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Sample records for steroids international reference

  1. Systematic review of serum steroid reference intervals developed using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavita, Nevada; Greaves, Ronda F

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the published literature to determine the available serum/plasma steroid reference intervals generated by mass spectrometry (MS) methods across all age groups in healthy subjects and to suggest recommendations to achieve common MS based reference intervals for serum steroids. MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed databases were used to conduct a comprehensive search for English language, MS-based reference interval studies for serum/plasma steroids. Selection of steroids to include was based on those listed in the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs, Chemical Pathology, Endocrine Program. This methodology has been registered onto the PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews (ID number: CRD42015029637). After accounting for duplicates, a total of 60 manuscripts were identified through the search strategy. Following critical evaluation, a total of 16 studies were selected. Of the 16 studies, 12 reported reference intervals for testosterone, 11 for 17 hydroxy-progesterone, nine for androstenedione, six for cortisol, three for progesterone, two for dihydrotestosterone and only one for aldosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate. No studies established MS-based reference intervals for oestradiol. As far as we are aware, this report provides the first comparison of the peer reviewed literature for serum/plasma steroid reference intervals generated by MS-based methods. The reference intervals based on these published studies can be used to inform the process to develop common reference intervals, and agreed reporting units for mass spectrometry based steroid methods. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...... model for epoch 2010.0, and a linear predictive secular variation model for 2010.0–2015.0. In this note the equations defining the IGRF model are provided along with the spherical harmonic coefficients for the eleventh generation. Maps of the magnetic declination, inclination and total intensity...

  3. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  4. Development of anabolic-androgenic steroids purity certified reference materials for anti-doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Can; Su, Fuhai; Wang, Haifeng; Li, Hongmei

    2011-12-20

    The need for certified reference materials (CRM) of anabolic-androgenic steroids reference materials was emphasized by the Beijing 2008 Olympic game as a tool to improve comparability, ensuring accuracy and traceability of analytical results for competing athletes. The China National Institute of Metrology (NIM) responded to the state request by providing seven anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) reference materials for Beijing Olympic anti-doping, GBW (E) 100086-GBW (E) 100092. This work describes the production of the series of AAS CRMs, according to ISO Guides 34 and 35 [1,2], which comprises the material processing, homogeneity and stability assessment, CRMs' characterization including moisture content, trace metal content. The AASs' purity values were assigned with collaborative study involved eight laboratories applying high resolution liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Homogeneity of the AAS CRMs were determined by an in-house validated liquid chromatographic methodology. Potential degradation during storage was also investigated and a shelf-life based on this value was established. The certified values of CRMs were 99.76±0.079%, 99.76±0.25%, 99.63±0.09%, 99.67±0.11%, 98.82±0.56%, 96.30±0.39% and 99.71±0.49% (purity±expanded uncertainty with confidence level of 95%) for methyltestosterone, testosterone propionate, nandrolone, nandrolone 17-propionate, boldenone, trenbolone acetate and testosterone respectively. The certified values for all the studied AAS reference materials are traceable to the international system of units (SI). The CRMs developed were applied by 32 laboratory including sports organizations and analytical laboratories during the 2008 Olympic game for anti-doping control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... return of symptoms and sometimes joint pain. SIDE EFFECTS Steroids can cause a wide range of unwanted effects. ... please talk with your doctor. MANAGING COMMON SIDE EFFECTS WEIGHT GAIN AND INCREASED BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS Steroids increase the appetite and often cause weight gain. ...

  6. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Steroids KidsHealth ... athletes, and why not? It's fun to think about being the very best in your favorite sport, not to mention earning a big salary. But ...

  7. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of aggression and hostility Increased risk of heart disease, liver damage Addiction Read More about Steroids Be Informed. Search for information about a drug View Popular Searches: POT , HEROIN , METH Previous Pause Next Marijuana Featured Articles What You Should Know About Marijuana ...

  8. Lifetime of the internal reference oxygen sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qiang; Jacobsen, Torben; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2013-01-01

    The internal reference oxygen sensor (IROS) based on a binary mixture of metal and its stoichiometric oxide is subject to leaks that result in consumption of the binary mixture. An IROS loses the functionality when the binary mixture is exhausted. Among the possible leak sources the electronic leak...

