ishihama, Akira; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi

    2018-06-15

    The bacterial nucleoid-associated protein H-NS is a DNA-binding protein, playing a major role in gene regulation. To regulate transcription, H-NS silences genes, including horizontally acquired foreign genes. Escherichia coli H-NS is 137 residues long and consists of two discrete and independent structural domains: an N-terminal oligomerization domain and a C-terminal DNA-binding domain, joined by a flexible linker. The N-terminal oligomerization domain is composed of two dimerization sites, dimerization sites 1 and 2, which are both required for H-NS oligomerization, but the exact role of dimerization site 2 in gene silencing is unclear. To this end, we constructed a whole set of single amino acid substitution variants spanning residues 2 to 137. Using a well-characterized H-NS target, the slp promoter of the glutamic acid-dependent acid resistance (GAD) cluster promoters, we screened for any variants defective in gene silencing. Focusing on the function of dimerization site 2, we analyzed four variants, I70C/I70A and L75C/L75A, which all could actively bind DNA but are defective in gene silencing. Atomic force microscopy analysis of DNA-H-NS complexes revealed that all of these four variants formed condensed complexes on DNA, whereas WT H-NS formed rigid and extended nucleoprotein filaments, a conformation required for gene silencing. Single-molecule stretching experiments confirmed that the four variants had lost the ability to form stiffened filaments. We conclude that dimerization site 2 of H-NS plays a key role in the formation of rigid H-NS nucleoprotein filament structures required for gene silencing. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Rice bran protein hydrolysates reduce arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaphan, Ketmanee; Sangartit, Weerapon; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Greenwald, Stephen E; Kukongviriyapan, Upa

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) contain highly nutritional proteins and antioxidant compounds which show benefits against metabolic syndrome (MetS). Increased arterial stiffness and the components of MetS have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate whether RBPH could alleviate the metabolic disorders, arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling, and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat (HCHF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard chow and tap water or a HCHF diet and 15 % fructose solution for 16 weeks. HCHF rats were treated orally with RBPH (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) for the final 6 weeks of the experimental period. Rats fed with HCHF diet had hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, increased aortic pulse wave velocity, aortic wall hypertrophy and vascular remodeling with increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. RBPH supplementation significantly alleviated these alterations (P stress was also alleviated after RBPH treatment by decreasing plasma malondialdehyde, reducing superoxide production and suppressing p47 phox NADPH oxidase expression in the vascular tissues of HCHF rats. RBPH increased plasma nitrate/nitrite level and up-regulated eNOS expression in the aortas of HCHF-diet-fed rats, indicating that RBPH increased NO production. RBPH mitigate the deleterious effects of HCHF through potential mechanisms involving enhanced NO bioavailability, anti-ACE, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. RBPH could be used as dietary supplements to minimize oxidative stress and vascular alterations triggered by MetS.

  7. Study of the mechanical stability of superconducting cavities and stiffening of these cavities by copper coating performed with thermal spray techniques; Etudes de la stabilite mecanique des cavites supraconductrices et de la methode de rigidification par projection thermique de cuivre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassot, H

    2001-12-01

    Today's research in nuclear physics and in particle physics needs high energy or high intensity accelerators; the use of superconducting cavities constitutes a very important technological advance for the design of such facilities, allowing high accelerating gradient with few dissipation. One of the major problems is the frequency shift under Lorentz forces: since the quality factor of the superconducting cavities is much higher than the external factor depending on the beam charge, their bandwidths are very narrow (several Hertz). Even very small mechanical deformations under Lorentz forces could induce a frequency shift which exceeds the bandwidth when the accelerating gradient becomes very high. The contribution of this thesis consists at first in a numerical analysis of this problem, then in a mechanical study of a new method for stiffening superconducting cavities: a copper coating over their external surface by thermal spray techniques. As it was a new experiment, the choice of the process and the optimization of the parameters have been carried out. An important part of this thesis has been dedicated to the systematic mechanical characterizations of the copper coatings since they are indispensable for the evaluation of the stiffening efficiency, some links between copper coating properties and thermal projection parameters have been established. The mechanical calculations are a prerequisite to obtain an effective reduction of mechanical deformations under Lorentz forces: they permit to localize the maximum deformations, to find the ideal position and the optimised shape of the stiffener. The methods implemented in this thesis allow to compare the different kinds of coating design and then to propose an interesting solution. Finally, an original approach concerning the frequency shift in pulsed mode has been developed recently, allowing to interpret some experimental observations. (author)

  8. Sex differences in flexibility-arterial stiffness relationship and its application for diagnosis of arterial stiffening: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Nishiwaki

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness might be related to trunk flexibility in middle-aged and older participants, but it is also affected by age, sex, and blood pressure. This cross-sectional observational study investigated whether trunk flexibility is related to arterial stiffness after considering the major confounding factors of age, sex, and blood pressure. We further investigated whether a simple diagnostic test of flexibility could be helpful to screen for increased arterial stiffening.According to age and sex, we assigned 1150 adults (male, n = 536; female, n = 614; age, 18-89 y to groups with either high- or poor-flexibility based on the sit-and-reach test. Arterial stiffness was assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index.In all categories of men and in older women, arterial stiffness was higher in poor-flexibility than in high-flexibility (P<0.05. This difference remained significant after normalizing arterial stiffness for confounding factors such as blood pressure, but it was not found among young and middle-aged women. Stepwise multiple-regression analysis also supported the notion of the sex differences in flexibility-arterial stiffness relationship. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that cut-off values for sit-and-reach among men and women were 33.2 (area under the curve [AUC], 0.711; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.666-0.756; sensitivity, 61.7%; specificity, 69.7% and 39.2 (AUC, 0.639; 95% CI, 0.592-0.686; sensitivity, 61.1%; specificity, 62.0% cm, respectively.Our results indicate that flexibility-arterial stiffness relationship is not affected by BP, which is a major confounding factor. In addition, sex differences are observed in this relationship; poor trunk flexibility increases arterial stiffness in young, middle-aged, and older men, whereas the relationship in women is found only in the elderly. Also, the sit-and-reach test can offer a simple method of predicting arterial stiffness at home or elsewhere.

  9. Study of thermal phenomena in niobium superconducting cavities when stiffened by thermal spray coating; Etude des phenomenes thermiques dans les cavites acceleratrices supraconductrices en niobium rigidifiees par projection thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousson, S

    2000-02-01

    The first objective of this thesis is to study a new superconducting cavity stiffening method based on thermal spraying. The principle is to add on the cavity external walls a copper layer using the thermal spraying process. Several tests on samples allowed to measure the thermal and mechanical properties of the layers deposited by several different processes. Measurements performed on 3 and 1.3 GHz niobium cavities, before and after copper deposition, proved the interest and feasibility of the method. The study showed the need to have very dense layers (porosity reduced to the minimum in order to have good mechanical characteristics), and not oxidised (to reduce the coating thermal resistance). As a conclusion, the spraying process performed under controlled atmosphere seems to be the most suited for superconducting cavity stiffening. The tools and analysing methods which have been developed for this study allowed to investigate other phenomena involved in the cavity thermal stability, and particularly the quench, a phenomenon often studied but not in its dynamic. A model is proposed in this thesis to analyse the quench dynamic behaviour using only the fast RF signal measurement during a quench. It has been shown that the quench propagation velocity depends essentially on the accelerating field and the niobium thermal conductivity. A study on the thermometer response time used as diagnostics on cavities proved that the transients during a quench are not efficiently measured with Allen-Bradley sensors: for this application Cernox thermometers are to be preferred due to their lower time response. The development of a thermometer acquisition device for the 3 GHz cavities, used for the study on cavity stiffening, has been adapted for anomalous heating measurements on high gradient 1.3 GHz cavities. It has been possible to prove that anomalous RF losses are responsible of the quality factor degradation, that they are not localised in a small of the cavity, but

  10. Reprojeto do contraforte: um caso de aplicação do ecodesign em manufatura calçadista Stiffener redesign: a case of eco-design application in footwear manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Borchardt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é relatar um caso de reprojeto de um produto existente, o contraforte injetado, focando na minimização do impacto ambiental e na redução de custo do produto final, o calçado esportivo. O estudo de caso ocorreu em empresa de componentes para calçados. Foram analisadas as práticas do ecodesign inseridas no projeto de produto da empresa e o modo como foram operacionalizadas. São discutidos, também, os motivos que levaram a empresa a adotar o ecodesign e as dificuldades e barreiras encontradas. O artigo faz uma revisão sobre ecodesign, apresenta a metodologia de pesquisa e os resultados da investigação. O contraforte reprojetado trouxe, para a empresa fabricante de calçados esportivos, parceira da empresa produtora do componente em estudo, diminuição significativa do uso de adesivos e solventes, além de uma redução de 9,7% no custo-alvo do processo de aplicação do contraforte no cabedal.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the application of eco-design in the redesign of a component from the footwear industry, the stiffener. The focus is on a reduction in the environmental impact and in the final cost of sports footwear. The case study took place in a company that produces footwear components. The eco-design practices considered during the product redesign in the company and their implementation were analyzed. We also investigate and discuss the reasons why the company was led to adopt eco-design and the difficulties and barriers encountered by designers in their application. The paper reviews eco-design, describes the research methodology and presents and discusses research findings. The redesigned stiffener brought the footwear assembly company a new manufacturing business partner, and led to a significant reduction in the requirement for adhesives and solvents, and a 9.7% reduction in the target-cost of the application process.

  11. Application of vertical electrical sounding combined with induced polarization method in ground water exploration; IP koka wo koryoshita hiteikoho suichoku tansa no chikasui chosa eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, M; Sakurada, H [Sumiko Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, T [Hokkaido Development Bureau, Hokkaido Development Agency, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For ground water exploration using vertical Schlumberger exploration method, measurement and analysis combined with induced polarization (IP) effect were conducted as trial. For the Schlumberger method, potential is measured at the center between potential electrodes during flow of dc current between current electrodes. In the case of vertical exploration, measurements are repeated with fixed potential electrodes by extending the distance between current electrodes. Ground water exploration was conducted using this method at Otaki village, Hokkaido. Geology of surveyed plateau consists of a basement of Pliocene tuffs and Quaternary Pleistocene sediments covering on the surface. For the results of analysis, four to seven beds were detected from the resistivity. The depth up to the lowest bed was between 25 and 85 m, the resistivity of each bed was between 9 and 8,000 ohm{times}m, and the polarizability was between 1 and 15 mV/V. Among these resistivity zones, it was judged that zones satisfying following three conditions correspond to coarse grain sediments saturated with ground water, and can be expected as aquifers; having resistivity ranging between 100 and 1,000 ohm{times}m, polarizability higher than 10 mV/V, and relatively large thickness. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Features of vertical axis wind turbine and development of airfoils sections; Chokusen yokugata suichoku jiku fusha no tokucho to yokugata ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, K; Shimizu, Y; Yasui, T [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan); Nakayama, H [Oriental Kiden Company, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Features of a straight wing type vertical axis wind turbine (VAW) and its airfoil sections were studied. The wind turbine in which various aerodynamic work components are mounted on the rotation axis normal to the ground surface is named VAW. Like the airfoil section of aircraft, in lift type VAW, wind turbines were driven by lift 70-90 times as large as drag in some cases. Features of the VAW airfoil section which is a straight wing in plan and a fixed pitch wing (with a fixed angle to a blade support arm) in cross section, and those of wind turbines were studied. Some factors affecting the features, work principle and performance of VAW were clarified. On airfoil sections, products of each weight function and each corresponding aerodynamic factor (lift, drag and pitching moment factors) were plotted on an attack angle ({alpha}) axis. From the conditions for increasing the total sum of areas drawn by the products on the {alpha} axis, various characteristics required for airfoil sections were clarified. Such characteristics nearly agreed between an airfoil section for favorable starting characteristics and that for high efficiency. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  13. A novel technique for stiffening steel structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The use of composite materials for strengthening the ailing infrastructure has been steadily gaining acceptance and market share. One can state that this strengthening technique has become main stream in some applications such as in strengthening of ...

  14. Manufacturing Theory for Advanced Grid Stiffened Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huybrechts, Steven M; Meink, Troy E; Wegner, Peter M; Ganley, Jeff M

    2002-01-01

    ...: the hybrid tooling method and the expansion block method. Both methods rely on a precise understanding of tooling behavior during cure to achieve proper consolidation, often determined through trial and error...

  15. Synergistic stiffening in double-fiber networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombouts, W.H.; Giesbers, M.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Wolf, de F.A.; Gucht, van der J.

    2014-01-01

    Many biological materials are composite structures, interpenetrating networks of different types of fibers. The composite nature of such networks leads to superior mechanical properties, but the origin of this mechanical synergism is still poorly understood. Here we study soft composite networks,

  16. Optimal Design of Stiffeners for Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, William Tucker; Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Tosca Structure coupled with the finite element software Abaqus. The solutions to these optimization problems are then manually interpreted as a new design concept. Results show that shape optimization of the initial design can reduce stress concentrations by 38%. Additionally, topology optimization has...

  17. Introduction of anti-rolling active vertical fin and its application to maneuverability for displacement-type super high speed ship. 2nd Report.; Haisuiryogata chokosokusen no yokoyure seishiyo active suichoku fin no donyu to sojuseieno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, T; Saito, Y [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Niihara, Y [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Discussed herein are the effects of vertical fin projecting downwards from the bottom of a displacement-type superhigh-speed ship, installed to improve its transverse stability and turning ability. The system for simultaneously controlling rudder and vertical fin by the optimum regulator was studied for maneuverability in directional following waves and smooth water, and maneuverability was simulated numerically. A ship is greatly rolled and sloped when running in waves. It is found that the vertical fin shows a high anti-rolling effect when the ship runs straight. The optimum regulator greatly improves maneuverability in waves, reducing rolling by 92%. Increased rolling with the vertical fin, observed in the previous study in directional following waves, is found to be due to the rudder. The optimum position of the fin is determined to control transverse sloping of a turning ship in a superhigh-speed region. 21 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Introduction of anti-rolling active vertical fin and its application to maneuverability for displacement-type super high speed ship. 2nd Report.; Haisuiryogata chokosokusen no yokoyure seishiyo active suichoku fin no donyu to sojuseieno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, T.; Saito, Y. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Niihara, Y. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Discussed herein are the effects of vertical fin projecting downwards from the bottom of a displacement-type superhigh-speed ship, installed to improve its transverse stability and turning ability. The system for simultaneously controlling rudder and vertical fin by the optimum regulator was studied for maneuverability in directional following waves and smooth water, and maneuverability was simulated numerically. A ship is greatly rolled and sloped when running in waves. It is found that the vertical fin shows a high anti-rolling effect when the ship runs straight. The optimum regulator greatly improves maneuverability in waves, reducing rolling by 92%. Increased rolling with the vertical fin, observed in the previous study in directional following waves, is found to be due to the rudder. The optimum position of the fin is determined to control transverse sloping of a turning ship in a superhigh-speed region. 21 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1978. Surveys and studies on patents and information (Surveys on progress in research and development); 1978 nendo tokkyo joho chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Kenkyu kaihatsu suichoku jokyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-01

    This paper describes the surveys in fiscal 1978 on the status of progress in research and development in the Sunshine Project. Identification, evaluation and analysis were given on the status of progress in research and development and developed technologies in each project. Items of information were provided to related organizations for the purpose of mutual information exchange. The subjects include solar heat power generation, solar beam power generation, solar energy air conditioning, hot water supply systems, geothermal applications, and coals. Project teams were organized to discuss more precise identification of the current status of research and development, and increase in efficiency of the research activities. Since the Sunshine Project (which had begun in 1974) is coming close to completing the interim programs in the first term in fiscal 1980, it is thought necessary to provide assistance such as provision of items of information both for each group and on the collective basis. The basic issues at the end of the first term include presentation of the second term conception to the persons responsible of the program management, clarification of the evaluation criteria, strengthening of horizontal communication and adjustment functions in general, and feeding back of the surveys on the status of progress. Putting the basic problems in individual projects into order indicates necessity of discussion on the voucher control system, procedures of disposing of facilities after the related researches have been completed, issues of creating initial market, and expansion of technological discussions. (NEDO)

  20. Valuation of the quantity of electric output from photovoltaic generation system in case of PV module applied to installing to vertical direction; Taiyo denchi wo suichoku ni haichishita baai no hatsudenryo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, K [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In general, it is most efficient and economical to install photovoltaic (PV) modules with proper slope. There are room spaces on the wall except ground or roof. The PV modules were installed on the vertical wall, to consider the compensative method for this weak point. When modules were installed vertically, there is an advantage that reflecting solar light as well as incident solar light can be utilized compared with the installation with slope. The PV modules were installed on the roof of building with inclination of 90{degree} facing to south using the roof material as a reflecting material (S90), and with inclination of 15{degree} facing to south (S15), to compare their output. The output ratio, S90/S15 was 0.42. When it was very fine, this value increased to 0.60. When using plated steel plate as the reflecting material, this value increased to 0.74, which provided 10 to 30% larger output than the roof material. From these results, about 50% of module output of S15 can be expected for S90. If receiving larger reflection, there would only a slight difference in the module output between S15 and S90. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Modelling of tension stiffening for normal and high strength concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Bo; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1998-01-01

    form the model is extended to apply to biaxial stress fields as well. To determine the biaxial stress field, the theorem of minimum complementary elastic energy is used. The theory has been compared with tests on rods, disks, and beams of both normal and high strength concrete, and very good results...

  2. Loft: An Automated Mesh Generator for Stiffened Shell Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2011-01-01

    Loft is an automated mesh generation code that is designed for aerospace vehicle structures. From user input, Loft generates meshes for wings, noses, tanks, fuselage sections, thrust structures, and so on. As a mesh is generated, each element is assigned properties to mark the part of the vehicle with which it is associated. This property assignment is an extremely powerful feature that enables detailed analysis tasks, such as load application and structural sizing. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is an overview of the code and its applications. The modeling approach that was used to create the finite element meshes is described. Several applications of the code are demonstrated, including a Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) wing-sizing study, a lunar lander stage study, a launch vehicle shroud shape study, and a two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) orbiter. Part two of the report is the program user manual. The manual includes in-depth tutorials and a complete command reference.

  3. Tendon-Based Stiffening for a Pneumatically Actuated Soft Manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva, A.; Stilli, A.; Noh, Y.; Faragasso, A.; Falco, I. D.; Gerboni, G.; Cianchetti, M.; Menciassi, A.; Althoefer, K.; Wurdemann, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    There is an emerging trend toward soft robotics due to its extended manipulation capabilities compared to traditionally rigid robot links, showing promise for an extended applicability to new areas. However, as a result of the inherent property of soft robotics being less rigid, the ability to control/obtain higher overall stiffness when required is yet to be further explored. In this letter, an innovative design is introduced which allows varying the stiffness of a continuum silicon-based ma...

  4. Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) - Integrally Stiffened Cylinder (ISC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Machined/welded construction of launch vehicle cryotanks is expensive, heavy, and risky. The current state of the art manufacturing of launch vehicles contributes to...

  5. Electrostatic stiffening and induced persistence length for coassembled molecular bottlebrushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, Ingeborg M.; Stuart, Martien A.C.; Vries, de Renko; Leermakers, Frans A.M.

    2018-01-01

    A self-consistent field analysis for tunable contributions to the persistence length of isolated semiflexible polymer chains including electrostatically driven coassembled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) bottlebrushes is presented. When a chain is charged, i.e., for polyelectrolytes, there is, in

  6. Elastic stability of biaxially loaded longitudinally stiffened composite structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Tamekuni, M.; Tripp, L. L.

    1973-01-01

    A linear analysis method is presented for the elastic stability of structures of uniform cross section, that may be idealized as an assemblage of laminated plate-strips, flat and curved, and beams. Each plate-strip and beam covers the entire length of the structure and is simply supported on the edges normal to the longitudinal axis. Arbitrary boundary conditions may be specified on any external longitudinal side of plate-strips. The structure or selected plate-strips may be loaded in any desired combination of inplane biaxial loads. The analysis simultaneously considers all modes of instability and is applicable for the buckling of laminated composite structures. Some numerical results are presented to indicate possible applications.

  7. On stiffening cables of a long reach manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.; Santiago, P.

    1996-01-01

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator's slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator's stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator's wrist

  8. Numerical analysis of concrete-filled tubes with stiffening plates under large deformation axial loading

    OpenAIRE

    Albareda Valls, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Concrete-filled tubes have been increasingly used these recent decades thanks to their improved structural behavior, especially under compression.Concrete filling in these sections improves ¡ts compressive strength thanks to lateral pressure coming from confinement effect provided by the steel tube. At elevated percentages of loading,concrete suffers an important volumetric expansion, which is clearly restricted by the tube. Therefore, the core is subjected to a severe lateral pressure tha...

  9. Stiffening the stingray skeleton - an investigation of durophagy in myliobatid stingrays (Chondrichthyes, batoidea, myliobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, A P

    2000-02-01

    The stingray family Myliobatidae contains five durophagous (hard prey specialist) genera and two planktivorous genera. A suite of morphological features makes it possible for the hard prey specialists to crush mollusks and crustaceans in their cartilaginous jaws. These include: 1) flat, pavement-like tooth plates set in an elastic dental ligament; 2) multiple layers of calcified cartilage on the surface of the jaws; 3) calcified struts running through the jaws; and 4) a lever system that amplifies the force of the jaw adductors. Examination of a range of taxa reveals that the presence of multiple layers of calcified cartilage, previously described from just a few species, is a plesiomorphy of Chondrichthyes. Calcified struts within the jaw, called "trabecular cartilage," are found only in the myliobatid genera, including the planktivorous Manta birostris. In the durophagous taxa, the struts are concentrated under the area where prey is crushed, thereby preventing local buckling of the jaws. Trabecular cartilage develops early in ontogeny, and does not appear to develop as a direct result of the stresses associated with feeding on hard prey. A "nutcracker" model of jaw function is proposed. In this model, the restricted gape, fused mandibular and palatoquadrate symphyses, and asynchronous contraction of the jaw adductors function to amplify the closing force by 2-4 times. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. 16 CFR 300.23 - Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a class of articles which is customarily accompanied by express or implied representations of fiber content; or (3) If any express or implied representations of fiber content of any of such linings.... For purposes of this paragraph (b) the term interlining means any fabric or fibers incorporated into a...

  11. Vibroacoustic Tailoring of a Rod-Stiffened Composite Fuselage Panel with Multidisciplinary Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Albert R.; Przekop, Adam

    2015-01-01

    An efficient multi-objective design tailoring procedure seeking to improve the vibroacoustic performance of a fuselage panel while maintaining or reducing weight is presented. The structure considered is the pultruded rod stitched efficient unitized structure, a highly integrated composite structure concept designed for a noncylindrical, next-generation flight vehicle fuselage. Modifications to a baseline design are evaluated within a six-parameter design space including spacing, flange width, and web height for both frame and stringer substructure components. The change in sound power radiation attributed to a design change is predicted using finite-element models sized and meshed for analyses in the 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz octave bands. Three design studies are carried out in parallel while considering a diffuse acoustic field excitation and two types of turbulent boundary-layer excitation. Kriging surrogate models are used to reduce the computational costs of resolving the vibroacoustic and weight objective Pareto fronts. The resulting Pareto optimal designs are then evaluated under a static pressurization ultimate load to assess structural strength and stability. Results suggest that choosing alternative configurations within the considered design space can reduce weight and improve vibroacoustic performance without compromising strength and stability of the structure under the static load condition considered, but the tradeoffs are significantly influenced by the spatial characteristics of the assumed excitation field.

  12. Computationally efficient analysis and optimisation of stiffened thin-walled panels in shear

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available refined, nonlinear quasi-static finite element analysis. It is shown that the procedure proposed by Grisham overcomes some of the conservatism inherent in conventional methods of analysis. In addition, the method is notably less expensive than a complete...

  13. Multiscale biomechanics of brain tumours favours cancer invasion by cell softening and tissue stiffening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Josef; Fritsch, Anatol; Grosser, Steffen; Friebe, Sabrina; Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Müller, Wolf; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Sack, Ingolf

    Cancer progression needs two contradictory mechanical prerequisites. For metastasis individual cancer cells or small clusters have to flow through the microenvironment by overcoming the yield stress exerted by the surrounding. On the other hand a tumour has to behave as a solid to permit cell proliferation and spreading of the tumour mass against its surrounding. We determine that the high mechanical adaptability of cancer cells and the scale controlled viscoelastic properties of tissues reconcile both conflicting properties, fluid and solid, simultaneously in brain tumours. We resolve why different techniques that assess cell and tissue mechanics have produced apparently conflicting results by our finding that tumours generate different viscoelastic behaviours on different length scales, which are in concert optimal for tumour spreading and metastasis. Single cancer cells become very soft in their elastic behavior which promotes cell unjamming. On the level of direct cell-to-cell interactions cells feel their micro-environment as rigid elastic substrate that stimulates cancer on the molecular level. All over a tumour has predominately a stiff elastic character in terms of viscoelastic behaviour caused by a solid backbone. Simultaneously, the tumour mass is characterized by a large local variability in the storage and loss modulus that is caused by areas of a more fluid nature.

  14. Vibro-acoustic modulation–based damage identification in a composite skin–stiffener structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooijevaar, T.H.; Rogge, M.D.; Loendersloot, Richard; Warnet, Laurent; Akkerman, Remko; Tinga, Tiedo

    2016-01-01

    Vibro-acoustic modulation–based damage identification relies on the modulation of a high-frequency carrier signal by an intenser low-frequency vibration signal due to damage-induced structural nonlinearities. A time domain analysis of the vibro-acoustic modulation phenomena was presented at multiple

  15. Design, Analysis, Fabrication and Testing of Grid-Stiffened for Fuselage Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shroff, S.

    2014-01-01

    The application of composites in aircraft structures has grown significantly in the past decade, and an increase in this growth in application has recently been achieved in fuselage designs for large civil aircraft such as the Boeing B787 and the Airbus A350. In conventional design philosophies,

  16. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) attenuates diet-induced aortic stiffening independent of changes in body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Tyler; Ouyang, An; Berrones, Adam J; Campbell, Marilyn S; Du, Bing; Fleenor, Bradley S

    2017-08-01

    We hypothesized a sweet potato intervention would prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced aortic stiffness, which would be associated with decreased arterial oxidative stress and increased mitochondrial uncoupling. Young (8-week old) C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: low fat (LF; 10% fat), HF (60% fat), low-fat sweet potato (LFSP; 10% fat containing 260.3 μg/kcal sweet potato), or high-fat sweet potato diet (HFSP; 60% fat containing 260.3 μg/kcal sweet potato) for 16 weeks. Compared with LF and LFSP, HF- and HFSP-fed mice had increased body mass and percent fat mass with lower percent lean mass (all, P Sweet potato intervention did not influence body composition (all, P > 0.05). Arterial stiffness, assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity and ex vivo mechanical testing of the elastin region elastic modulus (EEM) was greater in HF compared with LF and HFSP animals (all, P sweet potato attenuates diet-induced aortic stiffness independent of body mass and composition, which is associated with a normalization of arterial oxidative stress possibly due to mitochondrial uncoupling.

  17. Elastic buckling analysis for composite stiffened panels and other structures subjected to biaxial inplane loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Tamekuni, M.

    1973-01-01

    An exact linear analysis method is presented for predicting buckling of structures with arbitrary uniform cross section. The structure is idealized as an assemblage of laminated plate-strip elements, curved and planar, and beam elements. Element edges normal to the longitudinal axes are assumed to be simply supported. Arbitrary boundary conditions may be specified on any external longitudinal edge of plate-strip elements. The structure or selected elements may be loaded in any desired combination of inplane transverse compression or tension side load and axial compression load. The analysis simultaneously considers all possible modes of instability and is applicable for the buckling of laminated composite structures. Numerical results correlate well with the results of previous analysis methods.

  18. Early stiffening and softening of collagen : interplay of deformation mechanisms in biopolymer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurniawan, N.A.; Wong, Long Hui; Rajagopalan, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Collagen networks, the main structural/mechanical elements in biological tissues, increasingly serve as biomimetic scaffolds for cell behavioral studies, assays, and tissue engineering, and yet their full spectrum of nonlinear behavior remains unclear. Here, with self-assembled type-I collagen as

  19. Thoracic and abdominal aortas stiffen through unique extracellular matrix changes in intrauterine growth restricted fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, R Blair; Rozance, Paul J; Petrash, Carson C; Hunter, Kendall S; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2014-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a fetal complication of pregnancy epidemiologically linked to cardiovascular disease in the newborn later in life. However, the mechanism is poorly understood with very little research on the vascular structure and function during development in healthy and IUGR neonates. Previously, we found vascular remodeling and increased stiffness in the carotid and umbilical arteries, but here we examine the remodeling and biomechanics in the larger vessels more proximal to the heart. To study this question, thoracic and abdominal aortas were collected from a sheep model of placental insufficiency IUGR (PI-IUGR) due to exposure to elevated ambient temperatures. Aortas from control (n = 12) and PI-IUGR fetuses (n = 10) were analyzed for functional biomechanics and structural remodeling. PI-IUGR aortas had a significant increase in stiffness (P fetal vascular remodeling in PI-IUGR may set the stage for possible altered growth and development and help to explain the pathophysiology of adult cardiovascular disease in previously IUGR individuals.

