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Sample records for sthl jonas fridman

  1. JONAS, HANS, Memorias. Por Juan Arana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Arana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Autor: Hans Jonas (2005. Editorial: Losada, Madrid. Traducción: Illana Giner Comín. Basadas en las conversaciones con Rachel Salamander. Proemiode Lore Jonas. Prólogo de Rachel Salamander. Editor: Christian Wiese. Hans Jonas forma parte, con Koestler,Popper, Heidegger o Wittgenstein, del selecto grupo de pensadores y escritores a quienes tocó vivir en primera persona gran parte de las peripecias del turbulento siglo XX. Pero, como en todo, hay diferencias.La trayectoria vital de Jonas no dibuja el perfil de una desmesura excéntrica, como la de Wittgenstein, ni de una tenaz ambición teórica, como la de Popper, ni de un lamentable olvido del prójimo, como la de Heidegger, ni de un aventurismo desquiciado, como la de Koestler.

  2. Jonas Olson's Evidence for Moral Error Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daan

    2016-01-01

    Jonas Olson defends a moral error theory in (2014). I first argue that Olson is not justified in believing the error theory as opposed to moral nonnaturalism in his own opinion. I then argue that Olson is not justified in believing the error theory as opposed to moral contextualism either (although

  3. Tobias, Rudolf: Des Jona Sendung / Olivier Opdebeeck

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Opdebeeck, Olivier

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Tobias, Rudolf: Des Jona Sendung. Pille Lill (soprano), Urve Tauts (mezzo-soprano), Peter Svensson (tenor), Raimo Laukka (baryton), Mati Palm (basse); Choeur d'Oratorio, Choeur de chambre Philharmonique d'Estonie, Choeur de garcons de Tallinn, Orchestre Symphonique d'Etat d'Estonie, Neeme Järvi" BIS CD-731/732, distribution Arcade 8000 716 (2 CD: 290F). TT: 1h 54'13"

  4. [Hans Jonas: Nature Conservation, Conservation of Life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgui Burgui, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses three of the problems that the German philosopher Hans Jonas studied. The first one addresses the need for a specific ethic dedicated to the moral dimension of environmental problems, from a different perspective to the traditional. The second problem is crucial in the discussion on environmental ethics: the value of the nature. Does the nature have an intrinsic value or an instrumental value only (to satisfy the interests of the human being)? The thesis of Jonas, which claimed that nature is a good in itself, were further elaborated here. And the third problem is the derivation of moral norms and the role of man in this ethic that recognizes a good in itself in nature. According to Jonas, the human being is not diminished by recognizing the intrinsic value of nature, since the man's uniqueness and value are unquestionable. From these three central issues, the paper highlights the importance of seeking the links between bioethics and environmental ethics to address the current environmental, social and economic crisis.

  5. Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with Wilson fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantaharju, Jarno; Drach, Vincent; Pica, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    We present a lattice study of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model using Wilson fermions. Four-fermion interactions are a natural part of several extensions of the Standard Model, appearing as a low-energy description of a more fundamental theory. In models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking...

  6. Topological solitons of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, H.; Wuensch, R.

    1989-06-01

    The baryon number one soliton solution of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model are found numerically in the mean-field approximation with full inclusion of the Dirac sea using the proper-time regularization for the underlying fermion determinant (quark loop). Explicit breaking of chiral symmetry is included by bare (current) quark masses. The obtained lowest-energy chiral soliton solutions with baryon number one carry winding number one. Fitting the parameters of the model from low-energy pion data the classical energies of these solitons are of the order of the nucleon mass. (orig.)

  7. Hans Jonas' thought on the ethics of research on human subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hans Jonas' thought on the ethics of research on human subjects and its implications for contemporary medical research in Nigeria was examined. The thinking and teachings of Hans Jonas was on the need for medical research to advance beyond the use animals for research and experimentations to research on human ...

  8. Review of the Czubek--Jonas gamma-log program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, M.

    1978-11-01

    Several gamma-ray logs were computer processed using the Czubek--Jones and DOE's MDDAT gamma-log programs. Both of these programs convert counts per second from the gamma-ray logs to percent eU 3 O 8 . The results of these programs were compared to each other and to the core analysis (percent U 3 O 8 ) of the logged boreholes. The two gamma-log programs produced similar results. The core analysis did not compare favorably with the results of either gamma-log program. This unfavorable comparison is probably due to an incorrect assumption of secular equilibrium for the ore surrounding the boreholes. The Czubek--Jonas program requires a knowledge of the linear attenuation coefficient of the rocks surrounding a borehole. This limits the usefulness of the program because this coefficient is generally not known and varies for different gamma-ray energies. It is recommended that the MDDAT program continue to be used for estimating the grade (percent eU 3 O 8 ) from gamma-log data and not be replaced by the Czubek--Jonas program

  9. EL PRINCIPIO DE RESPONSABILIDAD DE HANS JONAS O PRINCÍPIO DE RESPONSABILIDADE DE HANS JONAS HANS JONAS’ PRINCIPLE OF RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo de Siqueira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una reflexión sobre la principal obra del filósofo alemán contemporáneo, Hans Jonas. Muestra la trayectoria intelectual de Jonas hasta llegar al rescate de la ética de la responsabilidad, que Max Weber sugiere en obras de comienzos del siglo. El Principio de la Responsabilidad de Jonas es una evaluación sumamente crítica de la ciencia moderna y de su "brazo armado", la tecnología. El filósofo muestra la necesidad que el ser humano tiene de actuar con cautela y humildad frente al enorme poder transformador de la tecnocienciaEste trabalho é uma reflexão sobre a principal obra do filósofo alemão contemporâneo, Hans Jonas. Apresenta a trajetória intelectual de Jonas até o resgate da ética da responsabilidade que Max Weber sugere em obras do começo do século XX. O Princípio da Responsabilidade de Jonas é uma apreciação extremamente crítica da ciência moderna e de seu "braço armado", a tecnologia. O filósofo mostra que é necessário o ser humano agir com cautela e humildade ante o enorme poder transformador da tecnociênciaThis paper is a reflection on the main work of the german philosopher Hans Jonas. It shows his intellectual trajectory till the point of the rescueing of the ethics of responsibility, suggested in Max Weber ’s works of the beginning of this century. Jonas’ principle of responsibility is an extremely critical analysis of modern science and its principal "armed arm", technology. The philosopher expounds the need all human beings have to act with caution and humility in face of the tremendous transforming power technoscience posseses

  10. Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in a parallel electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingxiao; Cao, Gaoqing; Huang, Xu-Guang; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2018-05-01

    We explore the features of the UA (1) and chiral symmetry breaking of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model without the Kobayashi-Maskawa-'t Hooft determinant term in the presence of a parallel electromagnetic field. We show that the electromagnetic chiral anomaly can induce both finite neutral pion condensate and isospin-singlet pseudo-scalar η condensate and thus modifies the chiral symmetry breaking pattern. In order to characterize the strength of the UA (1) symmetry breaking, we evaluate the susceptibility associated with the UA (1) charge. The result shows that the susceptibility contributed from the chiral anomaly is consistent with the behavior of the corresponding η condensate. The spectra of the mesonic excitations are also studied.

  11. Hans Jonas' thought on the ethics of research on human subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    use animals for research and experimentations to research on human subjects. Jonas upholds the ..... examples of ethical theory, the less said about it the better. But what is allowable .... Also, man seeks self-gratification and self- promotion.

  12. A proposal of a renormalizable Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo Montes de Oca, Alejandro

    2018-03-01

    A local and gauge invariant gauge field model including Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) and QCD Lagrangian terms in its action is introduced. Surprisingly, it becomes power counting renormalizable. This occurs thanks to the presence of action terms which modify the quark propagators, to become more decreasing that the Dirac one at large momenta in a Lee-Wick form, implying power counting renormalizability. The appearance of finite quark masses already in the tree approximation in the scheme is determined by the fact that the new action terms explicitly break chiral invariance. In this starting work we present the renormalized Feynman diagram expansion of the model and derive the formula for the degree of divergence of the diagrams. An explanation for the usual exclusion of the added Lagrangian terms is presented. In addition, the primitíve divergent graphs are identified. We start their evaluation by calculating the simpler contribution to the gluon polarization operator. The divergent and finite parts both result transverse as required by gauge invariance. The full evaluation of the various primitive divergences, which are required for completely defining the counterterm Feynman expansion will be considered in coming works, for further allowing to discuss the flavour symmetry breaking and unitarity.

  13. Hans Jonas: The Principle Responsability, Limits of Research (? and Nanotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Santos Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study intends to carry out the reading of the responsibility principle and the new ethical model narrated by Hans Jones to nanotechnology context. Study the historical context of political and economic development and the interrelations with technological development, visiting the transformation of homo sapiens - homo faber - homo tecnologicus. Check if operating at the nanoscale, comprised in the billionth of meter, has elements that may indicate possible damage that might compromise or offer risks to the exercise of rights for future generations. Therefore, we intend to find points of convergence between the management of the potential risks of nanotechnologies and the new ethical model proposed by Hans Jonas in his work "The principle responsibility test an ethics for technological civilization". The study sheds bases in the work cited as theoretical foundation for the study and is based on the notion of risk proposed by Niklas Luhmann, and uses the method of literature refers to these works as well as published articles involving the topics covered.

  14. Als Jona drei Tage im Walfisch war oder: Vom Zähneputzen!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballhorn, Egbert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper takes a case study about a correlatively oriented teaching unit on Jona in primary school as its starting point. This case study clearly shows the difficulties which correlative Bible Didactics have to face. However, it also illustrates the chances of working with the book of Jona on an intertextual basis. Based on this case study, the theoretical main features of intertextual exegesis shall be presented here. This should then lead to the development of requirements and challenges for intertextually oriented learning processes.

  15. Jona Willem te Water (1740-1822) : historicus en theoloog tussen traditie en Verlichting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Jacobus Daniël de

    2008-01-01

    Jona Willem te Water (1740-1822), a professor at Leiden University, was a man of influence in the Dutch Reformed Church, in many learned societies, in academic theology, and in Dutch historiography. He started his career as a Reformed minister in the province of Zeeland. His main historiographical

  16. QCD-motivated Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with quark and gluon condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Volkov, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic study of the role of the nonperturbative gluon condensate arising in a QCD-motivated Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model is presented. The effects of the gluon condensate on induced meson couplings, the pion decay constant, quark condensate and mass formulae are investigated. An interesting result is the change of the scale Λ of chiral symmetry breaking and of the universal four-quark coupling constant κ. 20 refs

  17. Pion transverse momentum dependent parton distributions in the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguera, Santiago [Departament de Fisica Teòrica and IFIC, Universitat de València - CSIC,E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Scopetta, Sergio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università degli Studi di Perugia,via A. Pascoli, I - 06123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, via A. Pascoli, I - 06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2015-11-16

    An explicit evaluation of the two pion transverse momentum dependent parton distributions at leading twist is presented, in the framework of the Nambu-Jona Lasinio model with Pauli-Villars regularization. The transverse momentum dependence of the obtained distributions is generated solely by the dynamics of the model. Using these results, the so called generalized Boer-Mulders shift is studied and compared with recent lattice data. The obtained agreement is very encouraging, in particular because no additional parameter has been introduced. A more conclusive comparison would require a precise knowledge of the QCD evolution of the transverse momentum dependent parton distributions under scrutiny.

  18. Condensation energy of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio vacuum and the MIT bag constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.; Bhalerao, R.S.; Bhaduri, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the energy densities of the vacuum in the Wigner and the Goldstone modes of the Nambu- Jona-Lasinio Hamiltonian are calculated. The difference of these two quantities is analogous to the condensation energy of a BCS superconductor, and is used here to estimate the temperature dependence of the MIT bag constant. The formalism of da Providencia et al is generalized to finite temperatures, yielding the same gap equation as the finite- temperature field theory. The thermodynamics of the vacuum in the two phases is studied

  19. Thermodynamics of strongly interacting system from reparametrized Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Maity, Soumitra; Raha, Sibaji; Ray, Rajarshi; Saha, Kinkar; Upadhaya, Sudipa

    2017-01-01

    The Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model has been quite successful in describing various qualitative features of observables for strongly interacting matter, that are measurable in heavy-ion collision experiments. The question still remains on the quantitative uncertainties in the model results. Such an estimation is possible only by contrasting these results with those obtained from rst principles using the lattice QCD framework. Recently a variety of lattice QCD data were reported in the realistic continuum limit. Here we make a first attempt at reparametrizing the model so as to reproduce these lattice data

  20. Regularization dependence on phase diagram in Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohyama, H.; Kimura, D.; Inagaki, T.

    2015-01-01

    We study the regularization dependence on meson properties and the phase diagram of quark matter by using the two flavor Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model. The model also has the parameter dependence in each regularization, so we explicitly give the model parameters for some sets of the input observables, then investigate its effect on the phase diagram. We find that the location or the existence of the critical end point highly depends on the regularization methods and the model parameters. Then we think that regularization and parameters are carefully considered when one investigates the QCD critical end point in the effective model studies

  1. Bosonization of the generalized SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the 1/N expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Francisco Antonio Pena

    1995-01-01

    The present work consists in a 1/N expansion of extended version of the SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the context of the Functional Integral. The gap equations, meson propagators, triangle diagram, etc, appear quite naturally as different orders in the expansion. The new features of this approach is the inclusion of high order corrections in the 1/N leading orders, which have never included in the previous one. The method also allows for the construction of a chiral Lagrangian of interacting mesons based on the SU(3) NJL model, here obtained for the first time. (author)

  2. Monte Carlo simulations of hadronic fragmentation functions using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-jet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Thomas, Anthony W.; Bentz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The recently developed Nambu-Jona-Lasinio--jet model is used as an effective chiral quark theory to calculate the quark fragmentation functions to pions, kaons, nucleons, and antinucleons. The effects of the vector mesons ρ, K * , and φ on the production of secondary pions and kaons are included. The fragmentation processes to nucleons and antinucleons are described by using the quark-diquark picture, which has been shown to give a reasonable description of quark distribution functions. We incorporate effects of next-to-leading order in the Q 2 evolution, and compare our results with the empirical fragmentation functions.

  3. The stability of nuclear matter in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, W. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Thomas, A.W. E-mail: athomas@physics.adelaide.edu.au

    2001-12-17

    Using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model to describe the nucleon as a quark-diquark state, we discuss the stability of nuclear matter in a hybrid model for the ground state at finite nucleon density. It is shown that a simple extension of the model to simulate the effects of confinement leads to a scalar polarizability of the nucleon. This, in turn, leads to a less attractive effective interaction between the nucleons, helping to achieve saturation of the nuclear matter ground state. It is also pointed out that that the same effect naturally leads to a suppression of 'Z-graph' contributions with increasing scalar potential.

  4. Ethical foundation of the sustainable development in kant, habermas and hans jonas

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Sérgio Xavier de; Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL; Pinheiro, Ana Cláudia Duarte; Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL

    2010-01-01

    A possibilidade de desenvolvimento econômico associado à preservação ambiental é questão relevante para as sociedades contemporâneas. O desenvolvimento sustentável fundamenta-se em questões de conteúdo ético que transcendem aspectos legais, econômicos e políticos. É objetivo deste artigo investigar, em Immanuel Kant, Jürgen Habermas e Hans Jonas, as bases éticas justificadoras do desenvolvimento sustentável. Em Kant, o imperativo categórico, a valorização da universalidade das ações, e a comp...

  5. Properties of vector and axial-vector mesons from a generalized Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, V.; Meissner, U.G.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1988-01-01

    We construct a generalized Nambu-Jona-Lasinio lagrangian including scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons. We specialize to the two-flavor case. The properties of the structured vacuum as well as meson masses and coupling constants are calculated giving an overall agreement within 20% of the experimental data. We investigate the meson properties at finite density. In contrast to the mass of the scalar σ-meson, which decreases sharply with increasing density, the vector meson masses are almost independent of density. Furthermore, the vector-meson-quark coupling constants are also stable against density changes. We point out that these results imply a softening of the nuclear equation of state at high densities. Furthermore, we discuss the breakdown of the KFSR relation on the quark level as well as other deviations from phenomenological concepts such as universality and vector meson dominance. (orig.)

  6. Shear viscosities from Kubo formalism in a large-Nc Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Robert Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    The quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC is a hot and dense state of strongly correlated matter. It behaves like an almost-perfect fluid featuring a small ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density. In this thesis we calculate within a two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model the shear viscosity as function of temperature and chemical potential. A new Kubo formula is developed, incorporating the full Dirac structure of the quark spectral function and avoiding commonly used on-shell approximations. Mesonic fluctuations occurring at Fock level provide the dominant dissipative process. The resulting parameter-free ratio is an overall decreasing function of temperature and chemical potential. In combination with hard-thermal-loop results we nd this ratio to feature a minimum slightly above the AdS/CFT benchmark.

  7. Thermo-magnetic effects in quark matter: Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model constrained by lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Ricardo L.S. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Kent State University, Physics Department, Kent, OH (United States); Timoteo, Varese S. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Grupo de Optica e Modelagem Numerica (GOMNI), Faculdade de Tecnologia, Limeira, SP (Brazil); Avancini, Sidney S.; Pinto, Marcus B. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Fisica, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Krein, Gastao [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    The phenomenon of inverse magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry in QCD predicted by lattice simulations can be reproduced within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model if the coupling G of the model decreases with the strength B of the magnetic field and temperature T. The thermo-magnetic dependence of G(B, T) is obtained by fitting recent lattice QCD predictions for the chiral transition order parameter. Different thermodynamic quantities of magnetized quark matter evaluated with G(B, T) are compared with the ones obtained at constant coupling, G. The model with G(B, T) predicts a more dramatic chiral transition as the field intensity increases. In addition, the pressure and magnetization always increase with B for a given temperature. Being parametrized by four magnetic-field-dependent coefficients and having a rather simple exponential thermal dependence our accurate ansatz for the coupling constant can be easily implemented to improve typical model applications to magnetized quark matter. (orig.)

  8. Hadronic decays of tau-leptons in the extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostunin, Dmitriy [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik (IKP); Volkov, Mikhail; Arbuzov, Andrey [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Modern experiments have collected large statistics on tau-lepton decays and electron-positron annihilation into light hadrons. Therefore it is worthwhile to confront the experimental results with the corresponding theoretical predictions. The extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model is a good candidate for the theoretical description of these processes. Excited states of mesons in this version of the NJL model are described with the help of polynomial form-factors with minimal number of parameters. We worked out decays and cross-sections with ππ, ππ(1300), ωπ, ηπ, η'π, ηππ, η'ππ final states. Our calculations are in satisfactory agreement with the existing experimental results. Predictions for branching ratios of suppressed decays were obtained and compared with previous theoretical estimates.

  9. Calculating kaon fragmentation functions from the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio jet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Thomas, Anthony W.; Bentz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL)-jet model provides a sound framework for calculating the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory, where the momentum and isospin sum rules are satisfied without the introduction of ad hoc parameters. Earlier studies of the pion fragmentation functions using the NJL model within this framework showed qualitative agreement with the empirical parametrizations. Here we extend the NJL-jet model by including the strange quark. The corrections to the pion fragmentation functions and corresponding kaon fragmentation functions are calculated using the elementary quark to quark-meson fragmentation functions from NJL. The results for the kaon fragmentation functions exhibit a qualitative agreement with the empirical parametrizations, while the unfavored strange quark fragmentation to pions is shown to be of the same order of magnitude as the unfavored light quark. The results of these studies are expected to provide important guidance for the analysis of a large variety of semi-inclusive data.

  10. Shear viscosities from Kubo formalism in a large-Nc Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Robert; Kaiser, Norbert; Weise, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    In this work the shear viscosity of strongly interacting matter is calculated within a two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model as a function of temperature and chemical potential. The general Kubo formula is applied, incorporating the full Dirac structure of the thermal quark spectral function and avoiding commonly used on-shell approximations. Mesonic fluctuations contributing via Fock diagrams provide the dominant dissipative processes. The resulting ratio η/s (shear viscosity over entropy density) decreases with temperature and chemical potential. Interpolating between our NJL results at low temperatures and hard thermal loop results at high temperatures a minimum slightly above the AdS/CFT benchmark η/s = 1/4τ is obtained. (orig.)

  11. Relation between the Lee-Wick and Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models of chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevansky, S.P.; Lemmer, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The connection between the sigma model of Lee and Wick and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model is discussed. It is shown that the sigma field potential of the linear Lee-Wick model is identical in form with the variation of the vacuum energy of the NJL system with the baryonic scalar density n s . The sigma field is proportional to n s . Furthermore, the coupling constant and mass of this σ field are fully determined by the NJL model version of the Goldberger-Treiman relation. It is shown further that the restoration of chiral symmetry with increasing baryonic density always occurs via a second order transition in the NJL model, while it is necessarily of first order in the associated linear Lee-Wick model. (orig.)

  12. Milliseid mõtteid tekitas konverents "Tsensuur meedias ja kunstis"? / Jonas Valatkevicius, Jevgeni Tsymbal, Mark Soosaar...[jt.] ; interv. Grete Naaber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Vilniuse kunstikeskuse kuraator Jonas Valatkevicius, Moskva filmirežissöör Jevgeni Tsymbal, Mark Soosaar, Albaania kunstigalerii juhataja Gezim Qendro, BBC ajakirjanik Tiina Tamman

  13. [Responsibility: Towards a fifth principle in blood transfusion's ethics. Applicability and limits of Hans Jonas's responsibility principle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nélaton, C

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, in France, anonymity, gratuity, volunteering, non-profit are recognized as ethical principles in blood transfusion. Can we add responsibility to this list? Can a logo named "Responsiblood" efficiently encourage blood donation? This article explores Hans Jonas's reform of the responsibility concept in order to measure its applicabilities and limits in the field of blood transfusion. Indeed, this concept - rethought by Jonas - seems to be a good encouragement which avoids the pitfalls of the concept of duty and of the idea of payment for blood donation. But can't we also see in this reform a threat to blood transfusion because of technophobia and the heuristics of fear that it involves? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The ethics of human condition in the age of technological civilization. Back and forth with Heidegger and Jonas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Luzia Miranda

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethical dimension of the human condition in our times takes increasingly more space in current philosophical discussions. In this context, the ethical principle of responsibility has been widely discussed, particularly by authors who work on the ethical implications of modern technology. In his essay on ethics for the technological age, Hans Jonas proposes to base ethics on a principle of responsibility, taking into account that we live in the age of technological civilization. The present paper explores the origins and sources of Jonas’ principle of responsibility, focusing on the influence of his teacher Martin Heidegger on Jonas’s work. The paper analyses the intrinsic and intriguing relationship between Heidegger’s ontological concept of “care” [Sorge] and the idea or responsibility in Jonas, and it examines further the current discussion on the possibility of an ethical foundation for the techno scientific civilization. Keywords:  Philosophy of technology; Éthics and technology; Ontology; Martin Heidegger; Hans Jonas.

  15. Collective modes of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model with an external U(1) gauge field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevansky, S.P.; Jaenicke, J.; Lemmer, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of external color fields on the collective modes of the SU L (2)xSU R (2) chiral flavor version of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model is studied analytically in a U(1) approximation to the gauge fields. We show that the scalar and pseudoscalar modes respond differently to external chromomagnetic and -electric fields. In the former case, in which chiral asymmetry is enhanced, the modes remain well separated and vary slowly with the field, while in the latter case the scalar mode drops rapidly to become degenerate with the pseudoscalar mode in the chiral limit. In this regime, both modes are weakly coupled to quark matter, and the pseudoscalar pion mode in particular survives as a well-defined excitation as it enters the pair continuum. The Goldberger-Treiman relation, which is shown to hold in the presence of external fields, is responsible for this behavior. Chromoelectric and -magnetic polarizabilities are seen to be equal and opposite with absolute values β σ =2.0α s and β π =0.03α s for the scalar and pseudoscalar modes respectively

  16. Quark matter and quark stars at finite temperature in Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Wang, Bin; Dong, Yu-Min; Jia, Yu-Yue; Wang, Shu-Mei; Ma, Hong-Yang [Qingdao Technological University, School of Science, Qingdao (China); Li, Xiao-Hua [University of South China, School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Hengyang (China); University of South China, Cooperative Innovation Center for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology and Equipment, Hengyang (China)

    2017-08-15

    We extend the SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model to include two types of vector interaction. Using these two types of vector interaction in NJL model, we study the quark symmetry free energy in asymmetric quark matter, the constituent quark mass, the quark fraction, the equation of state (EOS) for β-equilibrium quark matter, the maximum mass of QSs at finite temperature, the maximum mass of proto-quark stars (PQSs) along the star evolution, and the effects of the vector interaction on the QCD phase diagram. We find that comparing zero temperature case, the values of quark matter symmetry free energy get larger with temperature increasing, which will reduce the difference between the fraction of u, d and s quarks and stiffen the EoS for β-equilibrium quark matter. In particular, our results indicate that the maximum masses of the quark stars increase with temperature because of the effects of the quark matter symmetry free energy, and we find that the heating(cooling) process for PQSs will increase (decrease) the maximum mass within NJL model. (orig.)

  17. Color superconductivity in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model complemented by a Polyakov loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanquier, Eric

    2017-06-15

    The color superconductivity is studied with the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model. This one is coupled to a Polyakov loop, to form the PNJL model. A μ-dependent Polyakov loop potential is also considered (μPNJL model). An objective is to detail the analytical calculations that lead to the equations to be solved, in all of the treated cases. They are the normal quark (NQ), 2-flavor color-superconducting (2SC) and color-flavor-locked (CFL) phases, in an SU(3){sub f} x SU(3){sub c} description. The calculations are performed according to the temperature T, the chemical potentials μ{sub f} or the densities ρ{sub f}, with or without the isospin symmetry. The relation between the μ{sub f} and ρ{sub f} results is studied. The influence of the color superconductivity and the Polyakov loop on the found data is analyzed. A triple coincidence is observed at low T between the chiral restoration, the deconfinement transition described by the Polyakov loop and the NQ/2SC phase transition. Furthermore, an sSC phase is identified in the ρ{sub q}, ρ{sub s} plane. Possible links between certain of the obtained results and physical systems are pointed out. (orig.)

  18. Symmetry energy and neutron star properties in the saturated Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Na Wei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we adopt the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio (NJL model that ensures the nuclear matter saturation properties to study the density dependence of the symmetry energy. With the interactions constrained by the chiral symmetry, the symmetry energy shows novel characters different from those in conventional mean-field models. First, the negative symmetry energy at high densities that is absent in relativistic mean-field (RMF models can be obtained in the RMF approximation by introducing a chiral isovector–vector interaction, although it would be ruled out by the neutron star (NS stability. Second, with the inclusion of the isovector–scalar interaction the symmetry energy exhibits a general softening at high densities even for the large slope parameter of the symmetry energy. The NS properties obtained in the present NJL model can be in accord with the observations. The NS maximum mass obtained with various isovector–scalar couplings and momentum cutoffs is well above the 2M⊙, and the NS radius obtained well meets the limits extracted from recent measurements. In particular, the significant reduction of the canonical NS radius occurs with the moderate decrease of the slope of the symmetry energy.

  19. The tourist gaze 3.0 (John Urry y Jonas Larsen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Carmona Zubiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tercera edición del clásico de la Sociología del turismo en habla inglesa The tourist gaze (19901, de John Urry, incorporando esta vez al joven académico danés Jonas Larsen como coautor. Esta nueva edición, además de revisar y actualizar datos y contenido de las dos anteriores, aporta tres capítulos nuevos dedicados al análisis de las representaciones y puestas en escena de los turistas, la fotografía y el mundo virtual, así como a los riesgos de futuro relacionados con el turismo. De esta manera, el volumen se estructura en nueve capítulos, cada uno de los cuales correspondiente a un enfoque analítico distinto sobre el concepto de la «mirada del turista», con sus propias introducciones, apartados y conclusiones, pero sin introducción ni conclusión general o epílogo que vertebre la obra de principio a fin.

  20. The SU(3)-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio soliton in the collective quantization formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotz, A.; Goeke, K.; Diakonov, D.; Petrov, V.; Pobylitsa, P.V.; Park, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    On grounds of a semibosonized Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, which has SU(3) R circle-times SU(3) L -symmetry in the chiral limit, mass splittings for spin 1/2 and spin 3/2 baryons are studied in the presence of an explicit chiral symmetry breaking strange quark mass. To this aim these strangeness carrying baryons are understood as SU(3)-rotational excitations of an SU(2)-embedded soliton solution. Therefore, within the framework of collective quantization, the fermion determinant with the strange quark mass is expanded up to the second order in the flavor rotation velocity and up to the first order in this quark mass. Besides the strange and non-strange moments of inertia, which have some counterparts within the Skyrme model, some so-called anomalous moments of inertia are obtained. These call be related to the imaginary part of the effective Euclidian action and contain among others the anomalous baryon current. This is shown in a gradient expansion up to the first non-vanishing order. Together with the Σ-commutator these are the solitonic ingredients of the collective hamiltonian, which is then diagonalized by means of strict perturbation theory in the strange quark mass and by the Yabu-Audo method. Both methods yield very good results for the masses of the spin 1/2 and 3/2 baryons. The former one reproduces some interesting mass formulas of Gell-Mann Okubo and Guadagnini and the latter one is able to describe the mass splittings up to a few MeV

  1. Coupled-channel dynamics in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celenza, L.S.; Pantziris, A.; Shakin, C.M.; Szweda, J.

    1993-01-01

    We study the scalar-isoscalar sector of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model and extend the model to include a description of the coupling of the quark-antiquark states to the two-pion continuum. The q bar q interaction gives rise to a sigma meson, which takes on a width and energy shift that depends upon the strength of the coupling for q+bar q→π+π. (For weak channel coupling, the resonance is located at the mass of the sigma, m σ congruent 2m q cons , where m q cons is the constituent quark mass of the NJL model.) We consider two models for the q bar q→ππ coupling. In the first model, we find a low-energy resonance, with the resonance energy E R ≤2m q cons . We then see that the values, obtained from the analysis of experimental data, of the scalar-isoscalar phase shift describing ππ scattering δ 0 0 , are not compatible with the existence of a low-mass sigma. In the second model, the resonance is pushed upward into the region of the two-quark continuum, E R >2m q cons . This second model provides an example of a phenomenon where the behavior of the q bar q T matrix is parametrized for q 2 ≤0 by a mass that is smaller than the physical mass that characterizes the pole in the T matrix. The behavior of the second model suggests how the absence of experimental evidence for a low-mass sigma may be reconciled with the importance of such a meson in nuclear structure studies

  2. Bosonization of the generalized SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the 1/N expansion; Bosonizacao do modelo de Nambu-Jona-Lasinio SU(3) generalizado na expansao 1/N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Francisco Antonio Pena

    1995-12-31

    The present work consists in a 1/N expansion of extended version of the SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the context of the Functional Integral. The gap equations, meson propagators, triangle diagram, etc, appear quite naturally as different orders in the expansion. The new features of this approach is the inclusion of high order corrections in the 1/N leading orders, which have never included in the previous one. The method also allows for the construction of a chiral Lagrangian of interacting mesons based on the SU(3) NJL model, here obtained for the first time. (author) 32 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Renormalization of the Nambu-Jona Lasinio model and spontaneously broken Abelian Gauge model without fundamental scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyderman, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schwinger-Dyson equation for the Nambu-Jona Lasinio model is solved systematically subject to the constraint of spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. The solution to this equation generates interactions not explicitly present in the original Lagrangian, and the original 4-fermion interaction is not present in the solution. The theory creates bound-states with respect to which a perturbation theory consistent with the chiral symmetry is set up. The analysis suggests that this theory is renormalizable in the sense that all divergences can be grouped into a few arbitrary parameters. The renormalized propagators of this model are shown to be identical to those of a new solution to the sigma-model in which the bare 4-field coupling lambda 0 is chosen to be twice the π-fermion coupling g 0 . Also considered is spontaneously broken abelian gauge model without fundamental scalar fields by coupling an axial vector gauge field to the N ambu-Jona Lasinio model. It is shown how the Goldstone consequence of spontaneous symmetry breaking is avoided in the radiation gauge, and verify the Guralnik, Hagen, and Kibble theorem that under these conditions the global charge conservation is lost even though there is still local current conservation. This is contrasted with the Lorentz gauge situation. This also demonstrated the way the various noncovariant components of the massive gauge field combine in a gauge invariant scattering amplitude to propagate covariantly as a massive spin-1 particle, and this is compared with the Lorentz gauge calculation. F inally, a new model of interacting massless fermions is introduced, based on the models of Nambu and Jona Lasinio, and the Bjorken, which spontaneously breaks both chiral symmetry and Lorentz invariance. The content of this model is the same as that of the gauge model without fundamental scalar fields, but without fundamental gauge fields as well

  4. Muusikamaailm. Magnus Lindbergi festivali jätk. Jonas Forsell taas ooperijuhiks. Marcello Panni uus ooper. György Kurtagile Sonningi preemia. Peter Gradenwitz lahkunud / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2002-01-01

    Soome helilooja Magnus Lindbergi mitmeid teoseid esitatakse Inglismaal. Rootsi heliloojast Jonas Forsellist sai jaanuaris Kopenhaageni trupi Den Anden Opera kunstiline juht. Firenzes tuli esiettekandele Marcello Panni uus ooper "The Banquet ئ Talking about Love". Helilooja György Kurtag pälvis Taani 2003.a. Leonie Sonningi muusikapreemia. 91aastasena suri muusikateadlane Peter Gradenwitz

  5. Anomalous decay f1(1285 )→π+π-γ in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, A. A.; Volkov, M. K.

    2018-04-01

    Using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with the U (2 )×U (2 ) chiral symmetric effective four-quark interactions, we derive the amplitude of the radiative decay f1(1285 )→π+π-γ , find the decay width Γ (f1→π+π-γ )=346 keV and obtain the spectral dipion effective mass distribution. It is shown that in contrast to the majority of theoretical estimates (which consider the a1(1260 ) meson exchange as the dominant one), the most relevant contribution to this process is the ρ0-resonance exchange related with the triangle f1ρ0γ anomaly. The spectral function is obtained to be confronted with the future empirical data.

  6. Chiral symmetry in the strong color-electric field in terms of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suganuma, Hideo

    1990-01-01

    We examine the behavior of chiral symmetry in an external gluon field using Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, which is an effective theory of QCD. The Dyson equation for the dynamical quark mass in the presence of the external color-electric field is obtained. By solving it in the color flux tube inside mesons, chiral symmetry would be restored in the flux tube of mesons and this result supports Chiral Bag picture for mesons. Next we consider the flux tubes formed in the central region for ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and find the chiral restoration occurs there, so that the current quark mass seems to be suitable in calculating the q-q-bar pair creation rate by the Schwinger formula in the flux-tube picture. (author)

  7. A renovação da teleologia em Hans Jonas: da biologia filosófica aos fundamentos da ética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendell Evangelista Soares Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to elucidate the renewal of teleology in the thought of Hans Jonas showing how it takes up two central functions, namely: to think a philosophical biology – or ontology – that more accurately meets the construction of a coming-to-be and psychophysical universe; and to think the ought-to-be of humanity as the telos and absolute value in the evolutionary process of Being. To accomplish our goal, we explain first that what Jonas calls the “riddle of subjectivity” is the basic problem of ontology, and that modern philosophy fails to respond to it, thus requiring a rehabilitation – and renewal – of a teleological conception of being. Then we will show that this renewal of teleology, that can be called “neo-finalism”, defines finalism as intrinsic not only to individual beings, but also to the devenir of the world itself, where man would be the very ultimate realization of a latent possibility within this evolutionary process of the universal substance. Hence would result a principle of ethics which is ultimately grounded neither in the autonomy of the self nor in the needs of community, but in the teleological character of the evolutionary process of nature itself – man as the “final quality”, and thus the absolute value, of such a process. That is to say, for Jonas teleology aims to finally answer what is the good about humanity, who would sign as well as the very foundation of ethics.

  8. Ética e técnica? Dialogando com Marx, Spengler, Jünger, Heidegger e Jonas Ethics and technology? Dialoguing with Marx, Spengler, Jünger, Heidegger and Jonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Josef Brüseke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O século XIX entendeu a técnica como um elemento central do progresso histórico, mudando nas primeiras décadas do século XX essa perspectiva. mas a crítica à técnica formulada entre as duas guerras mundiais nos vieses da crítica à cultura e, de forma emblemática, presente na obra de Oswald Spengler, ainda não coloca a técnica em relação à ética. Neste tempo do interludium bellicum (1918-1939,articula-se uma compreensão da técnica emancipada de qualquer dimensão metafísica e artística, por um lado e, por outro lado, vê-se um recarregamento da técnica com uma promessa salvacionista, utópica ou heróica, não obstante, totalmente absorvida por uma concepção materialista do mundo, concebido enquanto campo de batalha (Ernst Jünger. Martin Heidegger elaborou, no final dos anos trinta e em meados dos anos quarenta, em um movimento de distanciamento intelectual da sua época, as bases de uma filosofia da técnica com grandes repercussões. Um dos seus alunos, Hans Jonas, tenta de forma original, mas não livre de equívocos, apresentar uma ética válida para a civilização tecnológica. Segundo Jonas, a situação do homem e o contexto de qualquer propósito ético estariam hoje fundamentalmente mudados; uma ética tradicional não estaria mais à sua altura. A técnica moderna introduziu novos objetos e processos, com conseqüências até então desconhecidas, na sociedade humana, de uma maneira que exigiria uma adaptação da ética (e conseqüentemente da ação humana aos desafios tecnológicos. A "ética do próximo" teria validez, ainda, nas "proximidades"; o futuro da humanidade no seu habitat planetário exigiria, todavia, uma "ética da responsabilidade".The nineteenth century took technology as a central element of historical progress, but the perspective occurred to change during the first decades of the twentieth century. The criticism of technology formulated between the two world wars period in the stream of

  9. Enforced neutrality and color-flavor unlocking in the three-flavor Polyakov-loop Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuki, H.; Ciminale, M.; Nardulli, G.; Ruggieri, M.; Gatto, R.

    2008-01-01

    We study how the charge neutrality affects the phase structure of the three-flavor Polyakov-loop Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. We point out that, within the conventional PNJL model at finite density, the color neutrality is missing because the Wilson line serves as an external colored field coupled to dynamical quarks. In this paper we heuristically assume that the model may still be applicable. To get color neutrality, one has then to allow nonvanishing color chemical potentials. We study how the quark matter phase diagram in (T,m s 2 /μ)-plane is affected by imposing neutrality and by including the Polyakov-loop dynamics. Although these two effects are correlated in a nonlinear way, the impact of the Polyakov loop turns out to be significant in the T direction, while imposing neutrality brings a remarkable effect in the m s 2 /μ direction. In particular, we find a novel unlocking transition, when the temperature is increased, even in the chiral SU(3) limit. We clarify how and why this is possible once the dynamics of the colored Polyakov loop is taken into account. Also we succeed in giving an analytic expression for T c for the transition from two-flavor pairing (2SC) to unpaired quark matter in the presence of the Polyakov loop.

  10. The Polyakov, Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model and its applications to describe the sub-nuclear particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanquier, E.

    2013-01-01

    To study the high energy nuclear physics and the associated phenomenon, as the quark-gluon plasma / hadronic matter phase transition, the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model (NJL) appears as an interesting alternative to the Quantum Chromodynamics, not solvable at the considered energies. Indeed, the NJL model allows the description of quarks physics, at finite temperatures and densities. Furthermore, in order to try to correct a limitation of the NJL model, i.e. the absence of confinement, it was proposed a coupling of the quarks/antiquarks to a Polyakov loop, forming the PNJL model. The objective of this thesis is to see the possibilities offered by the NJL and PNJL models, to describe relevant sub-nuclear particles (quarks, mesons, diquarks and baryons), to study their interactions, and to proceed to a dynamical study involving these particles. After a recall of the useful tools, we modeled the u, d, s effective quarks and the mesons. Then, we described the baryons as quarks-diquarks bound states. A part of the work concerned the calculations of the cross-sections associated to the possible reactions implying these particles. Then, we incorporated these results in a computer code, in order to study the cooling of a quarks/antiquarks plasma and its hadronization. In this study, each particle evolves in a system in which the temperature and the densities are local parameters. We have two types of interactions: one due to the collisions, and the other is a remote interaction, notably between quarks. Finally, we studied the properties of our approach: qualities, limitations, and possible evolutions. (author)

  11. Inertial mass of the chiral quark-loop soliton in the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model at finite temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleif, M.; Wuensch, R.

    1996-04-01

    We consider the mass of the one-loop hedgehog soliton of the bosonized SU(2) Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model embedded in hot nuclear matter minimiced by a gas of constituent quarks. We prove that the proper-time regularized and self-consistently determined soliton in a heat bath obeys Poincare's invariance up order V 2 . At finite temperature and chemical potential, we show that the inertial mass obtained in the perturbative pushing approach coincides with the total internal energy of the soliton. (orig.)

  12. Extension of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model predictions at high temperatures and strong external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Karina P.; Farias, R.L.S.; Pinto, M.B.; Krein, G.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Recently much attention is dedicated to understand the effects of an external magnetic field on the QCD phase diagram. Actually there is a contradiction in the literature: while effective models of QCD like the Nambu-Jona- Lasinio model (NJL) and linear sigma model predict an increase of the critical temperature of chiral symmetry restoration a function of the magnetic field, recent lattice results shows the opposite behavior. The NJL model is nonrenormalizable; then the high momentum part of the model has to be regularized in a phenomenological way. The common practice is to regularize the divergent loop amplitudes with a three-dimensional momentum cutoff, which also sets the energy-momentum scale for the validity of the model. That is, the model cannot be used for studying phenomena involving momenta running in loops larger than the cutoff. In particular, the model cannot be used to study quark matter at high densities. One of the symptoms of this problem is the prediction of vanishing superconducting gaps at high baryon densities, a feature of the model that is solely caused by the use of a regularizing momentum cutoff of the divergent vacuum and also in finite loop integrals. In a renormalizable theory all the dependence on the cutoff can be removed in favor of running physical parameters, like the coupling constants of QED and QCD. The running is given by the renormalization group equations of the theory and is controlled by an energy scale that is adjusted to the scale of the experimental conditions under consideration. In a recent publication, Casalbuoni et al. have introduced the concept of a running coupling constant for the NJL model to extend the applicability of the model to high density. Their arguments are based on making the cutoff density dependent, using an analogy with the natural cutoff of the Debye frequency of phonon oscillations in an ordinary solid. In the present work we follow such an approach introducing a magnetic field

  13. A responsabilidade como princípio ético em H. Jonas e E. Levinas: uma aproximação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuiava, Evaldo Antônio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A responsabilidade enquanto princípio ético, embora seja evocada pelos filósofos clássicos, desde a antigüidade ao existencialismo, assume novas perspectivas a partir do pensamento de Hans Jonas e Levinas. Ambos a colocam como centro da ética. Com Jonas a responsabilidade não é mais centrada no passado e no presente. A sua preocupação é com o futuro da humanidade, com as gerações futuras e com a sobrevivência das mesmas. Diferente de Platão, Jonas não está preocupado com a eternidade, mas com o tempo vindouro, compatível com a era da ciência e da tecnologia, cuja responsabilidade passa a ser o alicerce, o princípio orientador para as decisões que possam interferir nas diferentes formas de vida. Levinas, por sua vez, também se afasta da tradição filosófica na medida que não aceita mais a tese de que a responsabilidade é decorrente da liberdade. A responsabilidade não nasce de uma boa vontade, de um sujeito autônomo que quer livremente se comprometer com o outro ser. Ela nasce como resposta a um chamado. A responsabilidade é o fundamento primeiro e essencial da estrutura ética, a qual não aparece como suplemento de uma base existencial prévia. Aquém do ser se encontra uma subjetividade capaz de escutar a voz, sem palavras de um dizer original, e aponta para uma outra dimensão do eu. Prévio ao ato de consciência, anterior ao sujeito intencional, o eu já responde a um chamado. A responsabilidade pelo outro ser precede a representação conceitual ou a mediação de um mandamento ético. Ela é obediência a uma vocação, a uma eleição pelo bem além do ser. A responsabilidade determina a liberdade do eu, pois esta não consegue mais se justificar por ela mesma

  14. Anders Jonas Ångström and the foundation of spectroscopy - Commemorative article on the second centenary of his birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif-Acherman, Simón

    2014-12-01

    The Swedish astronomer Anders Jonas Ångström, born two centuries ago and professor of physics at Uppsala University, was one of the founders of optical spectroscopy. By using diffraction gratings out of glass plates with fine scorings across the face, he was able to observe the spectrum of the Sun, announcing in 1862 that he had discovered the lines of hydrogen in the solar spectrum. His most important work, ;Recherches sur la Spectre Solaire;, including an atlas of close to a thousand spectral lines, became the standard of spectroscopy for at least a quarter of a century. This article deals with his life as well as his main contributions to the development of several areas of physical science, stressing his pioneer activities in spectroscopy.

  15. Anders Jonas Ångström and the foundation of spectroscopy — Commemorative article on the second centenary of his birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reif-Acherman, Simón, E-mail: simon.reif@correounivalle.edu.co

    2014-12-01

    The Swedish astronomer Anders Jonas Ångström, born two centuries ago and professor of physics at Uppsala University, was one of the founders of optical spectroscopy. By using diffraction gratings out of glass plates with fine scorings across the face, he was able to observe the spectrum of the Sun, announcing in 1862 that he had discovered the lines of hydrogen in the solar spectrum. His most important work, “Recherches sur la Spectre Solaire”, including an atlas of close to a thousand spectral lines, became the standard of spectroscopy for at least a quarter of a century. This article deals with his life as well as his main contributions to the development of several areas of physical science, stressing his pioneer activities in spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Ångström's work on solar spectroscopy highlights his relevant role in the evolution of this discipline. • Ångström's contributions to different scientific disciplines in physics are detailed. • Ångström's work was pioneer in the determination of precise lines' wave-lengths for some chemical substances. • Ångström's and Kirchhoff's achievements are complementary in the evolution of concepts related with light absorption. • Using of appropriate instruments were decisive for Ångström's success in spectral studies.

  16. Abnormal number of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in the color-asymmetric dense color superconducting phase of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaschke, D.; Ebert, D.; Klimenko, K.G.; Volkov, M.K.; Yudichev, V.L.

    2004-01-01

    We consider an extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model including both (qq-bar) and (qq) interactions with two light-quark flavors in the presence of a single (quark density) chemical potential. In the color superconducting phase of the quark matter the color SU c (3) symmetry is spontaneously broken down to SU c (2). If the usual counting of Goldstone bosons would apply, five Nambu-Goldstone (NG) bosons corresponding to the five broken color generators should appear in the mass spectrum. Unlike that expectation, we find only three gapless diquark excitations of quark matter. One of them is an SU c (2) singlet; the remaining two form an SU c (2) (anti)doublet and have a quadratic dispersion law in the small momentum limit. These results are in agreement with the Nielsen-Chadha theorem, according to which NG bosons in Lorentz-noninvariant systems, having a quadratic dispersion law, must be counted differently. The origin of the abnormal number of NG bosons is shown to be related to a nonvanishing expectation value of the color charge operator Q 8 reflecting the lack of color neutrality of the ground state. Finally, by requiring color neutrality, two massive diquarks are argued to become massless, resulting in a normal number of five NG bosons with the usual linear dispersion laws

  17. Properties of quarks and mesons in the framework of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model (NJL model) for finite temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebauer, R.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis presents a detailed overview of the thermodynamical properties of the model of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio. In fact, this model can be interpreted as a low energy approximation of QCD. The NJL model has the advantage to be solvable at finite temperature and density. Comparison with QCD lattice calculations show that the NJL model reproduces correctly the feature of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration. We present the chiral phase diagram of the NJL model for three flavors and study the influence of the parameters on the order of the phase transition. The properties of the mesons in a hot and dense medium are another topic of this thesis. We discuss the behaviour of the chiral partners and the influence of the symmetries. A point of special interest are the masses of the kaons in a dense medium. We compare the masses of the kaons with other models like RMF and ChPT. The last part of the thesis is devoted to the low temperature - high density region of the QCD phase diagram. In this region, the formation of a diquark condensate and a superconducting phase are expected. We discuss the structure of the diquark condensate and present the results of the numerical calculations at finite temperature and density. (author)

  18. Sensitivity of predictions in an effective model: Application to the chiral critical end point position in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biguet, Alexandre; Hansen, Hubert; Brugiere, Timothee; Costa, Pedro; Borgnat, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of the position of the chiral critical end point (CEP) in the QCD phase diagram is under debate. While it is possible to predict its position by using effective models specifically built to reproduce some of the features of the underlying theory (QCD), the quality of the predictions (e.g., the CEP position) obtained by such effective models, depends on whether solving the model equations constitute a well- or ill-posed inverse problem. Considering these predictions as being inverse problems provides tools to evaluate if the problem is ill-conditioned, meaning that infinitesimal variations of the inputs of the model can cause comparatively large variations of the predictions. If it is ill-conditioned, it has major consequences because of finite variations that could come from experimental and/or theoretical errors. In the following, we shall apply such a reasoning on the predictions of a particular Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model within the mean field + ring approximations, with special attention to the prediction of the chiral CEP position in the (T-μ) plane. We find that the problem is ill-conditioned (i.e. very sensitive to input variations) for the T-coordinate of the CEP, whereas, it is well-posed for the μ-coordinate of the CEP. As a consequence, when the chiral condensate varies in a 10MeV range, μ CEP varies far less. As an illustration to understand how problematic this could be, we show that the main consequence when taking into account finite variation of the inputs, is that the existence of the CEP itself cannot be predicted anymore: for a deviation as low as 0.6% with respect to vacuum phenomenology (well within the estimation of the first correction to the ring approximation) the CEP may or may not exist. (orig.)

  19. Sensitivity of predictions in an effective model: Application to the chiral critical end point position in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biguet, Alexandre; Hansen, Hubert; Brugiere, Timothee [Universite Claude Bernard de Lyon, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3, Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Costa, Pedro [Universidade de Coimbra, Centro de Fisica Computacional, Departamento de Fisica, Coimbra (Portugal); Borgnat, Pierre [CNRS, l' Ecole normale superieure de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique, Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2015-09-15

    The measurement of the position of the chiral critical end point (CEP) in the QCD phase diagram is under debate. While it is possible to predict its position by using effective models specifically built to reproduce some of the features of the underlying theory (QCD), the quality of the predictions (e.g., the CEP position) obtained by such effective models, depends on whether solving the model equations constitute a well- or ill-posed inverse problem. Considering these predictions as being inverse problems provides tools to evaluate if the problem is ill-conditioned, meaning that infinitesimal variations of the inputs of the model can cause comparatively large variations of the predictions. If it is ill-conditioned, it has major consequences because of finite variations that could come from experimental and/or theoretical errors. In the following, we shall apply such a reasoning on the predictions of a particular Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model within the mean field + ring approximations, with special attention to the prediction of the chiral CEP position in the (T-μ) plane. We find that the problem is ill-conditioned (i.e. very sensitive to input variations) for the T-coordinate of the CEP, whereas, it is well-posed for the μ-coordinate of the CEP. As a consequence, when the chiral condensate varies in a 10MeV range, μ {sub CEP} varies far less. As an illustration to understand how problematic this could be, we show that the main consequence when taking into account finite variation of the inputs, is that the existence of the CEP itself cannot be predicted anymore: for a deviation as low as 0.6% with respect to vacuum phenomenology (well within the estimation of the first correction to the ring approximation) the CEP may or may not exist. (orig.)

  20. Ni ética ambiental, ni valores. La reivindicación de Hans Jonas para la ética ambiental hecha por Eric Pommier, considerada desde la crítica de Heidegger al concepto de valor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ayala-Ardila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se cuestiona tanto a la ética ambiental como a la filosofía ambiental desde la crítica hecha por Martin Heidegger al concepto de valor; tal cuestionamiento es precedido por una presentación de las consideraciones de Eric Pommier sobre la ética ambiental, lo cual implica tratar su apreciación de la filosofía ambiental norteamericana (Leopold, Rolston III y Callicot, su lectura de la obra de Hans Jonas y su reivindicación de las ideas de este autor para la ética o para la filosofía ambiental. Se mostrará que los problemas fundamentales de la ética ambiental consisten en encontrar una manera de demostrar el valor intrínseco de la naturaleza y en lograr este objetivo sin hacer concesión alguna al dualismo ontológico.

  1. Properties of quarks and mesons in the framework of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model (NJL model) for finite temperature and density; Proprietes des quarks et mesons a temperature et densite finies dans le cadre du modele NJL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebauer, R

    2000-09-29

    This thesis presents a detailed overview of the thermodynamical properties of the model of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio. In fact, this model can be interpreted as a low energy approximation of QCD. The NJL model has the advantage to be solvable at finite temperature and density. Comparison with QCD lattice calculations show that the NJL model reproduces correctly the feature of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration. We present the chiral phase diagram of the NJL model for three flavors and study the influence of the parameters on the order of the phase transition. The properties of the mesons in a hot and dense medium are another topic of this thesis. We discuss the behaviour of the chiral partners and the influence of the symmetries. A point of special interest are the masses of the kaons in a dense medium. We compare the masses of the kaons with other models like RMF and ChPT. The last part of the thesis is devoted to the low temperature - high density region of the QCD phase diagram. In this region, the formation of a diquark condensate and a superconducting phase are expected. We discuss the structure of the diquark condensate and present the results of the numerical calculations at finite temperature and density. (author)

  2. Algumas aproximações entre a Ética do Futuro, de Hans Jonas, e o modelo aristotélico para a Ecoética proposto por Pierre Aubenque/Some approximations between Hans Jonas’ ethics of future and the Pierre Aubenque’s proposal for the aristotelian model to the

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Sarah; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho pretende evidenciar aproximações entre propostas éticas de Hans Jonas (Alemanha,1903-EUA,1993) e Pierre Aubenque (França, 1929-). Ambos corroboram a tese que defende a prudência como a virtude da ética que se faz necessária nesses tempos de hegemonia tecnocientífica e economia baseada no consumo. Estes eminentes pensadores do século XX também apresentam críticas semelhantes em relação ao pensamento moderno, à ética kantiana e à supremacia da razão calculante. Ambos se inspiraram...

  3. Arme Jona tussen teks en werklikheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Nel

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Poor Jonah between text and reality The paper provides argumentation in favour of an alternative reading of the text of Jonah in order to free it from any obligation in terms of which it should be read as a historical discourse, without denying its legitimate truth claim(s. In actual fact, an argument is construed here which subsumes that the text�s authenticity can only be maintained when its peculiar mode (narrative of communication is honored. An exposition is given of the central plot developed throughout the sequence of the episodes, and of the metaphoric contribution of the poem of chapter two. To free the character Jonah from the unduly negative receptions of traditional exegesis, the author seeks to displace him from the historical world and reintroduce him within the confines of the diegetic world of story.

