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Sample records for sti petter solberg

  1. Jean-Jacques Petter. Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Simmen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Voici un magnifique ouvrage grand format sur les Primates dont l’auteur principal est le regretté Jean Jacques Petter, l’un des spécialistes historiques des prosimiens de Madagascar. Ce livre, publié à titre posthume, a une histoire que nous découvrons dans la préface d’Yves Coppens. A l’origine pensé et rédigé par Jean-Jacques Petter, qui a été professeur au Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, l’ouvrage interrompu à sa mort en 2002 a été remis en chantier sous l’impulsion de sa femme Arlet...

  2. 2015-2016 Travel and Hospitality Expense Reports for Monte Solberg

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ruxandra Staicu

    Destination(s):. Ottawa. Airfare: $1,070.67. Other. Transportation: $144.29. Accommodation: $329.59. Meals and. Incidentals: Other: Total: $1,544.55. Comments: 2015-2016 Travel and Hospitality Expense. Reports for Monte Solberg - Governor, Acting. Chairperson of the Governance and Executive. Committees.

  3. 2016-2017 Travel Expense Report for Monte Solberg, Ex-Governor

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Beata Bialic

    Purpose: Board meetings. Date(s):. 2016-06-20 to 2016-06-22. Destination(s):. Ottawa. Airfare: $1,209.63. Other. Transportation: $158.36. Accommodation: $590.10. Meals and. Incidentals: $38.42. Other: $0.00. Total: $1,996.51. Comments: 2016-2017 Travel Expense Report for. Monte Solberg, Ex-Governor.

  4. Rapport de frais de 2016-2017 pour Monte Solberg | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rapport de frais de 2016-2017 pour Monte Solberg. Total des frais de déplacement : CAD$4,369.35. Réunion du Conseil des gouverneurs. 20 juin 2016 au 22 juin 2016. CAD$1,996.51. Assister à des réunions internes organisées par le CRDI. 10 mai 2016 au 13 mai 2016. CAD$2,372.84. Ce que nous faisons ...

  5. Die Glorifikation des heiligen Wenzels - ein abgelehntes Werk des Wiener Malers Anton Petter aus dem Jahre 1844 für den Olmützer Dom

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlobil, Ivo

    -, č. 2 (2014), s. 148-159 ISSN 1805-3742 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : romantic painting * altarpieces * Olomouc cathedral * Anton Petter Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  6. Prévision de la corrosion des coussinets et corrélation avec l'essai sur moteur Petter W1 L Predicting Bearing Wear and Correlation with the Petter W1 L Engine Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desvard A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les essais exigés par les spécifications européennes et américaines pour huiles de moteurs, il existe un essai de résistance à la corrosion des coussinets de bielles en cuivre-plomb (tableau 1. Ces essais sont effectués sur moteurs monocylindre Petter W1 L ou Labeco CLR (tableau 2. Des résultats de corrosion obtenus sur le moteur Petter W1 L, avec des huiles de calibrage, sont donnés (tableau 4 et les courbes de corrosion en fonction du temps d'essai sont représentées figure 1. En utilisant ces mêmes huiles, un groupe de travail du GFC*, chargé de développer des méthodes d'essai laboratoire de présélection, a mis au point un test basé sur le suivi de la corrosion d'une éprouvette de plomb, en présence de cuivre, immergée dans le lubrifiant à évaluer, lorsque celui-ci est soumis à des conditions d'oxydation sévères, en présence d'air, à haute température (fig. 2. Les résultats obtenus sont en parfaite concordance avec les résultats sur moteurs (tableau 5 et fig. 3. Par ailleurs, ces essais mettent en évidence une excellente répétabilité (fig. 4,et une excellente reproductibilité (fig. 5 et 6 de la méthode de laboratoire. * GFC : Groupement Français de Coordination, pour le développement des essais de performance des combustibles, des lubrifiants pour moteurs et autres fluides utilisés dans les transports. Among the tests required by European and American specifications for motor oils, there is a test of the corrosion resistance of copper-lead bearings (Table 1. These tests are performed in single-cylinder Petter W1 L engines or Labeco CLR engines (Table 2. The corrosion results obtained with the Petter W1 L engine, for calibration oils, are given (Table 4, and the corrosion curves as a function of time are shown in Fig. 1. By using the same oils, a GFC working group responsible for developing laboratory preselection test methods has developed a test based on the determining of the corrosion of a lead

  7. Measuring cross-border regional STI integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkonen, T

    2016-07-01

    Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced to strengthen the Oresund integration index. This was compiled from patent, publication and collaborative R&D project data. The findings show that this index performs reasonably well in depicting STI integration, while at the same time remaining simple and straightforward enough to be adopted in other crossborder regions. (Author)

  8. ASOS Surface Extinction Coefficient by STI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — ASOS_STI represents a 250-station subset of the national ASOS SURF_MET dataset. The unique feature of this data is that the visibility sensor values are available in...

  9. Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Chunlei; Duong, Timothy Q; van Zijl, Peter C M; Li, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) is a recently developed MRI technique that allows quantitative determination of orientation-independent magnetic susceptibility parameters from the dependence of gradient echo signal phase on the orientation of biological tissues with respect to the main magnetic field. By modeling the magnetic susceptibility of each voxel as a symmetric rank-2 tensor, individual magnetic susceptibility tensor elements as well as the mean magnetic susceptibility and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy can be determined for brain tissues that would still show orientation dependence after conventional scalar-based quantitative susceptibility mapping to remove such dependence. Similar to diffusion tensor imaging, STI allows mapping of brain white matter fiber orientations and reconstruction of 3D white matter pathways using the principal eigenvectors of the susceptibility tensor. In contrast to diffusion anisotropy, the main determinant factor of the susceptibility anisotropy in brain white matter is myelin. Another unique feature of the susceptibility anisotropy of white matter is its sensitivity to gadolinium-based contrast agents. Mechanistically, MRI-observed susceptibility anisotropy is mainly attributed to the highly ordered lipid molecules in the myelin sheath. STI provides a consistent interpretation of the dependence of phase and susceptibility on orientation at multiple scales. This article reviews the key experimental findings and physical theories that led to the development of STI, its practical implementations, and its applications for brain research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Susceptibility Tensor Imaging (STI) of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Chunlei; Duong, Timothy Q.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) is a recently developed MRI technique that allows quantitative determination of orientation-independent magnetic susceptibility parameters from the dependence of gradient echo signal phase on the orientation of biological tissues with respect to the main magnetic field. By modeling the magnetic susceptibility of each voxel as a symmetric rank-2 tensor, individual magnetic susceptibility tensor elements as well as the mean magnetic susceptibility (MMS) and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy (MSA) can be determined for brain tissues that would still show orientation dependence after conventional scalar-based quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) to remove such dependence. Similar to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), STI allows mapping of brain white matter fiber orientations and reconstruction of 3D white matter pathways using the principal eigenvectors of the susceptibility tensor. In contrast to diffusion anisotropy, the main determinant factor of susceptibility anisotropy in brain white matter is myelin. Another unique feature of susceptibility anisotropy of white matter is its sensitivity to gadolinium-based contrast agents. Mechanistically, MRI-observed susceptibility anisotropy is mainly attributed to the highly ordered lipid molecules in myelin sheath. STI provides a consistent interpretation of the dependence of phase and susceptibility on orientation at multiple scales. This article reviews the key experimental findings and physical theories that led to the development of STI, its practical implementations, and its applications for brain research. PMID:27120169

  11. International epidemiological studies on HIV, HCV and STI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis comprises international epidemiological studies on HIV, Hepatitis C (HCV) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) and the evaluation of STI diagnostic tests with the ultimate goal to decrease spread and disease burden of these infections. The main conclusions are: 1. Without the use of

  12. HIV/STI Risk Behavior of Drug Court Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela A.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.; McCluskey, D. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Drug abusing offenders have high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). To date, the HIV/STI prevention needs of offenders in drug court programs have been ignored. This multi-method study employed interviews to assess drug court professionals' perceptions of the need for an HIV risk reduction intervention to be integrated…

  13. Urinary symptoms in adolescent females: STI or UTI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Jill S; Biro, Frank; Lan, Dongmei; Mortensen, Joel E; Reed, Jennifer; Slap, Gail B

    2007-05-01

    To determine if urinary symptoms or urinary tract infections (UTI) were associated with sexually transmitted infections (STI) and which history, clinical, and laboratory findings could distinguish these infections in symptomatic women. A cross-sectional sample of 296 sexually active females aged 14-22 years attending a hospital-based teen health center or emergency department were recruited. Genitourinary symptoms, medical and sexual history, and urinalysis results were recorded. STI was defined as a vaginal swab positive for Trichomonas vaginalis or urine nucleic acid amplification test positive for Neisseria gonorrheae or Chlamydia trachomatis. A urine culture with >10,000 colonies of a single pathogen was considered a positive UTI. In the full sample, prevalence of UTI and STI were 17% and 33%, respectively. Neither urinary symptoms nor UTI was significantly associated with STI. Further analyses are reported for the 154 (51%) with urinary symptoms: Positive urine leukocytes, more than one partner in the last three months and history of STI predicted STI. Urinalysis results identified four groups: (1) Normal urinalysis-67% had no infection; (2) Positive nitrites or protein-55% had UTI; (3) Positive leukocytes or blood-62% had STI; and (4) Both nitrites/protein and leukocytes/blood positive-28% had STI and 65% had UTI. Those without a documented UTI were more likely to have trichomoniasis than those with a UTI, and 65% of those with sterile pyuria had STI, mainly trichomoniasis or gonorrhea. Adolescent females with urinary symptoms should be tested for both UTI and STIs. Urinalysis results may be helpful to direct initial therapy.

  14. 'Not the swab!' Young men's experiences with STI testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoveller, Jean A; Knight, Rod; Johnson, Joy; Oliffe, John L; Goldenberg, Shira

    2010-01-01

    In Canada, STI rates are high and rising, especially amongst young men. Meanwhile, the needs of young men regarding STI testing services are poorly understood, as are the socio-cultural and structural factors that influence young men's sexual health-seeking behaviours. To better understand this phenomenon, we draw on interviews with 45 men (ages 15-25) from British Columbia, Canada. Our research reveals how structural forces (e.g. STI testing procedures) interact with socio-cultural factors (e.g. perceptions of masculinities and feminities) to shape young men's experiences with STI testing. STI testing was characterised as both a potentially sexualised experience (e.g. fears of getting an erection during genital examinations), and as a process where young men experience multiple vulnerabilities associated with exposing the male body in clinical service sites. In response, participants drew on dominant ideals of masculinity to reaffirm their predominately hetero-normative gender identities. Despite growing up in an era where sexual health promotion efforts have been undertaken, participants did not feel they had permission to engage in discussions with other men about sexual health issues. Attending to young men's perspectives on STI testing represents a starting point in reforming our approaches to addressing how socio-cultural and structural factors shape these experiences.

  15. Signaling induced by hop/STI-1 depends on endocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americo, Tatiana A.; Chiarini, Luciana B.; Linden, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The co-chaperone hop/STI-1 is a ligand of the cell surface prion protein (PrP C ), and their interaction leads to signaling and biological effects. Among these, hop/STI-1 induces proliferation of A172 glioblastoma cells, dependent on both PrP C and activation of the Erk pathway. We tested whether clathrin-mediated endocytosis affects signaling induced by hop/STI-1. Both hyperosmolarity induced by sucrose and monodansyl-cadaverine blocked Erk activity induced by hop/STI-1, without affecting the high basal Akt activity typical of A172. The endocytosis inhibitors also affected the sub-cellular distribution of phosphorylated Erk, consistent with blockade of the latter's activity. The data indicate that signaling induced by hop/STI-1 depends on endocytosis. These findings are consistent with a role of sub-cellular trafficking in signal transduction following engagement by PrP C by ligands such as hop/STI-1, and may help help unravel both the functions of the prion protein, as well as possible loss-of-function components of prion diseases

  16. Poverty and sexual concurrency: a case study of STI risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Emma K; Leonard, Lori; Lenoir, Chavonne; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2008-08-01

    This paper is about sexual concurrency, or maintaining multiple sexual partnerships that overlap in time. Sexual concurrency is a concept that is used in the field of public health to explain the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Sexual concurrency has also been proposed as a site of intervention to reduce sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates, particularly among those populations who carry the heaviest STI burden: adolescents and African Americans. In this paper, we use ethnographic data collected from a group of African American adolescents living in Baltimore to examine the socially produced configurations of risks and relationships that are obscured by the term sexual concurrency. The data we present show the limits of this concept, and suggest that structural reforms, including improvements to education, drug treatment, and work opportunities, are necessary to reduce racial disparities in STI rates.

  17. August Anni(sti) rahvuslik-demokraatlik kultuuriideaal Eesti Vabariigi algusaastail ja vaikival ajastul / Helena Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Helena, 1964-

    2008-01-01

    Rahvaluuledoktor August Anni(sti) rahvuslikust kultuurinägemusest ja -visioonist ning suhtumisest natsionalismi, sotsialismi ja demokraatiasse. Allikatena on kasutatud Anni(sti) artikleid, mis ilmusid vaadeldava perioodi kogumikes ja ajakirjanduses

  18. Database Software Selection for the Egyptian National STI Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamecka, Vladimir

    The evaluation and selection of information/data management system software for the Egyptian National Scientific and Technical (STI) Network are described. An overview of the state-of-the-art of database technology elaborates on the differences between information retrieval and database management systems (DBMS). The desirable characteristics of…

  19. The influence of perception and peer support on STI prevention behavior (syphilis case study) in group of MSM at veterans STI-VCT clinic in Medan year 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukatendel, K.; Napitupulu, T. E.; Rusmalawati; Andayani, L. S.; Yustina, I.

    2018-03-01

    According to Behavioral and Biological Integrated Surveillance (BBIS) in Indonesia, 2011, there was an increase in syphilis surveillance in men who like to commit sexual intercourse with other men (MSM). It was 13% of the 3% in BBIS 2007 in bad STI prevention behavior. There were 478 MSM have visited STI-VCT clinic in Medan throughout 2015, and syphilis-infected 59 men. This study aims to analyze the influence of perception and peer support on prevention of STI in MSM at Veteran STI-VCT Clinic in Medan, 2016. It was a mixed method quantitative and qualitative study with the cross-sectional approach, enrolled 50 respondents. Data were collected and analyzed with SPSS 19. There was the influence of perception and peer support on STI prevention behavior of MSM group at STI-VCT Veteran Clinic in Medan.

  20. Are Dual-Method Messages Undermining STI/HIV Prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann O'Leary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent girls and young women who are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI, including HIV, are frequently counseled to use a hormonal contraceptive to protect against the former and condoms to protect against the latter, for exampe, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2011. The present paper reviews the literature on multiple risk messages, compliance with this dual-use recommendation, predictors of dual use, and interventions developed to encourage dual use. Data indicate that simultaneous use of these two methods is not common, and that efforts to encourage dual use have not yielded promising results. An alternative is to recommend condom use alone, since condoms protect very well against STI and HIV, and quite well against pregnancy when used consistently and correctly. The availability of emergency contraception is relevant here. Research utilizing a randomized controlled trial is recommended.

  1. Syndromic management and STI control in urban Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L Clark

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Syndromic management is an inexpensive and effective method for the treatment of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs, but its effectiveness as a method of STI control in at-risk populations is questionable. We sought to determine the potential utility of syndromic management as a public health strategy to control STI transmission in high-risk populations in urban Peru.We surveyed 3,285 at-risk men and women from three Peruvian cities from 2003-05. Participants were asked about the presence of genital ulcers, discharge, or dysuria in the preceding six months. Participants reporting symptoms were asked about subsequent health-seeking and partner notification behavior. Urine and vaginal swab samples were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by nucleic acid testing. Serum was tested for syphilis and Herpes Simplex Virus-Type 2 antibodies.Recent urogenital discharge or dysuria was reported by 42.1% of participants with gonorrhea or chlamydia versus 28.3% of participants without infection. Genital ulceration was reported by 6.2% of participants with, and 7.4% of participants without, recent syphilis. Many participants reporting symptoms continued sexual activity while symptomatic, and approximately half of all symptomatic participants sought treatment. The positive and negative predictive values of urogenital discharge or genital ulcer disease in detecting STIs that are common in the study population were 14.4% and 81.5% for chlamydia in women and 8.3% and 89.5% for syphilis among gay-identified men.In our study, STIs among high-risk men and women in urban Peru were frequently asymptomatic and symptomatic participants often remained sexually active without seeking treatment. Additional research is needed to assess the costs and benefits of targeted, laboratory-based STI screening as part of a comprehensive STI control program in developing countries.

  2. Syndromic Management and STI Control in Urban Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L.; Lescano, Andres G.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Jones, Franca R.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Thomas J.; Caceres, Carlos F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Syndromic management is an inexpensive and effective method for the treatment of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but its effectiveness as a method of STI control in at-risk populations is questionable. We sought to determine the potential utility of syndromic management as a public health strategy to control STI transmission in high-risk populations in urban Peru. Methodology We surveyed 3,285 at-risk men and women from three Peruvian cities from 2003–05. Participants were asked about the presence of genital ulcers, discharge, or dysuria in the preceding six months. Participants reporting symptoms were asked about subsequent health-seeking and partner notification behavior. Urine and vaginal swab samples were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by nucleic acid testing. Serum was tested for syphilis and Herpes Simplex Virus-Type 2 antibodies. Findings Recent urogenital discharge or dysuria was reported by 42.1% of participants with gonorrhea or chlamydia versus 28.3% of participants without infection. Genital ulceration was reported by 6.2% of participants with, and 7.4% of participants without, recent syphilis. Many participants reporting symptoms continued sexual activity while symptomatic, and approximately half of all symptomatic participants sought treatment. The positive and negative predictive values of urogenital discharge or genital ulcer disease in detecting STIs that are common in the study population were 14.4% and 81.5% for chlamydia in women and 8.3% and 89.5% for syphilis among gay-identified men. Conclusions In our study, STIs among high-risk men and women in urban Peru were frequently asymptomatic and symptomatic participants often remained sexually active without seeking treatment. Additional research is needed to assess the costs and benefits of targeted, laboratory-based STI screening as part of a comprehensive STI control program in developing countries. PMID:19779620

  3. Hop/STI1 modulates retinal proliferation and cell death independent of PrPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda-Carvalho, Maithe; Njaine, Brian; Silveira, Mariana S.; Linden, Rafael; Chiarini, Luciana B.

    2007-01-01

    Hop/STI1 is a co-chaperone adaptor protein for Hsp70/Hsp90 complexes. Hop/STI1 is found extracellularly and modulates cell death and differentiation through interaction with the prion protein (PrP C ). Here, we investigated the expression of hop/STI1 and its role upon cell proliferation and cell death in the developing retina. Hop/STI1 is more expressed in developing rat retina than in the mature tissue. Hop/STI1 blocks retinal cell death in the neuroblastic layer (NBL) in a PrP C dependent manner, but failed to protect ganglion cells against axotomy-induced cell death. An antibody raised against hop/STI1 (α-STI1) blocked both ganglion cell and NBL cell death independent of PrP C . cAMP/PKA, ERK, PI3K and PKC signaling pathways were not involved in these effects. Hop/STI1 treatment reduced proliferation, while α-STI1 increased proliferation in the developing retina, both independent of PrP C . We conclude that hop/STI1 can modulate both proliferation and cell death in the developing retina independent of PrP C

  4. Non-monogamy: risk factor for STI transmission and acquisition and determinant of STI spread in populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Sevgi O; Leichliter, Jami S

    2010-12-01

    The concept of concurrent partnerships, while theoretically appealing, has been challenged at many levels. However, non-monogamy may be an important risk factor for the acquisition and transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STI). One's own non-monogamy is a risk factor for transmitting STI to others, partners' non-monogamy is a risk factor for acquiring STI and, most importantly, mutual non-monogamy is a population level determinant of increased STI spread. This study describes the levels, distribution and correlates of non-monogamy, partners' non-monogamy and mutual non-monogamy among adult men and women in the USA. Data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) Cycle 6 were used. NSFG is a national household survey of subjects aged 15-44 years in the USA. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests and χ(2) tests were used in the analysis. Among sexually active adults, 17.6% of women and 23.0% of men (an estimated 19 million) reported non-monogamy over the past 12 months in 2002. An estimated 11 million Americans (1 in 10) reported partners' non-monogamy and an estimated 8.4 million (7% of women and 10.5% of men) reported mutual non-monogamy. All three types of non-monogamy were reported more frequently by men than women. Younger age, lower education, formerly or never married status, living below the poverty level and having spent time in jail were associated with all three types of non-monogamy in general. The three types of non-monogamy may be helpful in tailoring prevention messages and targeting prevention efforts to subgroups most likely to spread infection.

  5. Reducing the influence of STI on SONOS memory through optimizing added boron implantation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yue; Yan Feng; Li Zhiguo; Yang Fan; Wang Yonggang; Chang Jianguang

    2010-01-01

    The influence of shallow trench isolation (STI) on a 90 nm polysilicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon structure non-volatile memory has been studied based on experiments. It has been found that the performance of edge memory cells adjacent to STI deteriorates remarkably. The compressive stress and boron segregation induced by STI are thought to be the main causes of this problem. In order to mitigate the STI impact, an added boron implantation in the STI region is developed as a new solution. Four kinds of boron implantation experiments have been implemented to evaluate the impact of STI on edge cells, respectively. The experimental results show that the performance of edge cells can be greatly improved through optimizing added boron implantation technology. (semiconductor devices)

  6. HIV/STI interventions targeting women who experience forced sex: A systematic review of global literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Michelle E; Bhochhibhoya, Amir; Ingram, LaDrea; Stafford, Crystal; Li, Xiaoming

    2018-04-12

    Women are disproportionately affected by HIV in many regions of the world and they represent the fastest growing demographic in the HIV epidemic. In addition, sexual violence against women is a global public health issue which increases women's vulnerability of HIV/STI acquisition. However, the relationship between sexual violence and HIV/STI risk are complex and contribute to the growing epidemic of women infected with HIV/STIs. Our purpose for this review is to examine existing HIV/STI interventions that target women who experience forced sex. Interventions designed to address women's unique needs in HIV/STI prevention are critical in reducing women's vulnerability to HIV/STIs.

  7. Mapping HIV/STI behavioural surveillance in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lert France

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Used in conjunction with biological surveillance, behavioural surveillance provides data allowing for a more precise definition of HIV/STI prevention strategies. In 2008, mapping of behavioural surveillance in EU/EFTA countries was performed on behalf of the European Centre for Disease prevention and Control. Method Nine questionnaires were sent to all 31 member States and EEE/EFTA countries requesting data on the overall behavioural and second generation surveillance system and on surveillance in the general population, youth, men having sex with men (MSM, injecting drug users (IDU, sex workers (SW, migrants, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, and sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics patients. Requested data included information on system organisation (e.g. sustainability, funding, institutionalisation, topics covered in surveys and main indicators. Results Twenty-eight of the 31 countries contacted supplied data. Sixteen countries reported an established behavioural surveillance system, and 13 a second generation surveillance system (combination of biological surveillance of HIV/AIDS and STI with behavioural surveillance. There were wide differences as regards the year of survey initiation, number of populations surveyed, data collection methods used, organisation of surveillance and coordination with biological surveillance. The populations most regularly surveyed are the general population, youth, MSM and IDU. SW, patients of STI clinics and PLWHA are surveyed less regularly and in only a small number of countries, and few countries have undertaken behavioural surveys among migrant or ethnic minorities populations. In many cases, the identification of populations with risk behaviour and the selection of populations to be included in a BS system have not been formally conducted, or are incomplete. Topics most frequently covered are similar across countries, although many different indicators are used. In most

  8. Advancing STI priorities in the SDG era: priorities for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chersich, Matthew F; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Martin, Greg; Rees, Helen

    2018-01-16

    The Sustainable Development Goals present an opportunity to reimagine and then reconfigure the approach to controlling sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The predilection of STIs for women and for vulnerable populations means that services that ameliorate STIs, by their nature, enhance equity, a key focus of the goals. Given the considerable breadth and depth of the goals, it is important to locate points of convergence between the SDGs and STIs, further craft synergies with HIV and select a few population groups and settings to prioritise. There are many opportunities for STI aficionados in this era to advance the field and global control of these infections.

  9. Partner dependence and sexual risk behavior among STI clinic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Vanable, Peter A; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relation between partner dependence and sexual risk behavior in the context of the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model. STI clinic patients (n = 1432) completed a computerized interview assessing partner dependence, condom use, and IMB variables. Men had higher partner-dependence scores than women did. Patients reporting greater dependence reported less condom use. Gender did not moderate the partner dependence-condom-use relationship. Partner dependence did not moderate the relation between IMB constructs and condom use. Further research is needed to determine how partner dependence can be incorporated into conceptual models of safer sex behaviors.

  10. Frequency and determinants of consistent STI/HIV testing among men who have sex with men testing at STI outpatient clinics in the Netherlands: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maartje; Heijne, Janneke C M; Hogewoning, Arjan A; van Aar, Fleur

    2017-09-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at highest risk for STIs and HIV infections in the Netherlands. However, official guidelines on STI testing among MSM are lacking. They are advised to test for STIs at least every six months, but their testing behaviour is not well known. This study aimed to get insight into the proportion and determinants of consistent 6-monthly STI testing among MSM testing at STI outpatient clinics in the Netherlands. This study included longitudinal surveillance data of STI consultations among MSM from all 26 STI outpatient clinics in the Netherlands between 1 June 2014 and 31 December 2015. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of consistent 6-monthly testing compared with single testing and inconsistent testing. Determinants of time between consultations among men with multiple consultations were analysed using a Cox Prentice-Williams-Peterson gap-time model. A total of 34 605 STI consultations of 18 634 MSM were included. 8966 (48.1%) men had more than one consultation, and 3516 (18.9%) men tested consistently 6-monthly. Indicators of high sexual risk behaviour, including having a history of STI, being HIV positive and having more than 10 sex partners, were positively associated with both being a consistent tester and returning to the STI clinic sooner. Men who were notified by a partner or who reported STI symptoms were also more likely to return to the STI clinic sooner, but were less likely to be consistent testers, identifying a group of event-driven testers. The proportion of consistent 6-monthly testers among MSM visiting Dutch STI outpatient clinics was low. Testing behaviour was associated with sexual risk behaviour, but exact motives to test consistently remain unclear. Evidence-based testing guidelines are needed to achieve optimal reductions in STI transmission in the future. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  11. Alcohol misuse, depressive symptoms, and HIV/STI risks of US Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Brian E; Schaefer Solle, Natasha; Peragallo Montano, Nilda; Mitrani, Victoria B

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol misuse and depressive symptoms have been linked to HIV/STI risk, but studies have rarely included Hispanic women, who have over four times greater HIV incidence than white, non-Hispanic women. Understanding the connections among alcohol misuse, depressive symptoms, and HIV/STI risks may suggest ways to meet specific needs of Hispanic women. This study's objective is to examine the relationships among alcohol misuse, depressive symptoms, and seven HIV/STI risk factors. Five hundred forty-eight US Hispanic women with intake data from a randomized trial were assessed for alcohol misuse (CAGE) and depressive symptoms (CES-D). GZLM and path analyses tested relationships between alcohol misuse or depressive symptoms and HIV/STI risk factors. Self-efficacy and condom use were not related to alcohol misuse or depressive symptoms, but only 15% of women reported consistent condom use. After controlling for demographics, women with alcohol misuse had significantly more perceived HIV/STI risk (OR = 2.15) and better HIV/STI knowledge (β = -.54); and women with depressive symptoms had significantly more perceived HIV/STI risk (OR = 1.76) and worse HIV/STI knowledge (β = .37). Interventions to increase condom use for Hispanic women are needed, regardless of mental disorders. Working with Hispanic women with alcohol misuse or depressive symptoms presents a need (and opportunity) to address issues directly related to HIV/STI risk. Women's health practitioners have an excellent opportunity to reach women by implementing regular screening programs in clinics that serve Hispanic women. For women with high depressive symptoms, poor HIV/STI knowledge should also be addressed. Future studies should test whether integrated and tailored risk reduction interventions affect these factors and lower HIV/STI risk for Hispanic women.

  12. Predicting STEM Career Success by STI Knowledge Utilization Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozeman, B.; Youtie, J.; Bretschneider, S.

    2016-07-01

    As a part of discussion on knowledge utilization on science and technology, the mixed of papers presented in the panel discussion is designed to illustrate the patterns of collaboration, mobility, and diffusion of knowledge as well as those of labor force. In particular, the first two papers presented in the panel explore the potential of STEM career success through cosmopolitan collaboration and international community collaboration (focused on the relationships between China and Russia) in nanotechnology, which would provide implications on national and international benchmarking of innovation. For policy implications on graduate education and innovation, mobility pattern of non-U.S. Ph.D. degree holders is examined, and impact of a policy report on the target academic communities is investigated through development of credibility map. This panel is designed to highlight a recent effort of understanding geographical, cognitive or social spaces that are present in the scientific and technological activity as well as in doctoral education. The papers presented in this panel, therefore, will provide a rich set of significant and relevant insights drawn from examining STI knowledge utilization patterns to the STI-ENID community. The anticipated length of the event may be 90 minutes and there is no preferred number of attendees in particular although it is expected to be in between 35 and 60 at the minimum. (Author)

  13. Correlates of STI testing among vocational school students in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenbach Johan P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs. However, test rates among adolescents in the Netherlands are low and effective interventions that encourage STI testing are scarce. Adolescents who attend vocational schools are particularly at risk for STI. The purpose of this study is to inform the development of motivational health promotion messages by identifying the psychosocial correlates of STI testing intention among adolescents with sexual experience attending vocational schools. Methods This study was conducted among 501 students attending vocational schools aged 16 to 25 years (mean 18.3 years ± 2.1. Data were collected via a web-based survey exploring relationships, sexual behavior and STI testing behavior. Items measuring the psychosocial correlates of testing were derived from Fishbein's Integrative Model. Data were subjected to multiple regression analyses. Results Students reported substantial sexual risk behavior and low intention to participate in STI testing. The model explained 39% of intention to engage in STI testing. The most important predictor was attitude. Perceived norms, perceived susceptibility and test site characteristics were also significant predictors. Conclusions The present study provides important and relevant empirical input for the development of health promotion interventions aimed at motivating adolescents at vocational schools in the Netherlands to participate in STI testing. Health promotion interventions developed for this group should aim to change attitudes, address social norms and increase personal risk perception for STI while also promoting the accessibility of testing facilities.

  14. Acceptability of female-controlled HIV/STI prevention options by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The attitudes of working professionals, particularly in the healthcare sector, may play a large role in the acceptance or otherwise of female-controlled HIV/STI prevention options. In 2002, we conducted an exploratory study on the perceptions surrounding female-controlled HIV/STI prevention options, principally the ...

  15. Risk analysis due to the extension of STI for CANDU diesel generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, Moon Hak; Choi, Kwang Hee; Jung, Hyun Jong; Choi, Seong Soo [Korea electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jae Won [Atomic Creative Technology Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jin Bae [KHNP, Kyungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide technical rationale for the extension of the Surveillance Test Interval (STI) of the Standby Diesel Generator (SDG) and the Emergency Power Supply Diesel Generator (EPSDG) of CANDU plants in Korea in a reliability aspect. The current STI of 2 weeks aims to be extended to 4 weeks through this study.

  16. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances.../butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer identified in this section may be...

  17. Multiple Behavior Descriptions Affect the Acquisitions of STI and STT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Randy J; Wells, Brett M; Skowronski, John J; Carlston, Donal E

    2017-01-01

    Four studies pursued the idea that spontaneous trait inferences (STIs) involve the formation of both inferential knowledge and associative knowledge while spontaneous trait transferences (STTs) involve only the formation of associative knowledge. These studies varied the type and amount of behavioral information from which perceivers could extract trait information. Experiments 1a and 1b used a modified savings-in-relearning paradigm and demonstrated that repeated presentations of an individual and a behavior description increased the strength of association between the target and implied trait, and this effect did not depend on whether the repeated presentations involved redundant information or new information. In comparison, Experiments 2a and 2b used a trait ratings dependent variable and demonstrated that the effects of repetition were stronger for STI, but not STT, when the added information differed from information that was previously encountered, but not when it was redundant with the previously encountered information.

  18. What drives the gender gap in STEM? The SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL) as a new approach to linking indicators to STI policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, E.; Schaaper, M.; Bello, A.

    2016-07-01

    There is a large imbalance in the participation of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields across all of Latin American countries despite the fact that the region has one of the highest proportions of female researchers worldwide (44% according to UIS statistics). Female researchers face persisting institutional and cultural barriers, which limit the development of their careers and constrains their access to decision-making positions. In this framework, UNESCO has launched the STEM and Gender Advancement (SAGA) project, which has for objective to address the gender gap in STEM fields in all countries at all levels of education and research as well as to promote women’s participation in science. SAGA is a global UNESCO project with the support of the Swedish Government through the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). One of the outcomes of this project is the SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL), which is an innovative tool that aids in the identification of gaps in the policy mix. Additionally, the STI GOL configures the conceptual backbone of the SAGA project, by linking gender equality STI policy instruments with indicators. By using the STI GOL, and identifying the gender gaps, policy-makers will be able to implement evidence-based policies in STEM fields. The SAGA STI GOL is a new and innovative way of contributing to the development of effective gender sensitive policies in STI fields, both in education and in the workplace. Likewise, it enables the categorization of STI policies and instruments, with the objective of identifying gaps in the policy mix and aid in the creation and design of evidence-based public policies to promote gender equality. (Author)

  19. Alcohol Use and STI among men in India: Evidences from a national household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol use has been found to correlate with risky sexual behavior as well as with sexually transmitted infections (STI among populations with high-risk behavior in India. Objective: To examine the correlates of alcohol use and its association with STI among adult men in India. Materials and Methods: Data from a national representative large-scale household sample survey in the country were used. It included information on sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol use as a part of substance use. Clinical as well laboratory testing was done to ascertain the STI. Results: The overall STI prevalence among adult males was found to be 2.5% (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.9-3.1. Over 26% adult men were found to have been using alcohol in the study population. It was higher among men who were illiterate and unskilled industrial workers/drivers. The men who consumed alcohol had higher prevalence of STI (3.6%; 95% CI: 2.9-5.1 than those who did not consume alcohol (2.1%; 95% CI: 1.5-2.6. The degree of association between alcoholism and STI was slightly reduced after adjusting for various sociodemographic characteristics (adjusted odds ratio: 1.5; 95% CI: 0.9-2.3; P=0.06. Conclusions: The findings of present study suggest integrating alcohol risk reduction into STI/HIV prevention programmes.

  20. Profile of sexually transmitted infections (STI in patients attending ‘SURAKSHA’ clinics of Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dubey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs and sexually transmitted infections (STIs present a huge burden of disease amongst youth in India (approx. 6%. Methods: To study the profile of population affected by STI/RTI and spread amongst both sexes and classify STI according to its various types the present cross sectional study was conducted from Jan 2011 to September 2011.  A 12 days training was imparted followed by 3 days refresher training every quarter to counselors. The information was entered in a standardized Computerized Monitoring and Information System format designed by NACO and modified by state AIDS control society on daily basis. Results: There were 1, 22, 000 patients of STI/RTI in designated clinics of the state. Out of which females were 75.49% and males 24.4%. Vaginal Cervical Discharge contributed for 59.94% among the STI/RTI patients. The second major cause of STI/RTI is Lower abdominal pain 20.36%. Genital ulcer (Herpitic 2%, Non-Herpitic ulcer is 3%. The overall prevalence in MP is 5.95%. Conclusions: STI/RTI is more prevalent in females as compared to males possibly because of certain established biological factors. Vaginal Cervical Discharge remains the commonest presenting complaint in STD OPD’s amongst females followed by Lower Abdominal Pain. Indore, Bhopal, Sagar, Jabalpur and Dewas are amongst the high STI prevalent districts.

  1. STI571 (Gleevec) improves tumor growth delay and survival in irradiated mouse models of glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Ling; Shinohara, Eric T.; Kim, Dong; Tan Jiahuai; Osusky, Kate; Shyr, Yu; Hallahan, Dennis E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain neoplasm that is essentially incurable. Although radiation therapy prolongs survival, GBMs progress within areas of irradiation. Recent studies in invertebrates have shown that STI571 (Gleevec; Novartis, East Hanover, NJ) enhances the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation. In the present study, the effectiveness of STI571 in combination with radiation was studied in mouse models of GBM. Methods and Materials: Murine GL261 and human D54 GBM cell lines formed tumors in brains and hind limbs of C57BL6 and nude mice, respectively. GL261 and D54 cells were treated with 5 μmol/L of STI571 for 1 h and/or irradiated with 3 Gy. Protein was analyzed by Western immunoblots probed with antibodies to caspase 3, cleaved caspase 3, phospho-Akt, Akt, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) α and β. Tumor volumes were assessed in mice bearing GL261 or D54 tumors treated with 21 Gy administered in seven fractionated doses. Histologic sections from STI571-treated mice were stained with phospho-Akt and phospho-PDGFR β antibodies. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to study the response of mice bearing intracranial implants of GL261. Results: STI571 penetrated the blood-brain barrier, which resulted in a reduction in phospho-PDGFR in GBM. STI571-induced apoptosis in GBM was significantly enhanced by irradiation. STI571 combined with irradiation induced caspase 3 cleavage in GBM cells. Glioblastoma multiforme response to therapy correlated with an increase in tumor growth delay and survival when STI571 was administered in conjunction with daily irradiation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that STI571 has the potential to augment radiotherapy and thereby improve median survival

  2. VpStyA1/VpStyA2B of Variovorax paradoxus EPS: An Aryl Alkyl Sulfoxidase Rather than a Styrene Epoxidizing Monooxygenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Tischler

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe the first representative of an E2-type two-component styrene monooxygenase of proteobacteria. It comprises a single epoxidase protein (VpStyA1 and a two domain protein (VpStyA2B harboring an epoxidase (A2 and a FAD-reductase (B domain. It was annotated as VpStyA1/VpStyA2B of Variovorax paradoxus EPS. VpStyA2B serves mainly as NADH:FAD-oxidoreductase. A Km of 33.6 ± 4.0 µM for FAD and a kcat of 22.3 ± 1.1 s−1 were determined and resulted in a catalytic efficiency (kcat Km−1 of 0.64 s−1 μM−1. To investigate its NADH:FAD-oxidoreductase function the linker between A2- and B-domain (AREAV was mutated. One mutant (AAAAA showed 18.7-fold higher affinity for FAD (kcat Km−1 of 5.21 s−1 μM−1 while keeping wildtype NADH-affinity and -oxidation activity. Both components, VpStyA2B and VpStyA1, showed monooxygenase activity on styrene of 0.14 U mg−1 and 0.46 U mg−1, as well as on benzyl methyl sulfide of 1.62 U mg−1 and 3.11 U mg−1, respectively. The high sulfoxidase activity was the reason to test several thioanisole-like substrates in biotransformations. VpStyA1 showed high substrate conversions (up to 95% in 2 h and produced dominantly (S-enantiomeric sulfoxides of all tested substrates. The AAAAA-mutant showed a 1.6-fold increased monooxygenase activity. In comparison, the GQWCSQY-mutant did neither show monooxygenase nor efficient FAD-reductase activity. Hence, the linker between the two domains of VpStyA2B has effects on the reductase as well as on the monooxygenase performance. Overall, this monooxygenase represents a promising candidate for biocatalyst development and studying natural fusion proteins.

  3. Mean magnetic susceptibility regularized susceptibility tensor imaging (MMSR-STI) for estimating orientations of white matter fibers in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2014-09-01

    An increasing number of studies show that magnetic susceptibility in white matter fibers is anisotropic and may be described by a tensor. However, the limited head rotation possible for in vivo human studies leads to an ill-conditioned inverse problem in susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). Here we suggest the combined use of limiting the susceptibility anisotropy to white matter and imposing morphology constraints on the mean magnetic susceptibility (MMS) for regularizing the STI inverse problem. The proposed MMS regularized STI (MMSR-STI) method was tested using computer simulations and in vivo human data collected at 3T. The fiber orientation estimated from both the STI and MMSR-STI methods was compared to that from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Computer simulations show that the MMSR-STI method provides a more accurate estimation of the susceptibility tensor than the conventional STI approach. Similarly, in vivo data show that use of the MMSR-STI method leads to a smaller difference between the fiber orientation estimated from STI and DTI for most selected white matter fibers. The proposed regularization strategy for STI can improve estimation of the susceptibility tensor in white matter. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Presidendi kantselei tellis Arnold Rüütli büsti / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Presidendi kantselei sõlmis kunstnik Endel Tanilooga 31. oktoobril 2007 lepingu president Arnold Rüütli pronksbüsti tegemiseks. Kuju valmib 2008. a. jaanuaris ja paigutatakse tulevikus kantselei roosiaeda

  5. STI for Development in Asia : a Platform for Information Sharing and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will make use of available information technology platforms and regional ... (especially Southeast Asia) to share experiences and learning on the subject of STI. ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine ...

  6. [Properties of live antibiotics-resistant anthrax vaccine STI-PR after long-term storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, L Iu; Buravtseva, N P; Kogotkova, O I; Eremenko, E I; Tsygankova, O I

    2007-01-01

    Study showed that cultural, morphologic, genetic, immunologic characteristics, and resistance to antibiotics of STI-PR anthrax vaccine did not change after storage during 20 years in lyophilized condition. It has been shown that medium for lyophilization plays important role in preservation of vitality of anthrax spores. Optimal preservative properties have been observed for thioureal and sucrose-gelatinous media for lyophilization. Obtained results give reasons for prolongation of shelf live of STI-PR vaccine from 2 - 3 to 5 - 8 years.

  7. What prompts young adults in Ireland to attend health services for STI testing?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Balfe, Myles

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In-depth understanding of the factors that prompt young adults to attend health services for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing are needed to underpin sexual health programes. We conducted a qualitative study to identify and explore why young adults (18-29 years) in Ireland attended specialist and community health services for STI testing; the factors that supported\\/undermined their decisions to seek STI testing; and any factors that led to delay in seeking STI testing. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 30 adults (21 women, 9 men). Young adults were recruited from General Practice (GP) practices, Third Level College health services, Family Planning clinics and specialist STI treatment services for men who have sex with men (MSM). Interview questions examined why respondents decided to go for STI testing, whether they acted upon this desire immediately or decided to wait, and what they felt were important barriers\\/enablers to their health-seeking attempts. Interviews were thematically analyzed using standard qualitative techniques. RESULTS: Respondents sought STI testing for one of four reasons: they had reached a transitional moment in their lives (they were either about to stop using condoms with their sexual partner or were emerging from a period of their lives where they had a series of risky sexual relationships); they had had unprotected sex with a casual partner; they had symptoms of infection; and\\/or they were required to do so by their employer. Catalytic factors included media and government health promotion campaigns and knowing someone with an STI. However, many respondents delayed seeking testing. Reasons included respondents\\' concerns about stigma and that they would be judged by healthcare professionals, and feelings of invulnerability. Importantly, several respondents who waited up to four weeks to make an appointment after their initial decision to seek STI testing did not view this as delay. CONCLUSION: Sexual

  8. Modernization and unification: Strategic goals for NASA STI program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blados, W.; Cotter, Gladys A.

    1993-01-01

    Information is increasingly becoming a strategic resource in all societies and economies. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program has initiated a modernization program to address the strategic importance and changing characteristics of information. This modernization effort applies new technology to current processes to provide near-term benefits to the user. At the same time, we are developing a long-term modernization strategy designed to transition the program to a multimedia, global 'library without walls.' Notwithstanding this modernization program, it is recognized that no one information center can hope to collect all the relevant data. We see information and information systems changing and becoming more international in scope. We are finding that many nations are expending resources on national systems which duplicate each other. At the same time that this duplication exists, many useful sources of aerospace information are not being collected because of resource limitations. If nations cooperate to develop an international aerospace information system, resources can be used efficiently to cover expanded sources of information. We must consider forming a coalition to collect and provide access to disparate, multidisciplinary sources of information, and to develop standardized tools for documenting and manipulating this data and information. In view of recent technological developments in information science and technology, as well as the reality of scarce resources in all nations, it is time to explore the mutually beneficial possibilities offered by cooperation and international resource sharing. International resources need to be mobilized in a coordinated manner to move us towards this goal. This paper reviews the NASA modernization program and raises for consideration new possibilities for unification of the various aerospace database efforts toward a cooperative international aerospace database initiative that can optimize the cost

  9. The interplay of StyR and IHF regulates substrate-dependent induction and carbon catabolite repression of styrene catabolism genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens ST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoni Livia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pseudomonas fluorescens ST, the promoter of the styrene catabolic operon, PstyA, is induced by styrene and is subject to catabolite repression. PstyA regulation relies on the StyS/StyR two-component system and on the IHF global regulator. The phosphorylated response regulator StyR (StyR-P activates PstyA in inducing conditions when it binds to the high-affinity site STY2, located about -40 bp from the transcription start point. A cis-acting element upstream of STY2, named URE, contains a low-affinity StyR-P binding site (STY1, overlapping the IHF binding site. Deletion of the URE led to a decrease of promoter activity in inducing conditions and to a partial release of catabolite repression. This study was undertaken to assess the relative role played by IHF and StyR-P on the URE, and to clarify if PstyA catabolite repression could rely on the interplay of these regulators. Results StyR-P and IHF compete for binding to the URE region. PstyA full activity in inducing conditions is achieved when StyR-P and IHF bind to site STY2 and to the URE, respectively. Under catabolite repression conditions, StyR-P binds the STY1 site, replacing IHF at the URE region. StyR-P bound to both STY1 and STY2 sites oligomerizes, likely promoting the formation of a DNA loop that closes the promoter in a repressed conformation. We found that StyR and IHF protein levels did not change in catabolite repression conditions, implying that PstyA repression is achieved through an increase in the StyR-P/StyR ratio. Conclusion We propose a model according to which the activity of the PstyA promoter is determined by conformational changes. An open conformation is operative in inducing conditions when StyR-P is bound to STY2 site and IHF to the URE. Under catabolite repression conditions StyR-P cellular levels would increase, displacing IHF from the URE and closing the promoter in a repressed conformation. The balance between the open and the closed

  10. Pilot Testing an Internet-Based STI and HIV Prevention Intervention With Chilean Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Natalia; Santisteban, Daniel; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Ambrosia, Todd; Peragallo, Nilda; Lara, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among young Chilean women, and there are no STI or HIV prevention interventions available to them that incorporate technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based STI and HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI) for Chilean young women on measures of STI- and HIV-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and preventive behaviors. Design This is a pretest-posttest study. Forty young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age participated in an investigation of the I-STIPI’s preliminary efficacy on STI and HIV prevention-related outcomes between baseline and a postintervention assessment. The intervention consisted of four online modules. Data collection was conducted in Santiago, Chile. Paired-samples t test analysis was used to determine whether there were significant differences in each of the outcome variables. Findings After receiving I-STIPI, women reported a significant increase in levels of STI- and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes toward the use of condoms and perceived self-efficacy, and a reduction of risky sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners. Conclusions The I-STIPI showed promise as an Internet-based intervention that can reduce barriers to accessing preventive interventions and increase STI and HIV preventive behaviors in young Chilean women. Clinical Relevance The study provided important information about the ability of an Internet-based intervention to reduce young women’s risk factors and to provide positive preliminary efficacy on STI- and HIV-related outcomes. Internet-based interventions can eliminate many barriers to receiving prevention interventions and may prove to be cost effective. PMID:25410132

  11. Repeat Chlamydia trachomatis testing among heterosexual STI outpatient clinic visitors in the Netherlands: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maartje; van Aar, Fleur; Koedijk, Femke D H; Kampman, Carolina J G; Heijne, Janneke C M

    2017-12-20

    Chlamydia infections are common in both men and women, are often asymptomatic and can cause serious complications. Repeat testing in high-risk groups is therefore indicated. In the Netherlands, guidelines on repeat chlamydia testing differ between testing facilities, and knowledge on repeat testing behaviour is limited. Here, we analyse the current repeat testing behaviour of heterosexual STI clinic visitors, and aim to identify groups for which repeat testing advice could be advantageous. Longitudinal surveillance data from all Dutch STI outpatient clinics were used, which included all STI clinic consultations carried out among heterosexual men and women between June 2014 and December 2015. Repeat testing was defined as returning to the same STI clinic between 35 days and 12 months after initial consultation. We calculated chlamydia positivity at repeat test stratified by initial test result and time between consultations. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of repeat testing, and predictors of having a chlamydia positive repeat test. In total, 140,486 consultations in 75,487 women and 46,286 men were available for analyses. Overall, 15.4% of women and 11.1% of men returned to the STI clinic within the study period. Highest chlamydia positivity at repeat test was seen 3-5 months after initial positive test. Among both women and men, repeat testing was associated with non-Western ethnicity, having had more than two sex partners in the past 6 months, reporting STI symptoms, having a history of STI, and having a chlamydia positive initial test. Among repeat testers, chlamydia positive repeat test was most strongly associated with younger age, followed by a chlamydia positive initial test. Repeat testing most often resulted in a positive test result among young heterosexuals (<25) and heterosexuals of any age with a chlamydia infection at the initial consultation. Further efforts are needed to determine optimal repeat testing strategies.

  12. NASAwide electronic publishing system: Prototype STI electronic document distribution, stage-4 evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, Richard C.; Collins, Mary; Caswell, Pamela; Haynes, Bob; Nelson, Michael L.; Holm, Jeanne; Buquo, Lynn; Tingle, Annette; Cooper, Bill; Stiltner, Roy

    1996-01-01

    This evaluation report contains an introduction, seven chapters, and five appendices. The Introduction describes the purpose, conceptual frame work, functional description, and technical report server of the STI Electronic Document Distribution (EDD) project. Chapter 1 documents the results of the prototype STI EDD in actual operation. Chapter 2 documents each NASA center's post processing publication processes. Chapter 3 documents each center's STI software, hardware, and communications configurations. Chapter 7 documents STI EDD policy, practices, and procedures. The appendices, which arc contained in Part 2 of this document, consist of (1) STI EDD Project Plan, (2) Team members, (3) Phasing Schedules, (4) Accessing On-line Reports, and (5) Creating an HTML File and Setting Up an xTRS. In summary, Stage 4 of the NASAwide Electronic Publishing System is the final phase of its implementation through the prototyping and gradual integration of each NASA center's electronic printing systems, desktop publishing systems, and technical report servers to be able to provide to NASA's engineers, researchers, scientists, and external users the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning its activities and the result thereof to their work stations.

  13. Motives and barriers to safer sex and regular STI testing among MSM soon after HIV diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijman, Titia; Zuure, Freke; Stolte, Ineke; Davidovich, Udi

    2017-03-07

    Understanding why some recently with HIV diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM) choose for safer sex and regular STI testing, whereas others do not, is important for the development of interventions that aim to improve the sexual health of those newly infected. To gain insight into motives and barriers to condom use and regular STI testing among MSM soon after HIV diagnosis, 30 HIV-positive MSM participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews on sexual health behaviours in the first year after HIV diagnosis. Typical barriers to condom use soon after diagnosis were emotions such as anger, relief, and feelings of vulnerability. Additional barriers were related to pre-diagnosis patterns of sexual-social behaviour that were difficult to change, communication difficulties, and substance use. Barriers to STI testing revolved around perceptions of low STI risk, faulty beliefs, and burdensome testing procedures. The great diversity of motives and barriers to condom use and STI testing creates a challenge to accommodate newly infected men with information, motivation, and communication skills to match their personal needs. An adaptive, tailored intervention can be a promising tool of support.

  14. Gender ideologies, socioeconomic opportunities, and HIV/STI-related vulnerability among female, African-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Chung, Shang-en; Glass, Barbara; Ellen, Jonathan

    2008-09-01

    The importance of gender within HIV/STI prevention has become widely recognized. However, gender ideologies associated with vulnerability to HIV/STI are often examined and addressed without sufficient attention to the larger socioeconomic context within which they arise and evolve. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 155 female, African-American adolescents recruited from two health clinics in Baltimore, Maryland. Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to assess the relationships between HIV/STI vulnerability resulting from male partner concurrency, adherence to traditional female gender norms, using a measure of hyperfemininity, and perceived socioeconomic opportunity structures. The likelihood of reported partner concurrency increased significantly among participants reporting higher levels of hyperfemininity (OR = 2.08; 95%CI = 1.01-4.30). Hyperfeminine thinking and behavior was significantly lower in the context of higher perceived socioeconomic opportunity structures (OR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.79-0.95). Interventions seeking to promote gender equity and reduce HIV/STI may be more effective when the socioeconomic context of gender ideologies is assessed and addressed. Programs and policies to increase educational and professional opportunity structures, particularly among marginalized communities, should be actively integrated into HIV/STI prevention planning.

  15. Is the Speech Transmission Index (STI) a robust measure of sound system speech intelligibility performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Although RaSTI is a good indicator of the speech intelligibility capability of auditoria and similar spaces, during the past 2-3 years it has been shown that RaSTI is not a robust predictor of sound system intelligibility performance. Instead, it is now recommended, within both national and international codes and standards, that full STI measurement and analysis be employed. However, new research is reported, that indicates that STI is not as flawless, nor robust as many believe. The paper highlights a number of potential error mechanisms. It is shown that the measurement technique and signal excitation stimulus can have a significant effect on the overall result and accuracy, particularly where DSP-based equipment is employed. It is also shown that in its current state of development, STI is not capable of appropriately accounting for a number of fundamental speech and system attributes, including typical sound system frequency response variations and anomalies. This is particularly shown to be the case when a system is operating under reverberant conditions. Comparisons between actual system measurements and corresponding word score data are reported where errors of up to 50 implications for VA and PA system performance verification will be discussed.

  16. Neighborhood Condition and Geographic Locale in Assessing HIV/STI Risk Among African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani C; Valois, Robert F; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Vanable, Peter; Carey, Michael P; DiClemente, Ralph J; Romer, Daniel; Brown, Larry K; Farber, Naomi B; Salazar, Laura F

    2015-06-01

    Although region and neighborhood condition's effect on HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk has been studied separately, there is little research examining their interplay. African American adolescents (n = 1,602) from four matched cities in the Northeastern and Southeastern US completed Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interviews and submitted biospecimen samples to detect Sexually Transmitted Infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomonas). Logistic and negative binomial regressions determined HIV/STI risk differences by region, neighborhood stress, and stress-region dyads. Northeastern participants demonstrated lower HIV/STI risk while participants from higher stress neighborhoods exhibited greater risk. Relationships between neighborhood condition and ever having anal sex (p use (p partners (p partners than participants in comparable Southeastern neighborhoods (p risk.

  17. The onset of STI diagnosis through age 30: results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Karl G; Bailey, Jennifer A; Hawkins, J David; Catalano, Richard F; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine (1) whether the onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full-intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle are the setting of the study. Six hundred eight participants in three intervention conditions were interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions include teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome is the cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested as potential intervention mechanisms. Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full-intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding, and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children's social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI

  18. The Onset of STI Diagnosis through Age 30: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine (1) whether onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. Design A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Setting Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle. Analysis Sample 608 participants in three intervention conditions interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions Teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome Cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Intervention Mechanisms Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested. Analysis and Results Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. Conclusions A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children’s social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI through age 30, especially for African

  19. Teen dating violence perpetration and relation to STI and sexual risk behaviours among adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Miller, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G

    2014-06-01

    To investigate teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration (physical, sexual or psychological violence) and association with STI and related sexual risk behaviours among urban male adolescents. Adolescent male survey participants (N=134) were aged 14-20 years, recruited from urban health centres. Using crude and adjusted logistic regression, TDV perpetration was examined in relation to self-reported: STI, having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner, and consistent condom use. Over one-third of males (45%) reported any TDV; 42% reported sexual violence perpetration, 13% reported perpetrating physical violence against a dating/sexual partner and 11% reported psychological violence, including threats of physical or sexual violence. Approximately 15% of males reported having ever had an STI, one quarter reported having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner and 36% reported consistent condom use (past 3 months). In adjusted logistic regression models, TDV perpetration was significantly associated with self-reports of an STI (OR=3.3; 95% CI 1.2 to 9.2) and having sex with another person when they were supposed to be only having sex with their main partner (OR=4.8; 95% CI 2.0 to 11.4). There was no significant association between TDV perpetration and consistent condom use. Current study findings are the first within the literature on adolescents to suggest that greater STI and sexual risk behaviours among male adolescents perpetrating TDV may be one mechanism explaining increased STI among female adolescents reporting TDV victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Findings from Encontros: a multi-level STI/HIV intervention to increase condom use, reduce STI, and change the social environment among sex workers in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippman, Sheri A.; Chinaglia, Magda; Donini, Angela A.; Diaz, Juan; Reingold, Arthur; Kerrigan, Deanna L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention programs which do not modify social-structural contexts that contribute to risk of STI/HIV may fail to bring about improvements in health, particularly among groups who experience discrimination and exclusion from public life. We conducted a multi-level intervention with sex workers, including improved clinical care and community mobilizing strategies to modify social-structural factors that shape sexual behavior, in order to improve condom use and reduce incident STI. Methods We followed 420 sex workers participating in the Encontros intervention in Corumbá, Brazil from 2003-2005. We estimated the effect of the intervention on incident chlamydia and gonorrhea infections and condom use using generalized estimating equations and inverse probability weighting by comparing those who actively engaged in the intervention activities (exposed) to those who were less engaged (unexposed). We also determined the association of participation on reported social cohesion and participation in networks. Results Exposed participants had significantly higher odds of reporting consistent condom use with regular clients (OR:1.9, 95%CI:1.1-3.3) and non-significantly increased odds with both new clients (OR:1.6, 0.9-2.8) and nonpaying partners (OR:1.5, 0.9-1.5). The odds of an incident STI were non-significantly reduced for exposed participants compared to unexposed (OR:0.46, 0.2-1.3). Participation was significantly associated with increased perceived cohesion and participation in networks. Conclusion This prospective study provides evidence that multi-level interventions with mobilizing strategies to modify aspects of the social environment can improve condom use, reduce STIs, and increase social cohesion and participation in networks among sex workers. PMID:22337108

  1. Findings from Encontros: a multilevel STI/HIV intervention to increase condom use, reduce STI, and change the social environment among sex workers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippman, Sheri A; Chinaglia, Magda; Donini, Angela A; Diaz, Juan; Reingold, Arthur; Kerrigan, Deanna L

    2012-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention programs, which do not modify social structural contexts that contribute to risk of STI/HIV may fail to bring about improvements in health, particularly among groups who experience discrimination and exclusion from public life. We conducted a multilevel intervention with sex workers, including improved clinical care and community-mobilizing strategies to modify social structural factors that shape sexual behavior, to improve condom use and reduce incident STI. We followed 420 sex workers participating in the Encontros intervention in Corumbá, Brazil, between 2003 and 2005. We estimated the effect of the intervention on incident chlamydia and gonorrhea infections and condom use using generalized estimating equations and inverse probability weighting by comparing those who actively engaged in the intervention activities (exposed) with those who were less engaged (unexposed). We also determined the association of participation on reported social cohesion and participation in networks. Exposed participants had significantly higher odds of reporting consistent condom use with regular clients (odds ratio [OR]: 1.9, 95% confidence interval:1.1-3.3) and nonsignificantly increased odds with both new clients (OR: 1.6, 0.9-2.8) and nonpaying partners (OR: 1.5, 0.9-1.5). The odds of an incident STI were nonsignificantly reduced for exposed participants compared with unexposed (OR: 0.46, 0.2-1.3). Participation was significantly associated with increased perceived cohesion and participation in networks. This prospective study provides evidence that multilevel interventions with mobilizing strategies to modify aspects of the social environment can improve condom use, reduce STIs, and increase social cohesion and participation in networks among sex workers.