  20. Toddler's Paralysis: An Acute Case of Leg Stiffening in a Previously Healthy 2-Year-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahne, Kimberly Renee; Tay, Ee Tein

    2018-05-14

    Vegetarian and vegan diets are gaining popularity in the United States. Although appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including vegan diets, are healthful and nutritionally adequate and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, not all families are aware of the nutritional supplements that may be required for their children. We describe a case of a 2-year-old previously healthy child consuming a vegan diet who presented to the pediatric emergency department with an acute inability to move her legs. Ionized calcium was found to be 0.89 mmol/L, and symptoms completely resolved within 2 hours of calcium gluconate infusion.

  1. Interfibrillar stiffening of echinoderm mutable collagenous tissue demonstrated at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jingyi; Prévost, Sylvain F; Blowes, Liisa M; Egertová, Michaela; Terrill, Nicholas J; Wang, Wen; Elphick, Maurice R; Gupta, Himadri S

    2016-10-18

    The mutable collagenous tissue (MCT) of echinoderms (e.g., sea cucumbers and starfish) is a remarkable example of a biological material that has the unique attribute, among collagenous tissues, of being able to rapidly change its stiffness and extensibility under neural control. However, the mechanisms of MCT have not been characterized at the nanoscale. Using synchrotron small-angle X-ray diffraction to probe time-dependent changes in fibrillar structure during in situ tensile testing of sea cucumber dermis, we investigate the ultrastructural mechanics of MCT by measuring fibril strain at different chemically induced mechanical states. By measuring a variable interfibrillar stiffness (E IF ), the mechanism of mutability at the nanoscale can be demonstrated directly. A model of stiffness modulation via enhanced fibrillar recruitment is developed to explain the biophysical mechanisms of MCT. Understanding the mechanisms of MCT quantitatively may have applications in development of new types of mechanically tunable biomaterials.

  2. Cations Stiffen Actin Filaments by Adhering a Key Structural Element to Adjacent Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Ions regulate the assembly and mechanical properties of actin filaments. Recent work using structural bioinformatics and site-specific mutagenesis favors the existence of two discrete and specific divalent cation binding sites on actin filaments, positioned in the long axis between actin subunits. Cation binding at one site drives polymerization, while the other modulates filament stiffness and plays a role in filament severing by the regulatory protein, cofilin. Existing structural methods have not been able to resolve filament-associated cations, and so in this work we turn to molecular dynamics simulations to suggest a candidate binding pocket geometry for each site and to elucidate the mechanism by which occupancy of the “stiffness site” affects filament mechanical properties. Incorporating a magnesium ion in the “polymerization site” does not seem to require any large-scale change to an actin subunit’s conformation. Binding of a magnesium ion in the “stiffness site” adheres the actin DNase-binding loop (D-loop) to its long-axis neighbor, which increases the filament torsional stiffness and bending persistence length. Our analysis shows that bound D-loops occupy a smaller region of accessible conformational space. Cation occupancy buries key conserved residues of the D-loop, restricting accessibility to regulatory proteins and enzymes that target these amino acids. PMID:27146246

  3. Abdominal aortic aneurysm, arterial stiffening and the role of the intraluminal thrombus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck Hansen, Maria; Dahl Thomsen, Marie; Melholt Rasmussen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: PWV and PWA were measured in male patients with AAA from an ongoing Danish AAA screening trial. Information on blood pressure, medications, BMI and smoking status was obtained at inclusion. RESULTS: In total, 157 patients were included. Mean age was 73 years. Mean AAA size...... was 42.2 mm. Fifty-six of the patients had an intraluminal thrombus, and patients with AAA and ILT had a significantly higher Aix75 than patients with AAA but without ILT (Mean = 28.3 ± 1.4 SEM vs. 24.9 ± 0.81, p=0.027), a difference that was also significant when adjusting for AAA size, blood pressure...... and age. There was no difference in PWV between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Haemodynamic properties of the aorta are affected by the presence of ILT in patients with AAA that is not explained by aortic size. Alternatively, these findings could be explained by associations between ILT and properties...

  4. Damage identification using guided waves on a composite skin-stiffener structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loendersloot, R.; Battley, M.; Tinga, T.

    2016-01-01

    The potential of using guided waves for damage detection in composite materials has been proven by many researches in the past few years and in particular by the cases studies of the European project SARISTU. In that project integration methods for the piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS),

  5. Inverse thermoreversible mechanical stiffening and birefringence in methylcellulose/cellulose nanocrystal hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynninen, Ville; Hietala, Sami; McKee, Jason Robert; Murtomäki, Lasse; Rojas, Orlando J; Ikkala, Olli; Nonappa, Nonappa

    2018-05-07

    We show that composite hydrogels comprising methyl cellulose (MC) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) colloidal rods display a reversible and enhanced rheological storage modulus and optical birefringence upon heating, i.e., inverse thermoreversibility. Dynamic rheology, quantitative polarized optical microscopy (POM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) were used for characterization. The concentration of CNC in aqueous media was varied up to 3.5 wt % (i.e, keeping the concentration below the critical aq. concentration) while maintaining the MC aq. concentration at 1.0 wt %. At 20 °C, MC/CNC underwent gelation upon passing the CNC concentration of 1.5 wt %. At this point the storage modulus (G´) reached a plateau, and the birefringence underwent a stepwise increase, thus suggesting a percolative phenomenon. The storage modulus (G´) of the composite gels was an order of magnitude higher at 60 °C compared to that at 20 °C. ITC results suggested that at 60 °C, the CNC rods were entropically driven to interact with MC chains, which according to recent studies, collapse at this temperature into ring-like, colloidal-scale persistent fibrils with hollow cross-section. Consequently, the increased requirement for space and mutual alignment of components results in enhanced birefringence. At room temperature, ITC shows enthalpic binding between CNCs and MC with the latter comprising an aqueous, molecularly dispersed polymer chains that lead to looser and less birefringent material. TEM, SEM, and CD indicated CNC chiral fragments within MC/CNC composite gel. Thus, their space-filling, thermoreversible assembly within the MC network can be used to tune the rheological properties and to access liquid crystalline properties at low CNC concentrations.

  6. Fatigue analysis of flexible pipes using alternative element types and bend stiffener data

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Minghao

    2011-01-01

    The flexible pipe is a vital part of a floating production system. The lifetime of a flexible riser system is crucial for the Health Safety and Environment (HSE) management. As a result of this, it is very necessary to carry out research on the lifetime of flexible pipe. In this thesis we formalized analysis on flexible pipes, utilizing the finite element analysis software BFLEX 2010, developed by MARINTEK. Chapter 1 describes basic knowledge about flexible pipe and relevant facilities. C...

  7. Mitochondrial oxidative stress in aortic stiffening with age: the role of smooth muscle cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: Age-related aortic stiffness is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although oxidative stress is implicated in aortic stiffness, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unelucidated. Here, we examined the source of oxidative stress in aging and i...

  8. A new robust design for imperfection sensitive stiffened cylinders used in aerospace engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, K.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, Q.; Ruess, M.

    2015-01-01

    A knock-down factor is commonly used to take into account the obvious decline of the buckling load in a cylindrical shell caused by the inevitable imperfections. In 1968, NASA guideline SP-8007 gave knock-down factors which rely on a lower-bound curve taken from experimental data. Recent research

  9. Dynamic Analysis of Planar 3-RRR Flexible Parallel Robots with Dynamic Stiffening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the second-order coupling quantity of the axial displacement caused by the transverse displacement of flexible beam, the first-order approximation coupling model of planar 3-RRR flexible parallel robots is presented, in which the rigid body motion constraints, elastic deformation motion constraints, and dynamic constraints of the moving platform are considered. Based on the different speed of the moving platform, numerical simulation results using the conventional zero-order approximation coupling model and the proposed firstorder approximation coupling model show that the effect of “dynamic stiffening” term on dynamic characteristics of the system is insignificant and can be neglected, and the zero-order approximation coupling model is enough precisely for catching essentially dynamic characteristics of the system. Then, the commercial software ANSYS 13.0 is used to confirm the validity of the zero-order approximation coupling model.

  10. Numerical study of how creep and progressive stiffening affect the growth stress formation in trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Dahlblom, O.; Johansson, M.

    2010-01-01

    It is not fully understood how much growth stresses affect the final quality of solid timber products in terms of e.g. shape stability. It is for example difficult to predict the internal growth stress field within the tree stem. Growth stresses are progressively generated during the tree growth...... and they are highly influenced by climate, biologic and material related factors. To increase the knowledge of the stress formation a finite element model was created to study how the growth stresses develop during the tree growth. The model is an axisymmetric general plane strain model where material for all new...... annual rings is progressively added to the tree during the analysis. The material model used is based on the theory of small strains (where strains refer to the undeformed configuration which is good approximation for strains less than 4%) where so-called biological maturation strains (growth...

  11. Lattice-Stiffening Transition in Copolymer Films of Vinylidene Fluoride (70%) with Trifluoroethylene (30%)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borca, C N [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0111 (United States); Adenwalla, S [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0111 (United States); Choi, Jaewu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0111 (United States); Center for Advanced Microstructure and Devices, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Highway, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70806 (United States); Sprunger, P T [Center for Advanced Microstructure and Devices, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Highway, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70806 (United States); Ducharme, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0111 (United States); Robertson, Lee [High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Palto, S P [Institute of Crystallography, The Russian Academy of Sciences, 59 Leninsky Prospekt, 117333 Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation); Liu, Jianglai [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0111 (United States); Poulsen, Matt [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0111 (United States); Fridkin, V M [Institute of Crystallography, The Russian Academy of Sciences, 59 Leninsky Prospekt, 117333 Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation)

    1999-11-29

    We report the discovery of a compressibility phase transition at 160 K in crystalline copolymer films of vinylidene fluoride (70% ) with trifluoroethylene (30% ). This phase transition is distinct from the known bulk ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition at 353 K and surface ferroelectric phase transition at 295 K. The new phase transition is characterized by an increase in the effective Debye temperature from 48 to 245 K along the <010> direction as the temperature falls below 160 K. This phase transition is evident in neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction, angle-resolved photoemission, and in the dipole active phonon modes in electron energy-loss spectroscopy. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  12. Evidence for a general stiffening motor control pattern in neck pain: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisingset, Ingebrigt; Woodhouse, Astrid; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Lorås, Håvard; Gismervik, Sigmund; Andresen, Hege; Austreim, Kristian; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2015-03-17

    Neck pain is associated with several alterations in neck motion and motor control. Previous studies have investigated single constructs of neck motor control, while few have applied a comprehensive set of tests to investigate cervical motor control. This comparative cross- sectional study aimed to investigate different motor control constructs in neck pain patients and healthy controls. A total of 166 subjects participated in the study, 91 healthy controls (HC) and 75 neck pain patients (NP) with long-lasting moderate to severe neck pain. Neck flexibility, proprioception, head steadiness, trajectory movement control, and postural sway were assessed using a 3D motion tracking system (Liberty). The different constructs of neck motion and motor control were based on tests used in previous studies. Neck flexibility was lower in NP compared to HC, indicated by reduced cervical ROM and conjunct motion. Movement velocity was slower in NP compared to HC. Tests of head steadiness showed a stiffer movement pattern in NP compared to HC, indicated by lower head angular velocity. NP patients departed less from a predictable trajectory movement pattern (figure of eight) compared to healthy controls, but there was no difference for unpredictable movement patterns (the Fly test). No differences were found for postural sway in standing with eyes open and eyes closed. However, NP patients had significantly larger postural sway when standing on a balance pad. Proprioception did not differ between the groups. Largest effect sizes (ES) were found for neck flexibility (ES range: 0.2-0.8) and head steadiness (ES range: 1.3-2.0). Neck flexibility was the only construct that showed a significant association with current neck pain, while peak velocity was the only variable that showed a significant association with kinesiophobia. NP patients showed an overall stiffer and more rigid neck motor control pattern compared to HC, indicated by lower neck flexibility, slower movement velocity, increased head steadiness and more rigid trajectory head motion patterns. Only neck flexibility showed a significant association with clinical features in NP patients.

  13. Combined Effects of Scaffold Stiffening and Mechanical Preconditioning Cycles on Construct Biomechanics, Gene Expression, and Tendon Repair Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmalanandhan, Victor Sanjit; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia; Shearn, Jason T.; Boivin, Gregory P.; Galloway, Marc T.; Gooch, Cynthia; Bradica, Gino; Butler, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Our group has previously reported that in vitro mechanical stimulation of tissue-engineered tendon constructs significantly increases both construct stiffness and the biomechanical properties of the repair tissue after surgery. When optimized using response surface methodology, our results indicate that a mechanical stimulus with three components (2.4% strain, 3000 cycles/day, and one cycle repetition) produced the highest in vitro linear stiffness. Such positive correlations between construc...

  14. Exceptional increase in the creep life of magnesium rare-earth alloys due to localized bond stiffening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, Deep; Srinivasan, Srivilliputhur G; Gibson, Mark A; Zheng, Yufeng; Jaeger, David L; Fraser, Hamish L; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2017-12-08

    Several recent papers report spectacular, and unexpected, order of magnitude improvement in creep life of alloys upon adding small amounts of elements like zinc. This microalloying effect raises fundamental questions regarding creep deformation mechanisms. Here, using atomic-scale characterization and first principles calculations, we attribute the 600% increase in creep life in a prototypical Mg-rare earth (RE)-Zn alloy to multiple mechanisms caused by RE-Zn bonding-stabilization of a large volume fraction of strengthening precipitates on slip planes, increase in vacancy diffusion barrier, reduction in activated cross-slip, and enhancement of covalent character and bond strength around Zn solutes along the c-axis of Mg. We report that increased vacancy diffusion barrier, which correlates with the observed 25% increase in interplanar bond stiffness, primarily enhances the high-temperature creep life. Thus, we demonstrate that an approach of local, randomized tailoring of bond stiffness via microalloying enhances creep performance of alloys.

  15. Exploring Modeling Options and Conversion of Average Response to Appropriate Vibration Envelopes for a Typical Cylindrical Vehicle Panel with Rib-stiffened Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Phil; LaVerde, Bruce; Teague, David

    2009-01-01

    Although applications for Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) techniques are more widely used in the aerospace industry today, opportunities to anchor the response predictions using measured data from a flight-like launch vehicle structure are still quite valuable. Response and excitation data from a ground acoustic test at the Marshall Space Flight Center permitted the authors to compare and evaluate several modeling techniques available in the SEA module of the commercial code VA One. This paper provides an example of vibration response estimates developed using different modeling approaches to both approximate and bound the response of a flight-like vehicle panel. Since both vibration response and acoustic levels near the panel were available from the ground test, the evaluation provided an opportunity to learn how well the different modeling options can match band-averaged spectra developed from the test data. Additional work was performed to understand the spatial averaging of the measurements across the panel from measured data. Finally an evaluation/comparison of two conversion approaches from the statistical average response results that are output from an SEA analysis to a more useful envelope of response spectra appropriate to specify design and test vibration levels for a new vehicle.

  16. Systemic stiffening of mouse tail tendon is related to dietary advanced glycation end products but not high-fat diet or cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Christian; Svensson, R B; Scheijen, J

    2014-01-01

    Tendon pathology is related to metabolic disease and mechanical overloading, but the effect of metabolic disease on tendon mechanics is unknown. This study investigated the effect of diet and apolipoprotein E deficiency (ApoE(-/-)) on mechanical properties and advanced glycation end product (AGE...... cross-links in tendons and for tissue compliance. The results demonstrate how systemic metabolic factors may influence tendon health....

  17. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The two major objectives of damage tolerant evaluation, namely, the remaining life prediction and residual strength evaluation of stiffened panels have been discussed. Concentric and eccentric stiffeners have been considered. Stress intensity factor for a stiffened panel has been computed by using parametric equations of ...

  18. Midwest Structural Sciences Center, 2006-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    be created and compared to experimental data (which also Fig. C2.1: The beam fixed in the testing apparatus and mounted on the electromagnetic ...structural components, a riveted stiffened panel, Fig. C3.3, was considered as the next test case. This stiffened panel was analyzed using displacement

  19. Graphite/epoxy orthogrid panel fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The structural concept considered for a spacecraft body structure is a grid stiffened skin with a skin laminate configuration and the stiffener grid geometry selected to best suit the design requirements. The orthogrid panel developed weighs 0.55 lb/sq ft and resisted an ultimate in-plane shear load of 545 lbf/in. The basic concept of a grid stiffener composite panel is that a relatively thin skin is reinforced with a gridwork of stiffeners so that the overall panel can resist design loads without becoming structurally unstable or being overstressed. The main feature of the orthogrid panel design is that it provides the potential for low cost structural panels when advanced to the production phase. The most innovative part of the fabrication method is the foam/fiberglass stiffener web grid billet fabrication and machining to size.

  20. Modern methods for evaluating the workability of cement used as a binder for the stabilization and solidification of toxic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, Giorgio [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-10-01

    The workability of cement pastes has a great influence on the final properties of the solidified products, like mechanical strength, stability density and durability. This is quite relevant in the field of stabilization / solidification of toxic and hazardous wastes. Hence considerable importance attaches to having reliable control over the fresh concrete properties, especially its early stiffening behaviour. This paper discussers measuring methods of the stiffening of two different types of cement pastes, prepared with different water / cement ratios, and examines the possible consequences of the early stiffening of cement pastes on their set times and bleeding.

  1. Innovative fabrication processing of advanced composite materials concepts for primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassapoglou, Christos; Dinicola, Al J.; Chou, Jack C.

    1992-01-01

    The autoclave based THERM-X(sub R) process was evaluated by cocuring complex curved panels with frames and stiffeners. The process was shown to result in composite parts of high quality with good compaction at sharp radius regions and corners of intersecting parts. The structural properties of the postbuckled panels fabricated were found to be equivalent to those of conventionally tooled hand laid-up parts. Significant savings in bagging time over conventional tooling were documented. Structural details such as cocured shear ties and embedded stiffener flanges in the skin were found to suppress failure modes such as failure at corners of intersecting members and skin stiffeners separation.

  2. Biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction as predictors of pulse pressure and incident hypertension in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Isabel; Hovind, Peter; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2018-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are thought to contribute to arterial stiffening and hypertension. This study aims to test this hypothesis with longitudinal data in the context of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We investigated, in an inception cohort of 277 individuals...... with type 1 diabetes, the course, tracking and temporal inter-relationships of BP, specifically pulse pressure (a marker of arterial stiffening) and hypertension, and the following biomarkers of systemic and vascular inflammation/endothelial dysfunction: C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble intracellular...... endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in the development of premature arterial stiffening and hypertension in type 1 diabetes....

  3. Mechanical design and analysis of a low beta squeezed half-wave resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shou-Bo; Zhang, Cong; Yue, Wei-Ming; Wang, Ruo-Xu; Xu, Meng-Xin; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Huang, Shi-Chun; Huang, Yu-Lu; Jiang, Tian-Cai; Wang, Feng-Feng; Zhang, Sheng-Xue; He, Yuan; Zhang, Sheng-Hu; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2014-08-01

    A superconducting squeezed type half-wave resonator (HWR) of β=0.09 has been developed at the Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou. In this paper, a basic design is presented for the stiffening structure for the detuning effect caused by helium pressure and Lorentz force. The mechanical modal analysis has been investigated the with finite element method (FEM). Based on these considerations, a new stiffening structure is proposed for the HWR cavity. The computation results concerning the frequency shift show that the low beta HWR cavity with new stiffening structure has low frequency sensitivity coefficient df/dp and Lorentz force detuning coefficient KL, and stable mechanical properties.

  4. Damage identification in composite panels using guided waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loendersloot, R.; Moix-Bonet, M.

    2015-01-01

    A methodology for the identification of barely visible impact damage using guided waves on a typical aircraft composite structure is implemented. Delaminations and debondings have been introduced in two stiffened panels by means of impact loads.

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... M.S in structural engineering Responsibility: Design Manager Company: fara ... But some cases including shorter links and web stiffeners have shown better .... structure is exposed to lateral loads with a certain pattern that ...

  6. The effect of an advanced glycation end-product crosslink breaker and exercise training on vascular function in older individuals: a randomized factorial design trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudegeest-Sander, M.H.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Smits, P.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Levine, B.D.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aging leads to accumulation of irreversible advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), contributing to vascular stiffening and endothelial dysfunction. When combined with the AGE-crosslink breaker Alagebrium, exercise training reverses cardiovascular aging in experimental animals. This study is the

  7. Plate and shell theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Fundamental analytical methods for the calculation of the bending strength and stability of isotrop and stiffened panels typically used in ship structures.Practical working examples with references to the rules of ship classification societies....

  8. Cure Characteristics and Physico-Mechanical Properties of Natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    properties but may increase hardness and modulus of the rubber product. ..... particles to rubber matrix causing stiffening effects on the polymer chain and ... by employing modern methods of grinding and size separation to obtain finer particle ...

  9. Review of Improved Methods for Analysing Load Attraction and Thermal Effects in Bonded Composite Repair Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harman, A

    2003-01-01

    .... Recent work, however, has identified improved equations to account for load attraction into the stiffened repaired area, and evaluate the thermally induced stresses in the repaired structure and the patch...

  10. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrman, B.; Nylund, O.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel assembly with a fuel channel which surrounds a plurality of fuel rods and which is divided, by means of a stiffening device of cruciform cross-section and four wings, into four sub-channels each of which comprises a bundle of fuel rods. Each fuel channel side has a plurality of stamped, inwardly-directed projections, arranged vertically one after the other, aid projections being welded to one and the same stiffening wing. Each one of the wall portions located between the projections defines, together with two adjacently positioned projections and a portion of the stiffening wing, a communiation opening between two bundles located on on one side each of the stiffening wing. (Author)

  11. 78 FR 60248 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 183-Austin, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... shroud assemblies; mechanism bases; storage; busbars; button dim links; electromagnetic interference fans...; connector brackets; frames; holders; insulators; link torsion; manifold exhausts; stiffeners; subassemblies; thermal pads; insert mold torsion bars; torsion springs; vapor chambers; power supplies; housing magnets...

  12. A study of methods of prediction and measurement of the transmission of sound through the walls of light aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssen, B.; Wang, Y. S.; Raju, P. K.; Crocker, M. J.

    1981-08-01

    The acoustic intensity technique was applied to the sound transmission loss of panel structures (single, composite, and stiffened). A theoretical model of sound transmission through a cylindrical shell is presented.

  13. Stupor and Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure to cold, an underactive thyroid gland, alcohol intoxication, a sedative overdose or, in older people, infection. ... to form. Contractures: Lack of movement can also lead to permanent stiffening of muscles (contractures) causing joints ...

  14. Tensioned Rollable Ultra-light Solar array System (TRUSS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRUSS is a structurally efficient solar array concept that utilizes a TRAC rollable boom and tension-stiffened structure to exceed the program requirements for very...

  15. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known cause. Causes can include: Left bundle branch block Heart attacks (myocardial infarction) Thickened, stiffened or weakened ... myocarditis) High blood pressure (hypertension) Right bundle branch block A heart abnormality that's present at birth (congenital) — ...

  16. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has considerable experience and the necessary training and skill to perform the following ... This procedure shortens and stiffens the soft palate by partially removing the uvula and reducing ...

  17. Calculation for Hull Strength Construction in Offshore Structures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... of hull plating, reinforcing stiffeners, girders, and other structures. This paper therefore used the .... From these equations we derive that. Safety of. Factor. Stress ..... machineries, systems etc. of the ships or barge under design.

  18. Design and testing of microfabricated surgical tools for large animal probe insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, Shelly [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Neural probes provide therapeutic stimulation for neuropsychiatric disorders or record neural activity to investigate the workings of the brain. Researchers utilize 6 mm long temporary silicon stiffeners attached with biodissolvable adhesive to insert flexible neural probes into rat brains, but increasing the probe length fivefold makes inserting large animal probes a significant challenge because of an increased potential for buckling. This study compared the insertion success rates of 6 mm and 30 mm long silicon stiffeners that were 80 μm wide and 30 μm thick, and ascertained the material thickness and modulus of elasticity that would provide successful insertion for a 30 mm probe. Using a microdrive, stiffeners were inserted into an agarose brain phantom at controlled insertion speeds while being video-recorded. Twenty-five percent of the 30 mm silicon stiffeners fully inserted at speeds approximately four times higher than the target rate of 0.13 mm/s, while 100 percent of the 6 mm silicon stiffeners inserted successfully at target speed. Critical buckling loads (Pcr) were calculated for the 6 mm and 30 mm silicon stiffeners, and for 30 mm diamond and tungsten stiffeners, with thicknesses varying from 30-80 μm. Increasing the thickness of the material by 10 μm, 20 μm and 30 μm improved the Pcr by 2.4, 4.7 and 8.2 times, respectively, independent of the material, and substituting diamond for silicon multiplied the buckling capacity by 5.0 times. Stiffeners made of silicon for large animal probe insertion are not strong enough to withstand buckling upon insertion without a significant increase in thickness. Replacing silicon with diamond and increasing the thickness of the stiffener to 50 μm would afford a stiffener with the same Pcr capacity as the 6 mm silicon stiffener that had a 100 percent insertion success rate. Experiments should continue with diamond to determine a minimum thickness that will ensure successful

  19. Longitudinal Weld Land Buckling in Compression-Loaded Orthogrid Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburgh, Robert P.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Large stiffened cylinders used in launch vehicles (LV), such as the Space Shuttle External Tank, are manufactured by welding multiple curved panel sections into complete cylinders. The effects of the axial weld lands between the panel sections on the buckling load were studied, along with the interaction between the acreage stiffener arrangement and the weld land geometry. This document contains the results of the studies.

  20. Model-Based Structural Health Monitoring of Fatigue Damage Test-Bed Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    the hull welds or notches along component edges are good initial candidates for the hypothetical damage initiation areas. The branching process adds...to it off-center. The base plate and the stiffener plate are rigidly welded by a tungsten inert gas ( TIG ) weld . Three different crack paths...shown in Figure 9(a), an 18 in long stiffener plate has been welded to each of the tested plates with 0.625 in long discrete TIG welds at 5 locations

  1. Acoustic Emission of Large PRSEUS Structures (Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Michael R.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    In the role of structural health monitoring (SHM), Acoustic Emission (AE) analysis is being investigated as an effective method for tracking damage development in large composite structures under load. Structures made using Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) for damage tolerant, light, and economical airframe construction are being pursued by The Boeing Company and NASA under the Environmentally Responsible Aircraft initiative (ERA). The failure tests of two PRSEUS substructures based on the Boeing Hybrid Wing Body fuselage concept were conducted during third quarter 2011 and second quarter 2015. One fundamental concern of these tests was determining the effectiveness of the stitched integral stiffeners to inhibit damage progression. By design, severe degradation of load carrying capability should not occur prior to Design Ultimate Load (DUL). While minor damage prior to DUL was anticipated, the integral stitching should not fail since this would allow a stiffener-skin delamination to progress rapidly and alter the transfer of load into the stiffeners. In addition, the stiffeners should not fracture because they are fundamental to structural integrity. Getting the best information from each AE sensor is a primary consideration because a sparse network of sensors is implemented. Sensitivity to stiffener-contiguous degradation is supported by sensors near the stiffeners, which increases the coverage per sensor via AE waveguide actions. Some sensors are located near potentially critical areas or "critical zones" as identified by numerical analyses. The approach is compared with the damage progression monitored by other techniques (e.g. ultrasonic C-scan).