  4. Emergency percutaneous tracheostomy | Jonas | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract South African Journal of Surgery Vol. 45 (3) 2007: pp. 106-107. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  5. Emergency percutaneous tracheostomy | Jonas | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 45, No 3 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  6. 2228-IJBCS-Article-Jonas Koala

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Keywords: Disturbances, soil water properties, Burkina Faso, soil ... and energy of rain reaching the ground. Water ... a.s.l in Burkina Faso, West Africa (Figure 1). ...... Estimates Due to Sample Volume and. Shape. Vadose Zo. J., 4: 1183–1190.

  7. Tensor Excitations in Nambu - Jona-Lasinio Model

    CERN Document Server

    Chizhov, M V

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that in the one-flavour NJL model the vector and axial-vector quasiparticles described by the antisymmetric tensor field are generated. These excitations have tensor interactions with quarks in contrast to usual vector ones. Phenomenological applications are discussed.

  8. Magnetic foreign body on the nasal septum | Jonas | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract South African Journal of Surgery Vol. 45 (4) 2007: pp. 151-151. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  9. Industri Pariwisata Ditinjau dari Etika Tanggung Jawab Hans Jonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitria Ariani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecology is a system of balance between the elements of nature and man. Man as an animal that thinks has the concept of moral and responsibility toward himself, man with another man, and man with nature surroundings. Harmony or disharmony realization of ecological values is a concept of how to realize the appreciation of human values and the ideal of human interaction with the nature. Social norms, ethical values and social systems, the communication between people with other people and the world must take place in a positive, sustainable, and harmonious way. Technology makes man exploit nature for his own benefit. Advances in technology, on one hand, make human life easier. However, on the other hand, the progress has made natural destruction. Tourism is an activity that utilizes natural, social, and cultural resources that have broad impact on the development of tourism-related activities with the technology and activities in it. Tourism activities also have broad impact as as a multi-sectoral, multi-dimensional, and an integrated tourism industry to one and another. Ethics that puts the responsibility for Tourism Sustainability is the answers to minimize ecological damage to nature caused by the Tourism Industry. 

  10. Responsibility to Nature? Hans Jonas and Environmental Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolsing

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the philosopher Hans Jonas’s idea of an environmental ethics. Through an outline of the development of man’s relation to nature from Greek antiquity to the present it is argued that science and technology in modernity favour a relation of exploitation which is partly the cause of fatal climate changes. Through Jonas’s philosophical notion of an ontology of man as an alternative to classical dualism and by means of a turn to an ontological interpretation of Kant’s categorical imperative, it is argued that mankind has a responsibility to both coming generations and to the biosphere as a whole. Not only does this ontological shift from philosophy of mind to an ontology of man transcend dualism in philosophy, it throws a new critical light on the technological development and suggests a new way of considering man’s place in the cosmos.

  11. Jonas Gwangwa: Musician And Cultural Activist | Szymczak | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or ... opportunity of an internationally televised interview,1 on the occasion of the Grammy awards in the United States, to declare on behalf of the leadership of a then exiled African National ...

  12. Jonas U. Ezema and Adizetu A. Ali STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    learning, mobile schools, information repackaging, translation services, book mobile, use of audio visuals .... Audio-visual resources, commonly referred to as instructional materials form a ... appreciation of reading communication and literate.

  13. Gluon condensation and modelling of quark confinement in QCD-motivated Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'kov, A.A.; Ebert, D.; Emel'yanenko, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of modelling of a quark propagator without poles realizing quark confinement is considered on the basis of a nonperturbative gluon propagator including gluon condensation and a dynamical gluon mass. The property of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is retained providing us with a reasonable pattern of low-lying meson properties. 2 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Nick Jonas on Type 1 Diabetes | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.9 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  15. Some aspects of pion physics in the Nambu- and Jona-Lasinio model and chiral Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegen, R.

    1994-03-01

    I discuss here to what extent the original two-flavour NJL model (which has a minimal number of adjustable parameters) reproduces pion observables. In particular, the sensitivity of the recently calculated electromagnetic mass shift to these NJL parameters is pointed out and a new way to fix them is suggested. A new set of O(1/N c ) diagrams, which are the first meson loop corrections to the RPA, is presented and its effect on the pionic Goldstone mode, its electromagnetic form factor, weak decay constant, and on the constituent quark mass m is discusseed. The relation of these NJL model results to some other chiral Lagrangians is pointed out, where ever possible. The here presented higher order diagrams indicate how one could systematically generate the next-order diagrams. It is, however, questionable whether the simplistic but mathematically manageable contact interaction of the NJL model should be maintained also in these higher order diagrams. (orig.)

  16. Aspects of the Color Flavor Locking phase of QCD in the Nambu-Jona Lasinio approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Casalbuoni, Roberto; Nardulli, Giuseppe; Ruggieri, Marco

    2003-01-01

    We study two aspects of the CFL phase of QCD in the NJL approximation. The first one is the issue of the dependence on \\mu of the ultraviolet cutoff in the gap equation, which is solved allowing a running coupling constant. The second one is the dependence of the gap on the strange quark mass; using the high density effective theory we perform an expansion in the parameter (m_s/\\mu)^2 after checking that its numerical validity is very good already at first order.

  17. QCD-motivated Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with quark and gluon condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Volkov, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the role of the nonperturbative gluon condensate arising in a QCD-motivated NJL model. The effects of the gluon condensate on induced meson couplings, the pion decay constant, quark condensate and mass formulae are investigated. An interesting result is the change of the scale Λ of chiral symmetry breaking and of the universal four-quark coupling κ. (orig.)

  18. Time and crime: which cold-case investigations should be reheated? / Jonathan A. Hughes, Monique Jonas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hughes, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Kriminaalmenetluse eesmärkidest ja tõendamisest; ideest (taas)uurida ajaloolisi, avalikkuse jätkuva huvi all olevaid kuritegusid (nt Rappija Jackiga seonduv) praegusaegsete tehnoloogiliste vahenditega

  19. The quark and gluon condensates in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Volkov, M.K.

    1991-10-01

    Systematic study of the role of the nonperturbative gluon condensate arising in a QCD motivated NJL model is presented. The effects of the gluon condensate on meson coupling constants, the pion decay constant, quark condensate and mass formulae are investigated. An interesting result is the decrease of the scale Λ of chiral symmetry breaking. (author). 21 refs

  20. Jonas Savimbi and UNITA's Struggle for Independence. An Application of Mao's Theory of Warfare?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nesbitt, Wanda L

    1997-01-01

    .... Using the key elements of Mao's theory, this paper will examine Savimbi's application of that theory and attempt to address the question of whether UNITA's failure to achieve control in Angola...

  1. On the stability of matter in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Le Viet Hoa

    2003-01-01

    The matter stability in the NJL model at zero temperature and finite density is reconsidered within the framework of the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action for composite operators. The numerical calculation in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation pointed out that for suitably chosen values of the model parameters the thermodynamical potential has a minimum at density k F 0 = 2.3 fm -1 , in the mean while, there is no such minimum in the energy per nucleon and consequently no stable matter. (author)

  2. "Jonas, derefter Katrine og Sebastian": En enkel metode til at lære alle de studerendes navne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2012-01-01

    Denne artikel præsenterer en enkel, systematisk metode til at lære alle de studerendes navne i universitetsundervisning. Metoden er ret effektiv: I sidste semester lærte jeg 30 studerendes navne på 1.5 time; det svarer til 3 minutter pr. studerende og 6 minutter pr. uge. Min erfaring viser, at de...

  3. "Jonas, derefter Katrine og Sebastian": En enkel metode til at lære alle de studerendes navne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2013-01-01

    Denne artikel præsenterer en enkel, systematisk metode til at lære alle de studerendes navne i universitetsundervisning. Metoden er ret effektiv: I sidste semester lærte jeg 30 studerendes navne på 1.5 time; det svarer til 3 minutter pr. studerende og 6 minutter pr. uge. En empirisk undersøgelse ...

  4. Interplay Between Quark-Antiquark and Diquark Condensates in Vacuum in a Two-Flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bang-Rong

    2007-01-01

    By means of a relativistic effective potential, we analytically research competition between the quarkLasinio (NJL) model and obtain the Gs-Hs phase diagram, where Gs and Hs are the respective four-fermion coupling constants in scalar quark-antiquark channel and scalar color anti-triplet diquark channel. The results show that, in the that there is no diquark condensates in the vacuum of QCD, will also impose a real restriction to any given two-flavor NJL model which is intended to simulate QCD, i.e. in such model the resulting snallest ratio Gs/Hs after the Fierz transformations in the Hartree approximation must be larger than 2/3. A few phenomenological QCD-like NJL models are checked and analyzed.

  5. Jona se “opstanding uit die dood”: Perspektiewe op die “opstandings-geloof” vanuit die Ou Testament Dirk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Human

    2004-10-01

    The Jonah novelette tends to be one of the First Testament’s primary witnesses on the resurrection faith. This faith portrays the omnipotent power of God over all other threatening powers of death and chaos, be they human or divine. Only God can raise the dead from death. Jonah’s resurrection from death illustrates how Yahweh alone is responsible for this endeavour. This article focuses on Jonah’s prayer (2:3-10. It argues that the reader is persuaded to see Jonah’s flight from Yahweh and his commission ultimately leading to his ending up behind the bars of death (2:7b. Embedded in fictitious and mythological descriptions is Yahweh who delivered Jonah from the pit of death, namely Sheol (2:7c. Resurrection faith narratives in the Second Testament confirm these perspectives in the First Testament.

  6. Proceedings of Symposium on Energy Engineering in the 21st Century (SEE 2000). Volume One

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-13

    Regimes of Gliding Arc Discharges 96 O. Mutaf-Yardimci, A. V. Saveliev , A. A. Fridman andL. A. Kennedy A8. Multicomponent Gas-Liquid Flows with...GLIDING ARC DISCHARGES Ozlem Mutaf-Yardimci, Alexei V. Saveliev Alexander A. Fridman, Lawrence A. Kennedy Department of Mechanical Engineering...2. Czeraichowski, Pur & Applied Chem.66,1301 (1994) 3. A. A.Fridman, S. Nester, L. A. Kennedy, A. Saveliev , O. Mutaf-Yardimci, J. Prog. Energy and

  7. Analysis of the assimilation of SAPARD support programme in Lithuania / Vida Čiulevičiene, Jonas Čiulevičius, Rolandas Kripaitis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Čiulevičiene, Vida

    2003-01-01

    Analüüsist selgus, et arvuliselt on kõige enam toetuse taotlusi esitatud põllumajandustootmise investeeringute tegemiseks, kuid rahalises väljenduses on suurim saaduste töötlemise ja turustamise valdkonna taotluste osakaal. Tabelid

  8. Characterisation of 12 microsatellite loci in the Vietnamese commercial clam Lutraria rhynchaena Jonas 1844 (Heterodonta: Bivalvia: Mactridae) through next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Binh Thanh; Tan, Mun Hua; Lee, Yin Peng; Gan, Han Ming; Tran, Trang Thi; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The marine clam Lutraria rhynchaena is gaining popularity as an aquaculture species in Asia. Lutraria populations are present in the wild throughout Vietnam and several stocks have been established and translocated for breeding and aquaculture grow-out purposes. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of utilising Illumina next-generation sequencing technology to streamline the identification and genotyping of microsatellite loci from this clam species. Based on an initial partial genome scan, 48 microsatellite markers with similar melting temperatures were identified and characterised. The 12 most suitable polymorphic loci were then genotyped using 51 individuals from a population in Quang Ninh Province, North Vietnam. Genetic variation was low (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.6; mean expected heterozygosity = 0.41). Two loci showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and the presence of null alleles, but there was no evidence of linkage disequilibrium among loci. Three additional populations were screened (n = 7-36) to test the geographic utility of the 12 loci, which revealed 100 % successful genotyping in two populations from central Vietnam (Nha Trang). However, a second population from north Vietnam (Co To) could not be successfully genotyped and morphological evidence and mitochondrial variation suggests that this population represents a cryptic species of Lutraria. Comparisons of the Qang Ninh and Nha Trang populations, excluding the 2 loci out of HWE, revealed statistically significant allelic variation at 4 loci. We reported the first microsatellite loci set for the marine clam Lutraria rhynchaena and demonstrated its potential in differentiating clam populations. Additionally, a cryptic species population of Lutraria rhynchaena was identified during initial loci development, underscoring the overlooked diversity of marine clam species in Vietnam and the need to genetically characterise population representatives prior to microsatellite development. The rapid identification and validation of microsatellite loci using next-generation sequencing technology warrant its integration into future microsatellite loci development for key aquaculture species in Vietnam and more generally, aquaculture countries in the South East Asia region.

  9. Melanie Ulz: Auf dem Schlachtfeld des Empire. Männlichkeitskonzepte in der Bildproduktion zu Napoleons Ägyptenfeldzug. Marburg: Jonas Verlag 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Schmale

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Der Ägyptenfeldzug Napoleons am Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts wurde im Nachhinein bildpublizistisch extensiv aufgearbeitet. Diese Publizistik wird von Melanie Ulz unter dem Gesichtspunkt dargestellter und sich wandelnder Männlichkeitskonzepte untersucht. Zentral entfaltet sich in den Visualisierungen der später so genannte „Orientalismus“. Dem europäischen/französischen Mann und Krieger wird der orientalische Mann als multivalentes und kulturell unterlegenes Wesen gegenübergestellt. Bei aller Subtilität der Kunst handelt es sich im Kern um die Gegenüberstellung von Stereotypen. Ulz kann in ihrer Studie überzeugend den sexuierten Subtext des Orientalismus nachweisen.Napoleon’s Campaign of Egypt at the end of the 18th century had afterwards been worked with and addressed in graphical media extensively. Melanie Ulz analyzes these media in respect to expressed as well as changing concepts of masculinity. The visualizations essentially display what has later been called “Orientalism”. The European/ French man and warrior is opposed to the Oriental man, who is depicted as multivalent and culturally inferior. Despite the subtlety of the art, the works basically deal with the opposition of stereotypes. Ulz manages to convincingly prove the sexualized subtext of Orientalism.

  10. Paying for Hitler's War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...

  11. Ecology and Pedagogy: On the Educational Implications of Postwar Environmental Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotam, Yotam

    2010-01-01

    Environmentalism, an ethical imperative to preserve and protect nature, has become in the last decade a central ethical, political and pedagogic theme. Against this background, this article focuses on the postwar philosophy of the German-Jewish scholar Hans Jonas (1903-93). It points to Jonas's radical theory of pedagogic responsibility, and to…

  12. Kaido Ole seintel ja kaante vahel / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Kunstnik Kaido Ole (sünd. 1963) eluloolisi andmeid, looming. Eesti Kunstiakadeemia andis välja kataloogi "Ole", toimetaja Eero Epner. Kunstinäitus "Jonas & Kaido" koos Jonas Gasiunasega Vilniuse Vartai galeriis. Näitus "Hümn" Vaal galeriis

  13. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0226 TITLE: Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Rafael Fridman...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0226 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...response to collagen in prostate cancer. The project’s goal is to define the expression and therapeutic potential of DDRs in prostate cancer. During

  14. Medical Research Pays Off for All Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the "March of Dimes." It helped develop two vaccines. The first, by Dr. Jonas Salk at the University of Pittsburgh, in 1955, and the second, in 1962, by Dr. Albert Sabin, at the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center – have ...

  15. Unified Chiral models of mesons and baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Galain, R.; Ripka, G.

    1990-01-01

    Unified Chiral models of mesons and baryons are presented. Emphasis is placed on the underlying quark structure of hadrons including the Skyrmion. The Nambu Jona-Lasinio model with vector mesons is discussed

  16. Kais-Vesik said ebameeldiva vastase / Andres Kalvik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalvik, Andres, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Stavangeris Suure Slämmi alagrupis kolmanda koha saanud ning koha 24 parema seas taganud Kristjan Kais ja Rivo Vesik lähevad play-off'i avaringis vastamisi Saksamaa duoga Mischa Urbatzka - Jonas Reckermann

  17. Success in Opposite Direction: Strategic Culture and the French Experience in Indochina, the Suez, and Algeria, 1945-1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    School of Advanced Military Studies Henry A. Arnold III, COL, IN Accepted this 21st day of May 2015 by: ___________________________________, Director...Heiko; Giegerich Biehl, Bastian; Jonas, Alexandra ( Potsdam , DE: Springer VS, 2013), 9. 8 Darryl Howlett, The Future of Strategic Culture, Comparative...Policies across the Continent. Potsdam , DE: Springer VS, 2013. cConcepts presented by Biehl, Giegerich, and Jonas. Table 2.2 Evaluation criteria for

  18. Using Clickers in the Classroom to Increase the Level of Student Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    and Menachem Jona believe “experience is the best teacher” and “the best teachers are typically the best storytellers ” (Schank & Jona, 1991). Keeping...Creation of community – At the beginning of a semester or quarter, CRS can be used to create awareness in a group or class. This can contribute to the...Table 1 (pages 24-25). Each of these brands was compared on various characteristics: response capabilities, system requirements, and overall

  19. Enhancement of Combustion and Flame Stabilization Using Transient Non-Equilibrium Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-31

    Plasma Chemistry, Taormina, Italy, ISPC-564, 22-27 June 2003. 8Ozlem, M.Y., Saveliev A.V., Porshnev, P.I., Fridman, A., Kennedy, L.A., "Non-Equilibrium...Kennedy, L.A., Saveliev , A. and Yardimci, O.M., "Gliding Arc Gas Discharge," Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 25,1999, pp. 211-231...34Optical Diagnostics of Atmospheric Pressure Air Plasmas,"Plasma Sources Science and Technology, Vol. 12, May 2003, pp. 125-138.31Ozlem, M.Y., Saveliev

  20. A Gnostic Critic of Modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    newly discovered texts from Nag Hammadi, as a well-spring of ideas that can be used to heal modernity. Through the application of Gnosticism, Jonas was able to lay bare not only the nihilism lurking in Martin Heidegger’s Being and Time, but also the philosophical shortcomings that were to culminate...... in Heidegger’s later “paganism” and his interrelated alliance with Nazism. Furthermore, I exemplify how Jonas reemployed Gnosticism again in his later years to critique modern scientific nihilism. The conclusion illustrates how Jonas employed to the utmost the threefold potential of this renegade late......-antique religion: Gnosticism’s extravagant metaphysics; its suspicion of nature and fate; and its refusal of utter nihilism....

  1. Positivismeforskrækkelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob von Holderstein

    2007-01-01

    Indlægget er en replik til Jonas Christoffersens klumme "Originalt eller fri fantasi" d. 28. september der indeholder en skarp kritik af den danske retsfilosof Alf Ross. Der argumenteres for at kritikken bygger på en misforståelse af Ross retsfilosofi.......Indlægget er en replik til Jonas Christoffersens klumme "Originalt eller fri fantasi" d. 28. september der indeholder en skarp kritik af den danske retsfilosof Alf Ross. Der argumenteres for at kritikken bygger på en misforståelse af Ross retsfilosofi....

  2. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. JONAS P RAMOS. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 657-664 Article. In vitro leishmanicidal, antibacterial and antitumour potential of anhydrocochlioquinone A obtained from the fungus Cochliobolus sp. FERNANDA F CAMPOS JONAS ...

  3. Animated Dreamsi festivali parimad said eile auhinnad / Kaarel Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kressa, Kaarel, 1983-

    2010-01-01

    12. animafilmide festivali Animated Dreams grand prix' pälvis Kei Oyama film "Käeseep" (Jaapan, 2008). Parima disaini preemia sai Jonas Odelli "Tussilago" (Rootsi, 2010). Parima loo jutustas Olga ja Priit Pärna "Tuukrid vihmas" (Eesti, 2009). Teistest preemiatest

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 87 of 87 ... Vol 6, No 1 (1999), Targeting Rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa: A poverty alleviation policy framework with particular reference to Cameroon. Abstract PDF. Tchakoa Jonas, Ajaga Nji. Vol 8, No 1 (2001), Tasting the Forbidden Fruit: The Social Context of Debut Sexual Encounters Among Young Persons ...

  5. Teatribiennaal 2007, Örebro : Põgus pilguheit rootsi teatrile ja uusimale dramaturgiale / Ülev Aaloe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aaloe, Ülev, 1944-2017-

    2007-01-01

    Rootsis Örebros mais toimunud teatrifestivali märksõnaks oli "Rootsi uuem dramaturgia". Pikemalt lavastustest: Dennis Magnussoni "Unistab surra (kõrgel positsioonil oleva rootslasena)", lavastaja Dennis Sandin, Malmö Teater Terrier. Jonas Hassen Khemiri komöödia "Invasioon", lavastaja Farnaz Arbabi, Stockholmi Linnateater

  6. Experimenting with new combinations of old ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Many important (economic) decisions involve risk. At the same time every decision is made within a social context. So far (experimental) research studies these two aspects in isolation from each other. Jona Linde therefore combines existing experimental protocols to examine the influence of social

  7. Propaganda Art from the 20th to the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, J.H.

    2018-01-01

    This study by artist Jonas Staal explores the development of propaganda art from the 20th to the 21st century. Staal defines propaganda as the performance of power by means of the equation propaganda = power + performance. Through his work as a propaganda researcher and practice as a

  8. Toward a Communication Theory Focused on Humankind's Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternent, William A.; Ternent, Janet A.

    This speech presents a model of human communication which integrates the existential philosophy of Martin Buber with the communication views of Jonas Salk. In his book, "The Survival of the Wisest," Salk characterizes an "Epoch A" to describe the values and behaviors of the past and an "Epoch B" to describe the necessary values and behaviors for…

  9. Salk therapy begins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A clinical trial to test an immune therapy developed by polio pioneer Jonas Salk has begun enrollment of 3,000 participants, who will receive Remune shots every 12 weeks for 3 years to see if disease progression is slowed. The manufacturer is Immune Response, and the study is being conducted by the University of California at San Francisco.

  10. Aegumatu Rootsi klaas ja tundmatute disainerite kummalised ideed / Anna-Liisa Soomann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomann, Anna-Liisa

    2007-01-01

    Göteborgi disainipoodidest ja tuntud disaineritest nagu Josef Frank (1885-1967), Carl Malmsten (1888-1972), Bruno Mathsson (1907-1988), Jonas Bohlin (1953), Marten Claesson (1970), Eero Koivisto (1958), Ola Rune (1963), Pia Wallen (1957), Thomas Sandell (1959) ja Pia Törnell (1963)

  11. Oscillations of the static meson fields at finite baryon density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florkowski, W.; Friman, B.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt

    1996-04-01

    The spatial dependence of static meson correlation functions at finite baryon density is studied in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In contrast to the finite temperature case, we find that the correlation functions at finite density are not screened but exhibit long-range oscillations. The observed phenomenon is analogous to the Friedel oscillations in a degenerate electron gas. (orig.)

  12. Military Review: Desert Shield/Desert Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    aid station Equipment and Doctrine (BAS) provides initial medical care. This is a Physical size and personnel presence, both pa- small "tailgate...Staff Collge , Fort Jona ha Cape. 1962), 315. Leavenworti, Kansas, 16 May 1986. 6 Carver. 122 Lieutenant Colonel Thomas V. MorLey is G3 (operatios and pam

  13. On the D → K-bar*e+νe form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Ivanov, A.N.; Troitskaya, N.I.

    1994-01-01

    The infinite mass effective theory, when a heavy quark mass goes to infinity, and chiral perturbation theory at the quark level, based on the extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, are applied for the calculation of the D → K-bar * e + ν e decay form factors. The theoretical results agree with experimental data. (author). 16 refs

  14. Chiral symmetry restoration and pion properties in a q-deformed NJL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timoteo, V.S.; Lima, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    We review the implementation of a q-deformed fermionic algebra in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model (NJL). The gap equations obtained from a deformed condensate as well as from the deformation of the NJL Hamiltonian are discussed. The effect of both temperature and deformation in the chiral symmetry restoration process as well as in the pion properties is studied. (author)

  15. Three Misunderstandings of Plato's Theory of Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Mark Jonas argues that there are three broadly held misconceptions of Plato's philosophy that work against his relevance for contemporary moral education. The first is that he is an intellectualist who is concerned only with the cognitive aspect of moral development and does not sufficiently emphasize the affective and conative…

  16. Algirdas Brazauskas lubab Leedule uusi paremaid radareid / Algirdas Brazauskas ; interv. Toomas Sildam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brazauskas, Algirdas, 1932-2010

    2005-01-01

    Leedu peaminister Algirdas Brazauskas vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Vene hävitaja allakukkumist Kaunase lähedal, õhujõudude juhataja kolonel Jonas Marcinkuse vabastamist ning Leedu õhuruumi turbe piisavust ja parandamise vajalikkust. Lisa: Vene hävitaja Leedus. Vt. samas: Balti riigid tahavad Schengeni leppega liituda 2007. aastal

  17. Genomewide association study to detect QTL for twinning rate in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohsen Gholizadeh, Ghodrat Rahimi-Mianji, Ardeshir Nejati-Javaremi, Dirk Jan De Koning and Elisabeth Jonas. J. Genet. 93, 489–493. Chromosome. 02468. − log. 10. (p. ) 1. 2. 3. 4 5 6 7. 9. 11 13 15 17 19. 22 25 27. Figure 1. Manhattan plot of the results from the genomewide association analysis for twinning during the ...

  18. IPV v2.0 : upgrading the established inactivated polio vaccine production process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, Y.E.

    2014-01-01

    The first vaccine against poliovirus (PV), the causative agent of poliomyelitis, was developed in the 1950s by Jonas Salk. The vaccine (IPV) consists of an injected dose of purified and inactivated wild-type PVs (all three serotypes). Soon after this discovery, at the Rijks Instituut voor de

  19. An approach to the neck mass | Thandar | Continuing Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An approach to the neck mass. MA Thandar, NE Jonas. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  20. Bosonization with inclusion of the gluon condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Volkov, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the gluon condensate on the quark condensate and on masses and coupling constants of composite mesons are discussed within a QCD-motivated Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for zero temperature as well as for the case of finite temperature and baryon number density. (orig.)

  1. Tallinna ülikool ehitab uue Ursa maja / Mihkel Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Mihkel

    2017-01-01

    2018. a. veebruaris kavatseb Tallinna Ülikool hakata lammutama loodus- ja terviseteaduste õppehoonet ehk Ursa maja. Amortiseerunud hoone asemele ehitatakse uus, mille uksed loodetakse tudengitele avada 2019. aasta sügissemestriks. Selgitusi uue hoone kahta jagab TLÜ kantsler Peep Jonas ning kavandatava õueala kohta keskkonnakorralduse professor Helen Sooväli-Sepping

  2. Dual chiral density wave in quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2002-01-01

    We prove that quark matter is unstable for forming a dual chiral density wave above a critical density, within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Presence of a dual chiral density wave leads to a uniform ferromagnetism in quark matter. A similarity with the spin density wave theory in electron gas and the pion condensation theory is also pointed out. (author)

  3. 77 FR 25538 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... ERIK PAUL FURLER NICOLAS SILVAN FURRER GAJA MARIA FURRER JONAS KEVIN FURRER SACHA GABRIELLA GAGNON... CATHERINE MARIE MILNE NATASHA JANE MIN CHRIS SHIK MIN STEVE BAE MIZRACHI ELI HAIM MONTAGUE ALEXANDRE NICOLAS... CHRISTIAN MARTIN SYZ ISABEL SUSAN TAN CHUAN LIONG TAN WEI-EE BEVERLY [[Page 25544

  4. 2018-05-05T21:20:14Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article/37925 2018-05-05T21:20:14Z cajeb:ART Macrophyte diversity in polluted and non-polluted wetlands in Cameroon Fonkou, Théophile; BP 377 Dschang, Cameroon Nguetsop, Victor F Pinta, Jonas Y Dekoum, Vincent MA Lekeufack, Martin ...

  5. Leedu kunst on integratsioonivõimeline / Eha Komissarov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Komissarov, Eha, 1947-

    2004-01-01

    Leedu kaasaegse kunsti näitus "Omas mahlas" Tallinna Kunstihoones (Evaldas Jansas, Egle Rakauskaite) ja Rotermanni soolalaos (Loreta Bilinskaite-Burke, Laura Barbshtiene & Arturas Bumshteinas (G-Lab), Jonas Gasiunas, Arunas Gudaitis, Linas Jablonskis, Dainius Lishkevicius, Mindaugas Lukoshaitis, Gintaras Makarevicius, Deimantas Narkevicius, Egle Ridikaite, Irma Stanaityte, Laura Stasiulyte, Mindaugas Shimkus, Arturas Valiauga, Rimaldas Vikshraitis, Darius Zhiura). Kuraator Anders Kreuger leedu kunstniku kuvandiloomest

  6. Wilson Fermions with Four Fermion Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantaharju, Jarno; Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    We present a lattice study of a four fermion theory, known as Nambu Jona-Lasinio (NJL) theory, via Wilson fermions. Four fermion interactions naturally occur in several extensions of the Standard Model as a low energy parameterisation of a more fundamental theory. In models of dynamical electroweak...

  7. Microstructures and properties of low-alloy fire resistant steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    hardening. In a quenched and self-tempered 600 MPa class TMT reinforcement bar steel (YS: 624 MPa), low ..... of processing (1000–1050°C), static, dynamic as well as metadynamic recrystallization of austenite can occur (Poliak and Jonas ...

  8. Report on the state of play for the implementation of the project Integrated Baltic Offshore Wind Electricity Grid Development (Baltic InteGrid) of the Seed Money Facility of the European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUSBSR Seed Money Facility)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojcik, Mariusz; Proba, Gert; Kruse, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Mariusz Wójcik, Foundation for Sustainable Energy, PolandGert Proba, Rostock Business and Technology Development, GermanyDennis Kruse, Stephanie Wehkamp, German Offshore Wind Energy FoundationLennart Tyrberg, Energy Agency for Southeast SwedenJonas Katz, Poul Ejnar Sørensen...

  9. Maailmakogemus dokumentaalfilmis / Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Leedu päritolu USA alternatiivkino klassikust Jonas Mekasest ja tema loomingust, mida tutvustati Kumu auditooriumis Fluxuse filmiprogrammi raames. Soome kunstnikust Seppo Renvallist ning tema video- ja filmiloomingust. Kumu auditooriumis 21. 10. 2009 näidatud dokumentaalfilmist "Elav jumalanna" (Nepal/ Suurbritannia), režissöör Ishbel Whitaker, operaator Marc Hawker

  10. Valmib valus lavalugu perest : Athenas jõuab vaatajate ette Mart Kivastiku suhtedraama / Raimu Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Raimu, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    SA Eesti Teatri Festival esietendab 4. mail Athena keskuses Margus Kasterpalu lavastuses Mart Kivastiku näidendit "Meie isa, kes sa oled ..." Mängivad Vanemuise näitlejad Marika Aidla, Hannes Kaljujärv, Tanel Jonas ning Leino Rei

  11. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking of Maximally Generalized Yang-Mills Model and Its Restoration at Finite Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dianfu

    2008-01-01

    In terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry for the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model is investigated. The gauge symmetry behavior at finite temperature is also investigated and it is shown that the gauge symmetry broken dynamically at zero temperature can be restored at finite temperatures

  12. Fluxuse "tagasitulek" Leetu = The "return" of Fluxus to Lithuania / Petra Stegmann ; interv. Skaidra Trilupaityte

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stegmann, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Näitus "Fluxus East. Fluxuse võrgustikud Ida-Euroopas" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis, kuraator Petra Stegmann. Fluxuse liikumisest leedu kunstniku Yurgis George Maciunase eestvedamisel. Rühmituse ideoloogiast, liikmete tegevusest. Vilniuses asutatud Jonas Mekase Visuaalkunsti Keskuse poolt omandatud leedu kunstnike töödest, nende uurimisest

  13. Phronesis and an ethics of responsibility | van Niekerk | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This approach is the ethics of responsibility, as inspired by the work of Emmanuel Levinas, Zygmunt Bauman and Hans Jonas. The two central ideas of this approach are (i) the ethics of responsibility as an approach that accommodates the possibility of failure; and (ii) that the ethics of responsibility suggests the need for a ...

  14. Notes on the ecology and status of some forest mammals in four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notes on the ecology and status of some forest mammals in four Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania. Norbert J Cordeiro, Nathalie Seddon, David R Capper, Jonathan MM Ekstrom, Kim M Howell, Isabel S Isherwood, Charles AM Msuya, Jonas T Mushi, Andrew W Perkin, Robert G Pople, William T Stanley ...

  15. Comment on critical instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.F.; Suzuki, Mahiko

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the problem of the mass splitting between top and bottom quarks, within the context of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type models involving top and bottom quark condensates. We interpret the phenomenon of 'critical instability' recently proposed to account for such a mass splitting as the fine-tuning of two vacuum expectation values in a composite two-Higgs doublet model. (orig.)

  16. 2005 Tri-Service Infrastructure Systems Conference and Exhibition. Volume 1, Track 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-04

    Alan Tool Sediment Impact Assessment Model (SIAM), by David S. Biedenharn and Meg Jonas Mississippi River Sedimentation Study, by Basil Arthur Sediment...Questionnaire Client Report Reports Criteria/Lesson Learned Project Details PRO JEC TS DAT ABA SE 9 eProjects 1. Business Line CIBL Program ANY MILCON 2

  17. Spin-polarized versus chiral condensate in quark matter at finite temperature and density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsuoka, Hiroaki; Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providencia, Joao

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the spin-polarized condensate appears in quark matter at high baryon density and low temperature due to the tensor-type four-point interaction in the Nambu-Jona-Lasiniotype model as a low-energy effective theory of quantum chromodynamics. It is indicated within this low-energy ef...

  18. Spin polarization in high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; Da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2016-01-01

    In high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field, possible phases are investigated by using the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with tensor-type four-point interaction between quarks, as well as the axial-vector-type four-point interaction. In the tensor-type interact...

  19. Spin polarization versus color–flavor locking in high-density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that spin polarization with respect to each flavor in three-flavor quark matter occurs instead of color–flavor locking at high baryon density by using the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model with four-point tensor-type interaction. Also, it is indicated that the order of phase transition between...

  20. International recognition for ageing research: John Scott Award-2014 to Leonard Hayflick and Paul Moorhead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    is the oldest scientific award in the United States and, as a legacy to Benjamin Franklin, they are in the historic company of past winners who include Marie Curie, Thomas Edison, Jonas Salk, Irving Langmuir, Nicola Tesla, Guglielmo Marconi, R. Buckminister Fuller, Sir Alexander Fleming, Sir Howard Florey...

  1. Second viscosity effects in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potupa, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    The object of the investigation is to draw attention to two important aspects in the choice of a substance model, namely an allowance for the viscosity and behaviour of the metrics at the later stages of cosmological evolution. It is shown that in homogeneous cosmological models taking into account the viscosity there are solutions which realize interpolation between the Fridman and steady-state regimes. In a closed model a solution is obtained which corresponds to the ''curvature compensation'' regime with an unboundedly increasing radius. The problem of compensation of singularity at t → o is discussed as well as the choice of the equations of state for the early (hadron) stages of cosmological evolution in connection with the hydrodynamic theory of multiple hadron production

  2. A «Hybrid War» of Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Fridman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ofer Fridman holds the degrees of BA (Military History and Security Studies from Hebrew University, MA (Counter-Terror and Homeland Security from Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya and PhD (Political Science, supervised by Prof. Beatrice Heuser from University of Reading. He is a Sessional Lecture at the University of Reading and was a Visiting Research Fellow and Visiting Lecturer at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO in 2014. Ofer joined the War Studies Department at King's to conduct a research project that focuses on the politicisation of'Hybrid Warfare'. During his visit of Moscow to conduct a quantitative research of Russian military research publications "MGIMO Review of International Relations" took the following interview from him.

  3. Selective small-molecule inhibitors as chemical tools to define the roles of matrix metalloproteinases in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Jayda E; Chang, Mayland

    2017-11-01

    The focus of this article is to highlight novel inhibitors and current examples where the use of selective small-molecule inhibitors has been critical in defining the roles of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in disease. Selective small-molecule inhibitors are surgical chemical tools that can inhibit the targeted enzyme; they are the method of choice to ascertain the roles of MMPs and complement studies with knockout animals. This strategy can identify targets for therapeutic development as exemplified by the use of selective small-molecule MMP inhibitors in diabetic wound healing, spinal cord injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury, cancer metastasis, and viral infection. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Matrix Metalloproteinases edited by Rafael Fridman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. „Dezgheţul" atmosferei de creaţie - Conferinţa republicană a tinerilor scriitori. Chişinău, 22-24 noiembrie 1957 / The Khrushchev Thaw in the literature: the Republican Conference of Young Writers (Chisinau, November 22-24, 1957

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Tărîţă

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Archival documents concerning the 3rd Republican Conference of Young Writers of the Moldavian SSR show that in 1957 it was possible to speak of a new generation in the Moldavian literature. This generation of writers was characterized by sincerity, enthusiasm, romanticism, and even elements of symbolism. Childhood, youth, studentship, and nature were among the preferred subjects of their literary works. For this reason, the "old" writers criticized them for their "isolation from today". Young writers found major support in the newspapers, especially "Tinerimea Moldovei" and "Molodezh Moldavii". Cărare, Fridman, Talpă, Busuioc, Boţu and Gheorghiu argued the need for publication of a special journal of young writers. It was reflected in the resolution of the conference, but the Writers' Union did not put into practice the idea.

  5. El incremento de responsabilidad en la ética medioambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ma. Ga. Gómez-Heras

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente articulo tiene como objetivo fundamental abordar el concepto de responsabilidad en el ámbito de la ética aplicada medioambiental. Para llevar a cabo esta tarea se analiza el pensamiento teleológico de Hans Jonas para una concepción medioambiental de la responsabilidad situando dicho planteamiento en discusión con las éticas deontológicas o de la convicción.The main aim of this paper is to address the concept of responsibility in the area of applied environmental ethics. To this end, we analyse the teleologic thought of Hans Jonas for an environmental conception of responsibility and situate this approach in discussion with deontological ethics or of conviction.

  6. Portrait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Dan M.

    2013-01-01

    Born in 1944, I grew up in a world in which polio was both a gripping fear and real threat. Then in a matter of a few years—polio was eradicated by a vaccine developed by Jonas Salk. Later I learned that Salk’s efforts were built on pioneering work of many others, including John Enders, Thomas Weller and Frederick Robbins (Nobelists, 1954), and David Bodian, who pioneered studies of polio pathogenesis and immunity. Bodian became my teacher in medical school, and Robbins became a colleague. Later, Salk, Robbins and I shared a platform at an infectious diseases symposium, and I was privileged to speak at Robbins’ retirement. But that gets ahead of my story. In January 1956, at age 12 y, I received my first of dose of the “Salk” vaccine. Other kids had pictures of athletes in their rooms; I had a picture of Jonas Salk. PMID:23807081

  7. Portrait: coincidences, convergences and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Dan M

    2013-05-01

    Born in 1944, I grew up in a world in which polio was both a gripping fear and real threat. Then in a matter of a few years-polio was eradicated by a vaccine developed by Jonas Salk. Later I learned that Salk's efforts were built on pioneering work of many others, including John Enders, Thomas Weller and Frederick Robbins (Nobelists, 1954), and David Bodian, who pioneered studies of polio pathogenesis and immunity. Bodian became my teacher in medical school, and Robbins became a colleague. Later, Salk, Robbins and I shared a platform at an infectious diseases symposium, and I was privileged to speak at Robbins' retirement. But that gets ahead of my story. In January 1956, at age 12 y, I received my first of dose of the "Salk" vaccine. Other kids had pictures of athletes in their rooms; I had a picture of Jonas Salk.

  8. Dynamics of inhomogeneous chiral condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Juan Pablo; Krein, Gastão; Kroff, Daniel; Peixoto, Thiago

    2018-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the formation of inhomogeneous chirally broken phases in the final stages of a heavy-ion collision, with particular interest on the time scales involved in the formation process. The study is conducted within the framework of a Ginzburg-Landau time evolution, driven by a free energy functional motivated by the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Expansion of the medium is modeled by one-dimensional Bjorken flow and its effect on the formation of inhomogeneous condensates is investigated. We also use a free energy functional from a nonlocal Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model which predicts metastable phases that lead to long-lived inhomogeneous condensates before reaching an equilibrium phase with homogeneous condensates.

  9. Precautionary discourse. Thinking through the distinction between the precautionary principle and the precautionary approach in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinneen, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the distinction, arising from the different ways the European Union and United States have come to adopt precaution regarding various environmental and health-related risks, between the precautionary principle and the precautionary approach in both theory and practice. First, this paper addresses how the precautionary principle has been variously defined, along with an exploration of some of the concepts with which it has been associated. Next, it addresses how the distinction between the precautionary principle and precautionary approach manifested itself within the political realm. Last, it considers the theoretical foundation of the precautionary principle in the philosophy of Hans Jonas, considering whether the principled-pragmatic distinction regarding precaution does or doesn't hold up in Jonas' thought.

  10. Virtualaus finansų rinkos modelio programinis realizavimas ir tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Haidari, Ališer Antony

    2011-01-01

    A simple Stock Exchange Game Model (SEGM) was introduced in 2009 by prof. Jonas Mockus to simulate the behavior of several stockholders using fixed buying-selling margins at fixed bank yield. The new model, Extended Stock Exchange model (USEGM), is under development, which advantage is application of the Nash Equilibrium (NE) to strategies that define buying-selling margins and bank haircuts (HC) dynamically. In addition, USEGM includes the transaction costs to reflect the reality better. Thi...

  11. Constituent quarks in nuclear matter and the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.; Lee, H.K.; Weise, W.

    1991-01-01

    We investigate the density dependence of the neutron-proton mass difference using the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model in combination with the Isgur-Karl constituent quark model. The decrease of the constituent quark masses with increasing density reduces the n-p mass difference in the proper way to help resolving the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly. We point out however, that in the presence of vector interactions, this effect is less pronounced than previously suggested. (orig.)

  12. Ethical decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Zsolnai, László

    2011-01-01

    The self-centeredness of modern organizations leads to environmental destruction and human deprivation. The principle of responsibility developed by Hans Jonas requires caring for the beings affected by our decisions and actions. Ethical decision-making creates a synthesis of reverence for ethical norms, rationality in goal achievement, and respect for the stakeholders. The maximin rule selects the "least worst alternative" in the multidimensional decision space of deontologica...

  13. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Loucq, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles M?rieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global hea...

  14. Current status of poliovirus infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Melnick, J L

    1996-01-01

    Two scientists who played leading roles in the conquest of poliomyelitis died recently. In 1954, Jonas Salk provided the first licensed polio vaccine, the formalin (and heat)-inactivated virus. Albert Sabin gave us the attenuated live virus vaccine, which was licensed in 1962. This paper takes the reader through the history of the disease, including its pathogenesis, epidemiology, vaccines, and future directions. The emphasis is on vaccines, for it seems that with proper vaccination the numbe...

  15. Relativistic Many-Body Hamiltonian Approach to Mesons

    OpenAIRE

    Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Cotanch, Stephen R.

    2001-01-01

    We represent QCD at the hadronic scale by means of an effective Hamiltonian, $H$, formulated in the Coulomb gauge. As in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, chiral symmetry is explicity broken, however our approach is renormalizable and also includes confinement through a linear potential with slope specified by lattice gauge theory. This interaction generates an infrared integrable singularity and we detail the computationally intensive procedure necessary for numerical solution. We focus upon app...

  16. Chiral symmetry breaking in d=3 NJL model in external gravitational and magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Gitman, D. M.; Odintsov, S. D.; Shil'nov, Yu. I.

    1996-01-01

    The phase structure of $d=3$ Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in curved spacetime with magnetic field is investigated in the leading order of the $1/N$-expansion and in linear curvature approximation (an external magnetic field is treated exactly). The possibility of the chiral symmetry breaking under the combined action of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is shown explicitly. At some circumstances the chiral symmetry may be restored due to the compensation of the magnetic field by the ...

  17. A royal visit : King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway made a trip to CERN on Tuesday 4 April

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    CERN Director-General Robert Aymar welcomed the royal party, which included the Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Jonas Gahr Støre, and provided an overview of CERN's history and current and future research. ATLAS deputy spokesperson Steinar Stapnes then quickly explained the concept and inner workings of the LHC, some LHC physics goals and ATLAS, which is one of the main experiments receiving Norwegian contributions

  18. An Effective Chiral Meson Lagrangian at O(p6) from the NJL Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'kov, A.A.; Lanev, A.V.; Schaale, A.; Scherer, S.; Mainz Univ.

    1994-01-01

    In this work we present a strong chiral meson Lagrangian up to and including O(p 6 ) in the momentum expansion. It is derived from the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model using the heat-kernel method. Identities related to the properties of covariant derivatives of the chiral matrix U as well as field transformations have been used to predict the chiral coefficients of a minimal set of linearly independent terms. 16 refs

  19. How neutron stars constrain the nuclear equation of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hell Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent neutron star observations set new constraints for the equation of state of baryonic matter. A chiral effective field theory approach is used for the description of neutron-dominated nuclear matter present in the outer core of neutron stars. Possible hybrid stars with quark matter in the inner core are discussed using a three-flavor Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model.

  20. Prescription medicine sharing experience among pharmacy students

    OpenAIRE

    Šliogerytė, Karolina

    2017-01-01

    K.Šliogeryte`s master thesis. Master thesis supervisor associate professor Jonas Grincevičius (2015/2016), lecturer J. Daukšienė(2016/2017); Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical technology and Social pharmacy department. – Kaunas. Master thesis: prescription medicine sharing experience among pharmacy students. The aim: to evaluate LUHS Pharmacy faculty students` experience in prescription drugs` sharing. Methods: empirical qualitative method...

  1. Training preferences and motivation for rehabilitation in patients with neck pain

    OpenAIRE

    Verbrugghe, Jonas; Cuyvers, Bert

    2014-01-01

    MP2 scientific research "Training preferences and motivation for rehabilitation in patients with neck pain" by Bert Cuyvers & Jonas Verbrugghe Aim: The aim of this investigation is the inventory of training preferences and motives for motor rehabilitation of patients with neck pain. The second aim of this study is to evaluate to which extent patients with neck pain are familiar with the use of technologies. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted based on the Neck Disa...

  2. Quark confinement in a constituent quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langfeld, K.; Rho, M.

    1995-01-01

    On the level of an effective quark theory, we define confinement by the absence of quark anti-quark thresholds in correlation function. We then propose a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model. The confinement is implemented in analogy to Anderson localization in condensed matter systems. We study the model's phase structure as well as its behavior under extreme conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high density

  3. Baryons as solitonic solutions of the chiral sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, W.; Hartmann, J.; Beck, F.

    1996-01-01

    Self-consistent solitonic solutions with baryon number one are obtained in the chiral quark sigma model. The translational invariant vacuum is stabilized by a Landau ghost subtraction procedure based on the requirement of the Kaellacute en-Lehmann (KL) representation for the meson propagators. The connection of this ghost free model (KL model) to the more popular Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model is discussed in detail. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Nucleon quark distributions in a covariant quark-diquark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloet, I.C. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter and Department of Physics and Mathematical Physics, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia) and Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)]. E-mail: icloet@physics.adelaide.edu.au; Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)]. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Thomas, A.W. [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)]. E-mail: awthomas@jlab.org

    2005-08-18

    Spin-dependent and spin-independent quark light-cone momentum distributions and structure functions are calculated for the nucleon. We utilize a modified Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in which confinement is simulated by eliminating unphysical thresholds for nucleon decay into quarks. The nucleon bound state is obtained by solving the Faddeev equation in the quark-diquark approximation, where both scalar and axial-vector diquark channels are included. We find excellent agreement between our model results and empirical data.

  5. Polarized quark distributions in bound nucleon and polarized EMC effect in Thermodynamical Bag Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesamurthy, Kuppusamy, E-mail: udckgm@sify.co [Research Department of Physics, Urumu Dhanalakshmi College, Trichy 620019 (India); Sambasivam, Raghavan, E-mail: udcsam@sify.co [Research Department of Physics, Urumu Dhanalakshmi College, Trichy 620019 (India)

    2011-04-15

    The polarized parton distribution functions (PDFs) and nuclear structure functions are evaluated by the phenomenological Thermodynamical Bag Model for nuclear media {sup 7}Li and {sup 27}Al. The Fermi statistical distribution function which includes the spin degree of freedom is used in this statistical model. We predict a sizeable polarized EMC effect. The results of quark spin sum and axial coupling constant of bound nucleons are compared with theoretical predictions of modified Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model by Bentz et al.

  6. The phases of isospin-asymmetric matter in the two-flavor NJL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawley, S. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia) and Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)]. E-mail: slawley@jlab.org; Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Thomas, A.W. [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2006-01-19

    We investigate the phase diagram of isospin-asymmetric matter at T=0 in the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Our approach describes the single nucleon as a confined quark-diquark state, the saturation properties of nuclear matter at normal densities, and the phase transition to normal or color superconducting quark matter at higher densities. The resulting equation of state of charge-neutral matter and the structure of compact stars are discussed.

  7. Relativistic Faddeev description of baryons and nucleon structure function in the NJL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, W.; Mineo, H.; Asami, H.; Yazaki, K

    2000-05-08

    In this work we use the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model as an effective quark theory based on QCD to describe the structure of baryons. Based on the solutions of the relativistic 3-quark Faddeev equation in the ladder approximation, we discuss the masses of the nucleon and the delta, the static properties of the nucleon, and the quark light cone momentum distributions in the nucleon.

  8. Phase transition from nuclear matter to color superconducting quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, W. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Horikawa, T.; Ishii, N.; Thomas, A.W

    2003-06-02

    We construct the nuclear and quark matter equations of state at zero temperature in an effective quark theory (the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model), and discuss the phase transition between them. The nuclear matter equation of state is based on the quark-diquark description of the single nucleon, while the quark matter equation of state includes the effects of scalar diquark condensation (color superconductivity). The effect of diquark condensation on the phase transition is discussed in detail.

  9. The sites and mechanisms of postoperative insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Nygren, Jonas

    1997-01-01

    The Sites and Mechanisms of Postoperative InsulinResistance by Jonas Nygren, M.D. Departments of Surgery and Endocrinology and Diabetes, Karolinska Hospital and Institute, SE-171 76, Stockholm, Sweden In Sweden with nine million inhabitants, 450,000 operations(outpatients excluded) are performed every year resulting in2,250,000 treatment days in hospital. Surgical operations are part ofthe treatment for 44% of all patients admitted to hospital careoccupying 24% of all ...

  10. Dynamical CP violation of the generalized Yang-Mills model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dianfu; Chang Xiaojing; Sun Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the generalized Yang-Mills model which contains, besides the vector part V μ , also a scalar part S and a pseudoscalar part P . It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, that CP violation can be realized dynamically. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills model and the NJL mechanism provides a new way to explain CP violation. (authors)

  11. Spin polarization in high density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Panda, Prafulla K.; Providênci, Constanca

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the occurrence of a ferromagnetic phase transition in high density hadronic matter (e.g., in the interior of a neutron star). This could be induced by a four-fermion interaction analogous to the one which is responsible for chiral symmetry breaking in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, ...... the so-called 2 flavor super-conducting phase to the ferromagnetic phase arises. The color-flavor-locked phase may be completely hidden by the FP....

  12. QCD bound states at finite temperature and baryon number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinovsky, Yu.L.; Muenchow, L.

    1991-04-01

    Quark-antiquark bound states are described within the Bethe-Salpeter equation for a class of quark models with instantaneous 4-quark interaction at finite temperature. Thereby decompositions of the Bethe-Salpeter vertex and wave functions according to their Lorentz structures and the particles content are used. As an application of general scheme, we determine the mass spectrum of low-lying mesons for a special Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model inspired by QCD for hadrons. (orig.)

  13. Oscillations of the static meson fields at finite baryon density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florkowski, W.; Friman, B.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt

    1996-04-01

    The spatial dependence of static meson correlation functions at finite baryon density is studied in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In contrast to the finite temperature case, we find that the correlation functions at finite density are not screened but exhibit long-range oscillations. The observed phenomenon is analogous to the Friedel oscillations in a degenerate electron gas. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs

  14. Texture Development in Friction Stir Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    and J. J. Jonas: Acta Metall., 1989, 37, (8), 2197–2210. 17. S. Li, I. J. Beyerlein and M. A. M. Bourke : Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2005, A394, (1–2), 66–77...M. Bourke , D. Brown, B. Clausen, C. Tome, R. V. Dreele, C. Xu and T. Langdon: Mater. Sci. Forum, 2003, 426–432, 2661–2666. 26. J. A. Schneider and A

  15. Chiral symmetry and the charge asymmetry of the s bar s distribution in a proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkardt, M.

    1991-05-01

    Based on a simple K-cloud model, as well as the Gross-Neveu and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, it is predicted that the s bar s sea in a proton is not charge symmetric at large Bjorken-x. The s quarks are shifted to larger values of x bj than the bar s quarks. Furthermore these large x bj s quarks carry a negative polarization. 9 refs., 2 figs

  16. Muusika / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2004-01-01

    Mihkel Pollpälvis XVIII Rina Sala Gallo rahvusvahelisel pianistide konkursil esikoha. Igal reedel hakkavad toimuma Vanalinnastuudio väikeses saalis jazziklubi-kontserdid. Vanemuise teatri menumuusikalis "Viiuldaja katusel" astusid esmakordselt vaatajate ette uued osatäitjad. Ardo-Ran Varres ja Tanel Jonas. Pärdil uus teos "Da pacem domine". 28.- 31. X toimuvad Nõmme muusikakoolis üleriigilised klaveriõpetajate päevad

  17. Field experiments for studying the deposition of aerosols onto vegetation and other surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, R.; Heinemann, K.

    1986-01-01

    For some pollutions, dry deposition clearly predominates in the long-term mean over the wash-out or wet deposition. The deposition velocity or fall-out constant, defined as follows, is a measure of the dry deposition of pollutants onto the soil or vegetation: upsilonsub(g) = K/I, where upsilonsub (g) = deposition velocity (cms -1 ); K = contamination of the sampling surface per cm 2 area (quantity deposited per cm 2 ); I = time-integrated air concentration conventionally measured at a reference height of 1 m above the ground. The deposition velocity of radioactively labelled test aerosols (copper sulphate) onto grass, clover, various species of tree (common beech, hornbeam, red oak, common oak, horse chestnut, silver birch, Norway maple, common spruce, Scots pine, Japanese larch, European larch, common silver fir) as well as onto bare soil, water, metals and horizontal filter paper was determined in an extensive series of field tests at the Julich Nuclear Research Centre (Jonas, 1984; Jonas and Heinemann, 1985). For determination of the deposition velocities, the reader is referred to Jonas and Heinemann (1985). (author)

  18. A renormalizable extension of the NJL-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langfeld, K.; Kettner, C.; Reinhardt, H.