  2. Can Internet-Based Sexual Health Services Increase Diagnoses of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI)? Protocol for a Randomized Evaluation of an Internet-Based STI Testing and Results Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emma; Free, Caroline; Morris, Tim P; Kenward, Michael G; Syred, Jonathan; Baraitser, Paula

    2016-01-15

    Ensuring rapid access to high quality sexual health services is a key public health objective, both in the United Kingdom and internationally. Internet-based testing services for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are considered to be a promising way to achieve this goal. This study will evaluate a nascent online STI testing and results service in South East London, delivered alongside standard face-to-face STI testing services. The aim of this study is to establish whether an online testing and results services can (1) increase diagnoses of STIs and (2) increase uptake of STI testing, when delivered alongside standard face-to-face STI testing services. This is a single-blind randomized controlled trial. We will recruit 3000 participants who meet the following eligibility criteria: 16-30 years of age, resident in the London boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark, having at least one sexual partner in the last 12 months, having access to the Internet and willing to take an STI test. People unable to provide informed consent and unable to read and understand English (the websites will be in English) will be excluded. Baseline data will be collected at enrolment. This includes participant contact details, demographic data (date of birth, gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation), and sexual health behaviors (last STI test, service used at last STI test and number of sexual partners in the last 12 months). Once enrolled, participants will be randomly allocated either (1) to an online STI testing and results service (Sexual Health 24) offering postal self-administered STI kits for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and HIV; results via text message (short message service, SMS), except positive results for HIV, which will be delivered by phone; and direct referrals to local clinics for treatment or (2) to a conventional sexual health information website with signposting to local clinic-based sexual health services. Participants will be free to use any other interventions

  3. Evaluating a Pregnancy and STI Prevention Programme in Rural, At-Risk, Middle School Girls in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Julie C.; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Graber, Julia A.; Johnson, Kelly J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Young people in urban areas are often the focus of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention programmes because of their high risk of unwanted pregnancy and contracting an STI. Young people in rural areas are far less studied but also have a high risk of similar outcomes. This study evaluates Giving Our Girls…

  4. 76 FR 24883 - DNB Exports LLC, and AFI Elektromekanikanik Ve Elektronik San. Tic. Ltd. Sti. v. Barsan Global...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION [Docket No. 11-07] DNB Exports LLC, and AFI Elektromekanikanik Ve Elektronik San. Tic. Ltd. Sti. v. Barsan Global Lojistiks Ve Gumruk Musavirligi A.S., Barsan International... AFI Elektromekanikanik Ve Elektronik San. Tic. Ltd. Sti. (``AFI''), hereinafter ``Complainants...

  5. Linearity and Nonlinearity in HIV/STI Transmission: Implications for the Evaluation of Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Chesson, Harrell W.; Crosby, Richard A.; Layde, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI) transmission was used to examine how linearity or nonlinearity in the relationship between the number of unprotected sex acts (or the number of sex partners) and the risk of acquiring HIV or a highly infectious STI (such as gonorrhea or chlamydia) affects the utility of sexual…

  6. The study on the effect of pattern density distribution on the STI CMP process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sub, Yoon Myung; Hian, Bernard Yap Tzen; Fong, Lee It; Anak, Philip Menit; Minhar, Ariffin Bin; Wui, Tan Kim; Kim, Melvin Phua Twang; Jin, Looi Hui; Min, Foo Thai

    2017-08-01

    The effects of pattern density on CMP characteristics were investigated using specially designed wafer for the characterization of pattern-dependencies in STI CMP [1]. The purpose of this study is to investigate the planarization behavior based on a direct STI CMP used in cerium (CeO2) based slurry system in terms of pattern density variation. The minimal design rule (DR) of 180nm generation technology node was adopted for the mask layout. The mask was successfully applied for evaluation of a cerium (CeO2) abrasive based direct STI CMP process. In this study, we described a planarization behavior of the loading-effects of pattern density variation which were characterized with layout pattern density and pitch variations using masks mentioned above. Furthermore, the characterizing pattern dependent on the variations of the dimensions and spacing features, in thickness remaining after CMP, were analyzed and evaluated. The goal was to establish a concept of library method which will be used to generate design rules reducing the probability of CMP-related failures. Details of the characterization were measured in various layouts showing different pattern density ranges and the effects of pattern density on STI CMP has been discussed in this paper.

  7. Correlates of STI testing among vocational school students in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.G. Wolfers (Mireille); G.J. Kok (Gerjo); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); O. de Zwart (Onno)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Adolescents are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, test rates among adolescents in the Netherlands are low and effective interventions that encourage STI testing are scarce. Adolescents who attend vocational schools are particularly at risk

  8. Motives and barriers to safer sex and regular STI testing among MSM soon after HIV diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, Titia; Zuure, Freke; Stolte, Ineke; Davidovich, Udi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why some recently with HIV diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM) choose for safer sex and regular STI testing, whereas others do not, is important for the development of interventions that aim to improve the sexual health of those newly infected. To gain insight into motives and

  9. A Group Intervention for HIV/STI Risk Reduction among Indian Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Nehra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV in India is transmitted primarily by heterosexual contact. The present study sought to test the feasibility of a group HIV/STI risk reduction intervention among heterosexual couples in India. Methods: Focus groups and key informant interviews were used in 2008 to culturally tailor the intervention. Thirty sexually active and HIV/STI negative couples were enrolled and assessed regarding risk behavior and sexual barrier acceptability. Gender-concordant group sessions used cognitive behavioral strategies for HIV/STI prevention. Results: At baseline, male condom use was low (36%; no participants reported use of female condoms or vaginal gels. HIV knowledge was low; women had more HIV knowledge and more positive attitudes towards condom use than men. Post-intervention, willingness to use all barrier products (t = 10.0, P< .001 and intentions to avoid risk behavior increased (t = 5.62, P< .001. Conclusion: This study illustrates the feasibility of utilizing a group intervention to enhance HIV/STI risk reduction among Indian couples.

  10. From Interactive Open Learner Modelling to Intelligent Mentoring: STyLE-OLM and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Vania; Brna, Paul

    2016-01-01

    STyLE-OLM (Dimitrova 2003 "International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education," 13, 35-78) presented a framework for interactive open learner modelling which entails the development of the means by which learners can "inspect," "discuss" and "alter" the learner model that has been jointly…

  11. A Neglected Population: Drug-Using Women and Women's Methods of HIV/STI Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Erica L.

    2008-01-01

    Women drug users are at extremely high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from sexual transmission, but remain seriously neglected in intervention research promoting women-initiated methods of HIV/STI prevention. Sparse available data indicate a high interest and enthusiasm for women-initiated methods among these women.…

  12. Disassortative sexual mixing among migrant populations in The Netherlands: a potential for HIV/STI transmission?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, M. G.; Kramer, M. A.; Op de Coul, E. L. M.; van Leeuwen, A. P.; de Zwart, O.; van de Laar, M. J. W.; Coutinho, R. A.; Prins, M. [= Maria

    2009-01-01

    To gain insight into the transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) among large migrant groups in the Netherlands, we studied the associations between their demographic and sexual characteristics, in particular condom use, and their sexual mixing patterns with other ethnic groups.

  13. Kui hästi või halvasti ... / Jaak Aaviksoo, Piret Hartman, Heli Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aaviksoo, Jaak, 1954-

    2003-01-01

    TÜ rektor J. Aaviksoo, Üliõpilaskondade Liidu juhatuse esimees P. Hartman ja Haridus- ja Teadusministeeriumi kõrghariduse talituse juhataja H. Aru vastavad küsimusele, kui hästi või halvasti on end õigustanud kõrghariduses aasta toiminud 3+2 süsteem

  14. Mediation Analysis of an Adolescent HIV/STI/Pregnancy Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Jill R.; Franks, Heather M.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Coyle, Karin K.

    2014-01-01

    Most interventions designed to prevent HIV/STI/pregnancy risk behaviours in young people have multiple components based on psychosocial theories (e.g. social cognitive theory) dictating sets of mediating variables to influence to achieve desired changes in behaviours. Mediation analysis is a method for investigating the extent to which a variable…

  15. Romantic Relationships: An Important Context for HIV/STI and Pregnancy Prevention Programmes with Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin K.; Anderson, Pamela M.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill; Walker, James D.; Charles, Vignetta Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Romantic relationships are central in the lives of young people. This paper uses data on romantic relationships from urban youth in the USA to illustrate how using a relationships perspective in HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention programmes broadens the skills and content covered, and contextualises the learning to enhance relevance and use.…

  16. Male Circumcision and STI Acquisition in Britain: Evidence from a National Probability Sample Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Homfray

    Full Text Available It is well-established that male circumcision reduces acquisition of HIV, herpes simplex virus 2, chancroid, and syphilis. However, the effect on the acquisition of non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infections (STIs remains unclear. We examined the relationship between circumcision and biological measures of three STIs: human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium.A probability sample survey of 15,162 men and women aged 16-74 years (including 4,060 men aged 16-44 years was carried out in Britain between 2010 and 2012. Participants completed a computer-assisted personal interview, including a computer-assisted self-interview, which asked about experience of STI diagnoses, and circumcision. Additionally, 1,850 urine samples from sexually-experienced men aged 16-44 years were collected and tested for STIs. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR to quantify associations between circumcision and i self-reporting any STI diagnosis and ii presence of STIs in urine, in men aged 16-44 years, adjusting for key socio-demographic and sexual behavioural factors.The prevalence of circumcision in sexually-experienced men aged 16-44 years was 17.4% (95%CI 16.0-19.0. There was no association between circumcision and reporting any previous STI diagnoses, and specifically previous chlamydia or genital warts. However, circumcised men were less likely to have any HPV type (AOR 0.26, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.13-0.50 including high-risk HPV types (HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and/or 68 (AOR 0.14, 95% CI 0.05-0.40 detected in urine.Circumcised men had reduced odds of HPV detection in urine. These findings have implications for improving the precision of models of STI transmission in populations with different circumcision prevalence and in designing interventions to reduce STI acquisition.

  17. Internet-accessed sexually transmitted infection (e-STI testing and results service: A randomised, single-blind, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Wilson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet-accessed sexually transmitted infection testing (e-STI testing is increasingly available as an alternative to testing in clinics. Typically this testing modality enables users to order a test kit from a virtual service (via a website or app, collect their own samples, return test samples to a laboratory, and be notified of their results by short message service (SMS or telephone. e-STI testing is assumed to increase access to testing in comparison with face-to-face services, but the evidence is unclear. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of an e-STI testing and results service (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, HIV, and syphilis on STI testing uptake and STI cases diagnosed.The study took place in the London boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark. Between 24 November 2014 and 31 August 2015, we recruited 2,072 participants, aged 16-30 years, who were resident in these boroughs, had at least 1 sexual partner in the last 12 months, stated willingness to take an STI test, and had access to the internet. Those unable to provide consent and unable to read English were excluded. Participants were randomly allocated to receive 1 text message with the web link of an e-STI testing and results service (intervention group or to receive 1 text message with the web link of a bespoke website listing the locations, contact details, and websites of 7 local sexual health clinics (control group. Participants were free to use any other services or interventions during the study period. The primary outcomes were self-reported STI testing at 6 weeks, verified by patient record checks, and self-reported STI diagnosis at 6 weeks, verified by patient record checks. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of participants prescribed treatment for an STI, time from randomisation to completion of an STI test, and time from randomisation to treatment of an STI. Participants were sent a £10 cash incentive on submission of self-reported data. We

  18. Assessing perceived risk and STI prevention behavior: a national population-based study with special reference to HPV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Leval

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To better understand trends in sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention, specifically low prevalence of condom use with temporary partners, the aim of this study was to examine factors associated with condom use and perceptions of STI risk amongst individuals at risk, with the underlying assumption that STI risk perceptions and STI prevention behaviors are correlated. METHODS: A national population-based survey on human papillomavirus (HPV and sexual habits of young adults aged 18-30 was conducted in Sweden in 2007, with 1712 men and 8855 women participating. Regression analyses stratified by gender were performed to measure condom use with temporary partners and STI risk perception. RESULTS: Men's condom use was not associated with STI risk perception while women's was. Awareness of and disease severity perceptions were not associated with either condom use or risk perception though education level correlated with condom use. Women's young age at sexual debut was associated with a higher risk of non-condom use later in life (OR 1.95 95% CI: 1.46-2.60. Women with immigrant mothers were less likely to report seldom/never use of condoms with temporary partners compared to women with Swedish-born mothers (OR 0.53 95% CI: 0.37-0.77. Correlates to STI risk perception differ substantially between sexes. Number of reported temporary partners was the only factor associated for both men and women with condom use and STI risk perception. CONCLUSIONS: Public health interventions advocating condom use with new partners could consider employing tactics besides those which primarily aim to increase knowledge or self-perceived risk if they are to be more effective in STI reduction. Gender-specific prevention strategies could be effective considering the differences found in this study.

  19. Effect of STI stress on leakage and Vccmin of a sub-65 nm node low-power SRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T-H; Fang, Y-K; Chiang, Y-T; Chiu, H Y; Chen, M-S; Cheng, Osbert

    2008-01-01

    In the paper, for the first time, the effects of shallow trench isolation (STI) stress enhanced boron diffusion on band-to-band (BTBT) leakage and V ccmin of a 65 nm node low-power SRAM are investigated in detail. High temperature oxidation in the STI process induces an elastic stress to enhance the diffusion of boron dopants, thus leading to a significant increase in BTBT on the STI edge sidewall. The enhanced boron diffusion is more serious for a shorter and/or narrower device, thus worsening the mismatch of the threshold voltage and V ccmin of the devices in a 65 nm node SRAM cell significantly

  20. Bypassing the 'rapid-clearance-in-males-buffer': A fourth mechanism to explain how concurrency enhances STI spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R

    2017-12-01

    A number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) persist for a considerably shorter period in the male urethra than the vagina. If the gap between sequential partnerships is longer than the duration of STI colonization in males, then this would protect future female partners from this STI in a setting of serial monogamy. If, however, males have more than one partner at a time (concurrency), then this would enable the STI to bypass this gap/buffer. We therefore propose bypassing the rapid-clearance-in-males-buffer as a fourth mechanism, whereby concurrency could enhance the spread of STIs.

  1. Epidemiological features of scabies and STI in the Saratov area from 1991 till 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshetnikova E.M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

     

    The study presents the comparative analysis of scabies and STI incidence in different groups of population in Saratov region from 1991 till 2010. Principal causes and factors supporting epidemic process of infectious diseases in this region on an extent of 2 decades are revealed. It is established that if the basic group patients with scabies were children, teenagers and people at the age from 20 to 29 years, so, in the group with STI there were patients aged from 18 to 29 years. Besides, it was proved that over the last years early and late latent forms of syphilis and neurosyphilis prevail among patients in age group from 40 to 60 years. It leads to disability, and sometimes invalidism quite often.

  2. The Updated BaSTI Stellar Evolution Models and Isochrones. I. Solar-scaled Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Pietrinferni, Adriano; Cassisi, Santi

    2018-01-01

    We present an updated release of the BaSTI (a Bag of Stellar Tracks and Isochrones) stellar model and isochrone library for a solar-scaled heavy element distribution. The main input physics that have been changed from the previous BaSTI release include the solar metal mixture, electron conduction...... to metal enrichment ratio dY/dZ = 1.31. The isochrones cover an age range between 20 Myr and 14.5 Gyr, consistently take into account the pre-main-sequence phase, and have been translated to a large number of popular photometric systems. Asteroseismic properties of the theoretical models have also been...... calculated. We compare our isochrones with results from independent databases and with several sets of observations to test the accuracy of the calculations. All stellar evolution tracks, asteroseismic properties, and isochrones are made available through a dedicated web site....

  3. Societal goals, STI policies and socio-technical transitions : the case of the Dutch smart mobility policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salas Girones, E.

    2017-01-01

    This research explores the potential value of incorporating a transition perspective in terms of goal setting, rationales, and instruments used in STI policies using the smart mobility policy in the Netherlands as a case study.

  4. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction to Understand College Students' STI Testing Beliefs, Intentions, and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombacher, Kevin; Dai, Minhao; Matig, Jacob J; Harrington, Nancy Grant

    2018-03-22

    To identify salient behavioral determinants related to STI testing among college students by testing a model based on the integrative model of behavioral (IMBP) prediction. 265 undergraduate students from a large university in the Southeastern US. Formative and survey research to test an IMBP-based model that explores the relationships between determinants and STI testing intention and behavior. Results of path analyses supported a model in which attitudinal beliefs predicted intention and intention predicted behavior. Normative beliefs and behavioral control beliefs were not significant in the model; however, select individual normative and control beliefs were significantly correlated with intention and behavior. Attitudinal beliefs are the strongest predictor of STI testing intention and behavior. Future efforts to increase STI testing rates should identify and target salient attitudinal beliefs.

  5. Awakening the Biodiversity Potential trough ST&I Investments in the Sector of Amazonian Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    e Souza Frickmann, Fabiana dos Santos; Guimarães Vasconcellos, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnological development conciliated to Amazonian biodiversity represents a big potential for richness to Brazil. This study analyses the Brazilian investments in ST&I Amazonia's, utilizing as indicator for that, the resources applied in R&D and the patent appli;cations coming from Amazon, which were filed with the National Institute of Industrial Property during the period from 2003 to 2008. The objective is to analyze how where such investments applied by the Ministry of Science, Te...

  6. Establishing a research agenda for scientific and technical information (STI) - Focus on the user

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses the relationship between library science and information science theory and practice, between the development of conceptual understanding, and the practical competence of information professionals. Consideration is given to the concept of research, linking theory with practice, and the reality of theory based practice. Attention is given to the need for research and research priorities, focus on the user and information-seeking behavior, and a user-oriented research agenda for STI.

  7. Establishing a research agenda for Scientific and Technical Information (STI): Focus on the user

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses the relationship between library science and information science theory and practice, between the development of conceptual understanding, and the practical competence of information professionals. Consideration is given to the concept of research, linking theory with practice, and the reality of theory based practice. Attention is given to the need for research and research priorities, focus on the user and information-seeking behavior, and a user-oriented research agenda for STI.

  8. Expression of Leishmania major LmSTI1 in Yeast Pichia Pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shokri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmania major LmSTI1 is a conserved protein among different species of leishmania, and expressed in both amastigote and promastigote forms of L. major life cycle. It has previously been expressed in bacterial systems.Materials and Methods: To express LmSTI1 in the methylotrophic yeast         Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris, the shuttle vector pPICZA containing gene lmsti1 was constructed under the control of the AOX1 promoter. The recombinant vector was electro-transformed into P. pastoris, and induced by 0.5% methanol in the buffered medium. The expression of the LmSTI1 protein was visualized in the total soluble protein of P. pastoris by 12% SDS-PAGE, and further confirmed by Western blotting with L.major-infected mouse sera and HRP-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG as the first and secondary antibodies, respectively.Results: The expression level was 0.2% of total soluble proteins.Conclusion: It might be possible to use this formulation as a whole yeast candidate vaccine against cutaneous leishmanization.

  9. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: role of spiral CT in diagnosis and evaluation of treatment with STI571

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jiawang; Zhou Linjiang; Wei Jiangong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT appearance of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) after oral imatinib mesylate (STI571) treatment. Methods: CT scans of 58 cases of GISTs proven by histology and immunohistochemistry were retrospectively analyzed. Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT of 8 patients after STI571 treatment was also evaluated. Results: The tumors originated from the stomach (n=28), small intestine (n=12), duodenum (n=6), colon (n=5), rectum (n=4), mesentery (n=2), and esophagus (n=2). Small GISTs appeared as round or oval, endo- or exophytic masses with well-defined margins and homogeneous contrast enhancement. Large lesions were often irregular infiltrative exophytic masses with heterogeneous enhancement. Ulceration, fistulization and neovascularity can be seen within the larger tumors. CT scans of 5 patients with good treatment response showed rapid transition form a heterogeneously hyper-attenuating pattern to homogeneously hypo-attenuating pattern with resolution of the enhancing tumor nodules and decreased tumor neovascularity. In 3 poor responders, CT showed enlarging or new enhancing nodules within the treated hypo-attenuating tumor, new lesions or metastasis outside the primary tumor. Conclusion: CT can demonstrate changes resulting from treatment of GISTs. It is valuable for guiding and assessing treatment response to STI571. (authors)

  10. Effect of STI-571 (imatinib mesylate) in combination with retinoic acid and γ-irradiation on viability of neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, Jochen; Zambrzycka, Izabella; Lagodny, Jeanette; Kontny, Udo; Niemeyer, Charlotte Marie

    2006-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) expresses the tyrosine kinase receptors c-Kit, PDGFR-α and -β-targets for STI-571.We investigated a possible combination therapy of STI-571 with retinoic acid (RA) and γ-irradiation on NB cell viability in vitro. Expression of tyrosine kinase receptors and their ligands was examined in 6 NB cell lines by RT-PCR and FACS. The effect on cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Cell viability of all 6 NB cell lines was significantly inhibited after treatment with 20 μM STI-571 for 72 h, two cell lines responding already to 10 μM. Cell lines responded irrespective of their mRNA status or cell surface expression of c-Kit, PDGFR-α and -β. Co-incubation with 9-cis RA sensitized cells to the inhibitory effects of STI-571. However, pre-treatment with 9-cis RA resulted in resistance of NB cell lines to STI-571 and γ-irradiation. Treatment of NB with STI-571 in combination with 9-cis RA might be a therapeutic strategy for patients in consolidation therapy who have completed γ-irradiation therapy

  11. The Hsp90 co-chaperones Sti1, Aha1, and P23 regulate adaptive responses to antifungal azoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokui Gu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90 is essential for tumor progression in humans and drug resistance in fungi. However, the roles of its many co-chaperones in antifungal resistance are unknown. In this study, by susceptibility test of Neurospora crassa mutants lacking each of 18 Hsp90/Calcineurin system member genes (including 8 Hsp90 co-chaperone genes to antifungal drugs and other stresses, we demonstrate that the Hsp90 co-chaperones Sti1 (Hop1 in yeast, Aha1, and P23 (Sba1 in yeast were required for the basal resistance to antifungal azoles and heat stress. Deletion of any of them resulted in hypersensitivity to azoles and heat. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis showed that the toxic sterols eburicol and 14α-methyl-3,6-diol were significantly accumulated in the sti1 and p23 deletion mutants after ketoconazole treatment, which has been shown before to led to cell membrane stress. At the transcriptional level, Aha1, Sti1, and P23 positively regulate responses to ketoconazole stress by erg11 and erg6, key genes in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. Aha1, Sti1, and P23 are highly conserved in fungi, and sti1 and p23 deletion also increased the susceptibility to azoles in Fusarium verticillioides. These results indicate that Hsp90-cochaperones Aha1, Sti1, and P23 are critical for the basal azole resistance and could be potential targets for developing new antifungal agents.

  12. Group Sex Events and HIV/STI Risk in an Urban Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Samuel R.; Bolyard, Melissa; Khan, Maria; Maslow, Carey; Sandoval, Milagros; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Krauss, Beatrice; Aral, Sevgi O.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe: a. the prevalence and individual and network characteristics of group sex events (GSE) and GSE attendees; and b. HIV/STI discordance among respondents who said they went to a GSE together. Methods and Design In a sociometric network study of risk partners (defined as sexual partners, persons with whom respondents attended a GSE, or drug-injection partners) in Brooklyn, NY, we recruited a high-risk sample of 465 adults. Respondents reported on GSE attendance, the characteristics of GSEs, and their own and others’ behaviors at GSEs. Sera and urines were collected and STI prevalence was assayed. Results Of the 465 participants, 36% had attended a GSE in the last year, 26% had sex during the most recent of these GSEs, and 13% had unprotected sex there. Certain subgroups (hard drug users, men who have sex with men, women who have sex with women, and sex workers) were more likely to attend and more likely to engage in risk behaviors at these events. Among 90 GSE dyads in which at least one partner named the other as someone with whom they attended a GSE in the previous three months, STI/HIV discordance was common (HSV-2: 45% of dyads, HIV: 12% of dyads, Chlamydia: 21% of dyads). Many GSEs had 10 or more participants, and multiple partnerships at GSEs were common. High attendance rates at GSEs among members of large networks may increase community vulnerability to STI/HIV, particularly since network data show that almost all members of a large sociometric risk network either had sex with a GSE attendee or had sex with someone who had sex with a GSE attended. Conclusions Self-reported GSE attendance and participation was common among this high-risk sample. STI/HIV discordance among GSE attendees was high, highlighting the potential transmission risk associated with GSEs. Research on sexual behaviors should incorporate measures of GSE behaviors as standard research protocol. Interventions should be developed to reduce transmission at GSEs. PMID

  13. HIV and STI prevalence and determinants among male migrant workers in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta S Dave

    Full Text Available Our objective was to estimate for the first time the prevalence and determinants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and sexually transmitted infections (STIs among male migrants in India.We conducted a multi-stage stratified probability sample survey of migrant (defined as not born in Surat city men aged 18 to 49 years working in the diamond and textile industries in Surat city. Behavioural and biological data were collected. Biological data included laboratory diagnosed herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, Trichomonas vaginalis (together defined as 'any STI' and HIV-1. Likely recently acquired STIs included chlamydia, gonorrhoea, T. vaginalis and syphilis with rapid plasma reagin ≥1:8. The response rate was 77% (845/1099. Among 841 participants, HIV-1 prevalence was 1.0%, 'any STI' prevalence was 9.5% and 38.9% of these STIs were likely to have been recently acquired. Being a diamond worker, Surat resident for 10+ years and recent antibiotic use were each associated with higher odds of 'any STI' (aORs 1.83 (95% CI 1.09-3.09, 1.98 (95% CI 1.22-3.22 and 2.57 (95% CI 1 .17-5.64, respectively after adjusting for the other two factors and age. The main study limitation was social desirability bias for self-reported sexual behaviour; STIs were diagnosed in some self-reported virgins.HIV and STI prevalence were lower than expected, but prevention interventions remain necessary in Surat since almost 40% of STIs among participants were probably recently acquired and sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence remains high. The participants had a similar HIV prevalence to Surat antenatal clinic attendees, a proxy for the general population. This suggests migrants are not always at higher risk of HIV compared to the general population in their migration destination. Our findings highlight the need to contextualise research findings from a specific setting with other local information to guide HIV/STI prevention

  14. Prognostic factors for hearing preservation following observation-only versus stereotactic irradiation (STI) in patients with acoustic neuroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Tooru

    1998-01-01

    Prognostic factors for hearing preservation following observation-only versus STI were compared in patients with acoustic neuroma. There were 48 patients with acoustic neuroma treated by fractionated STI. Between 1991 and 1997, patients were given 36 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks (36 Gy/20 Fr/5 wks) to 44 Gy/22 Fr/6 wks followed by a 4 Gy boost. A linear accelerator was used for irradiation. Twenty-three patients with acoustic neuroma who were followed without any treatment (observation-only group) were selected as matched controls. The largest hearing loss was observed at the frequency of 2 kHz in the observation-only group and at 1-2 kHz in the STI group. Hearing loss at lkHz was more frequent in the STI group (p<0.01). There were no significant prognostic factors which predicted hearing preservation in the observation-only group. Stereotactic irradiation has been suggested to damage to cochlear nerve function in patients whose cochlear nerve had been impaired already. Tumor control rate of STI appeared to be as good as single fraction radiosurgery rates in the literature and better than in the observation-only group. Hearing preservation rate in the STI group was as good as in the observation-only group and appeared to be better than single fraction radiosurgery. In conclusion, because there were no factors predictive of hearing preservation in the observation-only group, it is difficult to select patients for observation only. Fractionated STI is potentially the treatment of choice, resulting in the same hearing preservation rate as achieved with observation only, although longer follow-up periods are needed. (author)

  15. Promoting STI testing among senior vocational students in Rotterdam, the Netherlands: effects of a cluster randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfers Mireille

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents are a risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs. In the Netherlands, senior vocational school students are particular at risk. However, STI test rates among adolescents are low and interventions that promote testing are scarce. To enhance voluntary STI testing, an intervention was designed and evaluated in senior vocational schools. The intervention combined classroom health education with sexual health services at the school site. The purpose of this study was to assess the combined and single effects on STI testing of health education and school-based sexual health services. Methods In a cluster-randomized study the intervention was evaluated in 24 schools, using three experimental conditions: 1 health education, 2 sexual health services; 3 both components; and a control group. STI testing was assessed by self reported behavior and registrations at regional sexual health services. Follow-up measurements were performed at 1, 3, and 6-9 months. Of 1302 students present at baseline, 739 (57% completed at least 1 follow-up measurement, of these students 472 (64% were sexually experienced, and considered to be susceptible for the intervention. Multi-level analyses were conducted. To perform analyses according to the principle of intention-to-treat, missing observations at follow-up on the outcome measure were imputed with multiple imputation techniques. Results were compared with the complete cases analysis. Results Sexually experienced students that received the combined intervention of health education and sexual health services reported more STI testing (29% than students in the control group (4% (OR = 4.3, p Conclusions Despite a low dose of intervention that was received by the students and a high attrition, we were able to show an intervention effect among sexually experienced students on STI testing. This study confirmed our hypothesis that offering health education to vocational students

  16. Do Health Promotion Messages Integrate Unintended Pregnancy and STI Prevention? A Content Analysis of Online Information for Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Riley J; Rasberry, Catherine N; Sales, Jessica M; Gaydos, Laura M; Pazol, Karen; Kramer, Michael; Swartzendruber, Andrea

    2018-04-20

    Recently there have been calls to strengthen integration of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention messages, spurred by increasing use of long-acting reversible contraception. To assess the extent to which public health/clinical messages about unintended pregnancy prevention also address STI prevention, we conducted a content analysis of web-based health promotion information for young people. Websites identified through a systematic Google search were eligible for inclusion if they were operated by a United States-based organization with a mission related to public health/clinical services and the URL included: 1) original content; 2) about sexual and reproductive health; 3) explicitly for adolescents and/or young adults. Using defined protocols, URLs were screened and content was selected and analyzed thematically. Many of the 32 eligible websites presented information about pregnancy and STI prevention separately. Concurrent discussion of the two topics was often limited to statements about (1) strategies that can prevent both outcomes (abstinence, condoms only, condoms plus moderate or highly effective contraceptive methods) and (2) contraceptive methods that confer no STI protection. We also identified framing of condom use with moderate or highly effective contraceptive method for back-up pregnancy prevention but not STI prevention. STI prevention methods in addition to condoms, such as STI/HIV testing, vaccination, or pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis, were typically not addressed with pregnancy prevention information. There may be missed opportunities for promoting STI prevention online in the context of increasing awareness of and access to a full range of contraceptive methods. Strengthening messages that integrate pregnancy and STI prevention may include: describing STI prevention strategies when noting that birth control methods do not prevent STIs; promoting a full complement of STI prevention strategies; and

  17. The STiC ASIC. High precision timing with silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harion, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Silicon Photomultipliers are being increasingly used for Time of Flight measurements in particle detectors. To utilize the high intrinsic time resolution of these sensors in detector systems, the development of specialized, highly integrated readout electronics is required. In this thesis, a mixed-signal application specific integrated circuit, named STiC, has been developed, characterized and integrated in a detector system. STiC has been specifically designed for high precision timing measurements with SiPMs, and is in particular dedicated to the EndoTOFPET-US project, which aims to achieve a coincidence time resolution of 200 ps FWHM and an energy resolution of less than 20% in an endoscopic positron emission tomography system. The chip integrates 64 high precision readout channels for SiPMs together with a digital core logic to process, store and transfer the recorded events to a data acquisition system. The performance of the chip has been validated in coincidence measurements using detector modules consisting of 3.1 x 3.1 x 15 mm 3 LYSO crystals coupled to Silicon Photomultipliers from Hamamatsu. The measurements show an energy resolution of 15% FWHM for the detection of 511 keV photons. A coincidence time resolution of 213 ps FWHM has been measured, which is among the best resolution values achieved to date with this detector topology. STiC has been integrated in the EndoTOFPET-US detector system and has been chosen as the baseline design for the readout of SiPM sensors in the Mu3e experiment.

  18. The Etiology of Vaginal Discharge Syndrome in Zimbabwe Results from the Zimbabwe STI Etiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirenje, Z Mike; Dhibi, Nicholas; Handsfield, H Hunter; Gonese, Elizabeth; Barr, Beth Tippett; Gwanzura, Lovemore; Latif, Ahmed S; Maseko, Dumisili Venessa; Kularatne, Ranmini S; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Kilmarx, Peter H; Machiha, Anna; Mugurungi, Owen; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A

    2017-11-29

    Symptomatic vaginal discharge is a common gynecological condition managed syndromically in most developing countries. In Zimbabwe, women presenting with symptomatic vaginal discharge are treated with empirical regimens that commonly cover both sexually transmitted infections (STI) and reproductive tract infections, typically including a combination of an intramuscular injection of kanamycin, and oral doxycycline and metronidazole regimens. This study was conducted to determine the current etiology of symptomatic vaginal discharge and assess adequacy of current syndromic management guidelines. We enrolled 200 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge presenting at 6 STI clinics in Zimbabwe. Microscopy was used to detect bacterial vaginosis and yeast infection. Nucleic acid amplifications tests were used to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium. In addition, serologic testing was performed to detect HIV infection. Of the 200 women, 146 (73%) had an etiology detected, including bacterial vaginosis (24.7%); N. gonorrhoeae (24.0%); yeast infection (20.7%); T. vaginalis (19.0%); C. trachomatis (14.0%) and M. genitalium (7.0%). Among women with STIs (N=90), 62 (68.9%) had a single infection, 18 (20.0%) had a dual infection and 10 (11.1%) had three infections.Of 158 women who consented to HIV testing, 64 (40.5%) were HIV infected.The syndromic management regimen covered 115 (57.5%) of the women in the sample who had gonorrhea, chlamydia, M. genitalium, or bacterial vaginosis, while 85 (42.5%) of women were treated without such diagnosis. Among women presenting with symptomatic vaginal discharge, bacterial vaginosis was the most common etiology and gonorrhea was the most frequently detected STI. The current syndromic management algorithm is suboptimal for coverage of women presenting with symptomatic vaginal discharge; addition of point of care testing could compliment the effectiveness of the syndromic approach.

  19. Linking young men who have sex with men (YMSM) to STI physicians: a nationwide cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bolin; Zhao, Peipei; Bien, Cedric; Pan, Stephen; Tang, Weiming; Watson, Julia; Mi, Guodong; Ding, Yi; Luo, Zhenzhou; Tucker, Joseph D

    2018-05-18

    Many young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are reluctant to seek health services and trust local physicians. Online information seeking may encourage YMSM to identify and see trustworthy physicians, obtain sexual health services, and obtain testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study examined online STI information seeking behaviors among Chinese YMSM and its association with offline physician visits. We conducted a nationwide online survey among YMSM through WeChat, the largest social media platform in China. We collected information on individual demographics, sexual behaviors, online STI information seeking, offline STI testing, and STI physician visits. We examined the most commonly used platforms (search engines, governmental websites, counseling websites, generic social media, gay mobile apps, and mobile medical apps) and their trustworthiness. We assessed interest and willingness to use an MSM-friendly physician finder function embedded within a gay mobile app. Logistic regression models were used to examine the correlation between online STI information searching and offline physician visits. A total of 503 men completed the survey. Most men (425/503, 84.5%) searched for STI information online. The most commonly used platform to obtain STI information were search engines (402/425, 94.5%), followed by gay mobile apps (201/425, 47.3%). Men reported high trustworthiness of information received from gay mobile apps. Men also reported high interest (465/503, 92.4%) and willingness (463/503, 92.0%) to use a MSM-friendly physician finder function within such apps. Both using general social media (aOR =1.14, 95%CI: 1.04-1.26) and mobile medical apps (aOR =1.16, 95%CI: 1.01-1.34) for online information seeking were associated with visiting a physician. Online STI information seeking is common and correlated with visiting a physician among YMSM. Cultivating partnerships with the emerging mobile medical apps may be useful for disseminating STI

  20. Assessing marine biotechnology research centres in peripheral regions: developing global and local STI indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, D.K.R.; Schoen, A.; Laurens, P.; Horellou, S.; Colas, P.; Larédo, P.

    2016-07-01

    Our study tackles the challenge of developing STI indicators for assessing marine biotechnology (Blue Bio) research institutes that are geographically located in peripheral regions, far from major metropolitan areas. The promise of Blue Bio couples (a) the promise of new sources of knowledge and innovation with (b) the promise to stimulate jobs and growth in regions which struggle to prosper due to a number of factors (such as economic migration from peripheries to large cities, decline of traditional coastal economic activity etc.). In this paper we outline the context of Marine Biotechnology assessment, the framework that is being used, and the first results of its application. (Author)

  1. The feasibility of cell phone based electronic diaries for STI/HIV research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hensel Devon J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reports of sensitive, socially stigmatized or illegal behavior are common in STI/HIV research, but can raise challenges in terms of data reliability and validity. The use of electronic data collection tools, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA, can increase the accuracy of this information by allowing a participant to self-administer a survey or diary entry, in their own environment, as close to the occurrence of the behavior as possible. In this paper, we evaluate the feasibility of using cell phone-based EMA as a tool for understanding sexual risk and STI among adult men and women. Methods As part of a larger prospective clinical study on sexual risk behavior and incident STI in clinically recruited adult men and women, using study-provided cell phones, participants (N = 243 completed thrice–daily EMA diaries monitoring individual and partner-specific emotional attributes, non-sexual activities, non-coital or coital sexual behaviors, and contraceptive behaviors. Using these data, we assess feasibility in terms of participant compliance, behavior reactivity, general method acceptability and method efficacy for capturing behaviors. Results Participants were highly compliant with diary entry protocol and schedule: over the entire 12 study weeks, participants submitted 89.7% (54,914/61,236 of the expected diary entries, with an average of 18.86 of the 21 expected diaries (85.7% each week. Submission did not differ substantially across gender, race/ethnicity and baseline sexually transmitted infection status. A sufficient volume and range of sexual behaviors were captured, with reporting trends in different legal and illegal behaviors showing small variation over time. Participants found the methodology to be acceptable, enjoyed and felt comfortable participating in the study. Conclusion Achieving the correct medium of data collection can drastically improve, or degrade, the timeliness and quality of an

  2. The feasibility of cell phone based electronic diaries for STI/HIV research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, James D; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Craig, Dorothy

    2012-06-12

    Self-reports of sensitive, socially stigmatized or illegal behavior are common in STI/HIV research, but can raise challenges in terms of data reliability and validity. The use of electronic data collection tools, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA), can increase the accuracy of this information by allowing a participant to self-administer a survey or diary entry, in their own environment, as close to the occurrence of the behavior as possible. In this paper, we evaluate the feasibility of using cell phone-based EMA as a tool for understanding sexual risk and STI among adult men and women. As part of a larger prospective clinical study on sexual risk behavior and incident STI in clinically recruited adult men and women, using study-provided cell phones, participants (N = 243) completed thrice-daily EMA diaries monitoring individual and partner-specific emotional attributes, non-sexual activities, non-coital or coital sexual behaviors, and contraceptive behaviors. Using these data, we assess feasibility in terms of participant compliance, behavior reactivity, general method acceptability and method efficacy for capturing behaviors. Participants were highly compliant with diary entry protocol and schedule: over the entire 12 study weeks, participants submitted 89.7% (54,914/61,236) of the expected diary entries, with an average of 18.86 of the 21 expected diaries (85.7%) each week. Submission did not differ substantially across gender, race/ethnicity and baseline sexually transmitted infection status. A sufficient volume and range of sexual behaviors were captured, with reporting trends in different legal and illegal behaviors showing small variation over time. Participants found the methodology to be acceptable, enjoyed and felt comfortable participating in the study. Achieving the correct medium of data collection can drastically improve, or degrade, the timeliness and quality of an individual's self-reported sexual risk behavior, which in turn, is a key

  3. NASAwide electronic publishing system-prototype STI electronic document distribution: Stage-4 evaluation report. Part 2; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, Richard C.; Collins, Mary; Caswell, Pamela; Haynes, Bob; Nelson, Michael L.; Holm, Jeanne; Buquo, Lynn; Tingle, Annette; Cooper, Bill; Stiltner, Roy

    1996-01-01

    This evaluation report contains an introduction, seven chapters, and five appendices. The Introduction describes the purpose, conceptual framework, functional description, and technical report server of the Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Electronic Document Distribution (EDD) project. Chapter 1 documents the results of the prototype STI EDD in actual operation. Chapter 2 documents each NASA center's post processing publication processes. Chapter 3 documents each center's STI software, hardware. and communications configurations. Chapter 7 documents STI EDD policy, practices, and procedures. The appendices consist of (A) the STI EDD Project Plan, (B) Team members, (C) Phasing Schedules, (D) Accessing On-line Reports, and (E) Creating an HTML File and Setting Up an xTRS. In summary, Stage 4 of the NASAwide Electronic Publishing System is the final phase of its implementation through the prototyping and gradual integration of each NASA center's electronic printing systems, desk top publishing systems, and technical report servers, to be able to provide to NASA's engineers, researchers, scientists, and external users, the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning its activities and the result thereof to their work stations.

  4. Characterization of genome in tetraploid StY species of Elymus (Triticeae: Poaceae) using sequential FISH and GISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruijuan; Wang, Richard R-C; Yu, Feng; Lu, Xingwang; Dou, Quanwen

    2017-08-01

    Genomes of ten species of Elymus, either presumed or known as tetraploid StY, were characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). These tetraploid species could be grouped into three categories. Type I included StY genome reported species-Roegneria pendulina, R. nutans, R. glaberrima, R. ciliaris, and Elymus nevskii, and StY genome presumed species-R. sinica, R. breviglumis, and R. dura, whose genome could be separated into two sets based on different GISH intensities. Type I genome constitution was deemed as putative StY. The St genome were mainly characterized with intense hybridization with pAs1, fewer AAG sites, and linked distribution of 5S rDNA and 18S-26S rDNA, while the Y genome with less intense hybridization with pAs1, more varied AAG sites, and isolated distribution of 5S rDNA and 18S-26S rDNA. Nevertheless, further genomic variations were detected among the different StY species. Type II included E. alashanicus, whose genome could be easily separated based on GISH pattern. FISH and GISH patterns suggested that E. alashanicus comprised a modified St genome and an unknown genome. Type III included E. longearistatus, whose genome could not be separated by GISH and was designated as St l Y l . Notably, a close relationship between S l and Y l genomes was observed.

  5. Risk behaviours, HIV/STI testing and HIV/STI prevalence between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Best, John; Luo, Juhua; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Dodge, Brian; Meyerson, Beth; Aalsma, Matthew; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Background Differences in risk behaviours between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women have important implications for HIV and STI transmission. We examined differences in risk behaviours, HIV/STI testing, self-reported HIV/STI diagnoses, and linkage to HIV care between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women across China. Methods Participants were recruited through three men who have sex with men-focused websites in China. An online survey containing items on socio-demographics, risk behaviours, testing history, self-reported HIV/STI diagnosis, and linkage to and retention in HIV care was completed from September to October 2014. Chi square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results Men who have sex with both men and women were less likely to use a condom during last anal sex (p ≤ 0.01) and more likely to engage in group sex (p ≤ 0.01) and transactional sex (p ≤ 0.01) compared to men who have sex with men. Self-reported HIV/STI testing and positivity rates between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women were similar. Among HIV-infected men who have sex with men, there was no difference in rates of linkage to or retention in antiretroviral therapy when comparing men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women. Conclusions Chinese men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women may benefit from different HIV and STI intervention and prevention strategies. Achieving a successful decrease in HIV/STI epidemics among Chinese men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women will depend on the ability of targeted and culturally congruent HIV/STI control programmes to facilitate a reduction in risk behaviours. PMID:26185041

  6. The promise of multimedia technology for STI/HIV prevention: frameworks for understanding improved facilitator delivery and participant learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Maria R; Epperson, Matthew W; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard, Dawn; Hunt, Timothy; Sarfo, Bright; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2012-10-01

    There is increasing excitement about multimedia sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevention interventions, yet there has been limited discussion of how use of multimedia technology may improve STI/HIV prevention efforts. The purpose of this paper is to describe the mechanisms through which multimedia technology may work to improve the delivery and uptake of intervention material. We present conceptual frameworks describing how multimedia technology may improve intervention delivery by increasing standardization and fidelity to the intervention material and the participant's ability to learn by improving attention, cognition, emotional engagement, skills-building, and uptake of sensitive material about sexual and drug risks. In addition, we describe how the non-multimedia behavioral STI/HIV prevention intervention, Project WORTH, was adapted into a multimedia format for women involved in the criminal justice system and provide examples of how multimedia activities can more effectively target key mediators of behavioral change in this intervention.

  7. The organization of STI/HIV risk-taking among long-line fishermen in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, I Made; Patten, Jane H

    2010-01-01

    We report on selected findings of a qualitative social network study investigating STI/HIV-related risk among migrant fishermen based at one of Indonesia's major fishing ports in Bali. Their activities between fishing trips include drinking parties, watching pornographic videos, and visiting brothels, while condom use is rare. While on board, they plan and anticipate these activities and many insert penile implants. These fishermen run a high personal risk of contracting STI/HIV, and, with their circular migration patterns among Indonesian and foreign ports such as Thailand and South Africa, and with visits back to their rural hometowns and wives or girlfriends in Java, there is a serious risk of disease transmission to the general population. This paper argues that the role that social interactions play in HIV/AIDS-related risks should be considered as important as (if not more important than) individual knowledge, attitudes, and practices in the design of effective STI/HIV prevention programs.

  8. Awakening the Biodiversity Potential Trough ST&I Investments in the Sector of Amazonian Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana dos Santos e Souza Frickmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The biotechnological development conciliated to Amazonian biodiversity represents a big potential for richness to Brazil. This study analyses the Brazilian investments in ST&I Amazonia’s, utilizing as indicator for that, the resources applied in R&D and the patent appli;cations coming from Amazon, which were filed with the National Institute of Industrial Property during the period from 2003 to 2008. The objective is to analyze how where such investments applied by the Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation (MCTI, and which was their impact over the biotechnological inventions of Amazonian origin. In the results, we observed that R$ 1,308.09 million was invested in ST&I in Amazonia. The Amazonian state that attracted the larger part of such resources was Amazonas and 153 patent applications were identified coming from the state of Amazonas; out of which, 56% derived from companies of the Manaus Industrial Pole, and 9% originated from biomedical and alimentary sectors.

  9. African American adolescents and new media: associations with HIV/STI risk behavior and psychosocial variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Laura B; Brown, Larry K; Swenson, Rebecca R; Romer, Daniel; DiClemente, Ralph J P; Salazar, Laura E; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Valois, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Cell phones and online media are used frequently but we know little about their use among African American adolescents. This study examines the frequency of such use and its relationship to psychosocial variables and STI/HIV risk behavior. 1,518 African American, aged 13-18 years, from 2 Northeast US cities (Providence, RI; Syracuse, NY) and 2 Southeast US cities (Columbia, SC; Macon, GA), were assessed from 2008-2009. Participants were assessed on frequency of cell phone and Internet use, psychological constructs (ie, depression, life satisfaction, impulsivity) and HIV/STI risk behaviors (ie, history of intercourse, sexual sensation seeking attitudes, peer sexual risks norms) with reliable scales and measures using an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Over 90% of African American adolescents used cell phones every day or most days and 60% used social networking sites every day or most days (96% used Myspace). Greater frequency of cell phone use was associated with sexual sensation seeking (P = .000), riskier peer sexual norms (P = .000), and impulsivity (P = .016). Greater frequency of Internet use was associated with a history of oral/vaginal/anal sex (OR = 1.03, CI = 1.0-1.05) and sexual sensation seeking (P = .000). These findings suggest that riskier youth are online and using cell phones frequently. The Internet and cell phones may be useful platforms for targeted health promotion and prevention efforts with AA adolescents.

  10. The systematic development of ROsafe: an intervention to promote STI testing among vocational school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfers, Mireille; de Zwart, Onno; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-05-01

    This article describes the development of ROsafe, an intervention to promote sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing at vocational schools in the Netherlands. Using the planning model of intervention mapping (IM), an educational intervention was designed that consisted of two lessons, an Internet site, and sexual health services at the school sites. IM is a stepwise approach for theory- and evidence-based development and implementation of interventions. It includes six steps: needs assessment, specification of the objectives in matrices, selection of theoretical methods and practical strategies, program design, implementation planning, and evaluation. The processes and outcomes that are performed during Steps 1 to 4 of IM are presented, that is, literature review and qualitative and quantitative research in needs assessment, leading to the definition of the desired behavioral outcomes and objectives. The matrix of change objectives for STI-testing behavior is presented, and then the development of theory into program is described, using examples from the program. Finally, the planning for implementation and evaluation is discussed. The educational intervention used methods that were derived from the social cognitive theory, the elaboration likelihood model, the persuasive communication matrix, and theories about risk communication. Strategies included short movies, discussion, knowledge quiz, and an interactive behavioral self-test through the Internet.

  11. The Updated BaSTI Stellar Evolution Models and Isochrones. I. Solar-scaled Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Pietrinferni, Adriano; Cassisi, Santi; Salaris, Maurizio; Mucciarelli, Alessio; Savino, Alessandro; Aparicio, Antonio; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Verma, Kuldeep

    2018-04-01

    We present an updated release of the BaSTI (a Bag of Stellar Tracks and Isochrones) stellar model and isochrone library for a solar-scaled heavy element distribution. The main input physics that have been changed from the previous BaSTI release include the solar metal mixture, electron conduction opacities, a few nuclear reaction rates, bolometric corrections, and the treatment of the overshooting efficiency for shrinking convective cores. The new model calculations cover a mass range between 0.1 and 15 M ⊙, 22 initial chemical compositions between [Fe/H] = ‑3.20 and +0.45, with helium to metal enrichment ratio dY/dZ = 1.31. The isochrones cover an age range between 20 Myr and 14.5 Gyr, consistently take into account the pre-main-sequence phase, and have been translated to a large number of popular photometric systems. Asteroseismic properties of the theoretical models have also been calculated. We compare our isochrones with results from independent databases and with several sets of observations to test the accuracy of the calculations. All stellar evolution tracks, asteroseismic properties, and isochrones are made available through a dedicated web site.

  12. Status of Syndromic Management of Clients and their Partners at STI Clinic in a Suburban Area of Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kadam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STI are major public health problem of economically productive age group. Worldwide more cases of STI are seen among reproductive age group i.e., 15 to 49 years. World Health Organization estimates 340 million curable STIs each year. In India, 6% to 15% population is infected with one or more STIs. Hence, present study was conducted at STI clinic in suburban area. The objectives were to assess the socio-demographic factors, syndromes suffered and factors influencing treatment outcome among clients attending STI OPD. Methodology: 274 clients participated in the longitudinal study over a period of 6 months. Results: 232 female clients (84.7% proved female preponderance at STI clinic. Around 194 cases (70.8% belonged to the age group 25 to 44 years which is economically productive age group. Married females (92.24% and unmarried males (59.5% presented with STI syndromes. Among males, urethral discharge (66.67% and among females, vaginal discharge (82.76% were the predominating symptoms. The clients studied up to 10th standard, constituted 48.54% of the study sample. 53.28% of the clients belonged to upper lower socio-economic status. About 211 (90.9% women were housewives. About 31 (73.8% males were semi-skilled and skilled laborers. Conclusion: This study highlighted the vulnerability of females to STIs. The reproductive and economically productive age group forms major part of the affected population. The gap between the knowledge and application of correct and consistent use of condom needs to be reduced. Special emphasis on partner notification and their management will have an impact on prevention of STIs.

  13. Importance of Women's Relative Socioeconomic Status within Sexual Relationships in Communication about Safer Sex and HIV/STI Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchomba, Felix M; Chan, Christine; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2015-06-01

    The socioeconomic status (SES) of women is increasingly considered an important factor for HIV/STI risk. The HIV/STI literature has largely focused on women's absolute levels of SES, and therefore, the importance of their SES relative to their male sexual partners remains understudied. This paper examines the association between women's relative SES and frequency of safer sex communication among heterosexual couples. A convenience sample of 342 couples (N = 684) recruited in New York City was asked about frequency of discussions with their partner about the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention in the previous 90 days. Differences between partners in education, income, employment, housing, and incarceration history were combined using principal component analysis to form an index of women's relative SES. Negative binomial regression models assessed associations between woman's relative SES and communication frequency controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, and relationship type using a generalized estimating equation framework. On average, participants had 2.5, 4.2, and 4.8 discussions regarding the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention, respectively. A one standard deviation increase in a woman's relative SES score was associated with increased frequency of discussions about male condom use (adjusted rate ratio [aRR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.29), about HIV prevention (aRR, 1.25; CI, 1.14-1.37), and about STI prevention (aRR, 1.29; CI, 1.18-1.41). Women's relative SES may be an important factor for sexual communication, and further research on its role in HIV/STI risk may uncover avenues for intervention.

  14. Initial evaluation of use of an online partner notification tool for STI, called 'suggest a test': a cross sectional pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, Hannelore M.; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Vriens, Pjer; Op de Coul, Eline; Hamers, Mariette; Heijman, Titia; van den Heuvel, Francine; Koekenbier, Rik; van Leeuwen, A. Petra; Voeten, Helene A. C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Partner notification is crucial for sexually transmitted infection (STI) control. We developed Suggestatest.nl (SAT), an internet-based notification system for verified diagnoses of STI/HIV. Methods SAT uses email, short message service, postal letter or a gay dating site to notify sexual

  15. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18:] Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  16. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18: Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  17. EU Science Diplomacy and Framework Programs as Instruments of STI Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. А. Ibragimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the tools that the EU in interactions with third countries in the field of STI uses. The EU is a pioneer in the use of science and technology in the international arena, the creation of strategic bilateral agreements on science and technology and the conduct of political dialogues at the highest political level (at the country and regional levels. The EU actively uses its foreign policy instruments of influence, including the provision of access to its framework programs to researchers from third countries, as well as scientific diplomacy. The success of these programs and scientific diplomacy shows the effectiveness of the EU as a global actor. In its foreign policy global innovation strategy, the EU proceeds from the premise that no state in the world today can cope independently with modern global challenges such as climate change, migration, terrorism, etc. Therefore, the solution of these issues requires both an expert evaluation from an independent world scientific community, and the perseverance of diplomats and officials of branch ministries of national states capable of conveying the views of their government in international negotiations and defending national interests of the country to find a solution that suits everyone. The EU has the resources to create a "cumulative effect" by developing and applying common norms on the territory of theUnion, analyzing the innovation policies of member states and the possibility of sharing best practices. At the same time, the EU shares its vision of problems, values and priorities with partners and uses the tools of "soft power" (including its smart and normative force and scientific diplomacy in the field of STI. The soft power of the EU in the field of STI lies in the attractiveness of the EU as a research area in which it is possible to conduct modern high-quality international research with the involvement of scientific teams from different countries in both physical

  18. Risk factors for HIV and STI diagnosis in a community-based HIV/STI testing and counselling site for men having sex with men (MSM) in a large German city in 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Ulrich; Ort, Jasmin; Grenz, Marc; Eckstein, Kai; Wirtz, Karin; Wille, Andreas

    2015-01-13

    In recent years community-based voluntary counselling and testing sites (CB-VCT) for men having sex with men (MSM) have been established in larger cities in Germany to offer more opportunities for HIV testing. Increasingly, CB-VCTs also offer testing for other bacterial sexually transmitted infections. In Hamburg, tests in CB-VCTs are offered free and anonymously. Data on demographics and sexual risk behaviours are collected with a paper questionnaire. Questionnaire data from the MSM CB-VCT in Hamburg were linked with serological test results for HIV and syphilis, and with rectal and pharyngeal swab results for gonorrhoea and chlamydia. MSM were defined as males reporting male sex partners. CB-VCT clients were characterized demographically, and associations between sexual behaviour variables and diagnosis of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) were analysed by bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Among the male clients of the CB-VCT in 2011-2012 who were tested for HIV or any STI 1476 reported male sex partners. Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) was reported as reason for testing by 61% of the clients. Forty-one of 1413 clients testing for HIV were tested positive (2.9%). Twenty-four of 1380 clients testing for syphilis required treatment (1.7%). Tests for simultaneous detection of N. gonorrhoea and Chlamydia trachomatis were conducted on 882 pharyngeal and 642 rectal swabs, revealing 58 (=6.6%) pharyngeal and 71 (=11.1%) rectal infections with one or both pathogens. In multivariate logistic regression analysis number of partners, UAI (OR=2.42) and relying on visual impression when selecting sex partners (OR = 2.92) were associated with increased risks for diagnosis of syphilis or a rectal STI. Syphilis or rectal STI diagnosis (OR=4.52) were associated with increased risk for HIV diagnosis. The MSM CB-VCT in Hamburg reaches clients at high risk for HIV and STIs. The diagnosis of syphilis or a rectal STI was associated with increased

  19. The use of mystery shopping for quality assurance evaluations of HIV/STI testing sites offering services to young gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Pingel, Emily S; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Meanley, Steven; Alapati, Deepak; Moore, Michael; Lowther, Matthew; Wade, Ryan; Harper, Gary W

    2015-10-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at increased risk for HIV and STI infection. While encouraging HIV and STI testing among YMSM remains a public health priority, we know little about the cultural competency of providers offering HIV/STI tests to YMSM in public clinics. As part of a larger intervention study, we employed a mystery shopper methodology to evaluate the LGBT cultural competency and quality of services offered in HIV and STI testing sites in Southeast Michigan (n = 43).We trained and deployed mystery shoppers (n = 5) to evaluate the HIV and STI testing sites by undergoing routine HIV/STI testing. Two shoppers visited each site, recording their experiences using a checklist that assessed 13 domains, including the clinic's structural characteristics and interactions with testing providers. We used the site scores to examine the checklist's psychometric properties and tested whether site evaluations differed between sites only offering HIV testing (n = 14) versus those offering comprehensive HIV/STI testing (n = 29). On average, site scores were positive across domains. In bivariate comparisons by type of testing site, HIV testing sites were more likely than comprehensive HIV/STI testing clinics to ascertain experiences of intimate partner violence, offer action steps to achieve safer sex goals, and provide safer sex education. The developed checklist may be used as a quality assurance indicator to measure HIV/STI testing sites' performance when working with YMSM. Our findings also underscore the need to bolster providers' provision of safer sex education and behavioral counseling within comprehensive HIV/STI testing sites.

  20. Promoting STI testing among senior vocational students in Rotterdam, the Netherlands: Effects of a cluster randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.G. Wolfers (Mireille); G.J. Kok (Gerjo); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); O. de Zwart (Onno); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Adolescents are a risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In the Netherlands, senior vocational school students are particular at risk. However, STI test rates among adolescents are low and interventions that promote testing are scarce. To enhance

  1. Perceived Devaluation and STI Testing Uptake among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youth in a Canadian Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Shoveller, Jean; Dong, Huiru; Gilbert, Mark; Kerr, Thomas; DeBeck, Kora

    2017-10-01

    Perceived devaluation has been shown to have adverse effects on the mental and physical health outcomes of people who use drugs. However, the impact of perceived devaluation on sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing uptake among street-involved youth, who face multiple and intersecting stigmas due to their association with drug use and risky sexual practices, has not been fully characterized. Data were obtained between December 2013 and November 2014 from a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs aged 14-26 in Vancouver, British Columbia. Multivariable generalized estimating equations were constructed to assess the independent relationship between perceived devaluation and STI testing uptake. Among 300 street-involved youth, 87.0% reported a high perceived devaluation score at baseline. In the multivariable analysis, high perceived devaluation was negatively associated with STI testing uptake after adjustment for potential confounders (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 0.38, 95% Confidence Interval 0.15-0.98). Perceived devaluation was high among street-involved youth in our sample and appears to have adverse effects on STI testing uptake. HIV prevention and care programs should be examined and improved to better meet the special needs of street-involved youth in non-stigmatizing ways.