  2. The stability of cassette walls in compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutay, Pierre-Arnaud

    Much research into the behaviour of cold formed steel columns in the last decade has focused on channel sections undergoing local, distortional and overall buckling. Light gauge steel cassette sections are a particular form of channel section which offers an alternative form of load-bearing wall assembly for use in low-rise steel framed construction. Cassette wall sections possess wide and slender flanges so that, by including intermediate stiffeners in these wide flanges, a significant increase in the ultimate load capacity may be achieved. However, the introduction of intermediate stiffeners also increases the number of buckling modes (stiffener buckling) and, therefore complicates the behaviour and increases the risk of interactive buckling between these modes. The work undertaken in this thesis aims to clarify the behaviour of wide flanges in compression with and without intermediate stiffeners. In this research, the distortional mode of web and narrow flange buckling was inhibited by connecting the narrow flanges of the cassettes together at suitable intervals. "Generalised Beam Theory" (GBT), which allows the individual buckling modes to be considered individually and in predetermined combinations, provides a particularly good tool with which to analyse and understand the buckling behaviour of cassette sections with and without intermediate stiffeners. "Generalised Beam Theory" (GBT) is used throughout this work to determine the elastic buckling stress of the sections studied (simply supported stiffened plates, as well as cassette sections). Since the economic design of cold-formed steel sections requires the consideration of post- buckling behaviour, elastic buckling values are not directly comparable with design code values which are usually based on the concept of effective width. Therefore, finite element analysis with both material and geometric nonlinearity has also been carried out in order to obtain the ultimate strength in the critical mode or mode

  3. Treatment of hypertension and metabolic syndrome: lowering blood pressure is not enough for organ protection, new approach-arterial destiffening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimlichman, Reuven

    2014-10-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) have been shown to induce end organ damage. Until now, the main approach to reduce CVRF-induced end organ damage was by normalization of CVRFs; this approach was found effective to reduce damage and cardiovascular (CV) events. However, a residual risk always remained even when CVRFs were optimally balanced. An additional risk factor which has an immense effect on the progression of end organ damage is aging. Aging is accompanied by gradual stiffening of the arteries which finally leads to CV events. Until recently, the process of arterial aging was considered as unmodifiable, but this has changed. Arterial stiffening caused by the aging process is similar to the changes seen as a result of CVRF-induced arterial damage. Actually, the presence of CVRFs causes faster arterial stiffening, and the extent of damage is proportional to the severity of the CVRF, the length of its existence, the patient's genetic factors, etc. Conventional treatments of osteoporosis and of hormonal decline at menopause are potential additional approaches to positively affect progression of arterial stiffening. The new approach to further decrease progression of arteriosclerosis, thus preventing events, is the prevention of age-associated arterial structural changes. This approach should further decrease age-associated arterial stiffening. A totally new promising approach is to study the possibility of affecting collagen, elastin, and other components of connective tissue that participate in the process of arterial stiffening. Reduction of pulse pressure by intervention in arterial stiffening process by novel methods as breaking collagen cross-links or preventing their formation is an example of future directions in treatment. This field is of enormous potential that might be revolutionary in inducing further significant reduction of cardiovascular events.

  4. Effects of the Strain Rate Sensitivity and Strain Hardening on the Saturated Impulse of Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper studies the stiffening effects of the material strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening on the saturated impulse of elastic, perfectly plastic plates. Finite element (FE code ABAQUS is employed to simulate the elastoplastic response of square plates under rectangular pressure pulse. Rigid-plastic analyses for saturated impulse, which consider strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening, are conducted. Satisfactory agreement between the finite element models (FEM and predictions of the rigid-plastic analysis is obtained, which verifies that the proposed rigid-plastic methods are effective to solve the problem including strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening. The quantitative results for the scale effect of the strain rate sensitivity are given. The results for the stiffening effects suggest that two general stiffening factors n 1 and n 2, which characterizes the strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening effect, respectively can be defined. The saturated displacement is inversely proportional to the stiffening factors (i.e. n 1 and n 2 and saturated impulse is inversely proportional to the square roots of the stiffening factors (i.e. n 1 and n 2. Formulae for displacement and saturated impulse are proposed based on the empirical analysis.

  5. Investigation of in-plane moment connections of I-beams to square concrete-filled steel tube columns under gravity loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahim K. Dessouki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on experimental and analytical behavior of the ultimate moment of the connections of steel I-beams to square concrete-filled steel tube columns. External stiffeners around the columns are used at the beam flange levels. Five specimens are tested monotonically. The test parameters are the column stiffener dimensions and filling the steel tube column with concrete. Two types of failure modes are observed; beam flange failure and stiffener failure. The experimental results show that the ultimate moment of the connection is increased by increasing stiffener’s dimensions and filling the steel tube column with concrete. ANSYS finite element program is used to simulate the behavior, taking into account both geometric and material nonlinearities. Analytical results that are in fair agreement with the experimental ones are then used to discuss the influence of the main geometric parameters on the connection behavior. The parameters are the stiffener and column dimensions as well as filling the steel tube column with concrete. Different square column cross sections are chosen to cover the three classes of section classifications according to Egyptian code of practice, which are: compact, non compact or slender. The increase in the ultimate moment of the connections is based upon both column cross sections’ compactness and stiffener dimensions while the maximum advantages occur with slender columns.

  6. 近海风机叶片动力特性分析%Dynamic Characteristics Analysis of the Offshore Wind Turbine Blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 陈健云; 陈小波

    2011-01-01

    The topic of offshore wind energy is attracting more and more attention as the energy crisis heightens. The blades are the key components of offshore wind turbines, and their dynamic characteristics directly determine the effectiveness of offshore wind turbines. With different rotating speeds and blade length,the rotating blades generate various centrifugal stiffening effects. To directly analyze the centrifugal stiffening effect of blades, the Rayleigh energy method (REM) was used to derive the natural frequency equation of the blade, including the centrifugal stiffening effect and the axial force calculation formula. The axial force planes and the first to third order natural frequency planes which vary with the rotating speed and length were calculated in three-dimensional coordinates. The centrifugal stiffening coefficient was introduced to quantitatively study the relationship between the centrifugal stiffening degree and the rotating speed, and then the fundamental frequency correction formula was built based on the rotating speed and the blade length. The analysis results show that the calculation results of the fundamental frequency correction formula agree with the theoretical calculation results. The error of calculation results between them is less than 0.5%.

  7. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Materials and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, D. B.; Dost, E. F.; Flynn, B. W.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Nelson, K. M.; Sawicki, A. J.; Walker, T. H.; Lakes, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program was to develop the technology required for cost and weight efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. This contractor report describes results of material and process selection, development, and characterization activities. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of monolithic and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential frames and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements. Significant development efforts were expended on the AFP, braiding, and RTM processes. Sandwich core materials and core edge close-out design concepts were evaluated. Autoclave cure processes were developed for stiffened skin and sandwich structures. The stiffness, strength, notch sensitivity, and bearing/bypass properties of fiber-placed skin materials and braided/RTM'd circumferential frame materials were characterized. The strength and durability of cocured and cobonded joints were evaluated. Impact damage resistance of stiffened skin and sandwich structures typical of fuselage panels was investigated. Fluid penetration and migration mechanisms for sandwich panels were studied.

  8. Structural testing of the technology integration box beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    A full-scale section of a transport aircraft wing box was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested. The wing box section, which was called the technology integration box beam, contained blade stiffened covers and T-stiffened channel spars constructed using graphite/epoxy materials. Covers, spars, and the aluminum ribs were assembled using mechanical fasteners. The box beam was statically tested for several loading conditions to verify the stiffness and strength characteristics of the composite wing design. Failure of the box beam occurred at 125 percent of design limit load during the combined upbending and torsion ultimate design load test. It appears that the failure initiated at a stiffener runout location in the upper cover which resulted in rupture of the upper cover and portions of both spars.

  9. Effective Cross Section of Cold Formed Steel Column Under Axial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, P.; Pradeep, T.

    2018-06-01

    The compressive resistance of cold-formed steel (CFS) section may be governed by local, distortional or overall buckling and any apparent interaction between these modes. A new inventive stiffened CFS section is elected in this study, selected cross sections geometries and lengths are chosen such that all the types of buckling modes are met with. Buckling plot is plotted using linear elastic buckling analysis software (CUFSM). Using the test results obtained in the literature, the developed finite element model is calibrated and furthers a total of 126 parametric study is conducted such as a consequence of dimensions and the length of the cross section, thickness and yield stress. The FEA included relevant material and geometric imperfections. All the columns are analyzed under pin end conditions with axial compression. The analysis results demonstrate that the DSM equations generally assess the strength of stiffened section conservatively. Modifications to the DSM equations are recommended to evaluate the strength of stiffened section more precisely.

  10. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures. Structural response and failure analysis: ISPAN modules users manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairr, John W.; Huang, Jui-Ten; Ingram, J. Edward; Shah, Bharat M.

    1992-01-01

    The ISPAN Program (Interactive Stiffened Panel Analysis) is an interactive design tool that is intended to provide a means of performing simple and self contained preliminary analysis of aircraft primary structures made of composite materials. The program combines a series of modules with the finite element code DIAL as its backbone. Four ISPAN Modules were developed and are documented. These include: (1) flat stiffened panel; (2) curved stiffened panel; (3) flat tubular panel; and (4) curved geodesic panel. Users are instructed to input geometric and material properties, load information and types of analysis (linear, bifurcation buckling, or post-buckling) interactively. The program utilizing this information will generate finite element mesh and perform analysis. The output in the form of summary tables of stress or margins of safety, contour plots of loads or stress, and deflected shape plots may be generalized and used to evaluate specific design.

  11. Fatigue behaviour of uni-directional flax fibre/epoxy composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueki, Yosuke; Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    A study related to the fatigue behaviour of natural fibre-reinforced composites was conducted to expand their range of product applications. A uni-directional flax-epoxy composite was fabricated and several conditions of tension-tension fatigue tests were performed. During fatigue testing......, the composite showed an increase of stiffness, a typical observation for natural fibre-reinforced composites, and this was found to be accompanied by accumulation of residual strain. A clear linear relationship was found between the stiffening effect and the residual strain. In addition, it was revealed...... that the fatigue behaviour was clearly influenced by the frequency of cyclic loading. Lower frequencies induced more significant stiffening and shorter fatigue life. These results suggest that fatigue damaging is progressing simultaneously with the stiffening effect in natural fibre-reinforced composites...

  12. "Rigor mortis" in a live patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Murali

    2010-03-01

    Rigor mortis is conventionally a postmortem change. Its occurrence suggests that death has occurred at least a few hours ago. The authors report a case of "Rigor Mortis" in a live patient after cardiac surgery. The likely factors that may have predisposed such premortem muscle stiffening in the reported patient are, intense low cardiac output status, use of unusually high dose of inotropic and vasopressor agents and likely sepsis. Such an event may be of importance while determining the time of death in individuals such as described in the report. It may also suggest requirement of careful examination of patients with muscle stiffening prior to declaration of death. This report is being published to point out the likely controversies that might arise out of muscle stiffening, which should not always be termed rigor mortis and/ or postmortem.

  13. Analysis of Mode I and Mode II Crack Growth Arrest Mechanism with Z-Fibre Pins in Composite Laminated Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevan Kumar, N.; Ramesh Babu, P.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the numerical study of the mode I and mode II interlaminar crack growth arrest in hybrid laminated curved composite stiffened joint with Z-fibre reinforcement. A FE model of hybrid laminated skin-stiffener joint reinforced with Z-pins is developed to investigate the effect of Z- fibre pins on mode I and mode II crack growth where the delamination is embedded inbetween the skin and stiffener interface. A finite element model was developed using S4R element of a 4-node doubly curved thick shell elements to model the composite laminates and non linear interface elements to simulate the reinforcements. The numerical analyses revealed that Z-fibre pinning were effective in suppressing the delamination growth when propagated due to applied loads. Therefore, the Z-fibre technique effectively improves the crack growth resistance and hence arrests or delays crack growth extension.

  14. Effective Cross Section of Cold Formed Steel Column Under Axial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, P.; Pradeep, T.

    2018-02-01

    The compressive resistance of cold-formed steel (CFS) section may be governed by local, distortional or overall buckling and any apparent interaction between these modes. A new inventive stiffened CFS section is elected in this study, selected cross sections geometries and lengths are chosen such that all the types of buckling modes are met with. Buckling plot is plotted using linear elastic buckling analysis software (CUFSM). Using the test results obtained in the literature, the developed finite element model is calibrated and furthers a total of 126 parametric study is conducted such as a consequence of dimensions and the length of the cross section, thickness and yield stress. The FEA included relevant material and geometric imperfections. All the columns are analyzed under pin end conditions with axial compression. The analysis results demonstrate that the DSM equations generally assess the strength of stiffened section conservatively. Modifications to the DSM equations are recommended to evaluate the strength of stiffened section more precisely.

  15. Biomimetic and enzyme-responsive dynamic hydrogels for studying cell-matrix interactions in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hung-Yi; Korc, Murray; Lin, Chien-Chi

    2018-04-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) governs all aspects of cancer progression and in vitro 3D cell culture platforms are increasingly developed to emulate the interactions between components of the stromal tissues and cancer cells. However, conventional cell culture platforms are inadequate in recapitulating the TME, which has complex compositions and dynamically changing matrix mechanics. In this study, we developed a dynamic gelatin-hyaluronic acid hybrid hydrogel system through integrating modular thiol-norbornene photopolymerization and enzyme-triggered on-demand matrix stiffening. In particular, gelatin was dually modified with norbornene and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid to render this bioactive protein photo-crosslinkable (through thiol-norbornene gelation) and responsive to tyrosinase-triggered on-demand stiffening (through HPA dimerization). In addition to the modified gelatin that provides basic cell adhesive motifs and protease cleavable sequences, hyaluronic acid (HA), an essential tumor matrix, was modularly and covalently incorporated into the cell-laden gel network. We systematically characterized macromer modification, gel crosslinking, as well as enzyme-triggered stiffening and degradation. We also evaluated the influence of matrix composition and dynamic stiffening on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell fate in 3D. We found that either HA-containing matrix or a dynamically stiffened microenvironment inhibited PDAC cell growth. Interestingly, these two factors synergistically induced cell phenotypic changes that resembled cell migration and/or invasion in 3D. Additional mRNA expression array analyses revealed changes unique to the presence of HA, to a stiffened microenvironment, or to the combination of both. Finally, we presented immunostaining and mRNA expression data to demonstrate that these irregular PDAC cell phenotypes were a result of matrix-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. Effect of parenchymal stiffness on canine airway size with lung inflation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Brown

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Although airway patency is partially maintained by parenchymal tethering, this structural support is often ignored in many discussions of asthma. However, agonists that induce smooth muscle contraction also stiffen the parenchyma, so such parenchymal stiffening may serve as a defense mechanism to prevent airway narrowing or closure. To quantify this effect, specifically how changes in parenchymal stiffness alter airway size at different levels of lung inflation, in the present study, we devised a method to separate the effect of parenchymal stiffening from that of direct airway narrowing. Six anesthetized dogs were studied under four conditions: baseline, after whole lung aerosol histamine challenge, after local airway histamine challenge, and after complete relaxation of the airways. In each of these conditions, we used High resolution Computed Tomography to measure airway size and lung volume at five different airway pressures (0, 12, 25, 32, and 45 cm H(2O. Parenchymal stiffening had a protective effect on airway narrowing, a fact that may be important in the airway response to deep inspiration in asthma. When the parenchyma was stiffened by whole lung aerosol histamine challenge, at every lung volume above FRC, the airways were larger than when they were directly challenged with histamine to the same initial constriction. These results show for the first time that a stiff parenchyma per se minimizes the airway narrowing that occurs with histamine challenge at any lung volume. Thus in clinical asthma, it is not simply increased airway smooth muscle contraction, but perhaps a lack of homogeneous parenchymal stiffening that contributes to the symptomatic airway hyperresponsiveness.

  17. The Plastic Tension Field Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a calculation method for steel plate girders with transverse web stiffeners subjected to shear. It may be used for predicting the failure load or, as a design method, to determine the optimal amount of internal web stiffeners. The new method is called the plastic tension field...... method. The method is based on the theory of plasticity and is analogous to the so-called diagonal compression field method developed for reinforced concrete beams with transverse stirrups, which is adopted in the common European concrete code (Eurocode 2). Many other theories have been developed...

  18. Installation process of suction anchors in Gulf of Guinea clay : Centrifuge modelling

    OpenAIRE

    THOREL, Luc; GARNIER, Jacques; RAULT, Gérard; DENDANI, Hédi; COLLIAT, JL

    2010-01-01

    The preparation process of a deepwater Gulf of Guinea clay for modelling of 24 m long suction anchors at a scale of 1/100 in the LCPC centrifuge, the clay characteristics and the installation phase (self-weight and suction) are presented. Two types of caissons have been tested in each tub : one with stiffeners and the other without stiffener. The embedment ratio is close to the suction caisson's slenderness of 3. An analysis of the forces of suction and soil friction shows, as expected, hi...

  19. Biot's coefficient as an indicator of strength and porosity reduction: Calcareous sediments from Kerguelen Plateau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Borre, Mai Kirstine; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2010-01-01

    β to fall, even when porosity remains constant. Biot's coefficient correlates with strength-indicating properties: compressional and shear modulus, oedometer modulus, yield strength, strain from direct loading and creep strain. Our data indicate that β may be used for predicting the diagenetic...... Biot's coefficient, β. In calcareous ooze, β is one. Mechanical compaction reduces porosity, but only leads to a minor decrease in β. Recrystallization renders particles smoother, but does not lead to reduction in β unless it gives rise to pore stiffening cementation. Pore stiffening cementation causes...

  20. Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin

    and gas industry and have recently been used in offshore wind turbines. The bucket foundation is a welded steel structure consisting of a tubular center column connected to a steel bucket through flange-reinforced stiffeners. The overall aim of the research presented in this thesis was to improve...

  1. Do international entry decisions of retail chains matter in the long run?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielens, K.J.P.; Dekimpe, M.G.

    2002-01-01

    The retailing industry, in the United States and Europe alike, faces maturing markets and stiffening domestic competition. In response, many of the industry's main players have shown a growing interest in cross-border initiatives. The success of such foreign entries obviously depends on the

  2. From COBRA to the Seine, August 1944: A Microcosm of the Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-09

    while Patto , c,,rducted operational maneuvers in the German rear. Hill 217 was decisive t erra i r. The 2nd SS Piz Div reached almost to St.Hilaire by...with Eberbach as a r-eplacement for- vonr Funick. But the combined effects oif TOTALIZE, stiffening pressure at lortamii aria Patto -n’ 5 cuit north

  3. Creep-age forming of AA7475 aluminum panels for aircraft lower wing skin application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego José Inforzato

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Creep-age forming (CAF is an interesting process for the airframe industry, as it is able to form or shape panels into smooth, but complex, curvatures. In the CAF process, the ageing cycle of the alloy is used to relax external loads imposed to the part, through creep mechanisms. Those relaxed stresses impose a new curvature to the part. At the end of the process, significant spring back (sometimes about 70% is observed and the success in achieving the desired form depends on how the spring back can be predicted in order to compensate it by tooling changes. Most of the applications relate to simple (non stiffened panels. The present work deals with the CAF of aluminum panels for aircraft wing skin application. CAF was performed using vacuum-bagging autoclave technique in small scale complex shape stiffened panels, machined from an AA7475 alloy plate. An analytical reference model from the literature was employed estimate the spring back effect in such panel geometry. This model that deals with simple plates was adapted to stiffened panels using a geometric simplification, resulting in a semi-empirical model. The results demonstrate that CAF is a promising process to form stiffened panels, and the spring back can be roughly estimated through a simple model and few experiments.

  4. The s-d Transition in Compressed Lanthanum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMahan, A.K.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Johansson, B.

    1981-01-01

    Calculations of the pressure-volume isotherms for FCC La have been carried out up to pressures of 2 Mbars and temperatures up to 3.4 eV, using the self-consistent linear-muffin-tin-orbital method. The isothermal bulk modulus shows an anomalous stiffening over the pressure range 320-560 kbars, due...

  5. Seismic behavior of conxl connections in concrete filled steel Tube ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This connection consists of collar flange, collar corner, and collar web extension. In this paper, the seismic behavior of these types of connections is investigated using the numerical method. For this purpose, three samples of ConXL connections without concrete filler, with concrete filler and with concrete filler and stiffener ...

  6. Design, fabrication and test of a lightweight shell structure, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported in the construction of lightweight orthogrid shells. Graphite/epoxy panels are being used in the fabrication. The shell structure is diagramed in detail. Panel laminates, and panel stiffener flanges are described while illustrations delineate panel assembly procedures.

  7. DESIGN AND ANALYTICAL ANALYIS OF AN ANISOGRID PREPREG STRUCTURE CONCEPT

    OpenAIRE

    Niemann, Steffen; Wagner, Ronald; Hühne, Christian

    2014-01-01

    For the weight saving potential analysis, a novel anisogrid structure concept and an orthogrid structure, both with load bearing skin, are sized and compared for different pure and combined load cases with the same sizing criteria including panel stiffness, strength criteria, local skin and stiffener stability and global panel stability.

  8. Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue

  9. 75 FR 64111 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 336, 337, 337A (USAF 02B), 337B...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ..., parts cracked, sketches, etc.), and if possible, pictures of the damage. (m) For all airplanes specified... ACO, send it to the attention of the person identified in the Related Information section of this AD... wing skins. Pay particular attention to any wrinkles, the radius between stiffeners at WSTA 150 (under...

  10. Hybrid-Wing-Body Vehicle Composite Fuselage Analysis and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in the structural analysis of a Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) fuselage concept is presented with the objective of structural weight reduction under a set of critical design loads. This pressurized efficient HWB fuselage design is presently being investigated by the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project in collaboration with the Boeing Company, Huntington Beach. The Pultruded Rod-Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) composite concept, developed at the Boeing Company, is approximately modeled for an analytical study and finite element analysis. Stiffened plate linear theories are employed for a parametric case study. Maximum deflection and stress levels are obtained with appropriate assumptions for a set of feasible stiffened panel configurations. An analytical parametric case study is presented to examine the effects of discrete stiffener spacing and skin thickness on structural weight, deflection and stress. A finite-element model (FEM) of an integrated fuselage section with bulkhead is developed for an independent assessment. Stress analysis and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement. The FEM model specific weight of the improved fuselage concept is computed and compared to previous studies, in order to assess the relative weight/strength advantages of this advanced composite airframe technology

  11. The Fatigue Behaviour of T- and X-Joints Made of Square Hollow Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wingerde, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    This work presents the results of experimental and numerical research on the fatigue behaviour of T- and X-joints between square hollow sections of which the brace is welded to the face of the chord, without any additional stiffeners. The work has been carried out in the framework of the CIDECT

  12. The influence of artificially increased hip and trunk stiffness on balance control in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüneberg, C.; Bloem, B.R.; Honegger, F.; Allum, J.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Lightweight corsets were used to produce mid-body stiffening, rendering the hip and trunk joints practically inflexible. To examine the effect of this artificially increased stiffness on balance control, we perturbed the upright stance of young subjects (20-34 years of age) while they wore one of

  13. A system approach to controlling semiconductor manufacturing operations

    OpenAIRE

    Σταυράκης, Γιώργος Δ.

    1987-01-01

    Semicoductor manufacturers, faced with stiffening competition in both product cost and quality, require improved utilization of their development and manufacturing resources. Manufacturing philosophy must be changed, from focusing on short term results, to support continuous improvements in both output and quality. Such improvements demand better information management to monitor and control the manufacturing process. From these considerations, a process control methodology was develope...

  14. Médecins Sans Frontières moves to protect refugee healthcare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) spurned all European Union (EU) fund ing for its projects worldwide after a series of cynical EUcountry moves to choke inward refugee flow, South African. (SA) activists in Johannesburg this June protes ted the proposed stiffening of local refugee laws. The People's Coalition Against ...

  15. The static strenght of i-beam to circular hollow section column connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Winkel, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    Semi-rigid connections between I-section beams and tubular columns can be used economically for buildings and offshore structures. The lack of stiffening plates allows the fabrication of these connections in a cost effective way. Furthermore, by taking into account the connection strength and

  16. Joint and column behaviour of slotted cold-formed steel studs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Michael Joachim; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    the behaviour of the studs and the track joints. The experiments include a joint design with a special web stiffener used in practice. The studs are made of C-profiles and the tracks of U-profiles. Eight different test series are performed. The test series each have different column lengths, thicknesses...

  17. Joint and column behaviour of slotted cold-formed steel studs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Michael Joachim; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    the behaviour of the studs and the track joints. The experiments included a joint design with a special web stiffener used in practice. The studs were C-sections and the tracks were U-sections. Eight different test series were performed. Each test series had different column lengths and thicknesses, both...

  18. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a reinforcing fibre in polypropylene composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Elbersen, H.W.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Klerk-Engels, de B.

    2003-01-01

    In this study the switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a biomass crop being developed in North America and Europe, was tested as a stiffening and reinforcing agent in polypropylene (PP) composites with and without maleic anhydride grafted PP (MAPP) as a compatibiliser and to evaluate the effect of

  19. Characterization of Rain Attenuation and Depolarization at W/V Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-30

    and Louisiana Boulevard. The AR227 weather station is located near the intersection of Tramway Boulevard and Tramway Terrace Street. The distance...low and under-damped resonance frequency. Therefore, the structure was stiffened with braces that were secured to the roof of the building as shown

  20. Delamination and debonding failure of laminated composite T-joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, H.

    2014-01-01

    Composites are increasingly being used in aerospace, automotive and other industries. The T-joint (also named stringer stiffened skin) is a typical connection, broadly used in thin-walled structures, such as the wing and fuselage of aircraft. This thesis presents the analysis of the delamination and

  1. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Structural response and failure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, William J.; Hairr, John W.; Huang, Jui-Tien; Ingram, J. Edward; Shah, Bharat M.

    1992-01-01

    Non-linear analysis methods were adapted and incorporated in a finite element based DIAL code. These methods are necessary to evaluate the global response of a stiffened structure under combined in-plane and out-of-plane loading. These methods include the Arc Length method and target point analysis procedure. A new interface material model was implemented that can model elastic-plastic behavior of the bond adhesive. Direct application of this method is in skin/stiffener interface failure assessment. Addition of the AML (angle minus longitudinal or load) failure procedure and Hasin's failure criteria provides added capability in the failure predictions. Interactive Stiffened Panel Analysis modules were developed as interactive pre-and post-processors. Each module provides the means of performing self-initiated finite elements based analysis of primary structures such as a flat or curved stiffened panel; a corrugated flat sandwich panel; and a curved geodesic fuselage panel. This module brings finite element analysis into the design of composite structures without the requirement for the user to know much about the techniques and procedures needed to actually perform a finite element analysis from scratch. An interactive finite element code was developed to predict bolted joint strength considering material and geometrical non-linearity. The developed method conducts an ultimate strength failure analysis using a set of material degradation models.

  2. Consequences of nonlinear heat transport laws on expected plasma profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, K.

    1987-03-01

    The expected variation of plasma pressure profiles against changes in power deposition is investigated by using a simple linear heat transport law as well as a quadratic one. Applying the quadratic transport law it can be shown that the stiffening of the resulting profiles is sufficient to understand the experimentally measured phenomenon of 'profile consistence' without further assumptions of nonlocal effects. (orig.) [de

  3. Mechanism of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense resistance to human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uzureau, Pierrick; Uzureau, Sophie; Lecordier, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    GP), which prevents APOL1 toxicity and induces stiffening of membranes upon interaction with lipids. Two additional features contribute to resistance to TLFs: reduction of sensitivity to APOL1 requiring cysteine protease activity, and TbHpHbR inactivation due to a L210S substitution. According...

  4. Strange effects of strong high-frequency excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2003-01-01

    Three general effects of mechanical high-frequency excitation (HFE) are described: Stiffening - an apparent change in the stiffness associated with an equilibrium; Biasing - a tendency for a system to move towards a particular state which does not exist or is unstable without HFE; and Smoothening...

  5. Effect of whole body resistance training on arterial compliance in young men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakobowchuk, M.; McGowan, C.L.; Groot, P.C.E. de; Bruinsma, D.; Hartman, J.W.; Phillips, S.M.; MacDonald, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of resistance training on arterial stiffening is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that resistance training would not alter central arterial compliance. Young healthy men (age, 23 +/- 3.9 (mean +/- s.e.m.) years; n = 28,) were whole-body resistance trained five times a week for 12

  6. Do elephants need to sweat?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1936) measured a daily water intake of about ISO f by his elephant of 3 672 kg under cool ... the edge and the remaining tissue is stiffened by outwardly directed delicate fIngers of .... sity Council for fInancial assistance. Figure 3 (upper) is ...

  7. 75 FR 28260 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Investigator and Research Scientist Career Development Awards... . Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Planning Grants... Mechanisms of Arterial Stiffening and Its Relationship to Development of Hypertension. Date: June 17, 2010...

  8. Measuring Cohesive Laws for Interfaces in Sandwich Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Sørensen, Bent F.; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2006-01-01

    mixities. The sandwich specimens consists of glass fiber faces and Divinycell H200 foam core with a pre-crack between face and core made with teflon film. Arbitrary stiffening of the sandwich faces with steel bars adhered to the faces reduces rotations and ensures that the method is useable for a wide...

  9. Analysis and design of composite slab by varying different parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Kedar; Siddh, Sharda

    2018-03-01

    Composite deck slabs are in demand because of its faster, lighter and economical construction work. Composite slab consists of cold formed deck profiled sheet and concrete either lightweight or normal. Investigation of shear behaviour of the composite slab is very complex. Shear bond strength depends on the various parameter such as a shape of sheeting, a thickness of the sheet, type of embossment and its frequency of use, shear stiffener or intermediate stiffener, type of load, an arrangement of load, length of shear span, the thickness of concrete and support friction etc. In present study finite element analysis is carried out with ABAQUS 6.13, a simply supported composite slab is considered for the investigation of the shear bond behaviour of the composite slab by considering variation in three different parameters, the shape of a sheet, thickness of sheet and shear span. Different shear spans of two different shape of cold formed deck profiled sheet i.e. with intermediate stiffeners and without intermediate stiffeners are considered with two different thicknesses (0.8 mm and 1.2 mm) for simulation. In present work, simulation of models has done for static loading with 20 mm mesh size is considered.