  9. International linear collider reference design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarons, G.

    2007-06-22

    The International Linear Collider will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. A proposed electron-positron collider, the ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider, a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, together unlocking some of the deepest mysteries in the universe. With LHC discoveries pointing the way, the ILC -- a true precision machine -- will provide the missing pieces of the puzzle. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will hurl some 10 billion electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they smash in a blazing crossfire at the centre of the machine. Stretching approximately 35 kilometres in length, the beams collide 14,000 times every second at extremely high energies -- 500 billion-electron-volts (GeV). Each spectacular collision creates an array of new particles that could answer some of the most fundamental questions of all time. The current baseline design allows for an upgrade to a 50-kilometre, 1 trillion-electron-volt (TeV) machine during the second stage of the project. This reference design provides the first detailed technical snapshot of the proposed future electron-positron collider, defining in detail the technical parameters and components that make up each section of the 31-kilometer long accelerator. The report will guide the development of the worldwide R&D program, motivate international industrial studies and serve as the basis for the final engineering design needed to make an official project proposal later this decade.

  10. International linear collider reference design report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarons, G.

    2007-01-01

    The International Linear Collider will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. A proposed electron-positron collider, the ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider, a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, together unlocking some of the deepest mysteries in the universe. With LHC discoveries pointing the way, the ILC -- a true precision machine -- will provide the missing pieces of the puzzle. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will hurl some 10 billion electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they smash in a blazing crossfire at the centre of the machine. Stretching approximately 35 kilometres in length, the beams collide 14,000 times every second at extremely high energies -- 500 billion-electron-volts (GeV). Each spectacular collision creates an array of new particles that could answer some of the most fundamental questions of all time. The current baseline design allows for an upgrade to a 50-kilometre, 1 trillion-electron-volt (TeV) machine during the second stage of the project. This reference design provides the first detailed technical snapshot of the proposed future electron-positron collider, defining in detail the technical parameters and components that make up each section of the 31-kilometer long accelerator. The report will guide the development of the worldwide R and D program, motivate international industrial studies and serve as the basis for the final engineering design needed to make an official project proposal later this decade

  11. Steroid osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible.

  12. Steroid osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible

  13. The International Reference Ionosphere: Model Update 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Altadill, David; Reinisch, Bodo; Galkin, Ivan; Shubin, Valentin; Truhlik, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is recognized as the official standard for the ionosphere (COSPAR, URSI, ISO) and is widely used for a multitude of different applications as evidenced by the many papers in science and engineering journals that acknowledge the use of IRI (e.g., about 11% of all Radio Science papers each year). One of the shortcomings of the model has been the dependence of the F2 peak height modeling on the propagation factor M(3000)F2. With the 2016 version of IRI, two new models will be introduced for hmF2 that were developed directly based on hmF2 measurements by ionosondes [Altadill et al., 2013] and by COSMIC radio occultation [Shubin, 2015], respectively. In addition IRI-2016 will include an improved representation of the ionosphere during the very low solar activities that were reached during the last solar minimum in 2008/2009. This presentation will review these and other improvements that are being implemented with the 2016 version of the IRI model. We will also discuss recent IRI workshops and their findings and results. One of the most exciting new projects is the development of the Real-Time IRI [Galkin et al., 2012]. We will discuss the current status and plans for the future. Altadill, D., S. Magdaleno, J.M. Torta, E. Blanch (2013), Global empirical models of the density peak height and of the equivalent scale height for quiet conditions, Advances in Space Research 52, 1756-1769, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2012.11.018. Galkin, I.A., B.W. Reinisch, X. Huang, and D. Bilitza (2012), Assimilation of GIRO Data into a Real-Time IRI, Radio Science, 47, RS0L07, doi:10.1029/2011RS004952. Shubin V.N. (2015), Global median model of the F2-layer peak height based on ionospheric radio-occultation and ground-based Digisonde observations, Advances in Space Research 56, 916-928, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2015.05.029.

  14. The Third International Reference Preparation of Egg Lecithin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krag, P.; Bentzon, M. Weis

    1961-01-01

    The Third International Reference Preparation of Egg Lecithin was produced (in a quantity of 5000 ml) at the WHO Serological Reference Centre, Copenhagen, and assayed in 1958 against the Second International Reference Preparation by four laboratories in three countries. Complement-fixation and slide-flocculation tests were used. The new preparation was found acceptable, and its establishment was authorized by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization. The average log10 titres and results of analyses of variances are shown. The variances were of the usual order of magnitude, and the differences in titre between antigens containing the Second and the Third International Reference Preparations varied from -0.011 to 0.116; only one of the differences exceeded the 5% limit of significance. The use of the Third International Reference Preparation in tests for the acceptability of lecithin preparations is described. PMID:13753864

  15. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  16. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the 12th generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thébault, Erwan; Finlay, Chris; Beggan, Ciarán D.

    2015-01-01

    The 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014 by the Working Group V-MOD appointed by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch ...

  17. International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS): Terms of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Van; Noll, Carey

    2000-01-01

    The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) is an established Service within Section II , Advanced Space Technology, of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG). The primary objective of the ILRS is to provide a service to support, through Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging data and related products, geodetic and geophysical research activities as well as International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) products important to the maintenance of an accurate International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The service also develops the necessary standards/specifications and encourages international adherence to its conventions.