  2. HIV/STI risk by migrant status among workers in an urban high-end entertainment centre in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantell, Joanne E; Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Sun, Xiaoming; Zhou, Jianfang; Exner, Theresa M; Hoffman, Susie; Zhou, Feng; Sandfort, Theo G M; Leu, Cheng-Shiun

    2011-04-01

    Large-scale internal migration in China may be an important mechanism for the spread of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) because of the risk behaviours of migrants. We conducted a self-administered survey among 724 employees of a high-end entertainment centre in Kunshan, Jiangsu Province, China. Using logistic regression, we examined the association of hometown of origin (Kunshan city, elsewhere in Jiangsu Province, or another province in China) and consecutive years living in Kunshan with measures of HIV/STI risk behaviour. We found that increased time living in Kunshan was associated with lower odds of using condoms as contraception [odds ratio (OR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64-0.95] and consistent condom use with a casual partner (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.47-0.93), after controlling for gender, marital status age and income. The odds of having had an STI were significantly lower for Kunshan natives than those originally from outside provinces (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07-0.96), but increasing years living in Kunshan was not related to lower risk for an STI. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that migrants living far from home participate in higher risk behaviour than locals. Findings suggest that adaptation to local culture over time may increase HIV/STI risk behaviours, a troublesome finding.

  3. Correlates of HIV and STI testing among Latino men who have sex with men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadafino, Joseph T; Martinez, Omar; Levine, Ethan C; Dodge, Brian; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the extent to which sociodemographic, personal, and behavioral factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing among a diverse group of Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City. The triangulation approach was used to synthesize data from 176 MSM who completed an in-person or phone questionnaire about substance use, alcohol consumption, sexual behaviors, and HIV/STI testing history and 40 participants who participated in focus groups. Correlates of testing significant in univariable analyses (p Spanish-speaking only subjects were less likely to get tested for HIV and STI; however, this association was not significant. Our study demonstrates the need for further study of predictors of STI testing as well as the potential role of language barriers and education in routine testing for HIV. Social and behavioral factors may intensify these obstacles. Future research and interventions should address the role of language barriers and perceived issues of immigration status in the decision to get tested.

  4. Aggregate versus Individual-Level Sexual Behavior Assessment: How Much Detail Is Needed to Accurately Estimate HIV/STI Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Galletly, Carol L.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Raymond, H. Fisher; Chesson, Harrell W.

    2010-01-01

    The sexual behaviors of HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention intervention participants can be assessed on a partner-by-partner basis: in aggregate (i.e., total numbers of sex acts, collapsed across partners) or using a combination of these two methods (e.g., assessing five partners in detail and any remaining partners in aggregate).…

  5. A longitudinal examination of the relationship between sexual sensation seeking and STI-related risk factors among African American females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Tan, Kevin; Diclemente, Ralph J

    2013-04-01

    Sexual sensation seeking has been correlated with STI-related risk factors in numerous cross sectional studies. However, no current studies have examined whether sexual sensation seeking is longitudinally related to a broad spectrum of STI-related factors such as consistent condom use, number of sexual partners, frequency of partner sexual communication, self-efficacy to refuse sex, and fear of condom negotiation. We explored these relationships over a 12-month period among a sample of 715 African American females attending three STI clinics in Georgia that were recruited into a larger randomized clinic intervention study. Utilizing A-CASI technology to assess all self-reported measures and employing general estimation equations while controlling for age, peer norms, school enrollment and employment, major results indicated that higher sexual sensation seeking predicted lower percent of condom use in the last 14 and 60 days, lower consistent condom use and a higher number of lifetime sexual partners. Additionally, higher sexual sensation seeking predicted lower partner sexual communication, diminished self-efficacy to refuse sex, and a higher fear of condom negotiation. Findings suggest that STI/HIV prevention/intervention programs should assess for and target sexual sensation seeking behaviors in such efforts.

  6. Alteration of radiation response by two tyrosine kinase inhibitors: STI571 (Glivec) and BIBW 2992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet, F.

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent chemo-radiation is one of the main weapon in the treatment of cancer. The targeted therapies may act on the mechanisms of tumor resistance to radiation and are therefore very promising in combination with radiotherapy. The STI571 (imatinib or Gleevec) inhibits specifically the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase. It leads to radiosensitization in K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cell line by alterations of the cell cycle. The BIBW2992 is a selective inhibitor of EGFR and HER2. The BIBW 2992 shows cytotoxic and radiosensitizing effects on pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells BxPC3 and Capan-2, regardless of KRAS status. The mechanism underlying this radiosensitization is not unequivocal, involving both changes in the cell cycle and induction of mitotic death. Our results show that the combination of an inhibitor of tyrosine kinase with ionizing radiation may lead to a radiosensitization in vitro with mechanisms depending on the type of cell line. (author)

  7. Sexual Partnership Patterns in Malawi: Implications for HIV/STI Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kimberly A.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Ghani, Azra C.; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Pilcher, Christopher D.; Price, Matthew A.; Pettifor, Audrey E.; Chilongozi, David A.; Martinson, Francis E. A.; Cohen, Myron S.; Miller, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Concurrent sexual partnerships are believed to play an important role in HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, but the contributions of concurrency to HIV and STI spread depend on the details of infectious periods and relationship patterns. To contribute to the understanding of sexual partnership patterns in this region, we estimated partnership lengths, temporal gaps between partners, and periods of overlap across partners at an STI clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods Participants underwent physical examinations and HIV tests, and responded to questionnaires about demographics and risk behaviors, including detailed questions about a maximum of 3 sexual partners in the previous 2 months. We calculated partnership length as the time between the first and most recent sexual contact with a partner, and gap length as the time between the most recent contact with one partner and the first contact with the next. We defined concurrent and consecutive partnerships as gap length≤0 days and gap length>0 days, respectively. Results The study population (n=183) had a mean partnership length of 858 days (median=176 days). Eighty-six percent reported 0 or 1 partner, 5% reported multiple consecutive partnerships, and 9% reported concurrency. Gaps between consecutive partnerships were short (mean=21 days), and overlaps across concurrent partners tended to be long (mean=246 days). Conclusions Multiple sexual partnerships were uncommon, and partnerships were long on average. Among those reporting multiple recent partners, both long-term concurrency and narrowly spaced consecutive partnerships could present substantial risk for efficient transmission of HIV and classical STIs. PMID:21301383

  8. Knowledge and Attitude Risky Transvestite with the Scene Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI on Transvestite in Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resti Suwandani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 the WHO declared as many as 457 million people worldwide were affected by sexually transmitted infections. Transvestite is one of a high-risk group for contracting STIs and HIV. STI prevalence is still high on tranvestite, this is due to the use of condoms is still low and this can trigger the occurrence of STI. This study aimed to look at sexual behavior risk of transvestites, includes knowledge and attitudes related to the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs on transvestites in Sidoarjo. This research used analytic study design in which the type of research is a case control. Respondents in the research were transvestites within the range of KPA Sidoarjo, as many as 54 people who were divided into two groups: 18 in cases group and 36 in control group. Age of the respondents from both groups were the same. >40 years, the highest educational level in case group was senior high school and for the control group was high school junior, both groups had the same marital status which was not married, the occupation mostly in the case group was sex workers and as beauty shop workers in the control group, lenght of time been being transvestite on case group vary for 1-12 years and 13-24 years in the control group. There was a relationship between knowledge of the incidence of STIs in transgender (p = 0.007 p < α. There was a relationship between the attitude of the incidence of STIs in transgender (p = 0.001 p < α. Keyword: transvestite, Sexual Transmitted Disease, risk behaviour, knowledge, attitude

  9. Inverse probability weighting in STI/HIV prevention research: methods for evaluating social and community interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippman, Sheri A.; Shade, Starley B.; Hubbard, Alan E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intervention effects estimated from non-randomized intervention studies are plagued by biases, yet social or structural intervention studies are rarely randomized. There are underutilized statistical methods available to mitigate biases due to self-selection, missing data, and confounding in longitudinal, observational data permitting estimation of causal effects. We demonstrate the use of Inverse Probability Weighting (IPW) to evaluate the effect of participating in a combined clinical and social STI/HIV prevention intervention on reduction of incident chlamydia and gonorrhea infections among sex workers in Brazil. Methods We demonstrate the step-by-step use of IPW, including presentation of the theoretical background, data set up, model selection for weighting, application of weights, estimation of effects using varied modeling procedures, and discussion of assumptions for use of IPW. Results 420 sex workers contributed data on 840 incident chlamydia and gonorrhea infections. Participators were compared to non-participators following application of inverse probability weights to correct for differences in covariate patterns between exposed and unexposed participants and between those who remained in the intervention and those who were lost-to-follow-up. Estimators using four model selection procedures provided estimates of intervention effect between odds ratio (OR) .43 (95% CI:.22-.85) and .53 (95% CI:.26-1.1). Conclusions After correcting for selection bias, loss-to-follow-up, and confounding, our analysis suggests a protective effect of participating in the Encontros intervention. Evaluations of behavioral, social, and multi-level interventions to prevent STI can benefit by introduction of weighting methods such as IPW. PMID:20375927

  10. SHI/STY Genes Affect Pre- and Post-meiotic Anther Processes in Auxin Sensing Domains in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro H. Estornell

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In flowering plants, mature sperm cells are enclosed in pollen grains formed in structures called anthers. Several cell layers surrounding the central sporogenous cells of the anther are essential for directing the developmental processes that lead to meiosis, pollen formation, and the subsequent pollen release. The specification and function of these tissues are regulated by a large number of genetic factors. Additionally, the plant hormone auxin has previously been shown to play important roles in the later phases of anther development. Using the R2D2 auxin sensor system we here show that auxin is sensed also in the early phases of anther cell layer development, suggesting that spatiotemporal regulation of auxin levels is important for early anther morphogenesis. Members of the SHI/STY transcription factor family acting as direct regulators of YUC auxin biosynthesis genes have previously been demonstrated to affect early anther patterning. Using reporter constructs we show that SHI/STY genes are dynamically active throughout anther development and their expression overlaps with those of three additional downstream targets, PAO5, EOD3 and PGL1. Characterization of anthers carrying mutations in five SHI/STY genes clearly suggests that SHI/STY transcription factors affect anther organ identity. In addition, their activity is important to repress periclinal cell divisions as well as premature entrance into programmed cell death and cell wall lignification, which directly influences the timing of anther dehiscence and the pollen viability. The SHI/STY proteins also prevent premature pollen germination suggesting that they may play a role in the induction or maintenance of pollen dormancy.

  11. Investigating socio-cultural and structural forces affecting youth's STI testing experiences in northeastern BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoveller, J.; Goldenberg, S.; Koehoorn, M.; Ostry, A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Health Care and Epidemiology

    2007-03-15

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates in Canada are high and rising, especially amongst youth living in northern areas of British Columbia (BC). There is a strong public health impetus to promote STI testing among the younger populations. Northeastern BC is undergoing rapid changes associated with the in-migration of young people attracted by the booming oil and gas industries. The northeast contains the largest proportion of the BC population directly employed by these industries. These activities have progressed at an unprecedented pace, with many of the region's reserves untapped, positioning the northeast for major supply growth, which may have serious health impacts such as health service capacities and sexual behavior of migratory populations yet to be addressed. Little is known about the sexual health impacts of the oil/gas industry in North America. This report presented a study that was conducted in Fort St. John, which is the centre of Northeastern BC's oil and gas industry. The study documented STI rates and service provision patterns, as well as eight weeks of ethnographic fieldwork including observations and informal conversations with youth, health, education, and social service providers, and other community members. Participants were asked to describe their experiences with sexual health and STI testing, and completed a brief socio-demographic survey. The report provided background information on the study and discussed the methods as well as the results. It was concluded that service providers and youth indicated that the current models of service provision did not facilitate the establishment of rapport and shut down opportunities for youth to ask questions, seek advice, and/or develop skills related to STI prevention. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Management of sexually transmitted infections in New York State health care organizations: who is thinking about the quality of STI care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowski, John Patrick B; Garrett, William S; Feller, Daniel J; Hathaway, Rebecca; Kushner, John; Pelish, Matthew; Agins, Bruce D

    2014-09-01

    Rising rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) warrant a renewed focus on the management of STIs in health care organizations. The extent to which hospitals and community health centers (CHCs) have established processes and allocated staff for the management of STIs within their organizations remains poorly understood. A New York State Department of Health survey was distributed electronically through a closed state communication network to targeted administrators at New York State hospitals and CHCs. The survey asked if STI management in their facilities included the following: the ability to measure and report rates of STIs, a process to assess the quality of STI care and treatment outcomes, and a centralized person/unit to coordinate its work throughout the facility. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify whether organizational characteristics were associated with survey findings. Ninety-five percent (243/256) of hospitals and CHCs responded to the survey. Fifty percent of respondents had a person or unit to report rates of STIs; 30% reported an organization-wide process for monitoring the quality of STI care, which, according to the multivariate analysis, was associated with CHCs; only 23% reported having a centralized person or unit for coordinating STI management. Most facilities report STI cases to comply with public health surveillance requirements but do not measure infection rates, assess the quality of STI care, or coordinate its work throughout the facility. The development of this organizational capacity would likely decrease STI rates, improve treatment outcomes, and address local public health goals.

  13. “Manejar la Situacion”: Partner Notification, Partner Management, and Conceptual Frameworks for HIV/STI Control Among MSM in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Salazar, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    Previous analyses of Partner Notification (PN) have addressed individual, interpersonal, social, and structural issues influencing PN outcomes but have paid less attention to the conceptual framework of PN itself. We conducted 18 individual interviews and 8 group discussions, in a two-stage qualitative research process, to explore the meanings and contexts of PN for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) in Lima, Peru. Participants described PN as the open disclosure of private, potentially stigmatizing information that could strengthen or disrupt a partnership, structured by the tension between concealment and revelation. In addition to informing partners of an STI diagnosis, the act of PN was believed to reveal other potentially stigmatizing information related to sexual identity and practices such as homosexuality, promiscuity, and HIV co-infection. In this context, the potential development of visible, biological STI symptoms represented a risk for disruption of the boundary between secrecy and disclosure that could result in involuntary disclosure of STI status. To address the conflict between concealment and disclosure, participants cited efforts to “manejar la situacion” [manage the situation] by controlling the biological risks of STI exposure without openly disclosing STI status. We use this concept of “managing the situation” as a practical and theoretical framework for comprehensive Partner Management for HIV/STI control systems among MSM in Latin America. PMID:25821149

  14. SOCIAL FACTORS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF MEN HAVING SEX WITH MEN ATTENDING STI CLINIC OF TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasuki Shanmugam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Men having sex with men are recognised as high-risk group in view of STI/HIV (sexually transmitted infection/human deficiency virus transmission. In India, HIV estimations of the year 2015, reaffirm the country’s success story in responding to HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic. India has successfully achieved the 6th Millennium Development Goal of Halting and Reversing the HIV epidemic. As per National AIDS Control Organization Technical Report at national level, the adult HIV prevalence has continued to show a steady decline, the same scenario in MSM also. Reduction of HIV new infections is testimony of impact of prevention programs. The aim of the study is to know the social factors influencing behavioural pattern and prevalence of HIV/STI among MSM attending STI clinic in a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was conducted in a STI Clinic attached to a tertiary care hospital of South India. MSM attending the STI Clinic between October 2015-December 2016, who have consented were included in this study. This includes direct walk-in MSM clients who disclose their behaviour on routine counseling done at STI Clinic and line listed MSMs brought by TI NGO (targeted intervention, non-governmental organization. After getting consent, a detailed history taking clinical examination and serological tests for HIV and STI were done. RESULTS Most of the participants are unmarried (72% with school level education (65.5%, half of the participants are skilled workers and professionals. Practicing unsafe sex remains the same among educated and uneducated persons of study group, only 34% of participants practice safe sex. 21.8% of participants presented with clinical manifestations of significance. Among STI, syphilis was common. CONCLUSION MSM are important in the context of STI/HIV prevention. Prevalence of STI and inconsistent condom use among MSM of this study group indicates the need of

  15. Effect of STI stress on leakage and V{sub ccmin} of a sub-65 nm node low-power SRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T-H; Fang, Y-K; Chiang, Y-T; Chiu, H Y; Chen, M-S [VLSI technology Lab., Institute of Microelectronics, EE Department, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan, Taiwan, 701 (China); Cheng, Osbert [Central R and D Division, United Microelectronics Corporation (UMC), No. 3, Li-Hsin Rd II, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan 300 (China)], E-mail: ykfang@eembox.ee.ncku.edu.tw

    2008-10-07

    In the paper, for the first time, the effects of shallow trench isolation (STI) stress enhanced boron diffusion on band-to-band (BTBT) leakage and V{sub ccmin} of a 65 nm node low-power SRAM are investigated in detail. High temperature oxidation in the STI process induces an elastic stress to enhance the diffusion of boron dopants, thus leading to a significant increase in BTBT on the STI edge sidewall. The enhanced boron diffusion is more serious for a shorter and/or narrower device, thus worsening the mismatch of the threshold voltage and V{sub ccmin} of the devices in a 65 nm node SRAM cell significantly.

  16. HIV, STI prevalence and risk behaviours among women selling sex in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Shakila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 340 million cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs were estimated to have occurred worldwide in 1995. Previous studies have shown that the presence of other concomitant STIs increases the likelihood of HIV transmission. The first national study of STIs conducted in Pakistan in 2004 revealed a high burden of STIs among women selling sex. The HIV epidemic in Pakistan has thus far followed the "Asian epidemic model". Earlier studies among women selling sex have shown a low prevalence of HIV coupled with a low level of knowledge about AIDS. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV and STIs, and assess knowledge and risk behaviours related to HIV/STI, among women selling sex in Lahore, Pakistan. Methods A total of 730 participants were recruited through respondent-driven sampling. The participants were women selling sex in three areas (referred to as "A", "B", and "C" of Lahore. A structured questionnaire addressing demographic information, sexual life history, sexual contacts, and knowledge and practices related to HIV/STI prevention was administered by face-to-face interview. Biological samples were obtained from all participants and tested for HIV, Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Pearson's chi-square and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed to test associations between potential risk factors and specified diagnosed infections. Results The prevalence of HIV infection was 0.7%, T pallidum 4.5%, N gonorrhoeae 7.5%, C trachomatis 7.7% and T vaginalis 5.1%. The participants had been selling sex for a median period of seven years and had a median of three clients per day. Sixty five percent of the participants reported that they "Always use condom". The median fee per sexual contact was Rs. 250 (3 Euro. Compared to Areas A and C, women selling sex in Area B had a significantly higher risk of chlamydial

  17. Persistence after treatment of pharyngeal gonococcal infections in patients of the STI clinic, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2012-2015: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hananta, I. Putu Yuda; de Vries, Henry John Christiaan; van Dam, Alje P.; van Rooijen, Martijn Sebastiaan; Soebono, Hardyanto; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus

    2017-01-01

    Infection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the pharynx (pharyngeal Ng) is associated with gonococcal transmission and development of antimicrobial resistance. We assessed proportion of and determinants for persistence after treatment of pharyngeal Ng. At the STI clinic of Amsterdam, the Netherlands,

  18. Perceptions of Community HIV/STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, Oni J; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing; Mannheimer, Sharon B

    2015-08-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community's HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women's HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Data were coded and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants expressed the perception that their communities were at elevated HIV/STI risk, mostly due to contextual and structural factors such as lack of access to health care and education. Findings suggest that HIV prevention messages that target U.S. women at high risk for HIV may be strengthened by addressing the high perceived community HIV/STI risk driven by structural factors.

  19. STI Services for Adolescents and Youth in Low and Middle Income Countries: Perceived and Experienced Barriers to Accessing Care

    OpenAIRE

    Newton-Levinson, Anna; Leichliter, Jami S.; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Access to sexual and reproductive health services (SRH) is vital for sexually active adolescents; yet, their SRH care needs are often unmet. We conducted a qualitative systematic review of mixed methods studies to assess adolescent and provider views of barriers to seeking appropriate medical care for sexually transmitted infection (STI) services for adolescents. We searched peer-reviewed literature for studies published between 2001?2014 with a study population of youth (aged 10?24 years) an...

  20. Predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among women at risk for HIV and STI acquisition in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffoor, Zakir; Wand, Handan; Street, Renée A; Abbai, Nathlee; Ramjee, Gita

    2016-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be at greater risk for HIV acquisition than men. Concurrency, viz. multiple sexual partnerships that overlap over time, has been studied as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among sexually active, HIV negative women. Socio-demographic and behavioural data from women enrolled in a biomedical HIV prevention clinical trial were assessed in relation to perceived male partner concurrency using the Chi squared test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the independent predictors of perceived male partner concurrency. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were obtained for HIV and STI incidence in relation to male partner concurrency. A Cox Proportional Hazards model was used to assess the association between perceived male partner concurrency and HIV and STI incidence. The results revealed that 29 % of women reported their male partners to be in concurrent sexual relationships, 22 % reported partners that were not engaging in concurrency, whilst 49 % reported not knowing their partners concurrency status. Older women, having never married, experiencing economic abuse, and women reporting individual concurrency, were found to be significant predictors of perceived male partner concurrency in the studied population. Perceived male partner concurrency was not found to be a significantly associated with incident HIV and STI infections in this analysis. The study provides insight into predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among women at high risk for STI and HIV acquisition. These results may inform the design of behavioural and biomedical interventions, to address the role of multiple sexual partnerships in HIV prevention.

  1. STI patients are effective recruiters of undiagnosed cases of HIV: results of a social contact recruitment study in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Nora E; Kamanga, Gift; Pettifor, Audrey E; Bonongwe, Naomi; Mapanje, Clement; Rutstein, Sarah E; Ward, Michelle; Hoffman, Irving F; Martinson, Francis; Miller, William C

    2014-04-15

    Patients with newly diagnosed HIV may be part of social networks with elevated prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection. Social network recruitment by persons with newly diagnosed HIV may efficiently identify undiagnosed cases of HIV infection. We assessed social network recruitment as a strategy for identifying undiagnosed cases of HIV infection. In a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, 3 groups of 45 "seeds" were enrolled: STI patients with newly diagnosed HIV, STI patients who were HIV-uninfected, and community controls. Seeds were asked to recruit up to 5 social "contacts" (sexual or nonsexual). Mean number of contacts recruited per group was calculated. HIV prevalence ratios (PRs) and number of contacts needed to test to identify 1 new case of HIV were compared between groups using generalized estimating equations with exchangeable correlation matrices. Mean number of contacts recruited was 1.3 for HIV-infected clinic seeds, 1.8 for HIV-uninfected clinic seeds, and 2.3 for community seeds. Contacts of HIV-infected clinic seeds had a higher HIV prevalence (PR: 3.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 7.8) than contacts of community seeds, but contacts of HIV-uninfected clinic seeds did not (PR: 1.1, 95% confidence interval: 0.4 to 3.3). Results were similar when restricted to nonsexual contacts. To identify 1 new case of HIV, it was necessary to test 8 contacts of HIV-infected clinic seeds, 10 contacts of HIV-uninfected clinic seeds, and 18 contacts of community seeds. Social contact recruitment by newly diagnosed STI patients efficiently led to new HIV diagnoses. Research to replicate findings and guide implementation is needed.

  2. Environmental–Structural Interventions to Reduce HIV/STI Risk Among Female Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Moreno, Luis; Rosario, Santo; Gomez, Bayardo; Jerez, Hector; Barrington, Clare; Weiss, Ellen; Sweat, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of 2 environmental–structural interventions in reducing risks of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic. Methods. Two intervention models were implemented over a 1-year period: community solidarity in Santo Domingo and solidarity combined with government policy in Puerto Plata. Both were evaluated via preintervention–postintervention cross-sectional behavioral surveys, STI testing and participant observations, and serial cross-sectional STI screenings. Results. Significant increases in condom use with new clients (75.3%–93.8%; odds ratio [OR]=4.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.55, 11.43) were documented in Santo Domingo. In Puerto Plata, significant increases in condom use with regular partners (13.0%–28.8%; OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.33, 6.66) and reductions in STI prevalence (28.8%–16.3%; OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.78) were documented, as were significant increases in sex workers’ verbal rejections of unsafe sex (50.0%–79.4%; OR=3.86; 95% CI=1.96, 7.58) and participating sex establishments’ ability to achieve the goal of no STIs in routine monthly screenings of sex workers (OR=1.17; 95% CI=1.12, 1.22). Conclusions. Interventions that combine community solidarity and government policy show positive initial effects on HIV and STI risk reduction among female sex workers. PMID:16317215

  3. HIV/STI prevention interventions: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Globerman Jason

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral interventions can prevent the transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the effectiveness and quality of available evidence of HIV prevention interventions for people living with HIV in high-income settings. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CDC Compendium of Effective Interventions. Interventions published between January, 1998 and September, 2015 were included. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE. Forty-six articles and 63 datasets involving 14,096 individuals met inclusion criteria. Included articles were grouped by intervention type, comparison group and outcome. Few of these had high or moderate quality of evidence and statistically significant effects. One intervention type, group-level health education interventions, were effective in reducing HIV/STI incidence when compared to attention controls. A second intervention type, comprehensive risk counseling and services, was effective in reducing sexual risk behaviors when compared to both active and attention controls. All other intervention types showed no statistically significant effect or had low or very low quality of evidence. Given that the majority of interventions produced low or very low quality of evidence, researchers should commit to rigorous evaluation and high quality reporting of HIV intervention studies.

  4. 'Men at risk': sex work, tourism, and STI/HIV risk in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauren C

    2016-09-01

    Female sex tourism has become an accepted income generator for many underemployed men in Jamaica who seek to reap economic benefits from relationships with visiting tourist women. This issue provides contexts to explore the numerous ways in which health intersects with issues of masculinity, sexuality and marginality. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a popular Jamaican resort town, this paper examines the health implications of female sex tourism for the local population and tourist visitors. Data from this project indicate the need for improved sexually transmitted infection education and HIV outreach work towards men who are involved in transactional sex with tourist women. Due to prevalent perceptions of masculinity and gendered notions of sexuality, men who engage in sex tourism constitute a population that rarely receives the attention of local and national health authorities. Data from this qualitative study suggest that engaging this particular vulnerable population could potentially decrease the risk of STI and HIV infection in the country's most popular resort areas. Research of this kind is urgently needed to better understand the risk factors and challenges for Caribbean populations, as well as to inform future prevention efforts in the region.

  5. Partner violence, power and gender differences in South African adolescents’ HIV/STI behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    TEITELMAN, Anne M.; JEMMOTT, John B.; BELLAMY, Scarlett L.; ICARD, Larry D.; O'LEARY, Ann; HEEREN, G. Anita; NGWANE, Zolani; RATCLIFFE, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Low relationship power and victimization by intimate partner violence (IPV) have been linked to HIV risks among adult females and adolescent girls. This article examines associations of IPV and relationship power with sexual-risk behaviors and whether the associations differ by gender among South African adolescents. Methods Sexual-risk behaviors (multiple partners in past 3 months; condom use at last sex), IPV, and relationship power were collected from 786 sexually experienced adolescents (mean age = 16.9) in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa during the 54-month follow-up of a HIV/STI risk-reduction intervention trial. Logistic regression examined associations of sexual-risk behaviors with IPV and relationship power and whether the associations differed by gender. Results Adolescent boys were less likely to report condom use at last sex (p=.001) and more likely to report multiple partners (pPower interaction (p=.004) indicated that as relationship power increased, self-reported condom use at last sex increased among girls, but decreased among boys. A Gender x IPV interaction (p=.004) indicated that as IPV victimization increased, self-reports of having multiple partners increased among boys, but not among girls. As relationship power increased, self-reports of having multiple partners decreased irrespective of gender. Conclusions HIV risk-reduction interventions and policies should address gender differences in sexual-risk consequences of IPV and relationship power among adolescents and promote gender equity. PMID:27111184

  6. Structural Impediments to Condom Access in a High HIV/STI-Risk Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Rizkalla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As embarrassment is a known obstacle to condom acquisition, selling condoms from physically inaccessible places that require personnel assistance constitutes a barrier to access. This study investigates the extent of this barrier in the Bronx, a high HIV/STI prevalence county of New York. 75 of 320 listed Bronx pharmacies were sampled via computer randomization. Investigators coded condom placement and physical accessibility within these pharmacies and 140 surrounding stores. 91% of sites sold condoms. In 82%, condoms could not be accessed without assistance. Condoms were physically inaccessible in venues most encountered in the community: grocery stores versus pharmacies (OR=15; 95% CI, 5–48, independent versus chain pharmacies (OR=32; 95% CI, 6–235. They were physically inaccessible more in the lowest SES/highest HIV prevalence areas versus the highest SES/lowest HIV prevalence areas (OR = 4.3, 95% CI, 1.1–17. Findings can inform efforts to increase accessibility of condoms, distribute condoms in alternative settings, and prompt similar investigations in other high-risk communities.

  7. Employment and contextual impact of safe and unsafe sexual practices for STI and HIV: the situation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S M; Gao, M Y

    2000-08-01

    China's dual employment system plays a crucial role in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV-related safe and unsafe sexual practices among young Chinese people. Social and psychological determinants of safe and unsafe sexual practices for HIV infection among young people in Sichuan, China were examined. Our findings indicate that changes in China's social structure and employment system impact upon the social contextual involvement and socio-sexual practice of young Chinese people. The findings in the study suggest that the employment-related contextual involvement was a major predictor in the relationships between demography, information, and psychological risk-taking factors on one hand and the people's safe and unsafe sexual practices on the other. Self-employed people (officially called 'getihu') were more likely than the state-employed people to engage in unprotected sex with casual sexual partners. As China undergoes social restructuring and many state-employed people are laid off, the risk may also extend into the broader non-self-employed population as more state-employed people become involved not only in the self-employed getihu's socioeconomic activities but also in their unconventional socio-sexual practices. Collective vulnerability to STI and HIV, due to the current socio-sexual practices of the getihu young people, has created a new frontier for STI and HIV prevention in today's China, as well as demonstrating the importance of collective action with STI and AIDS prevention strategies within relevant social and sub-cultural contexts.

  8. STI Services for Adolescents and Youth in Low and Middle Income Countries: Perceived and Experienced Barriers to Accessing Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Levinson, Anna; Leichliter, Jami S.; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2017-01-01

    Access to sexual and reproductive health services (SRH) is vital for sexually active adolescents; yet, their SRH care needs are often unmet. We conducted a qualitative systematic review of mixed methods studies to assess adolescent and provider views of barriers to seeking appropriate medical care for sexually transmitted infection (STI) services for adolescents. We searched peer-reviewed literature for studies published between 2001–2014 with a study population of youth (aged 10–24 years) and/or health service providers. Nineteen studies were identified for inclusion from fifteen countries. Thematic analyses identified key themes across the studies. Findings suggest that youth lacked knowledge about STIs and services. Additionally, youth experienced barriers related to service availability and a lack of integration of services. The most reported barriers were related to acceptability of services. Youth reported avoiding services or having confidentiality concerns based on provider demographics and some behaviors. Finally, experiences of shame and stigma were common barriers to seeking care. Adolescents in low and middle income countries experience significant barriers in obtaining STI and SRH services. Improving uptake may require efforts to address clinic systems and provider attitudes, including confidentiality issues. Moreover, addressing barriers to STI services may require addressing cultural norms related to adolescent sexuality. PMID:27338664

  9. Social Support Networks and HIV/STI Risk Behaviors Among Latino Immigrants in a New Receiving Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Meghan D; Theall, Katherine; Schmidt, Norine; Hembling, John; Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Thompson, Michelle M; Muth, Stephen Q; Friedman, Samuel R; Kissinger, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe the quantity and quality of social support networks of Latino immigrants living in a new receiving environment, and (2) determine the role such networks play in their HIV/STI risk behaviors, including substance use. Double incentivized convenience sampling was used to collect egocentric social support network data on 144 Latino immigrants. Latent class analysis was used for data reduction and to identify items best suited to measure quality and quantity of social support. Moderate and high quantity and quality of social support were protective of HIV/STI sexual risk behavior compared to low quantity and quality of support, after adjustment for gender, years in New Orleans and residing with family. Neither measure of social support was associated with binge drinking. The findings suggest that increased quantity and quality of social support decrease HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors but do not influence binge drinking. Interventions that improve the quantity and quality of social support are needed for Latino immigrants.

  10. Trading Sex for Money or Compensation: Prevalence and Associated Characteristics from a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Clinic Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerassi, Lara B; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Plax, Katie; Kaushik, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and individual risk factors of people who trade or sell sex among sexually active individuals seeking HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Using electronic agency records, an analysis of the characteristics of 5,029 youth and adults who voluntarily obtained HIV and STI testing was conducted. Multiple imputation procedures for missing data from 3 variables and logistic regression were conducted. A total of 128 individuals reported having traded sex. Nine variables had statistically significant associations with trading sex. Individuals who identified as White and female had lesser odds of trading sex, whereas individuals who were transgender, were living in a shelter, had been sexually assaulted, had a previous STI, had high-risk sex, or used drugs had greater odds of trading sex. Elevated levels of high-risk behavior in addition to sexual trauma should be considered in intervention research and community health practice. Implications for service providers and researchers are discussed.

  11. Surveillance of STI risk behaviour among young people attending a music festival in Australia, 2005-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Megan S C; Hellard, Margaret E; Aitken, Campbell K; Hocking, Jane S

    2009-10-01

    To explain rising rates of sexually transmitted infections it is necessary to monitor trends among high risk groups, such as youth. Surveillance of risk behaviours and testing among a variety of populations in different settings is required. We monitored self-reported sexual behaviour among music festival attendees. Cross-sectional studies of young people's behaviour were conducted annually at a music festival between 2005 and 2008 using self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression, adjusted for age and gender, determined trends in risk behaviours. More than 5,000 questionnaires were completed. The proportion reporting multiple sexual partners in the past year remained stable from 2005 to 2008 and condom use with these partners increased. Reporting a new sexual partner in the past three months decreased, while condom use with new partners increased. Reporting a casual sexual partner increased and condom use with casual partners remained stable. Reporting a recent STI test increased from 23% in 2006 to 32% in 2008. Despite increases in STI notifications, most risk behaviours are decreasing in this group, possibly as a function of increased STI testing. Music festivals are a useful setting for monitoring behaviour trends within a sub-population of young people at relatively high risk of STIs.

  12. A controlled study of an HIV/AIDS/STI/TB intervention with faith healers in Vhembe District, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashamba, Tshilidzi; Peltzer, Karl; Maluleke, Thelma X; Sodi, Tholene

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop an HIV and AIDS training manual, and to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and management of faith healers of Apostolic churches regarding HIV and AIDS, before and after they attended an HIV and AIDS training programme. A quasi-experimental intervention design was used with faith healers affiliated with the United African Apostolic Church (UAAC) in the Thulamela and Musina municipalities of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 103 faith healers were included in this study, 58 were systematically assigned to an intervention and 45 to a control group. The intervention group received training for 2 days. At follow-up after 2 months, intervention effects were significant for HIV knowledge and to a lesser extent TB knowledge. No significant improvement was found in HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) management strategies such as HIV/STI risk behaviour counselling, referral of clients for HIV testing, keeping condoms at stock in church, and church community HIV/AIDS/STI education. It is important to note that faith healers address some of the major known behavioural risk and protective factors such as partner reduction and condom use. Therefore, faith healers could be more widely utilized in HIV prevention programmes as risk reduction counsellors, in particular on matters of community-level education.

  13. HIV/STI Prevention Among Heterosexually Active Black Adolescents With Mental Illnesses: Focus Group Findings for Intervention Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Wingood, Gina; Reason, Janaiya; Mack, Niya

    Heterosexually active Black adolescents with mental illnesses are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. However, few HIV/STI prevention interventions exist for this demographic. We held seven focus groups (N = 33) to elucidate social, cultural, and psychological factors that influence HIV/STI risk-related sexual behaviors in this understudied population. Seven themes emerged: (a) Blackness and media portrayals, (b) Blackness as a source of cultural resilience and pride, (c) psychosocial determinants of condom use, (d) consequences of engaging in sexual activity, (e) attitudes and beliefs toward sexual behaviors, (f) benefits of sexual activity, and (g) coping mechanisms. Participants also supported the feasibility of and interest in HIV/STI prevention programs integrated with mental health treatment. Transportation, potential breaches of confidentiality, and time were noted barriers to participation. Psychoeducational, skills-based programs are needed to address the sequelae of mental illnesses as they relate to the sexual decision-making process in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Patterns of Mood and Personality Factors and Associations With STI/HIV-Related Drug and Sex Risk Among African American Male Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D; Lejuez, Carl W; Golin, Carol E; Adimora, Adaora A; Wohl, David A; Keen, Larry D; Hammond, Michael; Judon-Monk, Selena; Khan, Maria R

    2017-06-07

    Research on the association between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with comorbid mental disorders and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV risk among inmates is scant despite the high prevalence of psychopathology and of STI/HIV in this population. We used baseline data from Project DISRUPT, a cohort study conducted among incarcerated African American men (n = 207), to measure associations between ASPD and STI/HIV risk. We also conducted latent class analyses (LCAs) to identify subgroups defined by ASPD with comorbid stress, depression, and borderline personality disorder symptoms and measured associations between latent class membership and STI/HIV risk. Approximately 15% had ASPD and 39% reported depression. Controlling for sociodemographics, stress, and depression, ASPD was independently associated with illicit [AOR = 3.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-8.87] and injection drug use (AOR: 5.49, 95% CI: 1.23-24.42) but not with sexual risk. LCAs suggested that those at high risk of ASPD were likely to experience co-morbid mental disorders. ASPD comorbid with these disorders was linked to drug and sex risk. STI/HIV prevention for inmates should incorporate diagnosis and treatment of ASPD and comorbid disorders, and interventions to address ASPD-related factors (e.g., impulsivity) that drive STI/HIV risk.

  15. Patterns of Mood and Personality Factors and Associations With STI/HIV-Related Drug and Sex Risk Among African American Male Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Golin, Carol E.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Wohl, David A.; Keen, Larry D.; Hammond, Michael; Judon-Monk, Selena; Khan, Maria R.

    2018-01-01

    Background Research on the association between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with comorbid mental disorders and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV risk among inmates is scant despite the high prevalence of psychopathology and of STI/HIV in this population. Methods We used baseline data from Project DISRUPT, a cohort study conducted among incarcerated African American men (n= 207), to measure associations between ASPD and STI/HIV risk. We also conducted latent class analyses (LCAs) to identify subgroups defined by ASPD with comorbid stress, depression, and borderline personality disorder symptoms and measured associations between latent class membership and STI/HIV risk. Results Approximately 15% had ASPD and 39% reported depression. Controlling for sociodemographics, stress, and depression, ASPD was independently associated with illicit [AOR=3.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18–8.87] and injection drug use (AOR: 5.49, 95% CI: 1.23–24.42) but not with sexual risk. LCAs suggested that those at high risk of ASPD were likely to experience co-morbid mental disorders. ASPD comorbid with these disorders was linked to drug and sex risk. Conclusions STI/HIV prevention for inmates should incorporate diagnosis and treatment of ASPD and comorbid disorders, and interventions to address ASPD-related factors (e.g., impulsivity) that drive STI/HIV risk. PMID:28426364

  16. Weekly variations in feelings of trust predict incident STI within a prospective cohort of adolescent women from a US city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Pamela A; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Chung, Shang-En; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2018-03-24

    Feelings of intimacy, perceptions of partner concurrency (PPC) and perceptions of risk for an STD (PRSTD) are meaningful and dynamic attributes of adolescent sexual relationships. Our objective was to examine whether variations in these STI-associated feelings and perceptions predicted incident Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseriagonorrhoeae infection within a prospective cohort of urban adolescent women. A cohort of clinic-recruited women aged 16-19 completed daily surveys on feelings and risk perceptions about each current sex partner on a smartphone continuously for up to 18 months. Urine was tested for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae every 3 months. Daily responses were averaged across the week. As overall means for trust, closeness and commitment were high, data were coded to indicate any decrease in feelings from the previous week. PRSTD and PPC were reverse coded to indicate any increase from the previous week. An index was created to examine the cumulative effect of variation in these feelings and perceptions. Generalised linear models were used to account for correlation among repeated measures within relationships. For each week that there was a decrease in trust, there was a 45% increase in the risk of being infected with an STI at follow-up (relative risk (RR) 1.45, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.78, P=0.004). Neither a decrease in closeness or commitment, nor an increase in PRSTD or PPC was associated with an STI outcome. Cumulatively, the index measure indicated that a change in an additional feeling or perception over the week increased the odds of an STI by 14% (RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.29, P=0.026). A decrease in feelings of trust towards a main partner may be a more sensitive indicator of STI risk than PRSTD, PPC or commitment. The next generation of behavioural interventions for youth will need strategies to address feelings of intimacy within adolescent romantic relationships. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the

  17. Recent partner violence and sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk among adolescent and young adult women attending family planning clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Anderson, Heather; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Adolescent and young adult women are at high risk for both STI/HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluate the prevalence of IPV in the past three months and its associations with STI/HIV risk, STI, and related care-seeking over the same time period. Methods Female family planning clinic patients ages 16–29 (n=3,504) participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2011–2012 as a baseline assessment for an intervention study. We examined associations of recent IPV with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk behavior, self-reported STI, and STI-related clinical care seeking via logistic regression. Results Recent physical or sexual IPV (prevalence 11%) was associated with recent sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, specifically unprotected vaginal sex (AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52, 2.44), unprotected anal sex (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.51, 3.27) and injection drug use, both their own (AOR 3.39, 95% CI 1.47, 7.79) and their partner’s (AOR 3.85, 1.91, 7.75). IPV was also linked with coercive sexual risk: involuntary condom non-use (AOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.51, 2.33), and fears of requesting condoms (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.73, 6.30) and refusing sex (AOR 11.84, 95% CI 7.59, 18.45). STI-related care-seeking was also more common among those abused (AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.87, 3.31). Conclusions Recent IPV is concurrent with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, including coercive sexual risk, thus compromising women’s agency in STI/HIV risk reduction. Clinical risk assessments should broaden to include unprotected heterosexual anal sex, coercive sexual risk, and IPV, and should promote safety and harm reduction. PMID:24234072

  18. Eestil läheb jätkuvalt hästi / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus Eesti rahvale 2007/2008. aastavahetusel Eesti Panga saalis. Ilmunud ka: Postimees 3. jaan. 2008, lk. 15, pealk.: Usalduse tugevnemise aasta; Postimees : na russkom jazõke 3. jaan. 2008, lk. 9; Eesti Päevaleht 3. jaanuar 2008, lk. 3, pealk.: Eestil läheb hästi; Maaleht 3. jaan. 2008, lk. 7, pealk.: Meie oleme õnnelik rahvas; Virumaa Teataja 3. jaanuar 2008, lk. 11, pealk.: Saame täna olla kindlamad kui kunagi varem; Pärnu Postimees 3. jaanuar 2008, lk. 15, pealk.: Armas Eesti rahvas kodus ja kaugel!; Lõunaleht 3. jaan. 2008, lk. 2, pealk.: Armas Eesti rahvas kodus ja kaugel!; Põhjarannik 3. jaan. 2008, lk. 4, pealk.: Armas Eesti rahvas kodus ja kaugel!; Severnoje Poberezhje 3. jaan. 2008, lk. 4; Meie Maa 3. jaan. 2008, lk. 2, pealk.: Vabariigi presidendi aastavahetuse tervitus; Hiiu Leht 4. jaan. 2008, lk. 2, pealk.: Presidendi tervitus; Harjumaa 4. jaan. 2008, lk. 2, pealk.: Armas Eesti rahvas kodus ja kaugel!; Eesti Päevaleht (Stockholm) 10. jaan. 2008, lk. 2; Eesti Elu 4. jaan. 2008, lk. 2, pealk.: Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus 2007/2008. aastavahetusel (lüh.); Vaba Eesti Sõna 3. jaan. 2008, lk. 3, pealk.: Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus 2007/2008. aastavahetusel, ingl. k. lk. 12, pealk.: President of the Republic New Year Address 2008; Meie Kodu 23. jaan. 2008, lk. 2, pealk.: Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus 2007/2008. aastavahetusel; Eesti Rada 2008, nr. 1, lk. 3, pealk.: Vabariigi Presidendi tervitus 2007/2008. aastavahetusel. Väljavõte tervitusest ilmunud ka: Postimees 31. dets. 2008, lk. 9, pealk.: President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese tervitus aastavahetusel 2007/2008

  19. Reaching the unreachable: providing STI control services to female sex workers via mobile team outreach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo E Campos

    Full Text Available As part of a community-randomized trial of a multicomponent intervention to prevent sexually transmitted infections, we created Mobile Teams (MTs in ten intervention cities across Peru to improve outreach to female sex workers (FSW for strengthened STI prevention services.Throughout 20 two-month cycles, MTs provided counseling; condoms; screening and specific treatment for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, and vaginal Trichomonas vaginalis (TV infections; and periodic presumptive metronidazole treatment for vaginal infections.MTs had 48,207 separate encounters with 24,814 FSW; numbers of sex work venues and of FSW reached increased steadily over several cycles. Approximately 50% of FSW reached per cycle were new. Reported condom use with last client increased from 73% to 93%. Presumptive metronidazole treatment was accepted 83% of times offered. Over 38 months, CT prevalence declined from 15.4% to 8.2%, and TV prevalence from 7.3% to 2.6%. Among participants in ≥ 9 cycles, CT prevalence decreased from 12.9% to 6.0% (p <0.001; TV from 4.6% to 1.5% (p <0.001; and NG from 0.8% to 0.4% (p = 0.07.Mobile outreach to FSW reached many FSW not utilizing government clinics. Self-reported condom use substantially increased; CT and TV prevalences declined significantly. The community-randomized trial, reported separately, demonstrated significantly greater reductions in composite prevalence of CT, NG, TV, or high-titer syphilis serology in FSW in these ten intervention cities than in ten matched control cities.

  20. A study of Female Sex worker’s sub-network on STI treatment seeking behavior in Chennai City: A Social Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabilan Annadurai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female Sex workers (FSW are having high-risk sexual behavior with multiple partners and the periodical sexually transmitted infection screening is determined by various factors. Aims & Objectives: To explore the presence of sub-networks of FSWs and to identify the trends in information flow on Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI treatment seeking behavior by using social network analysis (SNA. Material & Methods: This was a community-based cross-sectional study and exponential snowball sampling method is used to identify 420 FSWs. Structured questionnaire was used to measure information flow and sub-network characteristics of social relationship, Information & Treatment seeking for STI and Sexual practice. Results: Study has listed 94 sub-networks. Here, Sexual practice (Sub-group 28 has highest number of subnetworks compared to other three subnetworks of Social Relationship (Sub-group 25, information on STI (Sub-group 23 and Treatment seeking for STI (Sub-group18. Similarly, other Centrality measures like Triad and Dyad are higher (Each 4 sub-group in sexual practice domain and this is absent in rest of the three domains. Further, treatment seeking for STI has low Clique (Sub-group 17 compared to other domains. This shows high information flow is present in Sexual Practice compare to treatment seeking for STI (CC-0.986, P-0.000. Among the sub typology home based and street based FSWs are well connected, well informed and most influential than other sub-typology. Conclusion: SNA reaches more number of HRGs with less resource. Therefore, SNA could be cost effective to mapping the sub-network and visualize the information path for STI treatment seeking behavior

  1. Psychosocial Pathways to Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Risk Among Youth Transitioning Out of Foster Care: Evidence from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Cari; Simoni, Jane; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To test the fit of a theoretically driven conceptual model of pathways to STI risk among foster youth transitioning to adulthood. The model included: 1) historical abuse and foster care experiences, 2) mental health and attachment style in late adolescence, and 3) STI risk in young adulthood. Methods We used path analysis to analyze data from a longitudinal study of 732 youth transitioning out of foster care. Covariates included gender, race and an inverse probability weight. We also performed moderation analyses comparing models constrained and unconstrained by gender. Results Thirty percent reported they or a partner had been diagnosed with an STI. Probability of other measured STI risk behaviors ranged from 9% (having sex for money) to 79% (inconsistent condom use). Overall model fit was good (Standardized Root Mean Squared Residual of 0.026). Increased risk of oppositional/delinquent behaviors mediated an association between abuse history and STI risk, via increased inconsistent condom use. There was also a borderline association with having greater than 5 partners. Having a very close relationship with a caregiver and remaining in foster care beyond age 18 decreased STI risk. Moderation analysis revealed better model fit when coefficients were allowed to vary by gender versus a constrained model, but few significant differences in individual path coefficients were found between male and female-only models. Conclusions Interventions/policies that: 1) address externalizing trauma sequelae, 2) promote close, stable substitute caregiver relationships, and 3) extend care to age 21 years have the potential to decrease STI risk in this population. PMID:23859955

  2. Deciphering the role of the signal- and Sty1 kinase-dependent phosphorylation of the stress-responsive transcription factor Atf1 on gene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salat-Canela, Clàudia; Paulo, Esther; Sánchez-Mir, Laura; Carmona, Mercè; Ayté, José; Oliva, Baldo; Hidalgo, Elena

    2017-08-18

    Adaptation to stress triggers the most dramatic shift in gene expression in fission yeast ( Schizosaccharomyces pombe ), and this response is driven by signaling via the MAPK Sty1. Upon activation, Sty1 accumulates in the nucleus and stimulates expression of hundreds of genes via the nuclear transcription factor Atf1, including expression of atf1 itself. However, the role of stress-induced, Sty1-mediated Atf1 phosphorylation in transcriptional activation is unclear. To this end, we expressed Atf1 phosphorylation mutants from a constitutive promoter to uncouple Atf1 activity from endogenous, stress-activated Atf1 expression. We found that cells expressing a nonphosphorylatable Atf1 variant are sensitive to oxidative stress because of impaired transcription of a subset of stress genes whose expression is also controlled by another transcription factor, Pap1. Furthermore, cells expressing a phospho-mimicking Atf1 mutant display enhanced stress resistance, and although expression of the Pap1-dependent genes still relied on stress induction, another subset of stress-responsive genes was constitutively expressed in these cells. We also observed that, in cells expressing the phospho-mimicking Atf1 mutant, the presence of Sty1 was completely dispensable, with all stress defects of Sty1-deficient cells being suppressed by expression of the Atf1 mutant. We further demonstrated that Sty1-mediated Atf1 phosphorylation does not stimulate binding of Atf1 to DNA but, rather, establishes a platform of interactions with the basal transcriptional machinery to facilitate transcription initiation. In summary, our results provide evidence that Atf1 phosphorylation by the MAPK Sty1 is required for oxidative stress responses in fission yeast cells by promoting transcription initiation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Scale-up, retention and HIV/STI prevalence trends among female sex workers attending VICITS clinics in Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Morales-Miranda

    Full Text Available Since 2007, Guatemala integrated STI clinical service with an HIV prevention model into four existing public health clinics to prevent HIV infection, known as the VICITS strategy. We present the first assessment of VICITS scale-up, retention, HIV and STI prevalence trends, and risk factors associated with HIV infection among Female Sex Workers (FSW attending VICITS clinics in Guatemala.Demographic, behavioral and clinical data were collected using a standardized form. Data was analyzed by year and health center. HIV and STI prevalence were estimated from routine visits. Retention was estimated as the percent of new users attending VICITS clinics who returned for at least one follow-up visit to any VICITS clinic within 12 months. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to investigate factors associated with HIV infection and program retention.During 2007-2011 5,682 FSW visited a VICITS clinic for the first-time. HIV prevalence varied from 0.4% to 5.8%, and chlamydia prevalence from 0% to 14.3%, across sites. Attending the Puerto Barrios clinic, having a current syphilis infection, working primarily on the street, and using the telephone or internet to contact clients were associated with HIV infection. The number of FSW accessing VICITS annually increased from 556 to 2,557 (361% during the period. In 2011 retention varied across locations from 7.7% to 42.7%. Factors negatively impacting retention included current HIV diagnosis, having practiced sex work in another country, being born in Honduras, and attending Marco Antonio Foundation or Quetzaltenango clinic sites. Systematic time trends did not emerge, however 2008 and 2010 were characterized by reduced retention.Our data show local differences in HIV prevalence and clinic attendance that can be used to prioritize prevention activities targeting FSW in Guatemala. VICITS achieved rapid scale-up; however, a better understanding of the causes of low return rates is urgently

  4. HIV and STI control in El Salvador: results from an integrated behavioural survey among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Jacob; Guardado, Maria Elena; Lee, Janet; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Kim, Andrea A; Monterroso, Edgar; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2012-12-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STI), and risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two cities in El Salvador. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit MSM in the cities of San Salvador and San Miguel, El Salvador. Participants responded to questions about HIV risk behaviours; and blood, urine and anal swabs were collected. Blood samples were tested for herpes simplex type 2, syphilis and HIV infection. Urine and anal samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium. HIV-positive samples were tested with the BED capture enzyme immunoassay to distinguish recent from longstanding HIV infection. We estimated population-adjusted prevalence of behavioural variables, STI and HIV, and identified risk factors for HIV. The final sample included 596 and 195 MSM in San Salvador and San Miguel, respectively. Consistent condom use was low across all partner types as was recent HIV testing. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence was 10.8% (95% CI 7.4% to 14.7%) in San Salvador, and 8.8% (95% CI 4.2% to 14.5%) in San Miguel. The proportion of recent testing among HIV-positive samples was 20%. Prevalence of any bacterial STI by PRC testing was 12.7% (95% CI 8.2% to 17.5%) in San Salvador, and 9.6% (95% CI 4.9% to 15.4%) in San Miguel. We found a high prevalence of HIV, high levels of recent infection, and low condom usage. In El Salvador, targeted interventions towards MSM are needed to promote condom use, as well as to diagnose, treat and prevent HIV and other STIs.

  5. The Relationship Between Pregnancy Prevention and STI/HIV Prevention and Sexual Risk Behavior Among American Indian Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Elizabeth; FourStar, Kristofer; Anastario, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between American Indian men's attitudes toward pregnancy prevention, STI/HIV prevention, and sexual risk behavior. Attention was given to: (1) attitudes and intentions to use condoms and sexual risk behavior; (2) STI/HIV prevention characteristics and sexual risk behavior; (3) attitudes toward abstinence and monogamy and sexual risk behavior; and (4) decision-making in relationships and sexual risk behavior. Our sample included 120 heterosexual American Indian men aged 18 to 24 living on a reservation. Data were collected during in-depth interviews. A community-based participatory research framework was used to ensure the relevancy and acceptability of the study given the sensitivity of the topic. Results demonstrated that attitudinal factors were associated with sexual risk behavior, particularly inconsistent condom use. Attitudes associated with consistent condom use suggested greater levels of positive dispositions toward prevention and intention to use condoms. Consistent condom use was associated with more cautious attitudes toward sex with multiple sex partners. Study results suggested that American Indian men who reported sex with multiple partners exhibited a set of attitudes and beliefs toward pregnancy prevention and STI/HIV prevention that corresponded with a disposition resulting from their behaviors, in that engaging in sexual risk behavior elevated their levels of risk perception. Our findings suggest that heterosexual American Indian men living in rural environments need sexual and reproductive health programs and clinical services that address differing attitudes toward condom use within the context of multiple sex partners and sexual risk behavior. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  6. Scale-up, retention and HIV/STI prevalence trends among female sex workers attending VICITS clinics in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Jacobson, Jerry O; Loya-Montiel, Itzel; Mendizabal-Burastero, Ricardo; Galindo-Arandi, César; Flores, Carlos; Chen, Sanny Y

    2014-01-01

    Since 2007, Guatemala integrated STI clinical service with an HIV prevention model into four existing public health clinics to prevent HIV infection, known as the VICITS strategy. We present the first assessment of VICITS scale-up, retention, HIV and STI prevalence trends, and risk factors associated with HIV infection among Female Sex Workers (FSW) attending VICITS clinics in Guatemala. Demographic, behavioral and clinical data were collected using a standardized form. Data was analyzed by year and health center. HIV and STI prevalence were estimated from routine visits. Retention was estimated as the percent of new users attending VICITS clinics who returned for at least one follow-up visit to any VICITS clinic within 12 months. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to investigate factors associated with HIV infection and program retention. During 2007-2011 5,682 FSW visited a VICITS clinic for the first-time. HIV prevalence varied from 0.4% to 5.8%, and chlamydia prevalence from 0% to 14.3%, across sites. Attending the Puerto Barrios clinic, having a current syphilis infection, working primarily on the street, and using the telephone or internet to contact clients were associated with HIV infection. The number of FSW accessing VICITS annually increased from 556 to 2,557 (361%) during the period. In 2011 retention varied across locations from 7.7% to 42.7%. Factors negatively impacting retention included current HIV diagnosis, having practiced sex work in another country, being born in Honduras, and attending Marco Antonio Foundation or Quetzaltenango clinic sites. Systematic time trends did not emerge, however 2008 and 2010 were characterized by reduced retention. Our data show local differences in HIV prevalence and clinic attendance that can be used to prioritize prevention activities targeting FSW in Guatemala. VICITS achieved rapid scale-up; however, a better understanding of the causes of low return rates is urgently needed.

  7. Inuit women's stories of strength: informing Inuit community-based HIV and STI prevention and sexual health promotion programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Jenny R

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature to guide the development of community-based HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and sexual health promotion programs within Inuit communities. The aim of this study was to create a dialogue with Inuit women to address the lack of information available to inform programming to improve the sexual health of Inuit women, their families, and their communities in the Canadian Arctic. This study used Indigenous methodologies and methods by drawing from Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit and postcolonial research theory in a framework of Two-Eyed Seeing, and using storytelling sessions to gather data. Community-based participatory research principles informed the design of the study, ensuring participants were involved in all stages of the project. Nine storytelling sessions took place with 21 Inuit women aged 18-61 years. Storytelling sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, and Atlas.ti aided in the organization of the data for collaborative thematic analysis within three participatory analysis sessions with 13 of the participating women. From the storytelling and analysis sessions, five major themes emerged: (a) the way it used to be, (b) change, (c) family, (d) intimate relationships and (e) holistic strategies. Participating women emphasized that HIV and STI prevention and sexual health promotion programming needs to take a holistic, community-wide, family-focused and youth-centred approach within their communities. Participants identified several important determinants of sexual health and shared ideas for innovative approaches they believe will work as prevention efforts within their communities. This article specifically focuses on key characteristics of programming aimed at STI and HIV prevention and sexual health promotion that were identified throughout participants' stories. This study has provided a narrative to complement the epidemiological data that highlight the urgent need for prevention programming.