  10. Repair of Composites : Design Choices Leading to Lower Life-Cycle Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassapoglou, C.; Rangelov, K.; Rangelov, S.

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication cost of composite aircraft structures is revisited and the effect of part size on cost is examined with emphasis on design decisions which affect the ease of (bonded) repair and the total cost of the part and subsequent repairs. The case of moderately loaded stiffened fuselage or

  11. Modelling the mechanics of partially mineralized collagen fibrils, fibres and tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanxin; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Chen, Changqing; Birman, Victor; Buehler, Markus J.; Genin, Guy M.

    2014-01-01

    Progressive stiffening of collagen tissue by bioapatite mineral is important physiologically, but the details of this stiffening are uncertain. Unresolved questions about the details of the accommodation of bioapatite within and upon collagen's hierarchical structure have posed a central hurdle, but recent microscopy data resolve several major questions. These data suggest how collagen accommodates bioapatite at the lowest relevant hierarchical level (collagen fibrils), and suggest several possibilities for the progressive accommodation of bioapatite at higher hierarchical length scales (fibres and tissue). We developed approximations for the stiffening of collagen across spatial hierarchies based upon these data, and connected models across hierarchies levels to estimate mineralization-dependent tissue-level mechanics. In the five possible sequences of mineralization studied, percolation of the bioapatite phase proved to be an important determinant of the degree of stiffening by bioapatite. The models were applied to study one important instance of partially mineralized tissue, which occurs at the attachment of tendon to bone. All sequences of mineralization considered reproduced experimental observations of a region of tissue between tendon and bone that is more compliant than either tendon or bone, but the size and nature of this region depended strongly upon the sequence of mineralization. These models and observations have implications for engineered tissue scaffolds at the attachment of tendon to bone, bone development and graded biomimetic attachment of dissimilar hierarchical materials in general. PMID:24352669

  12. Aerobic Exercise and Other Healthy Lifestyle Factors That Influence Vascular Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; LaRocca, Thomas J.; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development…

  13. Buckling analysis for anisotropic laminated plates under combined inplane loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Tamekuni, M.; Baker, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    The buckling analysis presented considers rectangular flat or curved general laminates subjected to combined inplane normal and shear loads. Linear theory is used in the analysis. All prebuckling deformations and any initial imperfections are ignored. The analysis method can be readily extended to longitudinally stiffened structures subjected to combined inplane normal and shear loads.

  14. Evaluation of Steel Shear Walls Behavior with Sinusoidal and Trapezoidal Corrugated Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Hosseinpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of structures aims to control the input energy of unnatural and natural forces. In the past four decades, steel shear walls are utilized in huge constructions in some seismic countries such as Japan, United States, and Canada to lessen the risk of destructive forces. The steel shear walls are divided into two types: unstiffened and stiffened. In the former, a series of plates (sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated with light thickness are used that have the postbuckling field property under overall buckling. In the latter, steel profile belt series are employed as stiffeners with different arrangement: horizontal, vertical, or diagonal in one side or both sides of wall. In the unstiffened walls, increasing the thickness causes an increase in the wall capacity under large forces in tall structures. In the stiffened walls, joining the stiffeners to the wall is costly and time consuming. The ANSYS software was used to analyze the different models of unstiffened one-story steel walls with sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated plates under lateral load. The obtained results demonstrated that, in the walls with the same dimensions, the trapezoidal corrugated plates showed higher ductility and ultimate bearing compared to the sinusoidal corrugated plates.

  15. A strategy for prediction of the elastic properties of epoxy-cellulose nanocrystal-reinforced fiber networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnathan E. Goodsell; Robert J. Moon; Alionso Huizar; R. Byron Pipes

    2014-01-01

    The reinforcement potential of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) additions on an idealized 2-dirmensional (2-D) fiber network structure consisting of micron sized fiber elements was investigated. The reinforcement mechanism considered in this study was through the stiffening of the micron sized fiber elements via a CNC-epoxy coating. A hierarchical analytical modeling...

  16. Vacuum distilling vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reik, H

    1928-12-27

    Vacuum distilling vessel for mineral oil and the like, characterized by the ring-form or polyconal stiffeners arranged inside, suitably eccentric to the casing, being held at a distance from the casing by connecting members of such a height that in the resulting space if necessary can be arranged vapor-distributing pipes and a complete removal of the residue is possible.

  17. Short-term vascular hemodynamic responses to isometric exercise in young adults and in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, R. (Renee); D. Bolignano (Davide); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); Pucci, G. (Giacomo); F.U.S. Mattace Raso (Francesco)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Vascular aging is known to induce progressive stiffening of the large elastic arteries, altering vascular hemodynamics under both rest and stress conditions. In this study, we aimed to investigate changes in vascular hemodynamics in response to isometric handgrip exercise

  18. Topology Optimization of Stressed Capacitive RF MEMS Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippine, Mandy A.; Sigmund, Ole; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    2013-01-01

    Geometry design can improve a capacitive radio-frequency microelectromechanical system switch's reliability by reducing the impacts of intrinsic biaxial stresses and stress gradients on the switch's membrane. Intrinsic biaxial stresses cause stress stiffening, whereas stress gradients cause out-o...

  19. Probabilistic fatigue life updating accounting for inspections of multiple critical locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many steel structures contain multiple fatigue sensitive details that have similar geometries and are subjected to similar load fluctuations. Examples are orthotropic (bridge) decks and stiffened (ship) hulls where tens to thousands of similar details are present in one structure. Generally only

  20. Rupture Analysis of Oil Tankers in a Side Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1996-01-01

    model to include more structural members as for example the stiffeners attached to deck. The fracture process is discussed and the model is formulated partly on the basis of the material fracture toughness. Th effect of friction and the reaction force perpendicular to the direction of motion is derived...

  1. Reinforcement versus fluidization in cytoskeletal mechanoresponsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, R.; Park, C.Y.; Lin, Y.C.; Mead, J.; Jaspers, R.T.; Trepat, X.; Lenormand, G.; Tambe, D.; Smolensky, A.V.; Knoll, A.H.; Butler, J.P.; Fredberg, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Every adherent eukaryotic cell exerts appreciable traction forces upon its substrate. Moreover, every resident cell within the heart, great vessels, bladder, gut or lung routinely experiences large periodic stretches. As an acute response to such stretches the cytoskeleton can stiffen, increase

  2. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-11

    Jun 11, 2016 ... software to evaluate the impact of changes in plate Gusset and the stiffeners edge of sheets have been examined. The results obtained indicate that the postponement of bucking curves in the modified connector plate and thereby improve behavior of connector plates under the pressure forces and also ...

  3. Linear Identification of Nonlinear Wrist Neuromechanics in Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, A.

    2015-01-01

    In many stroke patients, a motor cortex lesion alters motor control. Initially, paresis is most prominent, but then over time, joint stiffening and hyperreflexia may occur. How these different disorders develop over time is still unknown due to high system complexity. Secondary changes in the

  4. Reanalysis information for eigenvalues derived from a differential equation analysis formulation. [for shell of revolution buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, W. A.; Majumder, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation reported demonstrates that in the case considered perturbation methods can be used in a straightforward manner to obtain reanalysis information. A perturbation formula for the buckling loads of a general shell of revolution is derived. The accuracy of the obtained relations and their range of application is studied with the aid of a specific example involving a particular stiffened shell of revolution.

  5. COMPOSITE POLYMERICADDITIVESDESIGNATED FORCONCRETEMIXES BASED ONPOLYACRYLATES, PRODUCTS OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF POLYAMIDE-6 AND LOW-MOLECULAR POLYETHYLENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov Vyacheslav Sergeevich

    2012-07-01

    4 the optimal composite additive that increases the time period of stiffening of the cement grout , improves the water resistance and the compressive strength of concrete, represents the composition of polyacrylates and polymethacrylates, products of thermal decomposition of polyamide-6 and low-molecular polyethylene in the weight ratio of 1:1:0.5.

  6. Structural Glass Systems under Fire: Overview of Design Issues, Experimental Research, and Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Bedon, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Architectural design concepts incorporating glass beams, panels, or generally load-carrying elements and stiffeners for buildings, claddings, windows, and partitions are largely considered in modern high-rise constructions. A multitude of aspects, including motivations related to transparency, aesthetics, illumination, and energy conservation, progressively increased the use and interest for such a still rather innovative constructional material. However, compared to other traditional materia...

  7. Numerical investigation of out-of-plane secondary stress in the web of floor beam of steel truss bridge. Ko torasu kyo no yukageta web ni shojiru mengai niji oryoku no suchiteki gen'in bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T. (Kisarazu National College of Technology, Chiba (Japan)); Kuranishi, S. (Kanto Gakuin Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Nakazawa, M. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Enginering)

    1994-06-20

    Comparative investigation of numerical analysis results of out-of-plane secondary stress caused in a cross beam web around scallop before reinforcement and around cutting portion of vertical stiffeners after reinforcement was carried out. In case of steel truss bridge, there exists difference in axial thrust between outside stringers which continue through a cross beam, and it was revealed that this axial thrust was the main factor which causes partial bending stress in a cross beam web plate. When the lower end of vertical stiffeners is not connected to a cross beam foot flange considering of welding, out-of-plane secondary stress was caused partially in a cross beam web plate around scallop, because of the difficult to transmit adjoining stringers axial thrust difference directly to foot flange. In case of the actual analysis, cross beam web plate around cutting portion of vertical stiffeners causes partial out-of-plane secondary stress in web plate, due to being pressed partially by comparatively high stiffness vertical stiffeners. When repair and reinforcement of steel road truss bridge are carried out, it is necessary to take close attention specially on the structure of the parts in which outside stringers is connected to cross beam. 18 refs., 16 figs.

  8. 78 FR 43770 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... elevator rear spar stiffener assembly, which could adversely affect elevator structural stiffness, which... aircraft in air commerce by prescribing regulations for practices, methods, and procedures the... 13132. This AD will not have a substantial direct effect on the States, on the relationship between the...

  9. Conformal cryogenic tank trade study for reusable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, H. Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Future reusable launch vehicles may be lifting bodies with non-circular cross section like the proposed Lockheed-Martin VentureStar™. Current designs for the cryogenic tanks of these vehicles are dual-lobed and quad-lobed tanks which are packaged more efficiently than circular tanks, but still have low packaging efficiencies with large gaps existing between the vehicle outer mold line and the outer surfaces of the tanks. In this study, tanks that conform to the outer mold line of a non-circular vehicle were investigated. Four structural concepts for conformal cryogenic tanks and a quad-lobed tank concept were optimized for minimum weight designs. The conformal tank concepts included a sandwich tank stiffened with axial tension webs, a sandwich tank stiffened with transverse tension webs, a sandwich tank stiffened with rings and tension ties, and a sandwich tank stiffened with orthogrid stiffeners and tension ties. For each concept, geometric parameters (such as ring frame spacing, the number and spacing of tension ties or webs, and tank corner radius) and internal pressure loads were varied and the structure was optimized using a finite-element-based optimization procedure. Theoretical volumetric weights were calculated by dividing the weight of the barrel section of the tank concept and its associated frames, webs and tension ties by the volume it circumscribes. This paper describes the four conformal tank concepts and the design assumptions utilized in their optimization. The conformal tank optimization results included theoretical weights, trends and comparisons between the concepts, are also presented, along with results from the optimization of a quad-lobed tank. Also, the effects of minimum gauge values and non-optimum weights on the weight of the optimized structure are described in this paper.

  10. Helium-cooled pebble bed test blanket module alternative design and fabrication routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, M.

    2007-01-01

    According to first results of the recently started European DEMO study, a new blanket integration philosophy was developed applying so-called multi-module segments. These consist of a number of blanket modules flexibly mounted onto a common vertical manifold structure that can be used for replacing all modules in one segment at one time through vertical remote-handling ports. This principle gives new freedom in the design choices applied to the blanket modules itself. Based on the alternative design options considered for DEMO also the ITER test blanket module was newly analyzed. As a result of these activities it was decided to keep the major principles of the reference design like stiffening grid, breeder unit concept and perpendicular arrangement of pebble beds related to the First Wall because of the very positive results of thermo-mechanical and neutronics studies. The present paper gives an overview on possible further design optimization and alternative fabrication routes. One of the most significant improvements in terms of the hydraulic performance of the Helium cooled reactor can be reached with a new First Wall concept. That concept is based on an internal heat transfer enhancement technique and allows drastically reducing the flow velocity in the FW cooling channels. Small ribs perpendicular to the flow direction (transverse-rib roughness) are arranged on the inner surface of the First Wall cooling channels at the plasma side. In the breeder units cooling plates which are mostly parallel but bent into U-shape at the plasma-side are considered. In this design all flow channels are parallel and straight with the flow entering on one side of the parallel plate sections and exiting on the other side. The ceramic pebble beds are embedded between two pairs of such type of cooling plates. Different modifications could possibly be combined, whereby the most relevant discussed in this paper are (i) rib-cooled First Wall channels, (ii) U-bent cooling plates for

  11. Distribution of Young's modulus in porcine corneas after riboflavin/UVA-induced collagen cross-linking as measured by atomic force microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Seifert

    Full Text Available Riboflavin/UVA-induced corneal collagen cross-linking has become an effective clinical application to treat keratoconus and other ectatic disorders of the cornea. Its beneficial effects are attributed to a marked stiffening of the unphysiologically weak stroma. Previous studies located the stiffening effect predominantly within the anterior cornea. In this study, we present an atomic force microscopy-derived analysis of the depth-dependent distribution of the Young's modulus with a depth resolution of 5 µm in 8 cross-linked porcine corneas and 8 contralateral controls. Sagittal cryosections were fabricated from every specimen and subjected to force mapping. The mean stromal depth of the zone with effective cross-linking was found to be 219 ± 67 µm. Within this cross-linked zone, the mean Young's modulus declined from 49 ± 18 kPa at the corneal surface to 46 ± 17 kPa, 33 ± 11 kPa, 17 ± 5 kPa, 10 ± 4 kPa and 10 ± 4 kPa at stromal depth intervals of 0-50 µm, 50-100 µm, 100-150 µm, 150-200 µm and 200-250 µm, respectively. This corresponded to a stiffening by a factor of 8.1 (corneal surface, 7.6 (0-50 µm, 5.4 (50-100 µm, 3.0 (100-150 µm, 1.6 (150-200 µm, and 1.5 (200-250 µm, when compared to the Young's modulus of the posterior 100 µm. The mean Young's modulus within the cross-linked zone was 20 ± 8 kPa (2.9-fold stiffening, while it was 11 ± 4 kPa (1.7-fold stiffening for the entire stroma. Both values were significantly distinct from the mean Young's modulus obtained from the posterior 100 µm of the cross-linked corneas and from the contralateral controls. In conclusion, we were able to specify the depth-dependent distribution of the stiffening effect elicited by standard collagen cross-linking in porcine corneas. Apart from determining the depth of the zone with effective corneal cross-linking, we also developed a method that allows for atomic force microscopy-based measurements of gradients of Young's modulus in soft

  12. Silk Electrogel Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, A. P.; Urbach, J. S.; Blair, D. L.; Kaplan, D. L.

    2014-03-01

    We present experimental results on the rheology on electrogels derived from aqueous solutions of reconstituted Bombyx Mori silk fibroin protein. Through electrochemistry, the silk protein solution develops local pH changes resulting in the assembly of protein into a weak gel. We determine the physical properties of the electrogels by performing rheology and observe that they exhibit the characteristics of a crosslinked biopolymer network. Interestingly, we find that these silk gels exhibit linear elasticity over a range of up to two orders of magnitude larger than most crosslinked biopolymer networks. Moreover, the nonlinear rheology exhibits a strain-stiffening behavior that is fundamentally different than the strain-stiffening observed in crosslinked biopolymers. Through rheological techniques we aim to understand this distinctive material that cannot be explained by current polymeric models. This work is supported by a grant from the AFOSR FA9550-07-1-0130.

  13. High-intensity discharge lamp and Duffing oscillator—Similarities and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Stein, Ulrich; Hallerberg, Sarah; Wolff, Marcus

    2017-12-01

    The processes inside the arc tube of high-intensity discharge lamps are investigated using finite element simulations. The behavior of the gas mixture inside the arc tube is governed by differential equations describing mass, energy, and charge conservation, as well as the Helmholtz equation for the acoustic pressure and the Reynolds equations for the flow driven by buoyancy and Reynolds stresses. The model is highly nonlinear and requires a recursion procedure to account for the impact of acoustic streaming on the temperature and other fields. The investigations reveal the presence of a hysteresis and the corresponding jump phenomenon, quite similar to a Duffing oscillator. The similarities and, in particular, the differences of the nonlinear behavior of the high-intensity discharge lamp to that of a Duffing oscillator are discussed. For large amplitudes, the high-intensity discharge lamp exhibits a stiffening effect in contrast to the Duffing oscillator. It is speculated on how the stiffening might affect hysteresis suppression.

  14. Optimum design of steel structures

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, József

    2013-01-01

    This book helps designers and manufacturers to select and develop the most suitable and competitive steel structures, which are safe, fit for production and economic. An optimum design system is used to find the best characteristics of structural models, which guarantee the fulfilment of design and fabrication requirements and minimize the cost function. Realistic numerical models are used as main components of industrial steel structures. Chapter 1 containts some experiences with the optimum design of steel structures Chapter 2 treats some newer mathematical optimization methods. Chapter 3 gives formulae for fabrication times and costs. Chapters 4 deals with beams and columns. Summarizes the Eurocode rules for design. Chapter 5 deals with the design of tubular trusses. Chapter 6 gives the design of frame structures and fire-resistant design rules for a frame. In Chapters 7 some minimum cost design problems of stiffened and cellular plates and shells are worked out for cases of different stiffenings and loads...

  15. Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor nozzle natural frequency variations with burn time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, C. Y.; Mason, D. R.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of erosion and thermal degradation on the Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle's structural dynamic characteristics were analytically evaluated. Also considered was stiffening of the structure due to internal pressurization. A detailed NASTRAN finite element model of the nozzle was developed and used to evaluate the influence of these effects at several discrete times during motor burn. Methods were developed for treating erosion and thermal degradation, and a procedure was developed to account for internal pressure stiffening using differential stiffness matrix techniques. Results were verified using static firing test accelerometer data. Fast Fourier Transform and Maximum Entropy Method techniques were applied to the data to generate waterfall plots which track modal frequencies with burn time. Results indicate that the lower frequency nozzle 'vectoring' modes are only slightly affected by erosion, thermal effects and internal pressurization. The higher frequency shell modes of the nozzle are, however, significantly reduced.

  16. Effects of lung elasticity on the sound propagation in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Takahiro; Wada, Shigeo; Nakamura, Masanori; Horii, Noriaki; Mizushima, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    Sound propagation in the lung was simulated for gaining insight into its acoustic properties. A thorax model consisting of lung parenchyma, thoracic bones, trachea and other tissues was made from human CT images. Acoustic nature of the lung parenchyma and bones was expressed with the Biot model of poroelastic material, whereas trachea and tissues were modeled with gas and an elastic material. A point sound source of white noises was placed in the first bifurcation of trachea. The sound propagation in the thorax model was simulated in a frequency domain. The results demonstrated the significant attenuation of sound especially in frequencies larger than 1,000 Hz. Simulations with a stiffened lung demonstrated suppression of the sound attenuation for higher frequencies observed in the normal lung. These results indicate that the normal lung has the nature of a low-pass filter, and stiffening helps the sound at higher frequencies to propagate without attenuations. (author)

  17. Concepts for improving the damage tolerance of composite compression panels. [aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Williams, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    The residual strength of specimens with damage and the sensitivity to damage while subjected to an applied inplane compression load were determined for flatplate specimens and blade-stiffened panels. The results suggest that matrix materials that fail by delamination have the lowest damage tolerance capability. Alternate matrix materials or laminates which are transversely reinforced suppress the delamination mode of failure and change the failure mode to transverse shear crippling which occurs at a higher strain value. Several damage-tolerant blade-stiffened panel design concepts are evaluated. Structural efficiency studies conducted show only small mass penalties may result from incorporating these damage-tolerant features in panel design. The implication of test results on the design of aircraft structures was examined with respect to FAR requirements.

  18. Assessment of delay-and-sum algorithms for damage detection in aluminium and composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif-Khodaei, Z; Aliabadi, M H

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric sensors are increasingly being used in active structural health monitoring, due to their durability, light weight and low power consumption. In the present work damage detection and characterization methodologies based on Lamb waves have been evaluated for aircraft panels. The applicability of various proposed delay-and-sum algorithms on isotropic and composite stiffened panels have been investigated, both numerically and experimentally. A numerical model for ultrasonic wave propagation in composite laminates is proposed and compared to signals recorded from experiments. A modified delay-and-sum algorithm is then proposed for detecting impact damage in composite plates with and without a stiffener which is shown to capture and localize damage with only four transducers. (papers)

  19. FASOR - A second generation shell of revolution code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    An integrated computer program entitled Field Analysis of Shells of Revolution (FASOR) currently under development for NASA is described. When completed, this code will treat prebuckling, buckling, initial postbuckling and vibrations under axisymmetric static loads as well as linear response and bifurcation under asymmetric static loads. Although these modes of response are treated by existing programs, FASOR extends the class of problems treated to include general anisotropy and transverse shear deformations of stiffened laminated shells. At the same time, a primary goal is to develop a program which is free of the usual problems of modeling, numerical convergence and ill-conditioning, laborious problem setup, limitations on problem size and interpretation of output. The field method is briefly described, the shell differential equations are cast in a suitable form for solution by this method and essential aspects of the input format are presented. Numerical results are given for both unstiffened and stiffened anisotropic cylindrical shells and compared with previously published analytical solutions.

  20. Pulmonary Arterial Stiffness: Toward a New Paradigm in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Pathophysiology and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Michal; Myers, Cynthia; Brown, R Dale; Frid, Maria G; Tan, Wei; Hunter, Kendall; Stenmark, Kurt R

    2016-01-01

    Stiffening of the pulmonary arterial bed with the subsequent increased load on the right ventricle is a paramount feature of pulmonary hypertension (PH). The pathophysiology of vascular stiffening is a complex and self-reinforcing function of extracellular matrix remodeling, driven by recruitment of circulating inflammatory cells and their interactions with resident vascular cells, and mechanotransduction of altered hemodynamic forces throughout the ventricular-vascular axis. New approaches to understanding the cell and molecular determinants of the pathophysiology combine novel biopolymer substrates, controlled flow conditions, and defined cell types to recapitulate the biomechanical environment in vitro. Simultaneously, advances are occurring to assess novel parameters of stiffness in vivo. In this comprehensive state-of-art review, we describe clinical hemodynamic markers, together with the newest translational echocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging methods, to assess vascular stiffness and ventricular-vascular coupling. Finally, fluid-tissue interactions appear to offer a novel route of investigating the mechanotransduction processes and disease progression.

  1. Prediction and verification of creep behavior in metallic materials and components for the space shuttle thermal protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. W.; Cramer, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    A method of analysis was developed for predicting permanent cyclic creep deflections in stiffened panel structures. This method uses creep equations based on cyclic tensile creep tests and a computer program to predict panel deflections as a function of mission cycle. Four materials were investigated - a titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), a cobalt alloy (L605), and two nickel alloys (Rene'41 and TDNiCr). Steady-state and cyclic creep response data were obtained by testing tensile specimens fabricated from thin gage sheet (0.025 and 0.63 cm nominal). Steady-state and cyclic creep equations were developed which describe creep as a function of time, temperature and load. Tests were also performed on subsize (6.35 x 30.5 cm) rib and corrugation stiffened panels. These tests were used to correlate creep responses between elemental specimens and panels. The panel response was analyzed by use of a specially written computer program.

  2. Breached cylinder incident at the Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelens, R.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    On June 16, 1990, during an inspection of valves on partially depleted product storage cylinders, a 14-ton partially depleted product cylinder was discovered breached. The cylinder had been placed in long-term storage in 1977 on the top row of Portsmouth`s (two rows high) storage area. The breach was observed when an inspector noticed a pile of green material along side of the cylinder. The breach was estimated to be approximately 8- inches wide and 16-inches long, and ran under the first stiffening ring of the cylinder. During the continuing inspection of the storage area, a second 14-ton product cylinder was discovered breached. This cylinder was stacked on the bottom row in the storage area in 1986. This breach was also located adjacent to a stiffening ring. This paper will discuss the contributing factors of the breaching of the cylinders, the immediate response, subsequent actions in support of the investigation, and corrective actions.

  3. Development of a metal-clad advanced composite shear web design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced composite web concept was developed for potential application to the Space Shuttle Orbiter main engine thrust structure. The program consisted of design synthesis, analysis, detail design, element testing, and large scale component testing. A concept was sought that offered significant weight saving by the use of Boron/Epoxy (B/E) reinforced titanium plate structure. The desired concept was one that was practical and that utilized metal to efficiently improve structural reliability. The resulting development of a unique titanium-clad B/E shear web design concept is described. Three large scale components were fabricated and tested to demonstrate the performance of the concept: a titanium-clad plus or minus 45 deg B/E web laminate stiffened with vertical B/E reinforced aluminum stiffeners.

  4. Numerical study of the stress-strain state of reinforced plate on an elastic foundation by the Bubnov-Galerkin method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskopylny, Alexey; Kadomtseva, Elena; Strelnikov, Grigory

    2017-10-01

    The stress-strain state of a rectangular slab resting on an elastic foundation is considered. The slab material is isotropic. The slab has stiffening ribs that directed parallel to both sides of the plate. Solving equations are obtained for determining the deflection for various mechanical and geometric characteristics of the stiffening ribs which are parallel to different sides of the plate, having different rigidity for bending and torsion. The calculation scheme assumes an orthotropic slab having different cylindrical stiffness in two mutually perpendicular directions parallel to the reinforcing ribs. An elastic foundation is adopted by Winkler model. To determine the deflection the Bubnov-Galerkin method is used. The deflection is taken in the form of an expansion in a series with unknown coefficients by special polynomials, which are a combination of Legendre polynomials.

  5. Graphene Statistical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowick, Mark; Kosmrlj, Andrej; Nelson, David; Sknepnek, Rastko

    2015-03-01

    Graphene provides an ideal system to test the statistical mechanics of thermally fluctuating elastic membranes. The high Young's modulus of graphene means that thermal fluctuations over even small length scales significantly stiffen the renormalized bending rigidity. We study the effect of thermal fluctuations on graphene ribbons of width W and length L, pinned at one end, via coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics simulations and compare with analytic predictions of the scaling of width-averaged root-mean-squared height fluctuations as a function of distance along the ribbon. Scaling collapse as a function of W and L also allows us to extract the scaling exponent eta governing the long-wavelength stiffening of the bending rigidity. A full understanding of the geometry-dependent mechanical properties of graphene, including arrays of cuts, may allow the design of a variety of modular elements with desired mechanical properties starting from pure graphene alone. Supported by NSF grant DMR-1435794

  6. Systolic hypertension: an increasing clinical challenge in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Bae; Kario, Kazuomi; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Systolic hypertension, the predominant form of hypertension in patients aged over 50–60 years, is a growing health issue as the Asian population ages. Elevated systolic blood pressure is mainly caused by arterial stiffening, resulting from age-related vascular changes. Elevated systolic pressure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, mortality and renal function decline, and this risk may increase at lower systolic pressure levels in Asian than Western subjects. Hence, effective systolic pressure lowering is particularly important in Asians yet blood pressure control remains inadequate despite the availability of numerous antihypertensive medications. Reasons for poor blood pressure control include low awareness of hypertension among health-care professionals and patients, under-treatment, and tolerability problems with antihypertensive drugs. Current antihypertensive treatments also lack effects on the underlying vascular pathology of systolic hypertension, so novel drugs that address the pathophysiology of arterial stiffening are needed for optimal management of systolic hypertension and its cardiovascular complications. PMID:25503845

  7. Flight service evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component on commercial transport aircraft. Phase 1: Engineering development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ary, A.; Axtell, C.; Fogg, L.; Jackson, A.; James, A. M.; Mosesian, B.; Vanderwier, J.; Vanhamersveld, J.

    1976-01-01

    The empennage component selected for this program is the vertical fin box of the L-1011 aircraft. The box structure extends from the fuselage production joint to the tip rib and includes the front and rear spars. Various design options were evaluated to arrive at a configuration which would offer the highest potential for satisfying program objectives. The preferred configuration selected consists of a hat-stiffened cover with molded integrally stiffened spars, aluminum trussed composite ribs, and composite miniwich web ribs with integrally molded caps. Material screening tests were performed to select an advanced composite material system for the Advanced Composite Vertical Fin (ACFV) that would meet the program requirements from the standpoint of quality, reproducibility, and cost. Preliminary weight and cost analysis were made, targets established, and tracking plans developed. These include FAA certification, ancillary test program, quality control, and structural integrity control plans.