  18. Improved Internal Reference Oxygen Sensors with Composite Ceramic Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qiang; Jacobsen, Torben; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2012-01-01

    Potentiometric oxygen sensors with an internal reference electrode, which uses the equilibrium pO2 of the binary mixture of Ni/NiO as the reference, are demonstrated. The cells employ Pt or composite ceramics as the sensing electrode. The cells are fabricated by a flexible and potentially low cost...... and performance are highly reproducible. The composite ceramics, based on strontium doped manganite and yttria doped zirconia, are proven superior over Pt to serve as the electrode material....

  19. Inhaled Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... considerations when your dosage changes. What about side effects and inhaled steroids? The most common side effects with inhaled steroids ... inhaled steroid has much less potential for side effects than steroid pills or syrups. There have been concerns regarding ...

  20. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the 12th generation

    OpenAIRE

    Thébault , Erwan; Finlay , Christopher ,; Beggan , Ciarán ,; Alken , Patrick; Aubert , Julien ,; Barrois , Olivier; Bertrand , François; Bondar , Tatiana; Boness , Axel; Brocco , Laura; Canet , Elisabeth ,; Chambodut , Aude; Chulliat , Arnaud ,; Coïsson , Pierdavide ,; Civet , François

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014 by the Working Group V-MOD appointed by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2010.0, a main field model for epoch 2015.0, and a linear annual predictive secular variation model for 2015.0-2020.0. Here, we present the equations defining the IGRF model, p...

  1. Improved Internal Reference Oxygen Sensors Using Composite Oxides as Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qiang

    The thesis describes the research on and development of an internal reference oxygen sensor (IROS). The IROS is potentiometric and uses the equilibrium pO2of the binary mixture of Ni/NiO as the reference pO2. The sensing electrode of the IROS are made from metallic Pt or the composite of (La0.75S...... the application of IROSes are provided. Based on the concepts and fundamentals of the IROS, internal reference sensors that detect other gas species such as hydrogen, chlorine and bromine may be developed.......The thesis describes the research on and development of an internal reference oxygen sensor (IROS). The IROS is potentiometric and uses the equilibrium pO2of the binary mixture of Ni/NiO as the reference pO2. The sensing electrode of the IROS are made from metallic Pt or the composite of (La0.75Sr0...... from 8YSZ is evaluated quantitatively and figures that may be used to design the depletion period of an IROS due to the electronic leak of 8YSZ are provided. One dimensional numerical simulations are performed to study the variation in cell voltage during the process of gas mixing, and the asymmetric...

  2. Gas sensor with multiple internal reference electrodes and sensing electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a potentiometric gas sensor, or potentiometric gas detection element, with multiple internal reference electrodes and multiple sensing electrodes for determining the concentrations of gas components in a gaseous mixture. The sensor for gas detection comprises: a solid...

  3. Therapeutic effect of epidural steroid injection in patients suspected of having an internal disc disruption: a prospective case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Na Ra; Lee, Joon Woo; Chung, Sang Gi

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effect of the epidural steroid injection for patients suspected of having an internal disc disruption. Thirteen patients at the pain intervention clinic that received a lumbar interlaminar epidural steroid injection and were suspected of having an internal disc disruption were prospectively enrolled in this study. The treatment outcome was assessed using a 5-point patient satisfaction scale (no pain, much improved, slightly improved, no effects, aggravated) two weeks after injection. A successful outcome required a patient satisfaction scale of 'much improved' or 'no pain'. All patients received follow-up for two months. Two radiologists evaluated the presence of HIZ (high intensity zone), a dark disc by MR (n 10) and a diffuse bulging disc by CT (n = 3). Nine (69%) of the 13 patients achieved a successful outcome two weeks after injection. These nine patients showed no recurrence during the two months months follow-up. Of the 22 abnormal discs demonstrated by MRI and CT, MRI showed a dark disc in six patients and HIZ in 13 patients. CT showed diffuse bulging in three discs. Nine of 10 patients showed at least one HIZ. An lumbar interlaminar epidural steroid injection might be an effective tool for managing patients suspected of having an internal disc disruption

  4. Therapeutic effect of epidural steroid injection in patients suspected of having an internal disc disruption: a prospective case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Na Ra; Lee, Joon Woo; Chung, Sang Gi [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-09-15

    To assess the effect of the epidural steroid injection for patients suspected of having an internal disc disruption. Thirteen patients at the pain intervention clinic that received a lumbar interlaminar epidural steroid injection and were suspected of having an internal disc disruption were prospectively enrolled in this study. The treatment outcome was assessed using a 5-point patient satisfaction scale (no pain, much improved, slightly improved, no effects, aggravated) two weeks after injection. A successful outcome required a patient satisfaction scale of 'much improved' or 'no pain'. All patients received follow-up for two months. Two radiologists evaluated the presence of HIZ (high intensity zone), a dark disc by MR (n 10) and a diffuse bulging disc by CT (n = 3). Nine (69%) of the 13 patients achieved a successful outcome two weeks after injection. These nine patients showed no recurrence during the two months months follow-up. Of the 22 abnormal discs demonstrated by MRI and CT, MRI showed a dark disc in six patients and HIZ in 13 patients. CT showed diffuse bulging in three discs. Nine of 10 patients showed at least one HIZ. An lumbar interlaminar epidural steroid injection might be an effective tool for managing patients suspected of having an internal disc disruption.