  8. Sexual relationships, intimate partner violence and STI partner notification in Cape Town, South Africa: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine; Kalichman, Moira O; Laubscher, Ria; Hutchison, Cameron; Nkoko, Koena; Lurie, Mark; Kalichman, Seth C

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to identify individual and sexual partnership characteristics associated with partner notification (PN) among people with STI. We hypothesised that PN would be less likely in more casual sexual partnerships and in partnerships with intimate partner violence (IPV). We conducted an observational study among the first 330 patients with STI enrolled in a trial of a behavioural intervention to reduce STI incidence, at a clinic in a poor, Cape Town community. We included 195 index patients (those reporting STI symptoms), and conducted longitudinal analyses using participant-completed questionnaires on the day of diagnosis and 2 weeks later. Using partnership data for five recent sexual partners, we assessed factors associated with reported PN with logistic regressions, adjusting for repeated measurements on the same participant for each partner. The sample included 99 males with 303 partners and 96 females with 158 partners. Males reported perpetrating IPV in 46.2% of partnerships. Females reported being IPV victims in 53.2% of partnerships. Males notified 58.1%, females 75.4% of partners during the 2 weeks following diagnosis. Type of partner was an independent correlate of PN for males and females, with the odds of PN lower in more casual partnerships. For males, reporting physical IPV perpetration in the partnership was an independent correlate of PN. For females, there was no association between IPV victimisation in a partnership and PN. Efforts to decrease the pool of infectious partners need to have a strong focus on the promotion of PN in casual relationships and one-night stands. IPV was not identified as a barrier to PN. In future, we need to investigate the association between IPV with an objective measure of PN success such as partner testing or treatment, or index patient reinfection. PACTR201606001682364; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No

  9. The Usability and Acceptability of an Adolescent mHealth HIV/STI and Drug Abuse Preventive Intervention in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, David; Alers-Rojas, Francheska; Lua, Frania Mendoza; Bauermeister, Jose; Nurenberg, Rachel; Ovadje, Lauretta; Fessler, Kathryn; Delva, Jorge; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Council, Youth Leadership

    2018-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk behaviors among adolescents remain significant public health concerns. Shifts in policy and advances in technology provide opportunities for researchers and clinicians to deliver and evaluate mobile-health (mHealth) prevention programs in primary care, however, research is limited. This study assessed the usability and acceptability of Storytelling 4 Empowerment-a mHealth HIV/STI and drug abuse preventive intervention app-among adolescents in primary care. Informed by principles of community-based participatory research, we recruited a purposive sample of 30 adolescents from a youth-centered community health care clinic in Southeast Michigan. The study sample is primarily African American and female. Adolescents who participated in the Storytelling 4 Empowerment intervention assessed its usability and acceptability, and self-reported their HIV/STI risk behaviors. We used a multiple-methods approach. Adolescents reported high acceptability of the content, process, and format of Storytelling 4 Empowerment, as evidenced by qualitative data and mean scores from the Session Evaluation Form for the HIV/STI and Alcohol/Drug content, overall Storytelling 4 Empowerment intervention, and Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8. Findings indicate that Storytelling 4 Empowerment is acceptable among adolescents in primary care. A next step is to examine the effect of Storytelling 4 Empowerment on adolescent sexual risk and drug use behaviors and HIV/STI testing.

  10. Incarcerated Black Women in the Southern USA: A Narrative Review of STI and HIV Risk and Implications for Future Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelligrino, Nicole; Zaitzow, Barbara H; Sothern, Melinda; Scribner, Richard; Phillippi, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Incarcerated black women in the southern USA are understudied despite the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These incarceration and health disparities are rooted in centuries of historically inequitable treatment. Amidst the current dialogue on mass incarceration in the south and its relationship to the health of the black community, individual and environmental risk factors for STI/HIV transmission are seldom paired with discussions of evidence-based solutions. A narrative review of the literature from January 1995 to May 2015 was conducted. This sample of the literature (n = 18) revealed that partner concurrency, inconsistent condom use, sex work, previous STI, and drug abuse augmented individual STI/HIV risk. Recommended interventions include those which promote healthier relationships, cultural competence, and gender specificity, as well as those that enhance prevention skills. Policy recommendations include improving cultural sensitivity, cultural competence, and cultural humility training for clinicians, as well as substantially increasing funding for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitative services. These recommendations are timely given the recent national attention to incarceration, STI, and HIV disparities, particularly in the southern USA.

  11. Factors related to risky sexual behaviors and effective STI/HIV and pregnancy intervention programs for African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Me; Cintron, Adanisse; Kocher, Surinder

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review study was to investigate factors related to risky sexual behaviors among African American adolescents, to evaluate which of the factors are common across successful and effective STI/HIV and pregnancy intervention programs, and finally, to propose suggestions for future intervention programs for African American adolescents in West Englewood, Chicago. An integrative literature review was conducted. Using CINAHL, PubMed, and ProQuest database, the following terms were searched: African American, Black, adolescents, teenagers, sexual behavior, cultural factors, pregnancy, STIs/HIV/AIDS, and intervention programs. A total of 18 articles were reviewed, findings indicated there were five major contributing factors related to risky sexual behaviors: substance use, gender roles, peer influences, parental involvement, and level of knowledge and information on sex and STIs. Six successful STI/HIV and pregnancy programs that incorporated those factors to effectively reduce risky sexual behaviors were identified. After analyzing six national intervention programs proven to be effective, the findings suggest that future prevention programs should be designed with more emphasis on avoidance or limited substance use, increased parental involvement, integration of cultural teaching components such as storytelling and history as suggested from the Aban Aya Youth Project. This study also concluded that future prevention programs should consider the length of programs be longer than 1 year, as it has been shown to be more effective than shorter programs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Clinical and microscopic signs of cervicitis and urethritis: correlation with Chlamydia trachomatis infection in female STI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsson, Matilda; Tunbäck, Petra

    2013-03-27

    Chlamydia trachomatis is among the most prevalent genital infections and is an important cause of tubal factor infertility. The majority of infected females are asymptomatic. Evidence on the reliability of signs of inflammation used to predict chlamydia in female patients is inconsistent. This study examined associations between criteria routinely used in many Scandinavian sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and a positive chlamydia test in a high-prevalence population. Clinical and microscopic signs of cervicitis and urethritis were recorded in 99 women attending due to chlamydia infection in a sexual partner. Mucopurulent cervical discharge, easily induced bleeding from the cervix, and more polymorpho-nuclear cells than epithelial cells in vaginal wet smear all correlated significantly with a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test (odds ratios: 3.4, 4.0 and 4.8, respectively). Increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (>30 and ≥ 5 respectively) in stained cervical and urethral smears were not significantly correlated with chlamydia infection. Hence, routine collection of cervical and urethral smears in female STI patients is questionable.

  13. A theory-based approach to understanding condom errors and problems reported by men attending an STI clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Salazar, Laura F; Yarber, William L; Sanders, Stephanie A; Graham, Cynthia A; Head, Sara; Arno, Janet N

    2008-05-01

    We employed the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model to guide an investigation of correlates for correct condom use among 278 adult (18-35 years old) male clients attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. An anonymous questionnaire aided by a CD-recording of the questions was administered. Linear Structural Relations Program was used to conduct path analyses of the hypothesized IMB model. Parameter estimates showed that while information did not directly affect behavioral skills, it did have a direct (negative) effect on condom use errors. Motivation had a significant direct (positive) effect on behavioral skills and a significant indirect (positive) effect on condom use errors through behavioral skills. Behavioral skills had a direct (negative) effect on condom use errors. Among men attending a public STI clinic, these findings suggest brief, clinic-based, safer sex programs for men who have sex with women should incorporate activities to convey correct condom use information, instill motivation to use condoms correctly, and directly enhance men's behavioral skills for correct use of condoms.

  14. Consequences of restricted STI testing for young heterosexuals in the Netherlands on test costs and QALY losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suijkerbuijk, Anita W M; Over, Eelco A B; van Aar, Fleur; Götz, Hannelore M; van Benthem, Birgit H B; Lugnér, Anna K

    2018-02-01

    Due to rising costs caused by increasing demand for sexually transmitted infection (STI) care, the Dutch government changed the funding of STI clinics. In 2015, a more restrictive testing policy was introduced with syphilis and HIV tests only on indication for younger, heterosexual clients. We evaluated intended savings and missed syphilis and/or HIV infections and explored efficiency of possible test policies. Using surveillance data from 2011 to 2013 with extensive testing for all, we estimated effects of restrictive testing on test costs, number of infections missed, costs per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) lost, and calculated the net monetary benefit from a government perspective. The 2015 policy led to estimated savings of €1.1 million, while missing approximately three HIV infections and seven syphilis infections annually. Savings were €435,000/QALY lost. If testing second-generation immigrants for syphilis and HIV, savings rose to €525,000/QALY lost. Offering an HIV test when diagnosed with chlamydia or gonorrhoea savings were €568,000/QALY lost. In a sensitivity analysis, the willingness-to-pay threshold had the highest impact on results. The 2015 testing policy resulted in a modest decline of detected HIV and syphilis infections, generating substantial savings. Syphilis and HIV tests for both first- and second-generation immigrants and an HIV test in case of positive chlamydia or gonorrhoea diagnosis could reduce missed infections in a cost-effective way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. STiC — a mixed mode silicon photomultiplier readout ASIC for time-of-flight applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harion, T; Briggl, K; Chen, H; Gil, A; Kiworra, V; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Shen, W; Stankova, V; Fischer, P; Ritzert, M

    2014-01-01

    STiC is an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for the readout of silicon photomultipliers. The chip has been designed to provide a very high timing resolution for time-of-flight applications in medical imaging and particle physics. It is dedicated in particular to the EndoToFPET-US project, which is developing an endoscopic PET detector combined with ultrasound imaging for early pancreas and prostate cancer detection. This PET system aims to provide a spatial resolution of 1 mm and a time-of-flight resolution of 200 ps FWHM. The analog frontend of STiC can use either a differential or single ended connection to the SiPM. The time and energy information of the detector signal is encoded into two time stamps. A special linearized time-over-threshold method is used to obtain a linear relation between the signal charge and the measured signal width, improving the energy resolution. The trigger signals are digitized by an integrated TDC module with a resolution of less than 20 ps. The TDC data is stored in an internal memory and transfered over a 160 MBit/s serial link using 8/10 bit encoding. First coincidence measurements using a 3.1 × 3.1 × 15 mm 3 LYSO crystal and a S10362-33-50 Hamamtsu MPPC show a coincidence time resolution of less than 285 ps. We present details on the chip design as well as first characterization measurements

  16. Staying strong: gender ideologies among African-American adolescents and the implications for HIV/STI prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Johnson, Raina; Parham, Patrice; Thomas, Tracey; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2007-05-01

    This paper explores adolescents' definitions of what it means to be a man and a woman, the psycho-social context surrounding the formation of gender ideologies and their relationship to HIV/STI prevention. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with fifty African-American adolescents living in Baltimore, Maryland. Female gender ideologies included economic independence, emotional strength and caretaking. Male gender ideologies emphasized financial responsibility, toughness and sexual prowess. Findings suggest that stronger adherence to male gender ideologies related to toughness and sexual prowess is influenced by male participants' perceived inability to fulfill their primary gender role as economic providers and the importance of gaining approval from male peers in the absence of adult male role models. Stronger adherence to female gender ideologies related to emotional strength and caretaking may be linked to a heightened desire for male intimacy and tolerance of male sexual risk behavior. Implications of the gender ideologies documented and their commonalities are discussed in terms of HIV/STI prevention.

  17. Lymphogranuloma venereum among patients presenting at the HIV/STI clinic in Antwerp, Belgium : a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apers, Ludwig; Florence, Eric; Crucitti, Tania; Anwar, Nabila

    2017-01-01

    Objective of this study was to describe the patient characteristics and clinical presentation of laboratory confirmed lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) cases, diagnosed at the Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM), Antwerp, Belgium. Demographic and biomedical characteristics of all patients with chlamydia-positive sample results were retrieved for the years 2013 and 2014. Samples were obtained from both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who consulted at the HIV/STI clinic. Fifty four patients with laboratory confirmed LGV were detected among 3885 nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) performed for the detection of chlamydia during the two years under review. Fifty three were men and equally fifty three had sex with men only (MSM). HIV (87%) and HCV (31.5%) were common concomitant infections, whilst anal gonorrhoea and syphilis were detected at the moment of the LGV diagnosis among 19 (35.2%) and 6 (11.0%) cases respectively. All cases were symptomatic, except one. The most frequent symptoms that were recorded could be categorised as proctitis (in 40 patients (74%)). Lymphadenopathy, anal and genital ulcers were signs that were present in 7 (13.0%), 4 (7.4%) and 2 patients (3.7%) respectively. LGV remains an important sexually transmitted disease among MSM. In this retrospective study, the far majority of LGV was detected amongst symptomatic persons. HCV, HIV, anal gonorrhoea and syphilis were associated co-infections. Proctitis in a high risk patient should alert the clinician for the possibility of an STI. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  18. Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption Prior to Sex, Unprotected Sex and Prevalence of STI/HIV Among Socially Marginalized Men in Three Coastal Cities of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Segundo R.; Lescano, Andrés G.; Clark, Jesse L.; Hall, Eric R.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Tom J.; Caceres, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents data about the relationship between alcohol consumption prior to sex and unprotected sex and the prevalence of at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) including HIV among socially marginalized men in three coastal Peruvians cities. During an epidemiological survey with 2,146 men, we assessed their STI prevalence, frequency of alcohol consumption prior to sex, unprotected sex and other sexual risk behaviors. The overall prevalence of at least one STI/HIV was 8.5 % (95 % CI 7.3–9.7), the prevalence of unprotected sex was 79.1 % (95 % CI 77.8–80.3) and alcohol consumption prior to sex with any of the last five sex partners in the previous 6 months was 68.9 % (95 % CI 66.9–70.9). Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed that alcohol consumption of participants or their partners prior to sex were associated with the prevalence of at least one STI, adjusted Prevalence Ratio (aPR) = 1.3 (95 % CI 1.01–1.68). Unprotected sex was significantly associated with alcohol consumption prior to sex when both partners used alcohol, aPR = 1.15 (95 % CI 1.10–1.20) or when either one of them used alcohol aPR = 1.14 (95 % CI 1.09–1.18). These findings concur with previous literature suggesting a relationship between alcohol consumption prior to sex and STI and HIV. These data improve our understanding of this relationship in this context and could be used to enhance STI and HIV prevention strategies for socially marginalized men in Peru. PMID:23054035

  19. Serological profile of HSV-2 in patients attending STI clinic: Evaluation of diagnostic utility of HSV-2 IgM detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhry Shilpee

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was done to evaluate the serological profile of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2 among patients attending sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic and to determine the utility of detecting HSV-2 IgM antibodies in such patients. A correlation of HSV-2 infection with other STI including HIV has also been attempted. Materials and Methods: Hundred consecutive patients who attended STI clinic, with one or more of the complaints as enunciated by WHO in syndromic approach for the diagnosis of STI, were included as subjects. All subjects were screened for common STI by standard laboratory procedures/ commercially available kits. HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgM antibody was detected by commercially available enzyme immuno assay kit in all patient′s sera. Sera were also tested for other STI, namely HIV, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus and Treponema pallidum. Antigen detection for Chlamydia trachomatis was done in genital swabs of all patients by Bio-Rad Chlamydia Microplate EIA 31189 (United States kit. Results: Thirty patients were found to have genital herpes. In 17/30 (56.6% patients, HSV-2 serology was found to correlate with the clinical diagnosis. The coexistence of other infection in HSV-2 seropositive patients was detected in 8/30 patients. None of the patients having concomitant infections were clinically diagnosed accurately. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of IgM antibodies for the diagnosis of genital herpes was 73.91%, 90.91%, 70.83% and 92.91% respectively. Conclusion: HSV-2 IgM detection could only be used as a supportive test for the diagnosis of genital herpes . It needs to be emphasized that the sensitivity and positive predictive value scores are pointers for further improvement in the commercial assay systems and a large sample size may determine the broader utility of such systems.

  20. Perceptions of Community HIV/ STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstock, Oni J.; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L.; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E.; Haley, Danielle F.; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A.; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community’s HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/ STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women’s HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were condu...

  1. Quality assurance and quality improvement using supportive supervision in a large-scale STI intervention with sex workers, men who have sex with men/transgenders and injecting-drug users in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mogasale, V.; Wi, T.C.; Das, A.; Kane, S.; Singh, A.K.; George, B.; Steen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Documentation of the long-term impact of supportive supervision using a monitoring tool in STI intervention with sex workers, men who have sex with men and injection-drug users is limited. The authors report methods and results of continued quality monitoring in a large-scale STI services

  2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 12: An initial investigation into the production and use of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) at five NASA centers: Results of a telephone survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Nanci A.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide NASA management with an 'initial' look at the production and use of scientific and technical information (STI) at five NASA centers (Ames, Goddard, Langley, Lewis, and Marshall). The 550 respondents who were interviewed by telephone held favorable views regarding the NASA STI system. About 65 percent of the respondents stated that it is either very or somewhat important for them to publish their work through the NASA STI system. About 10 percent of those respondents encountered problems using the NASA STI system services for publication. The most frequently reported problem was 'the process is too time consuming' (8.6 percent). Overall, those respondents using the NASA STI system to publish their work rated the system as excellent (24.6 percent) or good (37.6 percent). About 79 percent of the respondents stated that it is either very or somewhat important for them to use the NASA STI system to access information. The most frequently reported problems were 'the time and effort it takes to locate and obtain information through the system' (14.4 percent). Overall, about 83 percent of the respondents stated that the NASA STI system is important to performing their work. Overall, about 73 percent of the respondents stated that the NASA STI system meets their information needs.

  3. AWARENESS ABOUT HIV/AIDS IN CLIENTS ATTENDING STI CLINIC: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY FROM SOUTH-EAST RAJASTHAN, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND India bears a large burden of HIV/AIDS on globe. Major weapons against HIV/AIDS are treatment which is not curative, vaccine which is far from reality and accurate & adequate information about the disease which is practically acceptable and cost effective way of prevention in form of social vaccine and is a good tool for HIV/AIDS in developing countries like India. In India there is inadequate & inaccurate knowledge about the disease in general population. AIM In present study we tried to analyze the knowledge & awareness about HIV/AIDS in clients attending the STI clinic at Jhalawar Hospital and Medical College at south east part of Rajasthan, India. MATERIAL & METHODS We assessed 500 clients at STI clinic by using a predesigned questionnaire which gathers their knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS. All the clients above the age of 18 years who attended the STI clinic were enrolled for the study voluntarily. Participants were finally assessed as good/poor or unaware according to their level of knowledge. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS SPSS version 20.0 (trial was used to analyze all the data. Chi square test was used to find association between knowledge and their literacy level & occupation. RESULTS 142(28.4% of the participants had never heard about HIV/AIDS among them females were significantly more than males. Both low level of literacy and unemployment or house wives were associated with unawareness about HIV/AIDS. For the 358(71.6% participants who had heard about HIV/AIDS, mass media was the main source of information (53.07% in which television contributes the major part, followed by friends and colleagues (24.02%. While the knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention was good but the extent of misconceptions was also high (64.8%. CONCLUSION Our study is highly suggestive of the strong need to increase the level of HIV awareness among Indian population via proper education and through various resources on information.

  4. Youth Voucher Program in Madagascar Increases Access to Voluntary Family Planning and STI Services for Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eva; Gold, Judy; Razafinirinasoa, Lalaina; Mackay, Anna

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Young people often express a preference for seeking family planning information and services from the private sector. However, in many Marie Stopes International (MSI) social franchise networks, the proportion of young clients, and particularly those under 20 years of age, remains low. Marie Stopes Madagascar (MSM) piloted a youth voucher program that joins a supply-side intervention—youth-friendly social franchisee training and quality monitoring—with a corresponding demand-side-component, free vouchers that reduce financial barriers to family planning access for young people. Methods: Young people identified by MSM's community health educators (CHEs) received a free voucher redeemable at a BlueStar social franchisee for a package of voluntary family planning and sexually transmitted infection (STI) information and services. BlueStar social franchisees—private providers accredited by MSM—are reimbursed for the cost of providing these services. We reviewed service statistics data from the first 18 months of the youth voucher program, from July 2013 to December 2014, as well as client demographic profile data from July 2015. Findings: Between July 2013 and December 2014, 58,417 vouchers were distributed to young people by CHEs through a range of community mobilization efforts, of which 43,352 (74%) were redeemed for family planning and STI services. Most clients (78.5%) chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC), and just over half (51%) of young people benefited from STI counseling as part of their voucher service. Most (78%) services were provided in the Analamanga region (the capital and its surroundings), which was expected given the population density in this region and the high concentration of BlueStar franchisees. The client profile data snapshot from July 2015 revealed that 69% of voucher clients had never previously used a contraceptive method, and 96% of clients were aged 20 or younger, suggesting that the voucher

  5. Youth Voucher Program in Madagascar Increases Access to Voluntary Family Planning and STI Services for Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eva; Gold, Judy; Razafinirinasoa, Lalaina; Mackay, Anna

    2017-03-24

    Young people often express a preference for seeking family planning information and services from the private sector. However, in many Marie Stopes International (MSI) social franchise networks, the proportion of young clients, and particularly those under 20 years of age, remains low. Marie Stopes Madagascar (MSM) piloted a youth voucher program that joins a supply-side intervention-youth-friendly social franchisee training and quality monitoring-with a corresponding demand-side-component, free vouchers that reduce financial barriers to family planning access for young people. Young people identified by MSM's community health educators (CHEs) received a free voucher redeemable at a BlueStar social franchisee for a package of voluntary family planning and sexually transmitted infection (STI) information and services. BlueStar social franchisees-private providers accredited by MSM-are reimbursed for the cost of providing these services. We reviewed service statistics data from the first 18 months of the youth voucher program, from July 2013 to December 2014, as well as client demographic profile data from July 2015. Findings: Between July 2013 and December 2014, 58,417 vouchers were distributed to young people by CHEs through a range of community mobilization efforts, of which 43,352 (74%) were redeemed for family planning and STI services. Most clients (78.5%) chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC), and just over half (51%) of young people benefited from STI counseling as part of their voucher service. Most (78%) services were provided in the Analamanga region (the capital and its surroundings), which was expected given the population density in this region and the high concentration of BlueStar franchisees. The client profile data snapshot from July 2015 revealed that 69% of voucher clients had never previously used a contraceptive method, and 96% of clients were aged 20 or younger, suggesting that the voucher program is successfully reaching the

  6. Low HIV-testing rates and awareness of HIV infection among high-risk heterosexual STI clinic attendees in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bij, Akke K.; Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.; Coutinho, Roel A.; Fennema, Han S. A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since 1999, HIV testing is routinely offered to all attendees of the sexually transmitted infections (STI) outpatient clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. This study evaluates whether this more active HIV-testing policy increased uptake of HIV testing and awareness of an HIV-positive

  7. Molecular cloning and expression of a transformation-sensitive human protein containing the TPR motif and sharing identity to the stress-inducible yeast protein STI1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Leffers, H; Madsen, Peder

    1992-01-01

    in families of fungal proteins required for mitosis and RNA synthesis. In particular, the protein has 42% amino acid sequence identity to STI1, a stress-inducible mediator of the heat shock response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Northern blot analysis indicated that the 3521 mRNA is up-regulated in several...

  8. Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and STI screening for men who have sex with men in Estonia, 2013: analysis of preliminary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruutel, K; Lohmus, L; Janes, J

    2015-04-16

    The aim of the current project was to develop an Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia in order to collect biological samples during behavioural studies. In 2013, an Internet-based HIV risk-behaviour survey was conducted among MSM living in Estonia. After completing the questionnaire, all participants were offered anonymous and free-of-charge STI testing. They could either order a urine sample kit by post to screen for chlamydia infections (including lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)), trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections, or visit a laboratory for HIV, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus,hepatitis C virus and syphilis screening. Of 301 participants who completed the questionnaire, 265 (88%),reported that they were MSM. Of these 265 MSM,68 (26%) underwent various types of testing. In the multiple regression analysis, Russian as the first language,previous HIV testing and living in a city or town increased the odds of testing during the study. Linking Internet-based behavioural data collection with biological sample collection is a promising approach. As there are no specific STI services for MSM in Estonia,this system could also be used as an additional option for anonymous and free-of-charge STI screening.

  9. What Would Your Journal Say if It Could Talk Back? Using Dialogue Journals as a Technique in Adolescent HIV/STI Prevention and Sexual Health Promotion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafane, Jamie Heather

    2013-01-01

    Dialogue journaling is a technique that is useful for enhancing the goals of sexual health promotion and HIV/STI prevention programs with 14-to 17-year-old at-risk youth. Included is a detailed lesson plan on how to implement dialogue journaling in this context, a discussion of advantages and concerns about using them, and future implications for…

  10. Maternal Fetal Attachment, Locus of Control and Adherence to STI/HIV Prevention and Prenatal Care Promotion Behaviors in Urban Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfield, Sara L; Geller, Pamela A; Epperson, C Neill

    Young women of childbearing age are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. In particular, young women have more frequent and more serious health problems from STI or HIV infection than men, and among women, African American women have especially high rates of infection. Pregnancy is an important time for beginning or continued STI and HIV prevention behaviors as discontinuing condom use when the contraceptive motivation is gone puts women and their fetuses at risk for contraction of STIs and HIV if they remain sexually active. There are many personal attributes that predict adherence to STI risk reduction behaviors including health related locus of control. The current study surveyed a group of 100 low-income, urban dwelling minority women during their pregnancies to determine whether maternal-fetal attachment, a characteristic specific to pregnancy, favorably influences pregnant women's health related locus of control such that women might be more inclined to engage in preventative STI/HIV risk reduction behaviors. Our findings revealed that while our sample has very high levels of MFA despite the high rate of unplanned pregnancy, condom use is not the method used to reduce the risk of contracting STIs/HIV. Rather, women are more likely to limit their number of sexual partners during pregnancy. While this is beneficial, pregnant women in non-monogamous relationships may discount the importance of condom use during pregnancy. Prenatal care providers can provide education about condom use as a beneficial prenatal care behavior similar to taking prenatal vitamins.

  11. What Would Your Journal Say if It Could Talk Back? Using Dialogue Journals as a Technique in Adolescent HIV/STI Prevention and Sexual Health Promotion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafane, Jamie Heather

    2013-01-01

    Dialogue journaling is a technique that is useful for enhancing the goals of sexual health promotion and HIV/STI prevention programs with 14 to 17 year old at-risk youth. Included is a detailed lesson plan on how to implement dialogue journaling in this context; a discussion of advantages and concerns about using them; and future implications for its use. PMID:24948881

  12. Talk or text to tell? How young adults in Canada and South Africa prefer to receive STI results, counseling, and treatment updates in a wireless world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labacher, Lukas; Mitchell, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Young adults often lack access to confidential, long-lasting, and nonjudgmental interactions with sexual health professionals at brick-and-mortar clinics. To ensure that patients return for their STI test results, post-result counseling, and STI-related information, computer-mediated health intervention programming allows them to receive sexual health information through onsite computers, the Internet, and mobile phone calls and text messages. To determine whether young adults (age: M = 21 years) prefer to communicate with health professionals about the status of their sexual health through computer-mediated communication devices, 303 second-year university students (183 from an urban North American university and 120 from a periurban university in South Africa) completed a paper-based survey indicating how they prefer to communicate with doctors and nurses: talking face to face, mobile phone call, text message, Internet chat programs, Facebook, Twitter, or e-mail. Nearly all students, and female students in South Africa in particular, prefer to receive their STI test results, post-results counseling, and STI-related information by talking face to face with doctors and nurses rather than communicating through computers or mobile phones. Results are clarified in relation to gender, availability of various technologies, and prevalence of HIV in Canada and in South Africa.

  13. No drama: key elements to the success of an HIV/STI-prevention mass-media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrana, Alisa E; Hellard, Margaret E; Higgs, Peter; Asselin, Jason; Batrouney, Colin; Stoovè, Mark

    2014-05-01

    We qualitatively examined gay men's reactions to the national "Drama Downunder" HIV/STI social marketing campaign targeting gay men in Australia to identify key campaign elements that underpinned the demonstrated effectiveness of the campaign. We present findings from six qualitative focus groups held with 49 participants as part of the evaluation of the sexual-health-promotion campaign over 2008-2009. Participants identified attention-grabbing images, a humorous approach, positive and simple tailored messaging, and the use of mainstream media as campaign features crucial in normalizing sexual health testing, driving campaign engagement, and ensuring high message exposure. Our results suggest that designers of future campaigns should strive to balance positive and negative campaign images and messages, and find new ways to engage men with sexual health topics, particularly younger gay men. We discuss the implications of our findings about campaign effectiveness for future health-promotion campaigns and message design.

  14. On founding of the science and technology intelligence (STI) research system for the grand engineering research organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhimin; Tang Yong; Shi Yi; Wang Yirong

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the science and technology intelligence (STI) research system for grand engineering research organization, and pose that this system should be composed of five elements of research category, research form, service patterns , quality control and fruit evaluation and precession with ability, and describes its definition, connotation and function for each element. research category includes strategy intelligence, technology route and develop trend, technology detail; research form has dynamic track, investigation and analysis, consult study; service patterns involve demand or induction service, independence or mutual action service; quality control and fruit evaluation should be conducted by a group of technologist and intelligence expert; precession with ability should be an organized system with good configuration and learning ability. (authors)

  15. Trends in Pap test practices and results: An 11-year review of the annual ACHA Pap Test and STI Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman-Mueller, Heather P; Oswalt, Sara B

    2017-10-01

    To conduct a trend analysis of Pap test practices, Pap test results and related women's services and guidelines of college health centers. College health centers who participated in the annual ACHA Pap Test and STI (sexually transmitted infection) Survey years 2004-2014 (n ranged from 127 to 181 depending on year). Descriptive analyses are presented with ANOVAs (Analysis of Variance) and chi-square tests calculated to examine trends over time. The number of Pap tests significantly decreased over time; however, the percentage of normal and HSIL (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) results did not vary. Availability of conventional cytology slides and cryotherapy were significantly associated with year. Over time, college health centers' guidelines related to initiation of Pap testing evolved to consistently conform to national recommendations for cervical screening. The results indicate most college health centers are following the current national guidelines regarding Pap testing for young adult women.

  16. A psycho-educational HIV/STI prevention intervention for internally displaced women in Leogane, Haiti: results from a non-randomized cohort pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    Full Text Available Little evidence exists regarding efficacious HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI prevention interventions with internally displaced populations. Internally displaced women are at elevated risk for HIV/STI due to limited access to health services, heightened poverty and social network breakdown. The FASY (Famn an Aksyon Pou Sante' Yo (Women Taking Action For Their Health study examined the effectiveness of a peer health worker (PHW delivered psycho-educational HIV/STI pilot study with internally displaced women in Leogane, Haiti.This was a non-randomized cohort pilot study. Participants completed a computer-assisted pre-test programmed on Android tablet PCs followed by an HIV/STI educational video-based session and a 6-week psycho-educational group program of weekly meetings. Participants completed a post-test upon completion of group sessions. The primary outcome was HIV knowledge; our pre-specified index of clinically significant change was an effect size of 0.30. Secondary outcomes included: STI knowledge, condom use, social support, resilient coping, depression and relationship control. We used mixed-effects regression to calculate mean outcome pre-post score change. This study was registered (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01492829.Between January 1-April 30, 2012 we assigned 200 participants to the study. The majority of participants (n = 176, 88% completed the study and were followed up at 8 weeks, finishing April 30, 2012. Adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, HIV knowledge (β = 4.81; 95% CI 4.36-5.26, STI knowledge (β = 0.84; 95% CI 0.70-0.99, condom use (AOR = 4.05, 95% CI 1.86-8.83, and depression (β = -0.63, 95% CI -0.88--0.39 scores showed statistically significant change post-intervention (p<0.05.This pilot study evaluated a PHW psycho-educational HIV/STI prevention intervention among internally displaced women in post-earthquake Haiti. Pilot studies are an important approach to understand feasibility and scientific

  17. Understanding racial HIV/STI disparities in black and white men who have sex with men: a multilevel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S Sullivan

    Full Text Available The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men have puzzled researchers for decades. Understanding reasons for these disparities requires looking beyond individual-level behavioral risk to a more comprehensive framework.From July 2010-December 2012, 803 men (454 black, 349 white were recruited through venue-based and online sampling; consenting men were provided HIV and STI testing, completed a behavioral survey and a sex partner inventory, and provided place of residence for geocoding. HIV prevalence was higher among black (43% versus white (13% MSM (prevalence ratio (PR 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.5-4.4. Among HIV-positive men, the median CD4 count was significantly lower for black (490 cells/µL than white (577 cells/µL MSM; there was no difference in the HIV RNA viral load by race. Black men were younger, more likely to be bisexual and unemployed, had less educational attainment, and reported fewer male sex partners, fewer unprotected anal sex partners, and less non-injection drug use. Black MSM were significantly more likely than white MSM to have rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea, were more likely to have racially concordant partnerships, more likely to have casual (one-time partners, and less likely to discuss serostatus with partners. The census tracts where black MSM lived had higher rates of poverty and unemployment, and lower median income. They also had lower proportions of male-male households, lower male to female sex ratios, and lower HIV diagnosis rates.Among black and white MSM in Atlanta, disparities in HIV and STI prevalence by race are comparable to those observed nationally. We identified differences between black and white MSM at the individual, dyadic/sexual network, and community levels. The reasons for black/white disparities in HIV prevalence in Atlanta are complex, and will likely require a multilevel framework to understand comprehensively.

  18. Heavy Alcohol Use Among Migrant and Non-Migrant Male Sex Workers in Thailand: A Neglected HIV/STI Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadamuz, Thomas E; Clatts, Michael C; Goldsamt, Lloyd A

    2018-02-20

    There is scarce research on male sex workers in the context of alcohol use. While heavy alcohol use has been established as a risk factor for HIV and STI infections among men who have sex with men (MSM), men who engage in sex work with other men, particularly from the Global South, have not been included in these studies. Moreover, studies among male sex workers in Asia often do not explore migration contexts of these men. The objective of this exploratory study is to examine the prevalence and correlates of heavy alcohol use among migrant and non-migrant male sex workers in Bangkok and Pattaya, Central Thailand. Between August and October 2015, 18-24 year-old migrant and non-migrant male sex workers (n = 212) were recruited from various male sex work-identified venues (bars, clubs, massage parlors, and go-go bars) to take an interviewer-administered cross-sectional survey in Bangkok and Pattaya, Thailand. Measures were adapted from previous studies in similar populations and included structured questions across four domains, including demographic characteristics, alcohol use, stimulant use, and sexual behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the independent associations between heavy alcohol use (heavy versus not heavy) and demographic characteristics, stimulant use and sexual behavior. Heavy alcohol use was prevalent among one-third of participants. Heavy alcohol use was positively associated with male sex workers who were non-migrant and Thai, currently using stimulants, having 15 or more male clients in the past month and having first consumed alcohol at age 15 years or younger. Current HIV prevention efforts should consider subpopulations of MSM, including male sex workers and migrants, as well as other risk behaviors like alcohol, as important contexts for HIV and STI risks.

  19. Randomized Controlled Trials of Technology-Based HIV/STI and Drug Abuse Preventive Interventions for African American and Hispanic Youth: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova, David; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Ovadje, Lauretta; Hong, Ethan; Castillo, Berenice; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2017-12-13

    HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and drug abuse remain significant public health concerns in the United States, and African American and Hispanic youth are disproportionately affected. Although technology-based interventions are efficacious in preventing and reducing HIV/STI and licit/illicit drug use behaviors, relatively little is known regarding the state of the science of these interventions among African American and Hispanic youth. The aim of this review is to identify and examine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of technology-based HIV/STI and/or drug abuse preventive interventions for African American and Hispanic youth. We searched electronic databases (ie, PubMed, Proquest, PsycINFO, Ebscohost, Google Scholar) to identify studies between January 2006 and October 2016. RCTs of technology-based interventions targeting African American and Hispanic youth HIV/STI risk behaviors, including sexual risk, licit and illicit drug use, and HIV/STI testing were included. Our search revealed a total of three studies that used an RCT design and included samples comprised of >50% African American and/or Hispanic youth. The follow-up assessments ranged from two weeks to six months and the number of participants in each trial ranged from 72 to 141. The three interventions were theory-driven, interactive, and tailored. The long-term effects of the interventions were mixed, and outcomes included reductions in sex partners, licit drug use, and condomless anal sex acts. Although technology-based interventions seem promising in the prevention of HIV/STI and drug abuse among African American and Hispanic youth, more research is needed. ©David Córdova, Frania Mendoza Lua, Lauretta Ovadje, Ethan Hong, Berenice Castillo, Christopher P Salas-Wright. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 13.12.2017.

  20. A psycho-educational HIV/STI prevention intervention for internally displaced women in Leogane, Haiti: results from a non-randomized cohort pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Daniel, CarolAnn; Newman, Peter A; Weaver, James; Loutfy, Mona R

    2014-01-01

    Little evidence exists regarding efficacious HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention interventions with internally displaced populations. Internally displaced women are at elevated risk for HIV/STI due to limited access to health services, heightened poverty and social network breakdown. The FASY (Famn an Aksyon Pou Sante' Yo) (Women Taking Action For Their Health) study examined the effectiveness of a peer health worker (PHW) delivered psycho-educational HIV/STI pilot study with internally displaced women in Leogane, Haiti. This was a non-randomized cohort pilot study. Participants completed a computer-assisted pre-test programmed on Android tablet PCs followed by an HIV/STI educational video-based session and a 6-week psycho-educational group program of weekly meetings. Participants completed a post-test upon completion of group sessions. The primary outcome was HIV knowledge; our pre-specified index of clinically significant change was an effect size of 0.30. Secondary outcomes included: STI knowledge, condom use, social support, resilient coping, depression and relationship control. We used mixed-effects regression to calculate mean outcome pre-post score change. This study was registered (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01492829). Between January 1-April 30, 2012 we assigned 200 participants to the study. The majority of participants (n = 176, 88%) completed the study and were followed up at 8 weeks, finishing April 30, 2012. Adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, HIV knowledge (β = 4.81; 95% CI 4.36-5.26), STI knowledge (β = 0.84; 95% CI 0.70-0.99), condom use (AOR = 4.05, 95% CI 1.86-8.83), and depression (β = -0.63, 95% CI -0.88--0.39) scores showed statistically significant change post-intervention (pHaiti. Pilot studies are an important approach to understand feasibility and scientific impacts of HIV prevention strategies in disaster contexts. Study results may inform HIV prevention interventions among internally displaced women in

  1. Gonorrhoea diagnoses in a network of STI clinics in Spain during the period 2006–2010: differences by sex and transmission route

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Gonorrhoea infection is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections and an important cause of morbidity and serious complications. The objectives of this paper are: a) to describe gonorrhoea cases diagnosed in a network of 15 (out of 16) STI clinics in Spain during 2006–2010; b) to analyse differences among men who have sex with men (MSM), men who have sex exclusively with women (MSW) and women; and c) to evaluate factors associated to with HIV co-infection. Methods All gonorrhoea cases diagnosed in the network were included (25.7% of total cases notified in Spain). Data were collected by clinical staff. Descriptive/bivariate analyses were carried out stratifying by sex and transmission category; association and trends were evaluated using the chi-square test. Factors associated with HIV co-infection were estimated using a logistic regression model. Results 2385 cases were included: 55.3% among MSM, 31.3% among MSW and 13.3% among females; cases among MSM increased from 55.8% in 2006 to 62.9% in 2010 while no trends were found among the other two groups. Most MSM cases were Spaniards (72%), aged 25–34 years (46%), 49% reported previous STI and 25% concurrent STI (excluding HIV); casual partners were the commonest source of infection, and 21% of cases had rectal gonorrhoea. MSW cases did not differ from MSM by age, origin or source of infection, but frequencies of prior or concurrent STI were lower. Female cases were younger than male, were mostly foreigners (58%), and 41% were sex workers; concurrent STI (other than HIV) were diagnosed in 30%; 20.4% had symptoms (72.5% and 89.2% in MSM and MSW), and pharyngeal location was present in 30%. HIV co-infection was highest in MSM (20.9%). Co-infection was associated with age > 35 years, low educational level, being Western European or Latin-American, being MSM, having previous or concurrent STI and reporting contact with an HIV-infected partner; it was inversely associated with

  2. Patterns of prevalent HPV and STI co-infections and associated factors among HIV-negative young Western Cape, South African women: the EVRI trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Lynette J; Pokharel, Ubin; Sudenga, Staci L; Botha, Matthys H; Zeier, Michele; Abrahamsen, Martha E; Glashoff, Richard H; Engelbrecht, Susan; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; van der Laan, Louvina E; Kipping, Siegfried; Taylor, Douglas; Giuliano, Anna R

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence and describe the patterns of concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) and STIs and associated factors among HIV-negative young Western Cape, South African women participating in the Efficacy of HPV Vaccine to Reduce HIV Infection (EVRI) trial. HIV-negative women aged 16-24 years old were enrolled in the EVRI trial (NCT01489527) and randomised to receive the licensed four-valent HPV vaccine or placebo. At study entry, participants were clinically evaluated for five STIs: herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and disease-causing HPV genotypes (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/68). Demographic and sexual history characteristics were compared among women with STI co-infections, single infection and no infection using Pearson χ 2 and Mann-Whitney tests. ORs were calculated to evaluate factors associated with STI co-infection prevalence. Among 388 young women, STI co-infection prevalence was high: 47% had ≥2 concurrent STIs, 36% had a single STI and 17% had none of the five evaluated STIs. HPV/HSV-2 (26%) was the most prevalent co-infection detected followed by HPV/HSV-2/ Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (17%) and HPV/CT (15%). Co-infection prevalence was independently associated with alcohol use (adjusted OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 4.06) and having a sexual partner with an STI (adjusted OR=6.96, 95% CI 1.53 to 30.08). Among high-risk young women from underserved communities such as in Southern Africa, a multicomponent prevention strategy that integrates medical and behavioural interventions targeting both men and women is essential to prevent acquisition of concurrent STI infections and consequent disease. NCT01489527; Post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Relationships between neighbourhood characteristics and current STI status among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women living in the Southern USA: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Danielle F; Kramer, Michael R; Adimora, Adaora A; Haardörfer, Regine; Wingood, Gina M; Ludema, Christina; Rubtsova, Anna; Hickson, DeMarc A; Ross, Zev; Golub, Elizabeth; Bolivar, Hector; Cooper, Hannah Lf

    2017-12-01

    Neighbourhood characteristics (eg, high poverty rates) are associated with STIs among HIV-uninfected women in the USA. However, no multilevel analyses investigating the associations between neighbourhood exposures and STIs have explored these relationships among women living with HIV infection. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine relationships between neighbourhood characteristics and current STI status and (2) investigate whether the magnitudes and directions of these relationships varied by HIV status in a predominantly HIV-infected cohort of women living in the Southern USA. This cross-sectional multilevel analysis tests relationships between census tract characteristics and current STI status using data from 737 women enrolled at the Women's Interagency HIV Study's southern sites (530 HIV-infected and 207 HIV-uninfected women). Administrative data (eg, US Census) described the census tract-level social disorder (eg, violent crime rate) and social disadvantage (eg, alcohol outlet density) where women lived. Participant-level data were gathered via survey. Testing positive for a current STI was defined as a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis or syphilis. Hierarchical generalised linear models were used to determine relationships between tract-level characteristics and current STI status, and to test whether these relationships varied by HIV status. Eleven per cent of participants tested positive for at least one current STI. Greater tract-level social disorder (OR=1.34, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.87) and social disadvantage (OR=1.34, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.86) were associated with having a current STI. There was no evidence of additive or multiplicative interaction between tract-level characteristics and HIV status. Findings suggest that neighbourhood characteristics may be associated with current STIs among women living in the South, and that relationships do not vary by HIV status. Future research should establish the

  4. Who has sex with whom? Characteristics of heterosexual partnerships reported in a national probability survey and implications for STI risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Catherine H; Copas, Andrew J; Sonnenberg, Pam; Johnson, Anne M; McManus, Sally; Erens, Bob; Cassell, Jackie A

    2009-02-01

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk is determined both by partner numbers and partnership characteristics. Studies describing only recent partnership(s) overestimate long-term partnerships and underestimate the contribution of casual partnerships to STI transmission in populations. We describe all heterosexual partnerships in the past year in terms of partnership type, age and geographical mixing and how these characteristics relate to condom use. Probability sample survey of 11 161 men and women aged 16-44 resident in Britain, 1999-2001. Computer-assisted self-interviews asked respondents about partner numbers and detailed questions about their three most recent partnerships. We weight these data to represent partnerships for which detailed questions were not asked to present estimates for the population of partnerships. Of 15 488 heterosexuals partnerships, 39.1% (95% CI 36.6-41.7%) of men's partnerships were 'not (yet) regular' vs 20.0% (95% CI 18.2-21.9%) of women's partnerships. While condoms were used at last sex in 37.1% (95% CI 35.0-39.3%) of men's and 28.8% (95% CI 27.1-30.6%) of women's partnerships, and for 55.3% (95% CI 52.6-58.0%) of first sex with new partners, these proportions declined with age. When partnerships involved an age difference of 5+ years [26.2% (95% CI 23.0-29.6%) of men's and 36.5% (95% CI 33.0-40.1%) of women's partnerships], condoms were less commonly used at first sex than when partners were closer in age [44.1% (95% CI 39.1-48.4%) vs 60.8% (95% CI 57.3-64.2%)]. Sex occurred within 24 h in 23.4% (95% CI 19.7-27.5%) of men's and 10.7% (95% CI 8.3-13.6%) of women's partnerships. A substantial minority of partnerships in the population is casual. The proportion of partnerships not protected by condoms is high, especially for partnerships involving larger age differences and people in their 30s and 40s. Condom use with new partners needs to be promoted among all age-groups.

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 1: The value of scientific and technical information (STI), its relationship to Research and Development (R/D), and its use by US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Glassman, Myron; Oliu, Walter E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is based on the premise that scientific and technical information (STI), its use by aerospace engineers and scientists, and the aerospace research and development (R&D) process are related. We intend to support this premise with data gathered from numerous studies concerned with STI, the relationship of STI to the performance and management of R&D activities, and the information use and seeking behavior of engineers in general and aerospace engineers and scientists in particular. We intend to develop and present a synthesized appreciation of how aerospace R&D managers can improve the efficacy of the R&D process by understanding the role and value of STI in this process.

  6. Magnetized poly(STY-co-DVB) as a matrix for immobilizing microbial lipase to be used in biotransformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, H. B. S.; de Castro, H. F.; de Oliveira, P. C.; Freitas, L.

    2017-03-01

    Magnetized hydrophobic polymeric particles were prepared by suspension polymerization of styrene and divinylbenzene with the addition of magnetite (Fe3O4) functionalized with oleic acid (OA). The magnetic poly(STY-co-DVB) particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the magnetic polymer particles fulfill the requirements for being used as matrix in the immobilization of microbial lipase from Candida rugosa by physical adsorption. The resulted immobilized derivative presented high catalytic activity in both aqueous and non-aqueous media. A comparative study between free and immobilized lipases showed a similar biochemical behavior, but with better hydrolytic activity at a pH range of 8.0-8.5. The patterns of heat stability indicated that the immobilization process also stabilizes the enzyme by a 50-fold improvement of thermal stability parameters (thermal deactivation and half-life time). Data on olive oil hydrolytic activities indicated that the Michaelis-Menten equation can be used to adjust data so as to calculate Km and Vmax, which attained values of 1766 mM and 5870 μM g-1 min-1, respectively. Such values indicated that the immobilized system was subjected to mass transfer limitations. High operational stability (t ½=1014 h) was achieved under repetitive batch runs in ester synthesis. The results indicated that the magnetized support particles can be very promising carriers for immobilizing enzymes in biotransformation reactions.

  7. Fiscal loss and program fidelity: impact of the economic downturn on HIV/STI prevention program fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Joseph A; Dolcini, M Margaret; Gandelman, Alice A; Narayanan, Vasudha; McKay, Virginia R

    2014-03-01

    The economic downturn of 2007 created significant fiscal losses for public and private agencies conducting behavioral prevention. Such macro-economic changes may influence program implementation and sustainability. We examined how public and private agencies conducting RESPECT, a brief HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) counseling and testing intervention, adapted to fiscal loss and how these adaptations impacted program fidelity. We collected qualitative and quantitative data in a national sample of 15 agencies experiencing fiscal loss. Using qualitative analyses, we examined how program fidelity varied with different types of adaptations. Agencies reported three levels of adaptation: agency-level, program-level, and direct fiscal remedies. Private agencies tended to use direct fiscal remedies, which were associated with higher fidelity. Some agency-level adaptations contributed to reductions in procedural fit, leading to negative staff morale and decreased confidence in program effectiveness, which in turn, contributed to poor fidelity. Findings describe a "work stress pathway" that links program fiscal losses to poor staff morale and low program fidelity.

  8. Development of a rectal sexually transmitted infection (STI) Model in Rhesus macaques using Chlamydia trachomatis serovars E and L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Tara R; Morris, Monica; Ellis, Shanon; Kelley, Kristen; Phillips, Christi; Ritter, Jana; Jones, Tara; Nachamkin, Eli; Chen, Cheng Y; Hong, Jaeyoung; Kang, Joseph; Patton, Dorothy; McNicholl, Janet; Papp, John; Kersh, Ellen N

    2017-10-01

    Rectal STI coinfection models enhance the understanding of rectal HIV transmission risk factors. Rhesus macaques (n=9) were exposed to one of three rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) challenges: C. trachomatis L 2 (CT-L 2 ); C. trachomatis serovar E (CT-E), followed by CT-L 2 ; or CT-E, treatment/clearance, then CT-L 2 . Infections were monitored by PCR. Weekly blood and rectal secretion/lavage samples were collected for cytokine analyzes and/or epithelial sloughing, occult, and overt blood determinations. Chlamydial infections were successfully established in each animal, with varying degrees of persistence. Mucosal IL-1beta was upregulated in animals consecutively infected with CT-E then CT-L 2 (P=.05). Epithelial sloughing was also significantly increased post-infection in this group (P=.0003). This study demonstrates successful rectal infection of rhesus macaques with CT-E and CT-L 2 and describes measures of assessing rectal inflammation and pathology. Different infection strategies yield varying inflammatory and pathologic outcomes, providing well-described models for future SIV/SHIV susceptibility studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Condoms and sexual health education as evidence: impact of criminalization of in-call venues and managers on migrant sex workers access to HIV/STI prevention in a Canadian setting

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, S.; Shannon, K.; Li, J.; Lee, Y.; Chettiar, J.; Goldenberg, S.; Kr?si, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a large body of evidence globally demonstrating that the criminalization of sex workers increases HIV/STI risks, we know far less about the impact of criminalization and policing of managers and in-call establishments on HIV/STI prevention among sex workers, and even less so among migrant sex workers. Methods Analysis draws on ethnographic fieldwork and 46 qualitative interviews with migrant sex workers, managers and business owners of in-call sex work venues in Metro Vanco...

  10. Examination of the Relationship between Psychosocial Mediators and Intervention Effects in It’s Your Game: An Effective HIV/STI/Pregnancy Prevention Intervention for Middle School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Baumler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of mediation analyses were carried out in this study using data from It’s Your Game. . .Keep It Real (IYG, a successful HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program. The IYG study evaluated a skill and normbased. HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program that was implemented from 2004 to 2007 among 907 urban low-income middle school youth in Houston, TX, USA. Analyses were carried out to investigate the degree to which a set of proposed psychosocial measures of behavioral knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, behavioral, and normative beliefs, and perceived risky situations, all targeted by the intervention, mediated the intervention’s effectiveness in reducing initiation of sex. The mediation process was assessed by examining the significance and size of the estimated effects from the mediating pathways. The findings from this study provide evidence that the majority of the psychosocial mediators targeted by the IYG intervention are indeed related to the desired behavior and provide evidence that the conceptual theory underlying the targeted psychosocial mediators in the intervention is appropriate. Two of the psychosocial mediators significantly mediated the intervention effect, knowledge of STI signs and symptoms and refusal self-efficacy. This study suggests that the underlying causal mechanisms of action of these interventions are complex and warrant further analyses.

  11. Moderno love: sexual role-based identities and HIV/STI prevention among men who have sex with men in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse; Salvatierra, Javier; Segura, Eddy; Salazar, Ximena; Konda, Kelika; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hall, Eric; Klausner, Jeffrey; Caceres, Carlos; Coates, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Role-based sexual identities structure male same-sex partnerships and influence HIV/STI epidemiology among MSM in Latin America. We explored shifting relationships between sexual roles, identities and practices among MSM in Lima, Peru, and implications for HIV/STI prevention. Patterns of HIV/STI epidemiology reflected differential risks for transmission within role-based partnerships with relatively low prevalences of HIV, syphilis, and HSV-2 but higher prevalences of urethral gonorrhea/chlamydia among activo MSM compared with moderno and pasivo participants. Qualitative analysis of how MSM in Peru integrate sexual identities, roles, and practices identified four key themes: pasivo role as a gay approximation of cultural femininity; activo role as a heterosexual consolidation of masculinity; moderno role as a masculine reconceptualization of gay identity; and role-based identities as social determinants of partnership, network, and community formation. The concept of role-based sexual identities provides a framework for HIV prevention for Latin American MSM that integrates sexual identities, practices, partnerships, and networks.

  12. Efficacy of an HIV/STI sexual risk-reduction intervention for African American adolescent girls in juvenile detention centers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiClemente, Ralph J; Davis, Teaniese L; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Fasula, Amy M; Boyce, Lorin; Gelaude, Deborah; Gray, Simone C; Hardin, James; Rose, Eve; Carry, Monique; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; Staples-Horne, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Few HIV/STI interventions exist for African American adolescent girls in juvenile detention. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention to reduce incident STIs, improve HIV-preventive behaviors, and enhance psychosocial outcomes. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among African American adolescent girls (13-17 years, N = 188) in juvenile detention from March 2011 to May 2012. Assessments occurred at baseline and 3- and 6-months post-randomization and included: audio computer-assisted self-interview, condom skills assessment, and self-collected vaginal swab to detect Chlamydia and gonorrhea. The Imara intervention included three individual-level sessions and four phone sessions; expedited partner therapy was offered to STI-positive adolescents. The comparison group received the usual care provided by the detention center: STI testing, treatment, and counseling. At the 6-month assessment (3-months post-intervention), Imara participants reported higher condom use self-efficacy (p incident Chlamydia or gonorrhea infections, condom use, or number of vaginal sex partners. Imara for detained African American adolescent girls can improve condom use skills and psychosocial outcomes; however, a critical need for interventions to reduce sexual risk remains.

  13. Moderno Love: Sexual Role-Based Identities and HIV/STI Prevention Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatierra, Javier; Segura, Eddy; Salazar, Ximena; Konda, Kelika; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hall, Eric; Klausner, Jeffrey; Caceres, Carlos; Coates, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Role-based sexual identities structure male same-sex partnerships and influence HIV/STI epidemiology among MSM in Latin America. We explored shifting relationships between sexual roles, identities and practices among MSM in Lima, Peru, and implications for HIV/STI prevention. Patterns of HIV/STI epidemiology reflected differential risks for transmission within role-based partnerships with relatively low prevalences of HIV, syphilis, and HSV-2 but higher prevalences of urethral gonorrhea/chlamydia among activo MSM compared with moderno and pasivo participants. Qualitative analysis of how MSM in Peru integrate sexual identities, roles, and practices identified four key themes: pasivo role as a gay approximation of cultural femininity; activo role as a heterosexual consolidation of masculinity; moderno role as a masculine reconceptualization of gay identity; and role-based identities as social determinants of partnership, network, and community formation. The concept of role-based sexual identities provides a framework for HIV prevention for Latin American MSM that integrates sexual identities, practices, partnerships, and networks. PMID:22614747

  14. Evidence of increased STI/HIV-related risk behavior among male perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Guatemala: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembling, John; Andrinopoulos, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with a demonstrated link to increased sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV-related risk and vulnerability. While IPV is an important issue in Central America, the link to STI/HIV risk has not been explored in this region. In this study, the relationship between emotional and physical/sexual IPV and the STI/HIV-related risk behaviors of sex worker patronage and infidelity is assessed among male IPV perpetrators using data from a national survey conducted in 2009 in Guatemala (n = 4773 married/partnered men). Bivariate associations between background characteristics and emotional and physical IPV perpetration were explored. Logistic regression models were run to test associations between IPV for each sexual risk behavior. Perpetration of emotional and physical/sexual IPV was more common among married/partnered men who were older than 24, had more education, lived in urban areas, or were in common law versus married unions. Reports of past-year emotional IPV perpetration increased as wealth quintile increased. After adjusting for demographics and other characteristics, physical/sexual IPV perpetration was associated with past-year infidelity (AOR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6). Lifetime emotional IPV (AOR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and physical/sexual IPV 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.0) were positively associated with a history of sex worker patronage. Endorsement of traditional gender role norms showed a marginally positive association with past-year infidelity in the adjusted model (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.8). The study findings from Guatemala reinforce the growing evidence globally that male IPV perpetrators are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including sex worker patronage and main partner infidelity. The concurrency of violence and increased STI/HIV risk may compound the health risks for female victims of IPV who also face injury and psychological trauma. Integration of prevention and screening of

  15. A Community-Engaged Approach to Developing an mHealth HIV/STI and Drug Abuse Preventive Intervention for Primary Care: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, David; Bauermeister, Jose A; Fessler, Kathryn; Delva, Jorge; Nelson, Annabelle; Nurenberg, Rachel; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Alers-Rojas, Francheska; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2015-12-18

    Despite ongoing prevention efforts, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) and drug use remain public health concerns. Urban adolescents, many of whom are underserved and racial minorities, are disproportionately affected. Recent changes in policy, including the Affordable Care Act, and advances in technology provide HIV/STI and drug abuse prevention scientists with unique opportunities to deliver mobile health (mHealth) preventive interventions in primary care. The purpose of this community-engaged study was to develop an mHealth version of the Storytelling for Empowerment preventive intervention for primary care (hereinafter referred to as "S4E"). A total of 29 adolescents were recruited from a youth-centered primary care clinic in Southeast, Michigan, to participate in qualitative interviews. Participants were predominantly African American (n=19, 65.5%) and female (n=21, 72.4%) with a mean age of 16.23 (SD 2.09). The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), in conjunction with agile software development and the recommended core prevention principles of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were employed during S4E development. CBPR principles are aimed at improving the effectiveness of research by addressing locally relevant health problems, working with community strengths, and translating basic science into applied research. Complementing this approach, the NIDA prevention principles are derived from decades of drug abuse prevention research aimed at increasing the effectiveness and uptake of programs, through the development of culturally specific interventions and ensuring the structure, content, and delivery of the intervention fit the needs of the community. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. A total of 5 themes emerged from the data: (1) acceptability of the mHealth app to adolescents in primary care, (2) inclusion of a risk assessment to improve clinician-adolescent HIV/STI and drug use communication

  16. A comprehensive review of HIV/STI prevention and sexual and reproductive health services among sex Workers in Conflict-Affected Settings: call for an evidence- and rights-based approach in the humanitarian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alyssa; Shannon, Kate; Butler, Jennifer; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2017-01-01

    While the conditions in emergency humanitarian and conflict-affected settings often result in significant sex work economies, there is limited information on the social and structural conditions of sex work in these settings, and the impacts on HIV/STI prevention and access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for sex workers. Our objective was to comprehensively review existing evidence on HIV/STI prevention and access to SRH services for sex workers in conflict-affected settings globally. We conducted a comprehensive review of all peer review (both epidemiological and qualitative) and grey literature published in the last 15 years (2000-2015), focusing on 1) HIV/STI vulnerability or prevention, and/or 2) access to SRH services for sex workers in conflict-affected settings. Five databases were searched, using combinations of sex work, conflict/mobility, HIV/STI, and SRH service terms. Relevant peer-reviewed and grey literature were also hand-searched, and key papers were cross-referenced for additional material. Five hundred fifty one records were screened and 416 records reviewed. Of 33 records describing HIV/STI prevention and/or access to SRH services among sex workers in conflict-affected settings, 24 were from sub-Saharan Africa; 18 studies described the results of primary research (13 quantitative, 3 qualitative, 2 mixed-methods) and 15 were non-primary research (e.g., commentaries, policy reports, programmatic manuals). Available evidence indicated that within conflict-affected settings, SWs' capacity to engage in HIV/STI prevention and access SRH services is severely undermined by social and structural determinants including widespread violence and human rights violations, the collapse of livelihoods and traditional social structures, high levels of displacement, and difficulties accessing already scant health services due to stigma, discrimination and criminalization. This review identified significant gaps in HIV/STI and SRH research, policy

  17. African American adolescents meeting sex partners online: closing the digital research divide in STI/HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Laura B; Brown, Larry K; Swenson, Rebecca R; Valois, Robert F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; DiClemente, Ralph; Salazar, Laura F; Romer, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Minority adolescents are affected disproportionately by HIV and STIs, and the Internet is a popular venue to meet sex partners. Little is known about the risks of this behavior for minority adolescents. The majority of studies that have examined sexual risk behavior online or STI/HIV prevention programs online have been among adult MSM. In this study, data from 1,045 African American youth found that 6% met sex partners online and in chat rooms. Odds ratios, adjusting for gender, found this behavior was associated with alcohol (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI [1.1, 4.7]) and drug use (AOR = 3.45, 95% CI [1.9, 6.1]), unprotected vaginal (AOR = 4.71, 95% CI [1.9, 8.4]) and anal sex (AOR = 4.77, 95% CI [1.3,17.1]) in the last 90 days, more lifetime vaginal (AOR = 3.65, 95% CI [2.0, 6.8]) and anal sex (AOR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.5, 4.8]), greater sexual sensation seeking (AOR = 2.92, 95% CI [1.5, 5.7]) and greater depression (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI [1.2, 3.6]. A final multiple logistic regression analyses found that male gender (AOR = 3.13, 95% CI [1.7, 5.8]), drug use at last sex (AOR = 2.41, 95% CI [1.3, 4.5]), lifetime history of vaginal (AOR = 2.90, 95% CI [1.5, 5.5]) and anal sex (AOR = 2.09, 95% CI [1.2, 3.6]), and cocaine use (AOR = 8.53, 95% CI [2.7, 27.3]) were independently associated with having sex with a partner met online. Meeting sex partners online is associated with a variety of risks among African American youth; however, the Internet may be an opportunity for intervention.