  8. Modélisation non-linéaire des effets centrifuges pour le développement de modèles réduits de composants aubagés

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifeh , E; Piollet , E; Millecamps , A; Batailly , Alain

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The modeling of centrifugal stiffening effects on bladed components is of primary importance in order to accurately capture their dynamics depending on the rotor angular speed. Centrifugal effects impact both the stiffness of the component and its geometry. In the context of the small perturbation framework, when considering a linear finite element model of the component, an assumption typically made in the scientific literature involves a fourth-order polynomial devel...

  9. Selective structural source identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    In the field of acoustic source reconstruction, the inverse Patch Transfer Function (iPTF) has been recently proposed and has shown satisfactory results whatever the shape of the vibrating surface and whatever the acoustic environment. These two interesting features are due to the virtual acoustic volume concept underlying the iPTF methods. The aim of the present article is to show how this concept of virtual subsystem can be used in structures to reconstruct the applied force distribution. Some virtual boundary conditions can be applied on a part of the structure, called virtual testing structure, to identify the force distribution applied in that zone regardless of the presence of other sources outside the zone under consideration. In the present article, the applicability of the method is only demonstrated on planar structures. However, the final example show how the method can be applied to a complex shape planar structure with point welded stiffeners even in the tested zone. In that case, if the virtual testing structure includes the stiffeners the identified force distribution only exhibits the positions of external applied forces. If the virtual testing structure does not include the stiffeners, the identified force distribution permits to localize the forces due to the coupling between the structure and the stiffeners through the welded points as well as the ones due to the external forces. This is why this approach is considered here as a selective structural source identification method. It is demonstrated that this approach clearly falls in the same framework as the Force Analysis Technique, the Virtual Fields Method or the 2D spatial Fourier transform. Even if this approach has a lot in common with these latters, it has some interesting particularities like its low sensitivity to measurement noise.

  10. Anesthesia or Immobilization of Domestic and Miniature Swine - Methods and Some Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-12-01

    critical observation and moderate long-term survival before euthanasia and necropsy. Premedication and a gaseous anesthesia administered through a...Figure 1) were located outside and consistPd of 24 runs (12 runs per side) with sloped concrete floors and four-inch concrete dividers topped with...Jelly®) or sprayed with a slippery topical anesthetic (Cetacaine®). A plastic rod-type stiffener was inserted into the tube, and two persons were

  11. Temperature Effects on Stiffness Moduli of Reservoir Sandstone from the Deep North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlander, Tobias; Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    We investigate effect of testing temperature on the dynamic frame stiffness of quartz-bearing North Sea sandstone from depths of 5 km. We show that at low stress levels, the rock frame stiffens with increasing temperature and we propose an explanation for the controlling mechanisms. While...... temperature. This is unfortunate and hence, we designed a testing program with the intension of separating and quantifying effects of temperature and stress, specifically for the sandstone material subject to this study....

  12. On results of tests of thermal insulation structural fragments for in-vessel equipment and pipelines of the VG-400 plant on vibrational and acoustic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledenko, S.A.; Andreev, V.A.; Mirenkov, A.F.; Zakharov, V.A.; Suvorov, V.E.; Prokimnov, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    Results of vibrostrength and acoustic fatigue tests of the fragments of thermal insulation for in-vessel equipment and pipelines of the VG-400 reactor are presented. The insulation structure is based on the insulation layer made of steel foil and carbon materials. Weak points in the insulation structure, namely - the welded joints of stiffening ribs - are detected in the course of testing. A conclusion is made on the possibility of vibrational test substitution for the acoustic ones

  13. Lamb Wave Polarization Techniques for Structural Damage Localization and Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    11  Figure 11. Images showing (a) fatigued aluminum dog bone specimen with 53-mm crack and (b) 3-D SLDV test...Abaqus* and a 3-D model of a plate girder. Experimental measurements using piezoelectric ( PZT ) sensors were located on the web in pulse-echo mode, and...analyzed mode conversion of T- joint with collocated PZT sensors before and after the stiffener using a 2-D simulation under plane strain assumptions

  14. Silicon and Civilization,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-04

    of a diamond. 7. The particular physical and chemical properties of silicon resulted in the fact that in the periodic system it was found in the III...small quantities. Silica is found in blades of grass and grain, in reed and bamboo shoots, where it serves to stiffen the stalk. 2. Diatomite ... properties desired in technology. Quartz glass is very resistant to temperature change since it has a very small coefficient of thermal expansion, is

  15. Healthy ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Bartels, Else Marie

    2009-01-01

    The study employed mechanical stretching in vitro of sections of abdominal aorta of elderly mice to investigate any benefits of oral treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) on arterial elasticity. Eighteen female mice (50-weeks-old) were assigned to a control (2% w/v) Na2-AKG or (2% w/v) a Ca-AK...... investigation as a candidate for therapies targeting arterial stiffening with age....

  16. How fear of falling can increase fall-risk in older adults: Applying psychological theory to practical observations

    OpenAIRE

    Young, WR; Williams, AM

    2013-01-01

    This article was made available through the Brunel Open Access Fund. It is widely reported that fear of falling (FOF) has a profound and largely detrimental effect on balance performance in older adults. However, the mechanisms by which FOF influence postural stability are poorly understood. In the current article, we use psychological theory to explain FOF-related changes to postural control. First, we review literature describing associations between FOF and the 'stiffening' strategies o...

  17. Rapid duodenal and jejunal intubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A size 12 French radiopaque catheter, 135 cm long, suitable for rapid duodenal and jejunal intubation, is described. Its size and flexibility enable it to be passed with ease through the nose, stomach and duodenum. A guide wire is used to act as a stiffener as the catheter is passed through the stomach. The catheter is suitable for infusing barium directly into the small intestine and for performing hypotonic duodenography. The technique for duodenal and jejunal intubation is discussed. (author)

  18. Acoustic Modeling of Lightweight Structures: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shasha; Shen, Cheng

    2017-10-01

    This paper gives an overview of acoustic modeling for three kinds of typical lightweight structures including double-leaf plate system, stiffened single (or double) plate and porous material. Classical models are citied to provide frame work of theoretical modeling for acoustic property of lightweight structures; important research advances derived by our research group and other authors are introduced to describe the current state of art for acoustic research. Finally, remaining problems and future research directions are concluded and prospected briefly

  19. Systolic Blood Pressure Accuracy Enhancement in the Electronic Palpation Method Using Pulse Waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    adrenalin) or vasodilating (Nipride or Nitromex) medicines. Also painkillers and anesthetics (Oxanest, Diprivan, Fentanyl and Rapifen) may have affected...the measurements. It is hard to distinguish the effects of medication and assess their relation to blood pressure errors and pulse shapes...CONCLUSION During this study, 51 cardiac operated patients were measured to define the effects of arterial stiffening on the accuracy of the

  20. Research Using Virtual Reality: Mobile Machinery Safety in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Dickey, James; Eger, Tammy; Frayne, Ryan; Delgado, Giselle; Ji, Xiaoxu

    2013-01-01

    Whole-body vibration is a significant health risk for between 4% and 7% of the work force in North America. In addition, many factors compound the health risks of heavy machinery operators. For example, twisted trunk and neck postures stiffen the spine and increase the transmission of vibration to the head. Similarly, workers adopt awkward postures in order to gain appropriate lines of sight for machine operations. Although the relative contribution of these various issues can be evaluated in...

  1. CFD validation experiments at the Lockheed-Georgia Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John B.; Thomas, Andrew S. W.

    1987-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation experiments at the Lockheed-Georgia Company. Topics covered include validation experiments on a generic fighter configuration, a transport configuration, and a generic hypersonic vehicle configuration; computational procedures; surface and pressure measurements on wings; laser velocimeter measurements of a multi-element airfoil system; the flowfield around a stiffened airfoil; laser velocimeter surveys of a circulation control wing; circulation control for high lift; and high angle of attack aerodynamic evaluations.

  2. Effect of Stitching on Debonding in Composite Structural Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, I. S.; Glaessgen, E. H.

    2001-01-01

    Stitched multiaxial warp knit materials have been suggested as viable alternatives to laminated prepreg materials for large aircraft structures such as wing skins. Analyses have been developed to quantify the effectiveness of stitching for reducing strain energy release rates in skin-stiffener debond, lap joint and sandwich debond configurations. Strain energy release rates were computed using the virtual crack closure technique. In all configurations, the stitches were shown to significantly reduce the strain energy release rate.

  3. Study on the bending behavior of preflex beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lijuan; Gao, Qilang

    2017-08-01

    Preflex beam with corrugated web is a new type of beam structure for bridge engineering which is composed by corrugated steel sheet and preflex beam. This kind of structure has advantages of high load bearing capacity, good endurance, small height-span ratio, light self-weight, long-span capacity and stiffener free. It has good economy and competitive ability for middle or small span bridges, such as Highway Bridge, overpass and Railway Bridge.

  4. Lightweight Potential of Welded High-strength Steel Joints from S700 Under Constant and Variable Amplitude Loading by High-frequency Mechanical Impact (HFMI) Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Halid Can; Marquis, Gary; Sonsino, Cetin Morris

    2015-01-01

    Investigations with longitudinal stiffeners of the steel grade S700 under fully-reversed, constant amplitude loading and under variable amplitude loading with a straight-line spectrum show impressive fatigue strength improvement by high-frequency mechanical impact (HFMI) treatment. However, the degree of improvement was for variable amplitude loading lower when compared to constant amplitude loading due to local plasticity which occurs during larger load levels and consequently reduces the be...

  5. Dynamic nonlinear analysis of shells of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesemann, W.A. von; Stricklin, J.A.; Haisler, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    Over the past few years a series of finite element computer programs have been developed at Texas A and M University for the static and dynamic nonlinear analysis of shells of revolution. This paper discusses one of these, DYNAPLAS, which is a program for the transient response of ring stiffened shells of revolution subjected to either asymmetric initial velocities or to asymmetric pressure loadings. Both material and geometric nonlinearities may be considered. (Auth.)

  6. Innovative Use and Characterization of Polymers for Timber-Related Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Evernden

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Timber gridshells have become a very popular, efficient, sustainable and beautiful structural application of timber. However, given the slender laths involved in this form of construction, there is concern over the durability of timber for this purpose, and Glass FRP (GFRP laths have been proposed as a possible substitution. This paper considers this possibility. It goes on to look at the possible use of Basalt FRP (BFRP for the same purpose, from the perspective of its creep characteristics. It is shown that the use of GFRP gridshells is a viable form of construction, and that enhanced durability characteristics of BFRP could lead to their adoption for gridshells, given that the creep characteristics of basalt fibres presented here are comparable to those of glass fibres. An altogether different form of timber construction is that of joist-and-floorboard. In the UK, there are thousands of historic buildings which use this floor construction, and a sizeable proportion of this building stock now requires upgrade, strengthening and/or stiffening to allow these buildings to be fit for purpose into the future. This paper goes on to consider the possible use of Carbon FRP (CFRP to strengthen and stiffen such timber floors. It is shown that such strengthening and stiffening is entirely feasible, offering the potential for greatly enhanced stiffness, in particular. Further, it is shown that mechanical shear connection between CFRP and timber is best conducted using perpendicular-positioned screws, rather than raked screws.

  7. Fuel containment and damage tolerance in large composite primary aircraft structures. Phase 2: Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandifer, J. P.; Denny, A.; Wood, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Technical issues associated with fuel containment and damage tolerance of composite wing structures for transport aircraft were investigated. Material evaluation tests were conducted on two toughened resin composites: Celion/HX1504 and Celion/5245. These consisted of impact, tension, compression, edge delamination, and double cantilever beam tests. Another test series was conducted on graphite/epoxy box beams simulating a wing cover to spar cap joint configuration of a pressurized fuel tank. These tests evaluated the effectiveness of sealing methods with various fastener types and spacings under fatigue loading and with pressurized fuel. Another test series evaluated the ability of the selected coatings, film, and materials to prevent fuel leakage through 32-ply AS4/2220-1 laminates at various impact energy levels. To verify the structural integrity of the technology demonstration article structural details, tests were conducted on blade stiffened panels and sections. Compression tests were performed on undamaged and impacted stiffened AS4/2220-1 panels and smaller element tests to evaluate stiffener pull-off, side load and failsafe properties. Compression tests were also performed on panels subjected to Zone 2 lightning strikes. All of these data were integrated into a demonstration article representing a moderately loaded area of a transport wing. This test combined lightning strike, pressurized fuel, impact, impact repair, fatigue and residual strength.

  8. Simvastatin Ameliorates Matrix Stiffness-Mediated Endothelial Monolayer Disruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha C Lampi

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffening accompanies both aging and atherosclerosis, and age-related stiffening of the arterial intima increases RhoA activity and cell contractility contributing to increased endothelium permeability. Notably, statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors whose pleiotropic effects include disrupting small GTPase activity; therefore, we hypothesized the statin simvastatin could be used to attenuate RhoA activity and inhibit the deleterious effects of increased age-related matrix stiffness on endothelial barrier function. Using polyacrylamide gels with stiffnesses of 2.5, 5, and 10 kPa to mimic the physiological stiffness of young and aged arteries, endothelial cells were grown to confluence and treated with simvastatin. Our data indicate that RhoA and phosphorylated myosin light chain activity increase with matrix stiffness but are attenuated when treated with the statin. Increases in cell contractility, cell-cell junction size, and indirect measurements of intercellular tension that increase with matrix stiffness, and are correlated with matrix stiffness-dependent increases in monolayer permeability, also decrease with statin treatment. Furthermore, we report that simvastatin increases activated Rac1 levels that contribute to endothelial barrier enhancing cytoskeletal reorganization. Simvastatin, which is prescribed clinically due to its ability to lower cholesterol, alters the endothelial cell response to increased matrix stiffness to restore endothelial monolayer barrier function, and therefore, presents a possible therapeutic intervention to prevent atherogenesis initiated by age-related arterial stiffening.

  9. How fear of falling can increase fall-risk in older adults: applying psychological theory to practical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William R; Mark Williams, A

    2015-01-01

    It is widely reported that fear of falling (FOF) has a profound and largely detrimental effect on balance performance in older adults. However, the mechanisms by which FOF influence postural stability are poorly understood. In the current article, we use psychological theory to explain FOF-related changes to postural control. First, we review literature describing associations between FOF and the 'stiffening' strategies observed during control of posture, including observations of eye and head movements. Second, we present a framework illustrating the interactions between increased age, FOF, and altered attentional processes, which in turn influence balance performance and fall-risk. Psychological theory predicts that anxiety can cause attentional bias for threatening and task-irrelevant stimuli and compromise the efficiency of working memory resources. We argue that while the adoption of stiffening strategies is likely to be beneficial in avoiding a loss of balance during simple postural tasks, it will ultimately compromise performance in dynamic and highly demanding functional tasks. The adoption of stiffening strategies leads to inadequate acquisition of the sensory information necessary to plan and execute dynamic and interactive movements. We conclude with some suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Innovative Use and Characterization of Polymers for Timber-Related Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Antony; Ibell, Tim; Evernden, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Timber gridshells have become a very popular, efficient, sustainable and beautiful structural application of timber. However, given the slender laths involved in this form of construction, there is concern over the durability of timber for this purpose, and Glass FRP (GFRP) laths have been proposed as a possible substitution. This paper considers this possibility. It goes on to look at the possible use of Basalt FRP (BFRP) for the same purpose, from the perspective of its creep characteristics. It is shown that the use of GFRP gridshells is a viable form of construction, and that enhanced durability characteristics of BFRP could lead to their adoption for gridshells, given that the creep characteristics of basalt fibres presented here are comparable to those of glass fibres. An altogether different form of timber construction is that of joist-and-floorboard. In the UK, there are thousands of historic buildings which use this floor construction, and a sizeable proportion of this building stock now requires upgrade, strengthening and/or stiffening to allow these buildings to be fit for purpose into the future. This paper goes on to consider the possible use of Carbon FRP (CFRP) to strengthen and stiffen such timber floors. It is shown that such strengthening and stiffening is entirely feasible, offering the potential for greatly enhanced stiffness, in particular. Further, it is shown that mechanical shear connection between CFRP and timber is best conducted using perpendicular-positioned screws, rather than raked screws.

  11. Thermal Stresses Analysis and Optimized TTP Processes to Achieved CNT-Based Diaphragm for Thin Panel Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Min Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial companies popularly used the powder coating, classing, and thermal transfer printing (TTP technique to avoid oxidation on the metallic surface and stiffened speaker diaphragm. This study developed a TTP technique to fabricate a carbon nanotubes (CNTs stiffened speaker diaphragm for thin panel speaker. The self-developed TTP stiffening technique did not require a high curing temperature that decreased the mechanical property of CNTs. In addition to increasing the stiffness of diaphragm substrate, this technique alleviated the middle and high frequency attenuation associated with the smoothing sound pressure curve of thin panel speaker. The advantage of TTP technique is less harmful to the ecology, but it causes thermal residual stresses and some unstable connections between printed plates. Thus, this study used the numerical analysis software (ANSYS to analyze the stress and thermal of work piece which have not delaminated problems in transfer interface. The Taguchi quality engineering method was applied to identify the optimal manufacturing parameters. Finally, the optimal manufacturing parameters were employed to fabricate a CNT-based diaphragm, which was then assembled onto a speaker. The result indicated that the CNT-based diaphragm improved the sound pressure curve smoothness of the speaker, which produced a minimum high frequency dip difference (ΔdB value.

  12. The detection of tightly closed flaws by nondestructive testing (NDT) methods. [fatigue crack formation in aluminum alloy test specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, W. D.; Rathke, R. A.; Todd, P. H., Jr.; Mullen, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid penetrant, ultrasonic, eddy current and X-radiographic techniques were optimized and applied to the evaluation of 2219-T87 aluminum alloy test specimens in integrally stiffened panel, and weld panel configurations. Fatigue cracks in integrally stiffened panels, lack-of-fusion in weld panels, and fatigue cracks in weld panels were the flaw types used for evaluation. A 2319 aluminum alloy weld filler rod was used for all welding to produce the test specimens. Forty seven integrally stiffened panels containing a total of 146 fatigue cracks, ninety three lack-of-penetration (LOP) specimens containing a total of 239 LOP flaws, and one-hundred seventeen welded specimens containing a total of 293 fatigue cracks were evaluated. Nondestructive test detection reliability enhancement was evaluated during separate inspection sequences in the specimens in the 'as-machined or as-welded', post etched and post proof loaded conditions. Results of the nondestructive test evaluations were compared to the actual flaw size obtained by measurement of the fracture specimens after completing all inspection sequences. Inspection data were then analyzed to provide a statistical basis for determining the flaw detection reliability.

  13. Containment vessel stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.; Morris, N.F.; Unsal, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The stability analysis for a steel containment shell is presented herein. The containment is a freestanding shell consisting of a vertical cylinder with a hemispherical dome. It is stiffened by large ring stiffeners and relatively small longitudinal stiffeners. The containment vessel is subjected to both static and dynamic loads which can cause buckling. These loads must be combined prior to their use in a stability analysis. The buckling loads were computed with the aid of the ASME Code case N-284 used in conjunction with general purpose computer codes and in-house programs. The equations contained in the Code case were used to compute the knockdown factors due to shell imperfections. After these knockdown factors were applied to the critical stress states determined by freezing the maximum dynamic stresses and combining them with other static stresses, a linear bifurcation analysis was carried out with the aid of the BOSOR4 program. Since the containment shell contained large penetrations, the Code case had to be supplemented by a local buckling analysis of the shell area surrounding the largest penetration. This analysis was carried out with the aid of the NASTRAN program. Although the factor of safety against buckling obtained in this analysis was satisfactory, it is claimed that the use of the Code case knockdown factors are unduly conservative when applied to the analysis of buckling around penetrations. (orig.)

  14. Analisis Numerik Link Panjang dengan Penambahan Pelat Sayap Tepi terhadap Peningkatan Kinerja Struktur Rangka Baja Berpengaku Eksentrik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conducting research in anticipating earthquake damage at building has been developed continuosly. One of it is Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF for steel frame. EBF uses link element to absorb earthquake energy. Failure at long type link dominantly is caused by moment which make early failure because of fracture and buckling at the end of link such as in its flange. To tackle the early failure, stiffener at the end of the link has been added. The advantages of it are making easy of workmanship and minimizing the welding effort which can reduce residual stress because of welding process. This study does numerical study by using MSC Nastran/Patran program to measure the performance of long type link for several analysis types. Several parameters have been analyzed such as the length of the link, the edge addition of flange plate with its modeling configuration, the width of the plate, and the combination with vertical body stiffener. This study found that the addition of stiffener at the end of the link has increased the performance of long type link. Finally, the findings of this study are compared with that of standard link model. The variables that are compared between both of long type link and standard link are ductility, strength, energy dissipation and stiffness.

  15. Finite element modelling of reinforced large-opening on the web of steel beam considering axial forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukrawa, Made

    2017-11-01

    Experimental and analytical researches on the effect of web opening in steel beams have been repeatedly reported in literature because of the advantages gain from the many function of the opening. Most of the research on this area, however, did not consider deformation and stress in the beam due to axial force. In seismic design of steel structure, the axial force in the beam could be significantly high and therefore worth considering. In this study a beam extracted from a braced frame structure was analyzed using finite element models to investigate the effect of combined bending and axial forces on the deformation and stresses in the vicinity of the opening. Large size of square, rectangular, and circular openings of the same depth were reinforced and placed in pair, symmetrical to the concentrated load at mid span of the beam. Four types of reinforcement were used, all around (AA), short horizontal (SH), long horizontal (LH), and doubler plate (DP). The effect of axial load was also investigated using rigid frame model loaded vertically and laterally. Validation of the modelling technique was done prior to the parametric study. It was revealed that the axial force significantly contributes to the stress concentration near the hole. Stiffener of circular shape was effective to improve the stress distribution around the circular opening. For square and rectangular openings, however, the horizontal stiffener, extended beyond the edge of opening, performed better than the other type of stiffeners.

  16. Modification of a liquid hydrogen tank for integrated refrigeration and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Jumper, K. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Notardonato, W. U.

    2015-12-01

    The modification and outfitting of a 125,000-liter liquid hydrogen tank was performed to provide integrated refrigeration and storage capability. These functions include zero boil-off, liquefaction, and densification and therefore require provisions for sub-atmospheric tank pressures within the vacuum-jacketed, multilayer insulated tank. The primary structural modification was to add stiffening rings inside the inner vessel. The internal stiffening rings were designed, built, and installed per the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, to prevent collapse in the case of vacuum jacket failure in combination with sub-atmospheric pressure within the tank. For the integrated refrigeration loop, a modular, skeleton-type heat exchanger, with refrigerant temperature instrumentation, was constructed using the stiffening rings as supports. To support the system thermal performance testing, three custom temperature rakes were designed and installed along the 21-meter length of the tank, once again using rings as supports. The temperature rakes included a total of 20 silicon diode temperature sensors mounted both vertically and radially to map the bulk liquid temperature within the tank. The tank modifications were successful and the system is now operational for the research and development of integrated refrigeration technology.

  17. Residual life and strength estimates of aircraft structural components with MSD/MED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Park, Jai H.; Atluri, Satya N.

    1994-01-01

    Economic and safe operation of the flight vehicles flying beyond their initial design life calls for an in-depth structural integrity evaluation of all components with potential for catastrophic damages. Fuselage panels with cracked skin and/or stiffening elements is one such example. A three level analytical approach is developed to analyze the pressurized fuselage stiffened shell panels with damaged skin or stiffening elements. A global finite element analysis is first carried out to obtain the load flow pattern through the damaged panel. As an intermediate step, the damaged zone is treated as a spatially three-dimensional structure modeled by plate and shell finite elements, with all the neighboring elements that can alter the stress state at the crack tip. This is followed by the Schwartz-Neumann alternating method for local analysis to obtain the relevant crack tip parameters that govern the onset of fracture and the crack growth. The methodology developed is generic in nature and aims at handling a large fraction of problem areas identified by the Industry Committee on Wide-Spread Fatigue Damage.

  18. External bioresorbable airway rigidification to treat refractory localized tracheomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostidi, François; Reinhard, Antoine; Monnier, Philippe; Sandu, Kishore

    2016-11-01

    Our study evaluates the efficacy of extraluminal bioresorbable plates to treat refractory localized airway malacia in patients undergoing corrective surgery for complex multilevel laryngotracheal stenosis. Retrospective case series. Secondary malacic airway segments were characterized (severity, site, type) by a dynamic transnasal flexible laryngotracheobronchoscopy before surgery. Extraluminal bioresorbable plates were used to stabilize the malacic segment through a transcervical approach under intraoperative flexible endoscopic guidance. Results were evaluated subjectively and by a postoperative dynamic endoscopy. We report our experience in seven patients (6 children, 1 adult). External tracheal stiffening allowed complete or partial resolution of refractory proximal airway malacia in six of seven complex cases described (result in one case is awaited). It allowed quick decannulation in four of seven patients who experienced multiple previous failures. Decannulation failures were due to recurrence of stenosis. With up to 2 years of follow-up, we report no direct complications related to the presence of extraluminal bioresorbable plates around the airway. Extraluminal biodegradable tracheal stiffening represents a valid therapeutic option in select cases of upper airway malacia. It can be highly useful in cases of complex multilevel airway obstructions. External stiffening needs to be planned on a case-to-case basis according to the type of malacia and must be performed under endoscopic guidance. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2605-2610, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Trains of Red Blood Cells in a bi-dimensional microflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Iss, Cecile; Held, Delphine; Badens, Catherine; Charrier, Anne; Helfer, Emmanuèle; CINaM Team; Dpt de Génétique Médicale Team

    2017-11-01

    In the vascular microcirculation RBC distribution is uneven in the direction normal to the blood flow, as first evidenced by the existence of a cell-free layer near the vessel wall. In addition, the most rigid cells such as white blood cells and platelets are known to segregate to the walls while flowing in wide channels. We use microfluidic bi-dimensional channels (60 µm wide, 8 µm high, 5 mm long) to explore the flow structure in RBC suspensions at several hematocrits, flow rates and RBC rigidities. We observe the dynamical formation of RBC clusters and their motion along the flow direction. We study healthy RBCs, RBCs stiffened with glutaraldehyde, mixture of healthy and stiffened RBCs and RBC from sickle cell patients. Initially dispersed healthy RBCs organize, while flowing along the channel, into series of parallel trains. The train length depends on RBC hematocrit and flow rate. Stiffened RBCs do not cluster and mainly display tumbling motion like rigid disks. They destabilize existing trains and are preferentially observed close to the walls. We compared our results to that observed in microcapillaries, where trains of RBCs entirely fill in width the microchannel. This work has been carried out thanks to the support of the A*MIDEX project (n° ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) funding by the ''Investissements d'Avenir'' French Government program, ma,ged by ANR.

  20. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of the study "Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft" which had the objectives (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials and (2) to assess the materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT. The research team consisted of ALCOA, Allied-Signal, Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Reynolds Metals and the University of Virginia. Four classes of aluminum alloys were investigated: (1) I/M 2XXX containing Li and I/M 2XXX without Li, (2) I/M 6XXX, (3) two P/M 2XXX alloys, and (4) two different aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC). The I/M alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.0 aircraft and the P/M and MMC alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.4 aircraft. Design studies were conducted using several different concepts including skin/stiffener (baseline), honeycomb sandwich, integrally stiffened and hybrid adaptations (conventionally stiffened thin-sandwich skins). Alloy development included fundamental studies of coarsening behavior, the effect of stress on nucleation and growth of precipitates, and fracture toughness as a function of temperature were an integral part of this program. The details of all phases of the research are described in this final report.