  5. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the twelfth generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebault, Erwan; Finlay, Christopher; The IGRF Working Group

    2015-04-01

    The IGRF is an internationally-agreed reference model of the Earth's magnetic field produced under the auspices of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. The IGRF-12 is the latest update of this well-known model which is used each year by many thousands of users for both industrial and scientific purposes. In October 2014, ten institutions worldwide have made contributions to the IGRF. These models were evaluated and the twelfth generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014. In this presentation, we will report on the IGRF activities, briefly describe the candidate models, summarize the evaluation of models performed by different independent teams, show how the IGRF-12 models were calculated and finally discuss some of the main magnetic features of this new model.

  6. Combinations of potent topical steroids, mercury and hydroquinone are common in internationally manufactured skin-lightening products: a spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneli, M H; Wiesner, L; Tinguely, C; Davids, L M; Spengane, Z; Smith, P; van Wyk, J C; Jardine, A; Khumalo, N P

    2016-03-01

    The topical steroids betamethasone (BM) and clobetasol propionate (CP) are illegal in cosmetics. Hydroquinone (HQ) and mercury (Hg) are either illegal or allowed only in limited concentrations (2% and 1 ppm, respectively). To investigate active ingredients and countries of origin of popular skin-lightening products available in Cape Town, South Africa. In total, 29 products were examined; of these, 22 products were purchased from informal vendors, and 2 products (out of a total of 29) were purchased over the counter. HQ, Hg(2+) and steroids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectrophotometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Of the 29 products, 22 (75.9%), all imported and bought from informal vendors, contained illegal or banned ingredients: 13 (44.8%) contained steroids (9 CP, 4 BM), 12 (41.4%) contained Hg (30-2300 ppm), and 11 (37.9%) contained HQ. Sequentially, the products originated from Italy (27.3%, n = 6), India (22.7%, n = 5), the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) (22.7%, n = 5), Cote d'Ivoire (9.1%, n = 2), USA (9.1%, n = 2), UK (4.5%, n = 1) and France (4.5%, n = 1). Two products, one from India and one from the DRC, contained all four ingredients (HQ, Hg, BM, CP). Of the 12 products containing Hg, 10 also contained HQ and/or a steroid, yet none listed Hg as an ingredient. A significant proportion of the steroid-containing products (76.9%) also contained at least one other skin-lightening agent. Not all internationally available products were tested, which is a limitation of the study. In spite of a European Union ban on skin lighteners, a third of the products tested were from Europe. Combinations of Hg and ultrapotent steroids were prominent. International law enforcement and random testing is needed to encourage industry compliance and help protect consumers. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Endogenous steroid hormone levels in early pregnancy and risk of testicular cancer in the offspring: a nested case-referent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Lundin, Eva; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Grankvist, Kjell; Koskela, Pentti; Dillner, Joakim; Hallmans, Göran; Wadell, Göran; Olafsdottir, Gudridur H; Ogmundsdottir, Helga M; Pukkala, Eero; Lehtinen, Matti; Stattin, Pär; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2009-06-15

    According to the leading hypothesis on testicular cancer (TC) etiology exposure to a specific pattern of steroid hormones in utero, in particular, to high levels of estrogens and low levels of androgens is the major determinant of TC risk in the offspring. We performed a case-referent study nested within Finnish, Swedish and Icelandic maternity cohorts exploiting early pregnancy serum samples to evaluate the role of maternal endogenous steroid hormones with regard to the risk of TC. TC cases and referents were aged between 0 and 25 years. For each case-index mother pair, three or four matched referent-referent mother pairs were identified using national population registries. First trimester or early second trimester sera were retrieved from the index mothers of 73 TC cases and 286 matched referent mothers, and were tested for dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, estrone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Offspring of mothers with high DHEAS levels had a significantly decreased risk of TC (OR for highest vs. lowest DHEAS quartile, 0.18 (95% CI 0.06-0.58). In contrast, offspring of mothers with high androstenedione levels had an increased risk of TC (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.2-12.0). High maternal total estradiol level also tended to be associated with an increased risk of TC in the offspring (OR 32; 95% CI 0.98-1,090). We report the first direct evidence that interplay of maternal steroid hormones in the early pregnancy is important in the etiology of TC in the offspring. Copyright 2008 UICC.