  18. Magnetized poly(STY-co-DVB) as a matrix for immobilizing microbial lipase to be used in biotransformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bento, H.B.S.; Castro, H.F. de; Oliveira, P.C. de; Freitas, L., E-mail: larissafreitas@usp.br

    2017-03-15

    Magnetized hydrophobic polymeric particles were prepared by suspension polymerization of styrene and divinylbenzene with the addition of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) functionalized with oleic acid (OA). The magnetic poly(STY-co-DVB) particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the magnetic polymer particles fulfill the requirements for being used as matrix in the immobilization of microbial lipase from Candida rugosa by physical adsorption. The resulted immobilized derivative presented high catalytic activity in both aqueous and non-aqueous media. A comparative study between free and immobilized lipases showed a similar biochemical behavior, but with better hydrolytic activity at a pH range of 8.0–8.5. The patterns of heat stability indicated that the immobilization process also stabilizes the enzyme by a 50-fold improvement of thermal stability parameters (thermal deactivation and half-life time). Data on olive oil hydrolytic activities indicated that the Michaelis–Menten equation can be used to adjust data so as to calculate K{sub m} and V{sub max}, which attained values of 1766 mM and 5870 µM g{sup −1} min{sup −1}, respectively. Such values indicated that the immobilized system was subjected to mass transfer limitations. High operational stability (t {sub ½}=1014 h) was achieved under repetitive batch runs in ester synthesis. The results indicated that the magnetized support particles can be very promising carriers for immobilizing enzymes in biotransformation reactions. - Highlights: • Magnetized hydrophobic polymeric particles were prepared by suspension polymerization. • The incorporation of magnetic particles did not impair the biocatalyst performance. • The immobilization technique improved the stabilization of the enzyme. • The results showed high yields in n-butyl-butyrate synthesis.

  19. The prevalence and incidence of active syphilis in women in Morocco, 1995-2016: Model-based estimation and implications for STI surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennani, Aziza; El-Kettani, Amina; Hançali, Amina; El-Rhilani, Houssine; Alami, Kamal; Youbi, Mohamed; Rowley, Jane; Abu-Raddad, Laith; Smolak, Alex; Taylor, Melanie; Mahiané, Guy; Stover, John

    2017-01-01

    Background Evolving health priorities and resource constraints mean that countries require data on trends in sexually transmitted infections (STI) burden, to inform program planning and resource allocation. We applied the Spectrum STI estimation tool to estimate the prevalence and incidence of active syphilis in adult women in Morocco over 1995 to 2016. The results from the analysis are being used to inform Morocco’s national HIV/STI strategy, target setting and program evaluation. Methods Syphilis prevalence levels and trends were fitted through logistic regression to data from surveys in antenatal clinics, women attending family planning clinics and other general adult populations, as available post-1995. Prevalence data were adjusted for diagnostic test performance, and for the contribution of higher-risk populations not sampled in surveys. Incidence was inferred from prevalence by adjusting for the average duration of infection with active syphilis. Results In 2016, active syphilis prevalence was estimated to be 0.56% in women 15 to 49 years of age (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.3%-1.0%), and around 21,675 (10,612–37,198) new syphilis infections have occurred. The analysis shows a steady decline in prevalence from 1995, when the prevalence was estimated to be 1.8% (1.0–3.5%). The decline was consistent with decreasing prevalences observed in TB patients, fishermen and prisoners followed over 2000–2012 through sentinel surveillance, and with a decline since 2003 in national HIV incidence estimated earlier through independent modelling. Conclusions Periodic population-based surveys allowed Morocco to estimate syphilis prevalence and incidence trends. This first-ever undertaking engaged and focused national stakeholders, and confirmed the still considerable syphilis burden. The latest survey was done in 2012 and so the trends are relatively uncertain after 2012. From 2017 Morocco plans to implement a system to record data from routine antenatal

  20. Retesting young STI clinic visitors with urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the Netherlands; response to a text message reminder and reinfection rates: a prospective study with historical controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampman, Cjg; Koedijk, Fdh; Driessen-Hulshof, Hcm; Hautvast, Jla; van den Broek, Ivf

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effect of reminder text messages 6 months after the initial treatment on retest and chlamydia reinfection rates in young heterosexuals compared with a historical control group and to assess factors associated with both outcomes. Heterosexual people (aged 16-23 years), testing positive for urogenital chlamydia, were offered a retest after 6 months. Participants received a text message reminder at 6 months after the initial chlamydia diagnosis. Rates of retest uptake and the result of the retest were analysed using Cox regression. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated to identify factors associated with these outcomes. Furthermore, the retest rate was compared with the retest rate of a historical control group. 30.6% (253/838) of the study group returned within 5-8 months compared with 9.2% (140/1530) in the historical control group. Women and persons who were not notified for a sexually transmitted infection (STI) at inclusion were more likely to return for a retest. 20.4% (56/275) of participants had a chlamydia reinfection upon retesting. Reinfection was higher in participants reporting STI-related symptoms (PR 3.2, 95% CI 1.8 to 5.6) and in participants who were notified for an STI at retest (PR 5.3, 95% CI 2.4 to 11.5). A text message reminder appeared to have a clear, positive impact on the resulting retest rate. These results also indicate that retesting is necessary to identify chlamydia reinfections. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Influence of peer support on HIV/STI prevention and safety amongst international migrant sex workers: A qualitative study at the Mexico-Guatemala border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febres-Cordero, Belen; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Rocha-Jimenez, Teresita; Fernandez-Casanueva, Carmen; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2018-01-01

    Migrant women engaged in precarious employment, such as sex work, frequently face pronounced social isolation alongside other barriers to health and human rights. Although peer support has been identified as a critical HIV and violence prevention intervention for sex workers, little is known about access to peer support or its role in shaping health and social outcomes for migrant sex workers. This article analyses the role of peer support in shaping vulnerability and resilience related to HIV/STI prevention and violence among international migrant sex workers at the Mexico-Guatemala border. This qualitative study is based on 31 semi-structured interviews conducted with international migrant sex workers in the Mexico-Guatemala border communities of Tapachula, Mexico and Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. Peer support was found to be critical for reducing social isolation; improving access to HIV/STI knowledge, prevention and resources; and mitigating workplace violence, particularly at the initial stages of migration and sex work. Peer support was especially critical for countering social isolation, and peers represented a valuable source of HIV/STI prevention knowledge and resources (e.g., condoms), as well as essential safety supports in the workplace. However, challenges to accessing peer support were noted, including difficulties establishing long-lasting relationships and other forms of social participation due to frequent mobility, as well as tensions among peers within some work environments. Variations in access to peer support related to country of work, work environment, sex work and migration stage, and sex work experience were also identified. Results indicate that peer-led and community empowerment interventions represent a promising strategy for promoting the health, safety and human rights of migrant sex workers. Tailored community empowerment interventions addressing the unique migration-related contexts and challenges faced by migrant sex

  2. The prevalence and incidence of active syphilis in women in Morocco, 1995-2016: Model-based estimation and implications for STI surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennani, Aziza; El-Kettani, Amina; Hançali, Amina; El-Rhilani, Houssine; Alami, Kamal; Youbi, Mohamed; Rowley, Jane; Abu-Raddad, Laith; Smolak, Alex; Taylor, Melanie; Mahiané, Guy; Stover, John; Korenromp, Eline L

    2017-01-01

    Evolving health priorities and resource constraints mean that countries require data on trends in sexually transmitted infections (STI) burden, to inform program planning and resource allocation. We applied the Spectrum STI estimation tool to estimate the prevalence and incidence of active syphilis in adult women in Morocco over 1995 to 2016. The results from the analysis are being used to inform Morocco's national HIV/STI strategy, target setting and program evaluation. Syphilis prevalence levels and trends were fitted through logistic regression to data from surveys in antenatal clinics, women attending family planning clinics and other general adult populations, as available post-1995. Prevalence data were adjusted for diagnostic test performance, and for the contribution of higher-risk populations not sampled in surveys. Incidence was inferred from prevalence by adjusting for the average duration of infection with active syphilis. In 2016, active syphilis prevalence was estimated to be 0.56% in women 15 to 49 years of age (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.3%-1.0%), and around 21,675 (10,612-37,198) new syphilis infections have occurred. The analysis shows a steady decline in prevalence from 1995, when the prevalence was estimated to be 1.8% (1.0-3.5%). The decline was consistent with decreasing prevalences observed in TB patients, fishermen and prisoners followed over 2000-2012 through sentinel surveillance, and with a decline since 2003 in national HIV incidence estimated earlier through independent modelling. Periodic population-based surveys allowed Morocco to estimate syphilis prevalence and incidence trends. This first-ever undertaking engaged and focused national stakeholders, and confirmed the still considerable syphilis burden. The latest survey was done in 2012 and so the trends are relatively uncertain after 2012. From 2017 Morocco plans to implement a system to record data from routine antenatal programmatic screening, which should help update and re

  3. Clinic flow for STI, HIV, and TB patients in an urban infectious disease clinic offering point-of-care testing services in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stime, Katrina J; Garrett, Nigel; Sookrajh, Yukteshwar; Dorward, Jienchi; Dlamini, Ntuthu; Olowolagba, Ayo; Sharma, Monisha; Barnabas, Ruanne V; Drain, Paul K

    2018-05-11

    Many clinics in Southern Africa have long waiting times. The implementation of point-of-care (POC) tests to accelerate diagnosis and improve clinical management in resource-limited settings may improve or worsen clinic flow and waiting times. The objective of this study was to describe clinic flow with special emphasis on the impact of POC testing at a large urban public healthcare clinic in Durban, South Africa. We used time and motion methods to directly observe patients and practitioners. We created patient flow maps and recorded individual patient waiting and consultation times for patients seeking STI, TB, or HIV care. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 clinic staff to ascertain staff opinions on clinic flow and POC test implementation. Among 121 observed patients, the total number of queues ranged from 4 to 7 and total visit times ranged from 0:14 (hours:minutes) to 7:38. Patients waited a mean of 2:05 for standard-of-care STI management, and approximately 4:56 for STI POC diagnostic testing. Stable HIV patients who collected antiretroviral therapy refills waited a mean of 2:42 in the standard queue and 2:26 in the fast-track queue. A rapid TB test on a small sample of patients with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and treatment initiation took a mean of 6:56, and 40% of patients presenting with TB-related symptoms were asked to return for an additional clinic visit to obtain test results. For all groups, the mean clinical assessment time with a nurse or physician was 7 to 9 min, which accounted for 2 to 6% of total visit time. Staff identified poor clinic flow and personnel shortages as areas of concern that may pose challenges to expanding POC tests in the current clinic environment. This busy urban clinic had multiple patient queues, long clinical visits, and short clinical encounters. Although POC testing ensured patients received a diagnosis sooner, it more than doubled the time STI patients spent at the clinic and did not result in same

  4. Client-perpetrated and husband-perpetrated violence among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India: HIV/STI risk across personal and work contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Erausquin, J T; Groves, Allison K; Salazar, Marissa; Biradavolu, Monica; Blankenship, Kim M

    2016-09-01

    This study examines violence experienced in work and personal contexts and relation to HIV risk factors in these contexts among female sex workers (FSW) in Andhra Pradesh, India. FSW at least 18 years of age (n=2335) were recruited through three rounds of respondent-driven sampling between 2006 and 2010 for a survey on HIV risk. Using crude and adjusted logistic regression models, any sexual/physical violence (last 6 months) perpetrated by clients and husbands were separately assessed in association with accepting more money for sex without a condom (last 30 days), consistent condom use with clients and husbands (last 30 days), and sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms (last 6 months). The mean age among participants was 32, 22% reported being currently married, and 22% and 21% reported physical/sexual violence by clients and husbands, respectively. In adjusted logistic regression models, FSW who experienced client violence were more likely to report accepting more money for unprotected sex trades (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.7; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.2), less likely to report consistent condom use with clients (AOR=0.6; 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7) and more likely to report STI symptoms (AOR=3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.6). Women who reported husband violence were more likely to report accepting more money for unprotected sex trades (AOR=2.1; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.7), less likely to report consistent condom use with clients (AOR=0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.8) and more likely to report STI symptoms (AOR=2.6; 95% CI 1.6 to 4.1). Among FSW, experiences of violence in work and personal contexts are associated with sexual HIV risk behaviours with clients as well as STI symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Comparing the characteristics of users of an online service for STI self-sampling with clinic service users: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Sharmani; Free, Caroline; Bakolis, Ioannis; Turner, Katy M E; Looker, Katharine J; Baraitser, Paula

    2018-02-07

    Online services for self-sampling at home could improve access to STI testing; however, little is known about those using this new modality of care. This study describes the characteristics of users of online services and compares them with users of clinic services. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of routinely collected data on STI testing activity from online and clinic sexual health services in Lambeth and Southwark between 1January 2016 and 31March 2016. Activity was included for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, HIV and syphilis testing for residents of the boroughs aged 16 years and older. Logistic regression models were used to explore potential associations between type of service use with age group, gender, ethnic group, sexual orientation, positivity and Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) quintiles. We used the same methods to explore potential associations between return of complete samples for testing with age group, gender, ethnic group, sexual orientation and IMD quintiles among online users. 6456 STI tests were carried out by residents in the boroughs. Of these, 3582 (55.5%) were performed using clinic services and 2874 (44.5%) using the online service. In multivariate analysis, online users were more likely than clinic users to be aged between 20 and 30 years, female, white British, homosexual or bisexual, test negative for chlamydia or gonorrhoea and live in less deprived areas. Of the individuals that ordered a kit from the online service, 72.5% returned sufficient samples. In multivariate analysis, returners were more likely than non-returners to be aged >20 years and white British. Nearly half (44.5%) of all basic STI testing was done online, although the characteristics of users of clinic and online services differed and positivity rates for those using the online service for testing were lower. Clinics remain an important point of access for some groups. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  6. Condoms and sexual health education as evidence: impact of criminalization of in-call venues and managers on migrant sex workers access to HIV/STI prevention in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S; Shannon, K; Li, J; Lee, Y; Chettiar, J; Goldenberg, S; Krüsi, A

    2016-11-17

    Despite a large body of evidence globally demonstrating that the criminalization of sex workers increases HIV/STI risks, we know far less about the impact of criminalization and policing of managers and in-call establishments on HIV/STI prevention among sex workers, and even less so among migrant sex workers. Analysis draws on ethnographic fieldwork and 46 qualitative interviews with migrant sex workers, managers and business owners of in-call sex work venues in Metro Vancouver, Canada. The criminalization of in-call venues and third parties explicitly limits sex workers' access to HIV/STI prevention, including manager restrictions on condoms and limited onsite access to sexual health information and HIV/STI testing. With limited labour protections and socio-cultural barriers, criminalization and policing undermine the health and human rights of migrant sex workers working in -call venues. This research supports growing evidence-based calls for decriminalization of sex work, including the removal of criminal sanctions targeting third parties and in-call venues, alongside programs and policies that better protect the working conditions of migrant sex workers as critical to HIV/STI prevention and human rights.

  7. STI-2062-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jason; Yu, Wensong; Meehan, Kathleen; Key, Tom; Huque, Aminul; Smith, Jeff; Grady, Mack

    2012-03-31

    This project investigated solar variability, power conversion and electric power grid response aspects of high penetration solar PV. These are the primary determining factors for acceptable penetration levels. Therefore, the study not only focused on the power system interactions, but also on the design of advanced power conditioners to explore more efficient design options and to look into advanced control impacts to the higher penetration PV deployment systems. Through extensive laboratory and field testing, the team gathered the essential information to better understand grid characteristics, PV systems configuration and power conditioning systems.

  8. "Eyes that don't see, heart that doesn't feel": coping with sex work in intimate relationships and its implications for HIV/STI prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Robertson, Angela M; Rolón, María Luisa; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-06-01

    Partner communication about HIV sexual risk behaviors represents a key area of epidemiologic and social importance in terms of infection acquisition and potential for tailored interventions. Nevertheless, disclosing sexual risk behaviors often presents myriad challenges for marginalized couples who engage in stigmatized behaviors. Using qualitative data from a social epidemiology study of risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers and their intimate, non-commercial male partners along the Mexico-U.S. border, we examined both partners' perspectives on sex work and the ways in which couples discussed associated HIV/STI risks in their relationship. Our thematic analysis of individual and joint interviews conducted in 2010 and 2011 with 44 couples suggested that broader contexts of social and economic inequalities profoundly shaped partner perspectives of sex work. Although couples accepted sex work as an economic contribution to the relationship in light of limited alternatives and drug addiction, it exacted an emotional toll on both partners. Couples employed multiple strategies to cope with sex work, including psychologically disconnecting from their situation, telling "little lies," avoiding the topic, and to a lesser extent, superficially discussing their risks. While such strategies served to protect both partners' emotional health by upholding illusions of fidelity and avoiding potential conflict, non-disclosure of risk behaviors may exacerbate the potential for HIV/STI acquisition. Our work has direct implications for designing multi-level, couple-based health interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Female streetwalkers' perspectives on migration and HIV/STI risks in a changing economic and social environment: a qualitative study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z Jennifer; Hu, Dier; Chang, Ruth; Zaccaro, Heather; Iguchi, Martin; Zheng, Huang; He, Na

    2015-01-01

    China's 30-year economic boom has created a unique social and economic market for commercial sex, as well as for a workforce of migrant women from rural China. This qualitative study explores the impact of the rapidly changing social and economic environment on migration patterns, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), STI risk behaviours and health beliefs among female streetwalkers in Shanghai. Qualitative data were collected in 2010 through semi-structured in-depth interviews with 16 streetwalkers to characterise their migration passages, sexual health and behaviours, and peer networks. Many streetwalkers reported histories of childhood impoverishment, of family or partner violence or trauma, of migration consistent with the timeline and routes of economic development and of a scarcity in health, social or economic support. Their knowledge of the prevention and treatment of HIV and STIs was limited. They had little bargaining power on condom use and the majority resorted to vaginal douching and self-management with antibiotics as preventative measures. The study identifies streetwalkers' perspectives on the changing environment, their options and actions and, finally, HIV/STI risks that were unique to this hidden population.

  10. Views about HIV/STI and health promotion among gay and bisexual Chinese and South Asian men living in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered to have a high risk for HIV infection. The aim of this study was to identify some of the ways Chinese and South Asian MSM talk about and understand issues related to HIV/STI and health promotion, as well as highlighting some of this group's health promoting behaviours. A qualitative study using face-to-face interviews with 44 Chinese and South Asian MSM living in Auckland, New Zealand, was undertaken. Following data analysis, four major themes were identified: the importance of condoms, condom use, HIV/STI practices, and HIV health promotion. The results showed that the men interviewed had a good understanding of the benefits of using condoms for anal sex. They also reported strong recall of the local HIV health promotion campaigns which seek to influence men's behaviours through promotion of a single, unequivocal message to always use a condom for anal sex. The men however did not always report consistent condom use, and a range of reasons why this happened were identified. Among the men who discussed testing practices, regular testing was much more likely to have occurred in men who have lived in New Zealand for more than 5 years. These results suggest that future health promotion initiatives should be tailored to ensure the needs of Chinese and South Asian MSM are appropriately addressed when promoting condom use for anal sex.

  11. Increasing condom use and declining STI prevalence in high-risk MSM and TGs: evaluation of a large-scale prevention program in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Aridoss, Santhakumar; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Kanguswami, Boopathi; Shajan, Mathew; Adhikary, Rajat; Purushothaman, Girish Kumar Chethrapilly; Ramamoorthy, Senthil Kumar; Chinnaswamy, Eswaramurthy; Veeramani, Ilaya Bharathy; Paranjape, Ramesh Shivram

    2013-09-17

    This paper presents an evaluation of Avahan, a large scale HIV prevention program that was implemented using peer-mediated strategies, condom distribution and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinical services among high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) and male to female transgender persons (TGs) in six high-prevalence state of Tamil Nadu, in southern India. Two rounds of large scale cross-sectional bio-behavioural surveys among HR-MSM and TGs and routine program monitoring data were used to assess changes in program coverage, condom use and prevalence of STIs (including HIV) and their association to program exposure. The Avahan program for HR-MSM and TGs in Tamil Nadu was significantly scaled up and contacts by peer educators reached 77 percent of the estimated denominator by the end of the program's fourth year. Exposure to the program increased between the two rounds of surveys for both HR-MSM (from 66 percent to 90 percent; AOR = 4.6; p Tamil Nadu achieved a high coverage, resulting in improved condom use by HR-MSM with their regular and commercial male partners. Declining STI prevalence and stable HIV prevalence reflect the positive effects of the prevention strategy. Outcomes from the program logic model indiacte the effectiveness of the program for HR-MSM and TGs in Tamil Nadu.

  12. Superior PSZ-SOD Gap-Fill Process Integration Using Ultra-Low Dispensation Amount in STI for 28 nm NAND Flash Memory and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Chi Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The gap-fill performance and process of perhydropolysilazane-based inorganic spin-on dielectric (PSZ-SOD film in shallow trench isolation (STI with the ultra-low dispensation amount of PSZ-SOD solution have been investigated in this study. A PSZ-SOD film process includes liner deposition, PSZ-SOD coating, and furnace curing. For liner deposition, hydrophilic property is required to improve the contact angle and gap-fill capability of PSZ-SOD coating. Prior to PSZ-SOD coating, the additional treatment on liner surface is beneficial for the fluidity of PSZ-SOD solution. The superior film thickness uniformity and gap-fill performance of PSZ-SOD film are achieved due to the improved fluidity of PSZ-SOD solution. Following that up, the low dispensation rate of PSZ-SOD solution leads to more PSZ-SOD filling in the trenches. After PSZ-SOD coating, high thermal curing process efficiently promotes PSZ-SOD film conversion into silicon oxide. Adequate conversion from PSZ-SOD into silicon oxide further increases the etching resistance inside the trenches. Integrating the above sequence of optimized factors, void-free gap-fill and well-controlled STI recess uniformity are achieved even when the PSZ-SOD solution dispensation volume is reduced 3 to 6 times compared with conventional condition for the 28 nm node NAND flash and beyond.

  13. Preference for dry sex, condom use and risk of STI among HIV-negative black women in the Western Cape province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ruiter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The practice of dry sex is reportedly common among young black women in South Africa. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of women’s preference for dry sex with condom use and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV infections. Between January 2006 and December 2007, 446 women completed a behavioural survey in isiXhosa which assessed demographic information, sexual behaviours, condom use behaviour and other potential correlates. In total, 159 (36.72% women indicated preferring dry sex. A multivariate logistic regression model indicated that participants who preferred dry sex were more likely to report past STI episodes and to have a partner who also preferred dry sex. The findings indicate that dry sex behaviour was not directly associated with condom use and STI (CT, NG, and TV prevalence but may have been associated with relationships in which sexual preferences of the male partner were dominant.

  14. Spectrally- and Time-Resolved Sum Frequency Generation (STiR-SFG): a new tool for ultrafast hydrogen bond dynamics at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benderskii, Alexander; Bordenyuk, Andrey; Weeraman, Champika

    2006-03-01

    The recently developed spectrally- and time-resolved Sum Frequency Generation (STiR-SFG) is a surface-selective 3-wave mixing (IR+visible) spectroscopic technique capable of measuring ultrafast spectral evolution of vibrational coherences. A detailed description of this measurement will be presented, and a noniterative method or deconvolving the laser pulses will be introduced to obtain the molecular response function. STiR-SFG, combined with the frequency-domain SFG spectroscopy, was applied to study hydrogen bonding dynamics at aqueous interfaces (D2O/CaF2). Spectral dynamics of the OD-stretch on the 50-150 fs time scale provides real-time observation of ultrafast H-bond rearrangement. Tuning the IR wavelength to the blue or red side of the OD-stretch transition, we selectively monitor the dynamics of different sub-ensembles in the distribution of the H-bond structures. The blue-side excitation (weaker H-bonding) shows monotonic red-shift of the OD-frequency. In contrast, the red-side excitation (stronger H-bonding structures) produces a blue-shift and a recursion, which may indicate the presence of an underdamped intermolecular mode of interfacial water. Effect of electrolyte concentration on the H-bond dynamics will be discussed.

  15. International migration from non-endemic settings as a protective factor for HIV/STI risk among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Liu, Vivian; Nguyen, Paul; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-02-01

    Given heterogeneous evidence regarding the impacts of migration on HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs), we explored factors associated with international migration among FSWs in Vancouver, Canada. We draw on baseline questionnaire and HIV/STI testing data from a community-based cohort, AESHA, from 2010-2012. Logistic regression identified correlates of international migration. Of 650 FSWs, 163 (25.1%) were international migrants, who primarily worked in formal indoor establishments. HIV/STI prevalence was lower among migrants than Canadian-born women (5.5 vs. 25.9%). In multivariate analysis, international migration was positively associated with completing high school, supporting dependents, and paying a third party, and negatively associated with HIV, injecting drugs and inconsistent condom use with clients. Although migrants experience lower workplace harms and HIV risk than Canadian-born women, they face concerning levels of violence, police harassment, and HIV/STIs. Research exploring structural and socio-cultural factors shaping risk mitigation and migrants' access to support remains needed.

  16. Views about HIV/STI and health promotion among gay and bisexual Chinese and South Asian men living in Auckland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered to have a high risk for HIV infection. The aim of this study was to identify some of the ways Chinese and South Asian MSM talk about and understand issues related to HIV/STI and health promotion, as well as highlighting some of this group's health promoting behaviours. A qualitative study using face-to-face interviews with 44 Chinese and South Asian MSM living in Auckland, New Zealand, was undertaken. Following data analysis, four major themes were identified: the importance of condoms, condom use, HIV/STI practices, and HIV health promotion. The results showed that the men interviewed had a good understanding of the benefits of using condoms for anal sex. They also reported strong recall of the local HIV health promotion campaigns which seek to influence men's behaviours through promotion of a single, unequivocal message to always use a condom for anal sex. The men however did not always report consistent condom use, and a range of reasons why this happened were identified. Among the men who discussed testing practices, regular testing was much more likely to have occurred in men who have lived in New Zealand for more than 5 years. These results suggest that future health promotion initiatives should be tailored to ensure the needs of Chinese and South Asian MSM are appropriately addressed when promoting condom use for anal sex. PMID:27211584

  17. Current barriers, challenges and opportunities for the development of effective STI vaccines: point of view of vaccine producers, biotech companies and funding agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodet, Betty

    2014-03-20

    Several barriers limit the development of vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases (STIs). Critical scientific information is missing that makes the feasibility and the likelihood of success of vaccines against genital herpes, chlamydia, gonorrhea and trichomonas uncertain: the immunity induced by natural infection is absent or imperfect which seriously limits the capacity to define the types of immune responses that an effective vaccine must induce. Reliable animal models are lacking and a number of crucial clinical questions are still unanswered about the goal of these vaccines and definition of endpoints for clinical trials. In the absence of a clear recognition of the need for vaccines against these diseases, there is no motivation for public or private research and industry to invest in the development of vaccines against STIs. The STI burden should be evaluated not only in terms of mortality and morbidity, but also in terms of economic and psycho-social impact. A global public-private consortium could mobilize the joint efforts of all stakeholders involved in the research, development and implementation of STI vaccines of the public and private sectors; ensure that sufficient resources are applied to R&D of vaccines against these STIs; and provide the pull-push forces that are necessary to overcome the barriers to develop safe and effective vaccines against these diseases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. IknowUshould2: Feasibility of a Youth-Driven Social Media Campaign to Promote STI and HIV Testing Among Adolescents in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowshen, Nadia; Lee, Susan; Matty Lehman, B; Castillo, Marné; Mollen, Cynthia

    2015-06-01

    A youth-driven, social media-based campaign aimed at improving knowledge about and increasing testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV among youth 13-17 years old was assessed by: tracking website/social media use throughout the campaign; online survey of knowledge of and attitudes towards STI testing 9 months after campaign launch; and comparing rates of STI testing at affiliated family planning clinics during the 1 year period immediately prior versus 1 year immediately after campaign launch. Over 1,500 youth were reached via social media. Survey results showed 46 % of youth had never been tested, but 70 % intended to test in the next 6 months. While the total number of GC/CT tests conducted and positive results were not significantly different pre- and post-campaign, there was a large increase in the proportion of visits at which Syphilis (5.4 vs. 18.8 %; p campaign launch. Future campaigns should incorporate lessons learned about engaging younger adolescents, social media strategies, and specific barriers to testing in this age group.

  19. A Community-Engaged Approach to Developing an mHealth HIV/STI and Drug Abuse Preventive Intervention for Primary Care: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Fessler, Kathryn; Delva, Jorge; Nelson, Annabelle; Nurenberg, Rachel; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Alers-Rojas, Francheska; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite ongoing prevention efforts, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) and drug use remain public health concerns. Urban adolescents, many of whom are underserved and racial minorities, are disproportionately affected. Recent changes in policy, including the Affordable Care Act, and advances in technology provide HIV/STI and drug abuse prevention scientists with unique opportunities to deliver mobile health (mHealth) preventive interventions in primary care. Objectives The purpose of this community-engaged study was to develop an mHealth version of the Storytelling for Empowerment preventive intervention for primary care (hereinafter referred to as “S4E”). Methods A total of 29 adolescents were recruited from a youth-centered primary care clinic in Southeast, Michigan, to participate in qualitative interviews. Participants were predominantly African American (n=19, 65.5%) and female (n=21, 72.4%) with a mean age of 16.23 (SD 2.09). The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), in conjunction with agile software development and the recommended core prevention principles of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were employed during S4E development. CBPR principles are aimed at improving the effectiveness of research by addressing locally relevant health problems, working with community strengths, and translating basic science into applied research. Complementing this approach, the NIDA prevention principles are derived from decades of drug abuse prevention research aimed at increasing the effectiveness and uptake of programs, through the development of culturally specific interventions and ensuring the structure, content, and delivery of the intervention fit the needs of the community. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results A total of 5 themes emerged from the data: (1) acceptability of the mHealth app to adolescents in primary care, (2) inclusion of a risk assessment to improve clinician

  20. Social marketing interventions to increase HIV/STI testing uptake among men who have sex with men and male-to-female transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chongyi; Herrick, Amy; Raymond, H Fisher; Anglemyer, Andrew; Gerbase, Antonio; Noar, Seth M

    2011-09-07

    Social marketing interventions have been shown to both promote and change many health-related behaviours and issues. As the HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect MSM and transgender women around the world, social marketing interventions have the potential to increase HIV/STI testing uptake among these populations. To assess the impact of social marketing interventions on HIV/STI testing uptake among men who have sex with men and transgender women compared to pre-intervention or control group testing uptake in the same population. We searched the following electronic databasesfor results from 01 January 1980 to the search date, 14 July 2010: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, LILACS (Latin America and Brazil), PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science/Web of Social Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and CQ VIP (China). We also searched for conference abstracts in the Aegis archive of HIV/AIDS conference abstracts and the CROI and International AIDS Society websites. In addition to searching electronic databases, we searched the following sources of grey literature: Australasian Digital Theses Program, Canadian Evaluation Society,  Eastview: China Conference Proceedings, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, and World Health Organization Library Information System  (WHOLIS). We contacted individual researchers, experts working in the field, and authors of major trials for suggestions of any relevant manuscripts that were in preparation or in press. References of published articles from the databases above were searched for additional, pertinent materials. All languages were included in this search. Randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials that compared social marketing interventions with a control were included. Interrupted time series and pretest-posttest design studies (controlled or uncontrolled) that compared social marketing interventions with no intervention or a control were also

  1. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 1:] The value of Scientific and Technical Information (STI), its relationship to Research and Development (R&D), and its use by US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Oliu, Walter E.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between scientific and technical information (STI), its use by aerospace engineers and scientists, and the aerospace R&D process is examined. Data are presented from studies of the role of STI in the performance and management of R&D activities and the behavior of engineers when using and seeking information. Consideration is given to the information sources used to solve technical problems, the production and use of technical communications, and the use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases.

  2. Differences in risk behaviours and HIV/STI prevalence between low-fee and medium-fee female sex workers in three provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lifeng; Zhou, Chu; Li, Zhijun; Poon, Adrienne N; Rou, Keming; Fuller, Serena; Li, Yan; Shen, Limei; Kang, Dianmin; Huang, Lu; Liao, Meizhen; Fu, Xiaobing; Shepard, Colin; Wu, Zunyou; Bulterys, Marc

    2016-06-01

    To better understand risk behaviours and factors associated with low-fee female sex workers (FSW) and support HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI) epidemic control among this key population in China. A cross-sectional study using convenience sampling to recruit 1487 eligible low-fee and medium-fee FSW was conducted in 2012 in three provinces. The participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and tested for HIV-1, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and syphilis antibody. Log-binomial modelling was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and examine factors associated with low-fee sex work. Prevalence of HIV-1, syphilis and HSV-2 antibody positive were 0.5%, 4.8% and 27.8%, respectively. Low-fee FSW were more likely to have HSV-2 infection (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR)=1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7), but not more likely to have HIV-1 and syphilis infection compared with medium-fee FSW. Compared with medium-fee FSW, low-fee FSW were more likely to be ≥35 years of age (APR=2.1, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.6), engage in sex work ≥6 days/per week (APR=1.7, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.6), have ≥3 clients per day (APR=2.2, 95% CI 1.5 to 3.3), have clients decide condom use (APR=1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.3), fail to persuade clients to use condoms (APR=1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6), express willingness to have unprotected sex in return for receipt of a higher fee (APR=1.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8), have had genital symptoms in the past year (APR=1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8) and have migrated from another city. Low-fee FSW in China have unique risks for acquiring HIV/STI, in part due to greater economic pressures. Tailored interventions targeting low-fee FSW and incorporating their prevailing perception of HIV/STI risks and condom use negotiation challenges that they face are urgently needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Reductions in HIV/STI Incidence and Sharing of Injection Equipment among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Abramovitz, Daniela; Lozada, Remedios; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Staines, Hugo; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluated brief combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico during 2008–2010, when harm reduction coverage was expanding rapidly in Tijuana, but less so in Juarez. Methods FSW-IDUs ≥18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month participated in a randomized factorial trial comparing four brief, single-session conditions combining either an interactive or didactic version of a sexual risk intervention to promote safer sex in the context of drug use, and an injection risk intervention to reduce sharing of needles/injection paraphernalia. Women underwent quarterly interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas, blinding interviewers and assessors to assignment. Poisson regression with robust variance estimation and repeated measures ordinal logistic regression examined effects on combined HIV/STI incidence and receptive needle sharing frequency. Findings Of 584 initially HIV-negative FSW-IDUs, retention was ≥90%. After 12 months, HIV/STI incidence decreased >50% in the interactive vs. didactic sex intervention (Tijuana:AdjRR:0.38,95% CI:0.16–0.89; Juarez: AdjRR:0.44,95% CI:0.19–0.99). In Juarez, women receiving interactive vs. didactic injection risk interventions decreased receptive needle-sharing by 85% vs. 71%, respectively (p = 0.04); in Tijuana, receptive needle sharing declined by 95%, but was similar in active versus didactic groups. Tijuana women reported significant increases in access to syringes and condoms, but Juarez women did not. Interpretation After 12 months in both cities, the interactive sexual risk intervention significantly reduced HIV/STI incidence. Expanding free access to sterile syringes coupled with brief, didactic education on safer injection was necessary and sufficient for achieving robust, sustained

  4. Structures of a bi-functional Kunitz-type STI family inhibitor of serine and aspartic proteases: Could the aspartic protease inhibition have evolved from a canonical serine protease-binding loop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Yasel; Valiente, Pedro A; Pons, Tirso; Berry, Colin; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    Bi-functional inhibitors from the Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) family are glycosylated proteins able to inhibit serine and aspartic proteases. Here we report six crystal structures of the wild-type and a non-glycosylated mutant of the bifunctional inhibitor E3Ad obtained at different pH values and space groups. The crystal structures show that E3Ad adopts the typical β-trefoil fold of the STI family exhibiting some conformational changes due to pH variations and crystal packing. Despite the high sequence identity with a recently reported potato cathepsin D inhibitor (PDI), three-dimensional structures obtained in this work show a significant conformational change in the protease-binding loop proposed for aspartic protease inhibition. The E3Ad binding loop for serine protease inhibition is also proposed, based on structural similarity with a novel non-canonical conformation described for the double-headed inhibitor API-A from the Kunitz-type STI family. In addition, structural and sequence analyses suggest that bifunctional inhibitors of serine and aspartic proteases from the Kunitz-type STI family are more similar to double-headed inhibitor API-A than other inhibitors with a canonical protease-binding loop. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peltzer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as “targeted” sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS transmission. Most sex workers reported condom use with their last sex client, inconsistent condom use with paying partners, and had poor condom use with regular partners. One third were drinking alcohol daily, one quarter had had voluntary HIV tests, and three quarters had been exposed to HIV interventions. Findings are discussed and implications for HIV interventions outlined.

  6. A review and evaluation of the Langley Research Center's Scientific and Technical Information Program. Results of phase 5. Design and evaluation of STI systems: A selected, annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, T. E.; Hinnebusch, P. A.; Jaffe, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A selected, annotated bibliography of literature citations related to the design and evaluation of STI systems is presented. The use of manual and machine-readable literature searches; the review of numerous books, periodicals reports, and papers; and the selection and annotation of literature citations were required. The bibliography was produced because the information was needed to develop the methodology for the review and evaluation project, and a survey of the literature did not reveal the existence of a single published source of information pertinent to the subject. Approximately 200 citations are classified in four subject areas. The areas include information - general; information systems - design and evaluation, including information products and services; information - use and need; and information - economics.

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 42: An analysis of the transfer of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura F.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. aerospace industry has a long history of federal support for research related to its needs. Since the establishment of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1915, the federal government has provided continuous research support related to flight and aircraft design. This research has contributed to the international preeminence of the U.S. aerospace industry. In this paper, we present a sociological analysis of aerospace engineers and scientists and how their attitudes and behaviors impact the flow of scientific and technical information (STI). We use a constructivist framework to explain the spotty dissemination of federally funded aerospace research. Our research is aimed towards providing federal policymakers with a clearer understanding of how and when federally funded aerospace research is used. This understanding will help policymakers design improved information transfer systems that will aid the competitiveness of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  8. Sexual Partnership Patterns Among South African Adolescent Girls Enrolled in HPTN [corrected] 068: Measurement Challenges and Implications for HIV/STI Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nadia L; Powers, Kimberly A; Hughes, James P; MacPhail, Catherine L; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Patel, Eshan U; Gomez-Olive, F Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Pettifor, Audrey E

    2015-11-01

    Estimates of sexual partnership durations, gaps between partnerships, and overlaps across partnerships are important for understanding sexual partnership patterns and developing interventions to prevent transmission of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, a validated, optimal approach for estimating these parameters, particularly when partnerships are ongoing, has not been established. We assessed 4 approaches for estimating partnership parameters using cross-sectional reports on dates of first and most recent sex and partnership status (ongoing or not) from 654 adolescent girls in rural South Africa. The first, commonly used, approach assumes all partnerships have ended, resulting in underestimated durations for ongoing partnerships. The second approach treats reportedly ongoing partnerships as right-censored, resulting in bias if partnership status is reported with error. We propose 2 "hybrid" approaches, which assign partnership status to reportedly ongoing partnerships based on how recently girls last had sex with their partner. We estimate partnership duration, gap length, and overlap length under each approach using Kaplan-Meier methods with a robust variance estimator. Median partnership duration and overlap length varied considerably across approaches (from 368 to 1024 days and 168 to 409 days, respectively), but gap length was stable. Lifetime prevalence of concurrency ranged from 28% to 33%, and at least half of gap lengths were shorter than 6 months, suggesting considerable potential for HIV/STI transmission. Estimates of partnership duration and overlap lengths are highly dependent on measurement approach. Understanding the effect of different approaches on estimates is critical for interpreting partnership data and using estimates to predict HIV/STI transmission rates.

  9. Sexual partnership patterns among South African adolescent girls enrolled in HPTN 068: measurement challenges and implications for HIV/STI transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nadia L.; Powers, Kimberly A.; Hughes, James P.; MacPhail, Catherine L.; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Patel, Eshan U.; Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Pettifor, Audrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Estimates of sexual partnership durations, gaps between partnerships, and overlaps across partnerships are important for understanding sexual partnership patterns and developing interventions to prevent transmission of HIV/STIs. However, a validated, optimal approach for estimating these parameters, particularly when partnerships are ongoing, has not been established. Methods We assessed four approaches for estimating partnership parameters using cross-sectional reports on dates of first and most recent sex and partnership status (ongoing or not) from 654 adolescent girls in rural South Africa. The first, commonly used, approach assumes all partnerships have ended, resulting in underestimated durations for ongoing partnerships. The second approach treats reportedly ongoing partnerships as right-censored, resulting in bias if partnership status is reported with error. We propose two “hybrid” approaches, which assign partnership status to reportedly ongoing partnerships based on how recently girls last had sex with their partner. We estimate partnership duration, gap length, and overlap length under each approach using Kaplan-Meier methods with a robust variance estimator. Results Median partnership duration and overlap length varied considerably across approaches (from 368 to 1,024 days and 168 to 409 days, respectively), but gap length was stable. Lifetime prevalence of concurrency ranged from 28% to 33%, and at least half of gap lengths were shorter than 6 months, suggesting considerable potential for HIV/STI transmission. Conclusion Estimates of partnership duration and overlap lengths are highly dependent on measurement approach. Understanding the effect of different approaches on estimates is critical for interpreting partnership data and utilizing estimates to predict HIV/STI transmission rates. PMID:26462185

  10. 'Can you recommend any good STI apps?' A review of content, accuracy and comprehensiveness of current mobile medical applications for STIs and related genital infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jo; Gkatzidou, Voula; Tickle, Laura; Manning, Sarah R; Tilakkumar, Tilna; Hone, Kate; Ashcroft, Richard E; Sonnenberg, Pam; Sadiq, S Tariq; Estcourt, Claudia S

    2017-06-01

    Seeking sexual health information online is common, and provision of mobile medical applications (apps) for STIs is increasing. Young people, inherently at higher risk of STIs, are avid users of technology, and apps could be appealing sources of information. We undertook a comprehensive review of content and accuracy of apps for people seeking information about STIs. Search of Google Play and iTunes stores using general and specific search terms for apps regarding STIs and genital infections (except HIV), testing, diagnosis and management, 10 September 2014 to 16 September 2014. We assessed eligible apps against (1) 19 modified Health on The Net (HON) Foundation principles; and (2) comprehensiveness and accuracy of information on STIs/genital infections, and their diagnosis and management, compared with corresponding National Health Service STI information webpage content. 144/6642 apps were eligible. 57 were excluded after downloading. 87 were analysed. Only 29% of apps met ≥6 HON criteria. Content was highly variable: 34/87 (39%) covered one or two infections; 40 (46%) covered multiple STIs; 5 (6%) focused on accessing STI testing. 13 (15%) were fully, 46 (53%) mostly and 28 (32%) partially accurate. 25 (29%) contained ≥1 piece of potentially harmful information. Apps available on both iOS and Android were more accurate than single-platform apps. Only one app provided fully accurate and comprehensive information on chlamydia. Marked variation in content, quality and accuracy of available apps combined with the nearly one-third containing potentially harmful information risks undermining potential benefits of an e-Health approach to sexual health and well-being. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. HIV and STI prevalence among female sex workers in Côte d'Ivoire: why targeted prevention programs should be continued and strengthened.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bea Vuylsteke

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess condom use and prevalence of STIs and HIV among female sex workers (FSWs, as part of a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan of a nationwide sex worker prevention project in Côte d'Ivoire. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross sectional surveys were conducted among FSWs attending five project clinics in Abidjan and San Pedro (2007, and in Yamoussoukro and Gagnoa (2009. A standardized questionnaire was administered in a face-to-face interview, which included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and condom use. After the interview, the participants were asked to provide samples for STI and HIV testing. RESULTS: A total of 1110 FSWs participated in the surveys. There were large differences in socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics between FSW coming for the first time as compared to FSW coming on a routine visit. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae or C.trachomatis was 9.1%, 11.8% among first vs. 6.9% routine attendees (p = 0.004. The overall HIV prevalence was 26.6%, it was lower among first time attendees (17.5% as compared to 33.9% for routine attendees, p<0.001. The HIV prevalence among first attendees was also lower than the proportion of HIV positive tests from routine testing and counselling services in the same clinics. CONCLUSIONS: The results show a relatively high STI and HIV prevalence among FSWs in different cities in Côte d'Ivoire. In the light of these results, prevention efforts should continue to focus on FSWs in the country.

  12. Awareness and knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection among high-risk men of Hispanic origin attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colón-López Vivian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital Human papilloma virus (HPV is one of the most commonly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infection (STIs in men and women. Knowledge about HPV infection among men is limited. This study aims to determine correlates of adequate knowledge of HPV infection among men who attend an STI clinic in Puerto Rico. Methods A cross-sectional study of 206 men was conducted at an STI clinic in San Juan, PR. Adequate knowledge was defined as a score of at least 70% of correct responses among those men who reported having ever heard of HPV. Variables that achieved statistical significance in the bivariate analysis (p Results Although 52.5% of men reported having heard of HPV infection before the survey, only 29.3% of this sub-group had an adequate knowledge of HPV. Most men did not know that HPV is a risk factor for anal (38.7%, penile (50.0% and oral (72.6% cancer. Factors associated with adequate knowledge of HPV in age-adjusted models were being men who have sex with men (MSM (OR=2.6;95%CI=1.1-6.1, self-report of genital warts (OR=3.2;95%CI=1.3-7.9 and herpes (OR=7.4;95% CI=2.2-25.1. MSM was marginally associated with adequate knowledge (OR=2.3;95% CI=0.9-5.9 and self-report of herpes remained significantly associated (OR=5.0;95%CI=1.3-18.4 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Awareness and knowledge of HPV was very low in this group of men. Interventions to increase knowledge and awareness in this group are necessary to promote preventive practices for HPV-related cancers in high-risk groups.

  13. Incidence of repeat testing and diagnoses of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea in swingers, homosexual and heterosexual men and women at two large Dutch STI clinics, 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M; van Rooijen, Martijn S; Hogewoning, Arjan; van Liere, Genevieve A F S; Steenbakkers, Mieke; Hoebe, Christian J P A

    2017-09-01

    Swingers, that is, heterosexuals who as a couple have sex with others, including group sex and bisexual behaviour, are an older-aged risk group for STIs. Here, we report on their repeat testing (reattendance) and STI yield compared with other heterosexuals and men who have sex with men (MSM, homosexual men) at two Dutch STI clinics. Swingers are routinely (since 2006, South Limburg, registration-completeness: 99%) or partially (since 2010, Amsterdam, registration-completeness: 20%) included in the clinic patient registries. Data (retrospective cohort) are analysed to assess incidence (per 100 person-years (PY)) of reattendance and STI ( Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and/or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG)) and associated factors calculating HRs. In South Limburg 7714 and in Amsterdam 2070 swinger consultations were identified. Since 2010, swingers' incidence of reattendance was 48-57/100 PY. Incidence was lower in MSM (30-39/100 PY, HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.61, South Limburg; HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.96, Amsterdam), heterosexual men (8-14/100 PY, HR 0.16; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.17, South Limburg; HR 0.33; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.36, Amsterdam) and women (13-20/100 PY, HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.61, South Limburg; HR 0.46; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.51, Amsterdam). Swingers' STI incidence at reattendance was 11-12/100 PY. Incidence was similar in heterosexual men (14-15/100 PY; HR 1.19; 95% CI 0.90 to 1.57, South Limburg; HR 1.20; 95% CI 0.91 to 1.59, Amsterdam) and women (12-14/100 PY; HR 1.14; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.49, South Limburg; HR 0.98; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.29, Amsterdam) and higher in MSM (18-22/100 PY; HR 1.59; 95% CI 1.19 to 2.12, South Limburg; HR 1.80; 95% CI 1.36 to 2.37, Amsterdam). Risk factors for STI incidence were partner-notified (contact-tracing), symptoms and previous STI. Swingers' positivity at any clinic attendance was 3-4% for NG (ie, higher than other heterosexuals) and 6-8% for CT (ie, lower than heterosexuals overall but higher than older heterosexuals

  14. High burden of STI and HIV in male sex workers working as internet escorts for men in an observational study: a hidden key population compared with female sex workers and other men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegh-Haasnoot, Amanja; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M; Hoebe, Christian J P A

    2015-07-29

    Male sex work in the western countries has changed, including now a subculture of male sex workers who have paid sex with men arranged for via the internet. The men involved in this subculture do not easily identify themselves as sex workers nor as homosexual, and are therefore missed by regular health care and public health interventions. These male sex workers may form a hidden key population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, bridging towards other persons outside this context. This clinic-based observational study included consultations by male sex workers (n = 212), female sex workers (n = 801) and in men having sex with men who did not report being paid for sexual contacts (MSM, n = 2703) who received STI and HIV testing and counselling at our clinic during the study period. In this study we compare the consultations in male sex workers to those in in female sex workers and MSM. Demographic characteristics and sexual behaviour of the male sex workers, female sex workers and MSM were compared using chi-square tests and non-parametric tests. Using univariate and multivariate regression analyses, determinants for STI positivity in male sex workers were evaluated. Male sex workers tested positive for STI (including HIV) in 40 % of the consultations; female sex workers and MSM respectively in 9 and 14 % of the consultations. A new HIV infection was found in 8 % of the consultations of male sex workers. Male sex workers were a young population of migrant sex workers from Eastern Europe. They reported more often to also have sex contacts with women and other sex workers. Male sex workers are at a higher risk for one or more new STI than female sex workers and other MSM, even after correction for age, ethnicity, known HIV positivity and behavioural variables. Male sex workers form a hidden key population that impacts the transmission of STI and HIV within the MSM population and, possibly, to the heterosexual population. They require specific targeted

  15. Estrategia de intervención educativa en enfermedades de transmisión sexual Educational strategy to prevent STI/HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Sarmiento Olivera

    2012-02-01

    -transmitted infections to design an educational strategy (STI/HIV/AIDS. The target group involved all the population of the council already mentioned, and the sample 136 that was taken at random having both sexes, including people from 15 to 49 years old. The information was collected by means of the application of a questionnaire, designing an educational strategy from the results obtained, showing these results in tables to be analyzed by means of the descriptive statistics (absolute numbers and percentages. The population under study knew the main transmission ways of STI/HIV/AIDS, mainly through sexual relations; they recognized the benefits of condoms, but only a few of the sample under study use them, which matched with the low risk perception this population showed concerning these transmittable diseases. All these elements, regarding knowledge, attitudes and practices, allowed the design of an educational strategy to prevent STI/HIV/AIDS with information, education and communication actions.

  16. Outbreaks of syphilis among men who have sex with men attending STI clinics between 2007 and 2015 in the Netherlands: a space-time clustering study.

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    van Aar, F; den Daas, C; van der Sande, M A B; Soetens, L C; de Vries, H J C; van Benthem, B H B

    2017-09-01

    Infectious syphilis (syphilis) is diagnosed predominantly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Netherlands and is a strong indicator for sexual risk behaviour. Therefore, an increase in syphilis can be an early indicator of resurgence of other STIs, including HIV. National and worldwide outbreaks of syphilis, as well as potential changes in sexual networks were reason to explore syphilis trends and clusters in more depth. National STI/HIV surveillance data were used, containing epidemiological, behavioural and clinical data from STI clinics. We examined syphilis positivity rates stratified by HIV status and year. Additionally, we performed space-time cluster analysis on municipality level between 2007 and 2015, using SaTScan to evaluate whether or not there was a higher than expected syphilis incidence in a certain area and time period, using the maximum likelihood ratio test statistic. Among HIV-positive MSM, the syphilis positivity rate decreased between 2007 (12.3%) and 2011 (4.5%), followed by an increasing trend (2015: 8.0%). Among HIV-negative MSM, the positivity rate decreased between 2007 (2.8%) and 2011 also (1.4%) and started to increase from 2013 onwards (2015: 1.8%). In addition, we identified three geospatial clusters. The first cluster consisted of MSM sex workers in the South of the Netherlands (July 2009-September 2010, n=10, p<0.001). The second cluster were mostly HIV-positive MSM (58.5%) (Amsterdam; July 2011-December 2015; n=1123, p<0.001), although the proportion of HIV-negative MSM increased over time. The third cluster was large in space (predominantly the city of Rotterdam; April-September 2015, n=72, p=0.014) and were mostly HIV-negative MSM (62.5%). Using SaTScan analysis, we observed several not yet recognised outbreaks and a rapid resurgence of syphilis among known HIV-positive MSM first, but more recently, also among HIV-negative MSM. The three identified clusters revealed locations, periods and specific characteristics of the

  17. Patterns of sexual behaviour and reported symptoms of STI/RTIs among young people in Croatia--implications for interventions' planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozicević, Ivana; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Ajduković, Dean; Kufrin, Kresimir

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes some of the results of the first national-level survey on sexual behaviour and the distribution of risks to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV), among youth in Croatia, and the nature and the extent of their vulnerability to these adverse health outcomes. The study was a cross-sectional, probability-based household survey conducted in 2005, and included 1093 respondents aged 18-24. This paper aims to describe the findings related to the knowledge of HIV transmission, key behavioural outcomes relevant for potential transmission of HIV and STIs, and correlates of genital discharge in young men and young women. More than 80% of young people know that the correct use of condoms protects against HIV and that HIV can be transmitted by someone who looks healthy. Fifty-nine percent of young men and 52.4% of young women reported using condoms during the first sexual intercourse, and 59.3% of men and 46.1% of women used condoms during the last sexual intercourse with a casual partner. This points to the gap between knowledge of condom use and the actual use of condoms as a high proportion of risky sexual contact remain unprotected. Having sexual intercourse frequently or regularly while consuming alcohol was reported by 19.2% of men and 7.6% of women. Much lower proportion are using drugs frequently or regularly during sexual intercourse (3.7% of men and 2.1% of women). Among those sexually experienced, 11.8% of men and 44.1% of women reported ever having a genital discharge. Higher presence of genital discharge in women is suggestive of reproductive tract infections that are not necessarily sexually transmitted. In the multivariate analysis, the lack of knowledge of whether chlamydial infections is an STI and having more than five partners in life were correlates of genital discharge in men, while in women the correlates included having more than five partners in life and not using condoms

  18. Self-reported history of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and STI-related utilization of the German health care system by men who have sex with men: data from a large convenience sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel J; Marcus, Ulrich

    2011-05-18

    In Germany, testing and treatment of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) services are not provided by one medical discipline, but rather dispersed among many different providers. Common STIs like gonorrhoea or Chlamydia infection are not routinely reported. Although men who have sex with men (MSM) are particularly vulnerable to STIs, respective health care utilization among MSM is largely unknown. A sexual behaviour survey among MSM was conducted in 2006. Questions on self-reported sexual behaviour, STI-related health care consultation and barriers to access, coverage of vaccination against hepatitis, screening for asymptomatic STIs, self-reported history of STIs, and partner notification were analysed. Analysis was stratified by HIV-serostatus (3,511 HIV-negative/unknown versus 874 positive). General Practitioners, particularly gay doctors, were preferred for STI-related health care. Low threshold testing in sex-associated venues was acceptable for most respondents. Shame and fear of homophobic reactions were the main barriers for STI-testing. More than half of the respondents reported vaccination against hepatitis A/B. HIV-positive MSM reported screening offers for STIs three to seven times more often than HIV-negative or untested MSM. Unlike testing for syphilis or hepatitis C, screening for asymptomatic pharyngeal and rectal infections was rarely offered. STIs in the previous twelve months were reported by 7.1% of HIV-negative/untested, and 34.7% of HIV-positive respondents. Self-reported histories of STIs in MSM convenience samples differ significantly by HIV-serostatus. Higher rates of STIs among HIV-positive MSM may partly be explained by more testing. Communication between health care providers and their clients about sexuality, sexual practices, and sexual risks should be improved. A comprehensive STI screening policy for MSM is needed.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) of Streptococcus thermophilus St-I and its Bacteriophage-Insensitive Mutants (BIM) Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan; Bian, Xin; Evivie, Smith Etareri; Huo, Gui-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    The CRISPR-Cas (CRISPR together with CRISPR-associated proteins) modules are the adaptive immune system, acting as an adaptive and heritable immune system in bacteria and archaea. CRISPR-based immunity acts by integrating short virus sequences in the cell's CRISPR locus, allowing the cell to remember, recognize, and clear infections. In this study, the homology of CRISPRs sequence in BIMs (bacteriophage-insensitive mutants) of Streptococcus thermophilus St-I were analyzed. Secondary structures of the repeats and the PAMs (protospacer-associated motif) of each CRISPR locus were also predicted. Results showed that CRISPR1 has 27 repeat-spacer units, 5 of them had duplicates; CRISPR2 has one repeat-spacer unit; CRISPR3 has 28 repeat-spacer units. Only BIM1 had a new spacer acquisition in CRISPR3, while BIM2 and BIM3 had no new spacers' insertion, thus indicating that while most CRISPR1 were more active than CRISPR3, new spacer acquisition occurred just in CRSPR3 in some situations. These findings will help establish the foundation for the study of CRSPR-Cas systems in lactic acid bacteria.