    1996-01-01

    The Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model is supplemented by the quark interaction generated by the one-gluon exchange. The employed gluon propagator exhibits the correct large-momentum behavior of QCD, whereas the Landau pole at low energies is screened. The emerging constituent quark model is one-loop renormalizable and interpolates between the phenomenologically successful Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model (modified by a transversal projector) at low energies and perturbative QCD at high momenta. Consequently, the momentum dependence of the quark self-energy at high energy coincides with the prediction from perturbative QCD. The chiral phase transition is studied in dependence on the low-energy four-quark interaction strength in the Dyson-Schwinger equation approach. The critical exponents of the quark self-energy and the quark condensate are obtained. The latter exponent deviates from the NJL-result. Pion properties are addressed by means of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The validity of the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation is verified. Finally, we study the conditions under which the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model is a decent approximation to our renormalizable theory as well as the shortcoming of the NJL-model due to its inherent non-renormalizability. (orig.)

  19. Rotating shallow water modeling of planetary,astrophysical and plasma vortical structures (plasma transport across a magnetic field,model of the jupiter's GRS, prediction of existence of giant vortices in spiral galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Nezlin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of results have been described in this paper. Firstly, an experimental study of the Rossby vortex meridional drift on the rotating shallow water has been carried out. Owing to the stringent physical analogy between the Rossby vortices and drift vortices in the magnetized plasma, the results obtained have allowed one to make a conclusion that the transport rate of the plasma, trapped by the drift vortices, across the magnetic field is equivalent to the “gyro-Bohm” diffusion coefficient. Secondly, a model of big vortices of the type of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter, dominating in the atmospheres of the outer planets, has been produced. Thirdly, the rotating shallow water modeling has been carried out of the hydrodynamical generation mechanism of spiral structures in galaxies. Trailing spiral waves of various azimuthal modes, generated by a shear flow between fast rotating “nucleus” and slow rotating periphery, were produced. The spirals are similar to those existing in the real galaxies. The hydrodynamical concept of the spiral structure formation in galaxies has been substantiated. Strong anticyclonic vortices between the spiral arms of the structures under study have been discovered for the first time. The existence of analogous vortices in real galaxies has been predicted. (This prediction has been reliably confirmed recently in special astronomical observations, carried out on the basis of the mentioned laboratory modeling and the prediction made – see the paper by A. Fridman et al. (Astrophysics and Space Science, 1997, 252, 115.

  20. A model for the Lin-Shu type density-wave structure of our Galaxy: Line-of-sight and transverse-longitudinal velocities of 242 optically visible open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griv, E.; Jiang, I.-G.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the fourth in a series, we examine again one of the implications of the Lin-Shu density-wave theory, specifically, the noncircular systematic motion of the Galactic objects. Our previous investigation is extended by analyzing simultaneously both the line-of-sight and transversal velocities of a sample of open clusters for which velocities, distances and ages are available. The ordinary equations of the Oort-Lindblad theory of galactic differential rotation are used. The minor effects caused by the two-dimensional tightly-wound density waves are also taken into account. The published data of 242 currently known optically visible clusters having distances rsight and transversal along the Galactic longitude velocities are nearly equal. We argue that the resemblance of these Galactic wave structures is so remarkable that no doubt is felt as to the theory's truth with respect to these data. The results obtained allow us to conclude that several low-m trailing density-wave patterns with different number of spiral arms m (say, m=1, 2, 3, and 4), pitch angles (about 5o, 8o, 11o, and 14o, respectively) and amplitudes of the perturbed gravitational potential may coexist in the Galaxy. The latter suggests the asymmetric multiarm, not well-organized (``flocculent'') spiral structure of the system. In memory of Professors Alexei M. Fridman (1940-2010) and Chi Yuan (1937-2008)

  1. New intracellular activities of matrix metalloproteinases shine in the moonlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, Parker G; Butler, Georgina S; Overall, Christopher M

    2017-11-01

    Adaption of a single protein to perform multiple independent functions facilitates functional plasticity of the proteome allowing a limited number of protein-coding genes to perform a multitude of cellular processes. Multifunctionality is achievable by post-translational modifications and by modulating subcellular localization. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), classically viewed as degraders of the extracellular matrix (ECM) responsible for matrix protein turnover, are more recently recognized as regulators of a range of extracellular bioactive molecules including chemokines, cytokines, and their binders. However, growing evidence has convincingly identified select MMPs in intracellular compartments with unexpected physiological and pathological roles. Intracellular MMPs have both proteolytic and non-proteolytic functions, including signal transduction and transcription factor activity thereby challenging their traditional designation as extracellular proteases. This review highlights current knowledge of subcellular location and activity of these "moonlighting" MMPs. Intracellular roles herald a new era of MMP research, rejuvenating interest in targeting these proteases in therapeutic strategies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Matrix Metalloproteinases edited by Rafael Fridman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Produtividade de cultivares de alho na região paulista de Tietê Garlic cultivars yield in Tietê region, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Espíndola Trani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O custo elevado das sementes (bulbilhos de alho nobre e a vernalização podem aumentar a produtividade da cultura, mas dificultam seu cultivo por pequenos produtores, responsáveis pela maior parte da produção no Brasil. Assim, estudos de seleção de sementes de menor custo como os alhos comuns, feitos regionalmente, e de comparação com alho vernalizado quanto à produtividade, são fundamentais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a avaliação da produtividade de quatro cultivares de alho comum não vernalizado (Assaí, Gigante de Curitibanos, Santa Catarina Branco e Santa Catarina Roxo, em comparação com alho chinês vernalizado Jonas (armazenamento dos bulbos a 4 ºC por 40 dias. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. O experimento foi realizado em área experimental da APTA-UPD de Tietê (SP, de março a setembro de 2005. A variedade mais produtiva foi Jonas, sem diferir de Santa Catarina Roxo, Santa Catarina Branco e Assaí 3702, com 8,4; 7,6; 7,4 e 6,9 t ha-1 respectivamente e também com as maiores massas médias de bulbos (30,5; 27,0; 26,3 e 24,6g respectivamente. Quanto ao diâmetro do bulbo, os alhos comuns, exceto Gigante de Curitibanos, produziram bulbos tamanho 4 (36-45 mm. Para produtividade e massa do bulbo, a cultivar Gigante de Curitibanos foi inferior a Jonas.The high cost of garlic seed and the refrigeration process may increase yield, but it is a barrier for small farmers who are responsible for the large Brazilian production. Therefore, research seeking low cost garlic seed, regionally made, and competition studies for yield between refrigerated and no refrigerated cultivars are fundamental. This work aimed to evaluate yield and bulb quality of four no refrigerated garlic varieties (Assaí 3702, Gigante de Curitibanos, Santa Catarina Branco and Santa Catarina Roxo and the refrigerated type Jonas (storage at 4º C for 40 days. The field trial was carried out during March

  3. Evaluation of the Applicability of HTML5 for Mobile Applications in Resource-Constrained Edge Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    fully supported by the HTML5 standard via the HTML5 File API drafted by W3C [ Ranganathan 2013]. Figure 6 shows a JavaScript code example that...W3C). May 2012. http://dev.w3.org/geo/api/spec-source.html [Pusher 2012] Pusher Ltd. Pusher. http://pusher.com (2012). [ Ranganathan 2013... Ranganathan , Arun & Sicking, Jonas. “File API.” World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 2013. http://www.w3.org/TR/FileAPI/ [Regmi 2011] Regni,Saroj Sharan

  4. Las tecnologías de manipulación de genes humanos como imperativo tecnológico: análisis desde la óptica del principalismo bioético y el principio de la responsabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Casanova Perdomo

    2011-01-01

    razones a favor y en contra de hacer o no hacer una investigación y por ello nuevas bases de sustentaciones teórico-metodológicas más abarcadoras que las del principalismo. Se demuestra la validez del Principio de la Responsabilidad de Hans Jonas que, como evaluación crítica de la ciencia y la tecnología modernas, llama a actuar con cautela y humildad frente al enorme poder transformador de la tecnociencia pues el orden ético está presente, no como realidad visible, sino como un llamado que pide calma, prudencia y equilibrio.

  5. Hirschegg '95: Dynamical properties of hadrons in nuclear matter. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmeier, H.; Noerenberg, W.

    1995-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Chiral symmetry, chiral condensates, in-medium effective chiral Lagrangians, Δ's in nuclei, nonperturbative QCD, electron scattering from nuclear matter, nuclear shadowing, QCD sum rules, deconfinement, ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, nuclear dimuon and electron pair production, photoproduction from nuclei, subthreshold K + production, kaon polarization in nuclear matter, charged pion production in relativistic heavy ion collisions, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, the SU(3) L xSU(3) R sigma model, nonequilibrium dense nuclear matter, pion pair production at finite temperature. (HSI)

  6. The spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.

    1980-02-01

    It is suggested that the usual path integral representation of Euclidean vacuum amplitude (tunneling amplitude) in QCD must be supplemented by the explicit boundary condition corresponding to the spontaneous breaking of chiral SU(N) x SU(N). Adopting the trial wave function introduced by Nambu and Jona-Lasinio, one sees that such a path integral automatically breaks also the additional chiral U(1) symmetry of massless quarks. The catastrophe of semi-classical approach to QCD and 'U(1) problem' would be avoided in this way and one has, in principle, a better starting point for the self-consistent calculation

  7. Animafestivali võit Saksamaale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    23. nov. PÖFFi raames toimuval animafilmifestifalil "Animated Dreams" peavõidu sai sakslane Andreas Hykade filmiga "Äbarik" ("Der Kloane"), eriauhinna said portgallanna Regina Pessoa "Traagiline õnneliku lõpuga lugu" ja tšehh Milos Tomici film "Savist tuvi". Parim lugu oli rootslase Jonas Odelli "Eales pole enam nii, kui esimesel korral!", parim disain oli inglase Run Wrake'i filmil "Jänes". Balti- ja Põhjamaade Anoba auhinna sai Ami Lindblomi "Vastupandamatu naeratus" ("Ilo irti"). Järgmisele Anobale nomineeriti Mati Küti "Une instituut"

  8. Studying medium effects with the optimized δ expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krein, G.; Menezes, D.P.; Nielsen, M.; Pinto, M.B.

    1995-04-01

    The possibility of using the optimized δ expansion for studying medium effects on hadronic properties in quark or nuclear matter is investigated. The δ expansion is employed to study density effects with two commonly used models in hadron and nuclear physics, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and the Walecka model for the equation of state of nuclear matter. The results obtained with the δ expansion are compared to those obtained with the traditional Hartree-Fock approximation. Perspectives for using the δ expansion in other field theoretic models in hadron and nuclear physics are discussed. (author). 17 refs, 9 figs

  9. Studying medium effects with the optimized {delta} expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krein, G [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Menezes, D P [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nielsen, M [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Pinto, M B [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Lab. de Physique Mathematique

    1995-04-01

    The possibility of using the optimized {delta} expansion for studying medium effects on hadronic properties in quark or nuclear matter is investigated. The {delta} expansion is employed to study density effects with two commonly used models in hadron and nuclear physics, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and the Walecka model for the equation of state of nuclear matter. The results obtained with the {delta} expansion are compared to those obtained with the traditional Hartree-Fock approximation. Perspectives for using the {delta} expansion in other field theoretic models in hadron and nuclear physics are discussed. (author). 17 refs, 9 figs.

  10. Principios bioéticos en salud pública: limitaciones y propuestas Bioethical principles in public health: limitations and proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Roland Schramm

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo intenta caracterizar la especificidad de los problemas morales en salud pública y analizar la aplicabilidad del modelo principialista como padrón para dirimir sus conflictos. Aunque considerado pertinente para la bioética clínica, este modelo no es aplicable sin más a los dilemas en salud pública, puesto que se fundamenta en la moral de las interrelaciones médico-paciente. Se analiza la pertinencia de los principios de "solidaridad", de "responsabilidad óntica" según Jonas, y de "responsabilidad diacónica" según Lévinas, destacando la inaplicabilidad del primero y la posible adaptación de los otros dos a la salud pública. A ese respecto se discute la posibilidad de vincular la preocupación ontológica de Jonas y la trascendental de Lévinas, proponiendo un principio de protección que sería más adecuado a los propósitos de una ética de la salud pública, permitiendo identificar claramente los objetivos y los actores implicados en una implementación de políticas públicas moralmente correctas y pragmáticamente efectivas.We propose to analyze the specificity of ethical problems in public health issues and to elucidate the applicability of principlism as a problem-solving strategy in this realm. Although well-established in clinical ethics, principlism is not an adequate model to be used in public health, since it is basically intended to serve as a moral guide in the physician-patient encounter. We discuss the possible adequacy of principles like "solidarity", "ontic responsibility" (as proposed by Jonas, and "caring or diaconal responsibility" as presented by Lévinas. Solidarity appears to be insufficiently specified, whereas the other two perspectives may be adapted to public health issues by bringing together Jonas´ ontological and Lévinas´ transcendental concerns to form a principle of protection that might better serve the purposes of such an ethics. This principle would help to identify more clearly

  11. Description of hot compressed hadronic matter based on an effective chiral Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florkowski, W. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-11-01

    In this report we give the review of the recent results obtained in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, describing the properties of hot compressed matter. The first large class problems concerns the behaviour of static meson correlation functions. In particular, this includes the investigation of the screening of meson fields at finite temperature or density. Another wide range of problems presented in our report concerns the formulation of the transport theory for the NJL model and its applications to the description of high energy nuclear collision. 86 refs, 35 figs.

  12. International recognition for ageing research: John Scott Award-2014 to Leonard Hayflick and Paul Moorhead

    OpenAIRE

    Rattan, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    It is with great pleasure and pride that we share the news of the award of the 2014 “City of Philadelphia John Scott Award”, to Dr. Leonard Hayflick and Dr. Paul Moorhead, for their research on ageing. The press release announcing the award states that: “from the first awarded in 1822, the Award is the oldest scientific award in the United States and, as a legacy to Benjamin Franklin, they are in the historic company of past winners who include Marie Curie, Thomas Edison, Jonas Salk, Irving L...

  13. Agouron and immune response to commercialize remune immune-based treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1998-06-19

    Agouron Pharmaceuticals agreed in June to collaborate with The Immune Response Corporation on the final development and marketing of an immune-based treatment for HIV. Remune, the vaccine developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, is currently in Phase III randomized trials with 2,500 patients, and the trials are expected to be completed in April 1999. Immune-based treatments have been difficult to test, as there is no surrogate marker, like viral load, to determine if the drug is working. Agouron agreed to participate in the joint venture after reviewing encouraging results from preliminary trials in which remune was taken in combination with highly active antiretroviral drugs.

  14. Constantin Levaditi (1874-1953): a pioneer in Immunology and Virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzis, George; Skiadas, Panagiotis; Lascaratos, John

    2006-08-01

    The eminent doctor Constantin Levaditi represents one of the most important researchers in the field of medicine in the 20th century. Although he was engaged in many areas of the rapidly growing field of immunology, his name is associated mainly with research in poliomyelitis. His laboratory research contributed decisively to the clarification of the epidemiology of this dreadful disease that claimed thousands of victims. Moreover, his experimental work constituted the basis for the development of the vaccine against poliomyelitis, initially in 1955 by Jonas Salk (1914-95) using inactivated virus, and then in 1960 by Albert Sabin (1906-93) who used live attenuated virus.

  15. [Historical development of vaccines. Introduction: Hazards and rationality in the vaccinal approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, A M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the one hundred years of vaccination that has passed since Louis Pasteur first coined this generic term. According to the late Jonas Salk, vaccinology is a science encompassing all aspects of vaccine from its conception in the laboratory to its production by companies and its application and distribution in the field. In this historical survey I explore how vaccination never consisted of a simple and uniform application of a rational model, but rather diverged along various pathways, several of which were discarded in retrospect as being hazardous, and I analyse the ongoing interplay between rational and inventive thinking.

  16. FDA advisory committees meet January 26 on Salk HIV-1 immunogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-06

    Two advisory committees of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will meet to consider future trials of the HIV-1 immunogen developed by Dr. Jonas Salk. The Immune Response Corporation has already conducted several studies of the immunogen, and has found improvement in various immunological and other blood tests, and no adverse effects. However, the studies have not been large enough to show conclusively that the treatment has clinical benefit in delaying disease progression. The new, larger trials are intended to demonstrate a delay in disease progression and validate the use of blood-test markers of disease progression for studying an immune-based treatment.

  17. Portrait

    OpenAIRE

    Granoff, Dan M.

    2013-01-01

    Born in 1944, I grew up in a world in which polio was both a gripping fear and real threat. Then in a matter of a few years—polio was eradicated by a vaccine developed by Jonas Salk. Later I learned that Salk’s efforts were built on pioneering work of many others, including John Enders, Thomas Weller and Frederick Robbins (Nobelists, 1954), and David Bodian, who pioneered studies of polio pathogenesis and immunity. Bodian became my teacher in medical school, and Robbins became a colleague. La...

  18. Dynamical Model of QCD Vacuum and Color Thaw at Finite Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDian-Fu; SONGHe-Shan; MIDong

    2004-01-01

    In terms of the Nambu Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, the dynamical symmetry breaking of a simple local gauge model is investigated. An important relation between the vacuum expectation value of gauge fields and scalar fields is derived by solving the Euler equation for the gauge fields. Based on this relation the SU(3) gauge potential is given which can be used to explain the asymptotic freedom and confinement of quarks in a hadron. The confinement behavior at finite temperatures is also investigated and it is shown that color confinement at zero temperature can be melted away under high temperatures.

  19. Dynamical Model of QCD Vacuum and Color Thaw at Finite Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shan; MI Dong

    2004-01-01

    In terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, the dynamical symmetry breaking of a simple localgauge model is investigated. An important relation between the vacuum expectation value of gauge fields and scalarfields is derived by solving the Euler equation for the gauge fields. Based on this relation the SU(3) gauge potential isgiven which can be used to explain the asymptotic freedom and confinement of quarks in a hadron. The confinementbehavior at finite temperatures is also investigated and it is shown that color confinement at zero temperature can bemelted away under high temperatures.

  20. Ice limit of Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzl, T.; Ilderton, A.; Langfeld, K.; Lavelle, M.; McMullan, D.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe gauge invariant multiquark states generalizing the path integral framework developed by Parrinello, Jona-Lasinio, and Zwanziger to amend the Faddeev-Popov approach. This allows us to produce states such that, in a limit which we call the ice limit, fermions are dressed with glue exclusively from the fundamental modular region associated with Coulomb gauge. The limit can be taken analytically without difficulties, avoiding the Gribov problem. This is illustrated by an unambiguous construction of gauge invariant mesonic states for which we simulate the static quark-antiquark potential.

  1. 2d Model Field Theories at Finite Temperature and Density

    OpenAIRE

    Schoen, Verena; Thies, Michael

    2000-01-01

    In certain 1+1 dimensional field theoretic toy models, one can go all the way from microscopic quarks via the hadron spectrum to the properties of hot and dense baryonic matter in an essentially analytic way. This "miracle" is illustrated through case studies of two popular large N models, the Gross-Neveu and the 't Hooft model - caricatures of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and real QCD, respectively. The main emphasis will be on aspects related to spontaneous symmetry breaking (discrete or co...

  2. Lietuviško anatomijos vardyno istorijos metmenys

    OpenAIRE

    Česnys, Gintautas

    2002-01-01

    The history of Lithuanian anatomical terminology begins in 1620, when a Polish-Latin-Lithuanian dictionary by Konstantinas Sirvydas (1579-1631) was published. In the first publicistic writings in medicine, Vincas Kudirka (1858-1899) used some anatomical terms that have survived until now. Jonas Basanavičius (1851-1927) started the creation of Lithuanian medical nomenclature as a system. Between the two world wars, Jurgis Žilinskas (1885-1957) and his colleagues tried to unify the system, and ...

  3. Spinodal instability of baryon-rich quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Feng; Ko, Che Ming

    2017-01-01

    The spinodal instabilities of both confined and expanding baryon-rich quark matters are studied in a transport model derived from the Nambu-Jona-Lasino model. Appreciable higher-order density moments are seen as a result of the first-order phase transition in both cases. The skewness of the quark number event-by-event distribution in a small subvolume of the system becomes appreciable for the confined quark matter. For the expanding quark matter, the density fluctuations lead to enhanced anisotropic flows and dilepton yield. (paper)

  4. On the form factors of the D+s → φ μ+ υμ decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Ivanov, A.N.; Troitskaya, N.I.

    1995-05-01

    We apply the infinite mass effective theory, when a heavy quark mass tends to infinity, and Chiral perturbation theory at the quark level, based on the extended Nambu - Jona - Lasinio model with linear realization of chiral U(3) x U(3) symmetry, to calculate the form factors of the D + s → φ μ + υ μ decay up to the first order in current s - quark mass. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data and found to be in good agreement. (author). 12 refs

  5. Dense baryon matter with isospin and chiral imbalance in the framework of a NJL4 model at large Nc: Duality between chiral symmetry breaking and charged pion condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunjua, T. G.; Klimenko, K. G.; Zhokhov, R. N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper the phase structure of dense quark matter has been investigated at zero temperature in the presence of baryon, isospin and chiral isospin chemical potentials in the framework of massless (3 +1 )-dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with two quark flavors. It has been shown that in the large-Nc limit (Nc is the number of colors of quarks) there exists a duality correspondence between the chiral symmetry breaking phase and the charged pion condensation one. The key conclusion of our studies is the fact that chiral isospin chemical potential generates charged pion condensation in dense quark matter with isotopic asymmetry.

  6. Quark self-energy beyond the mean field at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model, an effective low-energy model of QCD, is extended to the next to the leading order in the 1/N c expansion at finite temperature and density. The contributions to the quark self-energy and the constituent quark mass from the meson dressing are considered in a perturbative approach about the mean field. In particular, the temperature dependence of the quark mass is shown numerically at zero chemical potential. The correction to the quark mass from the meson dressing amounts to 20% compared to the result of the leading order at low temperature, and rapidly approaches zero at high temperature

  7. Non-uniform chiral phase in effective chiral quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadzikowski, M.; Broniowski, W.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the phase diagram in effective chiral quark models (the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, the σ-model with quarks) and show that at the mean-field level a phase with a periodically-modulated chiral fields separates the usual phases with broken and restored chiral symmetry. A possible signal of such a phase is the production of multipion jets travelling in opposite directions, with individual pions having momenta of the order of several hundred MeV. This signal can be interpreted in terms of disoriented chiral condensates. (author)

  8. Chiral dynamics and heavy quark symmetry in a solvable toy field-theoretic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.; Hill, C.T.

    1994-01-01

    We study a solvable QCD-like toy theory, a generalization of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model, which implements chiral symmetries of light quarks and heavy quark symmetry. The chiral symmetric and chiral broken phases can be dynamically tuned. This implies a parity-doubled heavy-light meson system, corresponding to a (0 - ,1 - ) multiplet and a (0 + ,1 + ) heavy spin multiplet. Consequently the mass difference of the two multiplets is given by a Goldberger-Treiman relation and g A is found to be small. The Isgur-Wise function ξ(w), the decay constant f B , and other observables are studied

  9. Description of hot compressed hadronic matter based on an effective chiral Lagrangian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florkowski, W.

    1996-11-01

    In this report we give the review of the recent results obtained in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, describing the properties of hot compressed matter. The first large class problems concerns the behaviour of static meson correlation functions. In particular, this includes the investigation of the screening of meson fields at finite temperature or density. Another wide range of problems presented in our report concerns the formulation of the transport theory for the NJL model and its applications to the description of high energy nuclear collision. 86 refs, 35 figs

  10. Nuclear phenomena derived from quark-gluon strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Providencia, Constanca; Providencia, Joao da

    2005-01-01

    provided that the chiral fields are identified with the two-particle strings, which are natural in a QCD framework. Moreover, the model is able to reconcile qualitatively such aspects of hadronic physics as saturation density and binding energy of nuclear matter, surface density of finite nuclei, mass......, for the occurrence of the phases of nuclear matter. The model exhibits a quark deconfinement transition and chiral restoration, which are ingredients of QCD and give qualitatively correct numerics. The effective model is shown to be isomorphic to the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and exhibits the correct chirality...

  11. Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggins Osborne P; Schwartz Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of lif...

  12. Monte Carlo simulations of the NJL model near the nonzero temperature phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strouthos, Costas; Christofi, Stavros

    2005-01-01

    We present results from numerical simulations of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with an SU(2)xSU(2) chiral symmetry and N c = 4,8, and 16 quark colors at nonzero temperature. We performed the simulations by utilizing the hybrid Monte Carlo and hybrid Molecular Dynamics algorithms. We show that the model undergoes a second order phase transition. The critical exponents measured are consistent with the classical 3d O(4) universality class and hence in accordance with the dimensional reduction scenario. We also show that the Ginzburg region is suppressed by a factor of 1/N c in accordance with previous analytical predictions. (author)

  13. Jono Basanavičiaus pamokos

    OpenAIRE

    Grigaravičius, Algirdas

    2012-01-01

    Although it is difficult to reveal the extent of Jonas Basanavičius‘ accomplishments, their valuable significance can be clearly perceived. The passing time encourages to evaluate everything as quickly and as concisely as possible, but also poses a threat that such urgency can result in yet one more monumental inscription. Doctor J. Basanavičius‘ work has been more or less evaluated in folklore, anthropology, mythology areas; the publishing of “Aušra“ [The Dawn], organization of the Great Ass...

  14. Baryon octet electromagnetic form factors in a confining NJL model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Carrillo-Serrano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic form factors of the baryon octet are studied using a Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model which utilizes the proper-time regularization scheme to simulate aspects of colour confinement. In addition, the model also incorporates corrections to the dressed quarks from vector meson correlations in the t-channel and the pion cloud. Comparison with recent chiral extrapolations of lattice QCD results shows a remarkable level of consistency. For the charge radii we find the surprising result that rEp

  15. Transversity quark distributions in a covariant quark-diquark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloet, I.C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4843 (United States)], E-mail: icloet@anl.gov; Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)], E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Thomas, A.W. [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States)], E-mail: awthomas@jlab.org

    2008-01-17

    Transversity quark light-cone momentum distributions are calculated for the nucleon. We utilize a modified Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in which confinement is simulated by eliminating unphysical thresholds for nucleon decay into quarks. The nucleon bound state is obtained by solving the relativistic Faddeev equation in the quark-diquark approximation, where both scalar and axial-vector diquark channels are included. Particular attention is paid to comparing our results with the recent experimental extraction of the transversity distributions by Anselmino et al. We also compare our transversity results with earlier spin-independent and helicity quark distributions calculated in the same approach.

  16. Medium modifications of nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, T. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)]. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp

    2005-11-28

    We use the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model as an effective quark theory to investigate the medium modifications of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors. By using the equation of state of nuclear matter derived in this model, we discuss the results based on the naive quark-scalar diquark picture, the effects of finite diquark size, and the meson cloud around the constituent quarks. We apply this description to the longitudinal response function for quasielastic electron scattering. RPA correlations, based on the nucleon-nucleon interaction derived in the same model, are also taken into account in the calculation of the response function.

  17. Textkritische Edition der Übersetzung des Psalters in die Litauische Sprache von Johannes Bretke, Pastor zu Labiau und Königsberg i. Pr., nach der Handschrift aus dem Jahre 1580 [...

    OpenAIRE

    Gelumbeckaitė, Jolanta

    2003-01-01

    The review discusses the historical critical edition of the Psalm Book translated into Lithuanian by Jonas Bretkūnas in 1580 prepared by Friedrich Scholz, Professor Emeritus at Münster University. This is the first textologically diplomatically in corpore published volume of the Bible manuscript by Bretkūnas (1579–1590) and the first critical edition of the 16th c. Lithuanian manuscript text. The critical edition of the Psalm Book is part of a large Bretkūnas’ Bible publishing project, consis...

  18. Improving nursing morale in a climate of cost containment. Part 1. Organizational assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, M A; Claus, E G; Durbin-Lafferty, E; Iversen, S M

    1984-10-01

    Faced with declining resources for health care and greater pressures to improve productivity of nursing staff, nursing administrators must act now to develop organizational responses to morale problems among nursing staff. As part of a two-part series for JONA, the authors describe low-cost organizational approaches that address nursing morale. Presented in Part 1 is a low-cost diagnostic process for assessing needs of staff and appraising organizational dimensions contributing to morale. Assessment findings provide clear direction for developing organizational approaches for improving morale.

  19. [Improving job morale of nurses despite insurance cost control. 1: Organization assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Mary Ann; Claus, Eleanor G; Durbin-Lafferty, Ellen; Iversen, Sharon M

    2003-04-01

    Faced with declining resources for health care and greater pressures to improve productivity of nursing staff, nursing administrators must act now to develop organizational responses to morale problems among nursing staff. As part of a two-part series for JONA, the authors describe low-cost organizational approaches that address nursing morale. Presented in Part 1 is a low-cost diagnostic process for assessing needs of staff and appraising organizational dimensions contributing to morale. Assessment findings provide clear direction for developing organizational approaches for improving morale.

  20. Current s - quark mass corrections to the form factors of D - meson semileptonic decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Ivanov, A.N.; Troitskaya, N.I.

    1994-11-01

    The infinite mass effective theory, when a heavy quark mass tends to infinity, and Chiral perturbation theory at the quark level, based on the extended Nambu - Jona - Lasinio model with linear realization of chiral U(3) x U(3) symmetry, are applied to the calculations of current s - quark mass corrections to the form factors of the D → K-bar e + ν e and D → K-bar * e + ν e decays. These corrections turn out to be quite significant, of the order of 7 - 20%. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data. (author). 17 refs

  1. A Generalized Yang-Mills Model and Dynamical Breaking of Gauge Symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dianfu; Song Heshan

    2005-01-01

    A generalized Yang-Mills model, which contains, besides the vector part V μ , also a scalar part S, is constructed and the dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry in the model is also discussed. It is shown, in terms of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills model. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills model and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  2. Tres enfoques Deontológicos Acerca de la Vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Antonio López

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta tres aproximaciones deontológicas a algunos problemas referidos al comienzo, el fin y la reproducción de la vida humana, así como a la preservación de la vida -humana y no humana- en el planeta. En primer lugar se presenta la deontología clásica de Kant y luego las deontologías contemporáneas de Hans Jonas y de Jürgen Habermas.

  3. Heavy hybrid stars from multi-quark interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benic, Sanjin

    2014-01-01

    We explore the possibility of obtaining heavy hybrid stars within the framework of the two flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that includes 8-quark interactions in the scalar and in the vector channel. The main impact of the 8-quark scalar channel is to reduce the onset of quark matter, while the 8-quark vector channel acts to stiffen the equation of state at high densities. Within the parameter space where the 4-quark vector channel is small, and the 8-quark vector channel sizeable, stable stars with masses of 2 M ⊙ and above are found to hold quark matter in their cores. (orig.)

  4. Education, learning and participation (FERA 50 years anniversary - celebrating with colleagues)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen

    The second presentation on participation by Jonas Andreasen Lysgaard will address different takes on participation in learning, particularly those informed by critical educational theory and sociocultural theory of learning. The focus will be on the tensions between the normative and transformative...... on the one side and the discursive and transcendental on the other. Drawing on a Lacanian perspective the key argument is that although participation as an educational ideal cannot be fully reached, or measured, it nevertheless holds significance as an organizing principle of the pedagogical practice....

  5. Effects of a multi-quark interaction on color superconducting phase transition in an extended NJL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwa, Kouji; Matsuzaki, Masayuki; Kouno, Hiroaki; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2007-01-01

    We study the interplay of the chiral and the color superconducting phase transition in an extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with a multi-quark interaction that produces the nonlinear chiral-diquark coupling. We observe that this nonlinear coupling adds up coherently with the ω 2 interaction to either produce the chiral-color superconductivity coexistence phase or cancel each other depending on its sign. We discuss that a large coexistence region in the phase diagram is consistent with the quark-diquark picture for the nucleon whereas its smallness is the prerequisite for the applicability of the Ginzburg-Landau approach

  6. Abnormal number of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in the color-asymmetric 2SC phase of an NJL-type model

    OpenAIRE

    Blaschke, D.; Ebert, D.; Klimenko, K. G.; Volkov, M. K.; Yudichev, V. L.

    2004-01-01

    We consider an extended Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model including both (q \\bar q)- and (qq)-interactions with two light-quark flavors in the presence of a single (quark density) chemical potential. In the color superconducting phase of the quark matter the color SU(3) symmetry is spontaneously broken down to SU(2). If the usual counting of Goldstone bosons would apply, five Nambu-Goldstone (NG) bosons corresponding to the five broken color generators should appear in the mass spectrum. Unlike that ...

  7. Structure functions from chiral soliton models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigel, H.; Reinhardt, H.; Gamberg, L.

    1997-01-01

    We study nucleon structure functions within the bosonized Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model where the nucleon emerges as a chiral soliton. We discuss the model predictions on the Gottfried sum rule for electron-nucleon scattering. A comparison with a low-scale parametrization shows that the model reproduces the gross features of the empirical structure functions. We also compute the leading twist contributions of the polarized structure functions g 1 and g 2 in this model. We compare the model predictions on these structure functions with data from the E143 experiment by GLAP evolving them from the scale characteristic for the NJL-model to the scale of the data

  8. Notes from the church of the Virgin at the island of Mali grad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetkovski Sašo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this text the unknown parts of the wall paintings from the Church of the Virgin at the island of Mali Grad (The Great Prespa Lake are analyzed: the figure of a monk praying to St. Paraskeve, on the southern wall of the nave, as well as the painting on the southern faüade with the depictions of St. George on horseback, the Virgin as Empress enthroned, and the bust of two saints, St. Paraskeve and St. Nicholas. The monk is identified with the hegoumenos Jona, mentioned in the donor’s inscription dating from 1369.

  9. Singular charge density at the center of the pion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Gerald A.

    2009-01-01

    We relate the three-dimensional infinite momentum frame spatial charge density of the pion to its electromagnetic form factor F π (Q 2 ). Diverse treatments of the measured form factor data including phenomenological fits, nonrelativistic quark models, the application of perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD), QCD sum rules, holographic QCD, and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model all lead to the result that the charge density at the center of the pion has a logarithmic divergence. Relativistic constituent quark models do not display this singularity. Future measurements planned for larger values of Q 2 may determine whether or not a singularity actually occurs.

  10. [Crisis in medical ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellamor, K

    1996-01-01

    There is a disproportion between diagnostic and therapeutic medical achievements and the doctor/patient relationship. Are we allowed to do everything we are able to do in medicine? People are concerned and worried (genetic technology, invasive medicine, embryos in test tubes etc.). The crisis of ethics in medicine is evident. The analysis of the situation shows one of the causes in the shift of the paradigma-modern times to postmodern following scientific positivism-but also a loss of ethics in medicine due to an extreme secularism and to modern philosophical trends (Hans Jonas and the responsibility for the future and on the other hand modern utilitarism).

  11. A chiral model for excited pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Weiss, C.

    1996-01-01

    We study radially excited mesons (π', σ') in a simple extension of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with a polynomial meson-quark form factor. The form factor is introduced so that the usual form of the NJL gap equation remains unchanged. We derive the effective Lagrangian for π- and π'-mesons which describes the decoupling of the Goldstone pion in the chiral limit in agreement with current algebra. For π' masses in the range of 750 MeV and 1300 MeV f π' /f π is found to be of an order of one per cent. 12 refs

  12. Scalar mesons and glueballs in a chiral U(3)xU(3) quark model with 't Hooft interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, M.; Volkov, M.K.; Yudichev, V.L.

    2000-01-01

    In a U(3)xU(3) quark chiral model of the Nambu-Jona-Lasino (NJL) type with the 't Hooft interaction, the ground scalar isoscalar mesons and a scalar glueball are described. The glueball (dilaton) is introduced into the effective meson Lagrangian written in a chirally symmetric form on the basis of scale invariance. The singlet-octet mixing of scalar isoscalar mesons and their mixing with the glueball are taken into account. Mass spectra of the scalar mesons and glueball and their strong decays are described

  13. Ethik der Verantwortung: Begründungsprobleme aus diskursethischer Sicht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Burckhart

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available - Ethic of responsibility. Foundation problems from the point of view of discourse ethics - This paper discusses the problem of the foundation of the ethics of responsibility in Hans Jonas by the point of view of the Karl-Otto Apel’s discourse ethics. In difference to a unilateral reciprocal ethics – like christians charity, ethics of the bond in the kantian sense, ethics of the face according to Levinas, ethics I-You according to Buber – the approach proposed in this paper can be defined as universal reciprocal. This means that it need to consider the interests of all participants in the “life”.

  14. Relics of a Benedictine Legendary in Scandinavia? Notes on fragments nos. 527-529 from the Royal Library and no. 8302 from the Danish National Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian

    2007-01-01

    as originating from the same codex. Codicological and palaeographical analysis places this codex with hagiographical contents (Bede's prosi-metric life of St Cuthbert and Jonas of Bobbio's account of St. Columban) in the years around 1200. Philological analysis links the version of Bede's life of St Cuthbert...... to a continental tradition rather than directly to an English model. Finally, on the basis of the analysis of the fragments themselves and the circumstances connected with their recycling as covers for the royal customs accounts of Malmø in 1628 it is suggested that the Cluniac monastery of All Saints at Lund...

  15. Towards Ethical Business

    OpenAIRE

    László Zsolnai

    2003-01-01

    Business activities considerably affect the fate and survival of natural ecosystems as well as the life conditions of present and future generations. In the light of Hans Jonas' theory of responsibility we can state that business has a one-way, non-reciprocal duty caring for the beings affected by its functioning. To become a fully ethical enterprise, business is to be carried out in sustainable, pro-social and future enhancing ways. Doing ethical business is not a luxury of advanced societie...

  16. The underside of technological-scientific societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandazzi, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    After having recalled how the critic of technique or the catastrophe have been thought and discussed by philosophers like Heidegger, Jonas or Arendt, and while referring to other authors (Dupuy, Castoriadis, and so on), the author discusses the evolution from a situation of risk to a situation of vulnerability, comments the philosophical and societal impact of nuclear from Hiroshima to Chernobyl. He evokes the issue of how to move beyond the opposition between naturalism and humanism, and discusses the emergence of a 'culture of the after-catastrophe'

  17. Chiral symmetry breaking in a semilocalized magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gaoqing

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we explore the pattern of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration in a solvable magnetic field configuration within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The special semilocalized static magnetic field can roughly mimic the realistic situation in peripheral heavy ion collisions; thus, the study is important for the dynamical evolution of quark matter. We find that the magnetic-field-dependent contribution from discrete spectra usually dominates over the contribution from continuum spectra and chiral symmetry breaking is locally catalyzed by both the magnitude and scale of the magnetic field. The study is finally extended to the case with finite temperature or chemical potential.

  18. Isospin breaking in nuclear physics: The Nolen-Schiffer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adami, C.; Brown, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    Using the QCD sum rules we calculate the neutron-proton mass difference at zero density as a function of the difference in bare quark mass m d -m u . We confirm results of Hatsuda, Hoegaasen and Prakash that the largest term results from the difference in up and down quark condensates, the explicit C (m d -m u ) entering with the opposite sign. The quark condensates are then extended to finite density to estimate the Nolen-Schiffer effect. The neutron-proton mass difference is extremely density dependent, going to zero at roughly nuclear matter density. The Ioffe formula for the nucleon mass is interpreted as a derivation, within the QCD sum rule approach, of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio formula. This clarifies the N c counting and furthermore provides an alternative interpretation of the Borel mass. We compare calculations in the constituent quark model treated in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio formalism with ours in the QCD sum rule approach. (orig.)

  19. Principios bioéticos en salud pública: limitaciones y propuestas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Roland Schramm

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo intenta caracterizar la especificidad de los problemas morales en salud pública y analizar la aplicabilidad del modelo principialista como padrón para dirimir sus conflictos. Aunque considerado pertinente para la bioética clínica, este modelo no es aplicable sin más a los dilemas en salud pública, puesto que se fundamenta en la moral de las interrelaciones médico-paciente. Se analiza la pertinencia de los principios de "solidaridad", de "responsabilidad óntica" según Jonas, y de "responsabilidad diacónica" según Lévinas, destacando la inaplicabilidad del primero y la posible adaptación de los otros dos a la salud pública. A ese respecto se discute la posibilidad de vincular la preocupación ontológica de Jonas y la trascendental de Lévinas, proponiendo un principio de protección que sería más adecuado a los propósitos de una ética de la salud pública, permitiendo identificar claramente los objetivos y los actores implicados en una implementación de políticas públicas moralmente correctas y pragmáticamente efectivas.

  20. What ecologists can tell virologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, John J

    2014-01-01

    I pictured myself as a virus…and tried to sense what it would be like. --Jonas Salk. Ecology as a science evolved from natural history, the observational study of the interactions of plants and animals with each other and their environments. As natural history matured, it became increasingly quantitative, experimental, and taxonomically broad. Focus diversified beyond the Eukarya to include the hidden world of microbial life. Microbes, particularly viruses, were shown to exist in unfathomable numbers, affecting every living organism. Slowly viruses came to be viewed in an ecological context rather than as abstract, disease-causing agents. This shift is exemplified by an increasing tendency to refer to viruses as living organisms instead of inert particles. In recent years, researchers have recognized the critical contributions of viruses to fundamental ecological processes such as biogeochemical cycling, competition, community structuring, and horizontal gene transfer. This review describes virus ecology from a virus's perspective. If we are, like Jonas Salk, to imagine ourselves as a virus, what kind of world would we experience?

  1. Dynamically broken gauge model without fundamental scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyderman, N.J.; Guralnik, G.S.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the structure that must be generated by dynamical symmetry breaking solutions to gauge theories can be explicitly implemented with a 4-fermion interaction. This structure arises in order to obtain consistency with the constraints imposed by a Goldstone commutator proportional to [anti psi psi]. One demonstrates these ideas within the context of axial electrodynamics, dynamically breaking chiral symmetry. As a pre-requisite it is shown how the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model becomes renormalizable with respect to a systematic approximation scheme that respects the Goldstone commutator of dynamically broken chiral symmetry to each order of approximation. (This approximation scheme is equivalent to a l/N expansion, where N is set to unity at the end of the calculations). This solution generates new interactions not explicitly present in the original Lagrangian and does not have a 4-fermion contact interaction. The renormalized Green's functions are shown to correspond to those of the sigma-model, summed as though the fermions had N components, and for which lambda 0 = 2g 0 2 . This correspondence is exact except for the possibility that the renormalized coupling of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model may be a determined number

  2. Dynamically broken gauge model without fundamental scalar fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyderman, N. J.; Guralnik, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the structure that must be generated by dynamical symmetry breaking solutions to gauge theories can be explicitly implemented with a 4-fermion interaction. This structure arises in order to obtain consistency with the constraints imposed by a Goldstone commutator proportional to (anti psi psi). One demonstrates these ideas within the context of axial electrodynamics, dynamically breaking chiral symmetry. As a pre-requisite it is shown how the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model becomes renormalizable with respect to a systematic approximation scheme that respects the Goldstone commutator of dynamically broken chiral symmetry to each order of approximation. (This approximation scheme is equivalent to a l/N expansion, where N is set to unity at the end of the calculations). This solution generates new interactions not explicitly present in the original Lagrangian and does not have a 4-fermion contact interaction. The renormalized Green's functions are shown to correspond to those of the sigma-model, summed as though the fermions had N components, and for which lambda/sub 0/ = 2g/sub 0//sup 2/. This correspondence is exact except for the possibility that the renormalized coupling of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model may be a determined number.

  3. Fierz-complete NJL model study: Fixed points and phase structure at finite temperature and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jens; Leonhardt, Marc; Pospiech, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type models are frequently employed as low-energy models in various research fields. With respect to the theory of the strong interaction, this class of models is indeed often used to analyze the structure of the phase diagram at finite temperature and quark chemical potential. The predictions from such models for the phase structure at finite quark chemical potential are of particular interest as this regime is difficult to access with lattice Monte Carlo approaches. In this work, we consider a Fierz-complete version of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. By studying its renormalization group flow, we analyze in detail how Fierz-incomplete approximations affect the predictive power of such model studies. In particular, we investigate the curvature of the phase boundary at small chemical potential, the critical value of the chemical potential above which no spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs, and the possible interpretation of the underlying dynamics in terms of difermion-type degrees of freedom. We find that the inclusion of four-fermion channels other than the conventional scalar-pseudoscalar channel is not only important at large chemical potential but also leaves a significant imprint on the dynamics at small chemical potential as measured by the curvature of the finite-temperature phase boundary.

  4. Food marketing targeting children: unveiling the ethical perspectives in the discourse on self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Dillian Adelaine Cesar da; Cunha, Antonio Carlos Rodrigues da; Cunha, Thiago Rocha da; Rosaneli, Caroline Filla

    2017-07-01

    When it comes to food marketing, children are one of the major targets. Regulatory actions can play a strategic role in health protection. The objective of this research was to characterize the ethical perspective in the discourse against state regulatory actions on food marketing directed at children, aiming to understand the context of the discourse's production and how it creates meaning. The methodology adopted was qualitative, with documentary analysis and use of concepts and procedures from Discourse Analysis. The work of Hans Jonas, specifically his Responsibility Principle, and Garrafa and Port's Intervention Bioethics oriented the analysis. The self-regulation discourse analysis showed an ethical perspective in which relations of consumption predominate over the children´s vulnerability. The rhetorical excess is constant, as well as the use of resources like naturalization, untruthfulness, ideological dissimulation and euphemism. An erasure of social conflicts takes place, and an ahistorical perspective is present. The discourse does not align with Jonas´ Responsibility Principle, nor those of Intervention Bioethics. Lastly, the ethical perspective of the discourse represents a double paradox, because it is a business discourse that hides its competitive roots and metamorphoses into an ethical one.

  5. INHUMAN HUMAN NATURE: LOIS LOWRY’S THE GIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oznur Cengiz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lois Lowry (1937- is a prolific author having a number of books – Number the Stars (1989, Gathering Blue (2000, and Messenger (2004 – and awards especially in the field of children’s literature. Her significant science fiction novel, The Giver (1993, presents a social panorama in order to thoroughly analyze the society’s mechanical life style. As an example of dystopia, the author delineates a systematically organized social order where people abide by the rules naturally. Nevertheless, Jonas, the protagonist and Receiver of Memory, is the first person to discern robotic/mechanical order in the society which is transformed into “sameness” eliminating all individual differences and emotions such as pain, happiness, cold, colors, and so on. Therefore, Receiver of Memory storing past memories of the society is the only one who is aware of human characteristics. The crucial point is that human figure, far from the current one, displays inhuman (non-human features without memories and hope. Mechanical association between individuals and social structure ascertains artificial form of life in which there is no chance to choose. After learning truths behind the strict order, Jonas is in pursuit of real world with all kinds of feelings; however, his recognition is not able to change the whole society. Hence, this paper aims at delving into the relationship between human nature and society with regard to posthuman approach and inhuman human form in accordance with transformation of human nature.

  6. Quark fragmentation functions in NJL-jet model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Wolfgang; Matevosyan, Hrayr; Thomas, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    We report on our studies of quark fragmentation functions in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) - jet model. The results of Monte-Carlo simulations for the fragmentation functions to mesons and nucleons, as well as to pion and kaon pairs (dihadron fragmentation functions) are presented. The important role of intermediate vector meson resonances for those semi-inclusive deep inelastic production processes is emphasized. Our studies are very relevant for the extraction of transverse momentum dependent quark distribution functions from measured scattering cross sections. We report on our studies of quark fragmentation functions in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) - jet model. The results of Monte-Carlo simulations for the fragmentation functions to mesons and nucleons, as well as to pion and kaon pairs (dihadron fragmentation functions) are presented. The important role of intermediate vector meson resonances for those semi-inclusive deep inelastic production processes is emphasized. Our studies are very relevant for the extraction of transverse momentum dependent quark distribution functions from measured scattering cross sections. Supported by Grant in Aid for Scientific Research, Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Project No. 20168769.

  7. Heideggerius gnosticus? El sentido del recurso heideggeriano a la divinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENZO SOLARI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pregunta por el sentido del complejo y peculiar recurso heideggeriano a la divinidad. Deteniéndose particularmente en la interpretación de Jonas, argumenta que el gnosticismo es solo muy aproximadamente afín al pensamiento de Heidegger. Y sugiere que podría encontrarse una mejor analogía para este pensamiento en la polémica que enfrentó al cristianismo gnóstico con el eclesiástico, aunque esto también sea una gruesa aproximación que deja abiertas otras posibilidades interpretativas.This paper deals with the sense of the complex and peculiar Heideggerian resource to divinity. Analyzing particularly, the interpretation of Jonas, it argües that the Gnosticism is only very approximately compatible to the thought of Heidegger. And it suggests that could be found a better analogy for this thought, in the controversy that faced the Gnostic Christianity with the Ecclesiastic, although this is also a thick approximation that leaves other interpretative possibilities open.

  8. Principios bioéticos en salud pública: limitaciones y propuestas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schramm Fermin Roland

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo intenta caracterizar la especificidad de los problemas morales en salud pública y analizar la aplicabilidad del modelo principialista como padrón para dirimir sus conflictos. Aunque considerado pertinente para la bioética clínica, este modelo no es aplicable sin más a los dilemas en salud pública, puesto que se fundamenta en la moral de las interrelaciones médico-paciente. Se analiza la pertinencia de los principios de "solidaridad", de "responsabilidad óntica" según Jonas, y de "responsabilidad diacónica" según Lévinas, destacando la inaplicabilidad del primero y la posible adaptación de los otros dos a la salud pública. A ese respecto se discute la posibilidad de vincular la preocupación ontológica de Jonas y la trascendental de Lévinas, proponiendo un principio de protección que sería más adecuado a los propósitos de una ética de la salud pública, permitiendo identificar claramente los objetivos y los actores implicados en una implementación de políticas públicas moralmente correctas y pragmáticamente efectivas.

  9. CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Commemoration of the centenary of the birth of Academician L A Artsimovich(Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 18 February 2009; Joint session of the Research Council of the Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Rosatom State Corporation, 18 March 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalatnikov, Isaak M.; Fortov, Vladimir E.; Makarov, Aleksandr A.; Fridman, Aleksei M.; Martynenko, Yurii V.

    2009-12-01

    The scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) devoted to the centenary of the birth of Academician L A Artsimovich was held on 18 February 2009 in the conference hall of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The following reports were presented at the session: (1) Khalatnikov I M (L D Landau Institute of Theoretical Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) "Nonaccidental coincidences (Lev Andreevich Artsimovich)"; (2) Pashinin P P (A M Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, RAS, Moscow) "L A Artsimovich and inertial thermonuclear fusion"; (3) Fortov V E (Institute of Thermophysics of Extreme States of the Joint Institute for High Temperatures, RAS, Moscow) "High-power shock waves and extreme states of plasma"; (4) Fridman A M (Institute of Astronomy, RAS, Moscow) "Prediction and discovery of ultrastrong hydrodynamic instabilities caused by a velocity jump: theory and experiment"; (5) Smirnov V P (Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "Retracing Artsimovich's path to the thermonuclear source of energy". On 18 March 2009, a joint session of the Learned Council of the Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute' (RNTsKI in Russ. abbr.), the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Rosatom State Corporation took place at RNTsKI; the session was devoted to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Academician L A Artsimovich. The following talks were presented at the session: (1) Velikhov E P (Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "Academician L A Artsimovich—the founder of our field of science and industry"; (2) Smirnov V P (Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "Retracing Artsimovich's path to the thermonuclear source of energy"; (3) Boyarchuk A A (Division of General Physics and Astronomy, RAS, Moscow) "L A Artsimovich and astronomy"; (4) Martynenko Yu V (Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow

  10. Matrix metalloproteinases outside vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino-Puertas, Laura; Goulas, Theodoros; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier

    2017-11-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family belongs to the metzincin clan of zinc-dependent metallopeptidases. Due to their enormous implications in physiology and disease, MMPs have mainly been studied in vertebrates. They are engaged in extracellular protein processing and degradation, and present extensive paralogy, with 23 forms in humans. One characteristic of MMPs is a ~165-residue catalytic domain (CD), which has been structurally studied for 14 MMPs from human, mouse, rat, pig and the oral-microbiome bacterium Tannerella forsythia. These studies revealed close overall coincidence and characteristic structural features, which distinguish MMPs from other metzincins and give rise to a sequence pattern for their identification. Here, we reviewed the literature available on MMPs outside vertebrates and performed database searches for potential MMP CDs in invertebrates, plants, fungi, viruses, protists, archaea and bacteria. These and previous results revealed that MMPs are widely present in several copies in Eumetazoa and higher plants (Tracheophyta), but have just token presence in eukaryotic algae. A few dozen sequences were found in Ascomycota (within fungi) and in double-stranded DNA viruses infecting invertebrates (within viruses). In contrast, a few hundred sequences were found in archaea and >1000 in bacteria, with several copies for some species. Most of the archaeal and bacterial phyla containing potential MMPs are present in human oral and gut microbiomes. Overall, MMP-like sequences are present across all kingdoms of life, but their asymmetric distribution contradicts the vertical descent model from a eubacterial or archaeal ancestor. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Matrix Metalloproteinases edited by Rafael Fridman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Membrane-type matrix metalloproteases as diverse effectors of cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, S Pauliina; Tatti-Bugaeva, Olga; Lehti, Kaisa

    2017-11-01

    Membrane-type matrix metalloproteases (MT-MMP) are pivotal regulators of cell invasion, growth and survival. Tethered to the cell membranes by a transmembrane domain or GPI-anchor, the six MT-MMPs can exert these functions via cell surface-associated extracellular matrix degradation or proteolytic protein processing, including shedding or release of signaling receptors, adhesion molecules, growth factors and other pericellular proteins. By interactions with signaling scaffold or cytoskeleton, the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of the transmembrane MT-MMPs further extends their functionality to signaling or structural relay. MT-MMPs are differentially expressed in cancer. The most extensively studied MMP14/MT1-MMP is induced in various cancers along malignant transformation via pathways activated by mutations in tumor suppressors or proto-oncogenes and changes in tumor microenvironment including cellular heterogeneity, extracellular matrix composition, tissue oxygenation, and inflammation. Classically such induction involves transcriptional programs related to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Besides inhibition by endogenous tissue inhibitors, MT-MMP activities are spatially and timely regulated at multiple levels by microtubular vesicular trafficking, dimerization/oligomerization, other interactions and localization in the actin-based invadosomes, in both tumor and the stroma. The functions of MT-MMPs are multifaceted within reciprocal cellular responses in the evolving tumor microenvironment, which poses the importance of these proteases beyond the central function as matrix scissors, and necessitates us to rethink MT-MMPs as dynamic signaling proteases of cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Matrix Metalloproteinases edited by Rafael Fridman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pemeraman untuk meningkatkan kualitas keju yang diinnokulasi Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOLIKAH ANA ESTIKOMAH

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A. 2010. Pemeraman untuk meningkatkaan kualitas keju yang diinokulasi Rhizopus oryzae. Bioteknologi 7: 55-62. Keju merupakan makanan hasil fermentasi dari susu yang proses fermentasinya dilakukan oleh bakteri asam laktat maupun jamur. Rhizopus oryzae diketahui mampu menghasilkan asam laktat, protease, dan lipase. Perubahan cita rasa dan tekstur keju terjadi selama pemeraman keju. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meningkatkan kualitas keju yang diinokulasi R. oryzae melalui pemeraman. Pemeraman dilakukan dengan variasi waktu (7, 14 hari dan suhu (5ºC, 10ºC, 15ºC. Penelitian ini terdiri dua tahap, yaitu pembuataan keju mentah diikuti pemeraman keju mentah tersebut. Keju penelitian dianalisis nilai pH, kadar lemak, kadar protein, kadar asam amino dan diidentifikasi mikrobanya. Data hasil penellitian dianalisis dengan uji siidik ragam (ANAVA, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan uji berjarak ganda Duncan (DMRT pada taraf signifikansi 5%. Data hasil tingkat kesukaan dianalisis dengan statistik nonparametrik uji Fridman yang dilanjutkaan dengan Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT pada taraf sigifikansi 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa keju peram yang disukai panelis adalah keju peram pada suhu 15ºC selama 14 hari. Kondisi pemeraman berpengaruh terhadap nilai pH, kadar lemak,, kadar proteinn dan tidak berpengaruh pada kadar asam amino. Kualitas keju peram terbaik terdapat pada kondisi suhu 15°C selama 14 hari, memiliki nilai pH 4,40, kadar protein tertinggi yaitu sebesar 99,78%, dan kadar lemak sebesar 35,02%. Hasil identifikasi mikroba pada keju mentah dan keju peram meliputi Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, dan Aspergillus sp.