  8. Preface: The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) at equatorial latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Bodo; Bilitza, Dieter

    2017-07-01

    This issue of Advances in Space Research includes papers that report and discuss improvements of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). IRI is the international standard for the representation of the plasma in Earth's ionosphere and recognized as such by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and the International Standardization Organization (ISO). As requested, particularly by COSPAR and URSI, IRI is an empirical model relying on most of the available and reliable ground and space observations of the ionosphere. As new data become available and as older data sources are fully exploited the IRI model undergoes improvement cycles to stay as close to the existing data record as possible. The latest episode of this process is documented in the papers included in this issue using data from the worldwide network of ionosondes, from a few of the incoherent scatter radars, from the Alouette and ISIS topside sounders, and from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The focus of this issue is on the equatorial and low latitude region that is of special importance for ionospheric physics because it includes the largest densities and steep density gradients in the double hump latitudinal structure, the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA), which is characteristic for this region.

  9. Internal-reference solid-electrolyte oxygen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new solid-electrolyte oxygen sensor has been developed that eliminates the conventional oxygen reference in previous solid-electrolyte oxygen sensor designs and is, therefore, ideally suited as an insertion device for remote oxygen monitoring applications. It is constructed with two cells of stabilized zirconia sealed into a small unit using a new high-temperature platinum-zirconia seal. One electrochemical cell monitors the ratio of oxygen partial pressures inside and outside the sensor while the other solid-electrolyte cell is used for quantitative electrochemical pumping of oxygen. The internal oxygen reference is generated by initially pumping all oxygen out of the known internal volume of the sensor and then quantitatively pumping oxygen back in until oxygen partial pressures are equal inside and out. This information is used with the ideal gas law to calculate oxygen partial pressures. Tests were conducted from 400 to 1000 0 C in mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen spanning approximately 0.2 to 21 percent oxygen concentration range. Sensors with sputtered platinum and porous platinum paste electrodes were compared

  10. Preface: International Reference Ionosphere - Progress in Ionospheric Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    2010-01-01

    The international reference ionosphere (lRI) is the internationally recommended empirical model for the specification of ionospheric parameters supported by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and recognized by the International Standardization Organization (ISO). IRI is being continually improved by a team of international experts as new data become available and better models are being developed. This issue chronicles the latest phase of model updates as reported during two IRI-related meetings. The first was a special session during the Scientific Assembly of the Committee of Space Research (COSPAR) in Montreal, Canada in July 2008 and the second was an IRI Task Force Activity at the US Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs in May 2009. This work led to several improvements and additions of the model which will be included in the next version, IRI-201O. The issue is divided into three sections focusing on the improvements made in the topside ionosphere, the F-peak, and the lower ionosphere, respectively. This issue would not have been possible without the reviewing efforts of many individuals. Each paper was reviewed by two referees. We thankfully acknowledge the contribution to this issue made by the following reviewers: Jacob Adeniyi, David Altadill, Eduardo Araujo, Feza Arikan, Dieter Bilitza, Jilijana Cander, Bela Fejer, Tamara Gulyaeva, Manuel Hermindez-Pajares, Ivan Kutiev, John MacDougal, Leo McNamara, Bruno Nava, Olivier Obrou, Elijah Oyeyemi, Vadym Paznukhov, Bodo Reinisch, John Retterer, Phil Richards, Gary Sales, J.H. Sastri, Ludger Scherliess, Iwona Stanislavska, Stamir Stankov, Shin-Yi Su, Manlian Zhang, Y ongliang Zhang, and Irina Zakharenkova. We are grateful to Peggy Ann Shea for her final review and guidance as the editor-in-chief for special issues of Advances in Space Research. We thank the authors for their timely submission and their quick response to the reviewer comments and humbly

  11. Prediction of total electron content using the international reference ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcnamara, L.F.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is an empirical model of the ionosphere based on experimental observations. Rawer et al. (1978) have discussed the goals and status of the IRI. The aim of the IRI is related to the establishment of a compendium of height profiles through the ionosphere for the four main parameters, taking into account plasma density, temperature of ions and electrons, and ion composition. The present model is inadequate in some areas, and the IRI working group has encouraged tests of the model's validity. The present investigation is concerned with a test of the model's ability to reproduce observations of total electron content (TEC) over a wide range of conditions. The TEC observations were obtained with the aid of the Faraday rotation technique, which provides the TEC out to about 2000 km. Tests using the Bent ionospheric model indicate that the altitude range 1000 to 2000 km contributes up to five percent of the TEC. 12 references