  20. A Sensitivity Study of Human Errors in Optimizing Surveillance Test Interval (STI) and Allowed Outage Time (AOT) of Standby Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Dae Wook; Shin, Won Ky; You, Young Woo; Yang, Hui Chang

    1998-01-01

    In most cases, the surveillance test intervals (STIs), allowed outage times (AOTS) and testing strategies of safety components in nuclear power plant are prescribed in plant technical specifications. And, in general, it is required that standby safety system shall be redundant (i.e., composed of multiple components) and these components are tested by either staggered test strategy or sequential test strategy. In this study, a linear model is presented to incorporate the effects of human errors associated with test into the evaluation of unavailability. The average unavailabilities of 1/4, 2/4 redundant systems are computed considering human error and testing strategy. The adverse effects of test on system unavailability, such as component wear and test-induced transient have been modelled. The final outcome of this study would be the optimized human error domain from 3-D human error sensitivity analysis by selecting finely classified segment. The results of sensitivity analysis show that the STI and AOT can be optimized provided human error probability is maintained within allowable range. (authors)

  1. Large-scale STI services in Avahan improve utilization and treatment seeking behaviour amongst high-risk groups in India: an analysis of clinical records from six states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurung Anup

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, implemented a large HIV prevention programme across six high HIV prevalence states amongst high risk groups consisting of female sex workers, high risk men who have sex with men, transgenders and injecting drug users in India. Utilization of the clinical services, health seeking behaviour and trends in syndromic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections amongst these populations were measured using the individual tracking data. Methods The Avahan clinical monitoring system included individual tracking data pertaining to clinical services amongst high risk groups. All clinic visits were recorded in the routine clinical monitoring system using unique identification numbers at the NGO-level. Visits by individual clinic attendees were tracked from January 2005 to December 2009. An analysis examining the limited variables over time, stratified by risk group, was performed. Results A total of 431,434 individuals including 331,533 female sex workers, 10,280 injecting drug users, 82,293 men who have sex with men, and 7,328 transgenders visited the clinics with a total of 2,700,192 visits. Individuals made an average of 6.2 visits to the clinics during the study period. The number of visits per person increased annually from 1.2 in 2005 to 8.3 in 2009. The proportion of attendees visiting clinics more than four times a year increased from 4% in 2005 to 26% in 2009 (p Conclusions The programme demonstrated that acceptable and accessible services with marginalised and often difficult–to-reach populations can be brought to a very large scale using standardized approaches. Utilization of these services can dramatically improve health seeking behaviour and reduce STI prevalence.

  2. Persistence after treatment of pharyngeal gonococcal infections in patients of the STI clinic, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2012-2015: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hananta, I Putu Yuda; De Vries, Henry John Christiaan; van Dam, Alje P; van Rooijen, Martijn Sebastiaan; Soebono, Hardyanto; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus

    2017-11-01

    Infection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the pharynx (pharyngeal Ng) is associated with gonococcal transmission and development of antimicrobial resistance. We assessed proportion of and determinants for persistence after treatment of pharyngeal Ng. At the STI clinic of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, females-at-risk and men who have sex with men are routinely screened for pharyngeal Ng using an RNA-based nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT; Aptima Combo 2). Patients with pharyngeal Ng were invited for a test-of-cure (TOC) 7 days after treatment with a 500 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly. We retrospectively examined medical records of patients with pharyngeal Ng (January 2012-August 2015) who returned for a TOC 7-28 days after treatment. Persistence was defined as a positive NAAT at TOC. Out of 2204 pharyngeal Ng cases recorded in the study period, 781 cases (median time between first treatment and TOC of 8 (IQR 7-12) days) were included in the analysis. Persistence after treatment was found in 36 (4.6%) and was less likely among patients who received ceftriaxone in combination with other antibiotics (vs monotherapy) (adjusted OR (aOR) 0.36, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.04) and with longer time from treatment to TOC (aOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.90, per extra day). In those with a TOC 15-28 days after treatment, Ng persisted in only 1.0% (1/105 cases). A small proportion of pharyngeal Ng persists despite appropriate treatment. Combining ceftriaxone with other antibiotics appears to lead to faster clearance. A TOC for pharyngeal Ng 7 days after treatment may be too soon. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Persistence after treatment of pharyngeal gonococcal infections in patients of the STI clinic, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2012–2015: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Henry John Christiaan; van Dam, Alje P; van Rooijen, Martijn Sebastiaan; Soebono, Hardyanto; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Infection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the pharynx (pharyngeal Ng) is associated with gonococcal transmission and development of antimicrobial resistance. We assessed proportion of and determinants for persistence after treatment of pharyngeal Ng. Methods At the STI clinic of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, females-at-risk and men who have sex with men are routinely screened for pharyngeal Ng using an RNA-based nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT; Aptima Combo 2). Patients with pharyngeal Ng were invited for a test-of-cure (TOC) 7 days after treatment with a 500 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly. We retrospectively examined medical records of patients with pharyngeal Ng (January 2012–August 2015) who returned for a TOC 7–28 days after treatment. Persistence was defined as a positive NAAT at TOC. Results Out of 2204 pharyngeal Ng cases recorded in the study period, 781 cases (median time between first treatment and TOC of 8 (IQR 7–12) days) were included in the analysis. Persistence after treatment was found in 36 (4.6%) and was less likely among patients who received ceftriaxone in combination with other antibiotics (vs monotherapy) (adjusted OR (aOR) 0.36, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.04) and with longer time from treatment to TOC (aOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.90, per extra day). In those with a TOC 15–28 days after treatment, Ng persisted in only 1.0% (1/105 cases). Conclusion A small proportion of pharyngeal Ng persists despite appropriate treatment. Combining ceftriaxone with other antibiotics appears to lead to faster clearance. A TOC for pharyngeal Ng 7 days after treatment may be too soon. PMID:28822976

  4. Feasible, Efficient and Necessary, without Exception – Working with Sex Workers Interrupts HIV/STI Transmission and Brings Treatment to Many in Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Richard; Wheeler, Tisha; Gorgens, Marelize; Mziray, Elizabeth; Dallabetta, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Overview High rates of partner change in sex work—whether in professional, ‘transactional’ or other context—disproportionately drive transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Several countries in Asia have demonstrated that reducing transmission in sex work can reverse established epidemics among sex workers, their clients and the general population. Experience and emerging research from Africa reaffirms unprotected sex work to be a key driver of sexual transmission in different contexts and regardless of stage or classification of HIV epidemic. This validation of the epidemiology behind sexual transmission carries an urgent imperative to realign prevention resources and scale up effective targeted interventions in sex work settings, and, given declining HIV resources, to do so efficiently. Eighteen articles in this issue highlight the importance and feasibility of such interventions under four themes: 1) epidemiology, data needs and modelling of sex work in generalised epidemics; 2) implementation science addressing practical aspects of intervention scale-up; 3) community mobilisation and 4) the treatment cascade for sex workers living with HIV. Conclusion Decades of empirical evidence, extended by analyses in this collection, argue that protecting sex work is, without exception, feasible and necessary for controlling HIV/STI epidemics. In addition, the disproportionate burden of HIV borne by sex workers calls for facilitated access to ART, care and support. The imperative for Africa is rapid scale-up of targeted prevention and treatment, facilitated by policies and action to improve conditions where sex work takes place. The opportunity is a wealth of accumulated experience working with sex workers in diverse settings, which can be tapped to make up for lost time. Elsewhere, even in countries with strong interventions and services for sex workers, an emerging challenge is to find ways to sustain them in the face of

  5. Feasible, Efficient and Necessary, without Exception - Working with Sex Workers Interrupts HIV/STI Transmission and Brings Treatment to Many in Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Richard; Wheeler, Tisha; Gorgens, Marelize; Mziray, Elizabeth; Dallabetta, Gina

    2015-01-01

    High rates of partner change in sex work-whether in professional, 'transactional' or other context-disproportionately drive transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Several countries in Asia have demonstrated that reducing transmission in sex work can reverse established epidemics among sex workers, their clients and the general population. Experience and emerging research from Africa reaffirms unprotected sex work to be a key driver of sexual transmission in different contexts and regardless of stage or classification of HIV epidemic. This validation of the epidemiology behind sexual transmission carries an urgent imperative to realign prevention resources and scale up effective targeted interventions in sex work settings, and, given declining HIV resources, to do so efficiently. Eighteen articles in this issue highlight the importance and feasibility of such interventions under four themes: 1) epidemiology, data needs and modelling of sex work in generalised epidemics; 2) implementation science addressing practical aspects of intervention scale-up; 3) community mobilisation and 4) the treatment cascade for sex workers living with HIV. Decades of empirical evidence, extended by analyses in this collection, argue that protecting sex work is, without exception, feasible and necessary for controlling HIV/STI epidemics. In addition, the disproportionate burden of HIV borne by sex workers calls for facilitated access to ART, care and support. The imperative for Africa is rapid scale-up of targeted prevention and treatment, facilitated by policies and action to improve conditions where sex work takes place. The opportunity is a wealth of accumulated experience working with sex workers in diverse settings, which can be tapped to make up for lost time. Elsewhere, even in countries with strong interventions and services for sex workers, an emerging challenge is to find ways to sustain them in the face of declining global resources.

  6. Correlation between knowledge on transmission and prevention of HIV/STI and proficiency in condom use among male migrants from Africa and Middle East evaluated by a Condom Use Skills score using a wooden penile model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoboli, Fabio; Martinelli, Domenico; Di Stefano, Mariantonietta; Fasano, Massimo; Prato, Rosa; Santantonio, Teresa Antonia; Fiore, Jose' Ramòn

    2017-06-19

    Migrants in Italy are prevalently young adults, with a higher risk of sexual transmitted infections (STI) and HIV infection. Promoting consistent as well as correct use of condoms could reduce failure rate due to their improper use. The aim of our study was to evaluate Condom Use Skills among a migrant population recently landed in Italy, hosted in a government center for asylum seekers. The study sample was composed of 80 male migrants. Sanitary trained interviewers submitted a questionnaire to participants to investigate age, provenience, marital status, educational level and knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/STI. Then, we assessed participants' level of condom use skill with the Condom Use Skills (CUS) measure by using a wooden penile model. The interviewer filled in a checklist and assigned 1 point for correct demonstration of each behavior that may prevent condom failure during sex. Participants' median age was 26 years and the sample was composed of 54 migrants from sub-Saharan Africa and 26 from Middle East. Most of them were married, with a lower middle level of education, up to 8 or 5 years. Half of the sample achieved the highest score in the questionnaire and our CUS showed a large number of people with middle high score classes. The Spearman's rho was 0.30, therefore answers to the questionnaire and CUS score appeared correlated (p migrants of the sample. Our study shows that educational level influences the quality of knowledge and awareness about STI/AIDS and contribute to correct condom use. Since the half of participants had a low educational level and linguistic problems, the risk of missing campaigns messages or misunderstanding informative materials increases. Direct observation of condom-application on penile model may offer realistic assessment of application skills in these individuals.

  7. Access to healthcare, HIV/STI testing, and preferred pre-exposure prophylaxis providers among men who have sex with men and men who engage in street-based sex work in the US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Underhill

    Full Text Available Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is a promising strategy for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM and men who engage in sex work. But access will require routine HIV testing and contacts with healthcare providers. This study investigated men's healthcare and HIV testing experiences to inform PrEP implementation.We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 38 in 2012 and 56 in-depth qualitative interviews in 2013-14 with male sex workers (MSWs (n = 31 and other MSM (n = 25 in Providence, RI. MSWs primarily met clients in street-based sex work venues. Facilitators asked participants about access to healthcare and HIV/STI testing, healthcare needs, and preferred PrEP providers.MSWs primarily accessed care in emergency rooms (ERs, substance use clinics, correctional institutions, and walk-in clinics. Rates of HIV testing were high, but MSWs reported low access to other STI testing, low insurance coverage, and unmet healthcare needs including primary care, substance use treatment, and mental health services. MSM not engaging in sex work were more likely to report access to primary and specialist care. Rates of HIV testing among these MSM were slightly lower, but they reported more STI testing, more insurance coverage, and fewer unmet needs. Preferred PrEP providers for both groups included primary care physicians, infectious disease specialists, and psychiatrists. MSWs were also willing to access PrEP in substance use treatment and ER settings.PrEP outreach efforts for MSWs and other MSM should engage diverse providers in many settings, including mental health and substance use treatment, ERs, needle exchanges, correctional institutions, and HIV testing centers. Access to PrEP will require financial assistance, but can build on existing healthcare contacts for both populations.

  8. Access to healthcare, HIV/STI testing, and preferred pre-exposure prophylaxis providers among men who have sex with men and men who engage in street-based sex work in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Kristen; Morrow, Kathleen M; Colleran, Christopher M; Holcomb, Richard; Operario, Don; Calabrese, Sarah K; Galárraga, Omar; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2014-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who engage in sex work. But access will require routine HIV testing and contacts with healthcare providers. This study investigated men's healthcare and HIV testing experiences to inform PrEP implementation. We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 38) in 2012 and 56 in-depth qualitative interviews in 2013-14 with male sex workers (MSWs) (n = 31) and other MSM (n = 25) in Providence, RI. MSWs primarily met clients in street-based sex work venues. Facilitators asked participants about access to healthcare and HIV/STI testing, healthcare needs, and preferred PrEP providers. MSWs primarily accessed care in emergency rooms (ERs), substance use clinics, correctional institutions, and walk-in clinics. Rates of HIV testing were high, but MSWs reported low access to other STI testing, low insurance coverage, and unmet healthcare needs including primary care, substance use treatment, and mental health services. MSM not engaging in sex work were more likely to report access to primary and specialist care. Rates of HIV testing among these MSM were slightly lower, but they reported more STI testing, more insurance coverage, and fewer unmet needs. Preferred PrEP providers for both groups included primary care physicians, infectious disease specialists, and psychiatrists. MSWs were also willing to access PrEP in substance use treatment and ER settings. PrEP outreach efforts for MSWs and other MSM should engage diverse providers in many settings, including mental health and substance use treatment, ERs, needle exchanges, correctional institutions, and HIV testing centers. Access to PrEP will require financial assistance, but can build on existing healthcare contacts for both populations.

  9. Failure to Use and Sustain Male Condom Usage: Lessons Learned from a Prospective Study among Men Attending STI Clinic in Pune, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Sahay

    Full Text Available Sustained or consistent use of condoms by men remains a challenge. A study was carried out to identify factors associated with failure to use condoms consistently by men attending STD clinics in Pune, India.Among 14137 STI clinic attendees, 8360 HIV sero-negative men were enrolled in a cohort study. The changes in condom usage behavior were studied among 1284 men who returned for first scheduled quarterly follow up, 309 reported consistent condom use at the time of enrollment in the cohort. Data pertaining to heterosexual men practicing high risk behavior were analyzed to identify factors associated with change in condom use behavior using logistic regression model. Demographic, behavioral and biological factors observed to be associated with condom use were fitted in five Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals to identify independent predictors of failure to sustain condom use behavior.The univariate analysis showed that men who were 30 years or older in age (p = 0.002 and those who did not have contact female sex worker (FSW were more likely to fail to sustain consistent condom use. However both these factors did not show significant association in multivariable analysis. Marital status and contact with Hijra (eunuch in lifetime were associated with failure to change in their condom use behavior [AOR 0.33 (CI 0.13-0.82; p = 0.017]. During the follow up of 2 years, 61 events (15.5 per 100 person years, 95% CI 12.3-19.5 years of 'failure of condom use' were recorded despite counseling. Older age, contact with non CSW partner and presence of genital ulcer disease / discharge syndrome were significant predictors of failure to sustain condom use.Married monogamous older men, who report contact with sex worker and present with genital ulcer disease are at risk of failure to use condom after first exposure to voluntary HIV counseling and testing. This is a scenario of primary prevention program

  10. Novostavba rodinného domu se dvěma bytovými jednotkami v Galantě v části Kolónia

    OpenAIRE

    Varjú, Marián

    2015-01-01

    Bakalářská práce „Novostavba rodinného domu se dvěma bytovými jednotkami v Galanta v části Kolónia“ je zpracována ve formě prováděcí projektové dokumentace a obsahuje všechny náležitosti dle platných předpisů. Navržený objekt leží na parcelách s číslem 5184/143, 5184/40 v Galantě v části Kolónia. Svým charakterem se jedná o samostatně stojící objekt. Rodinný dům je navržen systémem Durisol od Leier. Konstrukce střechy je rozdělena do dvou úrovní. Střecha je tvořena z pultové vaznicové konstru...

  11. "And let me see them damn papers!" The role of STI/AIDS screening among urban African American and Puerto Rican youth in the transition to sex without a condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Traci; Macauda, Mark; Erickson, Pamela; Singer, Merrill

    2011-10-01

    Common strategies employed in preventing STI/AIDS transmission among young adults in America include abstinence, monogamy and safer sex. These strategies require a high level of vigilance and responsibility and, according to inner city participants in Project PHRESH.comm, neither option is always desirable, available, or rational in the context of their lived experiences. This article reports findings from Project PHRESH.comm, a mixed-method, ethnographic study incorporating data from focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews, coital diaries, systematic cultural assessments and a structured survey designed to explore concepts of risk and decision making about condom use among at risk African American and Puerto Rican young adults aged 18-25 years in Hartford, CT. We found that many young adults from our study population rely on a strategy of using clinic-sponsored STI/AIDS screening when wanting to discontinue condom use with a partner. While our data suggest that screening is a common strategy used by many couples to transition to having sex without a condom, the data also show that most youth do not maintain monogamy even in long-term, serious relationships. Thus, sharing test results may provide a false sense of security in the sexual culture of inner city, minority youth.

  12. Comparison of Sexual Risk, HIV/STI Prevalence and Intervention Exposure Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women (MSMW) and Men Who Have Sex with Men Only (MSMO) in India: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Ramanathan, Shreena; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Deshpande, Sucheta; Yadav, Diwakar; Sen, Shrabanti; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Using data from a cross-sectional bio-behavioral survey conducted among men who have sex with men (n = 3833) in India, we examined differences related to HIV-related sexual risk, HIV/STI prevalence and intervention exposures between men who have sex with men and women (MSMW, 35 % of the sample) and men who have sex with men only (MSMO). Among MSMW, 93 % reported having female regular partners, 14 % had female paid partners, and all types of male partners (regular 55 %; casual 77.1 %; paying 47 %; paid 19 %). Logistic regression revealed that MSMW had higher odds of being aged 26 years and above (AOR 4.45, 95 % CI 3.66-5.42), lower odds of inconsistently using condoms with male partners (AOR 0.82, 95 % CI 0.67-0.98) and lower odds of having kothi (feminine/mostly receptive) identity (AOR 0.07, 95 % CI 0.06-0.09). HIV intervention exposure and HIV/STI prevalence did not differ significantly between MSMW and MSMO (HIV 13.1 vs. 12.2 %; active syphilis 3.5 vs. 3.1 %, respectively). Concurrent sexual partnerships with men and women pose risk of HIV transmission/acquisition for MSM and their male and female partners. All subgroups of MSM require tailored information and skills to consistently use condoms with different types of partners of either gender.

  13. [Discrimination perceived by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenic disorders. INternational study of DIscrimination and stiGma Outcomes (INDIGO): French results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumerie, N; Vasseur Bacle, S; Giordana, J-Y; Bourdais Mannone, C; Caria, A; Roelandt, J-L

    2012-06-01

    The INDIGO study (INternational study of DIscrimination and stiGma Outcomes) aims at assessing the impact of schizophrenic disorders diagnosis on privacy, social and professional life, in terms of discrimination. In the general population, and even among health and social professionals, erroneous negative stereotypes (double personality, dangerosity) lead to high social distance. And this has an impact on various parts of daily life: employment, housing, compliance, self-esteem… About a tenth of the adult population suffers from mental disorders at any one time. These disorders now account for about 12% of the global impact of disability, and this will rise to 15% by the year 2020. People living with schizophrenia, for example, experience reduced social participation, whilst public images of mental illness and social reactions add a dimension of suffering, which has been described as a "second illness". Stigmatizing attitudes and discriminatory behavior among the general population against people with severe mental illness are common in all countries. Globally, little is known of effective interventions against stigma. It is clear that the negative effects of stigma can act as formidable barriers to active recovery. The INDIGO study intends to establish detailed international data on how stigma and discrimination affect the lives of people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The first aim of the INDIGO study is to conduct qualitative and quantitative interviews with 25 people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in each participating site, to elicit information on how the condition affects their everyday lives, with a focus upon sites in Europe. The second is to gather data for all participating countries on the laws, policies and regulations which set a clear distinction between people with a diagnosis of mental illness and others, to establish an international profile of such discrimination. A new scale (Discrimination and Stigma Scale [DISC]), used in a face

  14. Abdülhak Hamit Tarhan’ın Kürsî-i İstiğrâk Şiirine Estetik Bir Bakış An Overview Of Aesthetic Abdulhak Hamit Tarhan Kürsî-i İstiğrâk Poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulaş BİNGÖL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The theme of poem of Kürsî-i Istiğrâk written by Abdülhak Hamit Tarhan is nature that subject to obtain the philosophy of art from past to present. Looking at the history of art, one of the most processed issues are human and the other nature. Abdülhak Hamit receptions theelements of nature with aestheticism, and takes into categories such asthe aesthetic elements of the sublime and beautiful. Nature is decor andornaments in Divan Literature becomes a resource aesthetic objects inAbdülhak Hamit poems. Hamit asserts as elements in natureconsidered a poem such as the nature form that the work of art. Hereceptions such as measure, musicality and harmony of the elements ofthe art of poetry from nature. Aesthetic analysis of a work of art madewithin the framework aesthetic object, aesthetic subject, aestheticperception, aesthetic value and judgment. Analysis of material that thelanguage of literary products is more complex and laborious task otherworks of art aesthetic analysis. To knowledge the genius psychologicalstate of bringing the body text, to determine philosophical ideaspermeated the fabric of the text and the most importantly connectionsbetween the text and the establishment of the aesthetic discipline isessential. The aim of this study is to evaluate the aesthetic point ofAbdülhak Hamit Kürsî-i Istiğrâk poem. Abdülhak Hamit Tarhan’nın Kürsî-i İstiğrâk adlı manzumesinin konusu, sanat felsefesinin geçmişten günümüze üzerinde durduğu tabiattır. Sanat tarihine bakıldığında, en fazla işlenen iki konudan biri insandır diğeri ise tabiattır. Abdülhak Hamit, tabiattaki unsurları estetize ederek alımlar ve bu unsurları yüce, güzel gibi estetik kategoriler çerçevesinde ele alır. Divan edebiyatında dekor ve süs olan tabiat, Abdülhak Hamit’in şiirlerinde estetik objelerin bulunduğu bir kaynağa dönüşür. Hamit, tabiattaki unsurları birer şiir olarak telakki ederek tabiatın da sanat eseri gibi

  15. Programme coverage, condom use and STI treatment among FSWs in a large-scale HIV prevention programme: results from cross-sectional surveys in 22 districts in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Gautam, Abhishek; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Kallam, Srinivasan; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Mainkar, Mandar K; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Morineau, Guy; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2010-02-01

    This paper evaluates Avahan programme's coverage of female sex workers (FSWs), focus on high-risk FSWs and intermediate outcomes. First round of cross-sectional survey data, Integrated Behavioral and Biological Assessments (IBBA), conducted in 22 districts, were aggregated into district categories: Solo, where Avahan was the sole service provider covering all FSWs and Major or Minor where Avahan was not the sole provider, but intended coverage was >50% or or=15 clients in the past week had a higher chance of being exposed to core services (AOR=1.56; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.35). Exposure to the three services in Solo Avahan districts was significantly associated with correct knowledge on condom use (AOR=1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.78), consistent condom use with occasional clients (AOR=3.17; 95% CI 2.17 to 4.63) and regular clients (AOR=2.47; 95% CI 1.86 to 3.28) and STI treatment-seeking behaviour (AOR=3.00; 95% CI 1.94 to 4.65). Higher coverage of FSWs was achieved in districts where Avahan was the only intervention compared with districts having multiple and longstanding non-Avahan programmes. Exposure in Solo districts was associated with intermediate outcomes; this need to be further evaluated in comparison with non Avahan areas and substantiated through data from next IBBA.

  16. Estimating prevalence trends in adult gonorrhoea and syphilis in low- and middle-income countries with the Spectrum-STI model: results for Zimbabwe and Morocco from 1995 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenromp, Eline L; Mahiané, Guy; Rowley, Jane; Nagelkerke, Nico; Abu-Raddad, Laith; Ndowa, Francis; El-Kettani, Amina; El-Rhilani, Houssine; Mayaud, Philippe; Chico, R Matthew; Pretorius, Carel; Hecht, Kendall; Wi, Teodora

    2017-12-01

    To develop a tool for estimating national trends in adult prevalence of sexually transmitted infections by low- and middle-income countries, using standardised, routinely collected programme indicator data. The Spectrum-STI model fits time trends in the prevalence of active syphilis through logistic regression on prevalence data from antenatal clinic-based surveys, routine antenatal screening and general population surveys where available, weighting data by their national coverage and representativeness. Gonorrhoea prevalence was fitted as a moving average on population surveys (from the country, neighbouring countries and historic regional estimates), with trends informed additionally by urethral discharge case reports, where these were considered to have reasonably stable completeness. Prevalence data were adjusted for diagnostic test performance, high-risk populations not sampled, urban/rural and male/female prevalence ratios, using WHO's assumptions from latest global and regional-level estimations. Uncertainty intervals were obtained by bootstrap resampling. Estimated syphilis prevalence (in men and women) declined from 1.9% (95% CI 1.1% to 3.4%) in 2000 to 1.5% (1.3% to 1.8%) in 2016 in Zimbabwe, and from 1.5% (0.76% to 1.9%) to 0.55% (0.30% to 0.93%) in Morocco. At these time points, gonorrhoea estimates for women aged 15-49 years were 2.5% (95% CI 1.1% to 4.6%) and 3.8% (1.8% to 6.7%) in Zimbabwe; and 0.6% (0.3% to 1.1%) and 0.36% (0.1% to 1.0%) in Morocco, with male gonorrhoea prevalences 14% lower than female prevalence. This epidemiological framework facilitates data review, validation and strategic analysis, prioritisation of data collection needs and surveillance strengthening by national experts. We estimated ongoing syphilis declines in both Zimbabwe and Morocco. For gonorrhoea, time trends were less certain, lacking recent population-based surveys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  17. Leucocyte esterase dip-stick test as a point-of-care diagnostic for urogenital chlamydia in male patients: A multi-center evaluation in two STI outpatient clinics in Paramaribo and Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menne Bartelsman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Point-of-care (POC tests are an important strategy to address the epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. The leucocyte esterase test (LET can be used as a POC test for chlamydia. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the LET to detect urogenital chlamydia among men at STI clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Methods Recruitment of patients took place in 2008–2010 in Suriname and in 2009–2010 in the Netherlands. Urine of patients was examined with the LET. The reference test was a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. Results We included 412 patients in Suriname and 645 in the Netherlands. Prevalence of chlamydia in Suriname and the Netherlands was respectively 22.8 and 13.6 %. The sensitivity of the LET was 92.6 % (95 % CI = 85.3–97.0 and 77.3 % (95 % CI = 67.1–85.5 respectively, the specificity was 38.1 % (95 % CI = 32.7–43.6 % and 58.1 % (95 % CI = 53.9–62.3 respectively. The positive predictive value was 30.6 % (95 % CI = 27.3–36.4 and 22.6 % (95 % CI = 18.0–27.7 respectively and the negative predictive value was 94.5 % (95 % CI = 89.1–97.8 and 94.2 % (95 % CI = 91.1–96.4 respectively. The kappa was respectively 0.179 and 0.176. Conclusions To diagnose urogenital chlamydia in men the LET performs poorly. It has a high negative but low positive predictive value. If the LET result is negative, chlamydia is accurately excluded, yet a positive result has a low predictive value. Whether the advantages of direct management based on LET outweigh the disadvantages of overtreatment is a subject for further studies.

  18. Patent medicine vendors, community pharmacists and STI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Participants were recruited with convenience sampling based on their willingness to participate in the study and our judgement of their professional competence. They were administered a semi-structured questionnaire, which was modelled after McCracken's long interview. We empirically assessed the validity of ...

  19. STI/DOE Solar decathlon- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, Gregory [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-04-14

    Team Orange successfully designed and constructed a house driven by new design concepts and technical innovations that harmonize with Southern California’s lifestyle and respect its cultural heritage. The basic elements of our 2015 proposal can be summarized as follows: Increased emphasis on the passive solar design concept, with a visually stimulating design that enhances the Southern California lifestyle; Use of design and construction techniques to create a market-ready home for an efficient and affordable lifestyle; Integrated use of new technology to create a behavior-adaptive smart home; A zero net energy house complying with the Living Building philosophy; and compliance with all DOE Solar Decathlon requirements.

  20. Intervención sobre ITS/VIH/sida en adolescentes pertenecientes a dos consultorios del policlínico "Plaza" Intervention on STI/HIV/AIDS in adolescents who belong to two medical practices of the polyclinic Plaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Luis Fadragas Fernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: se observa en el mundo una tendencia ascendente en el padecimiento de las infecciones de transmisión sexual, debido al comienzo de las relaciones sexuales a edades cada vez más tempranas. Objetivo: incrementar el nivel de información acerca de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Métodos: se realizó un estudio experimental de intervención, sobre ITS/VIH/sida en un grupo de adolescentes pertenecientes a dos consultorios. De un universo de 125 adolescentes se seleccionó una muestra de 70 de ellos. Se aplicó una encuesta previa al programa de intervención, luego se implementó el curso y después se aplicó nuevamente el cuestionario. Resultados: inicialmente 65 adolescentes (92,8 %, respondieron tener información sobre el tema tratado, y después de la intervención se elevó a un 100 %. Dentro de las fuentes de obtención de la información, la familia fue la más identificada por 47 encuestados (67,1 % y después de la intervención por 67 (95,7 %. Al analizar los grupos de edades a los que afectan las infecciones de transmisión sexual, 62 encuestados (88,5 %, identificaron que puede ser a todas las edades y después se elevó a 64 (91,4 %. Con respecto a la eficacia en el uso del condón para evitar las infecciones de transmisión sexual, al comienzo respondieron afirmativamente 41 (58,5 % y luego se elevó a un 100 %. Conclusiones: en primera instancia los adolescentes conocían muy poco sobre algunos de los aspectos estudiados, y después de impartido el curso, se observó un aumento del conocimiento sobre estas enfermedades en sentido general.Introduction: There is an upward trend in the world related to sexually transmitted infections, due to the onset of sexual intercourse at increasingly early ages. Objective: to increase the level of information about sexually transmitted diseases. Methods: An experimental study intervention was carried out on STI/HIV/AIDS in a group of teenagers from two medical practices

  1. Comportamientos de riesgo de ITS/SIDA en adolescentes trabajadores de hoteles de Puerto Vallarta y su asociación con el ambiente laboral STI/AIDS-related practices and occupational risk factors in adolescent hotel workers in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettylu Rasmussen-Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Explorar comportamientos de riesgo de ITS/ SIDA de adolescentes trabajadores de hoteles de Puerto Vallarta, México, y su asociación con el ambiente laboral. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, comparativo, en una población de 288 adolescentes trabajadores durante 1998 en 38 hoteles de Puerto Vallarta. Variables: condición laboral, situación ambiental, comportamiento de riesgo de ITS/SIDA, características sociodemográficas. Estadísticas descriptivas, asociativas y predictivas: t test, RM y regresión logística. RESULTADOS: Edad promedio 17.7 años; 71.5% hombres; activos sexualmente 53%; con uno o más comportamientos de riesgo de ITS/SIDA, (93.6%: nunca o raramente usa condón (77.3.1%; beber antes de relaciones sexuales (41%; promiscuidad (29.9%, y relaciones anales (9.2%. Factores asociados: percibir el ambiente estimulante para relaciones sexuales (RM 2.36; beber antes de coito: compañeros (RM 2.52 y huéspedes (RM 2.60; norma de poder invitar huéspedes al cuarto (RM 4.46; Variables confusoras: género masculino (RM 3.14, casados o en unión libre (RM 21.19 y 18-19 años (RM 3.11. CONCLUSIONES: Hay alta frecuencia de comportamiento de riesgo de ITS/SIDA, asociados con algunos factores ambientales.OBJECTIVE: To assess STI/AIDS risk behaviors and occupational risk factors among adolescent hotel workers in Puerto Vallarta. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Comparative cross-sectional study conducted in 1998, among 288 workers adolescents of 38 hotels in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. Variables were collected on working conditions, environmental conditions, STI/AIDS risk behaviors, and sociodemographic characteristics. Statistical analysis consisted of descriptive and multivariate techniques: t test, OR, and logistic regression. RESULTS: Study subjects had a mean age of 17.7 years; 71.5% were males. Fifty-three percent had active sexual relations; 93.6% of them had one or more STI/AIDS risk behaviors. Inadequate condom use was found in

  2. Redescription, systematic status and molecular characterisation of Multicaecum heterotis Petter, Vassiliadès et Marchand, 1979 (Nematoda: Heterocheilidae), an intestinal parasite of Heterotis niloticus (Osteichthyes: Arapaimidae) in Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašová, Š.; Moravec, František; Baruš, V.; Seifertová, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2010), s. 280-288 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GD526/09/H025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * Brevimulticaecum * Multicaecum * Senegal * Sudan * Africa * Heterotis * barcoding * 18S rDNA sequences * ITS2 sequences Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010

  3. El sexo recompensado: una práctica en el centro de las vulnerabilidades (ITS/VIH/SIDA de las jóvenes mexicanas Compensated sex: a practice at the heart of young Mexican women's vulnerabilities (STI/HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lise Théodore

    2004-04-01

    economic benefits, young girls disguise it as "courtship" and subject themselves to rules and behaviors that restrain them in terms of condom use and expose them to sexually transmitted infections (STI. CONCLUSIONS:Although CS itself may not necessarily constitute a risky practice, the courtship context in which young women tend to develop these practices exposes them to a greater risk of STIs.

  4. Inclusive planning in transport and energy STI-policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Hansen, Meiken; Selin, Cynthia Lea

    2017-01-01

    Transition to a more sustainable and fossil-free energy system is of global interest, and implies social challenges for the developed world including the European Union. In particular, the energy consumption related to transport constitutes a significant challenge. If not serious changes are made...... of securing a more sustainable and fossil-free energy system. Furthermore, responsible research and innovation should take into account both the required changes in all citizens’ daily life due to this transition as well as the driving force of grassroot innovation movements....

  5. Towards modern STI policy-making in Estonia / Marek Tiits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiits, Marek

    2003-01-01

    Autor arutleb rahvusliku tehnoloogia-, innovatsiooni- ja teaduspoliitika vajalikkuse üle ning leiab, et Eesti majanduslik areng peaks tulevikus põhinema eelkõige hariduse, teaduse ja innovatsiooni kvaliteedi tõstmisel

  6. Pengaruh Jenis Inokulum terhadap Produksi Asam Sti'rat

    OpenAIRE

    Nugrahani, Arsa Wahyu; Rinihapsari, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus Niger is the highest citric acid producer. It will be better if other species like yeast can also produce citric acid faster and greater. Mold and yeast were inoculated in medium containing glucose as carbon source. Medium was shaked 7 x 24 hours where every 24 hours some medium sample was taken to measure citric acid concentration using volumetric method with neutral reaction. The data was analysed using two way anova. The result showed that yeast produced citric acid but not mor...

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Neisseria gonorrhoeae at STI clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpee C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 100 consecutive patients who attended a sexually transmitted infections clinic were studied. Thirteen had gonococcal urethritis, of which 10 showed growth of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on culture. All the isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP method and beta lactamase production by chromogenic cephalosporin test. Four patients were co-infected with each of the following: HIV, HBV and Chlamydia trachomatis . Gonococcal urethritis (13% was found more in male patients. Ten percent gonococcal isolates were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae , and another 10% were tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae .

  8. Kõvad kivid ei jahvata hästi / Andres Herkel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Herkel, Andres, 1962-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Meie Maa, 18. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Nädaline, 18. nov. 2004, lk. 4; Virumaa Teataja, 19. nov. 2004, lk. 7; Hiiu Leht, 19. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Põhjarannik, 20. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 20. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Koit, 20. nov. 2004, lk. 6; Vali Uudised, 24. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Infoleht, dets. 2004, lk. 6. Vastasseisust Keskerakonna ja valitsuskoalitsiooni parteide vahel 2005. aasta riigieelarve eelnõu lugemisel Riigikogus

  9. STI precention in Local Public Health: from theory to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.G. Wolfers (Mireille)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) have been recognized as a major public health problem for many years. It is estimated that, worldwide, over 340 million new cases of curable STIs – syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomonas – occur every year in men and women aged 15-49 years.

  10. Siddhameditsiin : hästi hoitud saladus / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2013-01-01

    Vestlusest Šveitsis elava siddhatohtri Gitanjali Azariah-Theleniga Indias elavate tamilite filosoofiast kui ka loodusmeditsiinist, mille õpetused on kirja pandud Tamil Nadu osariigi templites asuvates iidsetes tamilikeelsetes ürikutes

  11. Elage kaua ja hästi / Robert J. Shiller

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shiller, Robert J., 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Inimese elu pikkus sõltub majandusest ja vastupidi. Pikaealisusega kaasnevad ka suuremad riskid, millega on hakanud tegelema finantsturud. Euroopa Investeerimispanga koostööst erapanga BNP Paribasega maailma esimese pikaealisuse võlakirja väljaandmisest

  12. A Learning Collaborative Approach to Improve Primary Care STI Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, M Diane; Alderman, Elizabeth; York, Deborah V; Blank, Arthur E; Briggs, Rahil D; Hoidal, Kelsey E S; Kus, Christopher; Lechuga, Claudia; Mann, Marie; Meissner, Paul; Patel, Nisha; Racine, Andrew D

    2017-10-01

    The Bronx Ongoing Pediatric Screening (BOPS) project sought to improve screening for sexual activity and sexually transmitted infections (gonorrhea and chlamydia [GCC] and HIV) in a primary care network, employing a modified learning collaborative, real-time clinical data feedback to practices, improvement coaching, and a pay-for-quality monetary incentive. Outcomes are compared for 11 BOPS-participating sites and 10 non-participating sites. The quarterly median rate for documenting sexual activity status increased from 55% to 88% (BOPS sites) and from 13% to 74% (non-BOPS sites). GCC screening of sexually active youth increased at BOPS and non-BOPS sites. Screening at non-health care maintenance visits improved more at BOPS than non-BOPS sites. Data from nonparticipating sites suggests that introduction of an adolescent EMR template or other factors improved screening rates regardless of BOPS participation; BOPS activities appear to promote additional improvement of screening during non-health maintenance visits.

  13. Research on "STI +" Model in College Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Maike; Xu, Shuo; Gu, Jibao

    2017-01-01

    The current state attaches great importance to college entrepreneurship education, but entrepreneurship education should combine with college students' professional learning. Different professional learning backgrounds have commonalities in entrepreneurship education; there may be differences, too. Various professional knowledge background and…

  14. Ösel Foods paindub turul hästi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Ösel Foods AS-i juhatuse esimees Kuldar Leis tutvustab ettevõtte tegevust, tootearendust ja müügistrateegiat ning võrdleb eestlaste maitsmismeelt ja tarbimisharjumusi naaberriikidega. Kommenteerib Põltsamaa Felix AS-i juhatuse esimees Andres Koern

  15. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2014 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2014 award winner, The Solberg Company, replaced fluorinated surfactants in its firefighting foam concentrates with a blend of non-fluorinated surfactants and sugars.

  16. Caracterización del nivel de información sobre ITS/VIH/sida en adolescentes de la escuela secundaria básica "José Luis Arruñada" Characterization of the information level on sexual transmission infection (STI/HIV/aids in adolescents of the "José Luis Arruñada" basic secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Fadragas Fernández

    2012-03-01

    for Prevention and Control of sexual transmission infections and HIV/AIDS was started from 1986 with the fundamental objective of avoid that process of infection-disease became a significant health problem for Cuba population. Objective: to characterize the level of information that on STI/HIV/AIDS have the adolescents from the "José Luis Arruñada" Basic School of the Plaza municipality during 2009. Methods: a descriptive and observational study was conducted in a group of adolescents. Universe includes 180 of them, applying the study to a sample including 121 participants to know their level of information on the study diseases, y application of a questionnaire. Results: a total of 115 adolescents had knowledges on sexual transmission infections(STI for a 95.04 %, the more recognized information sources were the family in 112 for a 92.56 % and the school in 75 for 61.98 %. The more identified STIs by them were: HIV/AIDS 116 for a 95.86 %, gonorrhea 108 for a 85.25 % and syphilis 101 for a 83.47 % and the less recognized were the vaginalis gardnerella 4, soft chancre 11, chlamydia 13, monilia 19 and trichomoniasis 26 for a 3.30 %, 9.09 %, 10.74 %, 15.70 % and a 21.48 %, respectively. From the polled adolescents 51 considered the possibilities of sexual transmission infections are significant in the oral sex, for a 41,14 %, 119 polled adolescents declared to have notions on the safe intercourse for a 98.34 % and included in the variants was the use of condom. Conclusions: the adolescents had a suitable level of information on some of the study diseases.

  17. The racial disparities in STI in the U.S.: Concurrency, STI prevalence, and heterogeneity in partner selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deven T. Hamilton

    2015-06-01

    Results: After controlling for demographic attributes including age, sex, marital status, education and health care access there remained a strong association between race and chlamydia status (OR = 5.23, 95% CI [3.83–7.15], p  .05 for Non-Hispanic Blacks.

  18. Psychiatric patients' return for HIV/STI test results in mental health centers Devolución de los resultados de exámenes serológicos de VIH/ITS entre pacientes psiquiátricos en los servicios de salud mental Devolução dos resultados de exames sorológicos de HIV/IST entre pacientes psiquiátricos nos serviços de saúde mental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Souto Melo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess individual and/or health service factors associated with patients returning for results of HIV or sexually transmitted infection (STI tests in mental health centers. METHODS: Cross-sectional national multicenter study among 2,080 patients randomly selected from 26 Brazilian mental health centers in 2007. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the effect of individual (level 1 and mental health service characteristics (level 2 on receipt of test results. RESULTS: The rate of returning HIV/STI test results was 79.6%. Among health service characteristics examined, only condom distribution was associated with receiving HIV/STI test results, whereas several individual characteristics were independently associated including living in the same city where treatment centers are; being single; not having heard of AIDS; and not having been previously HIV tested. CONCLUSIONS: It is urgent to expand HIV/STI testing in health services which provide care for patients with potentially increased vulnerability to these conditions, and to promote better integration between mental health and health services.OBJETIVO: Analizar factores asociados a la recepción de resultados de exámenes serológicos para VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS entre pacientes psiquiátricos. MÉTODOS: Estudio de corte transversal multicéntrico nacional de 2.080 participantes seleccionados aleatoriamente entre 26 instituciones brasileñas de salud mental en 2007. El efecto del individuo (nivel 1 y de los servicios de salud mental (nivel 2 en la recepción de los resultados de los exámenes fue evaluado utilizándose regresión logística multinivel. RESULTADOS: La proporción de retorno de los resultados de exámenes VIH/ITS fue 79,6%. Entre las características individuales, hubo asociación del desenlace con: vivir en la misma ciudad donde se encontraban los servicios, ser soltero, no haber escuchado hablar sobre el sida, y no haber

  19. At være eller ikke at være

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Jon Helt

    2010-01-01

    ERLEND LOE OG PETTER AMUNDSEN: EKSPEDITION SHAKESPEARE (Oversat fra norsk af Michael Lambæk Nielsen) 420 sider, 299 kr.Gyldendal Er udkommet To stjerner......ERLEND LOE OG PETTER AMUNDSEN: EKSPEDITION SHAKESPEARE (Oversat fra norsk af Michael Lambæk Nielsen) 420 sider, 299 kr.Gyldendal Er udkommet To stjerner...

  20. Mati Vanni firma Neoqi paneb USAs saunad püsti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Ärimees Mati Vanni firma Neoqi saunakomplekse Cube paigaldatakse tänavu mitmesse USA firma KWC America salongi, seni on Neoqi lõõgastusseadmeid müüdud rohkem kui 50 riiki. USA firma Sybaritic hagist Neoqi vastu ja Neoqi avaldusest Sybariticu tegevuse kohta, saavutatud leppest

  1. How Can Pharmacists Support STI Prevention and Treatment Among Female Adolescents and Young Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunmilola Abraham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual and reproductive health is a critical focus area for adolescents and young adults (AYAs. Of the 20 million newly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs annually, nearly half of them are contracted by young people between the ages of 15 to 24. It has become increasingly necessary to improve awareness and prevention of STIs during adolescent years. The knowledge gained through appropriately relevant sexual and reproductive health education may persist as adolescents transition into adulthood. Community pharmacists interact with AYAs frequently and are therefore well positioned to engage this vulnerable population in conversations about their sexual and reproductive health through use innovative and interactive technologies. For instance, mobile applications are easily accessible to AYAs and can allow pharmacists to disseminate relevant medication information to smartphone users that download adolescent-tailored mobile applications. Although many medication adherence apps are currently available on the market, none of these apps are tailored towards sexual reproductive health information for female AYAs. A mobile-based program designed to provide a pharmacist-guided sexual and reproductive health education to female AYAs may help to address the lapses in current adolescent-aged school health classes. In the future, usage of this intervention would improve the accuracy and comprehension of female adolescents and young adults’ awareness and knowledge of their sexual and reproductive health. As a result, further research should be conducted to develop mobile applications conducive to adolescent and young adults to address sexual and reproductive health issues. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.   Type: Idea Paper

  2. Introducing new diagnostics into STI control programmes: the importance of programme science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Rosanna W; Mabey, David; Ballard, Ronald C

    2013-03-01

    Many innovative diagnostic technologies will become commercially available over the next 5-10 years. These tests can potentially transform the diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections but their introduction into control programmes can be hampered by health system constraints, and political, cultural, socioeconomic and behavioural factors. We used the introduction of syphilis rapid tests to illustrate the importance of programme science to address the gap between accruing evidence of acceptable test performance and the complexity of programme design, implementation and evaluation of test deployment to address public health needs and improve patient-important outcomes.

  3. Raskustes Onistari tennisehall saab rahasüsti / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Rootsi investeerimisfondide haldusfirma Askembla Asset Management investeerib Onistari tennisehalli 20 miljonit krooni, kuhu rajab veekompleksi ja Eesti ühe suurema jõusaali. Lisa: Konkurent: julge ettevõtmine

  4. Tee teistele head, kuid tee seda hästi / Jeff Skoll ; interv. Des Dearlove

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Skoll, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti : Karjera i obutshenije, 18. aug. 2004, lk. 6-7. Ameerika interneti-oksjonifirma eBay rajaja Jeff Skoll selgitab oma ettevõtte näitel sotsiaalse ettevõtluse olemust ning prognoosib selle populaarsuse kasvu tulevikus

  5. Ichtyofauna střední části Vlašimské Blanice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanel, L.; Lusk, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2009), s. 43-61 ISSN 0487-5648 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : ichtyofauna * abundance * electrofishing * River Blanice Vlašimská (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic) * Blaník Protected Landscape Area Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Eesti filmil läks hästi Karlovy Vary festivalil / Marianne Kõrver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõrver, Marianne, 1980-

    2006-01-01

    Lühimängufilm "Tühirand", režissöör Veiko Õunpuu, osales Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali "Forum of Independents" programmis. 41. Karlovy Vary filmifestivali avas Korea režissööri Kim Ki-duki "Aeg". Lühidalt ka auhinnatutest ja huvitavamatest filmidest

  7. Characterization of HIV Recent Infection Among High-Risk Men at Public STI Clinics in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hong-Ha M; Fatch, Robin; Grant, Robert M; Mathur, Meenakshi; Kumta, Sameer; Jerajani, Hemangi; Kellogg, Timothy A; Lindan, Christina P

    2018-02-16

    We examined associations with HIV recent infection and estimated transmitted drug resistance (TDR) prevalence among 3345 men at sexually transmitted infection clinics in Mumbai (2002-2005). HIV seroincidence was 7.92% by the BED-CEIA and was higher at a clinic located near brothels (12.39%) than at a hospital-based clinic (3.94%). HIV recent infection was associated with a lifetime history of female sex worker (FSW) partners, HSV-2, genital warts, and gonorrhea. TDR prevalence among recent infection cases was 5.7%. HIV testing services near sex venues may enhance case detection among high-risk men who represent a bridging population between FSWs and the men's other sexual partners.

  8. The approach to sexuality in PNLD textbooks: a focus on STI/AIDS and condoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia de Souza Ladislau Filha

    Full Text Available Abstract The patent contents in textbooks are selected according to the scientific knowledge (K, values (V and social practice (P. These three variables are the elements of the educational model, KVP, developed by Clément. The aim of this study was to analyze the Sexual Education approach on textbooks, relating to STD/AIDS and condoms in 15 8th grade Science textbooks, distributed in Brazil by PNLD in 2014. The data were collected based on two analytical matrices constructed within the European Biohead-Citizen Project and analyzed using the KVP model. The results show that despite the small improvement in the type of image present in textbooks, human bodies are still presented in a sectional shape and the images found are not very enlightening regarding sexual intercourse. As for the educational style textual content, only two books were classified in informative and participative category, aspect that indicates limitations on the openness to dialogue about sexuality in most of the analyzed books.

  9. sti restaureeritud raekoda sai Euroopast kõrge tunnustuse / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna raekoda sai Euroopa Liidu ja Euroopa pärandkultuuri organisatsiooni Europa Nostra kultuuripärandi medali. Europa Nostra nõukogu liikme Karin Hallas-Murula sõnul arvestatakse auhindade jagamisel nii mälestise säilitamist kui ka kasutamist tänapäeval. Mainekas auhind on tunnustus Teddy Böcklerile, kellele raekoja restaureerimine oli elutööks. Lisatud Europa Nostra peapreemiad

  10. Festival "Maailmafilm" sobib hästi akadeemilise vaimuga linna / Kadri Rannamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rannamäe, Kadri

    2008-01-01

    V festivali "Maailmafilm", mis algab 24. märtsil Eesti Rahva Muuseumi näitusemajas Tartus, tutvustavad muuseumi direktor Kristjan Raba ja festivali tegevjuht Taavi Tatsi. Esilinastub Liivo Niglase, Diane Perlovi ja Frode Storaasi "Kalarahvas". Kavas on ka eriprogrammid: kirjanikud filmis, klassiku Timothy Aschi filmid Amazonase indiaanlastest ja filmid inimesest linnas

  11. Sexual Health—Get Involved: A Kinesthetic Learning Experience of STI Transmission and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Patel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OFSTED repeatedly finds the teaching of sexually transmitted infections in secondary schools ‘inadequate’ across the UK (3. This is thought to be due to a number of reasons, including the fact that staff teaching this topic feel inadequately prepared and not knowledgeable enough to do so (4. In 2010, over half of newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs in England were within patients aged 16-24 years (2. This could be the result of a lack of mandatory, quality sexual health education in schools, combined with larger scale social issues. Young females, in particular, reported feelings of shame when visiting sexual health clinics which on occasion may compel them to lie about their sexual history to a practitioner in order to protect a ‘fragile sexual reputation’(1. In response to the recommendations of FPA and the aforementioned public health statistics, this session was developed to improve student understanding of sexual health and of the risks associated with different sexual behaviors. Another aim was, by integrating information about the importance of regular sexual health check-ups into sexual health education in schools, to reduce the associated feelings of shame across the young female population. The activity was carried out with two classes of Year 12 students (16-17 years in an independent school in the London borough of Lewisham. The session builds on education about STIs, which is part of the national science curriculum, and extends concepts about transmission to the most common STIs prevalent within the population aged 16-24.

  12. Kultuurikatel või Linnateater - meer laseb rahasüsti saaja rahval valida / Kertu Kalmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalmus, Kertu

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna linnapea Edgar Savisaar algatas internetis allkirjade kogumise aktsiooni, mille tulemuse põhjal otsustatakse järgmise aasta linnaeelarve panus Linnateatri või Kultuurikatla valmimisse aastal 2011

  13. STI for Development in Asia : a Platform for Information Sharing and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le CRDI lance un nouveau projet dans la région de l'ANASE. L'honorable Chrystia Freeland, ministre du Commerce international, a annoncé le lancement d'un nouveau projet financé par le Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI). Voir davantageLe CRDI lance un nouveau projet dans la région ...

  14. Type-specific human papillomavirus infections among young heterosexual male and female STI clinic attendees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Henrike J; Boot, Hein J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Rossen, John

    BACKGROUND: Baseline genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence rates and associated risk factors per gender enable future assessment of the impact of vaccination on HPV dynamics. METHODS: Before the start of national HPV vaccination for girls, data were collected cross-sectionally in

  15. Uhke ooberst von Stauffenberg põrus hästi suurelt / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2009-01-01

    Bryan Singeri mängufilm "Operatsioon "Valküür"" ("Valkyrie"), peaosas Tom Cruise. Film räägib Claus von Stauffenbergi (1907-1944) poolt juhitud operatsioonist, mille eesmärgiks oli atendaat Adolf Hitlerile

  16. Monografija rinkos paklausos vertinimo ir prognozavimo problemoms spręsti

    OpenAIRE

    Simanavičienė, Žaneta

    2004-01-01

    The topic of the monograph is significant both from theoretical and practical points of view. Assessment and forecasting of competitive market demand depend on forecasting methodological aspects and its susceptibility to various factors reflecting structural and macro-environmental characteristics within a market economy. The monograph consists of four parts. The first part gives a definition and makes an assessment as well as describes economic aspects of forecasting competitive market deman...

  17. First case of chancroid in 14 years at the largest STI clinic in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouéré, Sébastien; Lassau, François; Rousseau, Clotilde; Bagot, Martine; Janier, Michel

    2016-08-01

    We report the first case of chancroid seen at our clinic in 14 years. It was diagnosed by nuclear acid amplification test in a male patient returning from Madagascar. Although the disease is considered on the verge of disappearance even in tropical countries, its real potential for reemergence - due to new strains of Haemophilus ducreyi, underreporting and a lack of widespread use of molecular testing - could be underestimated. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Ekspert : klaas Vabadussamba valmistamiseks eriti hästi ei kõlba / Mari Kodres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kodres, Mari

    2008-01-01

    Tallinnasse Harjumäele ja Islandi väljakule kavandatavate mälestusmärkide klaaslahendusest. Islandi väljakule on kavas avada vastupanu mälestusmärk "Murtud müür", autorid Kuulo Vahter, Ivo Lill ja Ain Rööpson. Kommenteerivad Meeli Kõiva ja klaasiinsener Aulis Bertin Soomest

  19. Scientific and Technical Information (STI) for Financial Assistance and Non-M&O/M&I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGrandeur, John [BSST, LLC, Irwindale, CA (United States); Crane, Doug [BSST, LLC, Irwindale, CA (United States)

    2012-07-02

    BSST (hereafter referred to as Amerigon) began work in November 2004 under a cost share contract [1] awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy Freedom Car Office to develop a high efficiency Thermoelectric Waste Energy Recovery System for passenger vehicle applications. The system increases fuel economy by partially replacing the electric power produced by the alternator with electric power produced by conversion of exhaust gas in a Thermoelectric Generator (TEG). Amerigon’s team members included the BMW Group and Ford Motor Company, with both OEMs demonstrating the TEG system in their vehicles in the final program phase. Significant progress was made in modeling, building and testing the TEG system from the lowest subassembly levels through an entire vehicle system. By the program’s conclusion, the team had successfully overcome the challenges of integrating TE materials into an exhaust system component and evaluated the system behavior in bench and over the road testing for over six months.

  20. Styðjandi og mengandi kvenleiki innan áru kynjajafnréttis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyða Margrét Pétursdóttir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Femininity is socially constructed and takes different shapes in different social contexts. The article discusses emphasized femininity, a concept related to Connell‘s hegemonic masculinity, in the labour market and private life. The opposite of emphasized femininity is pariah femininity. Both concepts relate differently to the aura of gender equality. The aura of gender equality describes the social process, or phenomena, in which men and women convince themselves that equality reigns despite practical evidence indicating otherwise The analysis is based on an extensive qualitative research project addressing three sectors in the labour market: The City of Reykjavík workplaces, software firms, and fast-food restaurants, a supermarket and a gas station. Interviews were carried out among 48 employees and participant observations were conducted at 11 workplaces. The following question is posed: How does emphasized femininity facilitate women’s subordination? The results show that emphasized femininity is one of the prerequisites for staying within the aura of gender equality while pariah femininity contaminates the relationship between hegemonic masculinity and emphasized femininity and is therefore viewed dimly but is nevertheless able to facilitate real gender equality.

  1. Contraceptive choice and acceptability: the future for STI risk in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiely, Frances; Saifuddin, Mohammed Syafiek

    2014-03-01

    More than 150 million women become pregnant in developing countries annually and an estimated 287,000 die from pregnancy-related causes. Contraception is vital to prevent unnecessary maternal deaths, as well as sexually transmitted infections. The objective of this study was to investigate preferred contraceptive methods and the factors that influence contraceptive choice among women in Kelantan, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study using interview-based questionnaires was conducted, during July and August 2009, in local family planning clinics in Kelantan. The questionnaire was administered to adult women (age 20-50). Prevalence of unplanned pregnancies was high (48%). Contraceptive preference was Depo contraceptive injection (32%), oral contraceptive pills (27%), intrauterine devices (15%) and contraceptive implants (12%); 9% used condoms. Only 2% used contraception to protect against sexually transmitted infections or HIV/AIDS. Younger women (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.807-0.993) were more likely to use contraception. In conclusion, non-interrupted contraceptive methods were preferred. More than 60% would stop using contraception if it interrupted intercourse. From both a public health and infectious disease perspective, this is extremely worrying.

  2. Erinevalt paljudest läheb Bermanil hästi / Fjodor Berman ; interv. Sulev Vedler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berman, Fjodor, 1951-

    2008-01-01

    BLRT juht vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad firma tänavust seisu, uute strateegiliste suundade ja turgude otsimist, probleeme keevitajate hankimisega, välistööjõudu, suurimat võitu tema karjääris. Firma juht leiab, et peame olema pragmaatilisemad, tuleb vähem rääkida poliitikast ning rohkem ärist ja majandusest. Tabel

  3. Miks me peame Hiinaga hästi läbi saama? / Mart Nutt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nutt, Mart, 1962-

    2011-01-01

    Autor märgib, et iseseisvunud Eesti võttis viivitamatult omaks pragmaatilise reaalpoliitika, 1991. a. septembris tunnustas Eesti ühe Hiina poliitikat. Pragmatismi ja väärtuste dilemmas jääb riikide puhul alati peale pragmatism

  4. USA kindral: liitlased panustavad hästi, eelarvetest hoolimata / Mark Hertling ; intervjueerinud Lauri Tankler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hertling, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Intervjuu õppust "Saber Strike" külastanud USA Euroopa vägede ülema kindralleitnant Mark Hertlingiga. Tema sõnul ei ole Euroopa kaitse-eelarvete vähenemine siinsete liitlaste panust kehvemaks teinud

  5. The Effects of STI Education on Korean Adolescents Using Smartphone Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sookyung; Cha, Chiyoung; Lee, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of adolescents' use of smartphone applications and educational booklets in an educational programme about sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Design: Non-equivalent control-group time-series design. Setting: The study was conducted in two public high schools located in two urban areas of…

  6. Demographic and behavioral correlates of HIV/STI among Vietnamese female sex workers in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yeon Jung; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Zhou, Yuejiao; Chen, Yi; Shen, Zhiyong

    2016-11-01

    Previous literature has suggested high rates of HIV/STIs among Chinese FSWs. However, limited data were available regarding HIV-related risks among Vietnamese FSWs - a rapidly increasing, vulnerable population in southwest China. The current study examined the demographic and behavioral factors associated with the infection rates of HIV, syphilis, and Hepatitis C (HCV) among Vietnamese FSWs in Guangxi, China. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a cumulative sample of 1026 Vietnamese FSWs (aged 14-66) recruited over five years (2010-2014) from 35 National Sentinel Surveillance sites in Guangxi. Analyses included Fisher's exact chi-square test, t-test, and binary logistic regression. The overall prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and HCV infections among the cross-border women were 3.2%, 6.9%, and 2.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that greater lengths of sex work and low paying work venues were significant risk factors for HIV infection; for syphilis infection, older age, drug use experience, and forgoing condom use were significant risk factors; for HCV infection, drug use experience was the only significant risk factor. Our findings suggest that elevated HIV-related risks among the Vietnamese FSWs are closely related to their financial disadvantages and that drug use is a prominent risk factor for cross-border women in the sex trade. Furthermore, culturally tailored and linguistically accessible HIV prevention and intervention initiatives that target cross-border FSWs, with a close international collaboration between China and Vietnam, are urgently needed.