  13. Collective Phenomena In Volume And Surface Barrier Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2010-07-01

    Barrier discharges are increasingly used as a cost-effective means to produce non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure. This way, copious amounts of electrons, ions, free radicals and excited species can be generated without appreciable gas heating. In most applications the barrier is made of dielectric material. In laboratory experiments also the use of resistive, ferroelectric and semiconducting materials has been investigated, also porous ceramic layers and dielectric barriers with controlled surface conductivity. Major applications utilizing mainly dielectric barriers include ozone generation, surface cleaning and modification, polymer and textile treatment, sterilization, pollution control, CO2 lasers, excimer lamps, plasma display panels (flat TV screens). More recent research efforts are also devoted to biomedical applications and to plasma actuators for flow control. Sinu- soidal feeding voltages at various frequencies as well as pulsed excitation schemes are used. Volume as well as surface barrier discharges can exist in the form of filamentary, regularly patterned or laterally homogeneous discharges. Reviews of the subject and the older literature on barrier discharges were published by Kogelschatz (2002, 2003), by Wagner et al. (2003) and by Fridman et al. (2005). A detailed discussion of various properties of barrier discharges can also be found in the recent book "Non-Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure" by Becker et al. (2005). The physical effects leading to collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges will be discussed in detail. Special attention will be given to self-organization of current filaments. Main similarities and differences of the two types of barrier discharges will be elaborated.

  14. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC, and time (7 days, 14 days. The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.

  15. Baryons and baryonic matter in four-fermion interaction models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urlichs, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we discuss baryons and baryonic matter in simple four-fermion interaction theories, the Gross-Neveu model and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in 1+1 and 2+1 space-time dimensions. These models are designed as toy models for dynamical symmetry breaking in strong interaction physics. Pointlike interactions (''four-fermion'' interactions) between quarks replace the full gluon mediated interaction of quantum chromodynamics. We consider the limit of a large number of fermion flavors, where a mean field approach becomes exact. This method is formulated in the language of relativistic many particle theory and is equivalent to the Hartree-Fock approximation. In 1+1 dimensions, we generalize known results on the ground state to the case where chiral symmetry is broken explicitly by a bare mass term. For the Gross-Neveu model, we derive an exact self-consistent solution for the finite density ground state, consisting of a one-dimensional array of equally spaced potential wells, a baryon crystal. For the Nambu- Jona-Lasinio model we apply the derivative expansion technique to calculate the total energy in powers of derivatives of the mean field. In a picture akin to the Skyrme model of nuclear physics, the baryon emerges as a topological soliton. The solution for both the single baryon and dense baryonic matter is given in a systematic expansion in powers of the pion mass. The solution of the Hartree-Fock problem is more complicated in 2+1 dimensions. In the massless Gross-Neveu model we derive an exact self-consistent solution by extending the baryon crystal of the 1+1 dimensional model, maintaining translational invariance in one spatial direction. This one-dimensional configuration is energetically degenerate to the translationally invariant solution, a hint in favor of a possible translational symmetry breakdown by more general geometrical structures. In the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, topological soliton configurations induce a finite baryon number. In contrast

  16. Baryons and baryonic matter in four-fermion interaction models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urlichs, K.

    2007-02-23

    In this work we discuss baryons and baryonic matter in simple four-fermion interaction theories, the Gross-Neveu model and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in 1+1 and 2+1 space-time dimensions. These models are designed as toy models for dynamical symmetry breaking in strong interaction physics. Pointlike interactions (''four-fermion'' interactions) between quarks replace the full gluon mediated interaction of quantum chromodynamics. We consider the limit of a large number of fermion flavors, where a mean field approach becomes exact. This method is formulated in the language of relativistic many particle theory and is equivalent to the Hartree-Fock approximation. In 1+1 dimensions, we generalize known results on the ground state to the case where chiral symmetry is broken explicitly by a bare mass term. For the Gross-Neveu model, we derive an exact self-consistent solution for the finite density ground state, consisting of a one-dimensional array of equally spaced potential wells, a baryon crystal. For the Nambu- Jona-Lasinio model we apply the derivative expansion technique to calculate the total energy in powers of derivatives of the mean field. In a picture akin to the Skyrme model of nuclear physics, the baryon emerges as a topological soliton. The solution for both the single baryon and dense baryonic matter is given in a systematic expansion in powers of the pion mass. The solution of the Hartree-Fock problem is more complicated in 2+1 dimensions. In the massless Gross-Neveu model we derive an exact self-consistent solution by extending the baryon crystal of the 1+1 dimensional model, maintaining translational invariance in one spatial direction. This one-dimensional configuration is energetically degenerate to the translationally invariant solution, a hint in favor of a possible translational symmetry breakdown by more general geometrical structures. In the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, topological soliton configurations induce a finite baryon

  17. A heurística do medo, muito além da precaução

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Abramovay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Por mais que o avanço da ciência e da tecnologia esteja na raiz de vitórias decisivas na luta por melhores condições sociais, é impossível não reconhecer a ameaça crescente que o conhecimento e suas aplicações práticas representam não só para as sociedades humanas, mas para a vida em seu conjunto. A capacidade humana de intervir sobre a natureza é hoje muito maior que a possibilidade de prever com um mínimo de segurança os resultados dessa intervenção. Para Hans Jonas esse contraste só pode ser abordado com base numa exigência ética que ele sintetiza no Princípio Responsabilidade, e que se apoia na heurística do medo. Baseado numa abordagem crítica do dualismo que marca a cultura ocidental e separa matéria e espírito, corpo e mente, natureza e sociedade, Hans Jonas rejeita a ideia de que uma organização social voltada explicitamente à satisfação das necessidades humanas (e não ao lucro suprima a exigência de uma reflexão específica sobre as ameaças vindas da expansão autônoma da ciência e da tecnologia. Este trabalho, além de expor as bases do dualismo estudado por Jonas, procura mostrar que suas preocupações não são contempladas pela eventual adoção do princípio da precaução e mostra, ao final, duas áreas (biologia e geoengenharia em que a aplicação de sua filosofia da tecnologia pode ser especialmente relevante.

  18. Jono Bretkūno Biblijos germanizmai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Čepienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available GERMANISMEN IN DER BIBEL VON JONAS BRETKŪNASZusammenfassungDie Bibel des Jonas Bretkūnas (1579-1590 (weiter BB ist die wertvollste handschriftliche Über­setzung des XVI. Jhs. aus dem Deutschen (Lukas Evangelium ist aus dem Lateinischen übersetzt. Sie enthält viele sprachliche Schätze, die die Lage der Sprache und die kulturelle Umgebung des Klein Litauens im XVI. Jh. widerspiegeln.Beim Vergleich der BB mit den anderen altlitauischen Schriften des XVI. Jhs. stellte sich heraus, daß BB am meisten Germanismen, etwa 300, enthält. Es sind meistens deutsche Lehnwörter aus dem Niederdeutschen und Hochdeutschen. Die Mehrheit der Germanismen bilden kulturelle Lehnwörter, die wegen der Sprachkontakte entstanden sind. Manche Lehnwörter gelangten ins Litauische wahr­scheinlich auf dem literarischen Wege, d.h. bei der Übersetzung der Religionsschriften (psalteras „Psal­ter“, mirrhas „Myrrhe“, izopas „Isop“. Einige Lehnwörter könnten ohne Vermittlung der slawischen Sprachen ins Litauische gelangen, z.B.: gruntas (Grund, pancierius (Panzer, šnuras (Schnur.Die Eigentümlichkeit der Übersetzung des Bretkūnas ist das Zusammenhäufen der lexikalischen Va­rianten, Synonyme; einige Wörter sind von den Korrektoren zugeschrieben. Die Germanismen kommen im Haupttext und in späteren Korrekturen vor. Viele Varianten haben die Lehnwörter šturmas „Sturm“, kunstas „Kunst“, spikerė „Speicher“, spangas „Spange“ u.a. Die Beispiele zeigen, daß Bretkūnas wollte nicht die Lehnwörter aus dem Text wegwerfen. Er gab Varianten, manche in Parenthesen, als ob der Leser selbst die passenden Wörter wählte. Viele Varianten entstanden wegen der Vieldeutigkeit der Wörter, ihrer semantischen Nuancen. Sie zeigen, daß Bretkūnas bei der Übersetzung der Bibel oft zweifelte, welches Wort besser passt. Er schätzte die Varianten ein, einige schreibend in Parenthesen, andere unterstreichend oder ausstreichend, trotzdem blieb oft keine

  19. Views on Biotic Nature and the Idea of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łepko, Zbigniew

    2017-12-01

    The search for balance between humankind's civilisational aspirations and the durable protection of nature is conditioned by contemporaneous views of biotic nature. Of particular importance in this regard are physiocentric and physiological views that may be set against one another. The first of these was presented by Hans Jonas, the second by Lothar Schäfer. This paper does not confine itself to setting one view against the other, but rather sets minimum conditions for cooperation between their promoters in the interests of balance between the aspirations of the present generation and those of future generations. Both views of nature are in their own way conducive to a break with the illusion present in some areas of the modern natural sciences - that nature is a boundless area of are inexhaustible resources.

  20. Vector mesons on the light front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, K.; Maedan, S.; Itakura, K.

    2004-01-01

    We apply the light-front quantization to the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with the vector interaction, and compute vector meson's mass and light-cone wavefunction in the large N limit. Following the same procedure as in the previous analyses for scalar and pseudo-scalar mesons, we derive the bound-state equations of a qq-bar system in the vector channel. We include the lowest order effects of the vector interaction. The resulting transverse and longitudinal components of the bound-state equation look different from each other. But eventually after imposing an appropriate cutoff, one finds these two are identical, giving the same mass and the same (spin-independent) light-cone wavefunction. Mass of the vector meson decreases as one increases the strength of the vector interaction

  1. Neutron-proton mass difference in a baryonic medium and the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiolhais, M.; Christov, C.; Neuber, T.; Bergmann, M.; Goeke, K.

    1991-01-01

    The neutron-proton mass difference ΔM np = M n - M p in a baryonic medium is evaluated in the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. It is demonstrated that ΔM np (ρ) increases with increasing medium density, ρ, a trend being opposite to the one required to explain the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly as suggested by Henley and Krein. In the same conceptual framework the quantity M n (ρ n ) - M p (ρ p ) is evaluated which takes into account that the valence orbits of the proton and the neutron are different. The calculations show that this quantity goes into the right direction, but the effect is an order of magnitude larger than needed to explain the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly. (orig.)

  2. Verantwortung angesichts humanbiologischer Herausforderungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Kapust

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of the new biotechnologies the problem of responsibility is becoming particularly acute. Instead of giving an own definition of responsibility, the author proposes to take it as a heuristic concept based on some Husserlian ideas developed in the Krisis. This ideas, which have some similarity with Jonas' principle of responsibility, are: first, responsibility as care for the vulnerable, second, responsibility in the context of a horizon of possibilities, and, third, responsibility for the own prerequisites as human being. By applying the hermeneutics of suspicion to some current issues, the author argues that the biotechnological revolution comes along with a shift of the cultures of recognition onto cultures of consumption. On the base of different arguments used in the biotechnological debates (arguments of status, of action relevance, of moral and right, three types of responsibility are revealed: the aporetic, the consecutive, and the quasi-hermeneutical responsibility, which enables a final controversy about their deficiency.

  3. e +e- modes and U(1) spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steininger, K.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, motivated by evidence for a chiral phase transition in strong coupling lattice QED, the authors calculate the two-particle spectrum of the broken QED phase. This is done in the framework of a Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model with U(1) symmetry including chiral symmetry and symmetry breaking properties of QED. The second order chiral phase transition behavior in our model and in lattice QED are in excellent agreement. The authors then present a detailed analysis of the spectra of the e + e - modes in the broken phase. The authors examine whether these modes have any possible relationship to the narrow e + e - resonances found in soft heavy ion collisions at GSL. The authors' answer is negative

  4. The form and function of space in the Jonah narrative in Prudentius Cathemerinon 7.81-175

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Barkhuizen

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word ’n analise gemaak van die struktuur en funksie van narratiewe ruimte in die Jona-verhaal sees vertel deur Prudentius (Cathemerinon 1. Hierdie verhaal is gekies omdat dit by uitstek ruimte-georiënteerd is. Die analise is gebaseer op ’n verwerking van die teorie van G. Zoran, wat narratiewe ruimte op tekstuele en plot-vlak ondersoek, Ruimte op tekstuele vlak verwys na die topografiese aard van ruimte, dit wil sê van objekte en plekke, asook die beginsel van die teks-perspektief van sodanige objekte en plekke. Die topografiese aard van ruimte behels weer aspekte soos horisontale en vertikale opposisies, kwaliteitstrukture en ontologiese beginsels. Ruimte op die plot-vlak verwys na sinchroniese en diachroniese relasies. Eersgenoemde het te doen met die beginsel van beweging en rus, terwyl laasgenoemde te doen het met bepaalde rigtinge en intensies op die plot-vlak.

  5. Dual realizations of dynamical symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudas, Emilian; Papineau, Chloe

    2006-01-01

    We show the infrared equivalence between a recently proposed model containing a six dimensional scalar field with a four-dimensional localized Higgs type potential and the four-dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model. In the dual NJL description, the fermions are localized at the origin of a large two-dimensional compact space. Due to a classical running effect above the compactification scale, the four-fermion coupling of the NJL model increases from the cutoff scale down to the compactification scale, providing the large Fermi coupling needed for the dynamical symmetry breaking. We also present a string theory embedding of our field-theory construction. On more general grounds, our results suggest that 4d models with dynamical symmetry breaking can be given a higher dimensional description in terms of field theories with nontrivial boundary conditions in the internal space

  6. A new mass relation among the hadron vector resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Chizhov, M.V.

    2001-01-01

    We show that the hadron vector resonances are described by fields transforming according to different inequivalent representations of the Lorentz group: (1/2,1/2) and (1,0)+(0,1). The vector representation (1/2,1/2) is well studied and corresponds to the gauge fields. On the other hand, the chiral representations (1,0) and (0,1) are described by the second rank antisymmetric tensor fields, for which interaction theory has not yet been constructed. In the framework of the phenomenological Nambu - Jona-Lasinio approach we have introduced and used all these fields for a description of the vector resonances. A new mass relation between low-lying hadron vector and axial-vector resonances is obtained. This relation is in agreement with the present experimental data.

  7. Non-perturbative effective interactions in the standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Arbuzov, Boris A

    2014-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the nonperturbative dynamics in the Standard Model (SM), the basic theory of all, but gravity, fundamental interactions in nature. The Standard Model is devided into two parts: the Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Electro-weak theory (EWT) are well-defined renormalizable theories in which the perturbation theory is valid. However, for the adequate description of the real physics nonperturbative effects are inevitable. This book describes how these nonperturbative effects may be obtained in the framework of spontaneous generation of effective interactions. The well-known example of such effective interaction is provided by the famous Nambu--Jona-Lasinio effective interaction. Also a spontaneous generation of this interaction in the framework of QCD is described and applied to the method for other effective interactions in QCD and EWT. The method is based on N.N. Bogoliubov conception of compensation equations. As a result we then describe the principle feathures of the Standard...

  8. Salk's HIV immunogen: an immune-based therapy in human trials since 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas Salk, the developer of the first polio vaccine, has created a therapeutic vaccine for HIV which helps the immune system fight disease progression. Salk uses inactivated HIV-1 virus combined with Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant (IFA) in the vaccine preparation. The resulting HIV-1 immunogen was first studied in 1987, and since then, 235 seropositive individuals have received inoculations without serious adverse effects. Data from the first 25 subjects indicate that immunization with the HIV-1 immunogen results in improvement of cell-mediated response against the virus, a slower increase in the amount of virus present, and a reduced rate of clinical progression. Subsequent studies also show that higher doses of immunogen may produce stronger cell-mediated responses and high HIV-DTH (delayed-type hypersensitivity responsiveness immunogen) is associated with better outcome. Additional trials of HIV-1 immunogen are awaiting Food and Drug Administration approval.

  9. Current status of poliovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, J L

    1996-07-01

    Two scientists who played leading roles in the conquest of poliomyelitis died recently. In 1954, Jonas Salk provided the first licensed polio vaccine, the formalin (and heat)-inactivated virus. Albert Sabin gave us the attenuated live virus vaccine, which was licensed in 1962. This paper takes the reader through the history of the disease, including its pathogenesis, epidemiology, vaccines, and future directions. The emphasis is on vaccines, for it seems that with proper vaccination the number of new cases is falling dramatically. It is hoped that by the year 2000, we will accomplish the goal of the World Health Organization of "a world without polio." Then, because there is no animal reservoir, we can seriously discuss when and how to eliminate the need for vaccination and ultimately destroy our stocks of poliovirus.

  10. Remune trial will stop; new trials planned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1999-05-21

    A clinical trial using remune, the anti-HIV vaccine developed by the late Dr. Jonas Salk, has been ended. The study is a clinical-endpoint trial which looks for statistically significant differences in AIDS sickness or death between patients who add remune to their treatment regimens versus those who use a placebo. Agouron Pharmaceuticals and the Immune Response Corporation who were conducting the trial announced their decision to stop it after an analysis by the Data Safety Monitoring Board. No differences in clinical endpoints were found and it was projected that continuing the trial would likely not find any. The companies are now planning two new Phase III trials using viral load testing rather than clinical endpoints as study criteria.

  11. G. Stanley Hall and The Journal of Genetic Psychology: A Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John D

    2016-01-01

    The Journal of Genetic Psychology (originally called The Pedagogical Seminary) has a complicated history. Known primarily as a journal of development psychology, it was originally intended to be a journal of higher education. In addition, G. Stanley Hall created it, at least in part, to curry favor with Jonas Clark, the benefactor of Clark University. The journal had a cumbersome start, with irregular issues for most of its first decade. Hall was a hands-on editor, often contributing articles and reviews as well as the texts of many of his speeches. A substantial number of additional articles were written by Clark University faculty and fellows where Hall was president. After Hall.s death, the editor became Carl Murchison who eventually left Clark University with the journal and continued to publish it privately until his death. Through the years, the journal has been the source for many classic articles in developmental psychology.

  12. Parity doublers in chiral potential quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikova, Yu. S.; Nefediev, A. V.; Ribeiro, J. E. F. T.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry over the spectrum of highly excited hadrons is addressed in the framework of a microscopic chiral potential quark model (Generalised Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model) with a vectorial instantaneous quark kernel of a generic form. A heavy-light quark-antiquark bound system is considered, as an example, and the Lorentz nature of the effective light-quark potential is identified to be a pure Lorentz-scalar, for low-lying states in the spectrum, and to become a pure spatial Lorentz vector, for highly excited states. Consequently, the splitting between the partners in chiral doublets is demonstrated to decrease fast in the upper part of the spectrum so that neighboring states of an opposite parity become almost degenerate. A detailed microscopic picture of such a 'chiral symmetry restoration' in the spectrum of highly excited hadrons is drawn and the corresponding scale of restoration is estimated

  13. Quantum and classical gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo; Terashima, Hiroaki

    2001-01-01

    The use of the mass term of the gauge field as a gauge fixing term, which was discussed by Zwanziger, Parrinello and Jona-Lasinio in a large mass limit, is related to the non-linear gauge by Dirac and Nambu. We have recently shown that this use of the mass term as a gauge fixing term is in fact identical to the conventional local Faddeev-Popov formula without taking a large mass limit, if one takes into account the variation of the gauge field along the entire gauge orbit. This suggests that the classical massive vector theory, for example, could be re-interpreted as a gauge invariant theory with a gauge fixing term added in suitably quantized theory. As for massive gauge particles, the Higgs mechanics, where the mass term is gauge invariant, has a more intrinsic meaning. We comment on several implications of this observation. (author)

  14. Analysis of Fusarium avenaceum Metabolites Produced during Wet Apple Core Rot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2009-01-01

    Wet apple core rot (wACR) is a well-known disease of susceptible apple cultivars such as Gloster, Jona Gold, and Fuji. Investigations in apple orchards in Slovenia identified Fusarium avenaceum, a known producer of several mycotoxins, as the predominant causal agent of this disease. A LC...... and naturally infected apples. Levels of moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 were quantitatively examined in artificially inoculated and naturally infected apples, whereas the remaining metabolites were qualitatively detected. Metabolite production was examined...... in artificially inoculated apples after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of incubation. Most metabolites were detected after 3 or 7 days and reached significantly high levels within 14 or 21 days. The highest levels of moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and the combined sum of enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 were 7.3, 5...

  15. Elite athletes experiences with risk related to cardiac screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Schmidt; Thing, Lone Friis

    Society of Cardiology as well as major sports federations such as the International Olympic Committee, however, these recommendations seem to be based on an inadequate empirical foundation, just as the costs of performing cardiac screening on a larger scale seem out of proportion. Additionally, the field...... perspective on risk (Foucault 1988). For most elite athletes participation in cardiac screening is done out of a wish to obtain an acquittal from risks. Symptomatic of the risk society cardiac screening can from an athlete perspective at the same time be seen as an attempt to gain control over......Elite Athletes experiences with risks related to Cardiac Screening Jonas Schmidt Christensen1, Lone Friis Thing1 1University of Copenhagen - Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports (NEXS), Cardiac screening of elite athletes are recommended by both the American Heart Association & the European...

  16. Unification of all elementary-particle forces including gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi; Chikashige, Yuichi; Matsuki, Takayuki; Akama, Keiichi.

    1978-07-01

    A unified model of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type for all elementary-particle forces including gravity is reviewed in some detail. Starting with a nonlinear fermion Lagrangian of the Heisenberg type and imposing the massless conditions of Bjorken on vector auxiliary fields, on effective Lagrangian is constructed, which combines the unified SU (2) x U (1) gauge theory of Weinberg and Salam for the weak and electromagnetic interactions of leptons and quarks and the Yang-Mills gauge theory of color SU (3) for the strong interaction of quarks. The photon, the weak vector bosons, and the physical Higgs scalar appear as collective excitations of lepton-antilepton or quark-antiquark pairs while the color-octet gluons appear as those of quark-antiquark pairs. The most important results of this unified model are presented. The Weinberg angle and the gluon coupling constant are determined, and the masses of the weak vector bosons are predicted. (Yoshimori, M.)

  17. Organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the International Conference and Exhibition at 16th September,2010 at the Maritim Hotel (Wuerzburg, Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) History of Organic Photovoltaics (Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci); (2) PV Activities at the ZAE Bayern (Vladimir Dyakonov); (3) Progress in Solid State DSC (Peter Erk); (4) Polymer Semiconductors for OPV (Mats Andersson); (5) Fullerene Derivative N-Types in Organic Solar Cells (David Kronholm); (6) Modelling Charge-Transport in Organic Photovoltaic Materials (Jenny Nelson); (7) Multi Junction Modules R and D Status and Outlook (Paul Blom); (8) Imaging Technologies for Organic Solar Cells (Jonas Bachmann); (9) Production of Multi-junction Organic Photovoltaic Cells and Modules (Martin Pfeiffer); (10) Upscaling of Polymer Solar Cell Fabrication Using Full Roll-to-roll Processing (Frederik Christian Krebs); (11) Industrial Aspects and Large Scale OPV Production (Jens Hauch).

  18. Making it work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Jonas

    Within the field of health research, the randomised controlled trial (RCT) is often highlighted as the best method for producing statistically valid evidence about the effects of health interventions. To produce evidence that is also socially relevant, health researchers increasingly perform trials...... outside the laboratory in people’s everyday lives. This creates a situation, in which scientific ideals of methodological rigour must be made to work with trial participants and their ongoing everyday lives. Jonas Winther’s dissertation, Making it Work, explores how this ambition is pursued in practice....... The dissertation builds on Winther’s engagement as an ethnologist in an interdisciplinary research project in Denmark, which was structured around an intervention trial that tested the health effects of exercise in everyday life. Through ethnographic fieldwork among the participants and the researchers...

  19. Chiral symmetry restoration and quasi-elastic electron-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.; Krein, G.

    1989-01-01

    Chiral symmetry is known to be an important concept in hadronic interactions. It holds in QCD, but is known to be broken at low energies. It is therefore useful to study chiral symmetry and its breaking together with its consequences in nuclear physics. It is the latter phenomena we consider here. It is difficult to study nonperturbative QCD at low energies and models are needed. The Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model fits this category; it incorporates chiral symmetry and its breaking, and allows one to study its effects in nucleons and nuclei. In particular, the constituent quark mass varies with density (ρ) and temperature (T). At high ρ and T chiral symmetry is restored. It is the ρ dependence which yields important effects in electron scattering due to partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclei. We begin with the NJL model with a small chiral symmetry breaking

  20. The effect of dynamical quark mass on the calculation of a strange quark star's structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gholam Hossein Bordbar; Babak Ziaei

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the dynamical behavior of strange quark matter components,in particular the effects of density dependent quark mass on the equation of state of strange quark matter.The dynamical masses of quarks are computed within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model,then we perform strange quark matter calculations employing the MIT bag model with these dynamical masses.For the sake of comparing dynamical mass interaction with QCD quark-quark interaction,we consider the one-gluon-exchange term as the effective interaction between quarks for the MIT bag model.Our dynamical approach illustrates an improvement in the obtained equation of state values.We also investigate the structure of the strange quark star using TolmanOppenheimer-Volkoff equations for all applied models.Our results show that dynamical mass interaction leads to lower values for gravitational mass.

  1. Las políticas públicas en la sociedad globalizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Isabel Gomez Lee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available En estos días los retos económicos, ambientales y políticos, tales como la falta de una balanceada integración del mercado global y la incertidumbre de la sustentabilidad de la vida en el planeta, hacen imprescindible replantear el rol del Estado. El análisis de las políticas públicas es la disciplina que permite adoptar conocimiento sobre la sociedad civil global a partir del análisis de sus actuaciones concretas. El Estado debe reconocerse a sí mismo como actor posicional en la sociedad civil global, y redireccionar la globalización a una cara más humana y extrahumana. En términos generales el presente artículo se refiere a esta temática basándose en los trabajos de Joseph Stiglitz, Hans Jonas y otros autores.

  2. The convergence radius of the chiral expansion in the Dyson-Schwinger approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, T.

    1994-01-01

    We determine the convergence radius m conv or the expansion in the current quark mass using the Dyson-Schwinger (DS) equation of QCD in the rainbow approximation. Within a Gaussian form for the gluon propagator D μ ν(p) ∼ δμνχ 2 e - Δ /p 2 we find that m conv increases with decreasing width Δ and increasing strength χ 2 . For those values of χ 2 and Δ, which provide the best known description of low energy hadronic phenomena, m conv lies around 2Λ QCD , which is big enough, that the chiral expansion in the strange sector converges. Our analysis also explains the rather low value of m conv ∼ 50...80 MeV in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, which as itself can be regarded as a special case of the rainbow DS models, where the gluon propagator is a constant in momentum space

  3. American alliances and nuclear non-proliferation. The end of nuclear weapon activities of US allies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Jonas Schneider tackles a question that is of great interest both to scholars of nuclear proliferation and to practitioners of nonproliferation diplomacy: Why do some political leaders of U.S. allies agree to abandon their nation's nuclear weapons activities, while others - who are often members of the same allied government and sometimes even of the same political party - steadfastly reject such a course reversal? Our existing stock of theories does not fare well in accounting for this important variation in leaders' attitudes. To solve this puzzle, Schneider develops an innovative theory that draws on the individual status conceptions of allied political leaders. Subsequently, the author undertakes to test his theory using four thoroughly researched case studies, and he derives important lessons for international nonproliferation diplomacy toward the Middle East and Northeast Asia.

  4. Cantacronache 1958-1962. Politica e protesta in musica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ferrari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 50s the italian band from Turin, named Cantacronache, created social and political songs, so contributing to the birth of a new musical genre in Italy. The founders Michele Luciano Straniero, Sergio Liberovici, Emilio Jona, Fausto Amodei, Margherita Galante Garrone, were joined from the collaboration of writers and poets like Mario Pogliotti, Franco Fortini, Italo Calvino, Umberto Eco, Gianni Rodari. The name of the group reveals its vocation: telling reality, writing songs about news facts in order to give them back to collective memory. Among the covered themes: italian news, Resistence, the research of social and political songs of the past or the recovery of the popular music heritage.

  5. NJL-jet model for quark fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.; Bentz, W.; Cloeet, I. C.; Thomas, A. W.; Yazaki, K.

    2009-01-01

    A description of fragmentation functions which satisfy the momentum and isospin sum rules is presented in an effective quark theory. Concentrating on the pion fragmentation function, we first explain why the elementary (lowest order) fragmentation process q→qπ is completely inadequate to describe the empirical data, although the crossed process π→qq describes the quark distribution functions in the pion reasonably well. Taking into account cascadelike processes in a generalized jet-model approach, we then show that the momentum and isospin sum rules can be satisfied naturally, without the introduction of ad hoc parameters. We present results for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model in the invariant mass regularization scheme and compare them with the empirical parametrizations. We argue that the NJL-jet model, developed herein, provides a useful framework with which to calculate the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory.

  6. Kaon fragmentation function from NJL-jet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Thomas, Anthony W.; Bentz, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The NJL-jet model provides a sound framework for calculating the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory, where the momentum and isospin sum rules are satisfied without the introduction of ad hoc parameters [1]. Earlier studies of the pion fragmentation functions using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model within this framework showed good qualitative agreement with the empirical parameterizations. Here we extend the NJL-jet model by including the strange quark. The corrections to the pion fragmentation function and corresponding kaon fragmentation functions are calculated using the elementary quark to quark-meson fragmentation functions from NJL. The results for the kaon fragmentation function exhibit a qualitative agreement with the empirical parameterizations, while the unfavored strange quark fragmentation to pions is shown to be of the same order of magnitude as the unfavored light quark's. The results of these studies are expected to provide important guidance for the analysis of a large variety of semi-inclusive data.

  7. Quark distributions in nuclear matter and the EMC effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, H.; Bentz, W. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Ishii, N.; Thomas, A.W.; Yazaki, K

    2004-05-03

    Quark light cone momentum distributions in nuclear matter and the structure function of a bound nucleon are investigated in the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. This framework describes the nucleon as a relativistic quark-diquark state, and the nuclear matter equation of state by using the mean field approximation. The scalar and vector mean fields in the nuclear medium couple to the quarks in the nucleon and their effect on the spin independent nuclear structure function is investigated in detail. Special emphasis is placed on the important effect of the vector mean field and on a formulation which guarantees the validity of the number and momentum sum rules from the outset.

  8. EMC and polarized EMC effects in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloet, I.C. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter and Department of Physics and Mathematical Physics, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)]. E-mail: icloet@jlab.org; Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)]. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Thomas, A.W. [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)]. E-mail: awthomas@jlab.org

    2006-11-09

    We determine nuclear structure functions and quark distributions for {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 15}N and {sup 27}Al. For the nucleon bound state we solve the covariant quark-diquark equations in a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, which yields excellent results for the free nucleon structure functions. The nucleus is described using a relativistic shell model, including mean scalar and vector fields that couple to the quarks in the nucleon. The nuclear structure functions are then obtained as a convolution of the structure function of the bound nucleon with the light-cone nucleon distributions. We find that we are readily able to reproduce the EMC effect in finite nuclei and confirm earlier nuclear matter studies that found a large polarized EMC effect.

  9. Axial vector diquark correlations in the nucleon: structure functions and static properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, H. E-mail: mineo@nt.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Bentz, W.; Ishii, N.; Yazaki, K

    2002-06-03

    In order to extract information on the strength of quark-quark correlations in the axial vector (a.v.) diquark channel (J{sup P}=1{sup +},T=1), we analyze the quark light cone momentum distributions in the nucleon, in particular their flavor dependencies, and the static properties of the nucleon. To construct the nucleon as a relativistic 3-quark bound state, we use a simple 'static' approximation to the full Faddeev equation in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, including correlations in the scalar (J{sup P}=0{sup +},T=0) and a.v. diquark channels. It is shown that the a.v. diquark correlations should be rather weak compared to the scalar ones. From our analysis we extract information on the strength of the correlations as well as on the probability of the a.v. diquark channel.

  10. Two-color quark matter: U(1)A restoration, superfluidity, and quarkyonic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, Tomas; Fukushima, Kenji; Hidaka, Yoshimasa

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the phase structure of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with two colors and two flavors of light quarks. This is motivated by the increasing interest in the QCD phase diagram as follows: (1) The QCD critical point search has been under intensive dispute and its location and existence suffer from uncertainty of effective U(1) A symmetry restoration. (2) A new phase called quarkyonic matter is drawing theoretical and experimental attention but it is not clear whether it can coexist with diquark condensation. We point out that two-color QCD is nontrivial enough to contain essential ingredients for (1) and (2) both, and most importantly, is a system without the sign problem in numerical simulations on the lattice. We adopt the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model extended with the two-color Polyakov loop and make quantitative predictions that can be tested by lattice simulations.

  11. Betti numbers of graded modules and cohomology of vector bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbud, David; Schreyer, Frank-Olaf

    2009-07-01

    In the remarkable paper Graded Betti numbers of Cohen-Macaulay modules and the multiplicity conjecture, Mats Boij and Jonas Soederberg conjectured that the Betti table of a Cohen-Macaulay module over a polynomial ring is a positive linear combination of Betti tables of modules with pure resolutions. We prove a strengthened form of their conjectures. Applications include a proof of the Multiplicity Conjecture of Huneke and Srinivasan and a proof of the convexity of a fan naturally associated to the Young lattice. With the same tools we show that the cohomology table of any vector bundle on projective space is a positive rational linear combination of the cohomology tables of what we call supernatural vector bundles. Using this result we give new bounds on the slope of a vector bundle in terms of its cohomology.

  12. Tre lampor och ett ben : produktserie för Gotlands Lampfabrik

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Gotlands Lampfabrik är en nystartad verksamhet (2009) som drivs av Jonas Kling och Jane Odell centralt på Gotland. De producerar stilrena lampskärmar i ett ljust polymermaterial med papp på båda sidorna. Produktionen är liten och görs för hand på plats i den egna fabriken i Väskinde. Sortimentet består av 33 lampskärmar och i nuläget producerar inte Gotlands Lampfabrik sina egna lampben eller upphängningar utan köper in dem från fristående parter vilket medför att sortimentet kan uppfattas so...

  13. Temperature profiles in a steam-liquid sodium jet. Application to wastage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K.H.

    1983-12-01

    The first part of this work presents a certain number of recalls concerning wastage, jets, sonic jets, turbulent jets reactive or not. The aim of this thesis is to group the theoretical formulas concerning gaseous jets in liquids, to determine from experiments the temperature distributions inside the reactive jet, and to establish correlations between the theory and the experiments carried out to obtain a model representative of the temperature distribution in steam jets into liquid sodium. The theoretical development is presented (differential and integral approaches), as also the experiments (JONAS) developed to determine the temperature distribution. The field of validity of experiments and approximations is then defined in view of application to wastage [fr

  14. Teater

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Vanemuise teatri draamanäitlejad tunnistasid möödunud aasta parimaks lavastuseks augustis Setumaal Obinitsas etendunud "Taarka", mille lavastas Ain Mäeots. Parimaks naispeaosatäitjaks valiti Merle Jääger, parimaks meespeaosatäitjaks Indrek Taalmaa, parimaks naiskõrvalosatäitjaks Karin Tammaru, parimaks meeskõrvalosatäitjaks Tanel Jonas. Eesti Draamateatri 2005. aasta Antsud ehk kolleegipreemiate laureaadid : Ingomar Vihmar (parim lavastaja), Ervin Õunapuu (parim kunstnik), Ülle Kaljuste (parim naisnäitleja), Ain Lutsepp (parim meesnäitleja), Väikesed Antsud pälvisid Elina Reinold ja Taavi Teplenkov, Abi-Antsuks kuulutati teatri kirjandusala juhataja Ene Paaver. Endla 2005. aasta kolleegipreemiad said Lii Tedre (parim naisnäitleja), Tambet Seling (parim meesnäitleja), Tiit Palu (parim lavastaja) ja Silver Vahtre (parim kunstnik)

  15. Greed, grievance, leadership and external interventions in the initiation and intensification of the civil war in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Real P. Sousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the initiation of conflict is fundamental for the success of efforts in conflict prevention. The validity of the mechanisms of the “Greed and Grievance” model, alongside leadership and external interventions are tested in four periods of initiation and intensification of the conflict in Angola. All mechanisms are present but their relative relevance varies throughout the conflict. Among the mechanisms identified in each period the most relevant in the Cold War period are the international and regional interventions in 1961 and 1975 and in the post-Cold War period, the “greed” factors in 1992 (oil and diamonds, poverty and war capital and the UNITA leadership of Jonas Savimbi in 1998. The case study provides evidence that “greed” and “grievance” can be interlinked (such as in 1992 and confirms the relevance of leadership and external interventions mechanisms.

  16. American alliances and nuclear non-proliferation. The end of nuclear weapon activities of US allies; Amerikanische Allianzen und nukleare Nichtverbreitung. Die Beendigung von Kernwaffenaktivitaeten bei Verbuendeten der USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jonas

    2016-07-01

    Jonas Schneider tackles a question that is of great interest both to scholars of nuclear proliferation and to practitioners of nonproliferation diplomacy: Why do some political leaders of U.S. allies agree to abandon their nation's nuclear weapons activities, while others - who are often members of the same allied government and sometimes even of the same political party - steadfastly reject such a course reversal? Our existing stock of theories does not fare well in accounting for this important variation in leaders' attitudes. To solve this puzzle, Schneider develops an innovative theory that draws on the individual status conceptions of allied political leaders. Subsequently, the author undertakes to test his theory using four thoroughly researched case studies, and he derives important lessons for international nonproliferation diplomacy toward the Middle East and Northeast Asia.

  17. Maximally Generalized Yang-Mills Model and Dynamical Breaking of Gauge Symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dianfu; Song Heshan

    2006-01-01

    A maximally generalized Yang-Mills model, which contains, besides the vector part V μ , also an axial-vector part A μ , a scalar part S, a pseudoscalar part P, and a tensor part T μν , is constructed and the dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry in the model is also discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model. The combination of the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  18. Subquark model of leptons and quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi.

    1979-09-01

    1) First, various subquark models so far proposed are briefly reviewed. Classifications of leptons and quarks in the models and their comparison are made. Our spinor-subquark model of leptons and quarks in which leptons and quarks are made of three subquarks of spin 1/2 is discussed in detail. 2) The possibility that guage bosons and Higgs scalars are also made of a subquark-antisubquark pair is discussed. 3) Exotic states of subquarks such as leptons and quarks of spin 3/2, exotic fermions, and exotic bosons are predicted in our model. 4) Subquark currents and their algebra are proposed. 5) Two unified subquark models of strong and electroweak interactions are discussed. The one is a gauge model and the other is a model of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type. 6) A subquark model of gravity and its supergrand unification is proposed. 7) An finally, a speculation is made on ''color-space correspondence''. (author)

  19. Interplay between chiral symmetry breaking and color superconductivity in dense quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Masakiyo

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the QCD phase diagram in finite temperature and density in a simple Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with the vector interaction. It is shown that the repulsive density-density interaction coming from the vector term enhances competition between the chiral symmetry breaking (χSB) and color superconducting (CSC) phase transition: When the vector coupling is increased, the first order transition between the χSB and CSC phase becomes weaker, and the coexisting phase in which both the chiral and color-gauge symmetries are dynamically broken comes to exist in a wider region in the T-μ plane. We find that the critical line of the first order transition can have two endpoints for an intermediate range of the vector coupling. (author)

  20. Baryon number fluctuations and the phase structure in the PNJL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Guo-yun; Tang, Zhan-duo; Gao, Xue-yan; He, Wei-bo [Xi' an Jiaotong University, School of Science, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)

    2018-02-15

    We investigate the kurtosis and skewness of net-baryon number fluctuations in the Polyakov loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model, and discuss the relations between fluctuation distributions and the phase structure of quark-gluon matter. The calculation shows that the traces of chiral and deconfinement transitions can be effectively reflected by the kurtosis and skewness of net-baryon number fluctuations not only in the critical region but also in the crossover region. The contour plot of baryon number kurtosis derived in the PNJL model can qualitatively explain the behavior of net-proton number kurtosis in the STAR beam energy scan experiments. Moreover, the three-dimensional presentations of the kurtosis and skewness in this study are helpful to understand the relations between baryon number fluctuations and QCD phase structure. (orig.)

  1. Strong UA(1) breaking in radiative η decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, M.; Nemoto, Y.; Oka, M.

    1996-08-01

    We study the η → γγ, η → γμ - μ + and η → π 0 γγ decays using an extended three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that includes the 't Hooft instanton induced interaction. We find that the η-meson mass, the η → γγ, η → γμ - μ + and η → π 0 γγ decay widths are in good agreement with the experimental values when the U A (1) breaking is strong and the flavor SU(3) singlet-octet mixing angle θ is about zero. The calculated ηγγ * transition form factor has somewhat weaker dependence on the squared four-momentum of the virtual photon. The effects of the U A (1) anomaly on the scalar quark contents in the nucleon, the Σ πN and Σ KN terms and the baryon number one and two systems are also studied. (author)

  2. Elastic scattering and transport coefficients for a quark plasma in SUf(3) at finite temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehberg, P.; Klevansky, S. P.; Hüfner, J.

    1996-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the elastic-scattering processes qq' → qq' and q overlineq' → q overlineq' , with q, q' = u, d, s is studied as a function of the scattering angle and the center-of-mass energy of the collision within the framework of the SUf(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Critical scattering at threshold is observed in the q overlineq' → q overlineq' process, leading to an enhancement of the cross section as occurs in the phenomenon of critical opalescence. Transport properties such as viscosity, mean free paths and thermal relaxation times are calculated. Strangeness enhancement is investigated via the chemical relaxation times, which are found to be considerably higher than those calculated via perturbative QCD. A comparison with the experimental values for the strangeness enhancement in S + S collisions leads to an upper limit of 4 fm/ c for the lifetime of the plasma.

  3. Ab initio calculation of a global potential, vibrational energies, and wave functions for HCN/HNC, and a simulation of the (A-tilde)-(X-tilde) emission spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Joel M.; Gazdy, Bela; Bentley, Joseph A.; Lee, Timothy J.; Dateo, Christopher E.

    1993-01-01

    A potential energy surface for the HCN/HNC system which is a fit to extensive, high-quality ab initio, coupled-cluster calculations is presented. All HCN and HNC states with energies below the energy of the first delocalized state are reported and characterized. Vibrational transition energies are compared with all available experimental data on HCN and HNC, including high CH-overtone states up to 23,063/cm. A simulation of the (A-tilde)-(X-tilde) stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectrum is also reported, and the results are compared to experiment. Franck-Condon factors are reported for odd bending states of HCN, with one quantum of vibrational angular momentum, in order to compare with the recent assignment by Jonas et al. (1992), on the basis of axis-switching arguments of a number of previously unassigned states in the SEP spectrum.

  4. Critical constraints on chiral hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivukula, R.S.; Golden, M.; Simmons, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    Critical dynamics constrains models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in which the scale of high-energy physics is far above 1 TeV. A big hierarchy requires the high-energy theory to have a second-order chiral phase transition, near which the theory is described by a low-energy effective Lagrangian with composite ''Higgs'' scalars. As scalar theories with more than one Φ 4 coupling can have a Coleman-Weinberg instability and a first-order transition, such dynamical EWSB models cannot always support a large hierarchy. If the large-N c Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model is a good approximation to the top-condensate and strong extended technicolor models, they will not produce acceptable EWSB

  5. Top and Higgs masses from dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahana, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The standard model of electroweak interactions, with the gauge and Higgs bosons appearing as composites, is derived from a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type four-fermion interaction, assumed to be valid above a high scale μ. Simple relationships are found for the composite boson top quark mass ratios and for the weak angle. Assuming three generations and a 'desert' hypothesis, these relationships are evolved with the full renormalization group down to present experimental energies, yielding predictions for the top quark and Higgs-boson masses, near 155 GeV for the former and near 140 GeV for the latter. In this fashion, fermion-antifermion condensates can be shown to yield a top mass consistent with that indicated from electroweak loop corrections for LEP data. (author) 23 refs

  6. RELAÇÕES ENTRE ÉTICA ORGANIZACIONAL, INOVAÇÕES AMBIENTAIS E SUSTENTABILIDADE

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Gilberto Aloise

    2017-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o comportamento ético das organizações em relação a sustentabilidade e as inovações ambientais, através de uma revisão da literatura.  O estudo buscou identificar a convergência entre o conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável e as ideias de Kant, Georgescu-Roegen e Jonas, contextualizando as bases filosóficas do comportamento ético e o praticado pelas organizações. Em seguida apresentam-se as principais características das inovações sustentáveis e sua import...

  7. Fierz-complete NJL model study. II. Toward the fixed-point and phase structure of hot and dense two-flavor QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jens; Leonhardt, Marc; Pospiech, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type models are often employed as low-energy models for the theory of the strong interaction to analyze its phase structure at finite temperature and quark chemical potential. In particular, at low temperature and large chemical potential, where the application of fully first-principles approaches is currently difficult at best, this class of models still plays a prominent role in guiding our understanding of the dynamics of dense strong-interaction matter. In this work, we consider a Fierz-complete version of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with two massless quark flavors and study its renormalization group flow and fixed-point structure at leading order of the derivative expansion of the effective action. Sum rules for the various four-quark couplings then allow us to monitor the strength of the breaking of the axial UA(1 ) symmetry close to and above the phase boundary. We find that the dynamics in the ten-dimensional Fierz-complete space of four-quark couplings can only be reduced to a one-dimensional space associated with the scalar-pseudoscalar coupling in the strict large-Nc limit. Still, the interacting fixed point associated with this one-dimensional subspace appears to govern the dynamics at small quark chemical potential even beyond the large-Nc limit. At large chemical potential, corrections beyond the large-Nc limit become important, and the dynamics is dominated by diquarks, favoring the formation of a chirally symmetric diquark condensate. In this regime, our study suggests that the phase boundary is shifted to higher temperatures when a Fierz-complete set of four-quark interactions is considered.

  8. Transport coefficients of strongly interacting matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate the dissipative transport phenomena of strongly interacting matter. The special interest is in the shear viscosity and its value divided by entropy density. The performed calculations are based on effective models for Quantum Chromodynamics, mostly focused on the 2-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. This allows us to study the hadronic sector as well as the quark sector within one single model. We expand the models up to next-to-leading order in inverse numbers of colors. We present different possibilities of calculating linear transport coefficients and give an overview over qualitative properties as well as over recent ideas concerning ideal fluids. As present methods are not able to calculate the quark two-point function in Minkowski space-time in the self-consistent approximation scheme of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, a new method for this purpose is developed. This self-energy parametrization method is applied to the expansion scheme, yielding the quark spectral function with meson back-coupling effects. The usage of this spectral function in the transport calculation is only one result of this work. We also test the application of different transport approaches in the NJL model, and find an interesting behavior of the shear viscosity at the critical end point of the phase diagram. We also use the NJL model to calculate the viscosity of a pion gas in the dilute regime. After an analysis of other models for pions and their interaction, we find that the NJL-result leads to an important modification of transport properties in comparison with the calculations which purely rely on pion properties in the vacuum. (orig.)

  9. Caregiver perspective on pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: medication satisfaction and symptom control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridman M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Moshe Fridman,1 Tobias Banaschewski,2 Vanja Sikirica,3 Javier Quintero,4 M Haim Erder,3 Kristina S Chen5 1AMF Consulting, Inc., Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany; 3Global Health Economics Outcomes Research and Epidemiology, Shire, Wayne, PA, USA; 4Psychiatry Department, Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain; 5Global Health Economics Outcomes Research and Epidemiology, Shire, Lexington, MA, USA Abstract: The caregiver perspective on pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD study (CAPPA was a web-based, cross-sectional survey of caregivers of children and adolescents (6–17 years of age with ADHD and was conducted in 10 European countries. CAPPA included caregiver assessments of global medication satisfaction, global symptom control, and satisfaction with ADHD medication attributes. Overall, 2,326 caregiver responses indicated that their child or adolescent was currently receiving ADHD medication and completed the “off medication” assessment required for inclusion in the present analyses. Responses to the single-item global medication satisfaction question indicated that 88% were satisfied (moderately satisfied to very satisfied with current medication and 18% were “very satisfied” on the single-item question. Responses to the single-item global symptom control question indicated that 47% and 19% of caregivers considered their child or adolescent’s symptoms to be “controlled” or “very well controlled”, respectively. Significant variations in response to the questions of medication satisfaction and symptom control were observed between countries. The correlation between the global medication satisfaction and global symptom control questions was 0.677 (P<0.001. Global medication satisfaction was significantly

  10. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  11. Ética de las biotecnologías

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortina, Adela

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The power that New Genetics has placed within mankind=s grasp requires ethics from which decisions on matters of genetic manipulation can be made. This work sets out to (1 place the ethics of biotechnologies in the context of bioethics as a whole; (2 point out the different spheres of New Genetics which pose ethical problems, recognising that each of these requires specific treatment; (3 outline an ethical framework to guide replies, a structure built up from Kantian ethics, Sen=s capabilities approach, the ethics of discourse and Jonas= responsibility principle, and (4 to tackle what is perhaps the most burning question in the ethical sphere: if the power of genetic manipulation requires once more bringing up the discussion on human nature, as approached by Habermas and Fukuyama, amongst others.

    El poder que la Nueva Genética ha puesto en manos de los seres humanos requiere una ética desde la que sea posible tomar decisiones en cuestiones de manipulación genética. El trabajo se propone (1 situar la ética de las biotecnologías en el conjunto de la bioética, (2 señalar los distintos ámbitos de la Nueva Genética que plantean problemas éticos, reconociendo que cada uno de ellos requiere un tratamiento específico, (3 esbozar un marco ético desde el que orientar las respuestas, un marco elaborado desde la ética kantiana, el enfoque de las capacidades de Sen, la ética del discurso y el principio responsabilidad de Jonas, y (4 abordar la cuestión tal vez más candente en el ámbito ético: si el poder de la manipulación genética exige poner de nuevo sobre el tapete la discusión sobre la naturaleza humana, como hacen, entre otros, Habermas y Fukuyama.

  12. Responsabilidade civil do Estado por omissão estatal Civil liability of the State for environmental neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haide Maria Hupffer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Constituição Federal de 1988 é um divisor de águas ao assumir-se como Constituição Ambiental, provocando uma ruptura em relação ao conceito de responsabilidade civil. Partindo de uma abordagem qualitativa, dialética e jurisprudencial, este artigo analisa o Princípio Responsabilidade desenvolvido por hans jonas e realiza um diálogo com o instituto da responsabilidade civil ambiental, identificando, com apoio na legislação constitucional e infraconstitucional, as controvérsias doutrinárias acerca da natureza da responsabilidade estatal (objetiva ou subjetiva frente a casos de omissão da administração pública e à ocorrência de dano ambiental. Conclui-se que o Superior Tribunal de Justiça assume uma dimensão mais alargada do conceito de responsabilidade civil do Estado, demonstrando uma tendência pela responsabilidade civil objetiva com base no risco. Assim, o Brasil, salvo algumas divergências doutrinárias, adota a responsabilidade civil objetiva do Estado pela teoria do risco administrativo alicerçada no ato ilícito e na aceitação do risco.The Federal Constitution of 1988 is a 'water divisor' since it assumes the role of Environmental Constitution, causing a rapture of the concept of civil liability. Starting from a qualitative, dialectical and jurisprudential approach, this article analyzes the Principle of Liability according to Hans Jonas in order to dialogue with the Institute of Civil Environmental Liability, identifying, with the support of the constitutional and infraconstitutional legislation, the doctrinary controversies about the nature of state liability (objective or subjective towards cases of neglect by the public administration and the event of environmental damage. It is possible to conclude that the Higher Court of Justice assumes a larger dimension of the civil liability of the State, thus showing the tendency towards the objective civil liability based on the risk. Therefore, Brazil, regarded some

  13. Birth weight, sex, and celiac disease: a nationwide twin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuja-Halkola R

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ralf Kuja-Halkola,1 Benjamin Lebwohl,1,2 Jonas Halfvarson,3 Louise Emilsson,4–6 Patrik K Magnusson,1 Jonas F Ludvigsson1,2,7,8 1Department Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Medicine, Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 4Department of Health Management and Health Economy, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 5Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 6Centre for Clinical Research, Vårdcentralen Värmlands Nysäter, County Council of Värmland, Värmland, 7Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; 8Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, City Hospital, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Objective: Earlier research suggests that birth weight may be associated with celiac disease (CD, but the direction of association has been unclear potentially due to confounding effect from genetic and intrafamilial factors. Through within-twin analyses, we aimed to minimize confounding effects such as twins that share genetic and early environmental exposures.Materials and methods: Using the Swedish Twin Registry, we examined the birth weight of 146,830 twins according to the CD status. CD was defined as having villous atrophy according to a small intestinal biopsy reports.Results: The prevalence of diagnosed CD was 0.5% (n=669, and we included 407 discordant pairs of CD–non-CD twins. Comparing the 669 CD patients with non-CD twins, the association between birth weight and future CD was not statistically significant (odds ratio [OR] per 1000 g increase in birth weight: 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.97–1.38. In males, the association was positive and statistically significant (OR=1.50; 95% CI

  14. Goldstone bosons in a crystalline chiral phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, Marco

    2017-07-24

    The phase diagram of strong interaction matter is expected to exhibit a rich structure. Different models have shown, that crystalline phases with a spatially varying chiral condensate can occur in the regime of low temperatures and moderate densities, where they replace the first-order phase transition found for spatially constant order parameters. We investigate this inhomogeneous phase, where in addition to the chiral symmetry, translational and rotational symmetry are broken as well, in a two flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. The main goal of this work is to describe the Goldstone bosons in this phase, massless excitations that occur for spontaneously broken symmetries. We take one of the simplest possible modulations, the chiral density wave, and show how to derive the quark propagator of the theory analytically, by means of transformations in chiral and momentum space. We apply this to a test case for the gap equation. We show the derivation of Nambu-Goldstone modes in the inhomogeneous phase and find, that for our case only three different modes have to be taken into account. We proceed to calculate the Goldstone boson related to the breaking of spatial symmetry, which can be related to the neutral pion. By evaluating a Bethe-Salpeter equation, we can show, that we have indeed found a Goldstone boson and give its dispersion relation in terms of momenta perpendicular, as well as parallel to the mass modulation.