  12. Internal dosimetry estimates using voxelized reference phantoms for thyroid agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoseinian-Azghadi, E.; Rafat-Motavalli, L.; Miri-Hakimabad, H.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents internal dosimetry estimates for diagnostic procedures performed for thyroid disorders by relevant radiopharmaceuticals. The organ doses for 131 Iodine, 123 Iodine and 99m Tc incorporated into the body were calculated for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference voxel phantoms using the Monte Carlo transport method. A comparison between different thyroid uptakes of iodine in the range of 0–55% was made, and the effect of various techniques for administration of 99m Tc on organ doses was studied. To investigate the necessity of calculating organ dose from all source regions, the major source organ and its contribution to total dose were specified for each target organ. Moreover, we compared effective dose in ICRP voxel phantoms with that in stylized phantoms. In our method, we directly calculated the organ dose without using the S values or SAFs, as is commonly done. Hence, a distribution of the absorbed dose to entire tissues was obtained. The chord length distributions (CLDs) were also computed for the selected source–target pairs to make comparison across the genders. The results showed that the S values for radionuclides in the thyroid are not sufficient for calculating the organ doses, especially for 123 I and 99m Tc. The thyroid and its neighboring organs receive a greater dose as thyroid uptake increases. Our comparisons also revealed an underestimation of organ doses reported for the stylized phantoms compared with the values based on the ICRP voxel phantoms in the uptake range of 5–55%, and an overestimation of absorbed dose by up to 2-fold for Iodine administration using blocking agent and for 99m Tc incorporation. (author)

  13. The International Reference Ionosphere 2012 – a model of international collaboration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilitza, D.; Altadill, D.; Zhang, Y.; Mertens, Ch.; Truhlík, Vladimír; Richards, P.; McKinnell, L.- A.; Reinisch, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, 20 February (2014), A07/1-A07/12 ISSN 2115-7251 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11123 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : International Reference Ionosphere * empirical models * plasma parameters * real - time IRI Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.558, year: 2014 http://www.swsc-journal.org/articles/swsc/abs/2014/01/swsc130043/swsc130043.html

  14. International Longitudinal Paediatric Reference Standards for Bone Mineral Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Jones, Adam DG; McKay, Heather; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don

    2014-01-01

    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women’s Health Study (n=112) and Stanford’s Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement in predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (P accrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. Similar findings were found for PF and FN. Female models for all sites were similar with age, height and weight all independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (P accounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in paediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. PMID:19854308

  15. International longitudinal pediatric reference standards for bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don; McKay, Heather

    2010-01-01

    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site-specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women's Health Study (n=112) and Stanford's Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement between predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (Paccrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. We report similar findings for the PF and FN. Models for females for all sites were similar with age, height and weight as independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (Paccounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in pediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Steroidal Saponins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  17. The International Reference Ionosphere 2012 – a model of international collaboration☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilitza Dieter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI project was established jointly by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI in the late sixties with the goal to develop an international standard for the specification of plasma parameters in the Earth’s ionosphere. COSPAR needed such a specification for the evaluation of environmental effects on spacecraft and experiments in space, and URSI for radiowave propagation studies and applications. At the request of COSPAR and URSI, IRI was developed as a data-based model to avoid the uncertainty of theory-based models which are only as good as the evolving theoretical understanding. Being based on most of the available and reliable observations of the ionospheric plasma from the ground and from space, IRI describes monthly averages of electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, ion composition, and several additional parameters in the altitude range from 60 km to 2000 km. A working group of about 50 international ionospheric experts is in charge of developing and improving the IRI model. Over time as new data became available and new modeling techniques emerged, steadily improved editions of the IRI model have been published. This paper gives a brief history of the IRI project and describes the latest version of the model, IRI-2012. It also briefly discusses efforts to develop a real-time IRI model. The IRI homepage is at http://IRImodel.org.

  18. UFOs, NGOs, or IGOs: Using International Documents for General Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreve, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Discusses accessing and using documents from international (intergovernmental) organizations. Profiles the United Nations, the European Union and other Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs). Discusses the librarian as "Web detective," notes questions to focus on, and presents examples to demonstrate navigation of IGO sites. Lists basic…

  19. 75 FR 34017 - International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ..., 290, and 310 to clarify eligibility for M-bags; and, to codify the Postal Service Sure Money[supreg] (DineroSeguro[supreg]) service as one of its international money transfer services. Issue 36 also corrects..., St. Louis, MO 63197-9000. The subscription price for one issue is currently $50 to addresses in the...

  20. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... steroid bursts can cause a number of side effects. Steroid side effects usually occur after long-term use ... how the dosage of steroids is determined; side effects of inhaled steroids, and some recommendations to decrease or prevent side ...