  7. HIV and STI epidemiology in high-risk populations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Studies described in this thesis underline the need to enhance HIV testing in the Netherlands, since a large proportion of HIV-infected persons remain unaware of their infection. In particular HIV testing among ethnic minority populations and commercial sex workers should be scaled up, especially in

  8. The AGARD tip research agenda for Scientific and Technical Information (STI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blados, Walter R.

    1992-01-01

    The Research Agenda contains three themes: information management, provision of information, and access to information. Provision of information is further divided into two subordinate themes, dissemination and bibliographic control; access to information is also further divided into two subordinate themes, barriers and equity and networking. Each theme or sub-theme was examined from four possible aspects, namely, human resources, quality assurance, cost, and technology. It was concluded that, in fact, a theme or sub-theme need not contain all four aspects.

  9. Savikrohv ja sindlid saavad riigilt rahasüsti / Vilja Kohler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kohler, Vilja, 1966-

    2004-01-01

    Tartus tegutsev Ökoloogiliste Tehnoloogiate Keskus moodustas savikrohvi tootmiseks firma OÜ Clay Processing Services. Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutus (EAS) andis ettevõttele 160 000 kr stardiabi. Ettevõtja Matti Timmermann valmistab EAS-i stardiabiga ette sindlite tootmist. Lisa: Toetus alustajatele

  10. MaSTiS, microorganism and solute transport in streams, model documentation and user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-stream fate and transport of solutes and microorganisms need to be understood to evaluate suitability of waters for agricultural, recreational, and household uses and eventually minimize surface water contamination. Concerns over safety of this water resulted in development of predictive models f...

  11. A Controlled Study of an HIV/AIDS/STI/TB Intervention with Faith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to develop an HIV and AIDS training manual, and to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and management of faith healers of Apostolic churches regarding HIV and AIDS, before and after they attended an HIV and AIDS training programme. A quasi-experimental intervention design was used with faith ...

  12. Kui ei istu, siis pole vaja ka püsti tõusta / Heiki Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudla, Heiki, 1949-

    2004-01-01

    Pedagoogist ja vaimulikust August Osvald Westrén-Dollist (1882-1961). Õpetas usuõpetust ja ladina keelt Viljandi Maagümnaasiumis, Viljandi Haridusseltsi Tütarlaste Gümnaasiumis ja kohalikus Saksa Gümnaasiumis

  13. Arvustused / Aleks Lange

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lange, Aleks

    2000-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide Nils Petter Molvaer "Solid Ether", Leona Naess "Comatised", Naivity in Black II "A Tribute to Black Sabbath", Papa Roach "Infest", A Perfect Circle "Mer de Noms", Queens of the Stone Age "Rated R", "Road Trip" (soundtrack) tutvustused

  14. Pop / Mart Kalvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalvet, Mart, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Aeon Aethereal "Parasite Halls", The Bug "London Zoo", Dirty Pretty Things "Romance At Short Notice", Guillemots "Red", Four Tet "Ringer", The Fratellis "Here We Stand", Petter & The Pix "Easily Tricked", Ashanti "The Declaration", Joan as Police Woman "To Survive"

  15. Evaluating Teach One Reach One-An STI/HIV Risk-Reduction Intervention to Enhance Adult-Youth Communication About Sex and Reduce the Burden of HIV/STI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Gaurav; Ritchwood, Tiarney; Young, Tiffany L; Isler, Malika Roman; Black, Adina; Akers, Aletha Y; Gizlice, Ziya; Blumenthal, Connie; Atley, Leslie; Wynn, Mysha; Stith, Doris; Cene, Crystal; Ellis, Danny; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-11-01

    Parents and caregivers play an important role in sexual socialization of youth, often serving as the primary source of information about sex. For African American rural youth who experience disparate rates of HIV/sexually transmitted infection, improving caregiver-youth communication about sexual topics may help to reduce risky behaviors. This study assessed the impact of an intervention to improve sexual topic communication. A Preintervention-postintervention, quasi-experimental, controlled, and community-based trial. Intervention was in 2 rural North Carolina counties with comparison group in 3 adjacent counties. Participants (n = 249) were parents, caregivers, or parental figures for African American youth aged 10 to 14. Twelve-session curriculum for participating dyads. Audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess changes at 9 months from baseline in communication about general and sensitive sex topics and overall communication about sex. Multivariable models were used to examine the differences between the changes in mean of scores for intervention and comparison groups. Statistically significant differences in changes in mean scores for communication about general sex topics ( P < .0001), communication about sensitive sex topics ( P < .0001), and overall communication about sex ( P < .0001) existed. Differences in change in mean scores remained significant after adjusting baseline scores and other variables in the multivariate models. In Teach One Reach One intervention, adult participants reported improved communication about sex, an important element to support risk reduction among youth in high-prevalence areas.

  16. Prostate Dose Escalation by Innovative Inverse Planning-Driven IMRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    fLJ and at each step, we find the minimizer u,\\ of J’. The Euler-Lagrange equation for the regularized J’ functional is u- div ( 1 Vu )= f E S1,2A...GD, Agazaryan N, Solberg TD . 2003. The effects of tumor motion on planning and delivery of respiratory-gated IMRT. Med Phys 30:1052-1066. Jaffray DA...modulated) radiation therapy: a review. Phys Med Biol 51 :R403-425. Wink NM, McNitt-Gray MF, Solberg TD . 2005. Optimization of multi-slice helical

  17. Wallace'il ja Gromitil läheb hästi, isegi väga / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    PÖFFi animafilmide festivali "Animated Dreams" ja Nukufilmi 50. juubeli külaline, Bristolis asuva kuulsa Aardman stuudio asutajaid ja režissöör Peter Lord räägib oma stuudiost. Lisatud on teade konverentsi "Voodoo hing" esinejate kohta, kus peale P. Lordi on veel rohkesti rahvusvahelisi kuulsusi

  18. Predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among women at risk for HIV and STI acquisition in Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffoor, Zakir; Wand, Handan; Street, Ren?e A.; Abbai, Nathlee; Ramjee, Gita

    2016-01-01

    Background Women in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be at greater risk for HIV acquisition than men. Concurrency, viz. multiple sexual partnerships that overlap over time, has been studied as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among sexually active, HIV negative women. Methods Socio-demographic and behavioural data from women enrolled in a biomedical HIV prevention clinical trial were assessed in r...

  19. ‘Why have STI rates increased in the middle age population?’ -A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Monsell, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Background- Recent reports have shown that individuals aged 45-64 are at an increased risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection, with rates rising steadily over the last several years. Sexual health research has historically focused on the needs and behaviours of the young, with more recent interest into the needs of the older population. This has led to an interest into the literature available regarding the population in the middle of these two groups; the ‘middle age’ population...

  20. HIV rapid testing in the framework of an STI prevention project on a cohort of vulnerable Italians and immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccella, Ilaria; Petrelli, Alessio; Vescio, Maria Fenicia; De Carolis, Silvia; Fazioli, Cecilia; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Rezza, Gianni

    2017-08-01

    Uptake of HIV tests is a challenging issue in vulnerable populations including immigrants, normally using standard diagnostic tools. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the acceptability of HIV rapid test; estimate the percentage of newly HIV diagnoses and evaluate knowledge, attitudes and perception (KAP) about HIV/AIDS and other STIs in a specific set of immigrants and vulnerable population in Rome (Italy). All immigrant and Italian people, aged 16-70 years, attending the infectious disease outpatient clinic of the National Institute for Health, Migration and Poverty (INMP) in Rome (Italy), during the period December 2012 to December 2013 were enrolled. HIV rapid testing was provided for free and patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire evaluating KAP about HIV/STIs. All patients with risky sexual behaviours or with a recent diagnosis of STIs were invited to come back after 3-6 months and a post-counselling questionnaire was offered. Out of the total sample, 99.2% (n = 825) accepted the "rapid test" and 10 new HIV diagnoses were found (1.22%; 95% CI 0.58%-2.22%). Three hundred and eighty-five participants (47%) answered the entry questionnaire and 58 (15%) completed the follow-up. Overall, we found high knowledge about HIV/AIDS; however, lower educational level and immigrant status were associated with poor knowledge about HIV, other STIs and prevention methods. Immigrants have lower perception of sexual risk and higher prejudice than Italians. Our study showed high acceptance of rapid test in this specific vulnerable population and this allowed to identify new HIV diagnoses in unaware people. Socioeconomic inequalities observed in the KAP questionnaire suggest the need for actions to support the reduction of cultural differences in knowledge of HIV/AIDS and for policies aimed at improving access to health services and preventions programmes of marginalized populations.

  1. Awareness, acceptability, and use of female condoms among university students in Nigeria: implications for STI/HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin-West, Charles I; Maduka, Omosivie; Onyekwere, Victor N; Tella, Adedayo O

    2014-01-01

    Most university students in Nigeria are sexually active and engage in high risk sexual behaviors. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and use of female condoms in the context of HIV prevention in order to provide basic information that can stimulate female condom programming to promote sexually transmitted infection and HIV prevention among youths in tertiary institutions. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out among 810 undergraduate students of the University of Port Harcourt from October to November 2011, using a stratified sampling method and self-administered questionnaires. Most of the students, 589 (72.7%) were sexually active; 352 (59.7%) reported having just one sexual partner, while 237 (40.3%) had multiple partners. The mean number of sexual partners in the past six months was 2.2 ± 0. Consistent condom use was reported among 388 (79.2%) students, 102 (20.8%) reported occasional usage, while 99 (16.8%) did not use condoms at all. Only 384 (65.2%) of the students had ever been screened for HIV. Although 723 (89.3%) were aware of female condoms, only 64(8.9%) had ever used one due to unavailability, high cost, and difficulty with its insertion. Nevertheless, 389 (53.8%) of the students expressed willingness to use them if offered, while 502 (69.4%) would recommend it to friends/peers. This study highlights significant challenges in the use of female condoms among university students. These include unavailability, high cost, and difficulty with insertion. Therefore, deliberate efforts using social marketing strategies, appropriate youth-friendly publicity, and peer education must be exerted to provide affordable female condoms and promote usage; such efforts should target vulnerable youths in Nigerian tertiary institutions.

  2. Exploring the potential of expatriate social networks to reduce HIV and STI transmission: a protocol for a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Gemma; Bowser, Nicole Jasmine; Brown, Graham Ernest; Maycock, Bruce Richard

    2013-01-01

    HIV diagnoses acquired among Australian men working or travelling overseas including  Southeast Asia are increasing. This change within transmission dynamics means traditional approaches to prevention need to be considered in new contexts. The significance and role of social networks in mediating sexual risk behaviours may be influential. Greater understanding of expatriate and traveller behaviour is required to understand how local relationships are formed, how individuals enter and are socialised into networks, and how these networks may affect sexual intentions and behaviours. This paper describes the development of a qualitative protocol to investigate how social networks of Australian expatriates and long-term travellers might support interventions to reduce transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. To explore the interactions of male expatriates and long-term travellers within and between their environments, symbolic interactionism will be the theoretical framework used. Grounded theory methods provide the ability to explain social processes through the development of explanatory theory. The primary data source will be interviews conducted in several rounds in both Australia and Southeast Asia. Purposive and theoretical sampling will be used to access participants whose data can provide depth and individual meaning. The role of expatriate and long-term traveller networks and their potential to impact health are uncertain. This study seeks to gain a deeper understanding of the Australian expatriate culture, behavioural contexts and experiences within social networks in  Southeast Asia. This research will provide tangible recommendations for policy and practice as the findings will be disseminated to health professionals and other stakeholders, academics and the community via local research and evaluation networks, conference presentations and online forums. The Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee has granted approval for this research.

  3. High HIV, HPV, and STI Prevalence Among Young Western Cape, South African Women: EVRI HIV Prevention Preparedness Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giuliano, Anna R.; Botha, Matthys H.; Zeier, Michele; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Glashoff, Richard H.; van der Laan, Louvina E.; Papenfuss, Mary; Engelbrecht, Susan; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Sudenga, Staci L.; Torres, Benji N.; Kipping, Siegfried; Taylor, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Background:This study sought to assess the feasibility of conducting a phase III HIV prevention trial using a multivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (Gardasil; Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ).Methods:A total of 479 sexually active women aged 16-24 years in the Western Cape, South Africa, were

  4. Intimate relationships of Devadasi sex workers in South India: An exploration of risks of HIV/STI transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thompson, Laura H; du Plessis, Elsabé; Pelto, Pertti; Annigeri, Vinod; Doddamane, Mahesh; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Shaw, Souradet Y; Deering, Kathleen; Khan, Shamshad; Halli, Shiva S; Lorway, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Global literature on female sex workers suggests that being in an intimate relationship is associated with barriers to practising safe sex behaviours. Condom use within intimate relationships is often seen as a sign of infidelity and fosters mistrust which could affect longevity, trust and intimacy within partnerships. Using qualitative data from Devadasi sex workers and their intimate male partners in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, we examined both partners' perspectives to understand the quality and dynamics of these relationships and the factors that influence condom use in intimate relationships. Our thematic analysis of individual interviews conducted in May 2011 with 20 couples suggests that many Devadasi sex workers and their intimate partners define their relationships as 'like marriage' which reduced their motivation to use condoms. Evidence from this study suggests that active participation in sex workers' collectives (sanghas) can increase condom use, education and family planning services, among other things, and could be helpful for both Devadasis and their intimate partners to better understand and accept safer sexual practices. Our work has direct implications for designing couple-based health interventions for traditional Devadasi sex workers and their intimate partners in India.

  5. Vliv cyklistické části na celkový výkon v triatlonu

    OpenAIRE

    Jurič, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Title: Effect of cycling on the overall performance in triathlon Objectives: The aim is to determine the influence of the cycling part on the total performance in the individual disciplines of triathlon. Methods: I used a linear regression for the determination of influence of cycling part on the total performance. The investigated values were compared in a column graph. Results: The dependence, rated by coefficient of determination by disciplines with allowed ride in the lee was "low" (R2 =0...

  6. Neutron μstiX. Micrometer structure investigation with real space and reciprocal space crossover using neutron imaging detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlbauer, Martin Johann

    2013-07-19

    This work is concerned with the investigation of inhomogeneities in materials with length scales of the order of micrometers by means of neutrons. In real space this is done by neutron imaging methods measuring the transmitted signal while for Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering (USANS) the signal of the scattered neutrons is assigned to a spatial frequency distribution in reciprocal space. The part about neutron imaging is focused on time-resolved neutron radiography on an injection nozzle similar to the ones used for modern diesel truck engines. The associated experiments have been carried out at the neutron imaging facility ANTARES at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen in Garching near Munich. Especially the demands on the detector system were high. Therefore different detection methods and detector configurations have been tested. On the one hand the detector should allow for a time resolution high enough to record the injection process lasting about 900 μs. On the other hand it needed to offer a spatial resolution sufficient to resolve the test oil inside the spray hole of a maximum diameter of less than 200 μm. An advanced aim of this work is the visualization of cavitation phenomena which may occur during the injection process inside of the spray hole. In order to operate the injector at conditions as close to reality as possible a high pressure pump supplying the injector with test oil at a pressure of 1600 bar was needed in addition to the specially developed control electronics, the recuperation tank and the exhaust gas equipment for the escaping atomized spray. A second part of the work describes USANS experiments based on the idea of Dr. Roland Gaehler and carried out at the instrument D11 at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. For this purpose a specific multi-beam geometry was applied, where a multi-slit aperture replaced the standard source aperture and the sample aperture was exchanged for an array of cylindrical shaped neutron lenses. The measurements conducted with this temporary setup gave a first impression of the interaction of the multi-beam geometry and the employed neutron lenses. The Q-range accessible with such a setup at a standard SANS instrument was determined by means of calibration samples. Within this work especially the formation of the primary beam profile plays a significant role because of its substantial influence on the achievable resolution and data evaluation. Within this scope similarities and differences of the basic layout for neutron imaging and SANS or USANS are highlighted.

  7. Exploring the potential of expatriate social networks to reduce HIV and STI transmission: a protocol for a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Gemma; Bowser, Nicole Jasmine; Brown, Graham Ernest; Maycock, Bruce Richard

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HIV diagnoses acquired among Australian men working or travelling overseas including  Southeast Asia are increasing. This change within transmission dynamics means traditional approaches to prevention need to be considered in new contexts. The significance and role of social networks in mediating sexual risk behaviours may be influential. Greater understanding of expatriate and traveller behaviour is required to understand how local relationships are formed, how individuals enter and are socialised into networks, and how these networks may affect sexual intentions and behaviours. This paper describes the development of a qualitative protocol to investigate how social networks of Australian expatriates and long-term travellers might support interventions to reduce transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Methods and analysis To explore the interactions of male expatriates and long-term travellers within and between their environments, symbolic interactionism will be the theoretical framework used. Grounded theory methods provide the ability to explain social processes through the development of explanatory theory. The primary data source will be interviews conducted in several rounds in both Australia and Southeast Asia. Purposive and theoretical sampling will be used to access participants whose data can provide depth and individual meaning. Ethics and dissemination The role of expatriate and long-term traveller networks and their potential to impact health are uncertain. This study seeks to gain a deeper understanding of the Australian expatriate culture, behavioural contexts and experiences within social networks in  Southeast Asia. This research will provide tangible recommendations for policy and practice as the findings will be disseminated to health professionals and other stakeholders, academics and the community via local research and evaluation networks, conference presentations and online forums. The Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee has granted approval for this research. PMID:23444449

  8. Korralikud töövahendid või tavalised savikettad? / Kyösti Isosaari, Marko Toivonen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Isosaari, Kyösti

    2017-01-01

    Testis 125 x 2 mm lõikekettad süsinikterasele: Exper 14818, IMA Gold, 3M High Perfomance, Mirka M-Cut, Pferd SG-Elastic, Pureva XR3, Rhodius Proline FT33, Rottluff Premiumflex, Tyrolit Premium Long Life

  9. Neutron μstiX. Micrometer structure investigation with real space and reciprocal space crossover using neutron imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlbauer, Martin Johann

    2013-01-01

    This work is concerned with the investigation of inhomogeneities in materials with length scales of the order of micrometers by means of neutrons. In real space this is done by neutron imaging methods measuring the transmitted signal while for Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering (USANS) the signal of the scattered neutrons is assigned to a spatial frequency distribution in reciprocal space. The part about neutron imaging is focused on time-resolved neutron radiography on an injection nozzle similar to the ones used for modern diesel truck engines. The associated experiments have been carried out at the neutron imaging facility ANTARES at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen in Garching near Munich. Especially the demands on the detector system were high. Therefore different detection methods and detector configurations have been tested. On the one hand the detector should allow for a time resolution high enough to record the injection process lasting about 900 μs. On the other hand it needed to offer a spatial resolution sufficient to resolve the test oil inside the spray hole of a maximum diameter of less than 200 μm. An advanced aim of this work is the visualization of cavitation phenomena which may occur during the injection process inside of the spray hole. In order to operate the injector at conditions as close to reality as possible a high pressure pump supplying the injector with test oil at a pressure of 1600 bar was needed in addition to the specially developed control electronics, the recuperation tank and the exhaust gas equipment for the escaping atomized spray. A second part of the work describes USANS experiments based on the idea of Dr. Roland Gaehler and carried out at the instrument D11 at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. For this purpose a specific multi-beam geometry was applied, where a multi-slit aperture replaced the standard source aperture and the sample aperture was exchanged for an array of cylindrical shaped neutron lenses. The measurements conducted with this temporary setup gave a first impression of the interaction of the multi-beam geometry and the employed neutron lenses. The Q-range accessible with such a setup at a standard SANS instrument was determined by means of calibration samples. Within this work especially the formation of the primary beam profile plays a significant role because of its substantial influence on the achievable resolution and data evaluation. Within this scope similarities and differences of the basic layout for neutron imaging and SANS or USANS are highlighted.

  10. Skype'i looja tahab hüdroelektrijaama püsti panna / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2006-01-01

    Üks Skype'i asutajatest Toivo Annus, e-hääletuse projektijuht Tarvi Martens ning Oracle Eesti filiaalis töötav Andres Pagarand lõid firma Uus Energia ja kavatsevad panna tööle hüdroelektrijaama. Firma eesmärk on ka taastada ja väärtustada veskikultuuri. Lisa: Eesti Energial on võimsaim hüdroelektrijaam

  11. Multilevel Dynamic Systems Affecting Introduction of HIV/STI Prevention Innovations among Chinese Women in Sex Work Establishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

    2013-01-01

    Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the…

  12. Estimates of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients from Longitudinal Group-Randomized Trials of Adolescent HIV/STI/Pregnancy Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Jill R.; Potter, Susan C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Coyle, Karin K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Group-randomized trials (GRTs) are one of the most rigorous methods for evaluating the effectiveness of group-based health risk prevention programs. Efficiently designing GRTs with a sample size that is sufficient for meeting the trial's power and precision goals while not wasting resources exceeding them requires estimates of the…

  13. Adaptation Guidance for Evidence-Based Teen Pregnancy and STI/HIV Prevention Curricula: From Development to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolleri, Lori A.; Fuller, Taleria R.; Firpo-Triplett, Regina; Lesesne, Catherine A.; Moore, Claire; Leeks, Kimberly D.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are effective in preventing adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections; however, prevention practitioners are challenged when selecting and adapting the most appropriate programs. While there are existing adaptation frameworks, there is little practical guidance in applying research in the field.…

  14. Eesti Apteekrite Liidu üldkogu: apteekrid ei ela sugugi nii hästi, nagu arvatakse / Kristiina Nurmis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nurmis, Kristiina

    2007-01-01

    11. aprillil toimunud Eesti Apteekrite Liidu üldkogul oli kõne all neli põhiteemat: apteekide avamise kord, haiglate õigus avada jaemüügi apteeke, apteegipersonali koolitamine ning ravimite ratsionaalne kasutamine

  15. Ontology Driven Meta-Modeling of Service Oriented Architecture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... #Department of Computer Applications, National Institute of ... *5Department of Computer Science, Winona State University, MN, USA ..... Further, it has aided in service .... Software: A Research Roadmap”, Workshop on the Future of ... and A. Solberg, “Model-driven service engineering with SoaML”, in.

  16. Search Results | Page 960 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 9591 - 9599 of 9599 ... Alanna is the Vice-President, Public and Corporate Affairs at Sun Life Financial, a leading ... Geneviève Leguerrier is the Director of Finance and ... The Honourable Monte Solberg is a Principal with New West ...

  17. Search Results | Page 958 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 9571 - 9577 of 9577 ... Alanna is the Vice-President, Public and Corporate Affairs at Sun Life Financial, a leading ... Geneviève Leguerrier is the Director of Finance and ... The Honourable Monte Solberg is a Principal with New West ...

  18. Identification of Five Novel Salmonella Typhi-Specific Genes as Markers for Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever Using Single-Gene Target PCR Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xin Goay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi causes typhoid fever which is a disease characterised by high mortality and morbidity worldwide. In order to curtail the transmission of this highly infectious disease, identification of new markers that can detect the pathogen is needed for development of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. In this study, genomic comparison of S. Typhi with other enteric pathogens was performed, and 6 S. Typhi genes, that is, STY0201, STY0307, STY0322, STY0326, STY2020, and STY2021, were found to be specific in silico. Six PCR assays each targeting a unique gene were developed to test the specificity of these genes in vitro. The diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of each assay were determined using 39 S. Typhi, 62 non-Typhi Salmonella, and 10 non-Salmonella clinical isolates. The results showed that 5 of these genes, that is, STY0307, STY0322, STY0326, STY2020, and STY2021, demonstrated 100% sensitivity (39/39 and 100% specificity (0/72. The detection limit of the 5 PCR assays was 32 pg for STY0322, 6.4 pg for STY0326, STY2020, and STY2021, and 1.28 pg for STY0307. In conclusion, 5 PCR assays using STY0307, STY0322, STY0326, STY2020, and STY2021 were developed and found to be highly specific at single-gene target resolution for diagnosis of typhoid fever.

  19. Identification of Five Novel Salmonella Typhi-Specific Genes as Markers for Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever Using Single-Gene Target PCR Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goay, Yuan Xin; Chin, Kai Ling; Tan, Clarissa Ling Ling; Yeoh, Chiann Ying; Ja'afar, Ja'afar Nuhu; Zaidah, Abdul Rahman; Chinni, Suresh Venkata; Phua, Kia Kien

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Typhi ( S . Typhi) causes typhoid fever which is a disease characterised by high mortality and morbidity worldwide. In order to curtail the transmission of this highly infectious disease, identification of new markers that can detect the pathogen is needed for development of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. In this study, genomic comparison of S . Typhi with other enteric pathogens was performed, and 6 S . Typhi genes, that is, STY0201, STY0307, STY0322, STY0326, STY2020, and STY2021, were found to be specific in silico . Six PCR assays each targeting a unique gene were developed to test the specificity of these genes in vitro . The diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of each assay were determined using 39 S . Typhi, 62 non-Typhi Salmonella , and 10 non- Salmonella clinical isolates. The results showed that 5 of these genes, that is, STY0307, STY0322, STY0326, STY2020, and STY2021, demonstrated 100% sensitivity (39/39) and 100% specificity (0/72). The detection limit of the 5 PCR assays was 32 pg for STY0322, 6.4 pg for STY0326, STY2020, and STY2021, and 1.28 pg for STY0307. In conclusion, 5 PCR assays using STY0307, STY0322, STY0326, STY2020, and STY2021 were developed and found to be highly specific at single-gene target resolution for diagnosis of typhoid fever.

  20. Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, in the Netherlands in 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MG van Veen; FDH Koedijk; IVF van der Broek; ELM Op de Coul; IM de Boer; AI van Sighem; MAB van der Sande; soa-centra; Stichting HIV Monitoring; EPI/Cib

    2007-01-01

    The nationally covered low threshold STI centres offering STI care targeted at high risk groups, provide surveillance data to monitor national trends in STI, including HIV. In 2006, chlamydia remained the most commonly diagnosed bacterial STI in the Netherlands in the STI centres, in spite of

  1. Key to the South African Leporidae (Mammalia: Lagomorpha)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A taxonomic and autecological study of the genus Pronolagus in southern Africa. M.Sc. thesis, University of. Rhodesia, Salisbury. PETTER, F. 1972. Order Lagomorpha, Part 5. In: The mammals of. South Africa: an identification manual. Eds. Meester, J. &. Setzer, H. W. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D.C.. ROBERTS ...

  2. Moneneheo and Naheverien: Cheyenne and Mennonite Sewing Circles, Convergences and Conflicts, 1890-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kimberly D.

    2011-01-01

    Swiss emigres and Mennonite missionaries Marie and Rodolphe Petter were welcomed into Cheyenne Chief Red Moon's band in Oklahoma. Away from the interference of other whites, they decided to live like their new neighbors and pitched a tipi before building a more substantial structure. There they continued their studies of the Cheyenne language and…

  3. Echolocation caBs of twenty southern African bat species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    all species, and added that intensity and harmonic information. (not available through ANABAT recordings) would have proved useful for identification. The aim of this study is to present new echolocation data for. 20 southern African species using a time-expansion Petters- son D980 bat detector, particularly with the view to ...

  4. Computational Vision Based on Neurobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-10

    34 Journal of Personality and 71. M. Seibert and A.M. Waxman "Learning and Social Psychology, Vol. 37, pp. 2049-2058, 1979. recognizing 3D objects from...coherence. Nature. 358:412-414, 1992. 18. Petter, G. Nuove ricerche sperimentali sulla totalizzazione percettiva. Rivista di psicologia . 50: 213-227

  5. Revolutsionäärid, kes ei pääsenud külma käest / Linda Kaljundi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljundi, Linda, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    PÖFFil linastunud Põhjamaade filmidest: "Tüütu mees" ("Den Brysomme mannen", režissöör Jens Lien, Norra, 2006), "Seltsimees Pedersen" ("Gymnaslaerer Pedersen", režissöör Hans Petter Moland, Norra, 2006), "Kelle ridades seisad" ("Kenen joukoissa seisot", režissöör Jouko Aaltonen, Soome, 2006)

  6. Staarid nagu jumalused Olümposel / Lauri Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    2004-01-01

    Berliini filmifestivalil toimunust. Nähtud mängufilme - "Kaunis maa" ("Beautiful Country") : režissöör Hans Petter Moland : Norra - Ameerika Ühendriigid; "Grimm" : režissöör Alex van Warmerdam : Holland; "Koletis" ("Monster") : režissöör Patty Jenkins : Ameerika Ühendriigid

  7. eHealth Literacy and Intervention Tailoring Impacts the Acceptability of a HIV/STI Testing Intervention and Sexual Decision Making Among Young Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Bauermeister, José A

    2017-02-01

    We assessed whether young men who have sex with men's acceptability with the online Get Connected! intervention and subsequent sexual health decision making were influenced by their baseline eHealth literacy (high vs. low competency) and intervention tailoring (tailored or nontailored intervention condition). Compared to the high eHealth literacy/tailored intervention group: (1) those in the low eHealth literacy/tailored intervention condition and participants in the nontailored intervention condition (regardless of eHealth literacy score) reported lower intervention information quality scores; and (2) those in the low eHealth literacy/nontailored intervention group reported lower intervention system quality scores and that the intervention had less influence on their sexual health decision making. Future similar intervention research should consider how eHealth literacy might influence participants' abilities to navigate intervention content and integrate it into their sexual decision making.

  8. Missed opportunities to offer HIV tests to high-risk groups during general practitioners’ STI-related consultations: an observational study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joore, I.K.; Reukers, D.F.M.; Donker, G.A.; Sighem, A.I. van; Coul, E.L.M. Op de; Prins, J.M.; Geerlings, S.E.; Barth, S.R.E.; Bergen, J.E.A.M. van; Broek, I.V.F. van den

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prior research has shown that Dutch general practitioners (GPs) do not always offer HIV testing and the number of undiagnosed HIV patients remains high. We aimed to further investigate the frequency and reasons for (not) testing for HIV and the contribution of GPs to the diagnosis of HIV

  9. PÖFFi võit läks Türki, "Sügisballil" läks hästi / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Lõppes 11. Pimedate Ööde Filmifestival. EurAsia programmi grand prix läks Türgi filmile "Takva", parim režissöör on Aleksandr Sokurov ("Aleksandra"), parima naisnäitleja auhinna sai Maarja Jakobson ("Sügisball"), parima meesnäitleja auhinna sai Zdenek Sverak ("Tühjad pudelid"). Parim Eesti film on "Sügisball", mis üldse sai festivalil kuus auhinda. Lisaks nimekiri "Pimedate Ööde filmifestival jagas auhindu" ja lühiintervjuu "3 küsimust" Veiko Õunpuult

  10. eHealth Literacy and Intervention Tailoring Impacts the Acceptability of a HIV/STI Testing Intervention and Sexual Decision Making among Young Gay and Bisexual Men

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Keith J.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed whether young men who have sex with men’s acceptability with the online Get Connected! intervention and subsequent sexual health decision making were influenced by their baseline eHealth literacy (high vs. low competency) and intervention tailoring (tailored or non-tailored intervention condition). Participants (n=127) were on average 21 years old, 55% non-Hispanic white, and used the Internet 1–3 hours a day (54%). Compared to the high eHealth literacy/tailored intervention group...

  11. Facilitators and barriers to active recall for HIV and STI testing of MSM at high risk of HIV infection in genito-urinary medicine clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, M.

    2015-01-01

    Reminders have been successfully used in healthcare to improve reattendance rates but evidence for their effectiveness in sexual health remains unknown. A programme of studies explored the effectiveness of, and drivers and barriers to active recall reminders in increasing reattendance/re-testing rates for HIV/STIs among men who have sex with men (MSM), underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The systematic literature review suggested efficacy of reminders in increasing reattendance/re...

  12. Kas kvaliteeti saab odavalt? / tekst ja fotod Kyösti Isosaari ja Vesä Jääskeläinen ; refereeris Ingrid Maasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Isosaari, Kyösti

    2008-01-01

    Odavate tööriistade võrdlus. Akutrellid Biltema 17-056, Gern DAN165, Power Craft 66191; elektrilised lööktrellid AWD AWD650, Biltema 17-016, Kraft 500W 13MM; tikksaed Alpha-Tools PS600E, Deuzer M1Q-55T, GeLb M1Q-LB-55; nurklihvmasinad Alpha-Tools WS115, Pro Wor PWS115, Probuilder 44023; taldlihvmasinad Co/Tech 30-8939, Power Craft VM-135, PowerPlus X040

  13. Free radical reaction pathway, thermohemistry of peracetic acid homolysis and its application for phenol degradation: spectroscopic sti=udy and quantum chemistry calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rokhina, E.V.; Makarova, K.; Golovina, E.A.; As, van H.; Virkutyte, J.

    2010-01-01

    The homolysis of peracetic acid (PAA) as a relevant source of free radicals (e.g., •OH) was studied in detail. Radicals formed as a result of chain radical reactions were detected with electron spin resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance spin trapping techniques and subsequently identified by

  14. Evaluation of ST&I programs: a methodological approach to the Brazilian Small Business Program and some comparisons with the SBIR program

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Salles-Filho; Maria Beatriz Bonacelli; Ana Maria Carneiro; Paula F Drummond de Castro; Fernando Oliveira Santos

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of research results and impacts is a topic of growing interest to public and private organizations worldwide. Indeed, it can be said that evaluation initiatives are a top priority for many R&D institutions if they are to assure social legitimation. Assuming that the innovation process is uncertain, complex, linked to social and technical imponderables, and capable of taking a different course from what is planned, the goals of evaluation almost always become moving targets. The obj...

  15. Exploring Why Young African American Women Do Not Change Condom-Use Behavior Following Participation in an STI/HIV Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, J. M.; DiClemente, R. J.; Davis, T. P.; Sullivan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interventions can significantly reduce risky sexual behaviors among vulnerable populations. However, not everyone exposed to an intervention will reduce their sexual risk behavior. This qualitative study sought to identify factors associated with young African American females' lack of increase in condom use…

  16. Spontaneous pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis RNA clearance. A cross-sectional study followed by a cohort study of untreated STI clinic patients in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Martijn S.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim; Morré, Servaas A.; van Dam, Alje P.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) might contribute to ongoing chlamydia transmission, yet data on spontaneous clearance duration are rare. We examined the prevalence, spontaneous clearance, chlamydial DNA concentration and genotypes of pharyngeal chlamydia among clinic patients

  17. Biomechanika šlapání jako předpoklad výkonu v cyklistické části triatlonu

    OpenAIRE

    Svatoš, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Tittle: Biomechanics of pedaling as a determinant for the performance in the cycling part in the triathlon Objective: Prove that mastering pedaling technique, means higher performance in triathlon. Method: For the analysis of measured data use software SPSS, in which we use the test for two independent (paired) files. Due to the characteristics of the file, we used the Mann- Whitney test, we set the significance level at 0.05. Then we set standards for the selected test using T-points. Result...

  18. Feasible, efficient and necessary, without exception - Working with sex workers interrupts HIV/STI transmission and brings treatment to many in need

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Steen (Richard); T. Wheeler (Tisha); M. Gorgens (Marelize); E. Mziray (Elizabeth); G. Dallabetta (Gina)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground and Overview. High rates of partner change in sex work-whether in professional, 'transactional' or other context-disproportionately drive transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Several countries in Asia have demonstrated that reducing transmission in

  19. No evidence for cross-protection of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against HPV-6/11 positivity in female STI clinic visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenberg, Petra J.; King, Audrey J.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Donken, Robine; Leussink, Suzan; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.; Bogaards, Johannes A.; van Benthem, Birgit H. B.; Adema, D.; Buist-Arkema, R.; Beerens, A.; Luijt, D.; Meijer, S.; Schirm, J.; Buiting, A.; Peeters, M.; Rossen, J.; Verbakel, H.; van Esch, P.; Verweij, J.; van der Eijk, A.; Huisman, R.; Kerkhof, C.; Korff, H.; Schutten, M.; Velzing, J.; Verduyn-Lunel, F.; Lakbiach, S.; van Rosmalen, P.; Schuurman, R.; Abma, D.; Adams, K.; Bruisten, S.; Linde, I.; Oostvogel, P.; Touwen, C.; Vermeulen, W.; Brink, A.; Nelissen, J.; Wolffs, P.; Duijvendijk, N.; Schneeberger, P.; Dinnissen-van Poppel, M.; Melchers, W.; Poort, Y.; Hooghiemstra, M.; Huisman, H.; Weel, J.; Stam, J.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a vaccine trial and from post-vaccine surveillance in the United Kingdom have suggested that the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine offers cross-protection against HPV-6/11 and protection against anogenital warts (AGW). We studied the effect of the bivalent vaccine on genital HPV-6/11 positivity

  20. No evidence for cross-protection of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against HPV-6/11 positivity in female STI clinic visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenberg, Petra J.; King, Audrey J.; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Donken, Robine; Leussink, Suzan; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Bogaards, Johannes A.; van Benthem, Birgit H B

    OBJECTIVES: Data from a vaccine trial and from post-vaccine surveillance in the United Kingdom have suggested that the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine offers cross-protection against HPV-6/11 and protection against anogenital warts (AGW). We studied the effect of the bivalent vaccine on genital HPV-6/11

  1. Výrobní hala ve Znojmě - vybrané části stavebně technologického projektu

    OpenAIRE

    Smatana, Roman

    2012-01-01

    V této diplomové práci je zpracován stavebně technologický projekt na výstavbu výrobní a skladovací haly ve Znojmě. Obsahuje modelaci zařízení staveniště, technologický předpis , časový plán, finanční náročnost, kontrolní a zkušební plán,rozpočet, bezpečnost práce. This master thesis deals is processed constructive technological project of realization factory and storage building in Znojmo. Master is thesis includdes model of the building site accessories, technology procedure, time schedu...

  2. Ralf Allikvee : praegu on veel Eesti tervishoid väga hästi kättesaadav / Ralf Allikvee ; interv. Rainer Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allikvee, Ralf, 1952-

    2006-01-01

    Ida-Tallinna keskhaigla juht Ralf Allikvee olukorrast Eesti meditsiinis, arstide tööst ja välismaale mineku põhjustest, nende töö kajastamisest meedias. Vt. samas: Haiglaseriaale vaadates tekib tööharjumus

  3. Enhancement of "Reducing the Risk" for the 21st Century: Improvement to a Curriculum Developed to Prevent Teen Pregnancy and STI Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Cheri; Barbee, Anita P.; Antle, Becky; Christensen, Dana; Archuleta, Adrian; Sar, Bibhuti K.; Karam, Eli; van Zyl, Riaan; Cunningham, Michael R.; Borders, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    To ensure that "Reducing the Risk," a successful teen pregnancy prevention education curriculum, remains relevant for today's youth, covers all information youth need to know in order to make better choices, and is delivered in a standardized way, adaptations were made and enhancements were added. This article describes results of a…

  4. Pedologický a paleopedologický výzkum jihozápadní části pohoří Sabaloka

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lisá, Lenka; Bajer, A.; Pacina, J.; McCool, J-P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2015), s. 78-85 ISSN 1214-3189 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : geoarchaeology * paleopedology * Sudan * Sabaloka * Sixth Nile Cataract Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis Antibody Testing in Vaginal Mucosal Material versus Blood Samples of Women Attending a Fertility Clinic and an STI Clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, I.V.F.; Land, J.A.; van Bergen, J.E.A.M.; Morré, S.A.; van der Sande, M.A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia infections often follow an asymptomatic course but may damage the reproductive tract. Chlamydia antibodies in serum are used as markers for past infections and can relate to tubal pathology and infertility. This "proof of principle" study aimed to assess whether Chlamydia

  6. Sňatky Přemyslovců aneb Jak si vybírali ženichy a nevěsty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Kandert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Premysliden ruled over the Czech countries (Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia more than three hundred years (ca. 930–1306. They cooperated with the ruling houses of the neighboring states (Hungary, Poland, Saxony, Bavaria, Austria etc. as their political efforts as their marriage policy. The analysis of the Premysliden marriages indicated the existence of the rule of the exogamy, the rule of the preferential matrilateral cross cousin marriage, the rule of the long time systematic exchange of the women among two ruling houses. Example of the Premysliden marriage practice gives the idea of the search of the marriage rules existing in Europe during the early mediaeval centuries.

  7. School-based sexual health education interventions to prevent STI/HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, A Sadiq; Abraham, Charles; Denford, Sarah; Ball, Susan

    2016-10-10

    School-based sexual health education has the potential to provide an inclusive and comprehensive approach to promoting sexual health among young people. We reviewed evaluations of school-based sexual health education interventions in sub-Saharan Africa to assess effectiveness in reducing sexually transmitted infections and promoting condom use. We searched ten electronic databases, hand-searched key journals, and reference lists of included articles for potential studies. Data were extracted on outcomes, intervention characteristics, methods and study characteristics indicative of methodological quality. Where possible, data were synthesized using random effect meta-analysis. Intervention features found predominantly in effective interventions were noted. The initial search retrieved 21634 potentially relevant citations. Of these, 51 papers reporting on 31 interventions were included. No evaluation reported statistically significant effects on the incidence or prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus 2 infections. However, intervention participants reported statistically significant greater condom use in both randomised controlled trials and non-randomised trials for short (less than 6 months) follow-up periods (OR = 1.62, 95 % CI = 1.03-2.55 and OR = 2.88, 95 % CI = 1.41-5.90 respectively). For intermediate (6-10 months) and long-term (more than 10 months) follow-up periods, the effect was statistically significant (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI = 1.16-1.68) and marginally significant (OR = 1.22, 95 % CI = 0.99-1.50) among the randomised trials respectively. Only 12 of the 31 interventions reported implementation details, out of which seven reported on fidelity. School-based sexual health education has the potential to promote condom use among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. However, further work is needed to develop and evaluate interventions that have measurable effects on sexually transmitted infections.

  8. Patterns of HIV/AIDS, STI, Substance Abuse and Hepatitis Risk among Selected Samples of Latino and African-American Youth in Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, Mark C.; Collins, Elizabeth; Harris, Meredith; McLendon, Hedda; Santucci, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    In order to address evolving risk factors among youth in Washington, DC (District of Columbia), with respect to HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), substance abuse, and hepatitis, a targeted, community-needs assessment was conducted through a partnership between the Department of Prevention and Community Health at George Washington…

  9. Low positivity rate after systematic screening for Trichomonas vaginalis in three patient cohorts from general practitioners, STI clinic and a national population-based chlamydia screening study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, Tanja H.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.; Dirks, Anne; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; Wolffs, Petra F. G.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this multi-cohort study is to investigate the positivity rate of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among three distinct Dutch patient populations and its relation with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) positivity. Few studies have been performed in Europe where TV positivity rate seems to be low.

  10. Kultura zvoncovitých pohárů ve východní části střední Evropy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přichystal, A.; Šebela, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2011), s. 52-57 ISSN 1213-1628 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Bell Beaker culture * Bohemia * Graves * silicite axes Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. False-negative type-specific glycoprotein G antibody responses in STI clinic patients with recurrent HSV-1 or HSV-2 DNA positive genital herpes, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Roest, Wim; Hansen, Gino; Kwa, David; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-discriminating antibody tests (glycoprotein G (gG) directed) are used to identify naïve persons and differentiate acute infections from recurrences. We studied test characteristics of three commercially available antibody tests in patients with recurrent (established

  12. False-negative type-specific glycoprotein G antibody responses in STI clinic patients with recurrent HSV-1 or HSV-2 DNA positive genital herpes, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooijen, Martijn S; Roest, Wim; Hansen, Gino; Kwa, David; de Vries, Henry J C

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-discriminating antibody tests (glycoprotein G (gG) directed) are used to identify naïve persons and differentiate acute infections from recurrences. We studied test characteristics of three commercially available antibody tests in patients with recurrent (established by viral PCR tests) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital herpes episodes. Serum samples (at minimum 3 months after t=0) were examined for the presence of gG-1-specific or gG-2-specific antibodies using the HerpeSelect 1 and 2 Immunoblot IgG, the HerpeSelect 1 and 2 enzyme linked immunoassays IgG and the LIAISON HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgG indirect chemiluminescence immunoassays. The immunoblot was HSV-1 positive in 70.6% (95% CI 44.0% to 89.7%), the LIAISON in 88.2% (95% CI 63.5% to 98.5%) and the ELISA in 82.4% (95% CI 56.6% to 96.2%) of the 17 patients with a recurrent HSV-1 episode. From 33 patients with a recurrent HSV-2 episode, the immunoblot was HSV-2 positive in 84.8% (95% CI 68.1% to 94.9%), the LIAISON in 69.7% (95% CI 51.3% to 84.4%) and the ELISA in 84.8% (95% CI 68.1% to 94.9%). Among 15/17 (88.2%; 95% CI 63.5% to 98.5%) patients with HSV-1 and 30/33 (90.1%; 95% CI 75.7% to 98.1%) patients with HSV-2, HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibodies, respectively, were detected in at least one of the three antibody tests. Commercial type-specific gG HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibody assays were false negative in 12-30% of patients with recurrent HSV-1 or HSV-2 DNA positive genital lesions. The clinical and epidemiological use of type-specific HSV serology can be hampered by false-negative results, especially if based on a single test. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Cíp, cvik(l) a klín v anoikonymech na Moravě a v české části Slezska

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kloferová ml., Stanislava

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2009), s. 117-128 ISSN 1211-4413 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA405/08/0703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90610518 Keywords : minor place names * form of piece of land * tip * wedge Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  14. Occupations, social vulnerability and HIV/STI risk: The case of bisexual Latino men in the New York City metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Severson, Nicolette; Bannan, Shauna

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the work environment, type of occupation and sexual risk-taking among behaviourally bisexual Latino men, in which data were analysed from a mixed-methods study of 148 behaviourally bisexual Latino men, aged 18–60. The authors draw on both sex market theory and the literature on structural violence and labour to situate sexual risk-taking within broader dimensions of social inequalities and organisation. Manual labour, hospitality and retail/professional fields are examined and compared. Major findings include (1) a high incidence of unprotected anal intercourse among manual labourers (2) a high incidence of unprotected vaginal intercourse with alcohol use and concurrent sex with females among hospitality workers (3) less sexual risk behaviour, sexual risk behaviour with alcohol and fewer concurrent sex partners among those in the retail/professional fields. Findings are discussed in relation to global economic forces, masculinity and social and symbolic capital. PMID:25299059

  15. Analýza stavu a možností rozvoje východní části vnitřního Brna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Zapletalová, Jana; Walter, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2009), s. 22-28 ISSN 1212-0855 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : development potential * Brno * brownfields Subject RIV: AP - Urban, Regional and Transport Planning

  16. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea and associated factors among women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Brazil: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica E. Miranda

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: The control of STI represents a unique opportunity to improve reproductive health of women living with HIV. STI diagnosis can change their behavior and reduce the sexual transmission of HIV and bacterial STI.

  17. Mesoscale Frontogenesis: An Analysis of Two Cold Front Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    marked the boundary of warm air or the "warm sector". Further development of this cyclone model by Bjerknes and Solberg (1922) and Bergeron (1928) provided...represent 25 mn s -1 Relative humidity of greater than 80% indicated by the shaded region in gray. Frontal zones marked with solid black lines. 24 two... Zuckerberg , J.T. Schaefer, and G.E. Rasch, 1986: Forecast problems: The meteorological and operational factors, In: Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting

  18. Primary resistance to integrase strand-transfer inhibitors in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casadellà, M; van Ham, P M; Noguera-Julian, M

    2015-01-01

    the introduction of InSTIs. However, polymorphisms contributing to InSTI resistance were not rare. As InSTI use becomes more widespread, continuous surveillance of primary InSTI resistance is warranted. These data will be key to modelling the kinetics of InSTI resistance transmission in Europe in the coming years....

  19. Management of information in a research and development agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Wallace O.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA program for managing scientific and technical information (STI) is examined, noting the technological, managerial, educational, and legal aspects of transferring and disseminating information. A definition of STI is introduced and NASA's STI-related management programs are outlined. Consideration is given to the role of STI management in NASA mission programs, research efforts supporting the management and use of STI, STI program interfaces, and the Automated Information Management Program to eliminate redundant automation efforts in common administrative functions. The infrastructure needed to manage the broad base of NASA information and the interfaces between NASA's STI management and external organizations are described.

  20. Redescription of four species of Mehdiella from Testudinidae, with a key to the species and discussion on the relationships among the species of this genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouamer S.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Four species of the genus Mehdiella Seurat, 1918 are redescribed: M. cristata Petter, 1966 and M. stylosa dollfusi Petter, 1966, parasite of Pyxix arachnoides Bell, 1827 from Madagascar, M. s. stylosa (Thapar, 1 925 and M. uncinata (Drasche, 1884, parasite of Testudo graeca Linneaus, 1758, Testudo hermanni Gmelin, 1789 and Testudo horsfieldii (Gray, 1844 from Palaearctic region. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies revealed new informations on the morphology of these species. On the basis of this morphological study, the sub-species Mehdiella stylosa dollfusi and M. s. stylosa are raised to level of species. The position of Mehdiella cristata among the species of the genus Mehdiella and the relationships among the species of the genus Mehdiella are discussed. A key to the eight valid species Mehdiella is given.

  1. Redescription of four species of Mehdiella from Testudinidae, with a key to the species and discussion on the relationships among the species of this genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamer, S; Morand, S; Kara, M

    2003-12-01

    Four species of the genus Mehdiella Seurat, 1918 are redescribed: M. cristata Petter, 1966 and M. stylosa dollfusi Petter, 1966, parasite of Pyxix arachnoides Bell, 1827 from Madagascar, M. s. stylosa (Thapar, 1925) and M. uncinata (Drasche, 1884), parasite of Testudo graeca Linneaus, 1758, Testudo hermanni Gmelin, 1789 and Testudo horsfieldii (Gray, 1844) from Palaearctic region. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed new informations on the morphology of these species. On the basis of this morphological study, the sub-species Mehdiella stylosa dollfusi and M. s. stylosa are raised to level of species. The position of Mehdiella cristata among the species of the genus Mehdiella and the relationships among the species of the genus Mehdiella are discussed. A key to the eight valid species Mehdiella is given.

  2. Description of Alaeuris stehlini n. sp. and Alaeuris numidica canariensis n. ssp. (Nematoda, Pharyngodonidae), parasite of Gallotia stehlini, lacertid of Grand Canary Island (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero, C; Castaño, C; Zapatero, L M

    1999-03-01

    Pharyngodonid nematodes (Oxyuroidea) belonging to the genus Alaeuris Thapar, 1925, were collected from the posterior gut of Gallotia stehlini (Lacertidae) from Grand Canary Island. Two species Alaeuris stehlini n. sp. and Alaeuris numidica canariensis n. ssp. were identified. The new species is described in which the long thin males are characterized by narrow caudal alae, a rounded first pair of adanal papillae non pedunculate, the second pair attached and elongate, the three pair teated; a short narrow V plate and a relatively long caudal appendage. The females are also long and thin with a slightly salient vulva, a conical pointed caudal appendage, oesophageal length approximately one third of body, excretory pore below the oesophageal bulb. The new subspecies most closely resembles Alaeuris numidica numidica. (Seurat, 1918) Petter, 1966 and Alaeuris numidica madagascariensis Petter, 1966.

  3. Gross and fine motor function in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rasouli, Omid; Fors, Egil Andreas; Borchgrevink, Petter Chr.; Öhberg, Fredrik; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Omid Rasouli,1,2 Egil A Fors,3 Petter Chr Borchgrevink,4,5 Fredrik Öhberg,6 Ann-Katrin Stensdotter1 1Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Public Health and Nursing, General Practice Research Unit, Norwe...

  4. Lääne-Virumaad kimbutab spetsialistipõud, töötajate eest hoolitsetakse aga ülihästi / Anne Nõgu, Rainer Miltop ; interv. Tiina Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõgu, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Rakveres asuva Art Cafe omanik Anne Nõgu kohviku juhtimisest ning endast kui tööandjast. Vt. samas: Õmblusettevõttest turu nõudmisel multitegijaks. Küsimustele vastab Multi Margeri juht Rainer Miltop; Piimatööstus paistab silma stabiilsusega.

  5. Lithný granit ve vrtu Lysina-V1 v jižní části Slavkovského lesa, západní Čechy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štědrá, V.; Jarchovský, T.; Krám, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, aug (2016), s. 137-142 ISSN 0514-8057 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : geochemistry * Catchment * petrology * Slavkov Forest * core boreholes * Karlovy Vary Massif * Lysina granite * Li- and Rb-enriched granite Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  6. Leucocyte esterase dip-stick test as a point-of-care diagnostic for urogenital chlamydia in male patients: A multi-center evaluation in two STI outpatient clinics in Paramaribo and Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelsman, Menne; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; van der Helm, Jannie J.

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care (POC) tests are an important strategy to address the epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The leucocyte esterase test (LET) can be used as a POC test for chlamydia. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the LET to detect urogenital chlamydia

  7. Recentní změny polohy horní hranice lesa v temperátní a boreální části severní polokoule

    OpenAIRE

    Kolařík, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Treeline advance is often cited as one of the effects of the global climate change, especially the rise of mean temperatures. However, treeline dynamics is a complex issue. This thesis aims to describe factors that determine the position and dynamics of the alpine treeline and create an overview of treeline dynamics in the temperate and boreal parts of the Northern Hemisphere outside of Europe. A further goal is to create a database of treeline advance at locations in this region and then ana...

  8. První nález svrchněkarbonské fauny v jižní části žihelské pánve (Český masiv)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajíc, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2012, Prosinec (2013), s. 206-207 ISSN 0514-8057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Žihle Basin * Stephanian B * Mšec Member * palaeontology Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/zpravy/obsah/2012/Zpravy_2012-41.pdf

  9. Transformace folklorní látky v umělecké literatuře : případ démonologické pověsti a díla K. V. Raise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šidák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 5 (2015), s. 707-723 ISSN 0009-0468 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : folklore * demonological tale * transformation of folklore material * intertextuality * poetics * K. V. Rais Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  10. “I Do Feel Like a Scientist at Times”: A Qualitative Study of the Acceptability of Molecular Point-Of-Care Testing for Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea to Primary Care Professionals in a Remote High STI Burden Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoli, Lisa; Guy, Rebecca J.; Shephard, Mark; Causer, Louise; Badman, Steven G.; Hengel, Belinda; Tangey, Annie; Ward, James; Coburn, Tony; Anderson, David; Kaldor, John; Maher, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Point-of-care tests for chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhoea (NG) could increase the uptake and timeliness of testing and treatment, contribute to improved disease control and reduce reproductive morbidity. The GeneXpert (Xpert CT/NG assay), suited to use at the point-of-care, is being used in the TTANGO randomised controlled trial (RCT) in 12 remote Australian health services with a high burden of sexually transmissible infections (STIs). This represents the first ever routine use of a molecular point-of-care diagnostic for STIs in primary care. The purpose of this study was to explore the acceptability of the GeneXpert to primary care staff in remote Australia. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 staff (registered or enrolled nurses and Aboriginal Health Workers/Practitioners) trained and experienced with GeneXpert testing. Interviews were digitally-recorded and transcribed verbatim prior to content analysis. Results Most participants displayed positive attitudes, indicating the test was both easy to use and useful in their clinical context. Participants indicated that point-of-care testing had improved management of STIs, resulting in more timely and targeted treatment, earlier commencement of partner notification, and reduced follow up efforts associated with client recall. Staff expressed confidence in point-of-care test results and treating patients on this basis, and reported greater job satisfaction. While point-of-care testing did not negatively impact on client flow, several found the manual documentation processes time consuming, suggesting that improved electronic connectivity and test result transfer between the GeneXpert and patient management systems could overcome this. Managing positive test results in a shorter time frame was challenging for some but most found it satisfying to complete episodes of care more quickly. Conclusions In the context of a RCT, health professionals working in remote primary care in Australia found the GeneXpert highly acceptable. These findings have implications for use in other primary care settings around the world. PMID:26713441

  11. "I Do Feel Like a Scientist at Times": A Qualitative Study of the Acceptability of Molecular Point-Of-Care Testing for Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea to Primary Care Professionals in a Remote High STI Burden Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Natoli

    Full Text Available Point-of-care tests for chlamydia (CT and gonorrhoea (NG could increase the uptake and timeliness of testing and treatment, contribute to improved disease control and reduce reproductive morbidity. The GeneXpert (Xpert CT/NG assay, suited to use at the point-of-care, is being used in the TTANGO randomised controlled trial (RCT in 12 remote Australian health services with a high burden of sexually transmissible infections (STIs. This represents the first ever routine use of a molecular point-of-care diagnostic for STIs in primary care. The purpose of this study was to explore the acceptability of the GeneXpert to primary care staff in remote Australia.In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 staff (registered or enrolled nurses and Aboriginal Health Workers/Practitioners trained and experienced with GeneXpert testing. Interviews were digitally-recorded and transcribed verbatim prior to content analysis.Most participants displayed positive attitudes, indicating the test was both easy to use and useful in their clinical context. Participants indicated that point-of-care testing had improved management of STIs, resulting in more timely and targeted treatment, earlier commencement of partner notification, and reduced follow up efforts associated with client recall. Staff expressed confidence in point-of-care test results and treating patients on this basis, and reported greater job satisfaction. While point-of-care testing did not negatively impact on client flow, several found the manual documentation processes time consuming, suggesting that improved electronic connectivity and test result transfer between the GeneXpert and patient management systems could overcome this. Managing positive test results in a shorter time frame was challenging for some but most found it satisfying to complete episodes of care more quickly.In the context of a RCT, health professionals working in remote primary care in Australia found the GeneXpert highly acceptable. These findings have implications for use in other primary care settings around the world.