  15. Can Social Robots Qualify for Moral Consideration? Reframing the Question about Robot Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman T. Tavani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A controversial question that has been hotly debated in the emerging field of robot ethics is whether robots should be granted rights. Yet, a review of the recent literature in that field suggests that this seemingly straightforward question is far from clear and unambiguous. For example, those who favor granting rights to robots have not always been clear as to which kinds of robots should (or should not be eligible; nor have they been consistent with regard to which kinds of rights—civil, legal, moral, etc.—should be granted to qualifying robots. Also, there has been considerable disagreement about which essential criterion, or cluster of criteria, a robot would need to satisfy to be eligible for rights, and there is ongoing disagreement as to whether a robot must satisfy the conditions for (moral agency to qualify either for rights or (at least some level of moral consideration. One aim of this paper is to show how the current debate about whether to grant rights to robots would benefit from an analysis and clarification of some key concepts and assumptions underlying that question. My principal objective, however, is to show why we should reframe that question by asking instead whether some kinds of social robots qualify for moral consideration as moral patients. In arguing that the answer to this question is “yes,” I draw from some insights in the writings of Hans Jonas to defend my position.

  16. Chiral symmetry breaking and the pion quark structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, V.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry in hadronic matter is first studied in the framework of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model on one hand and its generalisation to finite hadron size on the other hand. The analysis uses a variational procedure modelled after the BCS superconductor. Our study indicates for example, a great sensitivity of various quantities characterizing the breaking of symmetry to the shape of the interaction. Also the mechanism of breaking of chiral symmetry is essentially related to the mechanism of confinement. When a symmetry is spontaneously broken, there exists a Goldstone particle of zero mass. This is true in our model. This particle, the pion, is obtained as solution of a Bethe Salpeter equation for a qantiq bound state. This enables us to establish a connection between the pion as a Goldstone boson related to spontaneous symmetry breaking and the quark-antiquark structure of the pion. The finite mass of the physical pion is obtained with non zero current quark mass. Various properties of this particle are then studied in the RPA formalism. One important point of our model is the highly collective character of the pion. 85 refs [fr

  17. Non-perturbative effective interactions in the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, Boris A. [Moscow Lomonosov State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    2014-07-01

    This monograph is devoted to the nonperturbative dynamics in the Standard Model (SM), the basic theory of allfundamental interactions in natureexcept gravity. The Standard Model is divided into two parts: the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the electro-weak theory (EWT) are well-defined renormalizable theories in which the perturbation theory is valid. However, for the adequate description of the real physics nonperturbative effects are inevitable. This book describes how these nonperturbative effects may be obtained in the framework of spontaneous generation of effective interactions. The well-known example of such effective interaction is provided by the famous Nambu-Jona-Lasinio effective interaction. Also a spontaneous generation of this interaction in the framework of QCD is described and applied to the method for other effective interactions in QCD and EWT. The method is based on N.N. Bogolyubov's conception of compensation equations. As a result we then describe the principal features of the Standard Model, e.g. Higgs sector, and significant nonperturbative effects including recent results obtained at LHC and TEVATRON.

  18. Electromagnetic properties of the pion as a composite Nambu-Goldstone boson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Buck, W.W.; Gross, F.

    1992-01-01

    Motivated by the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model of light mesons, we introduce a covariant separable interaction to model the structure of relativistic quark-antiquark systems. The Schwinger-Dyson equation for the quark self-energy is solved analytically, generating a dynamical quark mass through spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry, and yielding a pion which has zero mass in the chiral limit. The Bethe-Salpeter vertex function for this q bar q pion, which has a momentum distribution and composite structure associated with the interaction, is obtained analytically. Using this vertex function, and a similar one for the ρ meson, we calculate the electromagnetic observables of this composite Nambu-Goldstone boson, including effects from ρ-meson dominance processes. Our calculation takes the composite structure of the mesons into account. The ρ-meson effects are found to be very small in the pion charge form factor, but substantial in the charge radius. Using the model, predictions are made for γ * π 0 →γ and ρπγ transition form factors

  19. Nambu mechanism of dynamical symmetry breaking by the top quark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Xuan-Yem

    1990-05-01

    It may be possible that the gauge symmetry breaking of the standard electroweak interactions is not due to the elementary scalar Higgs fields but has a dynamic origin intimately involving the top quark. A prototype of this dynamical scenario is the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model in which both the top quark and the gauge bosons become massive by some strong attractive nonlinear interactions similar to the gap energy produced in BCS superconductivity. Self-consistent equations for the charged Goldstone boson and for the vector meson are used to get an upper bound for the top quark mass. In the bubble approximation of keeping only fermion loops, we obtain an equation relating the top quark mass to the W boson one; from the top mass is found to be around 84 GeV. Its typical dominant decay mode t→W+s then follows. Also discussed are distinctive signatures of the scalar overlinett bound state identified as the physical Higgs particle whose mass is twice that of the top quark.

  20. Lattice gauge fixing as quenching and the violation of spectral positivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubin, C.; Ogilvie, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Lattice Landau gauge and other related lattice gauge-fixing schemes are known to violate spectral positivity. The most direct sign of the violation is the rise of the effective mass as a function of distance. The origin of this phenomenon lies in the quenched character of the auxiliary field g used to implement lattice gauge-fixing, and is similar to quenched QCD in this respect. This is best studied using the Parrinello Jona-Lasinio Zwanziger formalism, leading to a class of covariant gauges similar to the one-parameter class of covariant gauges commonly used in continuum gauge theories. Soluble models are used to illustrate the origin of the violation of spectral positivity. The phase diagram of the lattice theory, as a function of the gauge coupling β and the gauge-fixing parameter α, is similar to that of the unquenched theory, a Higgs model of a type first studied by Fradkin and Shenker. The gluon propagator is interpreted as yielding bound states in the confined phase, and a mixture of fundamental particles in the Higgs phase, but lattice simulation shows the two phases are connected. Gauge-field propagators from the simulation of an SU(2) lattice gauge theory on a 20 4 lattice are well described by a quenched mass-mixing model. The mass of the lightest state, which we interpret as the gluon mass, appears to be independent of α for sufficiently large α

  1. Polio and Nobel prizes: looking back 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrby, Erling; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2007-05-01

    In 1954, John Enders, Thomas Weller, and Frederick Robbins were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue."5370 This discovery provided for the first time opportunities to produce both inactivated and live polio vaccines. By searching previously sealed Nobel Committee archives, we were able to review the deliberations that led to the award. It appears that Sven Gard, who was Professor of Virus Research at the Karolinska Institute and an adjunct member of the Nobel Committee at the time, played a major role in the events leading to the awarding of the Prize. It appears that Gard persuaded the College of Teachers at the Institute to decide not to follow the recommendation by their Nobel Committee to give the Prize to Vincent du Vigneaud. Another peculiar feature of the 1954 Prize is that Weller and Robbins were included based on only two nominations submitted for the first time that year. In his speech at the Nobel Prize ceremony, Gard mentioned the importance of the discovery for the future production of vaccines, but emphasized the implications of this work for growing many different, medically important viruses. We can only speculate on why later nominations highlighting the contributions of scientists such as Jonas Salk, Hilary Koprowski, and Albert Sabin in the development of poliovirus vaccines have not been recognized by a Nobel Prize.

  2. [The history of polio in Sweden - from infantile paralysis to polio vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Per

    2004-01-01

    Although other epidemics declined due to improved hygiene and sanitation, legislation, and vaccination, polio epidemics appeared in Sweden in 1881 and at the turn of the 20th century the disease became and annual feature in the Swedish epidemiological pattern. Due to the vaccination starting in 1957 epidemics ceased to exist in Sweden around 1965. This article deals with the history polio epidemics in Sweden, 1880-1965 and gives a brief description of: the demographical influence of polio, how did the medical authorities investigate and try to combat it, and the different comprehensions of how polio affected its victims.A study of polio incidence in Sweden at the national level during 1905-1962 reveals that the disease caused major epidemics in 1911-1913 and 1953. At the beginning of the 20th century polio primarily attacked children up to 10 years of age, and at the end of the period victims were represented in all age groups, but mainly in the ages 20-39. Due to its enigmatic appearance, polio was not considered as an epidemic infectious disease during the 19th century. Sweden's early epidemics enabled Swedish medical science to act and together with American research institutes it acquired a leading role in international medical research on the disease. In the 1955 Jonas Salk produced the first successful vaccine against polio but also Sweden developed its own vaccine, different in choice of methods and materials from the widely used Salk-vaccine.

  3. Meeting report VLPNPV: Sessions 1 and 2: Plenary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Following the highly successful inaugural meeting in 2012, the second installment of Virus-Like Particles and Nano-Particle Vaccines (VLPNPV), proved to be a worthy follow-up in an outstanding conference series. VLPNPV is a forum for academics and industry to address one of the major areas of need in biomedical sciences, the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. The conference was opened by Professor Marianne Manchester of the University of California, San Diego who pointed to the significance of the site chosen for the conference, the Salk Institute. Founded by Jonas Salk, the Salk Institute for Biological Studies is a non-profit, independent research institute with focuses in molecular biology and genetics, neurosciences, and plant biology. This diversity in research themes reflects the wishes of the institute's founder who saw value in using interdisciplinary approaches to understanding the basic principles in life, aimed at generating new therapies and treatments for human disease. Likewise, interdisciplinarity was reflected in the main themes of the meeting, which also highlight some of the potential advantages of virus-like particle (VLP) and nanoparticle vaccines, including novel formulations/adjuvanting effects, structurally accurate/designed antigens, production systems and capacity, and tailoring the immune response. These themes were covered by the 2 plenary sessions that opened the conference and are described in this report.

  4. Achieving an HIV vaccine: the need for an accelerated national campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlink, R

    1997-11-01

    The development of an effective HIV vaccine has become a crucial national healthcare goal. To develop a worldwide AIDS vaccine, an international collaboration with developing countries is needed. The global approach rationale is threefold: millions of lives can be saved, a vaccine preparation can be tested more rapidly and economically among populations with high rates of infections; and the HIV epidemic comprises at least ten different subtypes. Although a number of barriers to the successful development of an HIV vaccine exist, the polio vaccine can be used as an example to show researchers how to overcome the obstacles. Jonas Salk, the polio vaccine developer, used killed whole virus in a technique that critics argued would not be fully effective. However, the Salk vaccine reduced polio-related paralysis by 72 percent, while the more effective Sabin oral vaccine did not become available until several years later. The lesson to be learned is that any percent of effectiveness is better than nothing, and researchers should not abandon uncertain HIV vaccine development efforts because they believe a better solution may develop in the future. The existence of traditional research should not preclude the development of new solutions that might prove more effective. For example, in the case of polio, the March of Dimes campaign pushed both the Salk and Sabin vaccines despite the skepticism of many academic research groups.

  5. Rebuilding immunity with Remune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, L

    1998-01-01

    Remune, an immune response therapy composed of inactivated HIV, is designed to enhance the immune system's ability to recognize and kill HIV proteins. Developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, researchers hope Remune's actions can alter the course of HIV infection and slow disease progression. Remune has gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to enter the critical Phase III trial stage. Two clinical trials are tracking Remune's immunogenicity (ability to provoke an immune response), its immunogenicity relative to dose level, and its effect on viral load. An ongoing trial, approved in February of 1996, enrolled 2,500 patients at 74 sites. The manufacturer, Immune Response Corporation (IRC), announced earlier this year that treatment with Remune induces an immune response to HIV that cross-reacts with different strains of the virus. This immune response is crucial for developing an effective worldwide treatment. Remune decreases levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a). IRC recently began a Phase I clinical trial in Great Britain that combines Remune with a protease inhibitor, two antiviral nucleoside analogues, and Interleukin-2. The trial is designed to determine the role that the drug may play in restoring immune response.

  6. [AIDS: "We will win"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrier, H

    1989-11-13

    An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood.

  7. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucq, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts.

  8. HIV-1 Immunogen: an overview of almost 30 years of clinical testing of a candidate therapeutic vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Gina M; Angel, Jonathan B

    2016-07-01

    Although current antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV infection into a chronic, manageable disease, ART does not cure HIV infection. Furthermore, the majority of the world's infected individuals live in resource-limited countries in which access to ART is limited. Thus, the development of an effective therapeutic HIV vaccine would be an invaluable treatment alternative. Developed by the late Dr. Jonas Salk, HIV-1 Immunogen (Remune®) is a candidate therapeutic vaccine that has been studied in thousands of HIV-infected individuals in more than a dozen clinical trials during almost three decades. This Drug Evaluation, which summarizes the results of these trials that have shown the vaccine to be safe and immunogenic, also discusses the contradictory and controversial conclusions drawn from the phases 2, 2/3 and 3 trials that assessed the clinical efficacy of this vaccine. Given the lack of unequivocal clinical benefits of HIV-1 Immunogen despite almost 30 years of extensive testing, it does not appear, in our view, that this vaccine is a clinically effective immunotherapy. However, inclusion of this vaccine in the newly proposed 'Kick/Shock and Kill' strategy for HIV eradication, or use as a prophylactic vaccine, could be considered for future trials.

  9. [Piet de Somer, the University of Leuven and the Belgium poliovaccine in 1956-57].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiau, A

    2011-01-01

    In the years following WW II, all 'Western' countries were struck by recurrent epidemics of infantile paralysis (poliomyelitis). In the early 1950s, a vaccine developed by Jonas Salk in Pittsburgh, became available in the U.S. and Canada. In 1953-54 central virology laboratories in Sweden, Denmark and France were already well advanced in setting up local production lines of the vaccine. At that point in time, the Catholic University of Leuven, on the initiative of the young microbiology professor, Piet De Somer, and in collaboration with the pharmaceutical concern R.I.T. (Recherches et Industries Thérapeutiques, Genval, Belgium), erected a new, multidisciplinary medical research institute, the Rega Institute. One of the research units to be headed by De Somer was destined to introduce the relatively new discipline of virology. As a test case, De Somer decided to venture on developing a production line of the Salk vaccine. In less than one year's time, the project was successful, such that Belgium became one of the first European countries to be self-supporting for its vaccine supply and to be able to initiate a large-scale vaccination campaign. The planning, preparation and execution of the project was accompanied by an extensive correspondence of De Somer with experts and other concerned parties in Belgium and abroad. This correspondence has been preserved and allows for a detailed reconstruction of the remarkable achievement.

  10. "A different kind of beauty": scientific and architectural style in I.M. Pei's Mesa Laboratory and Louis Kahn's Salk Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Stuart W

    2008-01-01

    I.M. Pei's Mesa Laboratory for the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, and Louis Kahn's Salk Institute in La Jolla, California, are rare examples of laboratories as celebrated for their architecture as for their scientific contributions. Completed in the mid-1960s, these signature buildings still express the scientific style of their founding directors, Walter Roberts and Jonas Salk. yet in commissioning their laboratories, Roberts and Salk had to work with architects as strong-willed as themselves. A close reading of the two laboratories reveals the ongoing negotiations and tensions in collaborations between visionary scientist and visionary architect. Moreover, Roberts and Salk also had to become architects of atmospheric and biomedical sciences. For laboratory architecture, however flexible in theory, necessarily stabilizes scientific practice, since a philosophy of research is embedded in the very structure of the building and persists far longer than the initial vision and mission that gave it life. Roberts and Salk's experiences suggest that even the most carefully designed laboratories must successfully adapt to new disciplinary configurations, funding opportunities, and research priorities, or risk becoming mere architectural icons.

  11. Immunology in Pittsburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Olivera J; Salter, Russell D

    2006-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine has a long tradition of excellence in immunology research and training. Faculty, students, and postdoctoral fellows walk through hallways that are pictorial reminders of the days when Dr. Jonas Salk worked here to develop the polio vaccine, or when Dr. Niels Jerne chaired the Microbiology Department and worked on perfecting the Jerne Plaque Assay for antibody-producing cells. Colleagues and postdoctoral fellows of Professor Salk are still on the faculty of the University of Pittsburgh Medical School as are graduate students of Professor Jerne. A modern research building, the 17 story high Biomedical Science Tower, is a vivid reminder of the day when Dr. Thomas Starzl arrived in Pittsburgh and started building the most prominent solid-organ-transplant program in the world. The immunology research that developed around the problem of graft rejection and tolerance induction trained numerous outstanding students and fellows. Almost 20 yr ago, the University of Pittsburgh founded the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) with the renowned immunologist Dr. Ronald Herberman at its helm. This started a number of new research initiatives in cancer immunology and immunotherapy. A large number of outstanding young investigators, as well as several well-established tumor immunologists, were recruited to Pittsburgh at that time.

  12. O discurso ideológico-nacionalista em cartilha distribuída pelo exército do RS durante o período ditatorial no brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Massoti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se propõe a pensar a Ditadura Militar brasileira e a reprodução do seu pensamento ideológico através do estudo do discurso na Carta a um recruta entregue aos jovens em idade para o alistamento militar no ano de 1968 no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Escrita pelo Ten. Cel. Jonas Correia Neto e expedida pelo Ministério do Exército sob a supervisão e coordenação da Secretaria de Educação e Cultura - Coordenação de Educação Moral e Cívica do RS, a carta possui uma voz paternal que se propõe a mostrar ao jovem que o melhor caminho a seguir é o da ordem e da obediência. Para pensar ideologia será elaborada uma construção conceitual baseada no estudo das realidades vividas pela sociedade no contexto histórico geral (a ditadura, visando compreender as inúmeras incoerências presentes na carta (discurso militar, a fim de atenuar ou minimizar as arbitrariedades cometidas em nome do Estado. O estudo proposto apresenta aporte teórico a partir da concepção de ideologia de autores como Slavoj Zizek e Sigmun Freud que discorrem sobre o modo inconfesso de servir algum interesse particular de poder.

  13. Quark model calculations of current correlators in the nonperturbative domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celenza, L.S.; Shakin, C.M.; Sun, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors study the vector-isovector current correlator in this work, making use of a generalized Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model. In their work, the original NJL model is extended to describe the coupling of the quark-antiquark states to the two-pion continuum. Further, a model for confinement is introduced that is seen to remove the nonphysical cuts that appear in various amplitudes when the quark and antiquark go on mass shell. Quite satisfactory results are obtained for the correlator. The authors also use the correlator to define a T-matrix for confined quarks and discuss a rho-dominance model for that T-matrix. It is also seen that the Bethe-Salpeter equation that determines the rho mass (in the absence of the coupling to the two-pion continuum) has more satisfactory behavior in the generalized model than in the model without confinement. That improved behavior is here related to the absence of the q bar q cut in the basic quark-loop integral of the generalized model. In this model, it is seen how one may work with both quark and hadron degrees of freedom, with only the hadrons appearing as physical particles. 12 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  14. Responsibility: The First Virtue of Innovation? A discussion of some ethical and meta-ethical issues concerning the concept of ‘responsibility’ in technological innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen D. Stabell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate the concept of responsibility in the context of technological innovation, with reference to two types of responsibility: ex post and ex ante responsibility. Exposing the shortcomings of ex post responsibility in the context of innovation, I examine different ways of conceiving of a form of ex ante responsibility suitable for our current technological situation. Here I identify two positions with very different approaches to the question of the ethical status of responsibility: Hans Jonas’s concept of responsibility as an ethical principle structuring moral behavior, and René von Schomberg’s idea of responsibility as “responsiveness” linked to procedures of communication and collaboration. Rejecting von Schomberg’s concept on ethico-philosophical grounds, I argue in favor of a critical rehabilitation of some basic thoughts in the philosophy of Jonas. Finally, I suggest taking the step from the Jonasian ethics of responsibility towards the Hegelian concept of Sittlichkeit – a concrete social morality that disentangles responsibility from the dilemmas of subjectivist morality.

  15. Environmental Ethics and Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Rouanet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2015v14n3p382 This paper resumes a previous discussion on Environmental Ethics and Irreversibility, which was presented in 2005. There I first faced the problem. Now I would like to reevaluate the issue. Was my paper “catastrophist”? Or was it, instead, realistic? Which are today the main issues confronting Environmental Ethics? Plainly speaking, what can we really do? These are some of the questions I would like to bring in to the debate with my colleagues and the public. In other words, instead of focusing in the aspect of “irreversibility”, I prefer here to focus on the “responsibility” of agents and institutions. It rescues the so-called “Principle of Responsibility”, by Hans Jonas. There is also some debate with Karl-Otto Appel and Habermas. If, on one hand, there are irreversible damages to nature, as the extinction of species and even of natural locations, as rivers and other natural accidents, there are, on the other hand, many actions that can and must be taken in order to preserve or deter the grave consequences of the environmental degradation. In this paper, I try to discuss some of the problems and propose some solutions, but the more important thing is to call everyone – individuals, groups, or institutions – to responsibility face the Earth, the Human and not-human beings, and mainly the future generations.

  16. [Inactivated poliovirus vaccines: an inevitable choice for eliminating poliomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidor, J D; Jean-Denis, Shu

    2016-12-06

    The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is a very old tool in the fight against poliomyelitis. Though supplanted by oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in the 1960s and 1970s, the IPV has now become an inevitable choice because of the increasingly recognized risks associated with continuous use of OPVs. Following the pioneering work of Jonas Salk, who established key principles for the IPV, considerable experience has accumulated over the years. This work has led to modern Salk IPV-containing vaccines, based on the use of inactivated wildtype polioviruses, which have been deployed for routine use in many countries. Very good protection against paralysis is achieved with IPV through the presence of circulating antibodies able to neutralize virus infectivity toward motor neurons. In addition, with IPV, a variable degree of protection against mucosal infection (and therefore transmission) through mucosal antibodies and immune cells is achieved, depending on previous exposure of subjects to wildtype or vaccine polioviruses. The use of an IPV-followed-by-OPV sequential immunization schedule has the potential advantage of eliminating the vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) risk, while limiting the risks of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPVs). Sabin strain-derived IPVs are new tools, only recently beginning to be deployed, and data are being generated to document their performance. IPVs will play an irreplaceable role in global eradication of polio.

  17. Large N dynamics in QED in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusynin, V.P.; Miransky, V.A.; Shovkovy, I.A.

    2003-01-01

    The expression for the dynamical mass of fermions in QED in a magnetic field is obtained for a large number of the fermion flavor N in the framework of 1/N expansion. The existence of a threshold value N thr , dividing the theories with essentially different dynamics, is established. For the number of flavors N thr , the dynamical mass is very sensitive to the value of the coupling constant α b , related to the magnetic scale μ=√(vertical bar eB vertical bar). For N of the order of N thr or larger, a dynamics similar to that in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with a cutoff of the order of √(vertical bar eB vertical bar) and the dimensional coupling constant G∼1/(N vertical bar eB vertical bar) takes place. In this case, the value of the dynamical mass is essentially α b independent (the dynamics with an infrared stable fixed point). The value of N thr separates a weak coupling dynamics (with α-tilde b ≡Nα b b > or approx. 1) and is of the order of 1/α b

  18. Goldstone bosons in a crystalline chiral phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The phase diagram of strong interaction matter is expected to exhibit a rich structure. Different models have shown, that crystalline phases with a spatially varying chiral condensate can occur in the regime of low temperatures and moderate densities, where they replace the first-order phase transition found for spatially constant order parameters. We investigate this inhomogeneous phase, where in addition to the chiral symmetry, translational and rotational symmetry are broken as well, in a two flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. The main goal of this work is to describe the Goldstone bosons in this phase, massless excitations that occur for spontaneously broken symmetries. We take one of the simplest possible modulations, the chiral density wave, and show how to derive the quark propagator of the theory analytically, by means of transformations in chiral and momentum space. We apply this to a test case for the gap equation. We show the derivation of Nambu-Goldstone modes in the inhomogeneous phase and find, that for our case only three different modes have to be taken into account. We proceed to calculate the Goldstone boson related to the breaking of spatial symmetry, which can be related to the neutral pion. By evaluating a Bethe-Salpeter equation, we can show, that we have indeed found a Goldstone boson and give its dispersion relation in terms of momenta perpendicular, as well as parallel to the mass modulation.

  19. Loop corrections and other many-body effects in relativistic field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, T.L.; Brown, G.E.; Prakash, M.; Weise, W.

    1988-01-01

    Incorporation of effective masses into negative energy states (nucleon loop corrections) gives rise to repulsive many-body forces, as has been known for some time. Rather than renormalizing away the three- and four-body terms, we introduce medium corrections into the effective σ-exchange, which roughly cancel the nucleon loop terms for densities ρ ≅ ρ nm , where ρ nm is nuclear matter density. Going to higher densities, the repulsive contributions tend to saturate whereas the attractive ones keep on growing in magnitude. The latter is achieved through use of a density-dependent effective mass for the σ-particle, m σ = m σ (ρ), such that m σ (ρ) decreases with increasing density. Such a behavior is seen e.g. in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. It is argued that a smooth transition to chiral restoration implies a similar behavior. The resulting nuclear equation of state is, because of the self-consistency in the problem, immensely insensitive to changes in the mass or coupling constant of the σ-particle. (orig.)

  20. Low-energy QCD and ultraviolet renormalons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peris, S.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the contribution of ultraviolet (UV) renormalons in QCD to two-point functions of quark current operators. This explicitly includes effects due to the exchange of one renormalon chain as well as two chains. It is shown that, when the external Euclidean momentum of the two-point functions becomes smaller than the scale Λ L associated with the Landau singularity of the QCD one-loop running coupling constant, the positions of the UV renormalons in the Borel plane become true singularities in the integration range of the Borel transform. This introduces ambiguities in the evaluation of the corresponding two-point functions. The ambiguities associated with the leading UV renormalon singularity are of the same type as the contribution due to the inclusion of dimension d=6 local operators in a low-energy effective Lagrangian valid at scales smaller than Λ L . We then discuss the inclusion of an infinite number of renormalon chains and argue that the previous ambiguity hints at a plausible approximation scheme for low-energy QCD, resulting in an effective Lagrangian similar to the one of the extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (ENJL) model of QCD at large N c . (orig.)

  1. The deconfinement phase transition, hadronization and the NJL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raha, Sibaji

    2000-01-01

    One of the confident predictions of QCD is that at sufficiently high temperature and/or density, hadronic matter should undergo a thermodynamic phase transition to a color deconfined state of matter-popularly called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). In low energy effective theories of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), one usually talks of the chiral transition for which a well defined order parameter exists. We investigate the dissociation of pions and kaons in a medium of hot quark matter described by the Nambu-Jona Lasinio (NJL) model. The decay widths of pion and kaon are found to be large but finite at temperature much higher than the critical temperature for the chiral (or deconfinement) transition, the kaon decay width being much larger. Thus pions and even kaons (with a lower density compared to pions) may coexist with quarks and gluons at such high temperatures. On the basis of such premises, we investigate the process of hadronization in quark-gluon plasma with special emphasis on whether such processes shed any light on acceptable low energy effective theories of QCD

  2. Underground urbanity: from the carrefour à étages multiples to the ‘inner street’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Clua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As Manuel de Solà-Morales noted, urbanity relies on the variety and quality of relations between things, materials and human beings. Considered as such, how are we to achieve an underground urbanity? This paper seeks to address this question through a focussed reading of a number of European urban projects from the 20th century; all of which put special care into ensuring the quality of their subterranean passageways. We begin with the carrefour à giration, which was designed by Eugène Hénard in 1906, in order to identify four fundamental attributes of this kind of urbanity: legibility, spatiality, accessibility and activity. We then continue with a qualitative analysis of the 1933 Blå Bodarna passageway designed by Tage William-Olsson and Holger Blom in Slussen (Stockholm. Looking ahead some decades later, the sequence of passages under the Vienna Ring, built during the mayoralty of Franz J. Jonas, provides a good example of how fundamental the connectivity to the underground public transport system was to the success of these spaces. Finally, the article closes with a review of those underground places found in Santiago Calatrava’s Stadelhofen Station and the Stationsplein by Manuel de Solà-Morales: from the carrefour à étages multiples to the ‘inner street’.

  3. New gadiform fishes (Teleostei, Gadiformes) from the Miocene of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Giorgio

    2007-02-01

    As part of the completion of studies on the Miocene fishes of the Chelif Basin (north-western Algeria), this paper represents a contribution to the knowledge of the Messinian gadiform diversity of this western Mediterranean, semi-enclosed, Neogene basin. A new genus and species of the family Macrouridae is erected ( Razelainia paradoxa n. gen. et sp.), two specimens are tentatively referred to already existing taxa ( Gadiculus cf. jonas; Merluccius cf. merluccius), and a species formerly assigned to the gadid genus Brosme is transferred to the genus Gaidropsarus ( Gaidropsarus murdjadjensis). The macrourid Razelainia paradoxa n. gen. et sp. is characterized by an unusual combination of: plesiomorphic gadiform features, such as low vertebral number (presumed), well-developed caudal-fin rays, presence of a single continuous dorsal fin originating just posterior to the neurocranium, anal-fin rays slightly longer than dorsal-fin rays; and derived, typically macrourid features, such as the presence of spinoid scales and the anterior anal-fin pterygiophores extending forward over the abdominal wall. A paleoecological analysis reveals that the Messinian gadiform assemblage of the Chelif Basin had a subtropical/warm temperate affinity, with a marked north-eastern Atlantic-Mediterranean biogeographic character.

  4. Prospective Technology Assessment of Synthetic Biology: Fundamental and Propaedeutic Reflections in Order to Enable an Early Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jan Cornelius

    2016-08-01

    Synthetic biology is regarded as one of the key technosciences of the future. The goal of this paper is to present some fundamental considerations to enable procedures of a technology assessment (TA) of synthetic biology. To accomplish such an early "upstream" assessment of a not yet fully developed technology, a special type of TA will be considered: Prospective TA (ProTA). At the center of ProTA are the analysis and the framing of "synthetic biology," including a characterization and assessment of the technological core. The thesis is that if there is any differentia specifica giving substance to the umbrella term "synthetic biology," it is the idea of harnessing self-organization for engineering purposes. To underline that we are likely experiencing an epochal break in the ontology of technoscientific systems, this new type of technology is called "late-modern technology." -I start this paper by analyzing the three most common visions of synthetic biology. Then I argue that one particular vision deserves more attention because it underlies the others: the vision of self-organization. I discuss the inherent limits of this new type of late-modern technology in the attempt to control and monitor possible risk issues. I refer to Hans Jonas' ethics and his early anticipation of the risks of a novel type of technology. I end by drawing conclusions for the approach of ProTA towards an early societal shaping of synthetic biology.

  5. The ρππ form factor in the decays ω, φ → 3π and η,KL → π+ π- γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Osipov, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The processes ω → 3π, φ → 3π, η → π + π - γ, and K L → π + π - γ have been studied for a long time and from various points of view both in theoretical and in experimental elementary-particle physics. However, appreciable changes have occurred recently in the experimental data on the decays ω → 3π and η → π + π - . The width of the first decay has decreased by 20%, and that of the second has increased by 40%. In this work, taking account of the new data, the authors give a self-consistent description of these processes within the framework of the quark model of superconducting type (QMST) proposed by them. This model is a variety of the well-known Nambu-Jona-Lasinio quark model. They shall take into account all the main effects which have an appreciable influence on the final results. The important role played by the nondiagonal π-α 1 transitions on external lines of quark box diagrams and by the form factor of the ρππ vertex in pole diagrams is shown

  6. Impact of Role Clarity and Strategic Fit on Average Project Success: Moderating Role of Market Turbulence on Telecom Companies of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najam UL MABOOD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in technology has reshaped the businesses across the globe forcing companies to perform tasks and activities in the form of projects. Stakeholder behavior, stakeholder management, strategic fit, role and task clarity are some of the factors that redesign the project success. The current study examine the impact of strategic fit and role clarity on the Average project success and further it enlightens the moderating role of Market turbulence on the relationship between the aforementioned independent and dependent variables. The population of the study comprises of telecom sector of Pakistan. The Data was collected from 201 project team members working on diverse project in Telecom companies of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The Data was gathered through a questionnaires measured on Likert scale adopted from the study of Beringer, Jonas & Kock (2013. Each Questionnaire comprises of 3 items to measure each variable. SPSS 20.0 Version was used to analyze the data by applying Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis technique. Findings depicted that role clarity and strategic fit contributed significantly in enhancing success of a project. Results further evidenced that market turbulence negatively moderated the relationship of independent variables on Average project success. The study at the end highlights recommendations for the future researchers.

  7. Inhomogeneity driven by Higgs instability in a gapless superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannakis, Ioannis; Hou Defu; Huang Mei; Ren Haicang

    2007-01-01

    The fluctuations of the Higgs and pseudo Nambu-Goldstone fields in the 2-flavor color superconductivity (2SC) phase with mismatched pairing are described in the nonlinear realization framework of the gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In the gapless 2SC phase, not only Nambu-Goldstone currents can be spontaneously generated, but also the Higgs field exhibits instablity. The Nambu-Goldstone currents generation indicates the formation of the single plane wave Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrel state and breaks rotation symmetry, while the Higgs instability favors spatial inhomogeneity and breaks translation invariance. In this paper, we focus on the Higgs instability which has not drawn much attention yet. The Higgs instability cannot be removed without a long range force, thus it persists in the gapless superfluidity and induces phase separation. In the case of gapless 2-flavor color superconductivity state, the Higgs instability can only be partially removed by the electric Coulomb energy. However, it is not excluded that the Higgs instability might be completely removed in the charge neutral gapless color-flavor locked phase by the color Coulomb energy

  8. A self-consistent mean-field approach to the dynamical symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunihiro, Teiji; Hatsuda, Tetsuo.

    1984-01-01

    The dynamical symmetry breaking phenomena in the Nambu and Jona-Lasimio model are reexamined in the framework of a self-consistent mean-field (SCMF) theory. First, we formulate the SCMF theory in a lucid manner based on a successful decomposition of the Lagrangian into semiclassical and residual interaction parts by imposing a condition that ''the dangerous term'' in Bogoliubov's sense should vanish. Then, we show that the difference of the energy density between the super and normal phases, the correct expression of which the original authors failed to give, can be readily obtained by applying the SCMF theory. Futhermore, it is shown that the expression thus obtained is identical to that of the effective potential (E.P.) given by the path-integral method with an auxiliary field up to the one loop order in the loop expansion, then one finds a new and simple way to get the E.P. Some numerical results of the E.P. and the dynamically generated mass of fermion are also shown. As another demonstration of the powerfulness of the SCMF theory, we derive, in the Appendix, the energy density of the O(N)-phi 4 model including the higher order corrections in the sense of large N expansion. (author)

  9. Phases of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, Simon

    2009-04-09

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction within the Standard Model of elementary particles. Today's research in this area dedicates substantial resources to numeric solutions of the QCD field equations and experimental programs exploring the phases of QCD. This thesis proceeds along a complementary line - that of modelling QCD, with the aim of identifying its dominant degrees of freedom. This is possible by minimally coupling effective potentials for the Polyakov loop to Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models using temporal background fields to model chiral symmetry breaking respecting colour confinement. The fermion sign problem resulting from the minimal coupling is addressed in this work establishing a novel, systematically ordered approach. The modifications to the approximative order parameter of colour confinement, the Polyakov loop, are in direct connection with the fermion sign problem. Furthermore an effective coupling of quark densities of different flavours is induced. This mechanism, most likely also present in QCD, produces finite contributions to flavour off diagonal susceptibilities. Susceptibilities are amongst the most promising physical quantities for the experimental exploration of the phase transition at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)

  10. Normal ground state of dense relativistic matter in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of the ground state of relativistic matter in a magnetic field are examined within the framework of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The main emphasis of this study is the normal ground state, which is realized at sufficiently high temperatures and/or sufficiently large chemical potentials. In contrast to the vacuum state, which is characterized by the magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking, the normal state is accompanied by the dynamical generation of the chiral shift parameter Δ. In the chiral limit, the value of Δ determines a relative shift of the longitudinal momenta (along the direction of the magnetic field) in the dispersion relations of opposite chirality fermions. We argue that the chirality remains a good approximate quantum number even for massive fermions in the vicinity of the Fermi surface and, therefore, the chiral shift is expected to play an important role in many types of cold dense relativistic matter, relevant for applications in compact stars. The qualitative implications of the revealed structure of the normal ground state on the physics of protoneutron stars are discussed. A noticeable feature of the Δ parameter is that it is insensitive to temperature when T 0 , where μ 0 is the chemical potential, and increases with temperature for T>μ 0 . The latter implies that the chiral shift parameter is also generated in the regime relevant for heavy ion collisions.

  11. Chiral and color-superconducting phase transitions with vector interaction in a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Koide, Tomoi; Kunihiro, Teiji; Nemoto, Yukio

    2002-01-01

    We investigate effects of the vector interaction on chiral and color superconducting (CSC) phase transitions at finite density and temperature in a simple Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. It is shown that the repulsive density-density interaction coming from the vector term, which is present in the effective chiral models but has been omitted, enhances the competition between the chiral symmetry breaking (χSB) and CSC phase transition, and thereby makes the thermodynamic potential have a shallow minimum over a wide range of values of the correlated chiral and CSC order parameters. We find that when the vector coupling is increased, the first order transition between the χSB and CSC phases becomes weaker, and the coexisting phase in which both the chiral and color-gauge symmetry are dynamically broken comes to exist over a wider range of the density and temperature. We also show that there can exist two endpoints, which are tricritical points in the chiral limit, along the critical line of the first order transition in some range of values of the vector coupling. Although our analysis is based on a simple model, the nontrivial interplay between the χSB and CSC phases induced by the vector interaction is expected to be a universal phenomenon and might give a clue to understanding results obtained with two-color QCD on the lattice. (author)

  12. Light-front realization of chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itakura, Kazunori; Maedan, Shinji

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a description of chiral symmetry breaking in the light-front (LF) formalism. Based on careful analyses of several modes, we give clear answers to the following three fundamental questions: (i) What is the difference between the LF chiral transformation and the ordinary chiral transformation? (ii) How does a gap equation for the chiral condensate emerge? (iii) What is the consequence of the coexistence of a nonzero chiral condensate and the trivial Fock vacuum? The answer to Question (i) is given through a classical analysis of each model. Question (ii) is answered based on our recognition of the importance of characteristic constraints, such as the zero-mode and fermionic constraints. Question (iii) is intimately related to another important problem, reconciliation of the nonzero chiral condensate ≠ 0 and the invariance of the vacuum under the LF chiral transformation Q 5 LF | 0> = 0. This and Question (iii) are understood in terms of the modified chiral transformation laws of the dependent variables. The characteristic ways in which the chiral symmetry breaking is realized are that the chiral charge Q 5 LF is no longer conserved and that the transformation of the scalar and pseudoscalar fields is modified. We also discuss other outcomes, such as the light-cone wave function of the pseudoscalar meson in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. (author)

  13. Anatomy of the magnetic catalysis by renormalization-group method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Koichi; Itakura, Kazunori; Ozaki, Sho

    2017-12-01

    We first examine the scaling argument for a renormalization-group (RG) analysis applied to a system subject to the dimensional reduction in strong magnetic fields, and discuss the fact that a four-Fermi operator of the low-energy excitations is marginal irrespective of the strength of the coupling constant in underlying theories. We then construct a scale-dependent effective four-Fermi interaction as a result of screened photon exchanges at weak coupling, and establish the RG method appropriately including the screening effect, in which the RG evolution from ultraviolet to infrared scales is separated into two stages by the screening-mass scale. Based on a precise agreement between the dynamical mass gaps obtained from the solutions of the RG and Schwinger-Dyson equations, we discuss an equivalence between these two approaches. Focusing on QED and Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, we clarify how the properties of the interactions manifest themselves in the mass gap, and point out an importance of respecting the intrinsic energy-scale dependences in underlying theories for the determination of the mass gap. These studies are expected to be useful for a diagnosis of the magnetic catalysis in QCD.

  14. Nuclear matter descriptions including quark structure of the hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet, R.

    2008-07-01

    It is nowadays well established that nucleons are composite objects made of quarks and gluons, whose interactions are described by Quantum chromodynamics (QCD). However, because of the non-perturbative character of QCD at the energies of nuclear physics, a description of atomic nuclei starting from quarks and gluons is still not available. A possible alternative is to construct effective field theories based on hadronic degrees of freedom, in which the interaction is constrained by QCD. In this framework, we have constructed descriptions of infinite nuclear matter in relativistic mean field theories taking into account the quark structure of hadrons. In a first approach, the in medium modifications of mesons properties is dynamically obtained in a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) quark model. This modification is taken into account in a relativistic mean field theory based on a meson exchange interaction between nucleons. The in-medium modification of mesons masses and the properties of infinite nuclear matter have been studied. In a second approach, the long and short range contributions to the in-medium modification of the nucleon are determined. The short range part is obtained in a NJL quark model of the nucleon. The long range part, related to pions exchanges between nucleons, has been determined in the framework of Chiral Perturbation theory. These modifications have been used to constrain the couplings of a point coupling relativistic mean field model. A realistic description of the saturation properties of nuclear matter is obtained. (author)

  15. The bag model and the Nambu-Goldstone pion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.C.; Ho-Kim, Q.

    1983-01-01

    The MIT bag model for the pion is improved and extended in such a way that the pion does not have spurious center-of-mass motions; perturbative gluon contributions to the pion mass msub(π) and decay constant fsub(π) are both calculated to lowest order in αsub(s). The pion is a Nambu-Goldstone boson in the sense that the vacuum in the bag refers to massive constituent quarks, but not so massless current quarks. The transformation of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio between massive and massless quarks is utilized in the computation of fsub(π), the result of which strongly suggests that quarks in the pion are correlated, characterized by a correlation momentum which is proportional 300 MeV/c. The vacuum expectation value for the massless quark condensate is calculated to be proportional0.04 GeV 3 , corresponding to a current quark mass of proportional4 MeV. The requirement that msub(π) approaches zero in a manner consistent with PCAC constrains the bag energy to be msub(π)/4. (orig.)

  16. Hadronization of quark-diquark model for nucleon structure and nuclear force by path integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Keitaro

    2003-01-01

    One of the central issues of the hadron physics is how to interpret the properties and the origin of nuclear force. Nuclear force is in principle the manifestation of dynamics of quarks and gluons but no trial has been successful yet in describing the nuclear force by using QCD, the fundamental theory of the strong interactions. Phenomenon related to the chiral symmetry and the spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry is one of the important phenomena for the understanding of hadron physics. Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model is one of the quark system models to explain the phenomena concerning the chiral symmetry. Although the method to deduce the Lagrangian describing mesons by applying the path integral to NJL model has been well known as the bosonization, it has been difficult to extend it to baryons because baryons are three-body system. In this paper, a method is reported to deduce Lagrangian which describes baryon-meson from quark-diquark Lagrangian by assuming that baryons are the bound states of quark and diquark. (S. Funahashi)

  17. Inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in isospin-asymmetric strong-interaction matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowakowski, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    In this thesis we investigate the effects of an isospin asymmetry on inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking phases, which are characterized by spatially modulated quarkantiquark condensates. In order to determine the relevance of such phases for the phase diagram of strong-interaction matter, a two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model is used to study the properties of the ground state of the system. Confirming the presence of inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking in isospin-asymmetric matter for a simple Chiral Density Wave, we generalize the modulation of the quark-antiquark pairs to more complicated shapes and study the effects of different degrees of flavor-mixing on the inhomogeneous phase at non-zero isospin asymmetry. Then, we investigate the occurrence of crystalline chiral symmetry breaking phases in charge-neutral matter, from which we determine the influence of crystalline phases on a quark star by calculating mass-radius sequences. Finally, our model is extended through color-superconducting phases and we study the interplay of these phases with inhomogeneous chiral-symmetry breaking at non-vanishing isospin asymmetry, before we discuss our findings.

  18. [Sigmund Freud and the "Zeitschrift für Hypnotismus"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Terence A

    2005-01-01

    While Freud was always ready to acknowledge the debt that psychoanalysis owed to hypnotism, his engagement in its study and medical application is often seen by historians as little more than a passing phase on the way to psychoanalysis proper. This paper attempts to redress the balance by exploring Freud's association with the most influential German-language journal devoted to hypnotism, the Zeitschrift für Hypnotismus. Freud not only contributed a paper to this periodical but also served on its editorial board for the first three years of its existence. There also appeared in the journal one review and six abstracts of his work. After a condensed bibliographical account of the journal, a summary is given of Freud's intellectual and professional contacts and exchanges with three of the key individuals associated with it: August Forel, Jonas Grossmann and Oskar Vogt. Finally clarification is given of the publication history of the "Dora" case history and the chronology of its rejection for publication by Korbinian Brodmann, editor of the journal when it became the Journal für Psychologie und Neurologie.

  19. Memorial volume for Y. Nambu

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Lay Nam; Han, Moo-Young; Phua, Kok Khoo

    2016-01-01

    We have lost one of the giants of the twentieth century physics when Yoichiro Nambu passed away in July, 2015, at the age of 94. Today's Standard Model, though still incomplete in many respects, is the culmination of the most successful theory of the Universe to date, and it is built upon foundations provided by discoveries made by Nambu in the 1960s: the mechanism of spontaneously broken symmetry in Nature (with G Jona-Lasinio) and the hidden new SU(3) symmetry of quarks and gluons (with M-Y Han). In this volume honoring Nambu's memory, World Scientific Publishing presents a unique collection of papers written by his former colleagues, collaborating researchers and former students and associates, not only citing Nambu's great contributions in physics but also many personal and private reminiscences, some never told before. This volume also contains the very last scientific writing by Professor Nambu himself, discussing the development of particle physics. This book is a volume for all who benefited not on...

  20. Constitutive modeling of polycarbonate over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Zhou, Huamin; Huang, Zhigao; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Xiaoxuan

    2017-02-01

    The mechanical behavior of polycarbonate was experimentally investigated over a wide range of strain rates (10^{-4} to 5× 103 s^{-1}) and temperatures (293 to 353 K). Compression tests under these conditions were performed using a SHIMADZU universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar. Falling weight impact testing was carried out on an Instron Dynatup 9200 drop tower system. The rate- and temperature-dependent deformation behavior of polycarbonate was discussed in detail. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests were utilized to observe the glass (α ) transition and the secondary (β ) transition of polycarbonate. The DMA results indicate that the α and β transitions have a dramatic influence on the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The decompose/shift/reconstruct (DSR) method was utilized to decompose the storage modulus into the α and β components and extrapolate the entire modulus, the α-component modulus and the β-component modulus. Based on three previous models, namely, Mulliken-Boyce, G'Sell-Jonas and DSGZ, an adiabatic model is proposed to predict the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The model considers the contributions of both the α and β transitions to the mechanical behavior, and it has been implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit through a user material subroutine VUMAT. The model predictions are proven to essentially coincide with the experimental results during compression testing and falling weight impact testing.

  1. A royal visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway made a trip to CERN on Tuesday 4 April, taking a tour of part of the LHC and greeting the Norwegian students and scientists at the Laboratory. Norway's King Harald V and Queen Sonja take a tour of the ATLAS detector with CERN Director-General Robert Aymar.King Harald V and Queen Sonja are greeted warmly by members of the Norwegian community at the CERN Globe. CERN Director-General Robert Aymar welcomed the royal party, which included the Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Jonas Gahr Støre, and provided an overview of CERN's history and current and future research. ATLAS deputy spokesperson Steinar Stapnes then quickly explained the concept and inner workings of the LHC, some LHC physics goals and ATLAS, which is one of the main experiments receiving Norwegian contributions. 'I don't think I've ever had so many distinguished students before,' Stapnes said jokingly to the crowd.The royal delegation was then escorted underground for a look at the LHC tunnel and the...

  2. Phases of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessner, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction within the Standard Model of elementary particles. Today's research in this area dedicates substantial resources to numeric solutions of the QCD field equations and experimental programs exploring the phases of QCD. This thesis proceeds along a complementary line - that of modelling QCD, with the aim of identifying its dominant degrees of freedom. This is possible by minimally coupling effective potentials for the Polyakov loop to Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models using temporal background fields to model chiral symmetry breaking respecting colour confinement. The fermion sign problem resulting from the minimal coupling is addressed in this work establishing a novel, systematically ordered approach. The modifications to the approximative order parameter of colour confinement, the Polyakov loop, are in direct connection with the fermion sign problem. Furthermore an effective coupling of quark densities of different flavours is induced. This mechanism, most likely also present in QCD, produces finite contributions to flavour off diagonal susceptibilities. Susceptibilities are amongst the most promising physical quantities for the experimental exploration of the phase transition at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)

  3. Microstructural modelling and lubrication study during zirconium alloy hot extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudout, B.

    2009-01-01

    Using torsion tests (with strain rate jumps) and an experimental hot mini-extrusion apparatus, several samples zirconium alloy have been deformed: Zircaloy-4 (high α range) and Zr-1Nb (α + β domain). The fragmentation of the microstructure and post-dynamic grain growth have been examined. The main difference between these two alloys is that Zr-1Nb does not show grain growth during a heat treatment within the α + β domain after hot deformation. The recrystallization volume fraction has been measured on extruded samples with or without heat treatment. These rheological and microstructural data have been used to determine the parameters of a microstructural model including: a work-hardening model (Laaasraoui/Jonas), a continuous dynamic recrystallization model (Gourdet/Montheillet) and a grain growth model. This model leads to a good prediction of recrystallization volume fraction for Zircaloy-4 extrusion. However, the Zr-1Nb model cannot be validated because of the difficulty to observe deformed microstructures. Extrusion process is lubricated with a solid film. Trapping tests show that this lubricant is thermoviscoplastic. Friction along the container and several observations show the lubrication is not realized by a continuous film. Indeed, the heterogeneousness of deformation of these alloys causes a rupture of the lubricant film. Experiments and numerical simulations show that the radial gradient of axial displacement is affected by friction but also by stress softening of the alloys. (author)

  4. Interacting fermions in rotation: chiral symmetry restoration, moment of inertia and thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernodub, M.N.; Gongyo, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    We study rotating fermionic matter at finite temperature in the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In order to respect causality the rigidly rotating system must be bound by a cylindrical boundary with appropriate boundary conditions that confine the fermions inside the cylinder. We show the finite geometry with the MIT boundary conditions affects strongly the phase structure of the model leading to three distinct regions characterized by explicitly broken (gapped), partially restored (nearly gapless) and spontaneously broken (gapped) phases at, respectively, small, moderate and large radius of the cylinder. The presence of the boundary leads to specific steplike irregularities of the chiral condensate as functions of coupling constant, temperature and angular frequency. These steplike features have the same nature as the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations with the crucial difference that they occur in the absence of both external magnetic field and Fermi surface. At finite temperature the rotation leads to restoration of spontaneously broken chiral symmetry while the vacuum at zero temperature is insensitive to rotation (“cold vacuum cannot rotate”). As the temperature increases the critical angular frequency decreases and the transition becomes softer. A phase diagram in angular frequency-temperature plane is presented. We also show that at fixed temperature the fermion matter in the chirally restored (gapless) phase has a higher moment of inertia compared to the one in the chirally broken (gapped) phase.

  5. Strong U{sub A}(1) breaking in radiative {eta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizawa, M.; Nemoto, Y.; Oka, M.

    1996-08-01

    We study the {eta} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}, {eta} {yields} {gamma}{mu}{sup -}{mu}{sup +} and {eta} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} decays using an extended three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that includes the `t Hooft instanton induced interaction. We find that the {eta}-meson mass, the {eta} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}, {eta} {yields} {gamma}{mu}{sup -}{mu}{sup +} and {eta} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} decay widths are in good agreement with the experimental values when the U{sub A}(1) breaking is strong and the flavor SU(3) singlet-octet mixing angle {theta} is about zero. The calculated {eta}{gamma}{gamma}{sup *} transition form factor has somewhat weaker dependence on the squared four-momentum of the virtual photon. The effects of the U{sub A}(1) anomaly on the scalar quark contents in the nucleon, the {Sigma}{sub {pi}N} and {Sigma}{sub KN} terms and the baryon number one and two systems are also studied. (author)

  6. [Brain death and organ transplantation: ethical dilemmas for nursing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windels-Buhr, D

    1997-06-01

    According to the WHO Program, nurses should be active in public health care as equal members of a multiprofessional team. This position requires competent professional action, which also implies moral competence, especially necessitated by the coming paradigmatic changes caused by shifts in the previous and current boundaries of the paradigm human being. One reason for this shift are the greater medical technical possibilities. The medical definition of brain death as the death of a human being per se is one example of the altered boundary and its consequences. Must future components of the nursing metaparadigm be changed because of this? To what extent is nursing ethically obligated to integrate changes in social values into its metaparadigm, ethics and objectives? The nursing metaparadigm, Henderson's definition of nursing, the ICN's Basic Code of Ethics, and the nursing model according to Roper, Logan & Tierney were used as the basis in the analysis of the subject matter and problems. Furthermore, philosophical viewpoints of Jonas & Harris will be included to clarify the deontological and teleological aspects of standard ethics. Finally, conclusions are drawn about the intra- and interprofessional ethical discourse about brain death and organ transplantation among nursing professionals.

  7. For information: Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Ecole de physiqueDépartement de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4TéL: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Lundi 16 janvier COLLOQUE DE LA SECTION DE PHYSIQUE 17h00 - Auditoire Stückelberg Recent progress in understanding irreversible processes Professeur G. Jona-Lasino / Institute: Université de Rome 'La Sapienza' For over seventy years our understanding of irreversible processes has been based on Onsager's 1931 papers which have provided the tools to analyse experiments in physics and physical chemistry. Onsager's approach however is valid only near equilibrium. In particular it does not require the definition of non equilibrium thermodynamic functionals. Recently progress has been achieved via an extension of Einstein's theory of thermodynamic fluctuations to non equilibrium dynamical situations without the restriction of being close to equilibrium. We shall illustrate some of the basic ideas and results. Information: http://theory.physics.unige.ch/~...