  1. Steroid radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Y.; Hacker, R.R.; Ntunde, B.; Smith, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    An estrogen radioimmunoassay was used to study the problem of blanks in steroid assays. Negligible binding (1.5 percent) in the non-antibody tubes prevailed throughout the study. The assay was validated using accepted procedures. Both water and solvent blanks had estrogen concentrations of 7-9 pg/tube. However, neither water nor solvent blanks showed a dose-related response, indicating that they were 'real' blanks. Exogenous estradiol, when added to water and solvent in quantities less than the estimated blank, was not quantitatively recovered. However, exogenous estradiol added to the water solvent in quantities greater than the blank estimate was quantitatively recovered. The sensitivity of the reference standard curve was 6-10 pg/tube, approximately the same as the blank estimate. These results indicated that the estimates of water and solvent blanks were measures of the assay sensitivity. In such circumstances, it is suggested that blank estimates should not be subtracted from sample values. If the blank estimates are high, attention should be directed towards improving the sensitivity of the assay

  2. Steroid hormone receptors: long- and short-term integrators of the internal milieu and the external environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, J D

    2012-07-01

    Many of the influences of estrogens and progestins on the brain and behavior are mediated by estrogen receptors and progestin receptors, acting as transcriptional regulators. The homologous and heterologous regulation of the concentrations of these receptors by cognate hormones is well established. However, although they were discovered and characterized based on their binding to cognate hormone and their role in transcriptional regulation, steroid hormone receptors have a more complex role and serve many more functions than originally suspected. First, besides being regulated by steroid hormones, the intracellular concentrations of brain steroid hormone receptors are regulated by neurotransmitters, a pathway by which stimuli from the environment, including from conspecific animals, can modulate the concentration of particular steroid hormone receptors in subsets of cells. Further, besides being activated by cognate steroid hormones, the receptors can be activated by a variety of neurotransmitters and phosphorylation pathways, providing a route through which environmental stimulation can activate steroid-receptor-dependent functions in specific cells. In addition, the transcription factor, estrogen receptor-α, produced from the estrogen receptor-α gene, can be modified to be targeted to membranes, where it can signal via kinase pathways. Finally, developmental experiences, such as particular stressors during the pubertal period, can permanently remodel the brain's response to ovarian hormones, most likely by long-term changes in regulation of the receptors mediating those responses. In addition to their function in responding to cognate ligand, it is now more appropriate to think of steroid hormone receptors as integrators of a wide variety of signaling pathways. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. 39 CFR 20.1 - International Mail Manual; incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Mail Manual; incorporation by reference. 20.1 Section 20.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE INTERNATIONAL MAIL INTERNATIONAL... Director of the Federal Register. In conformity with that provision, with 39 U.S.C. 410(b)(1), and as...

  4. Gonad development and plasma steroid profiles by HRGC/HRMS during one reproductive cycle in reference and leachate-exposed female perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaksson, Erik; Gustavsson, Bodil; Linderoth, Maria; Zebuehr, Yngve; Broman, Dag; Balk, Lennart

    2004-01-01

    Endocrine processes were studied in reference female perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lake Djursjoen and in leachate-exposed females from Lake Molnbyggen during one reproductive cycle. A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique enabled the analysis of circulating sex steroids [progesterone (P), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and 17β-estradiol (E2)], the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17α,20β-P), and glucocorticoids [11-deoxycortisol (11-DC) and cortisol]. Body and organ measurements, ratio of sexually mature (SM) females, and frequencies of body lesions, were also recorded. High frequencies of body lesions and a low ratio of SM females were generally found in Molnbyggen. These females also had lower gonadosomatic index (GSI) and liver-somatic index (LSI) in the early stages of vitellogenesis, indicating either a delayed onset of oogenesis or an impaired vitellogenesis. Non-reproducing females from both lakes showed a similar LSI cycle as SM females. Increasing T and A levels in SM females from Djursjoen coincided with the GSI peak at the time of spawning. These two androgens were on several occasions lower in SM females from Molnbyggen, possibly the result of a disrupted 17,20-lyase activity of the P450 17α enzyme because only minor effects were observed on circulating P and 17α-OHP levels. E2 and E1 levels increased during vitellogenesis in females from both lakes, with E1 levels more closely resembling the peaks of A and GSI. Peak levels of 17α,20β-P at the time of spawning confirmed its function as the MIH in perch, while the simultaneous peak of 11-DC suggests that it also may be involved in final maturation of the oocytes

  5. FENDL: International reference nuclear data library for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.; Wienke, H.; Ganesan, S.