  12. Development of a methodology for optimization of technical specifications using PSA based techniques. Development of methodology for evaluation of STI (Surveillance Test Interval) and AOT (Allowed Outage Time) in technical specifications using PSA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong In Lee; Dae Wook Chung; Sok Chul Kim

    1997-01-01

    In Korea, continued improvement of the safety of nuclear power plants has been set as national policy for the construction and operation of NPPs. Safety Related regulatory requirements under the Korea's Atomic Energy Laws are strictly observed in the design, fabrication, construction, and operation of NPPs. Safety regulation as regulatory concepts, efficient management of regulatory organizations, and rationalization will be improved further through the improvement of regulatory systems, introduction of to technical standards. The following improvements are considered: Periodical safety reevaluation of the operating plants; licensing system allowing certification for standard design and comprehensive site approval; and severe accident policies and criteria established for next generation reactors

  13. Antisociální chování dospívajících: výsledky české části mezinárodního projektu SAHA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotková, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2011), s. 6-7 ISSN 1214-8717 R&D Project s: GA AV ČR IBS7025354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : antisocial behavior * adolescence * SAHA project Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  14. Archeologické doklady výroby z 12.-13./14. století v jihovýchodní části Brna ve vztahu k vývoji zástavby

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2012 (2011), 212-251 ISSN 1803-1749. [Forum urbes medii aevi /7./. Křtiny, 13.05.2008-16.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA404/09/1966 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Early and High Middle Ages * production * Brno Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  15. Taganttorkimine võib aktsiaturule hästi mõjuda. Ehk paneb reitingukärbe jänkisid võlga vähendama / Raivo Sormunen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sormunen, Raivo, 1976-

    2011-01-01

    Reitinguagentuur Standard & Poor's vähendas USA pikaajalise riigivõla väljavaadet stabiilselt negatiivsele ning jättis USA võlakoorma reitingu AAA-le. USA riiklik koguvõlg on 14,3 triljonit dollarit, eelarvedefitsiit ulatus 10. oktoobrist kuni 11. märtsini 829 miljardi dollarini. President Barack Obama lubas defitsiidi vähendamist

  16. Miks õpite eesti koolis ja kui hästi olete seal toime tulnud? / Daniil Savitski, Débora Brotous Alcázar, Maria Fessai, Julianna Vasilišin...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Tallinna 32. Keskkooli 11. klassi õpilane Daniil Savitski, Tartu Kivilinna Gümnaasiumi 9. klassi õpilane Débora Brotous Alcázar, Tartu Descartes'i Lütseumi 12. klassi õpilane Maria Fessai, Tartu Kivilinna Gümnaasiumi 3. klassi õpilane Maria Dolores Pérez Toribios ja Viljandi Paalalinna Gümnaasiumi 11. klassi õpilane Julianna Vasilišin

  17. Příspěvek k poznání vodních měkkýšů severní části CHKO Orlické hory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Beran

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings a review of a malacological survey of the northern part of the Orlické Hory Protected Landscape Area, situated in northwestern part of Bohemia (Czech Republic near boundary between the Czech Republic and Poland. Altogether, only 12 common species of aquatic molluscs (8 gastropods, 4 bivalves were found. Galba truncatula, Radix peregra, Ancylus fluviatilis, Pisidium personatum, and P. casertanum belong to the most frequent molluscs found during this research. Occurrence of vulnerable or endangered molluscs as well as non-native molluscs was not documented in this area.

  18. Knowledge Building in the Fields of STI (Strategic Technical Information and Geopolitics for Competitive Intelligence: A Strategic Application for the Chinese Market in the Field of Agricultural Biotechnologies in the People's Republic of China (PRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Guénec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors underline the increasing importance of Chinese scientific information. They compare the results of a request launched on Western and Chinese databases concerning Chinese scientific paper publication. Although Chinese scientists are having more and more visibility in international scientific journals, their publications in English are far fewer than those in Chinese. The difference is so drastic that it emphasizes the need for westerners (researchers and observers to access and master the use of Chinese sources of information. The aim of this paper is to define the specificity of Chinese scientific information and also to present some primary results concerning the automatic analysis of Chinese writing. Our method uses a specific core language close to the point of view of the expert and his or her knowledge that will permit accurate information retrieval from a huge quantity of documents.

  19. Assessing DSM-5-oriented level of personality functioning : Development and psychometric evaluation of the Semi-Structured Interview for Personality Functioning DSM-5 (STiP-5.1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutsebaut, J.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Feenstra, D.J.; Weekers, L.C.; De Saeger, H.

    The alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) features a Level of Personality Functioning Scale, measuring intrinsic personality processes that include identity, self-direction, empathy, and intimacy. This study describes

  20. How Setswana Cultural Beliefs and Practices on Sexuality Affect Teachers' and Adolescents' Sexual Decisions, Practices, and Experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and STI Prevention in Select Botswanan Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Paul T; Segale, Emelda

    2015-01-01

    The article reports on the aspects of a Botswana Ministry of Education and Skills Development (MoE & SD) HIV/AIDS Instructional Television (ITV) project modeled on a similar HIV/AIDS program implemented in Brazil. This Teacher Capacity Building Project (TCBP) in Botswana is in its initial years of implementation. Its overall goal is to contribute to the prevention and mitigation of the impact of HIV and AIDS by strengthening the capacity of the education and communication sectors to deliver interactive, distance HIV/AIDS education primarily to teachers so that they act as agents of behavior change among the in-school youth. One of the components of the TCBP program is a live teacher education television HIV/AIDS program called Talk Back program. Talk Back is a collaborative effort of the MoE & SD and the Botswana national television station. The Talk Back program involves development and implementation of weekly 1 hour live HIV/AIDS education interactive TV broadcasts for teachers. The development of the live programs is guided by a curriculum that provides a wide range of themes related to HIV/AIDS and education. This article reports the results of a survey of a sample of teachers and students at junior secondary schools and senior secondary schools, first, on their views and opinions regarding the Talk Back program as a TCBP. Second, how Setswana cultural beliefs, myths, and practices on sexuality affect teachers' and adolescents' sexual decisions, practices, and experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infection prevention. A questionnaire survey and focus group interviews were used as data collection instruments in selected secondary schools. The findings of the study suggest that the Talk Back program has not met much success as a TCBP. The findings further suggest that several myths, beliefs, misconceptions, and attitudes about HIV/AIDS exist among Botswana teachers and students and thus make it difficult for the Talk Back program to impart the HIV/AIDS message successfully. Therefore, there is a need for more stakeholders in HIV/AIDS education, where appropriate learning techniques are used, to bring about the desired behavioral change. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Mobilní přístup k datům z automatizačních prvků (vývoj Back-End části aplikace)

    OpenAIRE

    Habarta, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá průzkumem a popisem technologií použitých při vývoji mobilní aplikace. Dále návrhem a implementací mobilního přístupu k datům z automatizačních prvků. Aplikace pracuje se servery založenými na standardu OPC Foundation Classic. This bachelor thesis is concerning about research and description of technologies which were used for mobile application development. Design and implementation of mobile accessing of automation data is also discussed. Application works...

  2. Sonda S. Vyhodnocení části fondu ze systematického výzkumu Rudolfa Turka na akropoli libického hradiště z roku 1950

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomanová, Pavla

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 66, 1-2 (2012), s. 43-53 ISSN 0036-5335 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB800020803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Libice upon Cidlina * Early Middle Ages * stronghold * archaeological collection analyses Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  3. High burden of STI and HIV in male sex workers working as internet escorts for men in an observational study: a hidden key population compared with female sex workers and other men who have sex with men

    OpenAIRE

    Verhaegh-Haasnoot, Amanja; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Male sex work in the western countries has changed, including now a subculture of male sex workers who have paid sex with men arranged for via the internet. The men involved in this subculture do not easily identify themselves as sex workers nor as homosexual, and are therefore missed by regular health care and public health interventions. These male sex workers may form a hidden key population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, bridging towards other persons outsi...

  4. Geomorfologické projevy mladě kenozoické tektoniky v severozápadní části Milešovského středohoří

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dužár, J.; Raška, P.; Cajz, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2011, podzim (2012), s. 75-81 ISSN 0514-8057 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : České středohoří volcanic range * faults * Late Cenozoic tectonic activity * geomorphometry Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/zpravy/obsah/2011/zpravy_2011-17.pdf

  5. All projects related to | Page 450 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cities play a pivotal role in national economic growth. ... STI for Development in Asia : a Platform for Information Sharing and Learning ... that science, technology and innovation (STI) are critical elements in economic and social development.

  6. Orchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as gonorrhea or chlamydia . The rate of sexually transmitted orchitis ... sexual behaviors Multiple sexual partners Personal history of gonorrhea or another STI Sexual partner with a diagnosed ...

  7. Search Results | Page 642 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Search Results. Showing 6411 - 6420 of 9601 results. Project ... STI for Development in Asia : a Platform for Information Sharing and Learning. This project is based on the premise that science, technology and innovation (STI) are critical ...

  8. SCIENCE GRANTING COUNCILS INITIATIVE IN SUB-SAHARAN ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dorine Odongo

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... following: disbursing funds for research and development, setting and monitoring research agendas and priorities, advising governments on STI policies, managing bilateral and multilateral. STI agreements, and providing ...

  9. The efficacy of innovative technology in improving the performance of low cost housing in South Africa: A case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available condition assessment of the ST&I interventions applied (quantative analysis) and the second to obtain the views of the beneficiaries of the ST&I interventions through structured interviews (qualitative analysis). The condition assessment found...

  10. Registratie van soa en HIV consulten bij GGD-en en soa-poliklinieken: Jaarverslag 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar MJW van de; Veen MG van; Coenen AJJ; CIE

    2003-01-01

    Public health nurses at municipal health services (MHS) keep a register of patients attending the MHS or clinic for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) for diagnosis and treatment of STI or request for HIV-testing. Data are collected at a national level and are only registered for an actual STI or

  11. Effect of talker and speaking style on the Speech Transmission Index (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Houtgast, T.

    2004-01-01

    The Speech Transmission Index (STI) is routinely applied for predicting the intelligibility of messages (sentences) in noise and reverberation. Despite clear evidence that the STI is capable of doing so accurately, recent results indicate that the STI sometimes underestimates the effect of

  12. The Enterobiinae subfam. Nov. (Nematoda, Oxyurida) pinworm parasites of primates and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, J P; Gardner, S L; Morand, S

    1996-02-01

    Recent redescriptions of most members of the Oxyuridae Cobbold, 1864 parasitic in primates revealed that they share following derived characters: sexual dimorphism of lateral alae (single-crested in the males, double-crested in the females); in males a second pair of genital papillae always surrounded by strongly cuticularized rings; in females, uterine tube divided into 2 parts by a cellular wall forming a diaphragm. These characters are interpreted as synapomorphies, providing evidence that these taxa represent a monophyletic group, and we propose to classify them in a new subfamily of the Oxyuridae: the Enterobiinae subfam.nov. The Enterobiinae as recognized herein occurs in both Old World and New World Primates and rodents of the family Sciuridae (tribe Sciurini in the Holarctic region and tribe Xerini in the Ethiopian region). The new subfamily includes the following genera: Enterobius Leach, 1853; Colobenterobius Quentin, Betterton & Krishnasamy, 1979; Rodentoxyuris Quentin & Tenora 1974; Xeroxyuris Hugot, 1995; Lemuricola Chabaud & Petter, 1959; Protenterobius Inglis, 1961; Madoxyuris Chabaud, Brygoo & Petter, 1965; Trypanoxyuris Vevers, 1923; Hapaloxyuris Inglis & Cosgrove, 1965 and Paraoxyuronema Artigas, 1936. The genus Paraoxyuronema is revalidated as a subgenus of Trypanoxyuris due to its specialized buccal structures. This genus groups all pinworm nematodes specific for primates of the family Atelidae, including: P. brachytelesi Artigas, 1937 occurring in Brachyteles arachnoides; P. atelis (Cameron, 1929) occurring in Ateles spp., and P. duplicidens (Buckley, 1931) and P. lagothricis (Buckley, 1931), which are parasites of Lagothrix spp. Inglisoxyuris inglisi Chabaud, Petter & Golvan, 1961, included in the monospecific genus Inglisoxyuris and previously classified as a subgenus of the Lemuricola, does not share the characters of the new subfamily and, until its precise classification can be considered with more information, it is proposed to refer to

  13. Establishing a scientific and technical information program: Planning and resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blados, Walter R.

    1992-01-01

    In the last 50 years, technological advances have accelerated at a rate unprecedented in history. We are experiencing a tremendous expansion of scientific and technological effort in many directions, and the result is a fantastic increase in the accumulation of scientific and technical information (STI) and knowledge. An integral part of the research and development (R&D) process is the STI associated with it. STI is both a raw material (input) and a product (output) of this process. The topics addressed include the following: the value of STI, management of an STI program, program policy and guidance, organizational structure, data sources, training/orientation, and the current information environment.

  14. När autenticiteten utmanas : En föremålsundersökning och dess tänkbara konsekvenser för museiobjektet

    OpenAIRE

    Backman, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with an object donated by a group of members of the public to the Royal Armoury in Stockholm, Sweden. The donators claimed to own a horse bit that had been used by King Gustav II Adolf's mount in the battle of Lützen, where the King was killed. The bit was a gift to the donators' ancestor, the farmer and politician Petter Jönsson, from the King of Sweden, Oscar I, in the 1850's. In this paper, the donated bit is examined and found unlikely to be the bit used at Lützen. The ex...

  15. Of Climate Change and Crystal Balls: The Future Consequences of Climate Change in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Stationarity Is Dead For most of human existence, climate determined where and how we lived. Homo sapiens emerged sometime within the past half million...no. 1 ( January 2012): 35–50. 62. Schuyler Null, “ El Niño, Conflict, and Environmental Determinism: Assessing Climate’s Links to Instability,” New...Security Beat, 5 October 2011, http://www.newsecuritybeat.org/2011/10/ el -nino-conflict- and-environmental.html. 63. Ragnhild Nordås and Nils Petter

  16. "Berlinale" esimene poolaeg / Endel Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Endel

    2004-01-01

    Berliini filmifestivali mängufilme - "Tunnistaja" ("Svjedoci") : režissöör Vinko Breshan : Horvaatia, "Country of My Skull" : režissöör John Boorman : Suurbritannia, "Koletis" ("Monster") : režissöör Patty Jenkins : Ameerika Ühendriigid, "Kadunud" ("The Missing") : režissöör Ron Howard : Ameerika Ühendriigid, "Mida süda soovib" ("Something's Gotta Give") : režissöör Nancy Meyer ja "Ilus maa" ("Beautiful Country") : režissöör Hans Petter Moland : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Norra

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 57; US Scientific and Technical Information Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1996-01-01

    In fiscal year 1994, the United States government spent about $68 billion for science and technology. Although there is general agreement among policy makers that the results of this expenditure can be used to enhance technological innovation and improve economic competitiveness, there is no coherent scientific and technical information (STI) policy. The absence of a cohesive policy and STI policy framework means that the transfer and utilization of STI goes uncoordinated. This chapter examines the U.S. government's role in funding science and technology, reviews Federal STI activities and involvement in the transfer and use of STI resulting from federally-funded science and technology, presents issues surrounding the use of federally-funded STI, and offers recommendations for improving the transfer and use of STI.

  18. Could home sexually transmitted infection specimen collection with e-prescription be a cost-effective strategy for clinical trials and clinical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Diane R; Spielberg, Freya; Levy, Vivian; Lensing, Shelly; Wolff, Peter A; Venkatasubramanian, Lalitha; Acevedo, Nincoshka; Padian, Nancy; Chattopadhyay, Ishita; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2015-01-01

    Results of a recent demonstration project evaluating feasibility, acceptability, and cost of a Web-based sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and e-prescription treatment program (eSTI) suggest that this approach could be a feasible alternative to clinic-based testing and treatment, but the results need to be confirmed by a randomized comparative effectiveness trial. We modeled a decision tree comparing (1) cost of eSTI screening using a home collection kit and an e-prescription for uncomplicated treatment versus (2) hypothetical costs derived from the literature for referral to standard clinic-based STI screening and treatment. Primary outcome was number of STIs detected. Analyses were conducted from the clinical trial perspective and the health care system perspective. The eSTI strategy detected 75 infections, and the clinic referral strategy detected 45 infections. Total cost of eSTI was $94,938 ($1266/STI detected) from the clinical trial perspective and $96,088 ($1281/STI detected) from the health care system perspective. Total cost of clinic referral was $87,367 ($1941/STI detected) from the clinical trial perspective and $71,668 ($1593/STI detected) from the health care system perspective. Results indicate that eSTI will likely be more cost-effective (lower cost/STI detected) than clinic-based STI screening, both in the context of clinical trials and in routine clinical care. Although our results are promising, they are based on a demonstration project and estimates from other small studies. A comparative effectiveness research trial is needed to determine actual cost and impact of the eSTI system on identification and treatment of new infections and prevention of their sequelae.

  19. N-terminus determines activity and specificity of styrene monooxygenase reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Thomas; Scholtissek, Anika; Westphal, Adrie H; van Berkel, Willem J H; Tischler, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    Styrene monooxygenases (SMOs) are two-enzyme systems that catalyze the enantioselective epoxidation of styrene to (S)-styrene oxide. The FADH 2 co-substrate of the epoxidase component (StyA) is supplied by an NADH-dependent flavin reductase (StyB). The genome of Rhodococcus opacus 1CP encodes two SMO systems. One system, which we define as E1-type, displays homology to the SMO from Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120. The other system, originally reported as a fused system (RoStyA2B), is defined as E2-type. Here we found that E1-type RoStyB is inhibited by FMN, while RoStyA2B is known to be active with FMN. To rationalize the observed specificity of RoStyB for FAD, we generated an artificial reductase, designated as RoStyBart, in which the first 22 amino acid residues of RoStyB were joined to the reductase part of RoStyA2B, while the oxygenase part (A2) was removed. RoStyBart mainly purified as apo-protein and mimicked RoStyB in being inhibited by FMN. Pre-incubation with FAD yielded a turnover number at 30°C of 133.9±3.5s -1 , one of the highest rates observed for StyB reductases. RoStyBart holo-enzyme switches to a ping-pong mechanism and fluorescence analysis indicated for unproductive binding of FMN to the second (co-substrate) binding site. In summary, it is shown for the first time that optimization of the N-termini of StyB reductases allows the evolution of their activity and specificity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexual orientation disparities in sexually transmitted infections: examining the intersection between sexual identity and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G

    2013-02-01

    The terms MSM (men who have sex with men) and WSW (women who have sex with women) have been used with increasing frequency in the public health literature to examine sexual orientation disparities in sexual health. These categories, however, do not allow researchers to examine potential differences in sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk by sexual orientation identity. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, this study investigated the relationship between self-reported STIs and both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. Additionally, this study examined the mediating role of victimization and STI risk behaviors on the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported STIs. STI risk was found to be elevated among heterosexual-WSW and bisexual women, whether they reported same-sex partners or not, whereas gay-identified WSW were less likely to report an STI compared to heterosexual women with opposite sex relationships only. Among males, heterosexual-identified MSM did not have a greater likelihood of reporting an STI diagnosis; rather, STI risk was concentrated among gay and bisexual identified men who reported both male and female sexual partners. STI risk behaviors mediated the STI disparities among both males and females, and victimization partially mediated STI disparities among female participants. These results suggest that relying solely on behavior-based categories, such as MSM and WSW, may mischaracterize STI disparities by sexual orientation.

  1. Using an electron paramagnetic resonance method for testing motor oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krais, S; Tkac, T

    1982-01-01

    Using an ER-9 spectrometer from the Karl Zeiss company, the relative effectiveness is studied of antioxidation additives. Motor oils of the E group, M6AD, 465, M6AD, 466, M6AD 467, 15 W/40, S-3/2 M/4, R-950, which contain the antioxidation additive were tested in Petter AV-1 motors at a temperature of 50 degrees for 120 hours and Petter AVB at a temperature of 90 degrees for 53 hours. To measure the concentration of free radicals of the antioxidation additives one part of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine (I), which forms stable dimagnetic products with the radicals of the antioxidation additives was introduced into each three parts of the oil. The reduction in the intensity of the signal of I was the measure of the radical concentration. The spectrum was taken for 1 to 2 minutes. The graphs of the dependence of the electron paramagnetic resonance on the test time and the concentration of I are built. The beginning and end of the induction period of oxidation of the oils and the change in the hourly activity of the PP was recorded.

  2. Effects of temperature and sliding rate on frictional strength of granite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockner, D.A.; Summers, R.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Layers of artificial granite gouge have been deformed on saw-cut granite surfaces inclined 30?? to the sample axes. Samples were deformed at a constant confining pressure of 250 MPa and temperatures of 22 to 845??C. The velocity dependence of the steady-state coefficient of friction (??ss) was determined by comparing sliding strengths at different sliding rates. The results of these measurements are consistent with those reported by Solberg and Byerlee (1984) at room temperature and Stesky (1975) between 300 and 400??C. Stesky found that the slip-rate dependence of (??ss) increased above 400??C. In the present study, however, the velocity dependence of (??ss) was nearly independent of temperature. ?? 1986 Birkha??user Verlag.

  3. Recruitment of general practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Allan; Jensen, Cathrine Elgaard; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2016-01-01

    -factors as determinants for successfully recruiting healthcare professionals: relationships, reputation, requirements, rewards, reciprocity, resolution, and respect. Method: This is a process evaluation of the seven R-factors. We applied these factors to guide the design of our recruitment strategy as well as to make......Introduction: Health service research often involves the active participation of healthcare professionals. However, their ability and commitment to research varies. This can cause recruitment difficulties and thereby prolong the study period and inflate budgets. Solberg has identified seven R...... adjustments when recruiting general practices in a guideline implementation study. In the guideline implementation study, we studied the effect of outreach visits, quality reports, and new patient stratification tools for low back pain patients. Results: During a period of 15 months, we recruited 60 practices...

  4. Factors associated with a clinician's offer of screening HIV-positive patients for sexually transmitted infections, including syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R; Fernando, I; MacDougall, M

    2011-06-01

    This retrospective study assessed whether Quality Improvement Scotland national standards for the sexual health care offered to HIV-positive individuals are being met by the Edinburgh genitourinary (GU) medicine clinic; specifically whether HIV-positive patients are offered: (a) sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening annually and (b) syphilis testing six-monthly. The study also reviewed what factors were associated with a clinician's offer of STI screening and syphilis testing. Of the 509 patients seen within the study period, case notes documented that 64% were offered STI screens, and 69% were offered syphilis testing, results consistent with audits of services elsewhere. Sexual orientation (P offer of STI screening, while gender (P offer of syphilis testing. Our results suggest that one explanation for clinicians failing to offer STI screens and syphilis serology testing is their (implicit) risk assessment that STI testing is not required in individual patients.

  5. Analysis of Self-Heating Effects on vertical FET according to Shallow Trench Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeong, Ilho; Son, Dokyun; Kim, Hyunsuk; Kang, Myounggon; Shin, Hyungcheol

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, Self-Heating Effect (SHE) according to depth of STI was analyzed and STI thickness optimization was performed in the plate-shaped vertical field effect transistor (VFET). In case of a VFET, the path of leakage current (Ioff) is different from that of a lateral FET (LFET). As a result, Ioff of VFET is not influenced by STI depth. For this reason, the STI depth of the VFET is not needed as much as the depth needed to reduce Ioff in the LFET. As a result, if the STI depth of the VFET is reduced from 100 nm to 20 nm, which is the drain region depth doped with Arsenic, thermal resistance (Rth) is expected to be reduced by 32.19% and on current (Ion) is expected to be increased by 1.54% without affecting the Ioff as compared with STI depth of 100 nm in VFET.

  6. Storage ring free electron lasers and saw-tooth instability

    CERN Document Server

    Dattoli, Giuseppe; Migliorati, M; Palumbo, L; Renieri, A

    1999-01-01

    We show that Free Electron Lasers (FEL) operating with storage rings may counteract beam instabilities of the Saw Tooth (STI) type. We use a model based on a set of equations that couple those describing the FEL evolution to those accounting for the STI dynamics. The analysis provides a clear picture of the FEL-STI mutual feedback and clarifies the mechanisms of the instability inhibition. The reliability of the results is supported by a comparison with fully numerical codes.

  7. TWRS safety and technical integration risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordham, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety and Technical Integration (STI) programmatic risk management program are to assess, analyze, and handle risks associated with TWRS STI responsibilities and to communicate information about the actions being taken and the results to enable decision making. The objective of this TWRS STI Risk Management Plan is to communicate a consistent approach to risk management that will be used by the organization

  8. Correlates of a lifetime history of sexually transmitted infections among women who have sex with women in Toronto, Canada: results from a cross-sectional internet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Navia, Daniela; Loutfy, Mona R

    2015-06-01

    Structural drivers of sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women who have sex with women (WSW) have been underexplored. The study objective was to understand sociodemographic, individual, structural, and sexual health factors associated with a lifetime history of STI among WSW. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 to engage a peer-driven recruitment sample of WSW in Toronto, Canada. Data were collected among a convenience sample of 466 WSW using an online structured interview. Approximately one-fifth (n=89, 19.1%) of participants reported an STI diagnosis history. Participants identifying as bisexual were more likely, and lesbians less likely, to report an STI history than those identifying as queer. In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic variables, STI history was associated with intrapersonal (STI knowledge, HIV/STI risk perceptions), interpersonal (male sex partners in past 3 months, number of lifetime sexual partners) and structural (sexual stigma, history of forced sex, belief healthcare provider (HCP) uncomfortable addressing sexual orientation) factors as well as sexual healthcare uptake (ever had STI/HIV test, STI/Pap test in past 2 years). Gender-non-conforming participants were less likely to report an STI history. This research is among the first to examine intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural factors correlated with an STI history among WSW. Findings highlight the importance of STI prevention strategies for WSW to be tailored to sexual identity, with particular attention to bisexual women's needs. Interventions should connect to sexual healthcare, address sexual stigma and train HCP to better meet the needs of WSW. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. The spatial context of clinic-reported sexually transmitted infection in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Shui-Shan; Ho, King-Man; Cheung, Georgiana MT

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) in China has been on the rise in the past decade. Delineation of epidemiologic pattern is often hampered by its uneven distribution. Spatial distribution is often a neglected aspect of STI research, the description of which may enhance epidemiologic surveillance and inform service development. Methods Over a one month-period, all first time attendees of 6 public STI clinics in Hong Kong were interviewed b...

  10. Stigma associated with sexually transmissible infection testing in an online testing environment: examining the perspectives of youth in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Knight, Rod; Davis, Wendy M; Gilbert, Mark; Shoveller, Jean

    2018-02-01

    Background Online sexually transmissible infection (STI) testing is increasingly available and has shown promising results across different settings. However, evidence on how stigma associated with STI testing may be experienced by youth in the context of these online services is limited. A convenience sample of 71 youth (aged 15-24 years) both male and female was engaged through online and offline recruitment strategies in Vancouver, Canada. Through semistructured and exploratory interviews, participants were asked about their perceptions of stigma associated with STI testing in an online testing environment. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Youth came from a diverse set of sociodemographic backgrounds and most (n=46, 65%) had previously accessed STI testing in clinic-based settings. Participants' perceptions pointed to the benefits of online testing for reducing the external stigma despite the potential persistence of internalised stigma. Notions of hegemonic masculinity and emphasised femininity were also present in the participants' descriptions of the role of gender in accessing online STI testing. Online STI testing could potentially ameliorate the experiences of participants in regards to the stigma associated with STI testing; however, participants' internalised feelings of shame and stigma around testing for STI may continue to persist. Our findings underscore the need to revisit and re-evaluate existing STI testing services to provide less anxiety-inducing testing environments for youth.

  11. Stop the drama Downunder: a social marketing campaign increases HIV/sexually transmitted infection knowledge and testing in Australian gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrana, Alisa; Hellard, Margaret; Guy, Rebecca; El-Hayek, Carol; Gouillou, Maelenn; Asselin, Jason; Batrouney, Colin; Nguyen, Phuong; Stoovè, Mark

    2012-08-01

    Since 2000, notifications of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have increased significantly in Australian gay men. We evaluated the impact of a social marketing campaign in 2008-2009 aimed to increase health-seeking behavior and STI testing and enhance HIV/STI knowledge in gay men. A convenience sample of 295 gay men (18-66 years of age) was surveyed to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign. Participants were asked about campaign awareness, HIV/STI knowledge, health-seeking behavior, and HIV/STI testing. We examined associations between recent STI testing and campaign awareness. Trends in HIV/STI monthly tests at 3 clinics with a high case load of gay men were also assessed. Logistic and Poisson regressions and χ tests were used. Both unaided (43%) and aided (86%) campaign awareness was high. In a multivariable logistic regression, awareness of the campaign (aided) was independently associated with having had any STI test within the past 6 months (prevalence ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.0-2.4. Compared with the 13 months before the campaign, clinic data showed significant increasing testing rates for HIV, syphilis, and chlamydia among HIV-negative gay men during the initial and continued campaign periods. These findings suggest that the campaign was successful in achieving its aims of increasing health-seeking behavior, STI testing, and HIV/STI knowledge among gay men in Victoria.

  12. Reported sexually transmitted infections in Swedish Internet-using men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M W; Daneback, K; Mansson, S-A; Berglund, T; Tikkanen, R

    2008-06-01

    Although the Internet has become a forum for making sexual contacts, and has been associated with increased sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission, we have little information of history of STIs in Internet-based samples. The Internet behaviours that are associated with STI acquisition are poorly understood. We analysed STI histories reported by 904 Swedish men and 931 Swedish women who responded to an Internet-based survey on sexual behaviour in 2002: 16.6% of men and 22.5% of women reported a lifetime history of STIs, with Chlamydia being the most common for both genders. 3% of men and 5% of women who reported an STI, indicated that they had had more than one. Sources of the STI, where known, were Internet-acquired partners in only 3% of cases. There were no differences between men and women with or without an STI history regarding the kind of online sexual activities they engaged in, how they found sexual material online, and the reasons they engage in sexual activities. These rates are similar to those reported in a national random study of sexuality in Sweden. Contrary to prior research, these results suggest no relationship between STI and specific Internet characteristics usage patterns. These data suggest that the Internet is not yet a major source of STIs in Swedish men and women. Given these STI histories, the Internet may be a useful medium to include in STI prevention efforts.

  13. Multifunctional Metal/Polymer Composite Fiber for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Small Business Innovation Research Phase I Program, Syscom Technology, Inc. (STI) will fabricate a metallized multifunctional composite fiber from a...

  14. Stereotactic irradiation for metastatic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Ryutaro

    2017-01-01

    First, this paper reviewed the latest findings of stereotactic irradiation (STI) for metastatic brain tumors. Then, it described the results of randomized controlled trials for single or a few (2-4) metastasis in the following comparison tests: (1) comparison between whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) alone group and (WBRT + STI) group, (2) comparison between STI alone group and (STI + WBRT) group, (3) comparison between STI alone group and (tumorectomy + WBRT) group, (4) comparison between (STI + WBRT) group and (tumorectomy + WBRT) group, and (5) between (tumorectomy + WBRT) group and (tumorectomy + STI) group. Among these, STI alone without WBRT has obtained a certain consensus. Against multiple metastatic brain tumors of 5 or more, when considering cognitive impairment and QOL loss by adding WBRT, it is general consensus that STI alone may be sufficient. At the authors' institution, cyber knife (CK) was introduced in 2008 and nearly 300 stereotactic radiotherapy for metastatic brain tumors have been performed annually. By adopting a robot arm and development of a lesion tracking system, the positional correction against the deviation of the bone margin of the skull is guaranteed in real time to ensure accuracy during irradiation, and hypofractionated stereotactic irradiation becomes easier. (A.O.)

  15. Příspěvek k rozšíření ostružiníků v severní části Ještědského hřbetu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petřík, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2001), s. 49-58 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Rubus species * distribution * Ještědský hřbet Ridge Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  16. Včelařsky významné pylodárné rostliny jarního a časně letního aspektu na území severní části Blanského lesa

    OpenAIRE

    ZÍDKOVÁ, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor work dealt with determination of important plants for bee-keeping from pollen loads and the importance of pollen in honeybee nourishment. Pollen loads were collected from one honeybee colony, which stands to the south from the village of Dobčice in Blanský les Protected Landscape Area. Natural reservations of Chrášťanský vrch and Vysoká Běta are in the distance of flying range from the colony. According to the pollen grains were detected taxons of Blanský les Protected Landscape Area...

  17. Intelligent Energy Management for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles: The Role of ITS Infrastructure in Vehicle Electrification Gestion énergétique intelligente pour véhicules électriques hybrides rechargeables : rôle de l’infrastructure de systèmes de transport intelligents (STI dans l’électrification des véhicules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marano V.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The desire to reduce carbon emissions due to transportation sources has led over the past decade to the development of new propulsion technologies, focused on vehicle electrification (including hybrid, plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles. These propulsion technologies, along with advances in telecommunication and computing power, have the potential of making passenger and commercial vehicles more energy efficient and environment friendly. In particular, energy management algorithms are an integral part of plug-in vehicles and are very important for achieving the performance benefits. The optimal performance of energy management algorithms depends strongly on the ability to forecast energy demand from the vehicle. Information available about environment (temperature, humidity, wind, road grade, etc. and traffic (traffic density, traffic lights, etc., is very important in operating a vehicle at optimal efficiency. This article outlines some current technologies that can help achieving this optimum efficiency goal. In addition to information available from telematic and geographical information systems, knowledge of projected vehicle charging demand on the power grid is necessary to build an intelligent energy management controller for future plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles. The impact of charging millions of vehicles from the power grid could be significant, in the form of increased loading of power plants, transmission and distribution lines, emissions and economics (information are given and discussed for the US case. Therefore, this effect should be considered in an intelligent way by controlling/scheduling the charging through a communication based distributed control. Le désir de réduire les émissions de carbone issues des sources de transport a conduit durant la dernière décennie au développement de nouvelles technologies de propulsion, axées sur l’électrification des véhicules (comprenant les véhicules électriques hybrides, hybrides rechargeables et sur batteries. Ces technologies de propulsion, en même temps que les avancées en matière de télécommunication et de puissance de calcul, présentent le potentiel de rendre les véhicules particuliers et commerciaux plus efficaces sur le plan énergétique et plus écologiques. En particulier, les algorithmes de gestion énergétique sont partie intégrante des véhicules rechargeables et sont très importants pour atteindre les bénéfices de performances. Les performances optimales des algorithmes de gestion énergétique dépendent fortement de la capacité à prévoir la demande énergétique du véhicule. Les informations disponibles concernant l’environnement (température, humidité, vent, qualité de route, etc. et le trafic (densité du trafic, feux de circulation, etc. sont très importantes en termes de fonctionnement d’un véhicule à efficacité optimale. Le présent article passe brièvement en revue certaines technologies actuelles susceptibles d’aider à atteindre cet objectif d’efficacité optimale. En plus des informations disponibles issues des systèmes d’informations télématiques et géographiques, la connaissance de la demande de chargement projetée des véhicules sur le réseau électrique est nécessaire pour construire un dispositif de commande de gestion énergétique intelligent pour les futurs véhicules hybrides rechargeables et électriques. L’incidence du chargement de millions de véhicules à partir du réseau électrique pourrait être significative, sous forme d’une charge accrue des centrales électriques, des lignes de transmission et de distribution, des émissions et de l’aspect économique (des informations sont données et discutées dans le cas des USA. En conséquence, ces effets doivent être pris en considération d’une manière intelligente en commandant/programmant le chargement par l’intermédiaire d’un dispositif de commande répartie basé sur la communication.

  18. Otázka stáří nejvyšší části líňského souvrství (mšensko-roudnická pánev, Český masiv) – nové indicie z vrtu Be-1 Bechlín

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajíc, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2011, podzim (2012), s. 59-62 ISSN 0514-8057 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Mšeno-Roudnice Basin * Carboniferous/ Permian boundary * Líně Formation * zoopalaeontology * biostratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/zpravy/obsah/2011/zpravy_2011-13.pdf

  19. Starozákonní lekce v hlaholské části Remešského evangeliáře. Příspěvek k církevněslovanskému písemnictví středověkých Čech

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 85, 3-4 (2016), s. 303-320 ISSN 0037-6736 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22085S Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : the Glagolitic section of the Reims Gospel * Lectionary * Croatian Church Slavonic * Old Testament * Missale * textology * Croatian Glagolitic texts * Slavonic Monastery in Prague Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision OBOR OECD: Specific languages

  20. GÉnero Y GeStiÓn de rieSGoS: Una ProPUeSta deSde la EXPERIENCIA CLÍNICA EN LA COADYUVANCIA DE LA ACCIÓN PoPUlar de la MiCroCUenCa la PiCaCHa de MedellÍn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Vásquez Santamaría

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la acción popular instaurada por los acontecimientos generados por la microcuenca La Picacha, en Medellín, la Clínica Jurídica de Interés Público de la Universidad Autónoma Latinoamericana (UNAULA expone la experiencia clínica, específicamente desde la coadyuvancia con perspectiva de género, presentada en el proceso judicial. Inicialmente, el artículo hace referencia a la enseñanza clínica del Derecho como marco pedagógico y metodológico que aco- ge la experiencia. Hace también una contextualización del fenómeno judicializado, aborda el género como categoría de análisis para materializar el Estado Social de Derecho, la prevención y atención de desastres con perspectiva de género y los riesgos y daños que enfrenta una mujer en un desastre natural, para culminar con la aplicación de la perspectiva de género dentro de la intervención del caso La Picacha y algunas conclusiones.

  1. Caracterización del nivel de información sobre ITS/VIH/sida en adolescentes de la escuela secundaria básica "José Luis Arruñada" Characterization of the information level on sexual transmission infection (STI)/HIV/aids in adolescents of the "José Luis Arruñada" basic secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Fadragas Fernández; Maydelín Valdés Sánchez; Luis Manuel Fernández Machin

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: en Cuba, el Programa Nacional de Prevención y Control de las Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual y el VIH/sida, se inició desde 1986, con el objetivo fundamental de evitar que el proceso de la infección-enfermedad, se convirtiera en un importante problema de salud para la población cubana. Objetivo: caracterizar el nivel de información que sobre las ITS/VIH/sida, tienen los adolescentes que pertenecen a la escuela secundaria básica "José Luis Arruñada", correspondiente al municipi...

  2. Výpověď archeologických pramenů o prostorovém vývoji jihovýchodní části Brna ve 12.–15. století na příkladu parcely někdejšího domu Josefská 7

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Rudolf; Zůbek, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2012), s. 189-208 ISSN 0231-5823 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA404/09/1966 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : town * Brno * middle ages Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  3. Condom use and migration in a sample of Mexican migrants: potential for HIV/STI transmission Uso de condón y migración en una muestra de migrantes mexicanos: potencial para la transmisión de VIH/ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Fosados

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between condom use and migration to the United States (US in two Mexican municipalities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, non-probabilistic study of egocentric social networks was conducted in Cuauhtémoc, Colima and Tonalá, Jalisco during the months of December 2003 and January 2004, in 354 migrant subjects. Migration, sexual network, history and risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs characteristics were surveyed. Statistical analyses was conducted using logistic regression. RESULTS: Increased migration travel to the US was significantly associated with consistent condom use for Cuauhtémoc (OR: 3.87; pOBJETIVO: Analizar la asociación entre el uso del condón y la migración a Estados Unidos en dos municipios mexicanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal no probabilístico de redes sociales egocéntricas. Muestra de 354 migrantes. Cuestionario sobre prácticas y redes sexuales, historia de ITS y migración. Análisis mediante regresiones logísticas. RESULTADOS: La mayor experiencia migratoria se asoció significativamente al uso consistente del condón en Tonalá (RM: 4.12; p<.05 y Cuauhtémoc (RM: 3.87; p< .05. Otros predictores fueron: edad, tipo de pareja y percepción de la fidelidad. CONCLUSIÓN: Los datos apoyan la hipótesis de la asociación entre la migración y el uso del condón.

  4. Stanovení hranic území dotčeného projevy deformací povrchu v důsledku hlubinného dobývání uhlí v české části hornoslezské pánve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, I.; Hortvík, Karel; Konečný, Petr; Stein, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2007), s. 22-26 ISSN 1210-7697 R&D Projects: GA ČBÚ AACBU39-05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : mining induced surface deformations * Czech part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin * determination of the boundaries Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  5. Zhodnocení vlivu těžby a úpravy měděných a kobaltových rud na životní prostředí v zambijské části Copperbeltu: výsledky projektu rozvojové spolupráce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Bezuško, Petr; Pašava, J.; Adamovič, Jiří; Nyambe, I.; Liyungu, K.; Chibesakunda, F.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2006, - (2007), s. 160-162 ISSN 0514-8057 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3012103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : contamination * heavy metals * soils Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/zpravy/obsah/2006/2006-str.160-162.pdf

  6. Surovinová základna kamenné štípané industrie nositelů kultury zvoncovitých pohárů ve východní části střední Evropy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přichystal, A.; Šebela, Lubomír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2007), s. 188-198 ISSN 1802-5463. [Prírodovedné metódy v službách archeológie. Stará Lesná u Tatranské Lomnice, 05.06.2006-07.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA8001202; GA AV ČR IAA800010705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Raw materials * chipped stone industry * Bell Beaker culture * eastern central Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  7. Healthcare provider perspectives on managing sexually transmitted infections in HIV care settings in Kenya: A qualitative thematic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipruto Chesang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs has been increasing in Kenya, as is the case elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, while measures for control and prevention are weak. The objectives of this study were to (1 describe healthcare provider (HCP knowledge and practices, (2 explore HCP attitudes and beliefs, (3 identify structural and environmental factors affecting STI management, and (4 seek recommendations to improve the STI program in Kenya.Using individual in-depth interviews (IDIs, data were obtained from 87 HCPs working in 21 high-volume comprehensive HIV care centers (CCCs in 7 of Kenya's 8 regions. Transcript coding was performed through an inductive and iterative process, and the data were analyzed using NVivo 10.0. Overall, HCPs were knowledgeable about STIs, saw STIs as a priority, reported high STI co-infection amongst people living with HIV (PLHIV, and believed STIs in PLHIV facilitate HIV transmission. Most used the syndromic approach for STI management. Condoms and counseling were available in most of the clinics. HCPs believed that having an STI increased stigma in the community, that there was STI antimicrobial drug resistance, and that STIs were not prioritized by the authorities. HCPs had positive attitudes toward managing STIs, but were uncomfortable discussing sexual issues with patients in general, and profoundly for anal sex. The main barriers to the management of STIs reported were low commitment by higher levels of management, few recent STI-focused trainings, high stigma and low community participation, and STI drug stock-outs. Solutions recommended by HCPs included formulation of new STI policies that would increase access, availability, and quality of STI services; integrated STI/HIV management; improved STI training; increased supervision; standardized reporting; and community involvement in STI prevention. The key limitations of our study were that (1 participant experience and how much of their workload

  8. The effect of pre-travel advice on sexual risk behavior abroad: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croughs, Mieke; Remmen, Roy; Van den Ende, Jef

    2014-01-01

    Travelers often have casual sex abroad and the risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection (STI) associated with casual travel sex is considered to be threefold higher compared to the risk of casual sex in the home country. Consequently, international guidelines recommend including STI advice in the pre-travel consultation. We performed a systematic review on the effect of a pre-travel STI intervention on sexual risk behavior abroad. In September 2012, a systematic analysis and meta-analysis of peer reviewed literature were performed on the relation between pre-travel STI advice for travelers and sexual risk behavior abroad. Primary outcome measure consisted of the number of travelers with a new sexual partner abroad; secondary outcome measure entailed the proportion of consistent condom use. Six studies were identified for inclusion in the review, of which three clinical trials on the effect of a motivational intervention compared to standard pre-travel STI advice qualified for the meta-analysis. Two of these trials were performed in US marines deployed abroad and one in visitors of a travel clinic. The extensive motivational training program of the marines led to a reduction in sexual risk behavior, while the brief motivational intervention in the travel clinic was not superior to standard advice. The meta-analysis established no overall effect on risk behavior abroad. No clinical trials on the effect of a standard pre-travel STI discussion were found, but a cohort study reported that no relation was found between the recall of a nonstructured pre-travel STI discussion and sexual risk behavior, while the recall of reading the STI information appeared to be related to more consistent condom use. Motivational pre-travel STI intervention was not found to be superior to standard STI advice, while no clinical trials on the effect of standard pre-travel STI advice were found. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  9. Lack of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections among women in North rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Pham

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serious long-term complications of sexually transmitted infections (STI in women and newborns are well-documented. Particularly, STI imply considerable social consequences for women. Low STI knowledge has been shown to be associated with unsafe sex. In Vietnam, misconceptions regarding STI exist, and rural women delay seeking care for STI. The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge of STI among women aged 15 to 49 years in a rural district of Vietnam and to evaluate possible associations between socioeconomic factors and STI knowledge. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study using face-to-face interviews was carried out between March and May 2006 in a demographic surveillance site in rural Vietnam. In total, 1805 women aged 15–49 years were randomly selected to participate in the study. The interviews were based on a structured questionnaire including questions on sociodemographic characteristics of the women and their knowledge about STI. Each correct answer was scored 1, incorrect or do not know answer was scored 0. Multivariate analyses were applied to examine associations between socio-economic conditions and STI knowledge. Intra-cluster correlation was calculated to examine similarities of STI knowledge within clusters. Results Of the 1,805 respondents, 78% (73% married vs. 93% unmarried, p Conclusion The low levels of STI knowledge found among women of reproductive age in a rural district of Vietnam indicate an urgent need of health education interventions, of which, young and unmarried women should be specifically targeted.

  10. Lack of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections among women in North rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Pham Thi; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Mogren, Ingrid; Phuc, Ho Dang; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2009-06-06

    The serious long-term complications of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in women and newborns are well-documented. Particularly, STI imply considerable social consequences for women. Low STI knowledge has been shown to be associated with unsafe sex. In Vietnam, misconceptions regarding STI exist, and rural women delay seeking care for STI. The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge of STI among women aged 15 to 49 years in a rural district of Vietnam and to evaluate possible associations between socioeconomic factors and STI knowledge. A cross-sectional population-based study using face-to-face interviews was carried out between March and May 2006 in a demographic surveillance site in rural Vietnam. In total, 1805 women aged 15-49 years were randomly selected to participate in the study. The interviews were based on a structured questionnaire including questions on sociodemographic characteristics of the women and their knowledge about STI. Each correct answer was scored 1, incorrect or do not know answer was scored 0. Multivariate analyses were applied to examine associations between socio-economic conditions and STI knowledge. Intra-cluster correlation was calculated to examine similarities of STI knowledge within clusters. Of the 1,805 respondents, 78% (73% married vs. 93% unmarried, p married vs. 76% unmarried, p married vs. 14% unmarried, p unmarried women and women who lived in the highlands or mountainous areas demonstrated very low levels of STI knowledge (regression coefficients -1.3 and -2.5, respectively, p unmarried women should be specifically targeted.

  11. Susceptibility tensor imaging and tractography of collagen fibrils in the articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongjiang; Gibbs, Eric; Zhao, Peida; Wang, Nian; Cofer, Gary P; Zhang, Yuyao; Johnson, G Allan; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the B 0 orientation-dependent magnetic susceptibility of collagen fibrils within the articular cartilage and to determine whether susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) can detect the 3D collagen network within cartilage. Multiecho gradient echo datasets (100-μm isotropic resolution) were acquired from fixed porcine articular cartilage specimens at 9.4 T. The susceptibility tensor was calculated using phase images acquired at 12 or 15 different orientations relative to B 0 . The susceptibility anisotropy of the collagen fibril was quantified and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was compared against STI. 3D tractography was performed to visualize and track the collagen fibrils with DTI and STI. STI experiments showed the distinct and significant anisotropic magnetic susceptibility of collagen fibrils within the articular cartilage. STI can be used to measure and quantify susceptibility anisotropy maps. Furthermore, STI provides orientation information of the underlying collagen network via 3D tractography. The findings of this study demonstrate that STI can characterize the orientation variation of collagen fibrils where diffusion anisotropy fails. We believe that STI could serve as a sensitive and noninvasive marker to study the collagen fibrils microstructure. Magn Reson Med 78:1683-1690, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Pattern Of Sexually Transmitted Infections In A Reference Clinic Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A prospective study with respect to the spectrum of STIs among patients who attended the Skin/STI clinic and who were physically examined and ... of STI recorded followed by HIV/AIDS 13 (14.44%), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) 12 (13.33%), genital warts 9 (10%) and non – gonococcal urethritis (NGU), ...

  13. Factors related to sexual practices and successful sexually transmitted infection/HIV intervention programs for Latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Me; Dancy, Barbara; Florez, Elizabeth; Holm, Karyn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review was to explore factors that are related to sexual practices among Latino adolescents and identify which of those factors are common across successful sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention programs for Latino adolescents. An integrative literature review was conducted. Search terms included Latino, Hispanic, education, intervention/prevention programs, sex, sexuality, reproductive health, health risk behaviors, multiple sex partners, contraception, STI/HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, delay in initiation of sexual intercourse, consistent use of birth control, avoidance of STI/HIV infections, unintended pregnancy, cultural factors, and gender roles. Findings revealed from the review of 17 articles addressing factors related to sexual practices among Latino adolescents included familialism, religion, gender roles, level of knowledge/information, and privacy/confidentiality. Five successful STI/HIV intervention programs, that incorporated those factors to effectively reduce risky sexual behaviors were identified. STI/HIV knowledge and gender roles were recognized as common factors integrated into and across successful intervention programs for this population. Only STI/HIV knowledge and gender roles were found as common factors across the five successful STI/HIV intervention programs and should be incorporated into future intervention programs that are culturally and gender specific. Therefore, health care providers need to understand culturally related gender roles and their impact on sexual practices to provide culturally sensitive and appropriate sex education about STIs and HIV for Latino adolescents to increase the program potential for reducing STI/HIV. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get PID? Yes. ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get PID? Yes. ...

  15. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get genital herpes? ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get genital herpes? ...

  16. Trichomoniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get trichomoniasis? Yes. ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get trichomoniasis? Yes. ...

  17. Your skills are important

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    An ambitious project to compile a skills database, known as the Skills and Talents Inventory (STI), was launched at the beginning of this year. The STI is a vital tool for various aspects of human resources management. The Weekly Bulletin has interviewed Mr Andre John Naudi, CERN's Director of Finance and Human Resources, who was the initiator of the project.

  18. Uncovering molecular structural mechanisms of signaling mediated by the prion protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Sebastian A.; Linden, Rafael; Silva, Jerson L.; Foguel, Debora

    2009-01-01

    The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) - anchored prion protein (PrP c ), usually associated with neurodegenerative diseases, modulates various cellular responses and may scaffold multiprotein cell surface signaling complexes. Engagement of PrP c with the secretable cochaperone hop/STI 1 induces neurotrophic transmembrane signals through unknown molecular mechanisms. We addressed whether interaction of Pr P c and hop STI 1 entails structural rearrangements relevant for signaling. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that PrP c :hop/STI 1 interaction triggers loss of PrP helical structures, involving at least a perturbation of the Pr P c 143-153 beta-helix. Novel SAXS models revealed a significant C-terminal compaction of hop/STI 1 when bound to PrP c . Differing from a recent dimeric model of human hop/STI 1, both size exclusion chromatography and SAXS data support a monomeric form of free murine hop/STI 1. Changes in the Pr P c 143-153 beta-helix may engage the transmembrane signaling protein laminin receptor precursor and neural cell adhesion molecule, both of which bind that domain of Pr P c , and further ligands may be engaged by the tertiary structural changes of hop/STI 1. These reciprocal structural modifications indicate a versatile mechanism for signaling mediated by Pr P c :hop/STI 1 interaction, consistent with the hypothesis that Pr P c scaffolds multiprotein signaling complexes at the cell surface. (author)

  19. Federal Information: Foundation for National Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers address issues related to the dissemination of federal information to the private sector. General topics addressed include the impact of federal information policy on the flow of scientific and technical information (STI), business needs for STI, and the role of the National Technical Information Service. (13 references) (MES)

  20. South-to-South Collaboration on Genomics Innovation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Recent years have seen renewed recognition of the importance of science, technology and innovation (STI) for development. A report by the United Nations Millennium Task Force stresses that no significant gains in meeting health concerns can be achieved without a focused policy on STI. This project will examine ...

  1. Mozambique Science, Technology and Innovation Review | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to strengthen the capacity of the Mozambique Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) to govern the country's science, technology and innovation (STI) system, and of researchers and policymakers to conduct systematic reviews of STI policy implementation. It will do so by supporting a review of the ...

  2. All projects related to | Page 328 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-11-25

    This project aims to strengthen the capacity of the Mozambique Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) to govern the country's science, technology and innovation (STI) system, and of researchers and policymakers to conduct systematic reviews of STI policy implementation. Start Date: November 25, 2011. End Date: ...

  3. Impacts of Reverberation Time, Absorption Location and Background Noise on Listening Conditions in Multi Source Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saher, Konca; Rindel, Jens Holger; Nijs, Lau

    2005-01-01

    index (STI) needs to be improved. The impact of the reverberation time (RT), the distribution of the absorptive materials and the introduction of a screen on STI are discussed briefly .However, these objective parameters have to be assessed through subjective judgement. Auralizations of the multi source...

  4. Using the Speech Transmission Index for predicting non-native speech intelligibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Houtgast, T.; Steeneken, H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    While the Speech Transmission Index ~STI! is widely applied for prediction of speech intelligibility in room acoustics and telecommunication engineering, it is unclear how to interpret STI values when non-native talkers or listeners are involved. Based on subjectively measured psychometric functions

  5. Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, in the Netherlands in 2008.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijk, F.D.H.; Vriend, H.J.; Veen, M.G. van; Coul, E.L.M. Op de; Broek, I.V.F. van den; Sighem, A.I. van; Verheij, R.A.; Sande, M.A.B. van der

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis. Chlamydia was the most common bacterial sexual transmitted infection (STI) diagnosed in Dutch STI centres in 2008. Similar to previous years, infections were reported as occurring especially in young heterosexuals and men who have sex with men (MSM) in 2008, the

  6. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  7. Multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Multimedia initiative objectives for the NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) program are described. A multimedia classification scheme was developed and the types of non-print media currently in use are inventoried. The NASA STI Program multimedia initiative is driven by a changing user population and technical requirements in the areas of publications, dissemination, and user and management support.

  8. Increased sexually transmitted infection incidence in a low risk population: identifying the risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shiely, Frances

    2010-04-01

    Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.

  9. Reducing Intimate and Paying Partner Violence against Women Who Exchange Sex in Mongolia: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Catherine E.; Chen, Jiehua; Chang, Mingway; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Toivgoo, Aira; Riedel, Marion; Witte, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    Women who exchange sex for money or other goods, that is, female sex workers, are at increased risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence from both paying and intimate partners. Exposure to violence can be exacerbated by alcohol use and HIV/STI risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a HIV/STI risk reduction and…

  10. Support for Offering Sexual Health Services through School-Based Health Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michele Johnson; Barr, Elissa; Wilson, Kristina; Griner, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies document support for sexuality education in the schools. However, there is a dearth of research assessing support for sexual health services offered through school-based health clinics (SBHCs). The purpose of this study was to assess voter support for offering 3 sexual health services (STI/HIV testing, STI/HIV…

  11. Feasibility of Providing Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing and Treatment in Off-Campus, Nonclinic Settings for Adolescents Enrolled in a School-Based Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Mariam R.; Markham, Christine; Thiel, Melanie; Crandall, Stacy M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Shegog, Ross; Tortolero, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the acceptability and feasibility of using a biological outcome measure to evaluate a school-based sexuality education program. Confidential field-delivered sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing by nonmedical field staff and STI treatment by medically trained field staff was assessed in off-campus and…

  12. Governing Science, Technology and Innovation:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: As an object of public management, Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) is characterised by a high level of uncertainty and complexity. The paper argues that to cope with the phenomenon of STI as a coherent area of policy formulation and regulation, a balancing of rational-, reflexi...

  13. Kuidas me kujundame oma linnasid ja kuidas need siis meid kujundavad = How we shape our cities, and then they shape us / Andres Sevtšuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtšuk, Andres, 1981-

    2012-01-01

    Autor käsitleb hea linna parameetreid, esitades võrdelise seose: hästi kujundatud linn = hästi elavad inimesed. Vaadeldakse Beverly Hillsi, Kowloon Walled Cityt, Tallinna viimase aja muutusi jm. Artikkel põhineb Nordic Look 2012 konverentsil "Living City" peetud ettekandel

  14. Programs of the preventive interventions against sexually transmitted infections in the high-risk subpopulations

    OpenAIRE

    T. V. Krasnoselskikh; E. V. Sokolovskiy

    2017-01-01

    A review article highlights the practical issues of design, implementation and effectiveness estimation of STI prevention programs aimed to correct the behavior leading to infection. the importance of epidemiological modeling method for the organization of preventive interventions is discussed. the prospects of the multidisciplinary behavioral approach to STI prevention are demonstrated.

  15. Programs of the preventive interventions against sexually transmitted infections in the high-risk subpopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Krasnoselskikh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A review article highlights the practical issues of design, implementation and effectiveness estimation of STI prevention programs aimed to correct the behavior leading to infection. the importance of epidemiological modeling method for the organization of preventive interventions is discussed. the prospects of the multidisciplinary behavioral approach to STI prevention are demonstrated.

  16. STIP Community Listing | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Laboratory/Battelle Energy Alliance Chris Kowalczyk STI Manager (208) 526-9047 Support and Test Services, LLC. Mona Higgins Directives & Documents Dept, Supervisor (702) 295-5428 Energy Alliance Chris Kowalczyk STI Manager (208) 526-9047 christopher.kowalczyk@inl.gov Idaho National

  17. Search Results | Page 2 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-09-01

    Results 11 - 20 of 162 ... Interaction between Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Indicators and the STI Policy Agenda. Published date. September 1, 2010. Studies ... Role of design and engineering in African innovation systems-building. Published date ... Deveopment of an innovation srategy: Experiences from Africa.

  18. Demographic and behavioral characteristics of non-sex worker females attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Japan: a nationwide case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Hideko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs reported in STI surveillance increased rapidly for women in Japan during the 1990s, the sexual behavior of women potentially at risk of STI infection remains unknown. Methods In order to determine the demographic and behavioral characteristics of non-sex worker (SW females attending STI clinics, female attendees (n = 145, excluding SW, from nine clinics across Japan and female controls from the general population (n = 956, both aged 18-50 years, were compared using two data sets of nationwide sexual behavior surveys conducted in 1999. Results Although the occupation-type and education level were unrelated to STI clinic attendance in multivariate analysis, non-SW females attending STI clinics were younger (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.89, 0.99, and more likely to be unmarried (AOR = 4.11, 95% CI: 1.73, 9.77 than the controls from the general population. In the previous year, STI clinic attendees were more likely to have had multiple partnerships (AOR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.42, 6.71 and unprotected vaginal sex with regular partners (AOR = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.49, 8.64, and tended to have had their first sexual intercourse at a younger age (AOR = 1.77, 95%CI: 0.89, 3.54 and more unprotected vaginal and/or oral sex with casual partners (AOR = 2.08, 95%CI: 0.75, 5.71. Identical sexual behavior patterns were observed between the female attendees with a current diagnosis of STI (n = 72 and those before diagnosis (n = 73 and between those with a past history of STI (n = 66 and those without (n = 79. Conclusion These results indicate that not only multiple partnerships or unprotected sex with casual partners, but also unprotected vaginal sex within a regular partnership is prevalent among non-SW female STI clinic attendees. The identical sexual behavior patterns observed between female attendees with a current STI diagnosis and those without, and between those attendees

  19. Sorption of 2-Chlorophenol from aqueous solutions by functionalized cross-linked polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Martins Fráguas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the synthesis of three polymers based on styrene (STY, divinylbenzene (DVB and two different vinyl monomers: methyl methacrylate (MMA and acrylonitrile (AN. The STY-DVB, STY-DVB-MMA and STY-DVB-AN polymers were synthesized employing the aqueous suspension technique. Reaction yields were 73%, 81% and 75%, respectively. They were morphological and chemically characterized using different techniques. The extraction capacity of the polymers was evaluated using 2-chlorophenol. The polymer extraction capacities were evaluated varying contact time the (1 h, 3 h and 5 h, temperature (30 °C, 35 °C and 40 °C, and pH (3, 5.6 and 8. The STY-DVB-AN polymer was the most efficient; it removed around 95% of the analyte using a contact time 50 h.

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 11: The Voice of the User: How US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists View DoD Technical Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The project examines how the results of NASA/DOD research diffuse into the aerospace R&D process, and empirically analyzes the implications of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Specific issues considered are the roles played by government technical reports, the recognition of the value of scientific and technical information (STI), and the optimization of the STI aerospace transfer system. Information-seeking habits are assessed for the U.S. aerospace community, the general community, the academic sector, and the international community. U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists use 65 percent of working time to communicate STI, and prefer 'internal' STI over 'external' STI. The isolation from 'external' information is found to be detrimental to U.S. aerospace R&D in general.