  8. Top and Higgs masses in a composite boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahana, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Recently Nambu as well as Bardeen, Hill and Linden have suggested replacing the Higgs mechanism with a dynamical symmetry breaking generated by four fermion interactions of the top quark. In fact the model for replacing the scalar sector is that of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio (NJL) and one recovers the Higgs as a tt composite. Earlier authors have also treated vector mesons as composites within the NJL framework, with perhaps the earliest suggestion being that of Bjorken for a composite photon. Here we attempt to generate the entire electroweak interaction from a specific current-current, baryon number conserving form of the four fermion interaction. The W, Z and Higgs boson appear as coherent composites of all fermions, quarks and lepton, and not just of the top quark. The four fermion interaction is assumed to be valid at some high mass scale μ, perhaps the low energy limit resulting by the elimination of non-fermionic degrees of freedom from a more basic theory. The cutoff Λ, necessary in the non-renormalizable NJL may be viewed then as the proper scale for this more basic theory

  9. Anatomy of the magnetic catalysis by renormalization-group method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Hattori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We first examine the scaling argument for a renormalization-group (RG analysis applied to a system subject to the dimensional reduction in strong magnetic fields, and discuss the fact that a four-Fermi operator of the low-energy excitations is marginal irrespective of the strength of the coupling constant in underlying theories. We then construct a scale-dependent effective four-Fermi interaction as a result of screened photon exchanges at weak coupling, and establish the RG method appropriately including the screening effect, in which the RG evolution from ultraviolet to infrared scales is separated into two stages by the screening-mass scale. Based on a precise agreement between the dynamical mass gaps obtained from the solutions of the RG and Schwinger–Dyson equations, we discuss an equivalence between these two approaches. Focusing on QED and Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model, we clarify how the properties of the interactions manifest themselves in the mass gap, and point out an importance of respecting the intrinsic energy-scale dependences in underlying theories for the determination of the mass gap. These studies are expected to be useful for a diagnosis of the magnetic catalysis in QCD.

  10. Analysis of Volunteer Soldiers‘ Attitudes to Service in the Lithuanian Military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vileikienė Eglė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of volunteer soldiers as a link between the Lithuanian military and society, their attitudes towards military service and their motivation to serve in the Lithuanian army. The authors looked at soldiers’ dedication to defend their Homeland and motives for serving in the Lithuanian army, presenting an assessment of the situation in the ranks and their overall satisfaction with military service. Volunteer soldiers’ expectations are also discussed, as well as their motives to remain in service, plus there are also recommendations for attracting new soldier recruits. The article concludes with the statement that Lithuanian volunteer soldiers are an important unifying link between the Lithuanian army and society, and can significantly contribute to the formation of the image of the soldier’s profession in society. Besides the social status that comes with military service and the satisfaction of financial needs, volunteer soldiers are exclusively characterised by strong patriotic feelings which determine their motivation to serve and defend their Homeland. The article’s findings rest on data from the complex sociological research study “Motivation to serve in the Ministry of Defence Volunteer Forces of the Lithuanian Military” which was conducted in April–November, 2014 by the Strategic Research Centre at the Institute of Military Science of the General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania.

  11. Short-range correlations in quark and nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froemel, Frank

    2007-06-15

    In the first part of this thesis, the role of short-range correlations in quark matter is explored within the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Starting from a next-to-leading order expansion in the inverse number of the quark colors, a fully self-consistent model constructed that employs the close relations between spectral functions and self-energies. In contrast to the usual quasiparticle approximations, this approach allows the investigation of the collisional broadening of the quark spectral function. Numerical calculations at various chemical potentials and zero temperature show that the short-range correlations do not only induce a finite width of the spectral function but also have some influence on the structure of the chiral phase transition. In the second part of this thesis, the temperature and density dependence of the nucleon spectral function in symmetric nuclear matter is investigated. The short-range correlations can be well described by a simple, self-consistent model on the one-particle-two-hole and two-particle-one-hole level (1p2h, 2p1h). The thermodynamically consistent description of the mean-field properties of the nucleons is ensured by incorporating a Skyrme-type potential. Calculations at temperatures and densities that can also be found in heavy-ion collisions or supernova explosions and the formation of neutron stars show that the correlations saturate at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)

  12. Guided bone augmentation using ceramic space-maintaining devices: the impact of chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderud J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jonas Anderud,1,2 Peter Abrahamsson,2 Ryo Jimbo,1 Sten Isaksson,2 Erik Adolfsson,3 Johan Malmström,2 Yoshihito Naito,4 Ann Wennerberg1 1Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden; 2Maxillofacial Unit Halmstad, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden; 3Swedish Ceramic Institute, IVF, Mölndal, Sweden; 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, Institute of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan Abstract: The purpose of the study was to evaluate histologically, whether vertical bone augmentation can be achieved using a hollow ceramic space maintaining device in a rabbit calvaria model. Furthermore, the chemistry of microporous hydroxyapatite and zirconia were tested to determine which of these two ceramics are most suitable for guided bone generation. 24 hollow domes in two different ceramic materials were placed subperiosteal on rabbit skull bone. The rabbits were sacrificed after 12 weeks and the histology results were analyzed regarding bone-to-material contact and volume of newly formed bone. The results suggest that the effect of the microporous structure of hydroxyapatite seems to facilitate for the bone cells to adhere to the material and that zirconia enhance a slightly larger volume of newly formed bone. In conclusion, the results of the current study demonstrated that ceramic space maintaining devices permits new bone formation and osteoconduction within the dome. Keywords: hydroxyapatite, zirconia, guided bone regeneration, GBR, histology, membrane

  13. The nucleon as soliton in an effective chiral theory with polarized Dirac sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, T.

    1991-07-01

    We consider the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for SU(2) flavor with N F = 3 color degrees of freedom and a current mass m o =m u =m d , which interact via scalar-isoscalar and pseudoscalar-isovectorial 4-point coupling of the strength G. We show that it is for the soft-poin limit essentially equivalent to treat the 4-quark theory in the HFA+BSE and the bozonized theory with classical meson fields, if the collective field π with the physical pion. By the requirement that in the vacuum the experimental values for the pion mass m π =139 MeV and the weak pion decay constant f π =93 MeV are reproduced finally only one free parameter remains, which is in our case the constituent quark mass M. All other parameters and vacuum quantities can be calculated as function of M. We do this for the UV cut-off parameter Λ, the 4-quark coupling strength G, the quark current mass m O as well as the vacuum condensate (anti qq)v. Thereby especially the influence of the regularization scheme on m O and (anti q)v is studied. For the construction of states with good spin and isospin quantum numbers we apply the semiclassical cranking procedure. Finally we compare the NJL with the chiral sigma model of Gell-Mann and Levi, which is connected with the NJL by the gradient respectively heat-kernel expansion. (orig./HSI) [de

  14. Interacting fermions in rotation: chiral symmetry restoration, moment of inertia and thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernodub, M.N. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Université de Tours,Tours (France); Laboratory of Physics of Living Matter, Far Eastern Federal University,Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Gongyo, Shinya [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Université de Tours,Tours (France); Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN,Saitama (Japan)

    2017-01-30

    We study rotating fermionic matter at finite temperature in the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In order to respect causality the rigidly rotating system must be bound by a cylindrical boundary with appropriate boundary conditions that confine the fermions inside the cylinder. We show the finite geometry with the MIT boundary conditions affects strongly the phase structure of the model leading to three distinct regions characterized by explicitly broken (gapped), partially restored (nearly gapless) and spontaneously broken (gapped) phases at, respectively, small, moderate and large radius of the cylinder. The presence of the boundary leads to specific steplike irregularities of the chiral condensate as functions of coupling constant, temperature and angular frequency. These steplike features have the same nature as the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations with the crucial difference that they occur in the absence of both external magnetic field and Fermi surface. At finite temperature the rotation leads to restoration of spontaneously broken chiral symmetry while the vacuum at zero temperature is insensitive to rotation (“cold vacuum cannot rotate”). As the temperature increases the critical angular frequency decreases and the transition becomes softer. A phase diagram in angular frequency-temperature plane is presented. We also show that at fixed temperature the fermion matter in the chirally restored (gapless) phase has a higher moment of inertia compared to the one in the chirally broken (gapped) phase.

  15. Development of a Model for Dynamic Recrystallization Consistent with the Second Derivative Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic recrystallization (DRX processes are widely used in industrial hot working operations, not only to keep the forming forces low but also to control the microstructure and final properties of the workpiece. According to the second derivative criterion (SDC by Poliak and Jonas, the onset of DRX can be detected from an inflection point in the strain-hardening rate as a function of flow stress. Various models are available that can predict the evolution of flow stress from incipient plastic flow up to steady-state deformation in the presence of DRX. Some of these models have been implemented into finite element codes and are widely used for the design of metal forming processes, but their consistency with the SDC has not been investigated. This work identifies three sources of inconsistencies that models for DRX may exhibit. For a consistent modeling of the DRX kinetics, a new strain-hardening model for the hardening stages III to IV is proposed and combined with consistent recrystallization kinetics. The model is devised in the Kocks-Mecking space based on characteristic transition in the strain-hardening rate. A linear variation of the transition and inflection points is observed for alloy 800H at all tested temperatures and strain rates. The comparison of experimental and model results shows that the model is able to follow the course of the strain-hardening rate very precisely, such that highly accurate flow stress predictions are obtained.

  16. What you don't know about vaccines can hurt you.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    As physicians, we've all learned in detail about the science behind vaccinations, but I suspect few of us have been taught about the history of vaccinations. Sure, we all know that Dr. Jonas Salk developed the poliovirus vaccine, but I wasn't aware that he inoculated himself, his wife, and his three children with his then experimental vaccine. When our editorial committee decided to focus on vaccinations as our theme for this month's Greene County Medical Society's Journal, I perused the internet for interesting topics. I came across a fascinating website, historyofvaccines.org; this website is a project of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, touted as being the oldest professional medical organization in the United States. I credit the majority of the information in this article to the above website and the rest to the National Institutes of Health (nih.gov) website; I trust that the information is valid and true, based on the agencies behind these websites. Below are some interesting tidbits about vaccine preventable diseases that I found noteworthy to pass on to our readers.

  17. Pre-critical phenomena of two-flavor color superconductivity in heated quark matter. Diquark-pair fluctuations and non-Fermi liquid behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Kunihiro, Teiji; Koide, Tomoi; Nemoto, Yukio

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the fluctuations of the diquark-pair field and their effects on observables above the critical temperature T c in two-flavor color superconductivity (CSC) at moderate density using a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type effective model of QCD. Because of the strong-coupling nature of the dynamics, the fluctuations of the pair field develop a collective mode, which has a prominent strength even well above T c . We show that the collective mode is actually the soft mode of CSC. We examine the effects of the pair fluctuations on the specific heat and the quark spectrum for T above but close to T c . We find that the specific heat exhibits singular behavior because of the pair fluctuations, in accordance with the general theory of second-order phase transitions. The quarks display a typical non-Fermi liquid behavior, owing to the coupling with the soft mode, leading to a pseudo-gap in the density of states of the quarks in the vicinity of the critical point. Some experimental implications of the precursory phenomena are also discussed. (author)

  18. Quark Deconfinement in Rotating Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Mellinger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use a three flavor non-local Nambu–Jona-Lasinio (NJL model, an improved effective model of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD at low energies, to investigate the existence of deconfined quarks in the cores of neutron stars. Particular emphasis is put on the possible existence of quark matter in the cores of rotating neutron stars (pulsars. In contrast to non-rotating neutron stars, whose particle compositions do not change with time (are frozen in, the type and structure of the matter in the cores of rotating neutron stars depends on the spin frequencies of these stars, which opens up a possible new window on the nature of matter deep in the cores of neutron stars. Our study shows that, depending on mass and rotational frequency, up to around 8% of the mass of a massive neutron star may be in the mixed quark-hadron phase, if the phase transition is treated as a Gibbs transition. We also find that the gravitational mass at which quark deconfinement occurs in rotating neutron stars varies quadratically with spin frequency, which can be fitted by a simple formula.

  19. Color superconductivity in compact stellar hybrid configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranea-Sandoval, Ignacio F.; Orsaria, Milva G.; Han, Sophia; Weber, Fridolin; Spinella, William M.

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of pulsars PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348+0432 with masses of around 2 M⊙ imposes strong constraints on the equations of state of cold, ultradense matter. If a phase transition from hadronic matter to quark matter were to occur in the inner cores of such massive neutron stars, the energetically favorable state of quark matter would be a color superconductor. In this study, we analyze the stability and maximum mass of such neutron stars. The hadronic phase is described by nonlinear relativistic mean-field models, and the local Nambu-Jona Lasinio model is used to describe quark matter in the 2SC+s quark phase. The phase transition is treated as a Maxwell transition, assuming a sharp hadron-quark interface, and the "constant-sound-speed" (CSS) parametrization is employed to discuss the existence of stellar twin configurations. We find that massive neutron stars such as J1614-2230 and J0348+0432 can only exist on the connected stellar branch but not on the disconnected twin-star branch. The latter can only support stars with masses that are strictly below 2 M⊙ .

  20. Predicting Solar Activity Using Machine-Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobra, M.

    2017-12-01

    Of all the activity observed on the Sun, two of the most energetic events are flares and coronal mass ejections. However, we do not, as of yet, fully understand the physical mechanism that triggers solar eruptions. A machine-learning algorithm, which is favorable in cases where the amount of data is large, is one way to [1] empirically determine the signatures of this mechanism in solar image data and [2] use them to predict solar activity. In this talk, we discuss the application of various machine learning algorithms - specifically, a Support Vector Machine, a sparse linear regression (Lasso), and Convolutional Neural Network - to image data from the photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona taken by instruments aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory in order to predict solar activity on a variety of time scales. Such an approach may be useful since, at the present time, there are no physical models of flares available for real-time prediction. We discuss our results (Bobra and Couvidat, 2015; Bobra and Ilonidis, 2016; Jonas et al., 2017) as well as other attempts to predict flares using machine-learning (e.g. Ahmed et al., 2013; Nishizuka et al. 2017) and compare these results with the more traditional techniques used by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (Crown, 2012). We also discuss some of the challenges in using machine-learning algorithms for space science applications.

  1. Soft deconfinement — critical phenomena at the Mott transition in a field theory for quarks and mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüfner, J.; Klevansky, S. P.; Rehberg, P.

    1996-02-01

    Critical phenomena associated with Mott transitions are investigated in the finite temperature SUf(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, that describes quarks u, d, s and bound mesons π, K. Critical exponents for the behavior close to the Mott temperature TM are determined for the static properties of a pion, such as mπ( T), gπqq( T), fπ( T), π, and the pion polarizabilities αC, N, as well as for the behavior of mK( T), gKqs( T) fK( T) in the strange sector. The effect of the Mott transitions on the q overlineq and ππ scattering lengths and for hadronization cross sections σ q overlineq→ππ (T) is discussed. Divergencies that occur in these quantities at TM indicate an intransparence with respect to hadronic and photonic probes, much like the phenomenon of critical opalescence. Physically, the Mott transition models the deconfinement transition expected of QCD since it corresponds to a delocalizayion of the bound states when the temperature is raised above TM.

  2. Dual use and the ethical responsibility of scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehni, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The main normative problem in the context of dual use is to determine the ethical responsibility of scientists especially in the case of unintended, harmful, and criminal dual use of new technological applications of scientific results. This article starts from an analysis of the concepts of responsibility and complicity, examining alternative options regarding the responsibility of scientists. Within the context of the basic conflict between the freedom of science and the duty to avoid causing harm, two positions are discussed: moral skepticism and the ethics of responsibility by Hans Jonas. According to these reflections, four duties are suggested and evaluated: stopping research, systematically carrying out research for dual-use applications, informing public authorities, and not publishing results. In the conclusion it is argued that these duties should be considered as imperfect duties in a Kantian sense and that the individual scientist should be discharged as much as possible from obligations which follow from them by the scientific community and institutions created for this purpose.

  3. The nucleon as a projected chiral soliton: vacuum and medium properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiolhais, M.; Alberto, P.; Ruiz Arriola, E.; Christov, C.V.; Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia

    1990-01-01

    Nucleon properties and nucleon form factors are computed within the framework of the projected linear chiral soliton model. To this end the Gell-Mann - Levy lagrangian is solved by means of variational methods which include angular momentum and isospin projection with trial quark-boson Fock states in generalized hedgehog configurations. The consistency of the treatment is checked by the fulfillment of virial theorems such as Goldberger-Treiman relation. In general the q 2 dependence of the nucleon form factors are well described although some of their values at zero momentum transfer come out too large, namely for the axial- and πN N- form factors. Electromagnetic form factors for the N - Δ transition are also calculated and compared with the available experimental data. Medium effects on the nucleon properties are investigated combining the projected chiral soliton model with the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The latter is employed to compute the pion decay constant and the pion and sigma masses at finite medium density. These meson properties fix the parameters in the linear sigma model, which is then solved using the same variational methods as for the zero density. The nucleon mass shows a decrease of 17% and the proton radius an increase of 19% if the medium reaches nuclear matter density. The magnetic moments and g A are less affected by the medium. The nucleon electromagnetic form factors show remarkable changes at finite transfer numbers as well. (author)

  4. Effects of pair correlation functions on intermolecular nuclear relaxation by translational and rotational diffusion in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, P.

    1978-01-01

    In order to study the intermolecular relaxation due to magnetic dipolar interactions, we calculate the spectral densities resulting from random translational and rotational motions of spherical molecules carrying off-centre spins. The relative translational motion is treated in the frame-work of a general diffusion equation (the Smoluchowski equation) which takes into account the existence of effective forces between the molecules. This model implies a pair correlation function. i.e. a non unifom relative distribution of the molecules. The analytical calculations are carried out by taking correctly into account the hard sphere boundary conditions for the molecules. Explicit numerical calculations of the spectral densities are performed using finite difference methods and the pair correlation function of Verlet and Weiss obtained by computer experiments. The resulting calculations allow one to interpret the relaxation exhibited by benzene and some of its monohalogen derivatives which has been measured by Jonas et al. at various pressures. The effects of pair correlation and eccentricity contribute to a noticeable enhancement of the spectral densities, especially as the frequency increases. The translational correlation times calculated from the Stokes formula and those deduced from intermolecular relaxation studies are compared. It is shown that in order to distinguish which of the dynamical models is appropriate, measurements must be made as a function of frequency [fr

  5. Phase structure of NJL model with weak renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ken-Ichi; Kumamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2018-06-01

    We analyze the chiral phase structure of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model at finite temperature and density by using the functional renormalization group (FRG). The renormalization group (RG) equation for the fermionic effective potential V (σ ; t) is given as a partial differential equation, where σ : = ψ bar ψ and t is a dimensionless RG scale. When the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DχSB) occurs at a certain scale tc, V (σ ; t) has singularities originated from the phase transitions, and then one cannot follow RG flows after tc. In this study, we introduce the weak solution method to the RG equation in order to follow the RG flows after the DχSB and to evaluate the dynamical mass and the chiral condensate in low energy scales. It is shown that the weak solution of the RG equation correctly captures vacuum structures and critical phenomena within the pure fermionic system. We show the chiral phase diagram on temperature, chemical potential and the four-Fermi coupling constant.

  6. Chiral symmetry and quark-antiquark pair creation in a strong color-electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suganuma, Hideo; Tatsumi, Toshitaka.

    1993-01-01

    We study the manifestation of chiral symmetry and q-q-bar pair creation in the presence of the external color-electromagnetic field, using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We derive the compact formulae of the effective potential, the Dyson equation for the dynamical quark mass and the q-q-bar pair creation rate in the covariantly constant color-electromagnetic field. Our results are compared with those in other approaches. The chiral-symmetry restoration takes place by a strong color-electric field, and the rapid reduction of the dynamical quark mass is found around the critical field strength, ε cr ≅4GeV/fm. Natural extension to the three-flavor case including s-quarks is also done. Around quarks or antiquarks, chiral symmetry would be restored by the sufficiently strong color-electric field, which may lead to the chiral bag picture of hadrons. For the early stage for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, the possibility of the chiral-symmetry restoration is indicated in the central region just after the collisions. (author)

  7. Comparison of publically available Moho depth and crustal thickness grids with newly derived grids by 3D gravity inversion for the High Arctic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Gaina, Carmen; Minakov, Alexander; Kashubin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    deep Arctic Ocean: results of a 3D gravity modeling Russian Geology and Geophysics 54, 247-262. Jakobsson M, Mayer L, Coakley B, Dowdeswell JA, Forbes S, Fridman B, Hodnesdal H, Noormets R, Pedersen R, Rebesco M, Schenke HW, Zarayskaya Y, Accettella D, Armstrong A, Anderson RM, Bienhoff P, Camerlenghi A, Church I, Edwards M, Gardner JV, Hall JK, Hell B, Hestvik O, Krist-offersen Y, Marcussen C, Mohammad R, Mosher D, Nghiem SV, Pedrosa MT, Travaglini PG, Weatherall P (2012). The international bathymetric chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) version 3.0. Geophys Res Lett 39, L12609. Laske, G., Masters., G., Ma, Z. and Pasyanos, M. (2013). Update on CRUST1.0 - A 1-degree Global Model of Earth's Crust, Geophys. Res. Abstracts, 15, Abstract EGU2013-2658, 2013. Minakov A, Faleide JI, Glebovsky VY, Mjelde R (2012) Structure and evolution of the northern Barents-Kara Sea continental margin from integrated analysis of potential fields, bathymetry and sparse seismic data. Geophys J Int 188, 79-102. Petrov O., Smelror M., Shokalsky S., Morozov A., Kashubin S., Grikurov G., Sobolev N., Petrov E., (2013). A new international tectonic map of the Arctic (TeMAr) at 1:5 M scale and geodynamic evolution in the Arctic region. EGU2013-13481. Reguzzoni, M., & Sampietro, D. (2014). GEMMA: An Earth crustal model based on GOCE satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation Spasojevic S. & Gurnis M., (2012). Sea level and vertical motion of continents from dynamic earth models since the late Cretaceous. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 96, pp. 2037-2064.

  8. Access to diagnosis, treatment, and supportive services among pharmacotherapy-treated children/adolescents with ADHD in Europe: data from the Caregiver Perspective on Pediatric ADHD survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridman M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Moshe Fridman,1 Tobias Banaschewski,2 Vanja Sikirica,3 Javier Quintero,4 Kristina S Chen5 1AMF Consulting, Inc., Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany; 3Global Health Economics Outcomes Research and Epidemiology, Shire, Wayne, PA, USA; 4Psychiatry Department, Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain; 5Global Health Economics Outcomes Research and Epidemiology, Shire, Lexington, MA, USA Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and negatively impacts caregivers’ lives. Factors including barriers to accessing care, dissatisfaction with support services, and lack of caregiver resources may contribute to this.Objectives: To report caregivers’ experiences of ADHD diagnosis, behavioral therapy (BT, and supportive care for children/adolescents with ADHD.Methods: The Caregiver Perspective on Pediatric ADHD (CAPPA survey included caregivers of children/adolescents (6–17 years from ten European countries who were currently receiving/had received ADHD pharmacotherapy in the previous 6 months. Caregivers reported experiences of obtaining an ADHD diagnosis, access to BT, availability of caregiver resources, and level of health care/school support. Pan-EU and country-specific descriptive statistics are reported; responses were compared across countries.Results: Of 3,616 caregivers, 66% were female. Mean age of children/adolescents was 11.5 years; 80% were male. Mean time from the first doctor visit to diagnosis was 10.8 (95% confidence interval 10.2, 11.3 months; 31% of caregivers reported the greatest degrees of difficulty in obtaining an ADHD diagnosis; 44% of children/adolescents did not receive BT. Forty-seven percent of caregivers reported that sufficient resources were available

  9. Dočasná symetrie zdravých a protetických končetin během chůze osoby s transtibiální amputací s různým protetickým zařazením Temporal symmetry of sound and prosthetic limbs during transtibial amputee gait with various prosthetic alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Janura

    2007-01-01

    é protézy. Vliv protetické nohy na proměnné chůze ve skupině těchto probandů zkoumal Gitter et al. (1991. Efektivnost chůze je také významně ovlivněna nastavením protézy nebo protetické nohy. Rehabilitaci osoby s amputací lze považovat za úspěšnou pouze tehdy, pokud tato osoba považuje protézu během chůze za estetickou a pohodlnou. Nastavení protézy musí vyhovovat potřebám postiženého (Fridman, Ona, & Isakov, 2003. Když protetická noha není optimálně vyladěna, může se tento fakt projevit v různých cyklech chůze. Během analýzy chůze je protéza úmyslně "neoptimálně" nastavena, aby se vyvolaly skryté následky. Fridman, Ona a Isakov (2003 pozorovali vliv protetické nohy umístěné ve vnější rotaci. Schmalz, Blumentritt a Jarasch (2002 použili sagitální posun nohy vpřed a vzad a nastavení nohy do plantární a dorzální flexe. Blumentritt et al. (1999 se zaměřil na účinky nastavení protézy v sagitální rovině na velikost zatížení kolenního kloubu u stojící osoby s transtibiální amputací. Nastavení protézy u osob s amputací dolní končetiny má pomoci zvýšit pohodlí zdravé nohy a maximalizovat možnosti chůze těchto osob. V rámci biomechanické analýzy chůze je důležité prošetřit nejen vztah mezi nastavením protetické nohy a protetické končetiny, ale také vztah mezi tímto nastavením a aktivitou druhé, zdravé končetiny (Pinzur et al., 1995. V jiných studiích se objevuje důraz na zdravou končetinu (Nolan & Lees, 2000; Hurley et al., 1990, ale v nich není řešena otázka různých nastavení protéz. Tento vztah mezi zdravou a protetickou končetinou může být kvantitativní, měřený dle symetrie nebo asymetrie měřených proměnných. The term "gait" refers to fundamental locomotion by means of which the individual moves him/herself from one place to another. For people afflicted by some involvement of the lower limbs, this activity is partially or completely

  10. Factors associated with caregiver burden among pharmacotherapy-treated children/adolescents with ADHD in the Caregiver Perspective on Pediatric ADHD survey in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridman M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Moshe Fridman,1 Tobias Banaschewski,2 Vanja Sikirica,3 Javier Quintero,4 M Haim Erder,3 Kristina S Chen5 1AMF Consulting, Inc., Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany; 3Global Health Economics Outcomes Research and Epidemiology, Shire, Wayne, PA, USA; 4Psychiatry Department, Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain; 5Global Health Economics Outcomes Research and Epidemiology, Shire, Lexington, MA, USA Background: Burden on caregivers of children/adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is multidimensional, but incompletely understood. Objective: To analyze caregiver burden across the concepts of work, social/family life, and parental worry/stress, in relation to selected contributing factors. Methods: The online Caregiver Perspective on Pediatric ADHD survey was fielded in ten European countries. Analysis included children/adolescents (6–17 years who were receiving/had received ADHD pharmacotherapy in the previous 6 months. Caregivers recorded their child’s/adolescent’s symptoms “on”/“off” medication (ie, when the caregiver reported that the child/adolescent forgot/chose not to take medication, before the onset of medication effect, or medication worn off. Effects of ADHD severity, comorbidities, and medication adherence on each burden outcome were assessed (multiple regression models. Results: In total, 2,326 caregivers were included (children/adolescents’ mean age: 11.5 years, 80% male. Caregivers reported missed/altered work, avoiding social activity, increased parental worry/stress, and strain on family life, despite using ADHD pharmacotherapy. Child/adolescent comorbidities and ADHD severity were significantly related to all burden concepts measured; the strongest comorbidity associations were with altered

  11. Special issue: diagnostics of atmospheric pressure microplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2013-11-01

    applications. Diagnostics are pivotal to both the development of models and the optimization and exploration of novel applications. Consequently, this special issue is focused on the various aspects and challenges for diagnostics in microplasmas. In addition, previous special issues on the topic of microplasmas have already covered many aspects of source development, applications and modelling [28-31]. The reader who wishes to access additional background information on microplasmas is referred to the following review papers [32-35]. We would like to thank all the contributors and the editorial staff who were of tremendous support in the preparation of this special issue. It is our sincere hope that you enjoy reading this special issue and that it will be a reference and helpful guidance for young researchers embarking in the field of microplasmas. The continued effort to increase our understanding of plasmas by modelling and diagnostics is of key importance for plasma science and the development of novel technologies. References [1] Eden J G, Park S-J, Herring C M and Bulson J M 2011 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44 224011 [2] Lucas N, Ermel V, Kurrat M and Buttgenbach S 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 215202 [3] Karnassios V 2004 Spectrochim. Acta B 59 909-28 [4] Mariotti D and Sankaran RM 2010 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 323001 [5] Sakai O and Tachibana K 2012 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 21 013001 [6] Starikovskaia S M 2006 Plasma assisted ignition and combustion J. Phys. D.: Appl. Phys. 39 R265-99 [7] Fridman G, Friedman G, Gutsol A, Shekhter A B, Vasilets V N and Fridman A 2008 Plasma Process. Polym. 5 503-33 [8] Eden G et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 41 661-75 [9] Siemens W 1857 Poggendorffs. Ann. Phys. Chem. 102 66-122 [10] Bruggeman P and Brandenburg R 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464001 [11] Montello A et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464002 [12] Schröder D et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464003 [13] Verreycken T et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46

  12. Tecnociência, democracia e os desafios éticos das biotecnologias no Brasil Technoscience, democracy, and ethical challenges of biotechnology in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Amaro da Silveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O crescente questionamento das idéias evolucionistas e das grandes narrativas que serviram de suporte, desde os clássicos, aos estudos nas áreas das ciências sociais tem desencadeado reações diversas no âmbito acadêmico. Se as tendências pós-modernas e as teses do fim da História se situam legitimamente neste espaço de possibilidades, não menos influentes são as propostas de releitura da realidade em que vivemos, a partir do projeto moderno e sua radicalização. É dentro deste último empreendimento que Anthony Giddens propõe a perspectiva de um novo pacto de segurança ontológica, que passa a ser construído em um mundo de sistemas abstratos que precisam ser reencaixados em dimensões globais. As discussões envolvendo as novas biotecnologias, em nível mundial e no Brasil, são reveladoras de características interessantes deste novo momento da humanidade. Os pontos de acesso desencadeados por pavores alimentares e preocupações ambientais fazem, neste sentido, mais do que diminuir a fidedignidade em relação ao conhecimento perito; provocam reordenamentos de implicações éticas, sociais e políticas bastante distintos da "heurística do medo", proposta pelo filósofo Hans Jonas. Como tais reordenamentos sinalizam para novas tendências no processo de gestão das tecnologias à luz da recente polêmica configurada em torno das novas biotecnologias no Brasil? É sobre esta questão que o presente texto pretende refletir.The increasing questioning of the evolutionist ideas and the great narratives, the classics that served as support to the studies in the field of social sciences, has led to many different reactions within the academic context. Even though the post-modern trends and theories of the end of history have a right to be in this set of possibilities, no less influential are the proposals for revising the reality in which we live from the point of view of the modern project and its radicalization. It is within

  13. Pyrrhopyginae: gêneros novos e revalidados (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae Pyrrhopyginae: new and revalidated genera (Lepidoptera, Hespe-riidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf H.H. Mielke

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The following new genera with their type-species are described: Oxynetrini: Cyclopyge gen. n. - type-species: Pyrrhopyge roscius Hopffer, 1874; Pyrrhopygini: Arnysoria gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] galgala Hewitson, 1866, Chalypyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] chalybea Scudder, 1872, Creonpyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] creon H. Druce, 1874, Cyanopyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyge sangaris Skinner, 1921, Gunayan gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] rhacia Hewitson, 1875, Jonaspyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] Jonas C. Felder & R. Felder, 1859, Melanopyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] maculosa Hewitson, 1866, Mimardaris gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] sela Hewitson, 1866, Mysarbia gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyge sejanus Hopffer, 1874, Ochropyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyge ruficauda Hayward, 1932. Apyrrothrix Lindsey, 1921 and Yanguna Watson, 1893 are revalidated. The following are revalidated combinations: Apyrrothrix araxes (Hewitson, 1867, Apyrrothrix arizonae (Godman & Salvin, 1893, Yanguna cometes cometes (Cramer, 1770, Yanguna cometes cometides Mabille & Boullet, 1908, Yanguna cometes staudingeri (Plštz, 1879, Yanguna cosyra (H. Druce, 1875, Yanguna spatlosa spatlosa (Hewitson, 1871, Yanguna spatlosa aspllos Mabille & Boullet, 1908, Yanguna spatlosa mabillei H.H. Druce, 1909, Yanguna tetricus Bell, 1931, Yanguna thelersa (Hewitson, 1866, The following are new combinations: Cyclopyge roscius roscius (Hopffer, 1874, Cyclopyge roscius flavomaculata (Bell, 1937, Cyclopyge roscius iphimedia (Plštz, 1886, Yanguna erebus (Plštz, 1879, Gunayan rhacia (Hewitson, 1875, Gunayan rubrlcollts (Sepp, [1841], Gunayan timaeus (Bell, 1931, Chalypyge chalybea chalybea (Scudder, 1872, Chalypyge chalybea chlorts (Evans, 1951, Chalypyge zereda zereda (Hewitson, 1866, Chalypyge zereda hygieia (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867, Chalypyge zereda insana (Staudinger, 1876, Chalypyge

  14. Sorafenib inhibits tumor growth and vascularization of rhabdomyosarcoma cells by blocking IGF-1R-mediated signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessen Maruwge

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Wessen Maruwge1, Pádraig D’Arcy1, Annika Folin1,2, Slavica Brnjic1, Johan Wejde1, Anthony Davis1, Fredrik Erlandsson3, Jonas Bergh1,2, Bertha Brodin11Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Bayer Pharmaceutical Corporation, SwedenAbstract: The growth of many soft tissue sarcomas is dependent on aberrant growth factor signaling, which promotes their proliferation and motility. With this in mind, we evaluated the effect of sorafenib, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on cell growth and apoptosis in sarcoma cell lines of various histological subtypes. We found that sorafenib effectively inhibited cell proliferation in rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma with IC50 values <5 µM. Sorafenib effectively induced growth arrest in rhabdomyosarcoma cells, which was concurrent with inhibition of Akt and Erk signaling. Studies of ligand-induced phosphorylation of Erk and Akt in rhabdomyosarcoma cells showed that insulin-like growth factor-1 is a potent activator, which can be blocked by treatment with sorafenib. In vivo sorafenib treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts had a significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth, which was associated with inhibited vascularization and enhanced necrosis in the adjacent tumor stroma. Our results demonstrate that in vitro and in vivo growth of rhabdomyosarcoma can be suppressed by treatment with sorafenib, and suggests the possibilities of using sorafenib as a potential adjuvant therapy for the treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma.Keywords: soft tissue sarcoma, kinase inhibitors, targeted therapy, vascularization

  15. Composite antisymmetric tensor bosons in a four-fermion interaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrasinovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenological consequences of the U A (1) symmetry-breaking two-flavour four-fermion antisymmetric (AS) Lorentz tensor interaction Lagrangians. We use the recently developed methods that respect the 'duality' symmetry of this interaction. Starting from the Fierz transform of the two-flavour 't Hooft interaction (a four-fermion Lagrangian with AS tensor interaction terms augmented by Nambu and Jona-Lasinio (NJL)-type Lorentz scalar interaction responsible for dynamical symmetry breaking and quark mass generation), we find the following. (a) Four antisymmetric tensor and four AS pseudotensor bosons exist which satisfy a mass relation previously derived for scalar and pseudoscalar mesons from the 't Hooft interaction. (b) Antisymmetric tensor bosons mix with vector bosons via one-fermion-loop effective couplings so that both kinds of bosons have their masses shifted and the fermions (quarks) acquire anomalous magnetic moment form factors that explicitly violate chiral symmetry. (c) The mixing of massive AS tensor fields with vector fields leads to two sets of spin-1 states. The second set of spin-1 mesons is heavy and has not been observed. Moreover, at least one member of this second set is tachyonic, under standard assumptions about the source and strength of the AS tensor interaction. The tachyonic state also shows up as a pole in the space-like region of the electromagnetic form factors. (d) The mixing of axial-vector fields with antisymmetric tensor bosons is proportional to the (small) isospin-breaking up-down quark mass difference, so the mixing-induced mass shift is negligible. (e) The AS tensor version of the Veneziano-Witten U A (1) symmetry-breaking interaction does not lead to tachyons, or any AS tensor field propagation to leading order in N C . (author)

  16. RELAÇÕES ENTRE ÉTICA ORGANIZACIONAL, INOVAÇÕES AMBIENTAIS E SUSTENTABILIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto Aloise

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o comportamento ético das organizações em relação a sustentabilidade e as inovações ambientais, através de uma revisão da literatura.  O estudo buscou identificar a convergência entre o conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável e as ideias de Kant, Georgescu-Roegen e Jonas, contextualizando as bases filosóficas do comportamento ético e o praticado pelas organizações. Em seguida apresentam-se as principais características das inovações sustentáveis e sua importância para a mitigação de riscos ambientais em prol da sustentabilidade. O artigo apresenta diversos fatores que impactam as decisões sobre inovações e sustentabilidade e o comportamento das organizações ao buscarem uma atitude ética compatível com esses paradigmas. Dentre os resultados encontrados estão: o estabelecimento de crenças e valores que objetivam melhorar a reputação das empresas; a compatibilidade e a coexistência entre ética e inovação (“inovação ética” e “inovação responsável”. A influência da cultura ética sobre a capacidade de inovar e as razões pelas quais muitos empresários resistem em desenvolver e adotar inovações ainda é um dos entraves que a lógica produtivista do capital impõe as práticas de gestão. Ao final se apresentam algumas limitações da pesquisa e sugestões para estudos futuros.

  17. [Towards a new vaccine economy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot, P; Martin, J F

    1994-01-01

    When Jonas Salk announced in the mid-50s the availability of a new vaccine against poliomyelitis, the world had the impression that it was now controlling infectious diseases. In fact, the success of this vaccine has been considerable and although some innovations lead to the launch of vaccines against flu, measles, rubella or mumps, the world vaccine market remained remarkably stable till the mid-80s. However, since 1984 (launch of the hepatitis B vaccine) there have been very substantial changes and further change is expected in the next ten years in the world market. Today, big companies are making a concentrated supply: Pasteur Mérieux with its subsidiary Connaught, SmithKline Beecham who acquired the Belgian company RIT, and Merck & Co. who is joining its forces with Pasteur Mérieux. Medium sized and small companies remain and reflect the situation of the past, but must work hard to secure their long term existence eventhough the world demand is going to double before the year 2000. Very substantial technological innovations explain to a large extent the development of the supply: progress in molecular biology, and particularly genetic engineering, lead to recombinant vaccines of which hepatitis B is the best example with worldwide sales in the range of $600 million a year. Similarly, conjugation technologies have allowed the development of new vaccines against meningitis, particularly Haemophilus influenzae type b. More recently, an efficacious vaccine against hepatitis A has been launched and many new products will be marketed in the next years against herpes, Lyme disease, and agents of other meningitis, etc.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Ethics Beyond Finitude: Responsibility towards Future Generations and Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefquist, Lars

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation has three aims: 1. To evaluate several ethical theories about responsibility towards future generations. 2. To construct a theory about responsibility towards future generations. 3. To carry out an ethical evaluation of different nuclear waste management methods. Five theories are evaluated with the help of evaluative criteria, primarily: A theory must provide future generations with some independent moral status. A theory should acknowledge moral pluralism. A theory should provide some normative claims about real-world problems. Derek Parfit's theory provides future generations with full moral status. But it is incompatible with moral pluralism, and does not provide reasonable normative claims about real-world problems. Brian Barry's theory provides such claims and a useful idea about risk management, but it does not provide an argument why future generations ought to exist. Avner de-Shalit's theory explains why they ought to exist; however, his theory can not easily explain why we ought to care for other people than those in our own community. Emmanuel Agius' theory gives an ontological explanation for mankind's unity, but reduces conflicts of interests to a common good. Finally, Hans Jonas' theory shifts the focus from the situation of future generations to the preconditions of human life generally. However, his theory presupposes a specific ontology, which might be unable to motivate people to act. The concluding chapters describe a narrative theory of responsibility. It claims that we should comprehend ourselves as parts of the common story of mankind and that we ought to provide future generations with equal opportunities. This implies that we should avoid transferring risks and focus on reducing the long-term risks associated with the nuclear waste

  19. Integrating out the Dirac sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbstein, Felix

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new method for dealing with fermionic quantum field theories amenable to a mean-field-type approximation. In this work we focus on the relativistic Hartree approximation. Our aim is to integrate out the Dirac sea and derive a no-sea effective theory'' with positive energy single particle states only. As the derivation of the no-sea effective theory involves only standard Feynman diagrams, our approach is quite general and not restricted to particular space-time dimensions. We develop and illustrate the approach in the ''large N'' limit of the Gross-Neveu model family in 1+1 dimensions. As the Gross-Neveu model has been intensely studied and several analytical solutions are known for this model, it is an ideal testing ground for our no-sea effective theory approach. The chiral Gross-Neveu model, also referred to as 1+1 dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, turns out to be of particular interest. In this case, we explicitly derive a consistent effective theory featuring both elementary ''π meson'' fields and (positive energy) ''quark'' fields, starting from a purely fermionic quantum field theory. In the second part of this work, we apply our approach to the Walecka model in 1+1 and 3+1 dimensions. As the Dirac sea caused considerable difficulties in attempts to base nuclear physics on field theoretic models like the Walecka model, mean-field calculations were typically done without the sea. We confront several of these mean-field theory results with our no-sea effective theory approach. The potential of our approach is twofold. While the no-sea effective theory can be utilized to provide new analytical insights in particular parameter regimes, it also sheds new light on more fundamental issues as the explicit emergence of effective, Dirac-sea induced multi-fermion interactions in an effective theory with positive energy states only. (orig.)

  20. Fifteen Challenges in Establishing a Multidisciplinary Research Program on eHealth Research in a University Setting: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönqvist, Helena; Olsson, Erik Martin Gustaf; Johansson, Birgitta; Held, Claes; Sjöström, Jonas; Lindahl Norberg, Annika; Hovén, Emma; Sanderman, Robbert; van Achterberg, Theo; von Essen, Louise

    2017-05-23

    U-CARE is a multidisciplinary eHealth research program that involves the disciplines of caring science, clinical psychology, health economics, information systems, and medical science. It was set up from scratch in a university setting in 2010, funded by a governmental initiative. While establishing the research program, many challenges were faced. Systematic documentation of experiences from establishing new research environments is scarce. The aim of this paper was to describe the challenges of establishing a publicly funded multidisciplinary eHealth research environment. Researchers involved in developing the research program U-CARE identified challenges in the formal documentation and by reflecting on their experience of developing the program. The authors discussed the content and organization of challenges into themes until consensus was reached. The authors identified 15 major challenges, some general to establishing a new research environment and some specific for multidisciplinary eHealth programs. The challenges were organized into 6 themes: Organization, Communication, Implementation, Legislation, Software development, and Multidisciplinarity. Several challenges were faced during the development of the program and several accomplishments were made. By sharing our experience, we hope to help other research groups embarking on a similar journey to be prepared for some of the challenges they are likely to face on their way. ©Helena Grönqvist, Erik Martin Gustaf Olsson, Birgitta Johansson, Claes Held, Jonas Sjöström, Annika Lindahl Norberg, Emma Hovén, Robbert Sanderman, Theo van Achterberg, Louise von Essen. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 23.05.2017.

  1. Dealloying of Cu{sub x}Au studied by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajput, Parasmani, E-mail: parasmani.rajput@northwestern.edu [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Gupta, Ajay [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India); Detlefs, Blanka [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Kolb, Dieter M. [Institute for Electrochemistry, University of Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Potdar, Satish [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India); Zegenhagen, Jörg [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The shift in binding energy of Cu and Au lines in CuAu alloys is opposite to expected from the nobility of the elements. ► The magnitude of the chemical shifts of the metal lines in CuAu alloys is strongly influenced by finite size effects and disorder. ► Cu 3s and/or Au 4f cross-sections are not well described by theory (Scofield). The Cu 3s photoabsorption cross-section seems to be strongly overestimated. ► We find/confirm that (CuAu) dealloying proceeds into depth like a spinodal decomposition. -- Abstract: We studied pristine and leached ultra-thin Cu{sub x}Au (x ≈ 4) films by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Au 4f and Cu 3s core levels show a shift in binding energy which is opposite to expected from the nobility of the elements, which is explained by charge transfer involving differently screening s and d valence levels of the elements [W. Eberhardt, S.C. Wu, R. Garrett, D. Sondericker, F. Jona, Phys. Rev. B 31 (1985) 8285]. The magnitude of the chemical shifts of the metal lines is strongly influenced by the finite size and disorder of the films. Angular dependent photoelectron emission allowed to assess the alloy composition as a function of depth larger than 5 nm. The potential controlled dealloying proceeds into depth like a spinodal decomposition with Cu going into solution and the remaining Au accumulating in the surface region. The compositional gradient did not lead to a significant broadening of the metal photoelectron lines suggesting a non-local screening mechanism.

  2. SU(3)味极限附近色味连锁型超导体中的束缚双夸克态%Bound Diquark States in Color-Flavor-Locked Type Superconductor near the SU(3) Flavor Limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春福; 张一; 张小兵

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the ideal color-flavor locked phase, an approximate description for three-flavor quark superconductor is proposed near the SU (3) flavor limit. Under the physical influence from explicitly chiral-symmetry-breaking, we investigate the behaviors for two species of diquark states and the formations of bound diquark states at the mean-field level. In strongly coupling density regime, a theoretical possibility is pointed out at the first time,that Bose-Einstein condensation of light-flavor diquark states occur in the environment where all three-flavor and three-color quarks participate the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing.%从理想的色味连锁相出发,在SU(3)味极限附近,给出了一个3味夸克超导体的近似描述.在手征对称性明显破缺的物理影响下,运用Nambu-Jona-Lasinio(NJL)模型在平均场层次上研究了两种双夸克态和束缚双夸克态的形成.当夸克之间的相互作用非常强时,首次指出了在3色和3味夸克参与Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer配对的环境下,轻味双夸克态发生玻色-爱因斯坦凝聚的可能性.

  3. Operation, maintenance and utilization of the RA reactor - Report on operation in 1979; Pogon, odrzavanje i eksploatacija reaktora RA, Izvestaj o radu u 1979. godini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milosevic, M

    1979-12-15

    During 1979 the RA reactor was in operation only three months, i.e. only 24% of the planned activity was achieved. The reactor operation was interrupted in March due to problems that could not be solved by the existing equipment. Alkalinity of the heavy water resulting from the existing ammonia ions could not be removed by the existing distillation system. In addition deposition of aluminium oxyhydrate on the fuel elements was increased. This was noticed during routine control when the reactor was shutdown for refueling. The decision of the Director general of the Institute and sanitary Inspector followed, prohibiting further reactor operation. A separate chapter of this report is devoted to the analysis of the difficulties and possible solution of the problem in cooperation with the experts from different laboratories of the Institute. Aged and damaged instruments at the reactor were not exchange due to lack of budget. During the operation there were no accidents. [Serbo-Croat] U toku 1979. godine plan rada ostvaren je sa 24%, odnosno reaktor je radio samo prva tri meseca. U martu je doslo do prekida rada reaktora zbog pojave koja se nije mogla otkloniti postojecom opremom. Alkalnost teske vode, posledica prisustva amonijum jona, ne moze se odstraniti sistemom destilacije. Pored toga usled dotrajalosti opreme povecano je talozenje aluminijum oksihidroksida na gorivnim elementima. Ova pojava uocena je tokom rutinske kontrole prilikom izmene goriva a usledila je obustava rada resenjem Direktora i sanitarnog inspektora. Posebno poglavlje ovog izvestaja posveceno je analizi teskoca u radu i reaktora i resavanju nastalih problema sa gorivom u saradnji sa saradnicima drugih laboratorija Instituta. Dotrajali uredjaji i oprema nisu zamenjeni usled nedostatka sredstava. U toku rada nije bilo akcidenata.

  4. Sleep Disordered Breathing During Live High-Train Low in Normobaric Versus Hypobaric Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugy, Jonas J; Schmitt, Laurent; Fallet, Sibylle; Faiss, Raphael; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Bertschi, Mattia; Heinzer, Raphaël; Millet, Grégoire P

    2016-09-01

    Saugy, Jonas J., Laurent Schmitt, Sibylle Fallet, Raphael Faiss, Jean-Marc Vesin, Mattia Bertschi, Raphaël Heinzer, and Grégoire P. Millet. Sleep disordered breathing during live high-train low in normobaric versus hypobaric hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 17:233-238, 2016.-The present study aimed to compare sleep disordered breathing during live high-train low (LHTL) altitude camp using normobaric hypoxia (NH) and hypobaric hypoxia (HH). Sixteen highly trained triathletes completed two 18-day LHTL camps in a crossover designed study. They trained at 1100-1200 m while they slept either in NH at a simulated altitude of 2250 m or in HH. Breathing frequency and oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) were recorded continuously during all nights and oxygen desaturation index (ODI 3%) calculated. Breathing frequency was lower for NH than HH during the camps (14.6 ± 3.1 breath × min -1 vs. 17.2 ± 3.4 breath × min -1 , p < 0.001). SpO 2 was lower for HH than NH (90.8 ± 0.3 vs. 91.9 ± 0.2, p < 0.001) and ODI 3% was higher for HH than NH (15.1 ± 3.5 vs. 9.9 ± 1.6, p < 0.001). Sleep in moderate HH is more altered than in NH during a LHTL camp.

  5. Quality of oral surgery referrals and how to improve them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorkeborn M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mikael Björkeborn,1 Henrik Nilsson,2 Jonas Anderud1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Halmstad Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Växjö Hospital, Växjö, Sweden Aim: To assess the quality of routine oral surgery referrals received at Halmstad Hospital and Växjö Hospital and to emphasize areas for improvement. Method: A retrospective study was performed on all routine oral surgery referrals received between 2014 and 2015 at both Halmstad Hospital and Växjö Hospital. A total of 1,891 referral letters were assessed for their quality against a predetermined checklist of basic requirements of a satisfactory referral. The referrals were also categorized according to if it was sent by a male, female, private dental service, or the Swedish Public Dental Health service. Results: A diagnosis was missing in 30% of all referrals. Radiographs and information about previous radiographic examinations were not included in 10% of the referrals. Of those referrals that included radiographs, only around half were deemed adequate for diagnostic purposes. The presenting complaint was missing in 40% of all referrals. Current medical history was absent in 40% and current medication was omitted in 60% of the referrals. Information about tobacco use was only included in 10% of all referrals. Overall, female referrers performed better than male colleagues. Private referrals more regularly included information about diagnosis, previous treatment, and current medication. On the other hand, referrals from the public dental health service more frequently included radiographs, tobacco use, and current medical history. Conclusion: There is plenty of room for improving the standards of oral surgery referrals. We suggest that future electronic referral systems should only allow for submission once all of the essential information has been considered. Keywords: clinical audit, referral quality, oral surgery referrals

  6. Static and dynamic characteristics of various mesons and the deuteron. Author-review of the Thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secansky, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Dissertation is concerned of static and dynamic characteristics of various mesons and the deuteron, which are defined in the Introduction. Special attention is payed to the electromagnetic polarizabilities of pions in the Chapter I and the Chapter II. While in the Chapter I is represented a review of present theoretical and experimental situation of the pion polarizabilities, in the Chapter II the problem of an ambiguous determination of the sum and the difference of the neutral pion polarizabilities is solved by the unambiguous determination of a meson parameters with the help of the pion scalar form factor and the calculation and the two photon decay of σ meson in the framework of the linearized Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type Lagrangian. In the Chapter III the new deuteron - proton sum rule is derived, by means of which and data on the corresponding physical quantities in the sum rule the mean -square - charge radius of the deuteron is numerically evaluated to be in a satisfactory agreement with the dispersion relations prediction. In the Chapter IV by means of the special Lagrangian of the quark - meson interactions the decay width of φ → f 0 (980)γ and the total cross - section of the e + e - → γ * → φf 0 (980) process is predicted. In the last Chapter V we have tried to solve the conflict between the measured and theoretically predicted branching ratio of the process π 0 → e + e - decay by the inclusion of the double - logarithmic QED radiative corrections. Despite of the latter, the discrepancy between the theoretical prediction and the experimental result for the π 0 → e + e - decay was not removed and further independent experimental and theoretical efforts have to be continued. (Author)

  7. Evaluation of weather forecast systems for storm surge modeling in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzon, Juan L.; Ferreira, Celso M.; Padilla-Hernandez, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Accurate forecast of sea-level heights in coastal areas depends, among other factors, upon a reliable coupling of a meteorological forecast system to a hydrodynamic and wave system. This study evaluates the predictive skills of the coupled circulation and wind-wave model system (ADCIRC+SWAN) for simulating storm tides in the Chesapeake Bay, forced by six different products: (1) Global Forecast System (GFS), (2) Climate Forecast System (CFS) version 2, (3) North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM), (4) Rapid Refresh (RAP), (5) European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and (6) the Atlantic hurricane database (HURDAT2). This evaluation is based on the hindcasting of four events: Irene (2011), Sandy (2012), Joaquin (2015), and Jonas (2016). By comparing the simulated water levels to observations at 13 monitoring stations, we have found that the ADCIR+SWAN System forced by the following: (1) the HURDAT2-based system exhibited the weakest statistical skills owing to a noteworthy overprediction of the simulated wind speed; (2) the ECMWF, RAP, and NAM products captured the moment of the peak and moderately its magnitude during all storms, with a correlation coefficient ranging between 0.98 and 0.77; (3) the CFS system exhibited the worst averaged root-mean-square difference (excepting HURDAT2); (4) the GFS system (the lowest horizontal resolution product tested) resulted in a clear underprediction of the maximum water elevation. Overall, the simulations forced by NAM and ECMWF systems induced the most accurate results best accuracy to support water level forecasting in the Chesapeake Bay during both tropical and extra-tropical storms.