  1. Numerical models for prestressing tendons in containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Hyo-Gyoung; Kim, Jae Hong

    2006-01-01

    Two modified stress-strain relations for bonded and unbonded internal tendons are proposed. The proposed relations can simulate the post-cracking behavior and tension stiffening effect in prestressed concrete containment structures. In the case of the bonded tendon, tensile forces between adjacent cracks are transmitted from a bonded tendon to concrete by bond forces. Therefore, the constitutive law of a bonded tendon stiffened by grout needs to be determined from the bond-slip relationship. On the other hand, a stress increase beyond the effective prestress in an unbonded tendon is not section-dependent but member-dependent. It means that the tendon stress unequivocally represents a uniform distribution along the length when the friction loss is excluded. Thus, using a strain reduction factor, the modified stress-strain curve of an unbonded tendon is derived by successive iterations. In advance, the prediction of cracking behavior and ultimate resisting capacity of prestressed concrete containment structures using the introduced numerical models are succeeded, and the need for the consideration of many influencing factors such as the tension stiffening effect, plastic hinge length and modification of stress-strain relation of tendon is emphasized. Finally, the developed numerical models are applied to prestressed concrete containment structures to verify the efficiency and applicability in simulating the structural behavior with bonded and/or unbonded tendons

  2. Delamination-Debond Behaviour of Composite T- Joints in Wind Turbine Blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulasik, H; Coker, D

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine industry utilizes composite materials in turbine blade structural designs because of their high strength/stiffness to weight ratio. T-joint is one of the design configurations of composite wind turbine blades. T-joints consist of a skin panel and a stiffener co-bonded or co-cured together with a filler material between them. T-joints are prone to delaminations between skin/stiffener plies and debonds between skin-stiffener-filler interfaces. In this study, delamination/debond behavior of a co-bonded composite T-joint is investigated under 0° pull load condition by 2D finite element method. Using Abaqus® commercial FE software, zero-thickness cohesive elements are used to simulate delamination/debond in ply interfaces and bonding lines. Pulling load at 0° is applied and load-displacement behavior and failure scenario are observed. The failure sequence consists of debonding of filler/stringer interface during one load drop followed by a second drop in which the 2nd filler/stringer debonds, filler/skin debonding and skin delamination leading to total loss of load carrying capacity. This type of failure initiation has been observed widely in the literature. When the debond strength is increased 30%, failure pattern is found to change in addition to increasing the load capacity by 200% before total loss of loading carrying capacity occurs. Failure initiation and propagation behavior, initial and max failure loads and stress fields are affected by the property change. In all cases mixed-mode crack tip loading is observed in the failure initiation and propagation stages. In this paper, the detailed delamination/debonding history in T-joints is predicted with cohesive elements for the first time

  3. Amiloride Improves Endothelial Function and Reduces Vascular Stiffness in Female Mice Fed a Western Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Martinez-Lemus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Obese premenopausal women lose their sex related cardiovascular disease protection and develop greater arterial stiffening than age matched men. In female mice, we have shown that consumption of a Western diet (WD, high in fat and refined sugars, is associated with endothelial dysfunction and vascular stiffening, which occur via activation of mineralocorticoid receptors and associated increases in epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC activity on endothelial cells (EnNaC. Herein our aim was to determine the effect that reducing EnNaC activity with a very-low-dose of amiloride would have on decreasing endothelial and arterial stiffness in young female mice consuming a WD. To this end, we fed female mice either a WD or control diet and treated them with or without a very-low-dose of the ENaC-inhibitor amiloride (1 mg/kg/day in the drinking water for 20 weeks beginning at 4 weeks of age. Mice consuming a WD were heavier and had greater percent body fat, proteinuria, and aortic stiffness as assessed by pulse-wave velocity than those fed control diet. Treatment with amiloride did not affect body weight, body composition, blood pressure, urinary sodium excretion, or insulin sensitivity, but significantly reduced the development of endothelial and aortic stiffness, aortic fibrosis, aortic oxidative stress, and mesenteric resistance artery EnNaC abundance and proteinuria in WD-fed mice. Amiloride also improved endothelial-dependent vasodilatory responses in the resistance arteries of WD-fed mice. These results indicate that a very-low-dose of amiloride, not affecting blood pressure, is sufficient to improve endothelial function and reduce aortic stiffness in female mice fed a WD, and suggest that EnNaC-inhibition may be sufficient to ameliorate the pathological vascular stiffening effects of WD-induced obesity in females.

  4. Softenin, a novel protein that softens the connective tissue of sea cucumbers through inhibiting interaction between collagen fibrils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Takehana

    Full Text Available The dermis in the holothurian body wall is a typical catch connective tissue or mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid changes in stiffness. Some chemical factors that change the stiffness of the tissue were found in previous studies, but the molecular mechanisms of the changes are not yet fully understood. Detection of factors that change the stiffness by working directly on the extracellular matrix was vital to clarify the mechanisms of the change. We isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus a novel protein, softenin, that softened the body-wall dermis. The apparent molecular mass was 20 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of 17 amino acids had low homology to that of known proteins. We performed sequential chemical and physical dissections of the dermis and tested the effects of softenin on each dissection stage by dynamic mechanical tests. Softenin softened Triton-treated dermis whose cells had been disrupted by detergent. The Triton-treated dermis was subjected to repetitive freeze-and-thawing to make Triton-Freeze-Thaw (TFT dermis that was softer than the Triton-treated dermis, implying that some force-bearing structure had been disrupted by this treatment. TFT dermis was stiffened by tensilin, a stiffening protein of sea cucumbers. Softenin softened the tensilin-stiffened TFT dermis while it had no effect on the TFT dermis without tensilin treatment. We isolated collagen from the dermis. When tensilin was applied to the suspending solution of collagen fibrils, they made a large compact aggregate that was dissolved by the application of softenin or by repetitive freeze-and-thawing. These results strongly suggested that softenin decreased dermal stiffness through inhibiting cross-bridge formation between collagen fibrils; the formation was augmented by tensilin and the bridges were broken by the freeze-thaw treatment. Softenin is thus the first softener of catch connective tissue shown to work on the cross

  5. T-Cap Pull-Off and Bending Behavior for Stitched Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Leone, Frank A., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) is a structural concept that was developed by The Boeing Company to address the complex structural design aspects associated with a pressurized hybrid wing body aircraft configuration. An important design feature required for assembly is the integrally stitched T-cap, which provides connectivity of the corner (orthogonal) joint between adjacent panels. A series of tests were conducted on T-cap test articles, with and without a rod stiffener penetrating the T-cap web, under tension (pull-off) and bending loads. Three designs were tested, including the baseline design used in largescale test articles. The baseline had only the manufacturing stitch row adjacent to the fillet at the base of the T-cap web. Two new designs added stitching rows to the T-cap web at either 0.5- or 1.0-inch spacing along the height of the web. Testing was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to determine the behavior of the T-cap region resulting from the applied loading. Results show that stitching arrests the initial delamination failures so that the maximum strength capability exceeds the load at which the initial delaminations develop. However, it was seen that the added web stitching had very little effect on the initial delamination failure load, but actually decreased the initial delamination failure load for tension loading of test articles without a stiffener passing through the web. Additionally, the added web stitching only increased the maximum load capability by between 1% and 12.5%. The presence of the stiffener, however, did increase the initial and maximum loads for both tension and bending loading as compared to the stringerless baseline design. Based on the results of the few samples tested, the additional stitching in the T-cap web showed little advantage over the baseline design in terms of structural failure at the T-cap web/skin junction for the current test articles.

  6. Arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Quinn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of biomechanical properties of arteries have become an important surrogate outcome used in epidemiological and interventional cardiovascular research. Structural and functional differences of vessels in the arterial tree result in a dampening of pulsatility and smoothing of blood flow as it progresses to capillary level. A loss of arterial elastic properties results a range of linked pathophysiological changes within the circulation including increased pulse pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, subendocardial ischaemia, vessel endothelial dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis. With increased arterial stiffness, the microvasculature of brain and kidneys are exposed to wider pressure fluctuations and may lead to increased risk of stroke and renal failure. Stiffening of the aorta, as measured by the gold-standard technique of aortic Pulse Wave Velocity (aPWV, is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes across many different patient groups and in the general population. Therefore, use of aPWV has been proposed for early detection of vascular damage and individual cardiovascular risk evaluation and it seems certain that measurement of arterial stiffness will become increasingly important in future clinical care. In this review we will consider some of the pathophysiological processes that result from arterial stiffening, how it is measured and factors that may drive it as well as potential avenues for therapy. In the face of an ageing population where mortality from atheromatous cardiovascular disease is falling, pathology associated with arterial stiffening will assume ever greater importance. Therefore, understanding these concepts for all clinicians involved in care of patients with cardiovascular disease will become vital.

  7. Various design approaches to achieve electric field-driven segmented folding actuation of electroactive polymer (EAP) sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saad; Hong, Jonathan; Zhang, Wei; Kopatz, Jessica; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Frecker, Mary

    2018-03-01

    Electroactive polymer (EAPs) based technologies have shown promise in areas such as artificial muscles, aerospace, medical and soft robotics. In this work, we demonstrate ways to harness on-demand segmented folding actuation from pure bending of relaxor-ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) based films, using various design approaches, such as `stiffener' and `notch' based approaches. The in-plane actuation of the P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) is converted into bending actuation using unimorph configurations, where one passive substrate layer is attached to the active polymer. First, we experimentally show that placement of thin metal strips as stiffener in between active EAPs and passive substrates leads to segmented actuation as opposed to pure bending actuation; stiffeners made of different materials, such as nickel, copper and aluminum, are studied which reveals that a higher Young's modulus favors more pronounced segmented actuation. Second, notched samples are prepared by mounting passive substrate patches of various materials on top of the passive layers of the unimorph EAP actuators. Effect of notch materials, size of the notches and position of the notches on the folding actuation are studied. The motion of the human finger inspires a finger-like biomimetic actuator, which is realized by assigning multiple notches on the structure; finite element analysis (FEA) is also performed using COMSOL Multiphysics software for the notched finger actuator. Finally, a versatile soft-gripper is developed using the notched approach to demonstrate the capability of a properly designed EAP actuator to hold objects of various sizes and shapes.

  8. Prediction of the vibroacoustic behavior of a submerged shell with non-axisymmetric internal substructures by a condensed transfer function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, V.; Maxit, L.; Guyader, J.-L.; Leissing, T.

    2016-01-01

    The vibroacoustic behavior of axisymmetric stiffened shells immersed in water has been intensively studied in the past. On the contrary, little attention has been paid to the modeling of these shells coupled to non-axisymmetric internal frames. Indeed, breaking the axisymmetry couples the circumferential orders of the Fourier series and considerably increases the computational costs. In order to tackle this issue, we propose a sub-structuring approach called the Condensed Transfer Function (CTF) method that will allow assembling a model of axisymmetric stiffened shell with models of non-axisymmetric internal frames. The CTF method is developed in the general case of mechanical subsystems coupled along curves. A set of orthonormal functions called condensation functions, which depend on the curvilinear abscissa along the coupling line, is considered. This set is then used as a basis for approximating and decomposing the displacements and the applied forces at the line junctions. Thanks to the definition and calculation of condensed transfer functions for each uncoupled subsystem and by using the superposition principle for passive linear systems, the behavior of the coupled subsystems can be deduced. A plane plate is considered as a test case to study the convergence of the method with respect to the type and the number of condensation functions taken into account. The CTF method is then applied to couple a submerged non-periodically stiffened shell described using the Circumferential Admittance Approach (CAA) with internal substructures described by Finite Element Method (FEM). The influence of non-axisymmetric internal substructures can finally be studied and it is shown that it tends to increase the radiation efficiency of the shell and can modify the vibrational and acoustic energy distribution.

  9. Blanket Manufacturing Technologies : Thermomechanical Tests on HCLL Blanket Mocks Up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffont, G.; Cachon, L.; Taraud, P.; Challet, F.; Rampal, G.; Salavy, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    In the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) Blanket concept, the lithium lead plays the double role of breeder and multiplier material, and the helium is used as coolant. The HCCL Blanket Module are made of steel boxes reinforced by stiffening plates. These stiffening plates form cells in which the breeder is slowly flowing. The power deposited in the breeder material is recovered by the breeder cooling units constituted by 5 parallel cooling plates. All the structures such as first wall, stiffening and cooling plates are cooled by helium. Due to the complex geometry of these parts and the high level of pressure and temperature loading, thermo-mechanical phenomena expected in the '' HCLL blanket concept '' have motivated the present study. The aim of this study, carried out in the frame of EFDA Work program, is to validate the manufacturing technologies of HCLL blanket module by testing small scale mock-up under breeder blanket representative operating conditions.The first step of this experimental program is the design and manufacturing of a relevant test section in the DIADEMO facility, which was recently upgraded with an He cooling loop (pressure of 80 bar, maximum temperature of 500 o C,flow rate of 30 g/s) taking the opportunity of synergies with the gas-cooled fission reactor R-and-D program. The second step will deal with the thermo-mechanical tests. This paper focuses on the program made to support the cooling plate mock up tests which will be carried out on the DIADEMO facility (CEA) by thermo-mechanical calculations in order to define the relevant test conditions and the experimental parameters to be monitored. (author)

  10. Damage tolerance modeling and validation of a wireless sensory composite panel for a structural health monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talagani, Mohamad R.; Abdi, Frank; Saravanos, Dimitris; Chrysohoidis, Nikos; Nikbin, Kamran; Ragalini, Rose; Rodov, Irena

    2013-05-01

    The paper proposes the diagnostic and prognostic modeling and test validation of a Wireless Integrated Strain Monitoring and Simulation System (WISMOS). The effort verifies a hardware and web based software tool that is able to evaluate and optimize sensorized aerospace composite structures for the purpose of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The tool is an extension of an existing suite of an SHM system, based on a diagnostic-prognostic system (DPS) methodology. The goal of the extended SHM-DPS is to apply multi-scale nonlinear physics-based Progressive Failure analyses to the "as-is" structural configuration to determine residual strength, remaining service life, and future inspection intervals and maintenance procedures. The DPS solution meets the JTI Green Regional Aircraft (GRA) goals towards low weight, durable and reliable commercial aircraft. It will take advantage of the currently developed methodologies within the European Clean sky JTI project WISMOS, with the capability to transmit, store and process strain data from a network of wireless sensors (e.g. strain gages, FBGA) and utilize a DPS-based methodology, based on multi scale progressive failure analysis (MS-PFA), to determine structural health and to advice with respect to condition based inspection and maintenance. As part of the validation of the Diagnostic and prognostic system, Carbon/Epoxy ASTM coupons were fabricated and tested to extract the mechanical properties. Subsequently two composite stiffened panels were manufactured, instrumented and tested under compressive loading: 1) an undamaged stiffened buckling panel; and 2) a damaged stiffened buckling panel including an initial diamond cut. Next numerical Finite element models of the two panels were developed and analyzed under test conditions using Multi-Scale Progressive Failure Analysis (an extension of FEM) to evaluate the damage/fracture evolution process, as well as the identification of contributing failure modes. The comparisons

  11. Finite-element analysis and modal testing of a rotating wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, T. G.; Lobitz, D. W.; Nord, A. R.; Watson, R. A.

    1982-10-01

    A finite element procedure, which includes geometric stiffening, and centrifugal and Coriolis terms resulting from the use of a rotating coordinate system, was developed to compute the mode shapes and frequencies of rotating structures. Special applications of this capability was made to Darrieus, vertical axis wind turbines. In a parallel development effort, a technique for the modal testing of a rotating vertical axis wind turbine is established to measure modal parameters directly. Results from the predictive and experimental techniques for the modal frequencies and mode shapes are compared over a wide range of rotational speeds.

  12. Finite element analysis and modal testing of a rotating wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, T. G.; Lobitz, D. W.; Nord, A. R.; Watson, R. A.

    A finite element procedure, which includes geometric stiffening, and centrifugal and Coriolis terms resulting from the use of a rotating coordinate system, has been developed to compute the mode shapes and frequencies of rotating structures. Special application of this capability has been made to Darrieus, vertical axis wind turbines. In a parallel development effort, a technique for the modal testing of a rotating vertical axis wind turbine has been established to measure modal parameters directly. Results from the predictive and experimental techniques for the modal frequencies and mode shapes are compared over a wide range of rotational speeds.

  13. The significance of the structural regularity for the seismic response of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampe, E.; Goldbach, R.; Schwarz, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper gives an state-of-the-art report about the international design practice and submits fundamentals for a systematic approach to the solution of that problem. Different criteria of regularity are presented and discussed with respect to EUROCODE Nr. 8. Still remaining questions and the main topics of future research activities are announced and come into consideration. Frame structures with or without additional stiffening wall elements are investigated to illustrate the qualitative differences of the vibrational properties and the earthquake response of regular and irregular systems. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Methodology for Analysing Controllability and Observability of Bladed Disc Coupled Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rene Hardam; Santos, Ilmar

    2004-01-01

    to place sensors and actuators so that all vibration levels can be monitored and controlled. Due to the special dynamic characteristics of rotating coupled bladed discs, where disc lateral motion is coupled to blade flexible motion, such analyses become quite complicated. The dynamics is described...... by a time-variant mathematical model, which presents parametric vibration modes and centrifugal stiffening effects resulting in increasing blade natural frequencies. In this framework the objective and contribution of this paper is to present a methodology for analysing the modal controllability...

  15. Soft Tissue Strain Rates in Side-Blast Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-02

    increase of strain rate is known to cause the stiffening of soft connective tissues ( Haut and Haut 1997 [49]; Panjabi et al. 1998 [50]; Crisco et al...Réseau Québécois de Calcul de Haute Performance, with a peak compute performance of 27 596 GFlops). Figure 2: Torso motion imposed in the model...Yan YP. 2003. Mechanical properties of nasal fascia and periosteum. Clinical Biomechanics. 18:760-764. [49] Haut TL, Haut RC. 1997. The state of

  16. Advances in Computational Stability Analysis of Composite Aerospace Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenhardt, R.; Araujo, F. C. de

    2010-01-01

    European aircraft industry demands for reduced development and operating costs. Structural weight reduction by exploitation of structural reserves in composite aerospace structures contributes to this aim, however, it requires accurate and experimentally validated stability analysis of real structures under realistic loading conditions. This paper presents different advances from the area of computational stability analysis of composite aerospace structures which contribute to that field. For stringer stiffened panels main results of the finished EU project COCOMAT are given. It investigated the exploitation of reserves in primary fibre composite fuselage structures through an accurate and reliable simulation of postbuckling and collapse. For unstiffened cylindrical composite shells a proposal for a new design method is presented.

  17. Air box shock absorber for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.V.; George, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is an air box type shock absorber primarily for use in an ice condenser compartment of a nuclear reactor. The shock absorber includes a back plate member and sheet metal top, bottom, and front members. The front member is prefolded, and controlled clearances are provided among the members for predetermined escape of air under impact and compression. Prefolded internal sheet metal stiffeners also absorb a portion of the kinetic energy imparted to the shock absorber, and limit rebound. An external restraining rod guided by restraining straps insures that the sheet metal front member compresses inward upon impact. 6 claims, 11 figures

  18. Maintained ship hull girder ultimate strength reliability considering corrosion and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yong; Cui, W.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    The prupose of this paper is to propose a methodology to assess the time-variant ultimate strength of ship hull girder under the degradations of corrosion and fatigue. The effects of fatigue cracks on the tensile and compressive residual ultimate strength of stiffened panels and unstiffened plates......, webs and flanges, respectively. The effects of inspections and repair are taken into account. A minimum net thickness rule is used to determine repair policies. A procedure is proposed to determine the maximum allowable corrosion thickness of different parts of the hull cross section. The procedure...

  19. Strain gradient plasticity effects in whisker-reinforced metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2002-01-01

    A metal reinforced by fibers in the micron range is studied using the strain gradient plasticity theory of Fleck and Hutchinson (2001). Cell-model analyzes are used to study the influence of the material length parameters numerically. Different higher order boundary conditions are considered...... at the fiber-matrix interface. The results are presented as overall stress-strain curves for the whisker-reinforced metal, and also contour plots of effective plastic strain are shown. The strain gradient plasticity theory predicts a significant stiffening effect when compared to conventional models...

  20. Modal analysis for floors in lightweight buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjökvist, Lars-Göran; Brunskog, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    of acoustical prediction methods for those houses. The calculation standard EN 12354 is under evaluation since it cannot include most of the wooden houses that are built. It is important during such a work to have a great understanding of the acoustical behaviour for the wooden houses. The floors in lightweight...... constructions usually consist of plates that are stiffened by beams and by the dividing walls. In this study the wave equation for a plate is expanded by Fourier series and an analytical solution in terms of the eigenmodes of the entire system is presented. The studied system consists of one lightweigt floor...

  1. Superconducting conversion of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.; Ball, J.B.; Cleary, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    The superconducting conversion of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) will replace the existing aluminum main magnet coils with a NbTi superconducting coil system to provide an increase in magnetic field from 1.9 to 3.3 T. The higher magnetic field will provide a three-fold increase in maximum energy capability of the cyclotron for high mass ions. The conversion will include a new beam extraction system, magnet yoke stiffening to counteract the increased magnetic forces, and minor modifications to the beam transport systems and shielding

  2. 18T resistive magnet development. Conceptual design second annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, K.L.; Burgeson, J.E.; Gurol, H.; Mancuso, A.; Michels, P.H.

    1985-10-01

    This report documents the work performed on a normal conducting magnet during fiscal year 1985. Emphasis, during the study, was on refinement of the structural design and optimization of the coil current density distribution for either maximum field generation or minimum power consumption. The results have shown that one can generate a 4.4 tesla field using 6.14 megawatts or 3.1 tesla at 1.43 megawatts. The structural design has been modified to stiffen the outer turn of the conductor. The modification was confirmed to be structurally adequate by both analysis and test. 37 figs., 21 tabs.

  3. Weathering the competition through cooperation at customer service level; Erfolgreich im Wettbewerb durch Kooperation im Kundenservice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quante, Katrin [VISOS GmbH, Moers (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Rising customer churn rates in the wake of stiffening competition are aggravating the cost pressure on energy supply companies. More and more energy suppliers are seeking cooperations as a means of countering the growing cost pressure, rapidity of change and growing complexity of their workflows. Especially small and medium-sized utilities see this as an appropriate means of holding their own against large energy suppliers. In other branches of industry inter-company cooperations at the economic or technical level are already established practice. Recent project experiences have shown that such cooperation models can be transferred with equal success to the energy sector at customer service level.

  4. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community...... chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number...

  5. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly documented however there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs with NCC. On the contrary, among the scientific community it is believed that pigs...... and their durations varied largely. Some of the observed autonomic signs were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle tone leading to collapse. Stereotypic walk in circles was observed in several occasions...

  6. The Process of Intromission in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Eberhard

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The distiphallus of the male of Ceratitis capitata is folded back 180° onto the basiphallus during the early stages of intromission, and is then unfolded within the female. Repeated folding and unfolding may occur within the female. Two membranous sacs on the distiphallus are capable of rhythmic cycles of inflation and deflation. Inflations of the sac near the base of the distiphallus probably help propel the aedeagus deeper into the female, along with periodic stiffening of the basiphallus; inflation of the larger, distal sac may drive the genital rod (which does not transfer sperm into the ventral receptacle.

  7. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2012-08-07

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  8. Total Longitudinal Moment Calculation and Reliability Analysis of Yacht Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Wenzheng; Lin, Shaofen

    In order to check the reliability of the yacht in FRP (Fiber Reinforce Plastic) materials, in this paper, the vertical force and the calculation method of the overall longitudinal bending moment on yacht was analyzed. Specially, this paper focuses on the impact of speed on the still water bending moment on yacht. Then considering the mechanical properties of the cap type stiffeners in composite materials, the ultimate bearing capacity of the yacht has been worked out, finally the reliability of the yacht was calculated with using response surface methodology. The result can be used in yacht design and yacht driving.

  9. Additive manufacturing method for SRF components of various geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Robert; Frigola, Pedro E; Murokh, Alex Y

    2015-05-05

    An additive manufacturing method for forming nearly monolithic SRF niobium cavities and end group components of arbitrary shape with features such as optimized wall thickness and integral stiffeners, greatly reducing the cost and technical variability of conventional cavity construction. The additive manufacturing method for forming an SRF cavity, includes atomizing niobium to form a niobium powder, feeding the niobium powder into an electron beam melter under a vacuum, melting the niobium powder under a vacuum in the electron beam melter to form an SRF cavity; and polishing the inside surface of the SRF cavity.

  10. Airborne and impact sound transmission in super-light structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Ellehauge; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Brunskog, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    -aggregate concrete. A super-light deck element is developed. It is intended to be lighter than traditional deck structures without compromising the acoustic performance. It is primarily the airborne sound insulation, which is of interest as the requirements for the impact sound insulation to a higher degree can...... be fulfilled by external means such as floorings. The acoustical performance of the slab element is enhanced by several factors. Load carrying internal arches stiffens the element. This causes a decrease in the modal density, which is further improved by the element being lighter. These parameters also...

  11. Tomographic elastography of contracting skeletal muscles from their natural vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, Karim G.; Archer, Akibi

    2009-11-01

    Conventional elastography techniques require an external mechanical or radiation excitation to measure noninvasively the viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscles and thus monitor human motor functions. We developed instead a passive elastography technique using only an array of skin-mounted accelerometers to record the low-frequency vibrations of the biceps brachii muscle naturally generated during voluntary contractions and to determine their two-dimensional directionality. Cross-correlating these recordings provided travel-times measurements of these muscle vibrations between multiple sensor pairs. Travel-time tomographic inversions yielded spatial variations of their propagation velocity during isometric elbow flexions which indicated a nonuniform longitudinal stiffening of the biceps.

  12. Dynamics of cell area and force during spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill-Karniely, Yifat; Nisenholz, Noam; Rajendran, Kavitha; Dang, Quynh; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Zemel, Assaf

    2014-12-16

    Experiments on human pulmonary artery endothelial cells are presented to show that cell area and the force exerted on a substrate increase simultaneously, but with different rates during spreading; rapid-force increase systematically occurred several minutes past initial spreading. We examine this theoretically and present three complementary mechanisms that may accompany the development of lamellar stress during spreading and underlie the observed behavior. These include: 1), the dynamics of cytoskeleton assembly at the cell basis; 2), the strengthening of acto-myosin forces in response to the generated lamellar stresses; and 3), the passive strain-stiffening of the cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Emergency cricothyrotomy for trismus caused by instantaneous rigor in cardiac arrest patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hee; Jung, Koo Young

    2012-07-01

    Instantaneous rigor as muscle stiffening occurring in the moment of death (or cardiac arrest) can be confused with rigor mortis. If trismus is caused by instantaneous rigor, orotracheal intubation is impossible and a surgical airway should be secured. Here, we report 2 patients who had emergency cricothyrotomy for trismus caused by instantaneous rigor. This case report aims to help physicians understand instantaneous rigor and to emphasize the importance of securing a surgical airway quickly on the occurrence of trismus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural dynamics and vibration 1995. PD-Volume 70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovunc, B.A.; Esat, I.I.; Sabir, A.B.; Karadag, V.

    1995-01-01

    The themes of this symposium focused on: dynamic responses to temperature cycles and wind excitation; the influence of the hydraulic feedback on stability; structural reliability; vibratory stress relief; fault detection by signal processing; dynamic contact in mechanisms; vibration of thick flexible mechanisms; higher order mechanisms in flexible mechanisms; natural circular frequencies by finite element method; elastic buckling, stability, and vibration of linear and nonlinear structures; buckling of stiffened plates and rings; mixed variable optimization; vibration optimization; and optimization in a constrained space. Separate abstracts were prepared for 20 papers in this book

  15. Mechanical analyses of pipeline repair and reinforcement with use of composite functionally graded materials; Analise mecanica de reforco de dutos submarinos com materiais compositos com gradacao funcional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Marcos S.M. [Sondotecnica Engenharia de Solos S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Roehl, Deane de Mesquita [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a methodology for design of stiffener sleeve constituted by functionally graded composite materials in offshore pipelines located in extreme-deep waters, where high mechanical resistance allied to an efficient system of thermal isolation is necessary, in view of the excellent thermomechanical behavior of composites. For the case of FGMs, due to continuous variation in its featuring, is necessary to employ an adapted model, based on a model typically adopted for conventional composites (Rule of Mixture), as the model idealized by Tamura, Tomato e Ozawa, the TTO model. In this report, the influence of geometric and materials parameters in mechanical behavior of pipelines under propagating collapse is analyzed. (author)

  16. A J Integral Approach for Measuring Cohesive Laws Using a Modified DCB Sandwich Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Berggreen, Christian; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2007-01-01

    mode mixities. The sandwich specimen consists of glass fiber faces and Divinycell H200 foam core. Arbitrary stiffening of the sandwich specimen with steel bars adhered to the faces reduces rotations and ensures that the method is useable for a wide range of materials. The J integral is employed...... and the opening of the pre-crack tip is recorded by a commercial digital photogrammetry measurement system. Cohesive laws are extracted by differentiating J with respect to the normal and tangential opening of the pre-crack tip. Some results are presented and discussed....

  17. Neurobiology: motor control of flexible octopus arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbre, Germán; Fiorito, Graziano; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2005-02-10

    Animals with rigid skeletons can rely on several mechanisms to simplify motor control--for example, they have skeletal joints that reduce the number of variables and degrees of freedom that need to be controlled. Here we show that when the octopus uses one of its long and highly flexible arms to transfer an object from one place to another, it employs a vertebrate-like strategy, temporarily reconfiguring its arm into a stiffened, articulated, quasi-jointed structure. This indicates that an articulated limb may provide an optimal solution for achieving precise, point-to-point movements.

  18. Design and analysis of composite structures with applications to aerospace structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kassapoglou, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Design and Analysis of Composite Structures enables graduate students and engineers to generate meaningful and robust designs of complex composite structures. Combining analysis and design methods for structural components, the book begins with simple topics such as skins and stiffeners and progresses through to entire components of fuselages and wings. Starting with basic mathematical derivation followed by simplifications used in real-world design, Design and Analysis of Composite Structures presents the level of accuracy and range of applicability of each method. Examples taken from ac

  19. The Integration Process of Very Thin Mirror Shells with a Particular Regard to Simbol-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, S.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Mazzoleni, F.; Valtolina, R.; Citterio, O.; Conconi, P.