  8. Introduction to finite temperature and finite density QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Masakiyo

    2014-01-01

    It has been pointed out that QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics) in the circumstances of medium at finite temperature and density shows numbers of phenomena similar to the characteristics of solid state physics, e.g. phase transitions. In the past ten years, the very high temperature and density matter came to be observed experimentally at the heavy ion collisions. At the same time, the numerical QCD analysis at finite temperature and density attained quantitative level analysis possible owing to the remarkable progress of computers. In this summer school lecture, it has been set out to give not only the recent results, but also the spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry, the fundamental theory of finite temperature and further expositions as in the following four sections. The first section is titled as 'Introduction to Finite Temperature and Density QCD' with subsections of 1.1 standard model and QCD, 1.2 phase transition and phase structure of QCD, 1.3 lattice QCD and thermodynamic quantity, 1.4 heavy ion collision experiments, and 1.5 neutron stars. The second one is 'Equilibrium State' with subsections of 2.1 chiral symmetry, 2.2 vacuum state: BCS theory, 2.3 NJL (Nambu-Jona-Lasinio) model, and 2.4 color superconductivity. The third one is 'Static fluctuations' with subsections of 3.1 fluctuations, 3.2 moment and cumulant, 3.3 increase of fluctuations at critical points, 3.4 analysis of fluctuations by lattice QCD and Taylor expansion, and 3.5 experimental exploration of QCD phase structure. The fourth one is 'Dynamical Structure' with 4.1 linear response theory, 4.2 spectral functions, 4.3 Matsubara function, and 4.4 analyses of dynamical structure by lattice QCD. (S. Funahashi)

  9. Effective field theories of baryons and mesons, or, what do quarks do?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keaton, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis is an attempt to understand the properties of the protons, pions and other hadrons in terms of their fundamental building blocks. In the first chapter the author reviews several of the approaches that have already been developed. The Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model offers the classic example of a derivation of meson properties from a quark Lagrangian. The chiral quark model encodes much of the intuition acquired in recent decades. The author also discusses the non-linear sigma model, the Skyrme model, and the constituent quark model, which is one of the oldest and most successful models. In the constituent quark model, the constituent quark appears to be different from the current quark that appears in the fundamental QCD Lagrangian. Recently it was proposed that the constituent quark is a topological soliton. In chapter 2 the author investigates this soliton, calculating its mass, radius, magnetic moment, color magnetic moment, and spin structure function. Within the approximations used, the magnetic moments and spin structure function cannot simultaneously be made to agree with the constituent quark model. In chapter 3 the author uses a different plan of attack. Rather than trying to model the constituents of the baryon, he begins with an effective field theory of baryons and mesons, with couplings and masses that are simply determined phenomenologically. Meson loop corrections to baryon axial currents are then computed in the 1/N expansion. It is already known that the one-loop corrections are suppressed by a factor 1/N; here it is shown that the two-loop corrections are suppressed by 1/N 2 . To leading order, these corrections are exactly the same as would be calculated in the constituent quark model. This method therefore offers a different approach to the constituent quark

  10. Implicancias bioéticas y neuroéticas del cambio climático y sus efectos sobre la salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gorga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los riesgos para la salud asociados al cambio climático son múltiples y afectan particularmente a aquellas pobla-ciones en condiciones de pobreza. Con base en la lectura y análisis crítico de publicaciones científicas vinculadas al cambio climático y la salud, en este artículo se propone el objetivo de responder a la pregunta acerca de qué valores y derechos humanos podría estar problematizando el cambio climático en relación con el ser humano.Los determinantes de salud generados por el cambio climático limitarían potencialmente las capacidades humanas, entendidas por Martha Nussbaum como manifestación de la libertad humana para ser y hacer.También se menciona el pensamiento de Hans Jonas en relación con la necesidad de tener temor por las conse-cuencias de una falta de acción. Se concluye, finalmente, que los profundos cambios contextuales asociados al cambio climático deberían promover la pregunta acerca de sus potenciales efectos a nivel del neurodesarrollo de los niños que viven en zonas de desastres asociados a este. Simultáneamente, en una perspectiva donde convergen la bioética y la neuroética, el cambio climático resaltaría la responsabilidad que los seres humanos individual y colectivamente tenemos en la construcción de las condiciones presentes y futuras del desarrollo infantil, y particularmente cuando este se da en condiciones de pobreza.

  11. Normalization Strategies for Enhancing Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Social Media Responses during Extreme Events: A Case Study based on Analysis of Four Extreme Events using Socio-Environmental Data Explorer (SEDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayakumar, J.; Shook, E.; Turner, V. K.

    2017-10-01

    With social media becoming increasingly location-based, there has been a greater push from researchers across various domains including social science, public health, and disaster management, to tap in the spatial, temporal, and textual data available from these sources to analyze public response during extreme events such as an epidemic outbreak or a natural disaster. Studies based on demographics and other socio-economic factors suggests that social media data could be highly skewed based on the variations of population density with respect to place. To capture the spatio-temporal variations in public response during extreme events we have developed the Socio-Environmental Data Explorer (SEDE). SEDE collects and integrates social media, news and environmental data to support exploration and assessment of public response to extreme events. For this study, using SEDE, we conduct spatio-temporal social media response analysis on four major extreme events in the United States including the "North American storm complex" in December 2015, the "snowstorm Jonas" in January 2016, the "West Virginia floods" in June 2016, and the "Hurricane Matthew" in October 2016. Analysis is conducted on geo-tagged social media data from Twitter and warnings from the storm events database provided by National Centers For Environmental Information (NCEI) for analysis. Results demonstrate that, to support complex social media analyses, spatial and population-based normalization and filtering is necessary. The implications of these results suggests that, while developing software solutions to support analysis of non-conventional data sources such as social media, it is quintessential to identify the inherent biases associated with the data sources, and adapt techniques and enhance capabilities to mitigate the bias. The normalization strategies that we have developed and incorporated to SEDE will be helpful in reducing the population bias associated with social media data and will be useful

  12. Celebrating the tenth conference session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Full text: This number of the Bulletin appears during a month when the tenth regular session of the Agency's General Conference is being held. It is fitting that among the special arrangements made to give added significance to such an historical landmark should be an opening address by Herr Franz Jonas, Federal President of the host country, Austria. The Festsaal of the Kongresszentrum, in the Hofburg, has now been the centre for every annual session held in Austria, except the first. On that occasion, recorded in the photograph on the cover, the Konzerthaus was made available. A commemorative series of talks dealing with topics of particular interest in the international development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, delivered by scientists of world distinction was another idea which will add much profound thought to the records of nuclear energy. Under the chairmanship of Professor L.C. Prado, with Dr. W.B. Lewis as Moderator, the subjects chosen by the participants were : The Impact of Atomic Energy in our Society - Sir John Cockcroft; Nuclear Power Systems and their Technical Potentialities - Prof. Alexandre Leipunski; The Commercial Future of Nuclear Power - Dr. William Webster; Nuclear Science in Life Sciences - Dr. A.R. Gopal-Ayengar; Fundamental Research in Atomic Energy Centres - Prof. Louis Neel. These speeches will be reproduced in full in the Agency's Atomic Energy Review. The pages of this issue of the Bulletin are intended to give indications of the stage which the Agency has now reached in some, but by no means all, of its activities in promoting the techniques of atomic energy for the benefit of mankind. (author)

  13. Modeling the thermodynamics of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hell, Thomas

    2010-07-26

    Strongly interacting (QCD) matter is expected to exhibit a multifaceted phase structure: a hadron gas at low temperatures, a quark-gluon plasma at very high temperatures, nuclear matter in the low-temperature and high-density region, color superconductors at asymptotically high densities. Most of the conjectured phases cannot yet be scrutinized by experiments. Much of the present picture - particularly concerning the intermediate temperature and density area of the phase diagram of QCD matter - is based on model calculations. Further insights come from Lattice-QCD computations. The present thesis elaborates a nonlocal covariant extension of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with built-in constraints from the running coupling of QCD at high-momentum and instanton physics at low-momentum scales. We present this model for two and three quark flavors (in the latter case paying particular attention to the axial anomaly). At finite temperatures and densities, gluon dynamics is incorporated through a gluonic background field, expressed in terms of the Polyakov loop (P). The thermodynamics of this nonlocal PNJL model accounts for both chiral and deconfinement transitions. We obtain results in mean-field approximation and beyond, including additional pionic and kaonic contributions to the chiral condensate, the pressure and other thermodynamic quantities. Finally, the nonlocal PNJL model is applied to the finite-density region of the QCD phase diagram; for three quark flavors we investigate, in particular, the dependence of the critical point appearing in the models on the axial anomaly. The thesis closes with a derivation of the nonlocal PNJL model from first principles of QCD. (orig.)

  14. Competing effective interactions of Dirac electrons in the Spin–Fermion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, E.C.; Nunes, Lizardo H.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently discovered advanced materials, such as heavy fermions, frequently exhibit a rich phase diagram suggesting the presence of different competing interactions. A unified description of the origin of these multiple interactions, albeit very important for the comprehension of such materials is, in general not available. It would be therefore very useful to have a simple model where the common source of different interactions could be possibly traced back. In this work we consider a system consisting in a set of localized spins on a square lattice with antiferromagnetic nearest neighbors interactions and itinerant electrons, which are assumed to be Dirac-like and interact with the localized spins through a Kondo magnetic interaction. This system is conveniently described by the Spin–Fermion model, which we use in order to determine the effective interactions among the itinerant electrons. By integrating out the localized degrees of freedom we obtain a set of different interactions, which includes: a BCS-like superconducting term, a Nambu–Jona-Lasinio-like, excitonic term and a spin–spin magnetic term. The resulting phase diagram is investigated by evaluation of the mean-field free-energy as a function of the relevant order parameters. This shows the competition of the above interactions, depending on the temperature, chemical potential and coupling constants. -- Highlights: •Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg–Kondo lattice model with itinerant Dirac fermions. •Integrating out the spins generates competing interactions: BCS-like, excitonic and magnetic. •Novel mechanism of superconductivity from magnetic interactions between the spins and electrons. •Dome-shaped dependence of the temperature on the chemical potential in agreement with pnictides

  15. Artificial Reefs in Motion: Legacy of changes and degradation at the Redbird Reef Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembanis, A. C.; DuVal, C.; Peter, B.

    2016-12-01

    Artificial reefs are used for a variety of purposes at sites throughout the U.S. and around the globe, yet little, if any, long-term monitoring has been conducted with the goal of understanding inter-annual changes to the emplaced structures. Throughout the U.S. Mid-Atlantic region, several programs utilized retired subway cars as disposal structures to form artificial reefs. One such site, known as site 11, or "Redbird Reef", is located off the coast of Delaware and was at one time home to 997 former NYC subway cars. Opportunistic sonar surveys at the site have been conducted between 2008 and 2016 providing one of the most extensive and repeated mapping studies for this type of reef. Previous studies conducted by our group at the site have focused on understanding wave orbital ripple dynamics and scour patterns. In this present study, we analyze the changes apparent at the site itself, focused on the storm-response dynamics of the subway cars. Results have shown that Superstorm Sandy in 2012 produced dramatic changes to the reef structures resulting in the total or partial destruction of eight subway cars within a small (.45 x .2km) portion of the reef site. Winter Storm Jonas in 2016 resulted in the destruction of fewer cars, but rotated a previously static 47m long Navy barge nearly 60 degrees. Once destroyed or collapsed by waves the subway cars go from providing positive structural relief and thus beneficial habitat above the surrounding seabed to being reduced to scattered low relief marine debris. A once popular consideration for reef material, the event and inter-annual decay of subway cars as observed at the Redbird reef provides both a stark indication of the power of storm dynamics on the inner-shelf and a cautionary tale with regards to the selection of seabed reef material.

  16. Effective Field Theories for Hot and Dense Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaschke D.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The lecture is divided in two parts. The first one deals with an introduction to the physics of hot, dense many-particle systems in quantum field theory [1, 2]. The basics of the path integral approach to the partition function are explained for the example of chiral quark models. The QCD phase diagram is discussed in the meanfield approximation while QCD bound states in the medium are treated in the rainbow-ladder approximation (Gaussian fluctuations. Special emphasis is devoted to the discussion of the Mott effect, i.e. the transition of bound states to unbound, but resonant scattering states in the continnum under the influence of compression and heating of the system. Three examples are given: (1 the QCD model phase diagram with chiral symmetry ¨ restoration and color superconductivity [3], (2 the Schrodinger equation for heavy-quarkonia [4], and (2 Pions [5] as well as Kaons and D-mesons in the finite-temperature Bethe-Salpeter equation [6]. We discuss recent applications of this quantum field theoretical approach to hot and dense quark matter for a description of anomalous J/ψ supression in heavy-ion collisions [7] and for the structure and cooling of compact stars with quark matter interiors [8]. The second part provides a detailed introduction to the Polyakov-loop Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model [9] for thermodynamics and mesonic correlations [10] in the phase diagram of quark matter. Important relationships of low-energy QCD like the Gell-Mann–Oakes–Renner relation are generalized to finite temperatures. The effect of including the coupling to the Polyakov-loop potential on the phase diagram and mesonic correlations is discussed. An outlook is given to effects of nonlocality of the interactions [11] and of mesonic correlations in the medium [12] which go beyond the meanfield description.

  17. Neutral and charged scalar mesons, pseudoscalar mesons, and diquarks in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wang, Xinyang; Yu, Lang; Huang, Mei

    2018-04-01

    We investigate both (pseudo)scalar mesons and diquarks in the presence of external magnetic field in the framework of the two-flavored Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, where mesons and diquarks are constructed by infinite sum of quark-loop chains by using random phase approximation. The polarization function of the quark-loop is calculated to the leading order of 1 /Nc expansion by taking the quark propagator in the Landau level representation. We systematically investigate the masses behaviors of scalar σ meson, neutral and charged pions as well as the scalar diquarks, with respect to the magnetic field strength at finite temperature and chemical potential. It is shown that the numerical results of both neutral and charged pions are consistent with the lattice QCD simulations. The mass of the charge neutral pion keeps almost a constant under the magnetic field, which is preserved by the remnant symmetry of QCD ×QED in the vacuum. The mass of the charge neutral scalar σ is around two times quark mass and increases with the magnetic field due to the magnetic catalysis effect, which is an typical example showing that the polarized internal quark structure cannot be neglected when we consider the meson properties under magnetic field. For the charged particles, the one quark-antiquark loop contribution to the charged π± increases essentially with the increase of magnetic fields due to the magnetic catalysis of the polarized quarks. However, the one quark-quark loop contribution to the scalar diquark mass is negative comparing with the point-particle result and the loop effect is small.

  18. Ethics Beyond Finitude: Responsibility towards Future Generations and Nuclear Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefquist, Lars

    2008-05-15

    This dissertation has three aims: 1. To evaluate several ethical theories about responsibility towards future generations. 2. To construct a theory about responsibility towards future generations. 3. To carry out an ethical evaluation of different nuclear waste management methods. Five theories are evaluated with the help of evaluative criteria, primarily: A theory must provide future generations with some independent moral status. A theory should acknowledge moral pluralism. A theory should provide some normative claims about real-world problems. Derek Parfit's theory provides future generations with full moral status. But it is incompatible with moral pluralism, and does not provide reasonable normative claims about real-world problems. Brian Barry's theory provides such claims and a useful idea about risk management, but it does not provide an argument why future generations ought to exist. Avner de-Shalit's theory explains why they ought to exist; however, his theory can not easily explain why we ought to care for other people than those in our own community. Emmanuel Agius' theory gives an ontological explanation for mankind's unity, but reduces conflicts of interests to a common good. Finally, Hans Jonas' theory shifts the focus from the situation of future generations to the preconditions of human life generally. However, his theory presupposes a specific ontology, which might be unable to motivate people to act. The concluding chapters describe a narrative theory of responsibility. It claims that we should comprehend ourselves as parts of the common story of mankind and that we ought to provide future generations with equal opportunities. This implies that we should avoid transferring risks and focus on reducing the long-term risks associated with the nuclear waste

  19. Universal sequence map (USM of arbitrary discrete sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Jonas S

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For over a decade the idea of representing biological sequences in a continuous coordinate space has maintained its appeal but not been fully realized. The basic idea is that any sequence of symbols may define trajectories in the continuous space conserving all its statistical properties. Ideally, such a representation would allow scale independent sequence analysis – without the context of fixed memory length. A simple example would consist on being able to infer the homology between two sequences solely by comparing the coordinates of any two homologous units. Results We have successfully identified such an iterative function for bijective mappingψ of discrete sequences into objects of continuous state space that enable scale-independent sequence analysis. The technique, named Universal Sequence Mapping (USM, is applicable to sequences with an arbitrary length and arbitrary number of unique units and generates a representation where map distance estimates sequence similarity. The novel USM procedure is based on earlier work by these and other authors on the properties of Chaos Game Representation (CGR. The latter enables the representation of 4 unit type sequences (like DNA as an order free Markov Chain transition table. The properties of USM are illustrated with test data and can be verified for other data by using the accompanying web-based tool:http://bioinformatics.musc.edu/~jonas/usm/. Conclusions USM is shown to enable a statistical mechanics approach to sequence analysis. The scale independent representation frees sequence analysis from the need to assume a memory length in the investigation of syntactic rules.

  20. Neutrino emissivity in the quark-hadron mixed phase of neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinella, William M. [Computational Science Research Center San Diego State University, San Diego, CA (United States); San Diego State University, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Weber, Fridolin [San Diego State University, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California San Diego, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, La Jolla, CA (United States); Contrera, Gustavo A. [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET - Dept. de Fisica, UNLP, IFLP, La Plata (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Grupo de Gravitacion, Astrofisica y Cosmologia, Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, La Plata (Argentina); Orsaria, Milva G. [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Grupo de Gravitacion, Astrofisica y Cosmologia, Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-03-15

    Numerous theoretical studies using various equation of state models have shown that quark matter may exist at the extreme densities in the cores of high-mass neutron stars. It has also been shown that a phase transition from hadronic matter to quark matter would result in an extended mixed phase region that would segregate phases by net charge to minimize the total energy of the phase, leading to the formation of a crystalline lattice. The existence of quark matter in the core of a neutron star may have significant consequences for its thermal evolution, which for thousands of years is facilitated primarily by neutrino emission. In this work we investigate the effect a crystalline quark-hadron mixed phase can have on the neutrino emissivity from the core. To this end we calculate the equation of state using the relativistic mean-field approximation to model hadronic matter and a nonlocal extension of the three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for quark matter. Next we determine the extent of the quark-hadron mixed phase and its crystalline structure using the Glendenning construction, allowing for the formation of spherical blob, rod, and slab rare phase geometries. Finally we calculate the neutrino emissivity due to electron-lattice interactions utilizing the formalism developed for the analogous process in neutron star crusts. We find that the contribution to the neutrino emissivity due to the presence of a crystalline quark-hadron mixed phase is substantial compared to other mechanisms at fairly low temperatures (

  1. AVATARES EN LAS RELACIONES DISCIPLINARES: El caso de la caracterización del hombre en la biología evolucionista y la filosofía existencialista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhermo Folguera

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La búsqueda por establecer relaciones entre diferentes campos del saber hasido un tema recurrente en las últimas décadas. Sin embargo, no existeacuerdo dentro de la comunidad académica del camino a recorrer y de lasmúltiples dificultades que se presentan para lograr una verdaderaintegración de diferentes áreas del saber, y no una mera yuxtaposición. Elinterés inicial que motiva el presente trabajo está dado justamente encomprender mejor algunas de las características de un proceso integratoriodisciplinar. A estos fines, mediante el caso particular de la naturaleza delhombre, se analizará el tipo de relación que se ha dado entre diferentesáreas del saber: la filosofía (en particular la existencialista en lacaracterización dada por Hans Jonas en su libro “El principio vida: haciauna biología filosófica” y la biología (en particular la evolucionista. Ennuestro recorrido reconocemos cómo ambos abordajes se han caracterizadodesde un lugar “seguro” (no reconociendo su propia parcialidad a la vezque negando la presencia del otro “polo”. De este modo, ambas perspectivasno han logrado conservar esta tensión constitutiva del propio hombre: el serentre un “desde siempre” propio de la biología, y un “precisamente ahora”propio de su recuperación histórico-social. Esta recuperación de la tensióncomo un elemento constitutivo es, a nuestro entender, una de lascaracterísticas centrales de un proceso transdisciplinario.

  2. Goldstone boson condensation and effects of the axial anomaly in color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basler, Hannes Gregor Steffen

    2011-01-12

    One of the central objects of interest in high energy physics is the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter, the behavior of quarks and gluons in dependence of temperature and chemical potential. At very high densities and low temperatures it is expected that quarks form a superconductor, the so-called color superconductor. Such a color superconductor might be realized in the inner core of a neutron star. To study the phase structure of a color superconductor under neutron star conditions the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model is used. The diquark condensates appearing in a color superconductor may break the original symmetries and give rise to Goldstone bosons. In this work we study the possible condensation of these Goldstone bosons. On the level of diquark condensates the condensation of Goldstone bosons is realized by a rotation of scalar into pseudoscalar diquark condensates. The phase diagram is studied, including pseudoscalar diquark condensates, for several different values of the lepton number chemical potential. The masses and thereby the condensation of the Goldstone bosons is effected by a six-point interaction that breaks the axial U(1) symmetry. Usually this six-point interaction is implemented in the NJL model in such a way that is does not effect the diquark sector. This can be fixed by adding an second six-point interaction term to the NJL Lagrangian. The coupling strength of this new interaction term has a great influence on the phase digram. In this context also the effect on the chiral phase transition is studied. (orig.)

  3. Use of a 4-week up-titration regimen of roflumilast in patients with severe COPD

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    Watz H

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Henrik Watz,1 Nitin Bagul,2 Klaus F Rabe,3,4 Stephen Rennard,5,6 Vijay KT Alagappan,7 Jonas Román,8 Axel Facius,9 Peter MA Calverley10 1Pulmonary Research Institute at LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Airway Research Center North, German Center for Lung Research, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 2DNA Medical Ltd, Langley, UK; 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Airway Research Center North, German Center for Lung Research, Grosshansdorf, 4Department of Medicine, Christian Albrecht University Kiel, Kiel, Germany; 5Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 6AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK; 7AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 8AstraZeneca R&D, Gothenburg, Sweden; 9thinkQ2 AG, Baar, Switzerland; 10Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Background: The oral selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast (ROF reduces exacerbations in patients with severe COPD. Adverse events (AEs can cause early ROF discontinuation. Alternative dosing strategies may help patients continue their therapy. Methods: In this multicenter, double-blind trial, 1,321 patients with severe COPD were randomized 1:1:1 to 4 weeks’ treatment with ROF 250 µg once daily (OD, 500 µg every other day (EOD, or 500 µg OD, each followed by ROF 500 µg OD for 8 weeks, plus standard therapy. The primary end point was the percentage of patients prematurely discontinuing study treatment. Results: Patients in the 250 µg OD/500 µg OD group had significantly fewer treatment discontinuations (odds ratio [OR] 0.66 [95% CI 0.47–0.93], p=0.017 and lower rates of AEs of interest such as diarrhea, nausea, headache, decreased appetite, insomnia and abdominal pain (OR 0.63 [95% CI 0.47–0.83], p=0.001 compared with those in the 500 µg OD group. Although rates of discontinuation and AEs of interest were numerically lower with ROF 500 µg EOD/500

  4. Waldenström macroglobulinemia: biology, genetics, and therapy

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    Paludo J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jonas Paludo,1,2 Stephen M Ansell,1 1Division of Hematology, 2Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM is a distinct clinicopathologic entity characterized by the presence of a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, a non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and IgM monoclonal gammopathy. WM is an indolent, uncommon malignancy mostly affecting the elderly. Patient outcomes have modestly improved since the introduction of rituximab to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy more than 20 years ago. However, the pivotal discovery of the somatic MYD88 L265P mutation, harbored by most patients with WM, and the somatic CXCR4 WHIM mutations, similar to germline CXCR4 mutations seen in the warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, and myelokathexis (WHIM syndrome, present in approximately one-third of patients with WM, has fundamentally changed our understanding of this disease and expanded the potential therapeutic targets. Within this new paradigm, ibrutinib emerged as a promising new drug. Ibrutinib targets Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, a downstream protein in the B-cell receptor pathway that is overactivated by the MYD88 L265P mutation. A seminal Phase II trial of ibrutinib in previously treated WM patients showed impressive response rates and confirmed the effects of MYD88 L265P and CXCR4 WHIM mutations in response to therapy. Ibrutinib is the first and only US Food and Drug Administration–approved drug specifically for the treatment of WM. However, before ibrutinib can be established as the standard of care for WM, long-term data regarding efficacy and safety are required. Further research to address ibrutinib resistance and cost-effectiveness is also imperative before ibrutinib can gain widespread acceptance. This review will cover the present pathophysiologic understanding of WM in light of the recent MYD88 and CXCR4 discovery, as well as current and emergent treatment regimens with focus on ibrutinib

  5. Poliomyelitis and the control programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, R N

    1985-01-01

    Poliomyelitis, an acute infectious disease which chiefly affects the central nervous system, is included in the list of 20 communicable diseases which are to be reported monthly by all institutions to the State Bureau of Health Intelligence for onward transmission to India's Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI). The reported number of 17,441 cases of poliomyelitis (annual average) since 1974 fail to reflect the magnitude of the problem in India. Directorate General of Health Services (DHGS) in collaboration with the State health authorities organized sample lameness surveys of children 5-9 years in the community during 1981-82. Poliomyelitis was found to be the major cause of lameness in children 5-9 years (64.5%). Data on admission of poliomyelitis cases from selected hospital in metropolitan cities were collected. All the hospitals reported maximum number of polio cases (more than 78%) below the age of 2 years. This data reinforce the importance of improving vaccination coverage in the age group most affected. High incidence of poliomyelitis (45% of the cases) were observed during July, August, and September, corresponding to the well demarcated monsoon season. This suggests a need to intensify immunization coverage during the low polio incidence period, namely, November to April. Polio vaccine was introduced in the national immunization program in 1980. The schedule recommends 3 doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV), starting from the age of 3 months with intervals not less than 1 month. DPT and polio vaccine are administered to the child at the same time. 1 booster dose of OPV is recommended 12-18 months later. The live attenuated OPV, not produced in India is used in the national program. The requirement of the program is met by import of bulk concentrated vaccine separately for type 1, type 2, and type 3. Then, it is diluted, blended, and ampouled by Haffkine Biopharmaceutical Corporation, Ltd. The recent visit of Dr. Jonas Salk has raised the issue of

  6. The golden jubilee of vaccination against poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, T Jacob

    2004-01-01

    Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), developed in the USA by Jonas Salk in the early 1950s, was field tested in 1954, and found to be safe and effective. The year 2004 marks the golden jubilee of this breakthrough. From 1955 IPV was used extensively in the US and polio incidence declined by more than 95 per cent. However, in 1962, when oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) became available, the national policy was shifted to its exclusive use, for reasons other than science and economics. The World Health Organisation (WHO) also adopted the policy of the exclusive use of OPV in developing countries. Thus IPV fell into disrepute in much of the world, while Northern European countries continued to use it. New research led to improving its potency, reducing its manufacturing costs and combining it with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine to simplify its administration and reduce programmatic costs. All countries that chose to persist with IPV eliminated poliovirus circulation without OPV-induced polio or the risk of live vaccine viruses reverting to wild-like nature. IPV is highly immunogenic, confers mucosal immunity and exerts herd protective effect, all qualities of a good vaccine. It can be used in harmony with the extendend programme on immunization (EPI) schedule of infant immunisation with DTP, thus reducing programmatic costs. During the last ten years IPV has once again regained its popularity and some 25 industrialised countries use it exclusively. The demand is increasing from other countries and the supply has not caught up, leaving market forces to dictate the sale price of IPV. Anticipating such a turn of events India had launched its own IPV manufacturing programme in 1987, but the project was closed in 1992. Today it is not clear if we can complete the job of global polio eradication without IPV, on account of the genetic instability of OPV and the consequent tendency of vaccine viruses to revert to wild-like properties. The option to use IPV is

  7. The ethics of truth in the era of technological civilization and the information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Nesprava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological civilization and information society give a lot of advantages to a modern man in various fields. However, at the same time, we do not see a decrease in hostility and injustice in the society. Moreover, technological progress has led to the fact that human civilization is on the verge of a serious challenge caused by environmental disasters and opportunity for unprecedented disastrous consequences of the World War III. In these circumstances, the search for the causes of the current crisis is actual as well as the development of concepts that can contribute to overcoming this crisis. One of the most promising theories in this context is the ethics of truth. In modern civilization the issue of the importance of truth is shifted to the periphery of the intellectual discourse. Modern civilization uses only substitutes of the issue. Veracity in science together with popular opinions in the field of information circulating are such substitutes of truth. However, these substitutes do not fully reflect the true contents of the truth issue. The truth is not confined to the veracity of a celebrity’s opinion. Analyzing the theories by H. Jonas, В. Hübner, V. Stepin and T. Voronina, the study argues that the processes of losing of the meaning of life are intensifying in the modern civilization. We argue that a lack of a proper attention in modern civilization to the issue of truth inevitably stimulates processes of diluting the meaning of human life. Based on the theories by G. Hegel, H.-G. Gadamer and J. Neidleman T. Osborne, the study demonstrates that without thinking about the issue of the truth one cannot come near to the transcendent, and thus, his life could not be convincingly endowed with meaning, fullness and a purpose of existence. Understanding the issue of truth is especially important in conditions of the modern civilization, because our civilization is facing the possibility of self-destruction as a result of its

  8. Secondary glaucoma in CAPN5-associated neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy

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    Cham A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abdourahman Cham,1,2 Mayank Bansal,3 Himanshu K Banda,4 Young Kwon,1 Paul S Tlucek,1 Alexander G Bassuk,5 Stephen H Tsang,6,7 Warren M Sobol,8 James C Folk,1 Steven Yeh,4 Vinit B Mahajan1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 2Omics Laboratory, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 3Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 5Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 6Barbara and Donald Jonas Laboratory of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine and Bernard and Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Laboratory, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Institute of Human Nutrition, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 7Edward S Harkness Eye Institute, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, 8Retina Physicians & Surgeons, Inc., Dayton, OH, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to review the treatment outcomes of patients with secondary glaucoma in cases of autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV, a hereditary autoimmune uveitis due to mutations in CAPN5. Patients and methods: A retrospective, observational case series was assembled from ADNIV patients with secondary glaucoma. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP, visual acuity, use of antiglaucoma medications, ocular surgeries, and adverse outcomes. Perimetry and optic disk optical coherence tomography (OCT were also analyzed. Results: Nine eyes of five ADNIV patients with secondary glaucoma were reviewed. Each received a fluocinolone acetonide (FA implant for the management of posterior uveitis. Following implantation, no eyes developed neovascular glaucoma. Five eyes (in patients 1, 2, and 5 required Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery for the management of steroid-responsive glaucoma. Patient 2 also developed angle closure with iris bombe and underwent laser

  9. Ethical aspects of registry-based research in the Nordic countries

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    Ludvigsson JF

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jonas F Ludvigsson,1,2 Siri E Håberg,3 Gun Peggy Knudsen,3 Pierre Lafolie,4,5 Helga Zoega,6 Catharina Sarkkola,7 Stephanie von Kraemer,7 Elisabete Weiderpass,1,7–10 Mette Nørgaard11 1Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 2Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; 3Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; 4Department of Medicine, Clinical Pharmacology Unit, 5The Stockholm Regional Ethical Review Board, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 6Center of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland; 7Genetic Epidemiology Group, Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland; 8Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, 9The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, 10Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway; 11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Abstract: National health care registries in the Nordic countries share many attributes, but different legal and ethical frameworks represent a challenge to promoting effective joint research. Internationally, there is a lack of knowledge about how ethical matters are considered in Nordic registry-based research, and a lack of knowledge about how Nordic ethics committees operate and what is needed to obtain an approval. In this paper, we review ethical aspects of registry-based research, the legal framework, the role of ethics review boards in the Nordic countries, and the structure of the ethics application. We discuss the role of informed consent in registry-based research and how to safeguard the integrity of study participants, including vulnerable subjects and children. Our review also provides information on the different government agencies that contribute registry-based data, and a list of the major health registries in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and

  10. Patient Transfers and Risk of Back Injury: Protocol for a Prospective Cohort Study With Technical Measurements of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Madeleine, Pascal; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2017-11-08

    order to identify risk factors for back injuries related to patient transfers and intensity of LBP. Data collection is scheduled to commence during the winter of 2017. The design of this study is novel in its combination of technical measurements applied on a prospective cohort, and the results will provide important information about which assistive devices are associated with intensity of LBP and risk of back injury related to patient transfers. Furthermore, this study will shed light on the dose-response relationship between intensity, duration, and frequency of patient transfers and the intensity of LPB in Danish nurses, and will thereby help to guide and improve electronic health practices among this population. ©Jonas Vinstrup, Pascal Madeleine, Markus Due Jakobsen, Kenneth Jay, Lars Louis Andersen. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 08.11.2017.

  11. Quantum field theory on toroidal topology: Algebraic structure and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, F.C., E-mail: khannaf@uvic.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Malbouisson, A.P.C., E-mail: adolfo@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas/MCT, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Malbouisson, J.M.C., E-mail: jmalboui@ufba.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Santana, A.E., E-mail: asantana@unb.br [International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2014-06-01

    The development of quantum theory on a torus has a long history, and can be traced back to the 1920s, with the attempts by Nordström, Kaluza and Klein to define a fourth spatial dimension with a finite size, being curved in the form of a torus, such that Einstein and Maxwell equations would be unified. Many developments were carried out considering cosmological problems in association with particle physics, leading to methods that are useful for areas of physics, in which size effects play an important role. This interest in finite size effect systems has been increasing rapidly over the last decades, due principally to experimental improvements. In this review, the foundations of compactified quantum field theory on a torus are presented in a unified way, in order to consider applications in particle and condensed matter physics. The theory on a torus Γ{sub D}{sup d}=(S{sup 1}){sup d}×R{sup D−d} is developed from a Lie-group representation and c{sup ∗}-algebra formalisms. As a first application, the quantum field theory at finite temperature, in its real- and imaginary-time versions, is addressed by focusing on its topological structure, the torus Γ{sub 4}{sup 1}. The toroidal quantum-field theory provides the basis for a consistent approach of spontaneous symmetry breaking driven by both temperature and spatial boundaries. Then the superconductivity in films, wires and grains are analyzed, leading to some results that are comparable with experiments. The Casimir effect is studied taking the electromagnetic and Dirac fields on a torus. In this case, the method of analysis is based on a generalized Bogoliubov transformation, that separates the Green function into two parts: one is associated with the empty space–time, while the other describes the impact of compactification. This provides a natural procedure for calculating the renormalized energy–momentum tensor. Self interacting four-fermion systems, described by the Gross–Neveu and Nambu–Jona

  12. QCD phase diagram under an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcio Rafael Baptista

    Neste trabalho e investigado o impacto de um campo magnetico externo na estrutura do diagrama de fases da Cromodinâmica Quântica (QCD). O estudo e realizado utilizando o modelo efetivo de Nambu-Jona-Lasinio para tres sabores acoplado ao loop de Polyakov (modelo de PNJL). A interacao de entanglement (modelo de EPNJL) na presenca de um campo magnetico e tambem estudada. Ambas as transicoes quiral e de desconfinamento na presenca de um campo magnetico externo podem ser analisadas usando os modelos de PNJL e EPNJL. Para o modelo de EPNJL e verificado que a coincidencia das temperaturas pseudocriticas de ambas as transicoes quiral e de deconfinamento dependem da parametrizacao da interacao de entanglement. E realizado um estudo sistematico do efeito de um campo magnetico externo nas transicoes quiral e de desconfinamento a potencial quimico barionico nulo, e.g., calculando a dependencia das temperaturas pesudocriticas com a intensidade do campo magnetico. O impacto de um campo magnetico externo no comportamento do quark estranho e analizado detalhadamente. E mostrado que a temperatura pseudocritica associada a transicao quiral do quark estranho e pouco sensivel a presenca de um campo magnetico externo. Alem disso, a sua grande massa corrente torna o quark estranho pouco sensivel ao termo de 't Hooft, contrariamente a forte influencia que tem nos quarks leves. Ambos os modelos de PNJL e EPNJL preveem o efeito de Catalise Magnetica a qualquer temperatura, mas nao reproduzem o efeito de Catalise Magnetica Inversa (CMI) em redor da temperatura pseudocritica de transicao, obtido em resultados recentes da LQCD. Mostramos que e possivel reproduzir a CMI se a intensidade da interacao entre quarks diminuir com o campo magnetico. Propomos dois mecanismos que reproduzem o efeito de CMI, que assumem o enfraquecimento da constante de acoplamento da interacao escalar com o aumento da intensidade do campo magnetico. O diagrama de fases e calculado para varios cenarios de isospin e

  13. The influence of solution composition and grain boundaries on the replacement of calcite by dolomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraila Martinez, Teresita de Jesus; Putnis, Christine V.; Putnis, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    microreactors during reactive fluid flow: experimental dolomitization of a calcite marble. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 168:1045. 2. Jonas L., Müller T., Dohmen R., Baumgartner L., Putlitz B. (2015). Transport-controlled hydrothermal replacement of calcite by Mg-carbonates. Geology. doi:10.1130/G36934.1 3. Kaczmarek S.E., Sibley D.F., (2011). On the evolution of dolomite stoichiometry and cation order during high-temperature synthesis experiments: An alternative model for geochemical evolution of natural dolomites. Sedimentary Geology. 246, 30-40.

  14. Clinical validation of immunoglobulin A nephropathy diagnosis in Swedish biopsy registers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrick S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simon Jarrick,1,2 Sigrid Lundberg,3,4 Adina Welander,5,6 C Michael Fored,6 Jonas F Ludvigsson2,7,8 1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Örebro University, 2Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, 3Department of Nephrology, Karolinska University Hospital, 4Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, 5Boston Consulting Group, 6Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, 7Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 8Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Aims: The aims of this study were to validate the diagnosis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN in Swedish biopsy registers against patient charts and to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with a biopsy indicating IgAN. Methods: This is a population-based cohort study. Out of 4,069 individuals with a renal biopsy consistent with IgAN (biopsies performed in 1974–2011, this study reviewed patient charts of a random subset of 127 individuals. Clinical and biopsy characteristics at the time of biopsy were evaluated, and positive predictive values (PPV were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results: Out of 127 individuals with a renal biopsy consistent with IgAN, 121 had a likely or confirmed clinical diagnosis of IgAN, primary or secondary to Henoch–Schönlein purpura, yielding a PPV of 95% (95% CI =92%–99%. The median age at biopsy was 39 years (range: 4–79 years; seven patients (6% were <16 years. The male to female ratio was 2.8:1. The most common causes for consultation were macroscopic hematuria (n=37; 29%, screening (n=33; 26%, and purpura (n=14, 11%. In patients with available data, the median creatinine level was 104 µmol/L (range 26–986 µmol/L, n=110 and glomerular filtration rate 75 mL/min/1.73m² (range 5–173 mL/min/1.73m², n=114. Hypertension was

  15. Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael A; Wiggins, Osborne P

    2010-01-21

    Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1) Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2) World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3) Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time.We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of life, even if only human

  16. A solution to the rho-π puzzle: Spontaneously broken symmetries of the quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldi, D.G.; Pagels, H.

    1976-01-01

    This article proposes a solution to the long-standing rho-π puzzle: How can the rho and π be members of a quark model U(6) 36 and the π be a Nambu-Goldstone boson satisfying partial conservation of the axial-vector current (PCAC) Our solution to the puzzle requires a revision of conventional concepts regarding the vector mesons rho, ω, K*, and phi. Just as the π is a Goldstone state, a collective excitation of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio type, transforming as a member of the (3, 3) + (3, 3) representation of the chiral SU(3) x SU(3) group, so also the rho transforms like (3, 3) + (3, 3) and is also a collective state, a ''dormant'' Goldstone boson that is a true Goldstone boson in the static chiral U(6) x U(6) limit. The static chiral U(6) x U(6) is to be spontaneously broken to static U(6) in the vacuum. Relativisitc effects provide for U(6) breaking and a massive rho. This viewpoint has many consequences. Vector-meson dominance is a consequence of spontaneously broken chiral symmetry: the mechanism that couples the axial-vector current to the π couples the vector current to the rho. The transition rate is calculated as γ/sub rho/ -1 = f/sub pi//m/sub rho/ in rough agreement with experiment. This picture requires soft rho's to decouple. The chiral partner of the rho is not the A 1 but the B (1235). The experimental absence of the A 1 is no longer a theoretical embarrassment in this scheme. As the analog of PCAC for the pion we establish a tensor-field identity for the rho meson in which the rho is interpreted as a dormant Goldstone state. The decays delta → eta + π, B → ω + π, epsilon → 2π are estimated and are found to be in agreement with the observed rates. A static U(6) x U(6) generalization of the Σ model is presented with the π, rho, sigma, B in the (6, 6) + (6, 6) representation. The rho emerges as a dormant Goldstone boson in this model

  17.  Spis treści

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Dobija

    2014-04-01

    Ze współpracy z zagranicą .................................................................................. 145 Susana Callao, José I. Jarne, Dawid Wróblewski – Debates and studies on earnings management: a geographical perspective – Dyskusja na temat zarządzania zyskiem: perspektywa geograficzna ........... 145 4 Spis treści Darius Vaicekauskas, Jonas Mackevičius – Developing a framework for audit quality management in the audit firms –Ramy zarządzania jakością audytu w firmach audytorskich ........................ 171 Konferencje naukowe w dziedzinie rachunkowości i finansów organizowane w 2014 roku przez szkoły wyższe w Polsce ................................................... 195 Informacja dla autorów ....................................................................................... 199 Instructions for authors ....................................................................................... 207

  18. Integrating out the Dirac sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbstein, Felix

    2009-07-08

    We introduce a new method for dealing with fermionic quantum field theories amenable to a mean-field-type approximation. In this work we focus on the relativistic Hartree approximation. Our aim is to integrate out the Dirac sea and derive a no-sea effective theory'' with positive energy single particle states only. As the derivation of the no-sea effective theory involves only standard Feynman diagrams, our approach is quite general and not restricted to particular space-time dimensions. We develop and illustrate the approach in the ''large N'' limit of the Gross-Neveu model family in 1+1 dimensions. As the Gross-Neveu model has been intensely studied and several analytical solutions are known for this model, it is an ideal testing ground for our no-sea effective theory approach. The chiral Gross-Neveu model, also referred to as 1+1 dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, turns out to be of particular interest. In this case, we explicitly derive a consistent effective theory featuring both elementary ''{pi} meson'' fields and (positive energy) ''quark'' fields, starting from a purely fermionic quantum field theory. In the second part of this work, we apply our approach to the Walecka model in 1+1 and 3+1 dimensions. As the Dirac sea caused considerable difficulties in attempts to base nuclear physics on field theoretic models like the Walecka model, mean-field calculations were typically done without the sea. We confront several of these mean-field theory results with our no-sea effective theory approach. The potential of our approach is twofold. While the no-sea effective theory can be utilized to provide new analytical insights in particular parameter regimes, it also sheds new light on more fundamental issues as the explicit emergence of effective, Dirac-sea induced multi-fermion interactions in an effective theory with positive energy states only. (orig.)

  19. The CQM Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polosa, A. D.

    2000-01-01

    This work is devoted to introduce an effective Constituent-Quark-Meson model based on a Lagrangian incorporating the symmetries of heavy-quark effective theory, the chiral symmetry in the light-quark sector, see sect. 2, and, as is discussed in sect. 3, dynamical information derived from an underlying Nambu-Jona-Lasinio interaction. In sec. 4, together with the discussion of calculation techniques used for computing some relevant loop-integrals, it is shown how the determination of strong-coupling constants, parameterizing the low-energy effective hadron Lagrangian, proceeds through a comparison of the low-energy matrix elements wit the CQM computed amplitudes: CQM plays the role of a fundamental model (since it contains, besides meson fields, also the elementary heavy- and light-quark fields) with which the hadron theory must match at higher energy, see discussion in subsubsect. 2.1.1. With respect to lattice QCD and SVZ sum rules, CQM is a rough approach that, anyway, has shown to be a quite reliable and easy-to-use method. One of the very common problems of quark models is that of associating theoretical errors to predictions. This topic is discussed with reference to CQM in sect. 3, together with the problem of defining the light constituent quark mass. The constituent quark mass is typically heavier than the current mass, appearing in the QCD Lagrangian (and related to the Higgs field VEV): one can think of a constituent quark as of a current (bare) quark dressed by a cloud of virtual particles generated by strong interactions. The mechanism dressing the bare quark and giving the constituent quark its mass value, is an intrinsic feature of the model itself. Section 5 is devoted to the study of exclusive semileptonic decays of B mesons through the CQM model. Here are examined processes involving b → clv and b → ulv transitions, the former being related to V c b, the latter to V u b. In particular, CQM has allowed to obtain a prediction for the branching

  20. Investigation of enzyme-sensitive lipid nanoparticles for delivery of siRNA to blood–brain barrier and glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruun J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jonas Bruun,1 Trine B Larsen,1 Rasmus I Jølck,1 Rasmus Eliasen,1 René Holm,2 Torben Gjetting,1 Thomas L Andresen11Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Center for Nanomedicine and Theranostics, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Lyngby, Denmark; 2H Lundbeck A/S, Biologics and Pharmaceutical Science, Valby, DenmarkAbstract: Clinical applications of siRNA for treating disorders in the central nervous system require development of systemic stable, safe, and effective delivery vehicles that are able to cross the impermeable blood–brain barrier (BBB. Engineering nanocarriers with low cellular interaction during systemic circulation, but with high uptake in targeted cells, is a great challenge and is further complicated by the BBB. As a first step in obtaining such a delivery system, this study aims at designing a lipid nanoparticle (LNP able to efficiently encapsulate siRNA by a combination of titratable cationic lipids. The targeted delivery is obtained through the design of a two-stage system where the first step is conjugation of angiopep to the surface of the LNP for targeting the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 expressed on the BBB. Second, the positively charged LNPs are masked with a negatively charged PEGylated (poly(ethylene glycol cleavable lipopeptide, which contains a recognition sequence for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, a class of enzymes often expressed in the tumor microenvironment and inflammatory BBB conditions. Proteolytic cleavage induces PEG release, including the release of four glutamic acid residues, providing a charge switch that triggers a shift of the LNP charge from weakly negative to positive, thus favoring cellular endocytosis and release of siRNA for high silencing efficiency. This work describes the development of this two-stage nanocarrier-system and evaluates the performance in brain endothelial and glioblastoma cells with respect to uptake and gene silencing efficiency. The

  1. Do nanoparticles provide a new opportunity for diagnosis of distal airspace disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löndahl J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jakob Löndahl,1,2 Jonas KF Jakobsson,1,2 David M Broday,3 H Laura Aaltonen,4 Per Wollmer4 1Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology (EAT, Department of Design Sciences, 2NanoLund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 3Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion, Haifa, Israel; 4Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden Abstract: There is a need for efficient techniques to assess abnormalities in the peripheral regions of the lungs, for example, for diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema. Considerable scientific efforts have been directed toward measuring lung morphology by studying recovery of inhaled micron-sized aerosol particles (0.4–1.5 µm. In contrast, it is suggested that the recovery of inhaled airborne nanoparticles may be more useful for diagnosis. The objective of this work is to provide a theoretical background for the use of nanoparticles in measuring lung morphology and to assess their applicability based on a review of the literature. Using nanoparticles for studying distal airspace dimensions is shown to have several advantages over other aerosol-based methods. 1 Nanoparticles deposit almost exclusively by diffusion, which allows a simpler breathing maneuver with minor artifacts from particle losses in the oropharyngeal and upper airways. 2 A higher breathing flow rate can be utilized, making it possible to rapidly inhale from residual volume to total lung capacity (TLC, thereby eliminating the need to determine the TLC before measurement. 3 Recent studies indicate better penetration of nanoparticles than micron-sized particles into poorly ventilated and diseased regions of the lungs; thus, a stronger signal from the abnormal parts is expected. 4 Changes in airspace dimensions have a larger impact on the recovery of nanoparticles. Compared to current diagnostic techniques with high specificity for morphometric changes of the lungs, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with

  2. Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiggins Osborne P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1 Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2 World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3 Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time. We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of

  3. Inflammatory etiopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podolska MJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Malgorzata J Podolska, Mona HC Biermann, Christian Maueröder, Jonas Hahn, Martin Herrmann Department of Internal Medicine 3, Institute for Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: The immune system struggles every day between responding to foreign antigens and tolerating self-antigens to delicately maintain tissue homeostasis. If self-tolerance is broken, the development of autoimmunity can be the consequence, as it is in the case of the chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. SLE is considered to be a multifactorial disease comprising various processes and cell types that act abnormally and in a harmful way. Oxidative stress, infections, or, in general, tissue injury are accompanied by massive cellular demise. Several processes such as apoptosis, necrosis, or NETosis (formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps [NETs] may occur alone or in combination. If clearance of dead cells is insufficient, cellular debris may accumulate and trigger inflammation and leakage of cytoplasmic and nuclear autoantigens like ribonucleoproteins, DNA, or histones. Inadequate removal of cellular remnants in the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs may result in the presentation of autoantigens by follicular dendritic cells to autoreactive B cells that had been generated by chance during the process of somatic hypermutation (loss of peripheral tolerance. The improper exposure of nuclear autoantigens in this delicate location is consequently prone to break self-tolerance to nuclear autoantigens. Indeed, the germline variants of autoantibodies often do not show autoreactivity. The subsequent production of autoantibodies plays a critical role in the development of the complex immunological disorder fostering SLE. Immune complexes composed of cell-derived autoantigens and autoantibodies are formed and get deposited in various tissues, such as the

  4. Immune-regulating effects of exercise on cigarette smoke-induced inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ashkan Madani,1 Katharina Alack,2 Manuel Jonas Richter,3,4 Karsten Krüger1 1Department of Exercise and Health, Institute of Sports Science, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany; 2Department of Sports Medicine, University of Giessen, Germany; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC, Germany; 4German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Giessen, Germany Abstract: Long-term cigarette smoking (LTCS represents an important risk factor for cardiac infarction and stroke and the central risk factor for the development of a bronchial carcinoma, smoking-associated interstitial lung fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The pathophysiologic development of these diseases is suggested to be promoted by chronic and progressive inflammation. Cigarette smoking induces repetitive inflammatory insults followed by a chronic and progressive activation of the immune system. In the pulmonary system of cigarette smokers, oxidative stress, cellular damage, and a chronic activation of pattern recognition receptors are described which are followed by the translocation of the NF-kB, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteases, and damage-associated molecular patterns. In parallel, smoke pollutants cross directly through the alveolus–capillary interface and spread through the systemic bloodstream targeting different organs. Consequently, LTCS induces a systemic low-grade inflammation and increased oxidative stress in the vascular system. In blood, these processes promote an increased coagulation and endothelial dysfunction. In muscle tissue, inflammatory processes activate catabolic signaling pathways followed by muscle wasting and sarcopenia. In brain, several characteristics of neuroinflammation were described. Regular exercise training has been shown to be an effective nonpharmacological treatment strategy in smoke-induced pulmonary diseases

  5. Paper- or Web-Based Questionnaire Invitations as a Method for Data Collection: Cross-Sectional Comparative Study of Differences in Response Rate, Completeness of Data, and Financial Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Jonas Fynboe; Huibers, Linda; Christensen, Bo; Christensen, Morten Bondo

    2018-01-23

    questionnaires generally had more missing values; this was significant in five of 17 variables (Pdigital group does not necessarily increase the level of selection bias. Invitations to questionnaire studies via digital mail may be an excellent option for collecting research data in the future. This study may serve as the foundational pillar of digital data collection in health care research in Scandinavia and other countries considering implementing similar systems. ©Jonas Fynboe Ebert, Linda Huibers, Bo Christensen, Morten Bondo Christensen. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 23.01.2018.