    2009-05-01

    The optics of Simbol-X are very thin compared to previous X-ray missions (like XMM). Therefore their shells floppy and are unable to maintain the correct shape. To avoid the deformations of their very thin X-ray optics during the integration process we adopt two stiffening rings with a good roundness. In this article the procedure used for the first three prototypes of the Simbol-X optics is presented with a description of the problems involved and with an analysis of the degradation of the performances during the integration. This analysis has been performed with the UV vertical bench measurements at INAF-OAB.

  20. Properties of BaTiO.sub.3./sub. confined in nanoporous Vycor and artificial opal silica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Vaněk, Přemysl; Petzelt, Jan; Bovtun, Viktor; Kempa, Martin; Gregora, Ivan; Savinov, Maxim; Krupková, Radmila; Studnička, Václav; Buršík, Josef; Samoylovich, M.I.; Schranz, W.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2010), s. 215-223 ISSN 1820-6131 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN301370701 Grant - others:FWF(AT) P19284-N20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : nanocomposite * confined BaTiO 3 * porous silica * stiffened soft mode * effective dielectric properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://www.tf.uns.ac.rs/publikacije/PAC/pdf/PAC%2009%2013.pdf

  1. Bamboo-inspired optimal design for functionally graded hollow cylinders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Sato

    Full Text Available The optimal distribution of the reinforcing fibers for stiffening hollow cylindrical composites is explored using the linear elasticity theory. The spatial distribution of the vascular bundles in wild bamboo, a nature-designed functionally graded material, is the basis for the design. Our results suggest that wild bamboos maximize their flexural rigidity by optimally regulating the radial gradation of their vascular bundle distribution. This fact provides us with a plant-mimetic design principle that enables the realization of high-stiffness and lightweight cylindrical composites.

  2. A chip-scale integrated cavity-electro-optomechanics platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winger, M.; Blasius, T. D.; Mayer Alegre, T. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present an integrated optomechanical and electromechanical nanocavity, in which a common mechanical degree of freedom is coupled to an ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal defect cavity and an electrical circuit. The system allows for wide-range, fast electrical tuning of the optical nanocavity...... resonances, and for electrical control of optical radiation pressure back-action effects such as mechanical amplification (phonon lasing), cooling, and stiffening. These sort of integrated devices offer a new means to efficiently interconvert weak microwave and optical signals, and are expected to pave...

  3. Quantum statistical mechanics of nonrelativistic membranes: crumpling transition at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M. E. S.; Kleinert, H.; Schakel, Adriaan M. J.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of quantum fluctuations on a nearly flat, nonrelativistic two-dimensional membrane with extrinsic curvature stiffness and tension is investigated. The renormalization group analysis is carried out in first-order perturbative theory. In contrast to thermal fluctuations, which soften the membrane at large scales and turn it into a crumpled surface, quantum fluctuations are found to stiffen the membrane, so that it exhibits a Hausdorff dimension equal to two. The large-scale behavior of the membrane is further studied at finite temperature, where a nontrivial fixed point is found, signaling a crumpling transition.

  4. Using periodicity to mitigate ground vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of trenches, barriers and wave impeding blocks on the transmission path between a source and receiver can be used for mitigation of ground vibration. However, to be effective a barrier must have a depth of about one wavelength of the waves to be mitigated. Hence, while great reductions......: A soil with periodic stiffening (ground improvement) and a ground with periodic changes in the surface elevation obtained by artificial landscaping. By means of a two-dimensional finite-element model, the stiffness and mass matrices are determined for a single cell of the ground with horizonal...

  5. The characteristics of ultra-high performance concrete and cracking behavior of reinforced concrete tensile specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Rahdar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The tensile behavior of concrete depends on some factors such as member dimensions, reinforcement ratio, diameter of rebar, strength and elasticity modulus of material. In this research the experimental method is used to examine the characteristics and the behavior of ultra-high performance concrete on the tensile behavior of concrete members reinforced by steel rebar. The results show that increasing the rebar cover on diameter rebar ratio (C/d increases the initial stiffening before the cracking stage in concrete. Also, by increasing of reinforcement ratio the cracking space decreased.

  6. Fatigue Life of Postbuckled Structures with Indentation Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Bisagni, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue life of composite stiffened panels with indentation damage was investigated experimentally using single stringer compression specimens. Indentation damage was induced on one of the two flanges of the stringer. The experiments were conducted using advanced instrumentation, including digital image correlation, passive thermography, and in-situ ultrasonic scanning. Specimens with initial indentation damage lengths of 37 millimeters to 56 millimeters were tested in fatigue and the effects of cyclic load amplitude and damage size were studied. A means of comparison of the damage propagation rates and collapse loads based on a stress intensity measure and the Paris law is proposed.

  7. Fatigue Life of Postbuckled Structures with Indentation Damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Bisagni, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue life of composite stiffened panels with indentation damage was investigated experimentally using single stringer compression specimens. Indentation damage was induced on one of the two flanges of each stringer. The experiments were conducted using advanced instrumentation, including digital image correlation, passive thermography, and in-situ ultrasonic scanning. Specimens with initial indentation damage lengths of 32 millimeters to 56 millimeters were tested quasi-statically and in fatigue, and the effects of cyclic load amplitude and damage size were studied. A means of comparison of the damage propagation rates and collapse loads based on a stress intensity measure and the Paris law is proposed.

  8. Heavy hybrid stars from multi-quark interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benic, Sanjin

    2014-01-01

    We explore the possibility of obtaining heavy hybrid stars within the framework of the two flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that includes 8-quark interactions in the scalar and in the vector channel. The main impact of the 8-quark scalar channel is to reduce the onset of quark matter, while the 8-quark vector channel acts to stiffen the equation of state at high densities. Within the parameter space where the 4-quark vector channel is small, and the 8-quark vector channel sizeable, stable stars with masses of 2 M ⊙ and above are found to hold quark matter in their cores. (orig.)

  9. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  10. Analysis of Plasticity, Fracture and Friction in Steady State Plate Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1996-01-01

    perpendicular to the direction of motion is derived theoretically in a new consistent manner. The perpendicular reaction force is of paramount importance for predicting the structural damage of a ship hull because it governs the vertical ship motion and rock penetration which is strongly coupled...... extension of the presented plate model to include more structural members as for example the stiffeners attached to a ship bottom plating. The fracture process is discussed and the model is formulated partly on the basis of the material fracture toughness. The effect of friction and the reaction force...

  11. Plasticity, Fracture and Friction in Steady-State Plate Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1997-01-01

    perpendicular to the direction of motion is derived theoretically in a consistent manner. The perpendicular reaction force is of paramount importance for prediction the structural damage of a ship hull because it governs the vertical ship motion and rock penetration which is strongly coupled with the horizontal...... extension of the presented plate model to include more structural members as for example the stiffeners attached to a ship bottom plating. The fracture process is discussed and the model is formulated partly on the basis of the material fracture toughness. The effect of friction and the reaction force...

  12. Seismic Performance and Design of Steel Plate Shear Walls with Low Yield Point Steel Infill Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Zirakian, Tadeh

    2013-01-01

    Steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) have been frequently used as the primary or part of the primary lateral force-resisting system in design of low-, medium-, and high-rise buildings. Their application has been based on two different design philosophies as well as detailing strategies. Stiffened and/or stocky-web SPSWs with improved buckling stability and high seismic performance have been mostly used in Japan, which is one of the pioneering countries in design and application of these systems. U...

  13. Design and construction of reactor containment systems of the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Makinori; Kawata, Koji; Sato, Masaki; Ito, Masashi; Hayashi, Kazutoshi; Kunishima, Shigeru.

    1991-01-01

    The MONJU reactor containment systems consist of a reactor containment vessel, reactor cavity walls and cell liners. The reactor containment vessel is strengthened by ring stiffeners for earthquake stresses. To verify its earthquake-resistant strength, vibration and buckling tests were carried out by using 1/19 scale models. The reactor cavity walls, which form biological shield and support the reactor vessel, are constructed of steel plate frames filled with concrete. The cell liner consists of liner plates and thermal insulation to moderate the effects of sodium spills, and forms a gastight cell to maintain a nitrogen atmosphere. (author)

  14. An high order Mixed Interpolation Tensorial Components (MITC) shell element approach for modeling the buckling behavior of delaminated composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiotti, Marco; Rizzo, Cesare M.; Branner, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental and numerical studies carried out on delaminated fiberglass epoxy resin laminates made-up by different fabrication methods, namely by vacuum infusion and prepreg. While the tested specimens were originally intended for the assessment of buckling behavior...... of composite laminates of wind turbine blades, results were found valuable for the marine industry as well, because similar laminates are used for the hull shell and stiffeners. Systematic calculations were carried out to assess the effects of an embedded delamination on the buckling load, varying the size...

  15. Porosity and sonic velocity depth trends of Eocene chalk in Atlantic Ocean: Influence of effective stress and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awedalkarim, Ahmed; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to relate changes in porosity and sonic velocity data, measured on water-saturated Eocene chalks from 36 Ocean Drilling Program drill sites in the Atlantic Ocean, to vertical effective stress and thermal maturity. We considered only chalk of Eocene age to avoid possible influence...... not show or at least it is difficult to define a clear pore-stiffening contact cementation trend as the Ontong Java Plateau chalk. Mechanical compaction is the principal cause of porosity reduction (at shallow depths) in the studied Eocene chalk, at least down to about 5MPa Terzaghi׳s effective stress...

  16. “DET UFERDIGES KRAFT” SOM LITTERÆR VERDI HOS KNUT HAMSUN OG KARL OVE KNAUSGÅRD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel Furuseth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the essay “Sjelens Amerika” [“The America of the Soul”], Karl Ove Knausgård claims that the reason why we still perceive Knut Hamsun’s novels as fresh and present is because they display our own modern world in its very creation, at a time when it was full of “the power of the unfinished” and not yet stiffened in accomplished systems. In this article, I argue that the idea of “the power of the unfinished” is an aesthetic category describing the core of a poetics common to Knausgård and Hamsun.

  17. Scaling of F-actin network rheology to probe single filament elasticity and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardel, M L; Shin, J H; MacKintosh, F C; Mahadevan, L; Matsudaira, P A; Weitz, D A

    2004-10-29

    The linear and nonlinear viscoelastic response of networks of cross-linked and bundled cytoskeletal filaments demonstrates remarkable scaling with both frequency and applied prestress, which helps elucidate the origins of the viscoelasticity. The frequency dependence of the shear modulus reflects the underlying single-filament relaxation dynamics for 0.1-10 rad/sec. Moreover, the nonlinear strain stiffening of such networks exhibits a universal form as a function of prestress; this is quantitatively explained by the full force-extension relation of single semiflexible filaments.

  18. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective mechanical stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2008-01-01

    the method of direct separation of motions with results of a modified multiple scales ap-proach, valid also for strong nonlinearity, the stiffening ef-fect is predicted for a generic 1-dof system, and results are tested against numerical simulation and ((it is planned)) laboratory experiments.......High-frequency excitation (HFE) can be used to change the effective stiffness of an elastic structure, and related quanti-ties such as resonance frequencies, wave speed, buckling loads, and equilibrium states. There are basically two ways to do this: By using parametrical HFE (with or without non...

  19. Cooling tower practice in Germany: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerna, W.; Kraetzig, W.B.; Mungan, I.

    1982-01-01

    Development in design and construction of natural draught cooling towers that has taken place in Germany is discussed. Research has been concentrated on theory and analysis of shells, on acting forces, especially on wind effects, on buckling behavior and constructional problems. An approximate earthquake analysis allows a quick estimation of seismic response. The earthquake analysis is carried out by the response-spectrum-method. All design methods develop construction methods minimizing the imperfections and their control and correction during the erection process. It is shown how by arranging stiffening rings the buckling resistance and the lowest natural frequency of this new generation of cooling towers can be improved. 13 refs

  20. Failure analysis of globe control valves with spring-diaphragm actuator for nuclear power plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.; Chen, W.W.H.; Wang, T.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the failure analysis of a globe control valve with spring-diaphragm actuator indicated that the diaphragm failed because the service loading is close to the strength of the diaphragm. The resulting impact force is significantly larger than the plug guide strength and that cause it to bulge out after the impact. To improve the valve performance, proper torque should be used to tighten the actuator diaphragm case fasteners. A stronger actuator diaphragm could be used to provide additional safety margin during operation. Stiffening the plug guide may avoid jamming the bushing

  1. 18T resistive magnet development. Conceptual design second annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, K.L.; Burgeson, J.E.; Gurol, H.; Mancuso, A.; Michels, P.H.

    1985-10-01

    This report documents the work performed on a normal conducting magnet during fiscal year 1985. Emphasis, during the study, was on refinement of the structural design and optimization of the coil current density distribution for either maximum field generation or minimum power consumption. The results have shown that one can generate a 4.4 tesla field using 6.14 megawatts or 3.1 tesla at 1.43 megawatts. The structural design has been modified to stiffen the outer turn of the conductor. The modification was confirmed to be structurally adequate by both analysis and test. 37 figs., 21 tabs

  2. Test and Analysis of Sub-Components of Aluminum-Lithium Alloy Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Waddy T.; Chunchu, Prasad B.; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Hilburger, Mark W.; Smith, Russell W.

    2012-01-01

    Integrally machined blade-stiffened panels subjected to an axial compressive load were tested and analyzed to observe the buckling, crippling, and postcrippling response of the panels. The panels were fabricated from aluminum-lithium alloys 2195 and 2050, and both alloys have reduced material properties in the short transverse material direction. The tests were designed to capture a failure mode characterized by the stiffener separating from the panel in the postbuckling range. This failure mode is attributed to the reduced properties in the short transverse direction. Full-field measurements of displacements and strains using three-dimensional digital image correlation systems and local measurements using strain gages were used to capture the deformation of the panel leading up to the failure of the panel for specimens fabricated from 2195. High-speed cameras were used to capture the initiation of the failure. Finite element models were developed using an isotropic strain-hardening material model. Good agreement was observed between the measured and predicted responses for both alloys.

  3. Brain tissue stiffness is a sensitive marker for acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzmann, Kathrin; Gautier, Hélène O B; Christ, Andreas F; Guck, Jochen; Káradóttir, Ragnhildur Thóra; Franze, Kristian

    2016-09-15

    Carbon dioxide overdose is frequently used to cull rodents for tissue harvesting. However, this treatment may lead to respiratory acidosis, which potentially could change the properties of the investigated tissue. Mechanical tissue properties often change in pathological conditions and may thus offer a sensitive generic readout for changes in biological tissues with clinical relevance. In this study, we performed force-indentation measurements with an atomic force microscope on acute cerebellar slices from adult rats to test if brain tissue undergoes changes following overexposure to CO2 compared to other methods of euthanasia. The pH significantly decreased in brain tissue of animals exposed to CO2. Concomitant with the drop in pH, cerebellar grey matter significantly stiffened. Tissue stiffening was reproduced by incubation of acute cerebellar slices in acidic medium. Tissue stiffness provides an early, generic indicator for pathophysiological changes in the CNS. Atomic force microscopy offers unprecedented high spatial resolution to detect such changes. Our results indicate that the stiffness particularly of grey matter strongly correlates with changes of the pH in the cerebellum. Furthermore, the method of tissue harvesting and preparation may not only change tissue stiffness but very likely also other physiologically relevant parameters, highlighting the importance of appropriate sample preparation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hybrid Wing-Body Pressurized Fuselage and Bulkhead, Design and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    The structural weight reduction of a pressurized Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) fuselage is a serious challenge. Hence, research and development are presently being continued at NASA under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) and Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) projects in collaboration with the Boeing Company, Huntington Beach and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). In this paper, a structural analysis of the HWB fuselage and bulkhead panels is presented, with the objectives of design improvement and structural weight reduction. First, orthotropic plate theories for sizing, and equivalent plate analysis with appropriate simplification are considered. Then parametric finite-element analysis of a fuselage section and bulkhead are conducted using advanced stitched composite structural concepts, which are presently being developed at Boeing for pressurized HWB flight vehicles. With this advanced stiffened-shell design, structural weights are computed and compared to the thick sandwich, vaulted-ribbed-shell, and multi-bubble stiffened-shell structural concepts that had been studied previously. The analytical and numerical results are discussed to assess the overall weight/strength advantages.

  5. Technology integration box beam failure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuart, M. J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Davis, D. D., Jr.; Davis, R. C.; Farley, G. L.; Lotts, C. G.; Wang, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    Composite structures have the potential to be cost-effective, structurally efficient primary aircraft structures. The Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program has the goal to develop the technology to exploit this potential for heavily loaded aircraft structures. As part of the ACT Program, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company completed the design and fabrication of the Technology Integration Box Beam (TIBB). The TIBB is an advanced composite prototype structure for the center wing section of the C-130 aircraft. Lockheed subjected the TIBB to downbending, upbending, torsion and combined upbending and torsion load conditions to verify the design. The TIBB failed at 83 percent of design ultimate load for the combined upbending and torsion load condition. The objective of this paper is to describe the mechanisms that led to the failure of the TIBB. The results of a comprehensive analytical and experimental study are presented. Analytical results include strain and deflection results from both a global analysis of the TIBB and a local analysis of the failure region. These analytical results are validated by experimental results from the TIBB tests. The analytical and experimental results from the TIBB tests are used to determine a sequence of events that resulted in failure of the TIBB. A potential cause of failure is high stresses in a stiffener runout region. Analytical and experimental results are also presented for a stiffener runout specimen that was used to simulate the TIBB failure mechanisms.

  6. Ultrasonic study of the temperature and hydrostatic-pressure dependences of the elastic properties of polycrystalline cementite (Fe{sub 3}C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, S.P.; Saunders, G.A. [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Cankurtaran, M. [Hacettepe University, Department of Physics, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey); James, B. [DSTL-Chertsey (Armour Group), Chobham Lane, Chertsey, Surrey KT16 OEE (United Kingdom); Acet, M. [Tieftemperaturephysik, Universitaet Duisburg, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    Pulse-echo-overlap measurements of ultrasonic wave velocity have been used to determine the dependences of the elastic stiffness moduli of polycrystalline cementite (Fe{sub 3}C) on temperature in the range 75-295 K and hydrostatic pressure up to 0.1 GPa at room temperature. The longitudinal stiffness (C{sub L}) and adiabatic bulk modulus (B{sup S}) stiffen, while the shear stiffness ({mu}) and Young's modulus (E) soften with decreasing temperature. The ultrasonic velocities increase approximately linearly with pressure, much more steeply for the longitudinal than the shear mode. The values obtained at 295 K for the hydrostatic-pressure derivatives ({partial_derivative}C{sub L}/{partial_derivative}P){sub P=0}, ({partial_derivative}{mu}/{partial_derivative}P){sub P=0} and ({partial_derivative}B{sup S}/{partial_derivative}P){sub P=0} of cementite are 7.9{+-} 1.7, 1.4{+-}0.1 and 6.1{+-}1.7, respectively: the zone-centre acoustic phonons stiffen under pressure. The longitudinal ({gamma}{sub L}), shear ({gamma}{sub S}) and mean ({gamma}{sup el}) acoustic-mode Grueneisen parameters of cementite are positive; {gamma}{sub S} is markedly smaller than {gamma}{sub L} indicating that the shear acoustic modes are less anharmonic than the longitudinal modes. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Thermodynamics and instability of dielectric elastomer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong; Mu, Tong

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer is a kind of typical soft active material. It can deform obviously when subjected to an external voltage. When a dielectric elastomer with randomly oriented dipoles is subject to an electric field, the dipoles will rotate to and align with the electric field. The polarization of the dielectric elastomer may be saturated when the voltage is high enough. When subjected to a mechanical force, the end-to-end distance of each polymer chain, which has a finite contour length, will approach the finite value, reaching a limiting stretch. On approaching the limiting stretch, the elastomer stiffens steeply. Here, we develop a thermodynamic constitutive model of dielectric elastomers undergoing polarization saturation and strain-stiffening, and then investigate the stability (electromechanical stability, snap-through stability) and voltage induced deformation of dielectric elastomers. Analytical solution has been obtained and it reveals the marked influence of the extension limit and polarization saturation limit on its instability. The developed thermodynamic constitutive model and simulation results would be helpful in future to the research of dielectric elastomer based high-performance transducers.

  8. Subscale and Full-Scale Testing of Buckling-Critical Launch Vehicle Shell Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Haynie, Waddy T.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Roberts, Michael G.; Norris, Jeffery P.; Waters, W. Allen; Herring, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    New analysis-based shell buckling design factors (aka knockdown factors), along with associated design and analysis technologies, are being developed by NASA for the design of launch vehicle structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles and can help mitigate some of NASA s launch vehicle development and performance risks by reducing the reliance on testing, providing high-fidelity estimates of structural performance, reliability, robustness, and enable increased payload capability. However, in order to validate any new analysis-based design data or methods, a series of carefully designed and executed structural tests are required at both the subscale and full-scale level. This paper describes recent buckling test efforts at NASA on two different orthogrid-stiffened metallic cylindrical shell test articles. One of the test articles was an 8-ft-diameter orthogrid-stiffened cylinder and was subjected to an axial compression load. The second test article was a 27.5-ft-diameter Space Shuttle External Tank-derived cylinder and was subjected to combined internal pressure and axial compression.

  9. Hardware-Based Non-Optimum Factors for Launch Vehicle Structural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    During aerospace vehicle conceptual and preliminary design, empirical non-optimum factors are typically applied to predicted structural component weights to account for undefined manufacturing and design details. Non-optimum factors are developed here for 32 aluminum-lithium 2195 orthogrid panels comprising the liquid hydrogen tank barrel of the Space Shuttle External Tank using measured panel weights and manufacturing drawings. Minimum values for skin thickness, axial and circumferential blade stiffener thickness and spacing, and overall panel thickness are used to estimate individual panel weights. Panel non-optimum factors computed using a coarse weights model range from 1.21 to 1.77, and a refined weights model (including weld lands and skin and stiffener transition details) yields non-optimum factors of between 1.02 and 1.54. Acreage panels have an average 1.24 non-optimum factor using the coarse model, and 1.03 with the refined version. The observed consistency of these acreage non-optimum factors suggests that relatively simple models can be used to accurately predict large structural component weights for future launch vehicles.

  10. Enzymatically crosslinked silk-hyaluronic acid hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, Nicole R; Partlow, Benjamin P; McGill, Meghan; Kimmerling, Erica Palma; Ghezzi, Chiara E; Kaplan, David L

    2017-07-01

    In this study, silk fibroin and hyaluronic acid (HA) were enzymatically crosslinked to form biocompatible composite hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties similar to that of native tissues. The formation of di-tyrosine crosslinks between silk fibroin proteins via horseradish peroxidase has resulted in a highly elastic hydrogel but exhibits time-dependent stiffening related to silk self-assembly and crystallization. Utilizing the same method of crosslinking, tyramine-substituted HA forms hydrophilic and bioactive hydrogels that tend to have limited mechanics and degrade rapidly. To address the limitations of these singular component scaffolds, HA was covalently crosslinked with silk, forming a composite hydrogel that exhibited both mechanical integrity and hydrophilicity. The composite hydrogels were assessed using unconfined compression and infrared spectroscopy to reveal of the physical properties over time in relation to polymer concentration. In addition, the hydrogels were characterized by enzymatic degradation and for cytotoxicity. Results showed that increasing HA concentration, decreased gelation time, increased degradation rate, and reduced changes that were observed over time in mechanics, water retention, and crystallization. These hydrogel composites provide a biologically relevant system with controllable temporal stiffening and elasticity, thus offering enhanced tunable scaffolds for short or long term applications in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Size effects on negative thermal expansion in cubic ScF{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.; Guo, X. G.; Zhang, K. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Tong, P., E-mail: tongpeng@issp.ac.cn; Lin, J. C.; Wang, M.; Wu, Y.; Lin, S.; Xu, W.; Song, W. H. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Huang, P. C. [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Sun, Y. P., E-mail: ypsun@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-07-11

    Scandium trifluoride (ScF{sub 3}), adopting a cubic ReO{sub 3}-type structure at ambient pressure, undergoes a pronounced negative thermal expansion (NTE) over a wide range of temperatures (10 K–1100 K). Here, we report the size effects on the NTE properties of ScF{sub 3}. The magnitude of NTE is reduced with diminishing the crystal size. As revealed by the specific heat measurement, the low-energy phonon vibrations which account for the NTE behavior are stiffened as the crystal size decreases. With decreasing the crystal size, the peaks in high-energy X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) become broad, which cannot be illuminated by local symmetry breaking. Instead, the broadened PDF peaks are strongly indicative of enhanced atomic displacements which are suggested to be responsible for the stiffening of NTE-related lattice vibrations. The present study suggests that the NTE properties of ReO{sub 3}-type and other open-framework materials can be effectively adjusted by controlling the crystal size.

  12. Ab initio study of single-crystalline and polycrystalline elastic properties of Mg-substituted calcite crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L-F; Friák, M; Lymperakis, L; Titrian, H; Aydin, U; Janus, A M; Fabritius, H-O; Ziegler, A; Nikolov, S; Hemzalová, P; Raabe, D; Neugebauer, J

    2013-04-01

    We employ ab initio calculations and investigate the single-crystalline elastic properties of (Ca,Mg)CO3 crystals covering the whole range of concentrations from pure calcite CaCO3 to pure magnesite MgCO3. Studying different distributions of Ca and Mg atoms within 30-atom supercells, our theoretical results show that the energetically most favorable configurations are characterized by elastic constants that nearly monotonously increase with the Mg content. Based on the first principles-derived single-crystalline elastic anisotropy, the integral elastic response of (Ca,Mg)CO3 polycrystals is determined employing a mean-field self-consistent homogenization method. As in case of single-crystalline elastic properties, the computed polycrystalline elastic parameters sensitively depend on the chemical composition and show a significant stiffening impact of Mg atoms on calcite crystals in agreement with the experimental findings. Our analysis also shows that it is not advantageous to use a higher-scale two-phase mix of stoichiometric calcite and magnesite instead of substituting Ca atoms by Mg ones on the atomic scale. Such two-phase composites are not significantly thermodynamically favorable and do not provide any strong additional stiffening effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic, large-deflection, inelastic and thermal stress analysis by the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisler, W.E.; Stricklin, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    A finite element theory and computer program have been developed for predicting the dynamic, large displacement, inelastic and thermal response of stiffened and layered structures. The dependence of material properties on temperature is explicitly accounted for and any arbitrary, transient mechanical or thermal load history is allowed. The shell may have internal or external stiffeners and be constructed with up to three layers. The equations of motion are developed by using the pseudo force approach to represent all nonlinearities and are then solved by using either the Houbolt method or central differences. Moderately large rotations are allowed. The program is based on an incremental theory of plasticity using the Von Mises yield condition and associated flow rule. The post yield or work-hardening behavior is idealized with either the isotropic hardening or mechanical sublayer models. Two models are utilized since it has been found through comparison with experimental results that isotropic hardening is best for simple loading conditions while the mechanical sublayer model is better for reverse and cyclic loading. Strain-rate effects are also accounted for in the program by using a power-law type model based on the strain rate. The dependence of material properties on temperature is taken into account in the pseudo forces. Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, thermal coefficient of expansion, the yield stress, and the entire stress strain curve are treated as functions of the applied temperature. Containment vessels subjected to transient and shock-type mechanical and thermal loads have been analyzed

  14. Shape Recovery with Concomitant Mechanical Strengthening of Amphiphilic Shape Memory Polymers in Warm Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ben; DeBartolo, Janae E.; Song, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining adequate or enhancing mechanical properties of shape memory polymers (SMPs) after shape recovery in an aqueous environment are greatly desired for biomedical applications of SMPs as self-fitting tissue scaffolds or minimally invasive surgical implants. Here we report stable temporary shape fixing and facile shape recovery of biodegradable triblock amphiphilic SMPs containing a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) center block and flanking poly(lactic acid) or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) blocks in warm water, accompanied with concomitant enhanced mechanical strengths. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses revealed that the unique stiffening of the amphiphilic SMPs upon hydration was due to hydration-driven microphase separation and PEG crystallization. We further demonstrated that the chemical composition of degradable blocks in these SMPs could be tailored to affect the persistence of hydration-induced stiffening upon subsequent dehydration. These properties combined open new horizons for these amphiphilic SMPs for smart weight-bearing in vivo applications (e.g. as self-fitting intervertebral discs). In conclusion, this study also provides a new material design strategy to strengthen polymers in aqueous environment in general.

  15. The Co-axial Flow of Injectable Solid Hydrogels with Encapsulated Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brandon; Pochan, Darrin; Sathaye, Sameer

    2013-03-01

    Hydrogels are quickly becoming an important biomaterial that can be used for the safe, localized injection of cancer drugs, the injection of stem cells into areas of interest or other biological applications. Our peptides can be self-assembled in a syringe where they form a gel, sheared by injection and, once in the body, immediately reform a localized pocket of stiff gel. My project has been designed around looking at the possibility of having a co-axial strand, in which one gel can surround another. This co-axial flow can be used to change the physical properties of our gel during injection, such as stiffening our gel using hyaluronic acid or encapsulating cells in the gel and surrounding the gel with growth medium or other biological factors. Rheology on hyaluron stiffened gels and cells encapsulated in gels was performed for comparison to the results from co-axial flow. Confocal microscopy was used to examine the coaxial gels after flow and to determine how the co-axial nature of the gels is affected by the concentration of peptide.

  16. Steady-state mechanical squeezing and ground-state cooling of a Duffing anharmonic oscillator in an optomechanical cavity assisted by a nonlinear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, F.; Naderi, M. H.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study theoretically a hybrid optomechanical system consisting of a degenerate optical parametric amplifier inside a driven optical cavity with a moving end mirror which is modeled as a stiffening Duffing-like anharmonic quantum mechanical oscillator. By providing analytical expressions for the critical values of the system parameters corresponding to the emergence of the multistability behavior in the steady-state response of the system, we show that the stiffening mechanical Duffing anharmonicity reduces the width of the multistability region while the optical parametric nonlinearity can be exploited to drive the system toward the multistability region. We also show that for appropriate values of the mechanical anharmonicity strength the steady-state mechanical squeezing and the ground-state cooling of the mechanical resonator can be achieved. Moreover, we find that the presence of the nonlinear gain medium can lead to the improvement of the mechanical anharmonicity-induced cooling of the mechanical motion, as well as to the mechanical squeezing beyond the standard quantum limit of 3 dB.

  17. Role of band 3 in the erythrocyte membrane structural changes under thermal fluctuations -multi scale modeling considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajic-Lijakovic, Ivana

    2015-12-01

    An attempt was made to discuss and connect various modeling approaches on various time and space scales which have been proposed in the literature in order to shed further light on the erythrocyte membrane rearrangement caused by the cortex-lipid bilayer coupling under thermal fluctuations. Roles of the main membrane constituents: (1) the actin-spectrin cortex, (2) the lipid bilayer, and (3) the trans membrane protein band 3 and their course-consequence relations were considered in the context of the cortex non linear stiffening and corresponding anomalous nature of energy dissipation. The fluctuations induce alternating expansion and compression of the membrane parts in order to ensure surface and volume conservation. The membrane structural changes were considered within two time regimes. The results indicate that the cortex non linear stiffening and corresponding anomalous nature of energy dissipation are related to the spectrin flexibility distribution and the rate of its changes. The spectrin flexibility varies from purely flexible to semi flexible. It is influenced by: (1) the number of band 3 molecules attached to single spectrin filaments, and (2) phosphorylation of the actin-junctions. The rate of spectrin flexibility changes depends on the band 3 molecules rearrangement.

  18. Reliability analysis of production ships with emphasis on load combination and ultimate strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaozhi

    1995-05-01

    This thesis deals with ultimate strength and reliability analysis of offshore production ships, accounting for stochastic load combinations, using a typical North Sea production ship for reference. A review of methods for structural reliability analysis is presented. Probabilistic methods are established for the still water and vertical wave bending moments. Linear stress analysis of a midships transverse frame is carried out, four different finite element models are assessed. Upon verification of the general finite element code ABAQUS with a typical ship transverse girder example, for which test results are available, ultimate strength analysis of the reference transverse frame is made to obtain the ultimate load factors associated with the specified pressure loads in Det norske Veritas Classification rules for ships and rules for production vessels. Reliability analysis is performed to develop appropriate design criteria for the transverse structure. It is found that the transverse frame failure mode does not seem to contribute to the system collapse. Ultimate strength analysis of the longitudinally stiffened panels is performed, accounting for the combined biaxial and lateral loading. Reliability based design of the longitudinally stiffened bottom and deck panels is accomplished regarding the collapse mode under combined biaxial and lateral loads. 107 refs., 76 refs., 37 tabs.

  19. The history and development prospects of one of the methods for solving multidimensional problems of structural mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkrtychev Oleg Vartanovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes can be very strong and can lead to significant damages. Effect of earthquakes depend on seismic action characteristics (intensity, spectral composition, etc., foundation soil properties in region of construction, design and construction quality. In seismically dangerous regions structural calculations the current design standards suppose the use of the coefficient K1, which takes account the non-linear work of construction material and the allowable damages of structures. Our research shows that a stiffening core fails in case of intensive earthquake if the walls are designed according to current design standards. Thus, plastic deformations do not occur and develop in the supporting elements at the beginning of the process, so the lowering coefficient K1 should be disregarded. As stiffening core is projected with account for the reduction factor K1, the existing reinforcement is not enough for standing the emerging stress and its failure happens followed by a redistribution of the stress to frame columns. The columns are also projected with account for the reduction factor K1 and are not able to take such an increase stress beyond design. There is destruction of column frame and complete collapse of the building. So seismic resistance of bearing structures is reduced several times. The approach to estimating K1 must be responsible, based on the latest scientific research, which sometimes could not be done according to the acting design standards.

  20. Aortic-Radial Pulse Wave Velocity Ratio in End-stage Renal Disease Patients: Association with Age, Body Tissue Hydration Status, Renal Failure Etiology and Five Years of Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bia, Daniel; Valtuille, Rodolfo; Galli, Cintia; Wray, Sandra; Armentano, Ricardo; Zócalo, Yanina; Cabrera-Fischer, Edmundo

    2017-03-01

    The etiology of the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the hydration status may be involved in the arterial stiffening process observed in hemodialyzed patients. The ratio between carotid-femoral and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV ratio) was recently proposed to characterize the patient-specific stiffening process. to analyze: (1) the PWV-ratio in healthy and hemodialyzed subjects, analyzing potential changes associated to etiologies of the ESRD, (2) the PWV-ratio and hydration status using multiple-frequency bioimpedance and, (3) the effects of hemodialysis on PWV-ratio in a 5-year follow-up. PWV-ratio was evaluated in 151 patients differentiated by the pathology determining their ESRD. Total body fluid (TBF), intra and extra cellular fluid (ICF, ECF) were measured in 65 of these patients using bioelectrical-impedance. The association between arterial, hemodynamic or fluid parameters was analyzed. PWV-ratio was evaluated in a group of patients (n = 25) 5 years later (follow-up study). PWV-ratio increased in the ESRD cohort with respect to the control group (1.03 ± 0.23 vs. 1.31 ± 0.37; p hydration status, but not with the blood pressure. PWV-ratio could be considered a blood pressure-independent parameter, associated with the age and hydration status of the patient.

  1. Biomechanics of far cortical locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottlang, Michael; Feist, Florian

    2011-02-01

    The development of far cortical locking (FCL) was motivated by a conundrum: locked plating constructs provide inherently rigid stabilization, yet they should facilitate biologic fixation and secondary bone healing that relies on flexible fixation to stimulate callus formation. Recent studies have confirmed that the high stiffness of standard locked plating constructs can suppress interfragmentary motion to a level that is insufficient to reliably promote secondary fracture healing by callus formation. Furthermore, rigid locking screws cause an uneven stress distribution that may lead to stress fracture at the end screw and stress shielding under the plate. This review summarizes four key features of FCL constructs that have been shown to enhance fixation and healing of fractures: flexible fixation, load distribution, progressive stiffening, and parallel interfragmentary motion. Specifically, flexible fixation provided by FCL reduces the stiffness of a locked plating construct by 80% to 88% to actively promote callus proliferation similar to an external fixator. Load is evenly distributed between FCL screws to mitigate stress risers at the end screw. Progressive stiffening occurs by near cortex support of FCL screws and provides additional support under elevated loading. Finally, parallel interfragmentary motion by the S-shaped flexion of FCL screws promotes symmetric callus formation. In combination, these features of FCL constructs have been shown to induce more callus and to yield significantly stronger and more consistent healing compared with standard locked plating constructs. As such, FCL constructs function as true internal fixators by replicating the biomechanical behavior and biologic healing response of external fixators.

  2. Analysis and Testing of a Metallic Repair Applicable to Pressurized Composite Aircraft Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    Development of repair technology is vital to the long-term application of new structural concepts on aircraft structure. The design, analysis, and testing of a repair concept applicable to a stiffened composite panel based on the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure was recently completed. The damage scenario considered was a mid-bay to mid-bay saw-cut with a severed stiffener, flange, and skin. A bolted metallic repair was selected so that it could be easily applied in the operational environment. The present work describes results obtained from tension and pressure panel tests conducted to validate both the repair concept and finite element analysis techniques used in the design effort. Simulation and experimental strain and displacement results show good correlation, indicating that the finite element modeling techniques applied in the effort are an appropriate compromise between required fidelity and computational effort. Static tests under tension and pressure loadings proved that the proposed repair concept is capable of sustaining load levels that are higher than those resulting from the current working stress allowables. Furthermore, the pressure repair panel was subjected to 55,000 pressure load cycles to verify that the design can withstand a life cycle representative for a transport category aircraft. These findings enable upward revision of the stress allowables that had been kept at an overly-conservative level due to concerns associated with repairability of the panels. This conclusion enables more weight efficient structural designs utilizing the composite concept under investigation.

  3. Charged ρ Meson Condensate in Neutron Stars within RMF Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Maslov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the equation of state (EoS of cold and dense baryonic matter is essential for the description of properties of neutron stars (NSs. With an increase of the density, new baryon species can appear in NS matter, as well as various meson condensates. In previous works, we developed relativistic mean-field (RMF models with hyperons and Δ -isobars, which passed the majority of known experimental constraints, including the existence of a 2 M ⊙ neutron star. In this contribution, we present results of the inclusion of ρ − -meson condensation into these models. We have shown that, in one class of the models (so-called KVOR-based models, in which the additional stiffening procedure is introduced in the isoscalar sector, the condensation gives only a small contribution to the EoS. In another class of the models (MKVOR-based models with additional stiffening in isovector sector, the condensation can lead to a first-order phase transition and a substantial decrease of the NS mass. Nevertheless, in all resulting models, the condensation does not spoil the description of the experimental constraints.

  4. Dynamics of Inhomogeneous Shell Systems Under Non-Stationary Loading (Survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovoi, P. Z.; Meish, V. F.

    2017-09-01

    Experimental works on the determination of dynamics of smooth and stiffened cylindrical shells contacting with a soil medium under various non-stationary loading are reviewed. The results of studying three-layer shells of revolution whose motion equations are obtained within the framework of the hypotheses of the Timoshenko geometrically nonlinear theory are stated. The numerical results for shells with a piecewise or discrete filler enable the analysis of estimation of the influence of geometrical and physical-mechanical parameters of structures on their dynamics and reveal new mechanical effects. Basing on the classical theory of shells and rods, the effect of the discrete arrangement of ribs and coefficients of the Winkler or Pasternak elastic foundation on the normal frequencies and modes of rectangular planar cylindrical and spherical shells is studied. The number and shape of dispersion curves for longitudinal harmonic waves in a stiffened cylindrical shell are determined. The equations of vibrations of ribbed shells of revolution on Winkler or Pasternak elastic foundation are obtained using the geometrically nonlinear theory and the Timoshenko hypotheses. On applying the integral-interpolational method, numerical algorithms are developed and the corresponding non-stationary problems are solved. The special attention is paid to the statement and solution of coupled problems on the dynamical interaction of cylindrical or spherical shells with the soil water-saturated medium of different structure.

  5. Dynamic tests on metallic impact limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagartz, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    Three different types of metallic impact limiters were tested; plain fins, laterally stiffened fins and tubes whose axes were aligned with the direction of impact. All specimens were made of 304 stainless steel and were annealed before testing. A heavy steel drop table of variable mass and moving at about 13.4 m/s (44 ft/s) was used to impact the specimens which were mounted on a stationary base. Impact velocity, drop table acceleration vs. time and force vs. time were measured on each test and were used to calculate the energy absorbed by the impact limiters. Results showed that the peak stress that a plain fin can transmit to the cask body can be several times the static yield stress of the fin. Also as buckling proceeds the load in a plain fin drops significantly and the rate at which it absorbs energy falls off dramatically, making the fin a rather inefficient energy absorber overall. The laterally stiffened fin and the cylinders did not exhibit this rapid decrease in load-carrying capacity with deformation and hence were able to absorb relatively more energy per unit volume of material

  6. Templated Biomineralization on Self-Assembled Protein Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subburaman,K.; Pernodet, N.; Kwak, S.; DiMasi, E.; Ge, S.; Zaitsev, V.; Ba, X.; Yang, N.; Rafailovich, M.

    2006-01-01

    Biological mineralization of tissues in living organisms relies on proteins that preferentially nucleate minerals and control their growth. This process is often referred to as 'templating', but this term has become generic, denoting various proposed mineral-organic interactions including both chemical and structural affinities. Here, we present an approach using self-assembled networks of elastin and fibronectin fibers, similar to the extracellular matrix. When induced onto negatively charged sulfonated polystyrene surfaces, these proteins form fiber networks of {approx}10-{mu}m spacing, leaving open regions of disorganized protein between them. We introduce an atomic force microscopy-based technique to measure the elastic modulus of both structured and disorganized protein before and during calcium carbonate mineralization. Mineral-induced thickening and stiffening of the protein fibers during early stages of mineralization is clearly demonstrated, well before discrete mineral crystals are large enough to image by atomic force microscopy. Calcium carbonate stiffens the protein fibers selectively without affecting the regions between them, emphasizing interactions between the mineral and the organized protein fibers. Late-stage observations by optical microscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy reveal that Ca is concentrated along the protein fibers and that crystals form preferentially on the fiber crossings. We demonstrate that organized versus unstructured proteins can be assembled mere nanometers apart and probed in identical environments, where mineralization is proved to require the structural organization imposed by fibrillogenesis of the extracellular matrix.

  7. Elliptical Leaf Spring Shock and Vibration Mounts with Enhanced Damping and Energy Dissipation Capabilities Using Lead Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Leblouba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an enhancement to the existing elliptical leaf spring (ELS for improved damping and energy dissipation capabilities. The ELS consists of a high tensile stainless steel elliptical leaf spring with polymer or rubber compound. This device is conceived as a shock and vibration isolator for equipment and lightweight structures. The enhancement to the ELS consists of a lead spring plugged vertically between the leaves (referred to as lead-rubber elliptical leaf spring (LRELS. The lead is shown to produce hysteretic damping under plastic deformations. The LRELS isolator is shown to exhibit nonlinear hysteretic behavior. In both horizontal directions, the LRELS showed symmetrical rate independent behavior but undergoes stiffening behavior under large displacements. However, in the vertical direction, the LRELS behavior is asymmetric, exhibiting softening behavior in compression and stiffening behavior in tension. Mathematical models based on the Bouc-Wen model, describing the hysteretic behavior of the proposed isolator, are developed and numerically calibrated using a series of finite element analyses. The LRELS is found to be effective in the in-plane and vertical directions. The improved damping and energy dissipation of the LRELS is provided from the hysteretic damping of the lead spring.

  8. High-mass twins & resolution of the reconfinement, masquerade and hyperon puzzles of compact star interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaschke, David; Alvarez-Castillo, David E.

    2016-01-01

    We aim at contributing to the resolution of three of the fundamental puzzles related to the still unsolved problem of the structure of the dense core of compact stars (CS): (i) the hyperon puzzle: how to reconcile pulsar masses of 2 M ⊙ with the hyperon softening of the equation of state (EoS); (ii) the masquerade problem: modern EoS for cold, high density hadronic and quark matter are almost identical; and (iii) the reconfinement puzzle: what to do when after a deconfinement transition the hadronic EoS becomes favorable again? We show that taking into account the compositeness of baryons (by excluded volume and/or quark Pauli blocking) on the hadronic side and confining and stiffening effects on the quark matter side results in an early phase transition to quark matter with sufficient stiffening at high densities which removes all three present-day puzzles of CS interiors. Moreover, in this new class of EoS for hybrid CS falls the interesting case of a strong first order phase transition which results in the observable high mass twin star phenomenon, an astrophysical observation of a critical endpoint in the QCD phase diagram

  9. Experimental Research on the Dynamic Response of Floating Structures with Coatings Subjected to Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation into the dynamic response of three free floating stiffened metal boxes with protective coatings subjected to underwater explosion (UNDEX. One box was kept intact while the other two were, respectively, covered with monolithic coatings and chiral honeycomb coatings. Three groups of live fire tests with different attack angles and stand-off distances were conducted. The acceleration on the stiffener and strain peak on the bottom hull were selected as the major comparative criterions. Test results show that the impulse transmitted to the structure at the initial stage can be reduced, owing to the coating flexibility and fluid-structure interaction mechanism. Consequently, the acceleration peaks induced by both shock wave and bubble pulse were reduced. The shock environment can be more effectively improved by honeycomb coating when compared with monolithic coating. Most of the strain peaks decreased to a certain extent, but some of them were notably manifested, especially for honeycomb coating. The test affirms the fact that soft coating can cause stress concentration on the shell that is in direct contact with the coating due to the impedance mismatch between the interfaces of materials. A softer rubber coating induces a greater magnitude of strain.

  10. Optical coherence elastography for evaluating customized riboflavin/UV-A corneal collagen crosslinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Han, Zhaolong; Larin, Kirill V.; Twa, Michael D.

    2017-09-01

    UV-induced collagen cross-linking is a promising treatment for keratoconus that stiffens corneal tissue and prevents further degeneration. Since keratoconus is generally localized, the efficacy of collagen cross-linking (CXL) treatments could be improved by stiffening only the weakened parts of the cornea. Here, we demonstrate that optical coherence elastography (OCE) can spatially resolve transverse variations in corneal stiffness. A short duration (≤1 ms) focused air-pulse induced low amplitude (≤10 μm) deformations in the samples that were detected using a phase-stabilized optical coherence tomography system. A two-dimensional map of material stiffness was generated by measuring the damped natural frequency (DNF) of the air-pulse induced response at various transverse locations of a heterogeneous phantom mimicking a customized CXL treatment. After validation on the phantoms, similar OCE measurements were made on spatially selective CXL-treated in situ rabbit corneas. The results showed that this technique was able to clearly distinguish the untreated and CXL-treated regions of the cornea, where CXL increased the DNF of the cornea by ˜51%. Due to the noncontact nature and minimal excitation force, this technique may be valuable for in vivo assessments of corneal biomechanical properties.

  11. Numerical Study on Ultimate Behaviour of Bolted End-Plate Steel Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E.S. Ismail

    Full Text Available Abstract Bolted end-plate steel connections have become more popular due to ease of fabrication. This paper presents a three dimension Finite Element Model (FEM, using the multi-purpose software ABAQUS, to study the effect of different geometrical parameters on the ultimate behavior of the connection. The proposed model takes into account material and geometrical non-linearities, initial imperfection, contact between adjacent surfaces and the pretension force in the bolts. The Finite Element results are calibrated with published experimental results ''briefly reviewed in this paper'' and verified that the numerical model can simulate and analyze the overall and detailed behavior of different types of bolted end-plate steel connections. Using verified FEM, parametric study is then carried out to study the ultimate behavior with variations in: bolt diameter, end-plate thickness, length of column stiffener, angle of rib stiffener. The results are examined with respect to the failure modes, the evolution of the resistance, the initial stiffness, and the rotation capacity. Finally, the ultimate behavior of the bolted end-plate steel connection is discussed in detail, and recommendations for the design purpose are made.

  12. Investigation of the behavior of connection of reduced-beam-section steel beam to reinforced concrete column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Babaeenezhad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available After recent earthquakes that caused major damages in beam-column connections, scientists and engineers proposed new types of connections to postpone such brittle failures. One of these new connections is the connection of steel beam to concrete column and connection of reduced- beam-section to steel column. However, these new connections have some defects. The aim of this paper is to investigate the combination of RCS and RBS connection and assess the behavior of new combined connection. In this type of connection, a beam with reduced section at the end is connected to a concrete column. In such a detail, the main defect of RCS and RBS connection disappears. The connection was modeled using Abaqus finite element package and the effect of cut of the flange, cover-plate thickness and stiffener thickness in the new system were investigated and compared with those in RCS connection.  The results show that cut of flange has a great influence on compressive damage and tensile damage. Furthermore, cut of flange decreases the stress in the cover-plate, stiffener and reinforcements. Increasing the thickness of cover-plate, reduces stress in cover-plate. The use of reduced-beam-section instead of ordinary connection improves the connection overall performance.

  13. Dynamic Stability of Cylindrical Shells under Moving Loads by Applying Advanced Controlling Techniques—Part II: Using Piezo-Stack Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Saadeldin Eldalil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The load acting on the actively controlled cylindrical shell under a transient pressure pulse propelling a moving mass (gun case has been experimentally studied. The concept of using piezoelectric stack and stiffener combination is utilized for damping the tube wall radial and circumferential deforming vibrations, in the correct meeting location timing of the moving mass. The experiment was carried out by using the same stiffened shell tube of the experimental 14 mm gun tube facility which is used in part 1. Using single and double stacks is tried at two pressure levels of low-speed modes, which have response frequencies adapted with the used piezoelectric stacks characteristics. The maximum active damping ratio is occurred at high-pressure level. The radial circumferential strains are measured by using high-frequency strain gage system in phase with laser beam detection system similar to which used in part 1. Time resolved strain measurements of the wall response were obtained, and both precursor and transverse hoop strains have been resolved. A complete comparison had been made between the effect of active controlled and stepped structure cases, which indicate a significant attenuation ratio especially at higher operating pressures.

  14. The vibro-acoustic response and analysis of a full-scale aircraft fuselage section for interior noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdic, Peter C; Houston, Brian H; Marcus, Martin H; Williams, Earl G; Baz, Amr M

    2005-06-01

    The surface and interior response of a Cessna Citation fuselage section under three different forcing functions (10-1000 Hz) is evaluated through spatially dense scanning measurements. Spatial Fourier analysis reveals that a point force applied to the stiffener grid provides a rich wavenumber response over a broad frequency range. The surface motion data show global structural modes (approximately 450 Hz). Some evidence of Bloch wave motion is observed, revealing classical stop/pass bands associated with stiffener periodicity. The interior response (approximately interior cavity. Local intrapanel responses (approximately > 150 Hz) of the fuselage provide a broadband volume velocity source that strongly excites a high density of interior modes. Mode coupling between the structural response and the interior modes appears to be negligible due to a lack of frequency proximity and mismatches in the spatial distribution. A high degree-of-freedom finite element model of the fuselage section was developed as a predictive tool. The calculated response is in good agreement with the experimental result, yielding a general model development methodology for accurate prediction of structures with moderate to high complexity.

  15. Skin and scales of teleost fish: Simple structure but high performance and multiple functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernerey, Franck J.; Barthelat, Francois

    2014-08-01

    Natural and man-made structural materials perform similar functions such as structural support or protection. Therefore they rely on the same types of properties: strength, robustness, lightweight. Nature can therefore provide a significant source of inspiration for new and alternative engineering designs. We report here some results regarding a very common, yet largely unknown, type of biological material: fish skin. Within a thin, flexible and lightweight layer, fish skins display a variety of strain stiffening and stabilizing mechanisms which promote multiple functions such as protection, robustness and swimming efficiency. We particularly discuss four important features pertaining to scaled skins: (a) a strongly elastic tensile behavior that is independent from the presence of rigid scales, (b) a compressive response that prevents buckling and wrinkling instabilities, which are usually predominant for thin membranes, (c) a bending response that displays nonlinear stiffening mechanisms arising from geometric constraints between neighboring scales and (d) a robust structure that preserves the above characteristics upon the loss or damage of structural elements. These important properties make fish skin an attractive model for the development of very thin and flexible armors and protective layers, especially when combined with the high penetration resistance of individual scales. Scaled structures inspired by fish skin could find applications in ultra-light and flexible armor systems, flexible electronics or the design of smart and adaptive morphing structures for aerospace vehicles.

  16. Biophysical force regulation in 3D tumor cell invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingming

    When embedded within 3D extracellular matrices (ECM), animal cells constantly probe and adapt to the ECM locally (at cell length scale) and exert forces and communicate with other cells globally (up to 10 times of cell length). It is now well accepted that mechanical crosstalk between animal cells and their microenvironment critically regulate cell function such as migration, proliferation and differentiation. Disruption of the cell-ECM crosstalk is implicated in a number of pathologic processes including tumor progression and fibrosis. Central to the problem of cell-ECM crosstalk is the physical force that cells generate. By measuring single cell generated force within 3D collagen matrices, we revealed a mechanical crosstalk mechanism between the tumor cells and the ECM. Cells generate sufficient force to stiffen collagen fiber network, and stiffer matrix, in return promotes larger cell force generation. Our work highlights the importance of fibrous nonlinear elasticity in regulating tumor cell-ECM interaction, and results may have implications in the rapid tissue stiffening commonly found in tumor progression and fibrosis. This work is partially supported by NIH Grants R21RR025801 and R21GM103388.

  17. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, David A; Fournier, Sara B; Reger, Brian L; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P Exercise training reduced (P exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Eliminating electromechanical instability in dielectric elastomers by employing pre-stretch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Liang; Jerrams, Stephen; Betts, Anthony; Kennedy, David

    2016-01-01

    Electromechanical instability (EMI) is one of most common failure modes for dielectric elastomers (DEs). It has been reported that pre-stretching a DE sample can suppress EMI due to strain stiffening taking place for larger strains and a higher elastic modulus are achieved at high stretch ratios when a voltage is applied to the material. In this work, the influence of equi-biaxial stretch on DE secant modulus was studied using VHB 4910 and silicone rubber (SR) composites containing barium titanate (BaTiO 3 , BT) particles and also dopamine coated BT (DP-BT) particles. The investigation of equi-biaxial deformation and EMI failure for VHB 4910 was undertaken by introducing a voltage-stretch function. The results showed that EMI was suppressed by equi-biaxial pre-stretch for all the DEs fabricated and tested. The stiffening properties of the DE materials were also studied with respect to the secant modulus. Furthermore, a voltage-induced strain of above 200% was achieved for the polyacrylate film by applying a pre-stretch ratio of 2.0 without EMI occurring. However, a maximum voltage-induced strain in the polyacrylate film of 78% was obtained by the SR/20 wt% DP-BT composite for a lower applied pre-stretch ratio of 1.6 and again EMI was eliminated. (paper)

  19. Aortic stiffness is associated with visceral adiposity in older adults enrolled in the study of health, aging, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Tyrrell, K; Newman, A; Simonsick, E M; Havlik, R; Pahor, M; Lakatta, E; Spurgeon, H; Vaitkevicius, P

    2001-09-01

    The central arteries stiffen with age, causing hemodynamic alterations that have been associated with cardiovascular events. Changes in body fat with age may be related to aortic stiffening. The association between vascular stiffness and body fat was evaluated in 2488 older adults (mean age, 74 years; 52% female; 40% black) enrolled in the Study of Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC), a prospective study of changes in weight and body composition. Clinical sites were located in Pittsburgh, Pa, and Memphis, Tenn. Aortic pulse wave velocity was used as an indirect measure of aortic stiffness. A faster pulse wave velocity indicates a stiffer aorta. Body fat measures were evaluated with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Independent of age and blood pressure, pulse wave velocity was positively associated with weight, abdominal circumference, abdominal subcutaneous fat, abdominal visceral fat, thigh fat area, and total fat (Pwave velocity was also positively associated with history of diabetes and higher levels of glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A1c (Pwave velocity were found for age, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, abdominal visceral fat, smoking, hemoglobin A1c, and history of hypertension. The association between pulse wave velocity and abdominal visceral fat was consistent across tertiles of body weight. Among older adults, higher levels of visceral fat are associated with greater aortic stiffness as measured by pulse wave velocity.

  20. Crucial role of dynamic linker histone binding and divalent ions for DNA accessibility and gene regulation revealed by mesoscale modeling of oligonucleosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collepardo-Guevara, Rosana; Schlick, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of a mesoscale model of oligonucleosomes are analyzed to examine the role of dynamic-linker histone (LH) binding/unbinding in high monovalent salt with divalent ions, and to further interpret noted chromatin fiber softening by dynamic LH in monovalent salt conditions. We find that divalent ions produce a fiber stiffening effect that competes with, but does not overshadow, the dramatic softening triggered by dynamic-LH behavior. Indeed, we find that in typical in vivo conditions, dynamic-LH binding/unbinding reduces fiber stiffening dramatically (by a factor of almost 5, as measured by the elasticity modulus) compared with rigidly fixed LH, and also the force needed to initiate chromatin unfolding, making it consistent with those of molecular motors. Our data also show that, during unfolding, divalent ions together with LHs induce linker-DNA bending and DNA–DNA repulsion screening, which guarantee formation of heteromorphic superbeads-on-a-string structures that combine regions of loose and compact fiber independently of the characteristics of the LH–core bond. These structures might be important for gene regulation as they expose regions of the DNA selectively. Dynamic control of LH binding/unbinding, either globally or locally, in the presence of divalent ions, might constitute a mechanism for regulation of gene expression. PMID:22790986