  6. Suicidality and symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation in patients experiencing manic episodes with depressive symptoms: a naturalistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jonas Eberhard,1 Emmanuelle Weiller2 1Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 2H. Lundbeck A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: Patients with a bipolar I disorder (BD-I manic episode meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5, criteria for “with mixed features” have a high incidence of suicide attempts and of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (AIA symptoms. The aim of this analysis was to explore the relationship between suicidality and AIA symptoms in patients with BD-I experiencing mania with depressive symptoms, using data from a previous naturalistic study.Patients and methods: Psychiatrists completed an online questionnaire about their adult patients who had a current BD-I manic episode. Questions covered the DSM-5 “with mixed features” specifier, the severity of AIA symptoms, the frequency and controllability of suicidal ideation, and the number of suicide attempts.Results: Of 1,035 patients with BD-I mania who were included in the analyses, 348 (33.6% met the criteria for the DSM-5 “with mixed features” specifier (three or more depressive symptoms. These patients were further stratified according to the severity of their AIA symptoms: “mild AIA” (zero or one AIA symptom above a severity threshold; 105 patients or “severe AIA” (all three AIA symptoms above a severity threshold; 167 patients. A greater incidence of suicidal ideation was observed in the severe AIA group (71.9% than in the mild AIA group (47.6%. Twice as many patients had easily controlled suicidal ideation than difficult-to-control suicidal ideation in both subgroups. The mean number of suicide attempts was higher in the severe AIA group than in the mild AIA group, during the current episode (0.84 vs 0.34 attempts, respectively; P<0.05 and over the patient’s lifetime (1.56 vs 1.04 attempts, respectively.Conclusion: The high risk of suicide among BD-I mania patients with depressive

  7. Evaluating depressive symptoms in mania: a naturalistic study of patients with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young AH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Allan H Young,1 Jonas Eberhard1,21Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK; 2Corporate Medical Affairs, H. Lundbeck A/S, Copenhagen, DenmarkObjective: This study aimed to evaluate patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I who have mania with depressive symptoms and who meet the new “with mixed features” specifier of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5.Method: This prospective, multinational, naturalistic study surveyed psychiatrists and their patients with BD-I from October 2013 to March 2014. Eligible patients had BD-I, had a (current manic episode, and had experienced onset of a manic episode within the previous 3 months. Psychiatrists provided patient information on depressive symptoms (DSM-5 criteria; symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation; suicide attempts; and physician satisfaction with treatment response. Data were stratified according to whether patients met the criteria for the BD-I “with mixed features” specifier of DSM-5 (≥3 depressive symptoms or not, and characteristics were compared between the two subgroups. Patients also self-reported on depressive symptoms using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview module questionnaire.Results: Overall, 34% of 1,035 patients met the criteria for BD-I “with mixed features,” exhibiting ≥3 depressive symptoms during their current manic episode. This correlated with the matched patient self-reports of depressive symptoms. During their current manic episode, BD-I patients “with mixed features” had more severe symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (average composite severity score of 4.1 vs 3.4, a higher incidence of suicide attempts (38% vs 9%, and more physician dissatisfaction with treatment response (22% vs 14%, compared to patients with 0–2 depressive symptoms (all P<0.05.Conclusion: This study found that patients with BD-I “with mixed features” (ie, ≥3 depressive symptoms

  8. The impact of JNK inhibitor D-JNKI-1 in a murine model of chronic colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersting S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sabine Kersting,1* Volker Behrendt,1* Jonas Kersting,1 Kirstin Reinecke,3 Christoph Hilgert,1 Ingo Stricker,2 Thomas Herdegen,3 Monika S Janot,1 Waldemar Uhl,1 Ansgar M Chromik1 1Department of General and Visceral Surgery, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 2Department of Pathology, Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 3Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany *The two authors Sabine Kersting and Volker Behrendt contributed equally to this work Purpose: The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK are involved in the activation of T cells and the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Several studies have established the relevance of the JNK pathway in inflammatory bowel diseases. The present study analyzed the therapeutic effect of D-JNKI-1, a specific JNK-inhibiting peptide, in a low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS model of chronic colitis. Methods: DSS colitis was induced in female C57/BL6 mice by cyclic administration using different concentrations of DSS (1.0% and 1.5%. Mice in the intervention groups received subcutaneous administration of 1 µg/kg D-JNKI-1 on days 2, 12, and 22. They were monitored daily to assess the severity of colitis, body weight, stool consistency, and the occurrence of occult blood or gross rectal bleeding using evaluation of the disease activity index. The animals were sacrificed after 30 days, and the inflamed intestine was histologically evaluated using a crypt damage score. Immunohistochemical quantification of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was also carried out. Results: Administration of 1 µg/kg D-JNKI-1 resulted in a significant decrease in the disease activity index (P = 0.013 for 1.0% DSS; P = 0.007 for 1.5% DSS. As a mild form of colitis was induced, histological examination did not show any distinct damage to the mucosa and crypts. However, expression of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was reduced in mice treated with D-JNKI-1 (not

  9. Collective excitations in a superfluid of color-flavor locked quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kenji; Iida, Kei

    2005-01-01

    We investigate collective excitations coupled with baryon density in a system of massless three-flavor quarks in the collisionless regime. By using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model in the mean-field approximation, we field-theoretically derive the spectra both for the normal and color-flavor locked (CFL) superfluid phases at zero temperature. In the normal phase, we obtain usual zero sound as a low-lying collective mode in the particle-hole (vector) channel. In the CFL phase, the nature of collective excitations varies in a way dependent on whether the excitation energy, ω, is larger or smaller than the threshold given by twice the pairing gap Δ, at which pair excitations with nonzero total momentum become allowed to break up into two quasiparticles. For ω H =1/√(3) in the low momentum regime; the decay constant f H obtained in the NJL model is identical with the QCD result obtained in the mean-field approximation. We also find that, as the momentum of the phonon increases, the excitation energy goes up and asymptotically approaches ω=2Δ. Above the threshold for pair excitations (ω>2Δ), zero sound manifests itself in the vector channel. By locating the zero sound pole of the vector propagator in the complex energy plane, we investigate the attenuation and energy dispersion relation of zero sound. In the long wavelength limit, the phonon mode, the only low-lying excitation, has its spectral weight in the H channel alone, while the spectral function vanishes in the vector channel. This is due to nontrivial mixing between the H and vector channels in the superfluid medium. We finally extend our study to the case of nonzero temperature. We demonstrate how Landau damping smears the phonon peak in the finite temperature spectral function. We find a pure imaginary pole of the H propagator in the complex energy plane, which can be identified as a diffusive mode responsible for the Landau damping. From the pole position we derive the thermal diffusion constant

  10. Reader-Centered Technical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2012-12-01

    an old schema. This reinforces basic engineering and mathematical design concepts. Accommodation: Here, it may work in a different manner. Writers may have to accommodate an old schema to a new object. This helps engineers to focus more on applications. Adaptation: Assimilation and accommodation are the two sides of adaptation, Jean Piaget's term for what most of us would call learning. Mathematical design concepts generated by students should be suitable for creative engineering applications. References : Phillips, D. C. and Soltis, Jonas F. (2003) "Piagetian Structures and Psychological Constructivism," in Perspectives on Learning (4th edition). New York: Teachers College Press. Salvo, Michael J. (2001). Ethics of Engagement: User-Centered Design and Rhetorical Methodology. Technical Communication Quarterly Volume 10, Issue 3, 2001. pages 273-290. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/piaget.html http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/624/01/

  11. A gestão dos processos de adaptação social como corolário das mudanças ecológicas: a interface com o princípio da responsabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Camargo D’Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Configura-se esta pesquisa em um estudo de cunho qualitativo e caráter bibliográfico, a qual almeja examinar a interrelação entre a gestão dos processos de adaptação social e o princípio da responsabilidade. Entende-se que se adentra em temática ampla e complexa, que perpassa todas as esferas do espaço público, visto que o fomento ao meio ambiente ecologicamente equilibrado afeta a todos os indivíduos, global e indistintamente. Nesse plano, mesmo sendo esta uma problemática mundial e que, consequentemente, requer uma solução abrangente, mostra-se indispensável que sejam buscadas alternativas já em âmbito local, pois é assim que se vai galgando o esclarecimento e a conscientização de todos os sujeitos. Para que o objetivo primordial desta investigação fosse alcançado utilizaram-se as concepções, de modo precípuo, de Anthony Giddens, quando este trata, especificamente, do manejo das complexidades sociais e econômicas introduzidas pelas novas formas de tecnologia, bem como a interconexão dos riscos a serem assumidos com o princípio de responsabilidade proposto por Hans Jonas. Dada a complexidade destas temáticas, o que se percebe é uma apatia social, em que a indiferença se faz, paulatinamente, mais presente. No entanto, é essencial compreender que, para haver a desobstaculização das problemáticas ainda arraigadas, a fim de almejar uma sociedade mais igual e mais responsável pelo meio ambiente, mostra-se crucial uma reformulação na práxis política, social e cultural. É mediante o engajamento político e o ativismo dos grupos sociais que se pode propor mudanças estruturais.

  12. Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1) Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2) World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3) Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time. We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of life, even if only human

  13. Quantum field theory on toroidal topology: Algebraic structure and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, F.C.; Malbouisson, A.P.C.; Malbouisson, J.M.C.; Santana, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    The development of quantum theory on a torus has a long history, and can be traced back to the 1920s, with the attempts by Nordström, Kaluza and Klein to define a fourth spatial dimension with a finite size, being curved in the form of a torus, such that Einstein and Maxwell equations would be unified. Many developments were carried out considering cosmological problems in association with particle physics, leading to methods that are useful for areas of physics, in which size effects play an important role. This interest in finite size effect systems has been increasing rapidly over the last decades, due principally to experimental improvements. In this review, the foundations of compactified quantum field theory on a torus are presented in a unified way, in order to consider applications in particle and condensed matter physics. The theory on a torus Γ D d =(S 1 ) d ×R D−d is developed from a Lie-group representation and c ∗ -algebra formalisms. As a first application, the quantum field theory at finite temperature, in its real- and imaginary-time versions, is addressed by focusing on its topological structure, the torus Γ 4 1 . The toroidal quantum-field theory provides the basis for a consistent approach of spontaneous symmetry breaking driven by both temperature and spatial boundaries. Then the superconductivity in films, wires and grains are analyzed, leading to some results that are comparable with experiments. The Casimir effect is studied taking the electromagnetic and Dirac fields on a torus. In this case, the method of analysis is based on a generalized Bogoliubov transformation, that separates the Green function into two parts: one is associated with the empty space–time, while the other describes the impact of compactification. This provides a natural procedure for calculating the renormalized energy–momentum tensor. Self interacting four-fermion systems, described by the Gross–Neveu and Nambu–Jona-Lasinio models, are considered. Then

  14. Local Geostatistical Models and Big Data in Hydrological and Ecological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristopulos, Dionissios

    2015-04-01

    helps to overcome a significant computational bottleneck of geostatistical models due to the poor scaling of the matrix inversion [4,5]. We present applications to real and simulated data sets, including the Walker lake data, and we investigate the SLI performance using various statistical cross validation measures. References [1] T. Hofmann, B. Schlkopf, A.J. Smola, Annals of Statistics, 36, 1171-1220 (2008). [2] D. T. Hristopulos, SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, 24(6): 2125-2162 (2003). [3] D. T. Hristopulos and S. N. Elogne, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 57(9): 3475-3487 (2009) [4] G. Jona Lasinio, G. Mastrantonio, and A. Pollice, Statistical Methods and Applications, 22(1):97-112 (2013) [5] Sun, Y., B. Li, and M. G. Genton (2012). Geostatistics for large datasets. In: Advances and Challenges in Space-time Modelling of Natural Events, Lecture Notes in Statistics, pp. 55-77. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg.

  15. Double electrical layer in the cathode spot / Двойной электрический слой в катодном пятне / Dvostruki električni sloj u katodnom spotu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid I. Gretchikhin

    2016-07-01

    električnog sloja iznad površine katodnog spota. Njegova neutralizacja dovodi do reverzne struje slobodnih elektrona, generisane usled jonizacje negativnih jona. Negativno naelektrisan plamen katodnog spota periodično se stvara i gasi, tako da je dužina postojanja katodnog spota definisana ovim oscilirajućim procesom. Reverzno kretanje katodnog spota u longitudinalnom magnetnom polju dešava se zahvaljujući generisanju reverzne struje neutralizacije velike snage dvostrukog električnog sloja pomoću elektrona koji nastaju tokom jonizacje negativnih jona u plamenu katode.

  16. Missed connections: A case study of the social networks of physics doctoral students in a single department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaub, Alexis Victoria

    research decreases the time to degree. Only research peer network and departmental information network variables remain in this model. Suggestions for further research for both physics/STEM education and social network analysis are included. Suggestions for ways in which the Jonas University physics department can improve its climate are also included. Although these suggestions are written based upon the Jonas University data, they may be applicable to other physics/STEM graduate programs.

  17. EDITORIAL: The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran Lj; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2011-03-01

    This special issue consists of papers that are associated with invited lectures, workshop papers and hot topic papers presented at the 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG XX). This conference was organized in Novi Sad (Serbia) from 13 to 17 July 2010 by the Institute of Physics of the University of Belgrade. It is important to note that this is not a conference 'proceedings'. Following the initial selection process by the International Scientific Committee, all papers were submitted to the journal by the authors and have been fully peer reviewed to the standard required for publication in Plasma Sources Science and Technology (PSST). The papers are based on presentations given at the conference but are intended to be specialized technical papers covering all or part of the topic presented by the author during the meeting. The ESCAMPIG conference is a regular biennial Europhysics Conference of the European Physical Society focusing on collisional and radiative aspects of atomic and molecular physics in partially ionized gases as well as on plasma-surface interaction. The conference focuses on low-temperature plasma sciences in general and includes the following topics: Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function Physical basis of plasma chemistry Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) Plasma diagnostics Plasma and discharges theory and simulation Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas Low-pressure plasma sources High-pressure plasma sources Plasmas and gas flows Laser-produced plasmas During ESCAMPIG XX special sessions were dedicated to workshops on: Atomic and molecular collision data for plasma modeling, organized by Professors Z Lj Petrovic and N Mason Plasmas in medicine, organized by Dr N Puac and Professor G Fridman. The conference topics were represented in the

  18. HACIA UNA FILOSOFÍA PRÁCTICA DE LA CIENCIA: ESPECIE BIOLÓGICA Y DELIBERACIÓN ÉTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Marcos

    2010-01-01

    segundo lugar, presentaré el estado de la cuestión en lo que hace al debate actual sobre el concepto de especie (apartado 2. En tercer lugar, veremos la importancia que dicho concepto ha cobrado en contextos prácticos a través de un caso concreto, paradigmático en muchos sentidos, el llamado dilema del anti-especista (apartado 3. Cerraré mi aportación con un resumen conclusivo del cual adelanto la tesis principal, a saber, que la noción de especie humana (Homo sapiens debería ser evitada en contextos morales, y reemplazada por otras, como quizá familia humana. Apuntaré también algunas líneas para seguir reflexionando, inspiradas en ideas de Aristóteles, Jonas y MacIntyre (apartado 4.

  19. Color superconductivity: Phase diagrams and Goldstone bosons in the color-flavor locked phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinhaus, Verena

    2009-01-01

    The phase diagram of strongly interacting matter is studied with great experimental and theoretical effort and is one of the most fascinating research areas in modern particle physics. It is believed that color superconducting phases, in which quarks form Cooper pairs, appear at very high densities and low temperatures. Such phases could appear in the cores of neutron stars. In this work color superconducting phases are studied within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. First of all, the phase diagram of neutral matter in beta equilibrium is calculated for two different diquark couplings. To this end, we determine the dynamical quark masses self-consistently together with the order parameters of color superconductivity. The interplay between neutrality and quark masses results in an interesting phase structure, in particular for the smaller diquark coupling. In the following, we additionally include a conserved lepton number to map the situation in the first few seconds of the evolution of a protoneutron star when neutrinos are trapped. This has a huge influence on the phase structure and favors the 2SC phase compared to the CFL phase. In the second part of this work we concentrate on the CFL phase which is characterized by a special symmetry breaking pattern. The properties of the resulting nine pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons (GB) are studied by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation for quark-quark scattering. The GB are the lowest-lying excitations in the CFL phase and therefore play an important role for the thermodynamics of the system. The properties of the GB can also be described by the low-energy effective theory (LEET) for the CFL phase. There the respective low-energy constants are derived for asymptotically high densities where the strong force is weak and can be treated perturbatively. Our aim is the comparison of our results with these predictions, on the one hand to check our model in the weak-coupling limit and on the other hand to derive information about

  20. Color superconductivity. Phase diagrams and Goldstone bosons in the color-flavor locked phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinhaus, Verena

    2009-04-29

    The phase diagram of strongly interacting matter is studied with great experimental and theoretical effort and is one of the most fascinating research areas in modern particle physics. It is believed that color superconducting phases, in which quarks form Cooper pairs, appear at very high densities and low temperatures. Such phases could appear in the cores of neutron stars. In this work color superconducting phases are studied within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. First of all, the phase diagram of neutral matter in beta equilibrium is calculated for two different diquark couplings. To this end, we determine the dynamical quark masses self-consistently together with the order parameters of color superconductivity. The interplay between neutrality and quark masses results in an interesting phase structure, in particular for the smaller diquark coupling. In the following, we additionally include a conserved lepton number to map the situation in the first few seconds of the evolution of a protoneutron star when neutrinos are trapped. This has a huge influence on the phase structure and favors the 2SC phase compared to the CFL phase. In the second part of this work we concentrate on the CFL phase which is characterized by a special symmetry breaking pattern. The properties of the resulting nine pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons (GB) are studied by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation for quark-quark scattering. The GB are the lowest-lying excitations in the CFL phase and therefore play an important role for the thermodynamics of the system. The properties of the GB can also be described by the low-energy effective theory (LEET) for the CFL phase. There the respective low-energy constants are derived for asymptotically high densities where the strong force is weak and can be treated perturbatively. Our aim is the comparison of our results with these predictions, on the one hand to check our model in the weak-coupling limit and on the other hand to derive information about

  1. Communicating climate change: alerting versus stimulating action, a few "philosophical" interrogations from a marine biogeochemist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragueneau, O.

    2009-04-01

    can come to calculate their own emissions and then, replace them in a more global context. During the debates then, very rapidly, politics and ethics come into play. Beyond the question raised above concerning outreach versus engagement, I find it VERY DIFFICULT to find the right balance between alerting and stimulating action. On one hand, we need to alert on the reality of the numbers given (and it is hard to reduce our personal emissions by a factor of 4 in France or 10 in the US), the ethical problems they raise (we, in developed countries, are responsible for the majority of past CO2 emissions and we should do the major effort, Ragueneau et al., 2008). And on the other hand, we need to remain optimistic and show that solutions do exist, if we do not want to discourage people to act. There is debate between the ethics of fear (H. Jonas) and the ethics of hope (E. Morin) as best ways to stimulate action and I feel we need to share our experiences on how best navigate between these two lines. So I would be very happy to participate in such a session to discuss the role of scientists in essential issues such as societal debates related to climate change, the frontier between outreach and political engagement, and the attitude needed to convince that there is a problem, that this problem is big and we need to stress it, but that it can be addressed with very positive implications for each of us.

  2. Jono Rėzos 1625 m. psalmyno kirčiavimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Palionis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available THE ACCENTUATION OF JONAS RĖZA’S PSALTER OF 1625SummaryAccent marks in Lithuanian writings occasionally appear in the Catechism (1547 and the Hymnal (1570 of Martynas Mažvydas. A more advanced system can be observed in the Gospels and Epistles of Baltramiejus Vilentas (1579, who used acute, grave, angled circumflex, and a tilde-shaped circumflex. The latter was used exclusively in genitive plural ending -ũ, which practice seems to be modeled on the Greek circumflex as in ϑεω̃ν, and Latin nasalization tilde as in deorũ, as well as the humanist Latin distinctive circumflex as in deûm (=-orum.The accent marks used by Rėza in his 1625 Psalter are acute, grave, angled circumflex and dot accent. The inventor of the last of these marks was apparently Rėza himself.The circumflex in Rėza’s Psalter has two different functions, that of signifying the actual word stress and that of distinguishing otherwise homonymous word forms. In the latter case it does not necessarily occur on the actually stressed syllable. Most often the circumflex in this capacity is employed in the genitive plural ending -û (like in Latin -ûm.It seems likely that Rėza did not have a conscious intention of conveying actual syllabic intonations, as is shown by the inconsistencies in his use of accent marks. A special case seems to be the circumflex on ê: here the accent sign appears to have an additional phonetic meaning – that is, Rėza’s ê usually corresponds to the long narrow vowel (which in modern Lithuanian is written ė. This practice was apparently based on intuitive comparison of the humanist Latin orthography (such as legere versus legêre with Lithuanian phonetics.The dot accent is used in the inessive (locative singular ending -ė (-e in modern orthography, sometimes also in the instrumental singular, and rarely in the inessive plural. Like circumflex, the dot accent does not always coincide with the actually stressed syllable. The sign was

  3. Low-pH concrete plug for sealing the KBS-3V deposition tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malm, Richard (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB (Sweden))

    2012-01-15

    requirement on being watertight, which also affects the design of the concrete plug. In the spent fuel repository, low-pH concrete should be used instead of conventional concrete. The reason for this is to the largest extent to reduce the negative effect that basic materials could have on the function of the bentonite clay. For this purpose, a new low-pH concrete recipe has been developed and this changes the conditions for using reinforcement, cooling and grouting compared to the use of conventional concrete. The report shows the possibilities to use an unreinforced plug made of low-pH concrete as a resistance in the deposition tunnels. Today, some parameters are unknown and some data may be classified as uncertain, primarily regarding the long-term properties of the low-pH concrete material and the bentonite clay. It will take several years until all questions can be answered and a full-scale test is vital to validate the assumptions and the performed numerical simulations. The report should therefore be considered based on that data and conclusions will be studied further and be experimentally verified under realistic and controlled conditions. The project group consists of: Patrik Gatter (VPC), Richard Malm (VPC), Lennart Boergesson (Clay Technology AB), Lars-Olof Dahlstroem (NCC-Teknik), Jonas Magnusson (NCC-Teknik), Christina Claeson-Jonsson (NCC-Teknik), Morgan Johansson (Reinertsen), Rikard Karlzen (SKB), Paer Grahm (SKB), Sten Palmer (Sten Palmer Engineering AB) and Hans Wimelius (NCC AB)

  4. Low-pH concrete plug for sealing the KBS-3V deposition tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malm, Richard

    2012-01-01

    on being watertight, which also affects the design of the concrete plug. In the spent fuel repository, low-pH concrete should be used instead of conventional concrete. The reason for this is to the largest extent to reduce the negative effect that basic materials could have on the function of the bentonite clay. For this purpose, a new low-pH concrete recipe has been developed and this changes the conditions for using reinforcement, cooling and grouting compared to the use of conventional concrete. The report shows the possibilities to use an unreinforced plug made of low-pH concrete as a resistance in the deposition tunnels. Today, some parameters are unknown and some data may be classified as uncertain, primarily regarding the long-term properties of the low-pH concrete material and the bentonite clay. It will take several years until all questions can be answered and a full-scale test is vital to validate the assumptions and the performed numerical simulations. The report should therefore be considered based on that data and conclusions will be studied further and be experimentally verified under realistic and controlled conditions. The project group consists of: Patrik Gatter (VPC), Richard Malm (VPC), Lennart Boergesson (Clay Technology AB), Lars-Olof Dahlstroem (NCC-Teknik), Jonas Magnusson (NCC-Teknik), Christina Claeson-Jonsson (NCC-Teknik), Morgan Johansson (Reinertsen), Rikard Karlzen (SKB), Paer Grahm (SKB), Sten Palmer (Sten Palmer Engineering AB) and Hans Wimelius (NCC AB)

  5. QCD under extreme conditions. Inhomogeneous condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, Achim

    2014-10-15

    Almost 40 years after the first publication on the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) big progress has been made but many questions are still open. This work covers several aspects of low-energy QCD and introduces advanced methods to calculate selected parts of the QCD phase diagram. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking as well as its restoration is a major aspect of QCD. Two effective models, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model and the linear σ-model, are widely used to describe the QCD chiral phase transition. We study the large-N{sub c} behavior of the critical temperature T{sub c} for chiral symmetry restoration in the framework of both models. While in the NJL model T{sub c} is independent of N{sub c} (and in agreement with the expected QCD scaling), the scaling behavior in the linear σ-model reads T{sub c} ∝ N{sup 1/2}{sub c}. However, this mismatch can be corrected: phenomenologically motivated temperature-dependent parameters or the extension with the Polyakov-loop renders the scaling in the linear σ-model compatible with the QCD scaling. The requirement that the chiral condensate which is the order parameter of the chiral symmetry is constant in space is too restrictive. Recent studies on inhomogeneous chiral condensation in cold, dense quark matter suggest a rich crystalline structure. These studies feature models with quark degrees of freedom. In this thesis we investigate the formation of the chiral density wave (CDW) in the framework of the so-called extended linear sigma model (eLSM) at high densities and zero temperature. The eLSM is a modern development of the linear σ-model which contains scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, as well as axial-vector mesons, and in addition, a light tetraquark state. The nucleon and its chiral partner are introduced as parity doublets in the mirror assignment. The model describes successfully the vacuum phenomenology and nuclear matter ground-state properties. As a result we find that an inhomogeneous phase

  6. 8th European Conference on Rare Diseases & Orphan Products (ECRD 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schlander

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Table of contents O1 The European Social Preferences Measurement (ESPM study project: social cost value analysis, budget impact, commercial life cycle revenue management, and the economics of biopharmaceutical Research & Development (R&D Michael Schlander, Søren Holm, Erik Nord, Jeff Richardson, Silvio Garattini, Peter Kolominsky-Rabas, Deborah Marshall, Ulf Persson, Maarten Postma, Steven Simoens, Oriol de Solà Morales, Keith Tolley, Mondher Toumi, Harry Telser O2 Newborn Screening: the potential and the challenges James R Bonham O3 Untreatable disease outcomes - how would we measure them? Helmut Hintner, Anja Diem, Martin Laimer O4 Taking Integrated Care Forward: Experiences from Canada to inspire service provision for people living with rare disease in Europe Réjean Hébert O5 Listening to the patient’s voice: social media listening for safety and benefits in rare diseases Nabarun Dasgupta, Carrie E. Pierce, Melissa Jordan O6 Via Opta: Mobile apps making visually impaired patients’ lives easier Barbara Bori, Mohanad Fors, Emilie Prazakova O7 A report of the IRDiRC “Small Population Clinical Trial” Task Force Simon Day O8 HAE patient identification and diagnosis: An innovative, ‘game changing’ collaboration Thomas J. Croce Jr. O9 Co-creating with the community: primary packaging & administration for people with haemophilia Jonas Fransson, Philip Wood O10 Go with Gaucher, taking forward the next generation. How to involve young people to create a new generation of patient advocates Anne-Grethe Lauridsen, Joanne Higgs, Vesna Stojmirova Aleksovska P1 ODAK – Orphan Drug for Acanthamoeba Keratitis Christina Olsen, Ritchie Head, Antonio Asero, Vincenzo Papa, Christa van Kan, Loic Favennec, Silvana Venturella, Michela Salvador, Alan Krol P5 Rare Navigators help people living with rare diseases to manage the social – and healthcare systems Stephanie J. Nielsen, Birthe B. Holm P6 The eAcademy for Tay-Sachs & Sandhoff disease app

  7. Reconstruction of 3d grain boundaries from rock thin sections, using polarised light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus Hammes, Daniel; Peternell, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Grain boundaries affect the physical and chemical properties of polycrystalline materials significantly by initiating reactions and collecting impurities (Birchenall, 1959), and play an essential role in recrystallization (Doherty et al. 1997). In particular, the shape and crystallographic orientation of grain boundaries reveal the deformation and annealing history of rocks (Kruhl and Peternell 2002, Kuntcheva et al. 2006). However, there is a lack of non-destructive and easy-to-use computer supported methods to determine grain boundary geometries in 3D. The only available instrument using optical light to measure grain boundary angles is still the polarising microscope with attached universal stage; operated manually and time-consuming in use. Here we present a new approach to determine 3d grain boundary orientations from 2D rock thin sections. The data is recorded by using an automatic fabric analyser microscope (Peternell et al., 2010). Due to its unique arrangement of 9 light directions the highest birefringence colour due to each light direction and crystal orientation (retardation) can be determined at each pixel in the field of view. Retardation profiles across grain boundaries enable the calculation of grain boundary angle and direction. The data for all positions separating the grains are combined and further processed. In combination with the lateral position of the grain boundary, acquired using the FAME software (Hammes and Peternell, in review), the data is used to reconstruct a 3d grain boundary model. The processing of data is almost fully automatic by using MATLAB®. Only minor manual input is required. The applicability was demonstrated on quartzite samples, but the method is not solely restricted on quartz grains and other birefringent polycrystalline materials could be used instead. References: Birchenall, C.E., 1959: Physical Metallurgy. McGraw-Hill, New York. Doherty, R.D., Hughes, D.A., Humphreys, F.J., Jonas, J.J., Juul Jensen, D., Kassner, M

  8. A ÉTICA DA RESPONSABILIDADE E A PROTEÇÃO JURÍDICO-AMBIENTAL DAS FUTURAS GERAÇÕES NA CONSTITUIÇÃO FEDERAL DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rosa de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Padrões de desenvolvimento tecnológico, baseados numa ética tradicional antropocêntrica, desencadearam sérios riscos à natureza, resultando numa ameaça à própria espécie humana. Tais questionamentos demandam uma inversão do agir humano, baseado no Princípio Responsabilidade, no que tange à necessidade de conservação da natureza para promover a garantia de sua existência futura. Dentre as principais formas de se aplicar tal responsabilidade está a atuação do Estado, através do direito em face da responsabilidade de criar as primeiras bases de aplicação de políticas públicas presentes que demandem projeções futuras e também que tenham como pré-condição os fundamentos de uma ética da responsabilidade. O Brasil, detentor de uma das maiores fontes de biodiversidade do mundo, possui em sua Carta Magna premissas que têm por escopo unir a proteção ambiental à qualidade de vida de presentes e futuras gerações, considerando, inclusive, que tal norma tenha a natureza de direito fundamental, o que corrobora para a necessidade de aplicação de uma Ética da Responsabilidade, no sentido de salvaguardar prudentemente os elementos presentes na natureza e consequentemente a existência de continuidade da espécie humana neste universo. Para tanto, objetiva-se no presente trabalho, bibliográfico e documental, estabelecer uma relação ético-jurídica entre um meio ambiente devidamente equilibrado e a qualidade de vida dos indivíduos presentes no território brasileiro, com base no contexto jurídico brasileiro atual, especificamente no que diz respeito à defesa do meio ambiente brasileiro presente no texto da Constituição Federal do Brasil, o que nos remete aos interesses intergeracionais e intrageracionais de proteção humana. Tais considerações são fundamentadas à luz da interpretação do Princípio Responsabilidade, tal como o concebera Hans Jonas, voltado para a integridade da existência humana baseada na

  9. 2012 best practices for repositories collection, storage, retrieval, and distribution of biological materials for research international society for biological and environmental repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Third Edition [Formula: see text] [Box: see text] Printed with permission from the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER) © 2011 ISBER All Rights Reserved Editor-in-Chief Lori D. Campbell, PhD Associate Editors Fay Betsou, PhD Debra Leiolani Garcia, MPA Judith G. Giri, PhD Karen E. Pitt, PhD Rebecca S. Pugh, MS Katherine C. Sexton, MBA Amy P.N. Skubitz, PhD Stella B. Somiari, PhD Individual Contributors to the Third Edition Jonas Astrin, Susan Baker, Thomas J. Barr, Erica Benson, Mark Cada, Lori Campbell, Antonio Hugo Jose Froes Marques Campos, David Carpentieri, Omoshile Clement, Domenico Coppola, Yvonne De Souza, Paul Fearn, Kelly Feil, Debra Garcia, Judith Giri, William E. Grizzle, Kathleen Groover, Keith Harding, Edward Kaercher, Joseph Kessler, Sarah Loud, Hannah Maynor, Kevin McCluskey, Kevin Meagher, Cheryl Michels, Lisa Miranda, Judy Muller-Cohn, Rolf Muller, James O'Sullivan, Karen Pitt, Rebecca Pugh, Rivka Ravid, Katherine Sexton, Ricardo Luis A. Silva, Frank Simione, Amy Skubitz, Stella Somiari, Frans van der Horst, Gavin Welch, Andy Zaayenga 2012 Best Practices for Repositories: Collection, Storage, Retrieval and Distribution of Biological Materials for Research INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL REPOSITORIES (ISBER) INTRODUCTION T he availability of high quality biological and environmental specimens for research purposes requires the development of standardized methods for collection, long-term storage, retrieval and distribution of specimens that will enable their future use. Sharing successful strategies for accomplishing this goal is one of the driving forces for the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER). For more information about ISBER see www.isber.org . ISBER's Best Practices for Repositories (Best Practices) reflect the collective experience of its members and has received broad input from other repository professionals. Throughout this document

  10. Transfer of heat and speed of plasma particles to powder particles in the plasma spray process at atmospheric pressure / Передача тепла и скорости частиц плазмы частицам порошка в процессе плазменного напыления при атмосферном давлении / Prenos toplote i brzine čestica plazme na čestice praha u plazma-sprej procesu na atmosferskom pritisku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo R. Mrdak

    2018-04-01

    brzine čestica plazme (jona i elektrona na čestice praha, kao i temperatura i brzina istopljenih čestica praha pre sudara sa podlogom. Za svaki tip praha, u zavisnosti od raspodele granulacije čestica (µm i gustine (kg/m3, neophodno je odrediti količinu dotura praha (g/min u plazmi za definisane protoke gasova (l/min, tipove plazma gasova (Ar, He, H2, N2 ili njihove mešavine i nivoe snage (kW. Da bi došlo do prenosa toplote i brzine čestica plazme na čestice praha, mora doći do interakcije između jona i elektrona iz plazme i čestica praha. Za poznate brzine i temperature mlaza plazme na atmosferskom pritisku mogu se izračunati putanje pojedinih čestica primenom jednačine kretanja, uzimajući u obzir viskozno trenje i inerciju. U radu je prikazana veza između brzine injektiranja praha Al2O3 i brzine pojedinih čestica praha Al2O3 u plazmi u zavisnosti od odstojanja otvora anode, kao i veza granulacije praha i temperature površine čestica praha u zavisnosti od injektiranja praha i nivoa snage napajanja plazma pištolja na atmosferskom pritisku.

  11. Pareceristas da RBHCS no Triênio 2015-2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editores RBHCS

    2017-12-01

    Jonas Moreira Vargas (UFPel José Carlos da Silva Cardozo (FURG Karina Barra Gomes (UENF Lania Stefanoni Ferreira (Centro Universitário da FEI Leandro Karnal (Unicamp Leny Caselli Anzai (UFMT Luciana Mendes Gandelman (UFRRJ Luciana Rodrigues Penna (UFRGS Luciano Costa Gomes (UFRGS Luís Antonio Groppo (UNIFAL Luís Augusto Ebling Farinatti (UFSM Luisa Tombini Wittmann (UDESC Luiz Estevam de Oliveira Fernandes (UFOP Luiz Fernando Dias Duarte (Museu Nacional/ UFRJ Luiz Fernando Medeiros Rodrigues (UNISINOS Lyndon de Araújo Santos (UFMA Maíra Bonafé Sei (UEL Maísa Faleiros da Cunha (Unicamp Marcelo Henrique Nogueira Diana (IFC Marcelo Vianna (IFRS Marco Trentini (Universidad de Bologna - Itália Marcos Antonio Witt (UNISINOS Marcus Peixoto (UFRJ Maria Aparecida Bergamaschi (UFRGS Maria Cristina Bohn Martins (UNISINOS Maria de Nazaré Sarges (UFPA Maria Gabriela Silva Martins da Cunha Marinho (UFABC Mário Martins Viana Júnior (UFC Marlise Regina Meyrer (UPF Marta Regina Cioccari (UFRJ Mauro Dillmann (UFPEL Melina Piglia (Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - Argentina Micheli Verginia Ghiggi (UFMS Moacir de Freitas Junior (UFU Mônica da Silva Ribeiro (UFRRJ Mônica Ribeiro de Oliveira (UFJF Natália de Lacerda Gil (UFRGS Nathalia Monseff Junqueira (UFMS Nilson Gomes Vieira Filho (UFAM Patrice Schuch (UFRGS Patricia Dario El-Moor Hadjab (UNB Paulo Eduardo Teixeira (UNESP-Marília Paulo Henrique Martinez (UNESP Paulo Roberto Rodrigues Soares (UFRGS Pedro Eduardo Mesquita de Monteiro Marinho (Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins/UNIRIO Petrônio José Domingues (UFS Pompilio Locks Filho (UDESC Rauer Ribeiro Rodrigues (UFMS Rodrigo Stumpf González (UFRGS Roswithia Weber (FEEVALE Thiago Barcelos Soliva (UFRJ

  12. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available -Louis Allaire, Samuel M. Wilson, Hispaniola: Caribbean chiefdoms in the age of Columbus. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1990. xi + 170 pp. -Douglas Melvin Haynes, Philip D. Curtin, Death by migration: Europe's encounter with the tropical world in the nineteenth century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. xviii + 251 pp. -Dale Tomich, J.H. Galloway, The sugar cane industry: An historical geography from its origins to 1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. xii + 266 pp. -Myriam Cottias, Dale Tomich, Slavery in the circuit of sugar: Martinique and the world economy, 1830 -1848. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1990. xiv + 352 pp. -Robert Forster, Pierre Dessalles, La vie d'un colon à la Martinique au XIXe siècle. Pré-senté par Henri de Frémont. Courbevoie: s.n., 1984-1988, four volumes, 1310 pp. -Hilary Beckles, Douglas V. Armstrong, The old village and the great house: An archaeological and historical examination of Drax Hall Plantation, St Ann's Bay, Jamaica. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1990. xiii + 393 pp. -John Stewart, John A. Lent, Caribbean popular culture. Bowling Green OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1990. 157 pp. -W. Marvin Will, Susanne Jonas ,Democracy in Latin America: Visions and realities. New York: Bergin & Garvey Publishers, 1990. viii + 224 pp., Nancy Stein (eds -Forrest D. Colburn, Kathy McAfee, Storm signals: Structural adjustment and development alternatives in the Caribbean. London: Zed books, 1991. xii + 259 pp. -Derwin S. Munroe, Peggy Antrobus ,In the shadows of the sun: Caribbean development alternatives and U.S. policy. Carmen Diana Deere (coordinator, Peter Phillips, Marcia Rivera & Helen Safa. Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1990. xvii + 246 pp., Lynne Bolles, Edwin Melendez (eds -William Roseberry, Louis A. Pérez, Jr., Lords of the mountain: Social banditry and peasant protest in Cuba, 1878-1918. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1989

  13. Dėl vienos neaiškios M. Daukšos katekizmo glosos interpretacijos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Palionis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rengdamas spausdinti fotokopinį Mikalojaus Daukšos 1595 m. katekizmo (toliau – DK leidimą, susidūriau su keliomis nevienodai interpretuojamomis teksto glosomis. Išspausdinto fotokopinio leidimo įžanginiame straipsnyje „1595 m. katekizmas ir jo leidimai“ mėginau tas glosas aiškinti. Tačiau beskaitant jau išspausdintą tą leidimą kilo ir naujų minčių dėl vienos tokios glosos, būtent dėl Mudrusiaks ißmintingas, esančios leidinio 134 puslapio paraštėje. Ši glosa prirašyta ne prie tos teksto dalies, kurioje reiškiamas mokinio (= Mokitinio, Mo atsakymas į mokytojo (= Mistro, M klausimą „Kaſg yra Jėzus Christus?“, – „Yra ſunús Diewo teip galis / teip geras teip ißmintingas... [mano pabraukta. – J. P.], o ties minėtu klausimu kaip šio būdvardžio sinoniminis variantas (lenkiškojo originalo mądry atitikmuo. Nei 1886 m. Eduardo Volterio paskelbtame DK leidime, nei 1929 m. Ernsto Sittigo volteriškojo leidimo perspaude minėta glosa nebuvo komentuojama. Bene pirmasis ją, kaip būdvardžio išmintingas paralelizmą, suskaidęs į du žodžius – mudru ir seks, bet prie jų skliausteliuose prirašęs klaustuką (?, savo straipsnyje „Leksiniai paralelizmai Daukšos katekizmo (1595 kalboje“ bandė aiškinti Jonas Kruopas. Kaip matyti, dėl tokio skaidymo ir kalbamosios glosos atstatymo ir pats straipsnio autorius yra abejojęs. 1995 m. leidime transliteruotinio teksto išnašoje palikta nesuskaidyta glosa: Mudrusiakś (p. 135, nes man tuomet rodėsi J. Kruopo interpretacija semantiškai nelabai motyvuota. Dabar esu linkęs sutikti su ja, t. y. manau, kad ši glosa yra dviejų grafiškai neatskirtų žodžių mudrus (būdvardžio įnagininko formos ir sekti (veikiamosios rūšies būtojo laiko dalyvio formos sekęs junginys. Antrojo žodžio rašyba siaks atspindi M. Daukšos tarmei būdingą balsio [e] po [s] suužpakalintą tartį. Kaip matyti iš 1995 m. leidime pridėto lenki

  14. Dėl vienos neaiškios M. Daukšos katekizmo glosos interpretacijos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Palionis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rengdamas spausdinti fotokopinį Mikalojaus Daukšos 1595 m. katekizmo (toliau – DK leidimą, susidūriau su keliomis nevienodai interpretuojamomis teksto glosomis. Išspausdinto fotokopinio leidimo įžanginiame straipsnyje „1595 m. katekizmas ir jo leidimai“ mėginau tas glosas aiškinti. Tačiau beskaitant jau išspausdintą tą leidimą kilo ir naujų minčių dėl vienos tokios glosos, būtent dėl Mudrusiaks ißmintingas, esančios leidinio 134 puslapio paraštėje.Ši glosa prirašyta ne prie tos teksto dalies, kurioje reiškiamas mokinio (= Mokitinio, Mo atsakymas į mokytojo (= Mistro, M klausimą „Kaſg yra Jėzus Christus?“, – „Yra ſunús Diewo teip galis / teip geras teip ißmintingas... [mano pabraukta. – J. P.], o ties minėtu klausimu kaip šio būdvardžio sinoniminis variantas (lenkiškojo originalo mądry atitikmuo.Nei 1886 m. Eduardo Volterio paskelbtame DK leidime, nei 1929 m. Ernsto Sittigo volteriškojo leidimo perspaude minėta glosa nebuvo komentuojama. Bene pirmasis ją, kaip būdvardžio išmintingas paralelizmą, suskaidęs į du žodžius – mudru ir seks, bet prie jų skliausteliuose prirašęs klaustuką (?, savo straipsnyje „Leksiniai paralelizmai Daukšos katekizmo (1595 kalboje“ bandė aiškinti Jonas Kruopas. Kaip matyti, dėl tokio skaidymo ir kalbamosios glosos atstatymo ir pats straipsnio autorius yra abejojęs.1995 m. leidime transliteruotinio teksto išnašoje palikta nesuskaidyta glosa: Mudrusiakś (p. 135, nes man tuomet rodėsi J. Kruopo interpretacija semantiškai nelabai motyvuota. Dabar esu linkęs sutikti su ja, t. y. manau, kad ši glosa yra dviejų grafiškai neatskirtų žodžių mudrus (būdvardžio įnagininko formos ir sekti (veikiamosios rūšies būtojo laiko dalyvio formos sekęs junginys. Antrojo žodžio rašyba siaks atspindi M. Daukšos tarmei būdingą balsio [e] po [s] suužpakalintą tartį.Kaip matyti iš 1995 m. leidime pridėto lenkiško originalo

  15. Geology and ground-water resources of Washington, D.C., and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Paul McKelvey

    1964-01-01

    The area of this report includes 436 square miles centered about the District of Columbia. The area contains parts of two distinctly different physiographic provinces-the Piedmont and the Coastal Plain. The Fall Line, which separates the Piedmont province on the west from the Coastal Plain Province on the east, bisects the area diagonally from northeast to southwest. Northwest of the Fall Line, deeply weathered igneous and metamorphic rocks are exposed ; to the southeast, these rocks are covered by Coastal Plain sediments; the nonconformity between crystalline rock and sediments dips southeast at an average rate of about 125 feet per mile. The rocks of the Piedmont include: (1) schist, phyllite, and quartzite of the Wissahickon Formation; (2) altered mafic rocks such as greenstone and serpentine; (3) the Laurel Gneiss of Chapman, 1942, and the Sykesville Formation of Jonas, 1928--both probably derived from the Wissahickon ; and (4) later granitic intrusive rocks. Lying upon this basement of hard rocks east of the Fall Line are the generally unconsolidated sediments of the Coastal Plain, which include gravel, sand, and clay, ranging in age from Cretaceous to Recent. These sediments measure only a few inches at their western extremity but thicken to 1,800 feet at the southeast corner of the mapped area. Owing to the great diversity in the geology of the two provinces, the waterbearing characteristics of the rocks also vary greatly. In the Piedmont, ground water occurs under unconfined or water-table conditions in openings and fissures in the hard rocks or in the residual weathered blanket that overlies them. In the Coastal Plain, the shallow wells tap unconfined water, but beneath the upper clay layers the water is contained in the sand and gravel under artesian pressure and must be recovered by deep drilled wells. Wells are of three types--drilled, bored, and dug. Drilled wells furnish a permanent water supply and are the least subject to pollution when properly

  16. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Breure

    2014-03-01

    Preston, 1909; Bulimus (Otostomus napo Angas, 1878; Drymaeus notabilis da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus notatus da Costa, 1906; Bulimulus (Drymaeus nubilus Preston, 1903; Drymaeus obliquistriatus da Costa, 1901; Bulimus (Drymaeus ochrocheilus E.A. Smith, 1877; Bulimus (Drymaeus orthostoma E.A. Smith, 1877; Drymaeus expansus perenensis da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus pergracilis Rolle, 1904; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus prestoni da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus punctatus da Costa, 1907; Bulimus (Leptomerus sanctaeluciae E.A. Smith, 1889; Bulimulus (Drymaeus selli Preston, 1909; Drymaeus subventricosus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus ( Drymaeus tigrinus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus volsus Fulton, 1907; Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Bulimus zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Bulimulus (Drymaeus ziczac da Costa, 1898.The following junior subjective synonyms are established: Bulimus antioquensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Bulimus baranguillanus Pfeiffer, 1853; Drymaeus bellus da Costa, 1906 = Drymaeus blandi Pilsbry, 1897; Bulimus hachensis Reeve 1850 = Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846 = Bulimus columbianus Lea, 1838; Bulimus (Otostomus lamas Higgins 1868 = Bulimus trujillensis Philippi, 1867; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis E.A. Smith, 1895; Drymaeus multispira da Costa, 1904 = Helix torallyi d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus Da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus Pfeiffer, 1855; Bulimus sugillatus Pfeiffer, 1857 = Bulimus rivasii d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus meridionalis Reeve 1848 [June] = Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847.New combinations are: Bostryx montagnei (d’Orbigny, 1837; Bostryx obliquiportus (da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus heloicus (d’Orbigny, 1835; Drymaeus (Drymaeus lusorius (Pfeiffer, 1855; Drymaeus (Drymaeus trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844; Drymaeus (Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Drymaeus (Mesembrinus conicus da Costa, 1907; Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia culminea culminea (d’Orbigny, 1835; Kuschelenia (K. culmineus

  17. Calibration processes for high-energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, E.

    2005-01-01

    The Dissertation is devoted to the processes on high energy colliders, namely, to the measurement and evaluation of muon anomalous magnetic moment, the lepton pair production in peripheral collisions of relativistic heavy ions, γγ and γ-lepton collisions in helicity representation and finally to the derivation of new sum rule for photoproduction processes. The anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and muon, a e and a μ , played an important role in the development of particle physics. Until now they have continued to serve as basic quantities for testing the validity of the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) and Standard Model, put the strict constraints for the theories beyond the Standard Model and provided important insights into the structure of the fundamental interactions. While the value of anomalous magnetic moment of electron is known very well, in the case of a muon the situation is more complicated. The discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental value varies from 1.02 to 2.96 standard deviation σ. The reason is that the theoretical value consists (unlike the case of electron) from various types of contributions. While QED and weak interaction contributions to a μ seem to be estimated quite reliably, there is critical situation in hadronic contributions, mainly for light-by-light meson pole terms, therefore the third.order (in fine structure constant) hadronic light-by-light contributions to a μ from the pole terms of the scalar σ a 0 and pseudoscalar π 0 , η, η ' mesons in the framework of the linearized extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model has been recalculated. As the QED and Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) share many properties, the solving of the issue of the lepton pair production in peripheral collisions of heavy ions can help to understand very important and unsolved problem of accounting the final state interaction of quarks and gluons in QCD. Unfortunately, even QED is not solving this problem satisfactorily despite the recent high

  18. Karakterizacija vakuum plazma naprskane kobalt-nikal-hrom-aluminijum-itrijum prevlake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo R. Mrdak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available U ovome radu je analiziran uticaj plazma sprej odstojanja na mikrostrukturu i mehaničke karakteristike Co32Ni21Cr8Al0.5Y prevlaka deponovanih vacuum plazma sprej postupkom (VPS. Mikrostruktura i mehaničke osobine plazma sprej prevlaka su određene interakcijom jona plazme Ar/H2 sa česticama praha pri čemu nastaje prenos brzine i temperature jona na čestice praha. Efekat interakcije je u direktnoj zavisnosti od vremena interakcije jona i čestica praha koji je definisan plazma sprej odstojanjem. Prah je deponovan sa plazma pištoljem F4 sa tri odstojanja substrata 270, 295 i 320 mm. Prevlaka najboljih strukturnih i mahaničkih karakteristika je testirana na oksidaciju u peći za termičku obradu bez zaštitne atmosfere na 11000C u trajanju od 240 sati. Morfologija čestica praha je ispitana na SEM-u. Mikrostruktura slojeva u deponovanom stanju je ispitana tehnikom svetlosne mikroskopije. Prevlaka najboljih mehaničkih karakteristikama je nagrizena  elektrolitički sa 10% oksalne kiseline H2C2O4x2H2O. Analiza mikrostrukture nagrizene prevlake je izvršena na svetlosnom mikroskopu i na SEM-u pre i posle testiranja prevlake na oksidaciju. Mikrostrukturna analiza deponovanih slojevima je urađena u skladu sa standardom Pratt-Whitney. Procena mehaničkih karakteristika slojeva je urađena ispitivanjem mikrotvrdoće metodom HV0.3 i čvrstoće spoja ispitivanjem na zatezanje. Uvod Sistemi prevlaka CoNiCrAlY su razvijeni na osnovu sistema prevlaka NiCrAl, FeCrAlY , NiCrAlY i CoCrAlY (Mrdak, 2010, pp.5-16, (Mrdak, 2012, pp.182-201, ( Driver, 2004, ( Feuerstein, et al., 2008, pp.199-213. CoNiCrAlY su prevlake tipa koje se koriste u različitim aplikacijama gasnih turbina za zaštiti od visoko temperaturne oksidacije i tople korozije. Budući da su osobine i ponašanje prevlaka usko povezane sa mikrostrukturom, neophodno je da se ispitaju strukture prevlaka posle depozicije i oksidacije na povišenim temperaturama (Gudmundsson, Jacobson, 1988, pp.207

  19. FOREWORD: The 70th birthday of Professor Stig Stenholm The 70th birthday of Professor Stig Stenholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Kalle-Antti

    2010-09-01

    information [7] and in Stockholm he had, again, very successful postdocs such as Ulf Leonhardt. Finally, in 2005, Stig Stenholm retired, although he is still active, writing papers, taking part in conferences and making research visits. We honoured his 70th birthday at the CEWQO2009 conference, and hope that the future provides us with further opportunities for such events. Looking at the obituary of Dirk ter Haar, I see that his style with students reminds me of Stig's approach. In my opinion, Stig expects independence and initiative from a student, giving perhaps a broad topic in which the student is expected to find his or her own way, whilst working perhaps with a postdoc. Juha Javanainen has talked about the 'sink or swim' style (not referring to Stig, though). There is a famous series of children's books about Moomin trolls by Tove Jansson (another Swedish-speaking Finn like Stig). In one of them, the Moomin find in early spring a small flower in a patch of land uncovered by snow, pushing its way up. One of them wants to cover it against frost during the night, but another says 'Don't, it'll fare better later if it has some difficulties at first'. At CEWQO2009 Stig gave the full list of his finished PhD students: Rainer Salomaa (1973), Temba Dlodlo (1980), Juha Javanainen (1980), Markus Lindberg (1985), Matti Kaivola (1985), Birger Ståhlberg (1985), Kalle-Antti Suominen (1992), Mackillo Kira (1995), Päivi Törmä (1996), Asta Paloviita (1997), Patrik Öhberg (1998), Martti Havukainen (1999), Erika Andersson (2000), Pawel Piwnicki (2001), Åsa Larson (2001), Markku Jääskeläinen (2003), and Jonas Larson (2005). One should also mention Erkki Kyrölä, who eventually graduated at Rochester and Olli Serimaa, who never graduated but published some important early-stage laser cooling work. As a final note I must mention a passion that Stig and I share, namely books. I have nearly 400 professional physics and mathematics books, but I am certain that the size of Stig

  20. EDITORIAL: Van der Waals interactions in advanced materials, in memory of David C Langreth Van der Waals interactions in advanced materials, in memory of David C Langreth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldgaard, Per; Rahman, Talat S.

    2012-10-01

    Rahman Frictional temperature rise in a sliding physisorbed monolayer of Kr/grapheneM Walker, C Jaye, J Krim and Milton W Cole How to modify the van der Waals and Casimir forces without change of the dielectric permittivityG L Klimchitskaya, U Mohideen and V M Mostepanenko Spectroscopic characterization of van der Waals interactions in a metal organic framework with unsaturated metal centers: MOF-74-MgNour Nijem, Pieremanuele Canepa, Lingzhu Kong, Haohan Wu, Jing Li, Timo Thonhauser and Yves J Chabal A theoretical study of the hydrogen-storage potential of (H2)4CH4 in metal organic framework materials and carbon nanotubesQ Li and T Thonhauser The influence of dispersion interactions on the hydrogen adsorption properties of expanded graphiteYungok Ihm, Valentino R Cooper, Lujian Peng and James R Morris A DFT-D study of structural and energetic properties of TiO2 modificationsJonas Moellmann, Stephan Ehrlich, Ralf Tonner and Stefan Grimme Spherical-shell model for the van der Waals coefficients between fullerenes and/or nearly spherical nanoclustersJohn P Perdew, Jianmin Tao, Pan Hao, Adrienn Ruzsinszky, Gábor I Csonka and J M Pitarke Dynamical screening of the van der Waals interaction between graphene layersY J Dappe, P G Bolcatto, J Ortega and F Flores Structural evolution of amino acid crystals under stress from a non-empirical density functionalRiccardo Sabatini, Emine Küçükbenli, Brian Kolb, T Thonhauser and Stefano de Gironcoli Physisorption of nucleobases on graphene: a comparative van der Waals studyDuy Le, Abdelkader Kara, Elsebeth Schröder, Per Hyldgaard and Talat S Rahman The role of van der Waals interactions in the adsorption of noble gases on metal surfacesDe-Li Chen, W A Al-Saidi and J Karl Johnson Desorption of n-alkanes from graphene: a van der Waals density functional studyElisa Londero, Emma K Karlson, Marcus Landahl, Dimitri Ostrovskii, Jonatan D Rydberg and Elsebeth Schröder Benchmarking van der Waals density functionals with experimental data

  1. 6th International Symposium on Molecular Allergology (ISMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Hilger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Table of contents ORAL ABSTRACTS Symposium 1: Biochemistry, structure and environment of the allergen: what makes a protein an allergen? O1 Two cell-membrane peptidases carrying galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose are implicated in delayed anaphylactic reactions upon pork kidney ingestion in patients with IgE-antibodies to alpha-Gal Christiane Hilger, Kyra Swiontek, Jörg Fischer, François Hentges, Christiane Lehners, Martine Morisset, Bernadette Eberlein, Tilo Biedermann, Markus Ollert O2 Structure solution of Pla l 1 suggests similar folding of Ole e 1-like family members but distinct immunological properties Sabrina Wildner, Teresa Stemeseder, Regina Freier, Peter Briza, Roland Lang, Eva Batanero, Mayte Villalba, Jonas Lidholm, Thomas Hawranek, Fatima Ferreira, Hans Brandstetter, Gabriele Gadermaier Symposium 2: New allergen molecules in the spotlight O3 Identification of the cysteine protease Amb a 11 as a novel major allergen from short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia Philippe Moingeon, Rachel Groeme, Julien Bouley, Véronique Bordas, Maxime Le Mignon, Laetitia Bussières, Aurélie Lautrette, Laurent Mascarell, Vincent Lombardi, Véronique Baron-Bodo, Henri Chabre, Thierry Batard, Emmanuel Nony O4 Production and characterization of polybia paulista recombinant antigen 5: a valuable diagnostic tool Karine Marafigo De Amicis, Alexandra Sayuri Watanabe, Daniele Danella Figo, José Roberto Aparecido Dos Santos-Pinto, Mario Sergio Palma, Fabio Fernandes Morato Castro, Jorge Kalil, Therese Wohlschlager, Peter Briza, Sabrina Wildner, Fatima Ferreira-Briza, Gabriele Gadermaier, Keity Souza Santos Symposium 3: Progress in molecular and cellular diagnosis O5 Basophil activation test with recombinant Pru p 3; identifying genuine peach allergic patients Margaretha Faber, Athina Van Gasse, Vito Sabato, Margo M. Hagendorens, Chris H. Bridts, Luc S. De Clerck, Araceli Diaz Perales, Didier Ebo O6 Nanofluidic technology enables rapid, near