    1996-01-01

    The IAEA nuclear data section, in co-operation with several national nuclear data centres and research groups, has created the first version of an internationally available fusion evaluated nuclear data library (FENDL-1). The FENDL library has been selected to serve as a comprehensive source of processed and tested nuclear data tailored to the requirements of the engineering design activity (EDA) of the ITER project and other fusion-related development projects. The present version of FENDL consists of the following sublibraries covering the necessary nuclear input for all physics and engineering aspects of the material development, design, operation and safety of the ITER project in its current EDA phase: FENDL/A-1.1: neutron activation cross-sections, selected from different available sources, for 636 nuclides, FENDL/D-1.0: nuclear decay data for 2900 nuclides in ENDF-6 format, FENDL/DS-1.0: neutron activation data for dosimetry by foil activation, FENDL/C-1.0: data for the fusion reactions D(d,n), D(d,p), T(d,n), T(t,2n), He-3(d,p) extracted from ENDF/B-6 and processed, FENDL/E-1.0:data for coupled neutron-photon transport calculations, including a data library for neutron interaction and photon production for 63 elements or isotopes, selected from ENDF/B-6, JENDL-3, or BROND-2, and a photon-atom interaction data library for 34 elements. The benchmark validation of FENDL-1 as required by the customer, i.e. the ITER team, is considered to be a task of high priority in the coming months. The well tested and validated nuclear data libraries in processed form of the FENDL-2 are expected to be ready by mid 1996 for use by the ITER team in the final phase of ITER EDA after extensive benchmarking and integral validation studies in the 1995-1996 period. The FENDL data files can be electronically transferred to users from the IAEA nuclear data section online system through INTERNET. A grand total of 54 (sub)directories with 845 files with total size of about 2 million

  6. Determination of dose to patient in different teams of TC and assessment with international reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Morales, C.; Fernandez lara, A. A.; Buades Forner, M. J.; Tobarra Gonzalez, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    The increase in CT studies and the differences observed between the different equipment used in our hospital prompted us to determine the doses to patients in different studies and check the results obtained with the reference values published internationally. (Author)

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate quantification in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and a deuterated internal standard: a technique suitable for routine use or as a reference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shackleton, C.H.; Kletke, C.; Wudy, S.; Pratt, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    A thermospray high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for determination of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is described. The steroid was measured intact using [7,7-2H2]dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate as internal standard. The analysis was carried out in the negative ion mode by determining the peak height ratio of the molecular anions of the analyte and internal standard. The method was used to determine the steroid in serum from 15 male and female normal adults and the following values were obtained: males, 272 +/- 45 micrograms/dl (range, 197 to 331 micrograms/dl) and females, 215 +/- 67 micrograms/dl (range, 107 to 347 micrograms/dl). In addition, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and radioimmunoassay (a commercial kit) on 25 individuals of all age groups. There was strong correlation between the values obtained, but the radioimmunoassay values were generally double those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Three other steroid sulfates, androsterone sulfate, epiandrosterone sulfate, and androst-5-ene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol sulfate, were also assayed. In males, these had mean values of 112, 44, and 13 micrograms/dl and, in females, they had mean values of 84, 25, and 6 micrograms/dl, respectively. Radioimmunoassay cross-reactivity measurement for these steroids (as reference compounds) showed that they were unlikely to contribute greatly to the discrepancy between radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry values

  8. [International reference prices and cost minimization analysis for the regulation of medicine prices in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Caludia; Acosta, Angela; Rodriguez, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    To suggest a scheme of decision making on pricing for medicines that are part of Free Regulated Regime, a regulation way of the pharmaceutical pricing policy in Colombia. It includes two regulation tools: international reference prices and a cost minimization analysis methodology. Following the current pricing policy, international reference prices were built with data from five countries for selected medicines, which are under Free Regulated Regime. The cost minimization analysis methodology includes selection of those medicines under Free Regulated Regime with possible comparable medicines, selection of comparable medicines, and treatment costs evaluation. As a result of the estimate of International Reference Prices, four medicines showed in the domestic pharmaceutical market a bigger price than the Reference Price. A scheme of decision-making was design containing two possible regulation tools for medicines that are part of Free Regulated Regime: estimate of international reference prices and cost minimization analysis methodology. This diagram would be useful to assist the pricing regulation of Free Regulated Regime in Colombia. As present results shows, international reference prices make clear when domestic prices are higher than those of reference countries. In the current regulation of pharmaceutical prices in Colombia, the international reference price has been applied for four medicines. Would be suitable to extend this methodology to other medicines of high impact on the pharmaceutical expenditure, in particular those covered by public funding. The availability of primary sources about treatment costs in Colombia needs to be improved as a requirement to develop pharmaco-economic evidence. SISMED is an official database that represents an important primary source of medicines prices in Colombia. Nevertheless, having into account that SISMED represents an important advantage of transparency in medicines prices, it needs to be improved in quality and data

  9. The Generalized Internal/External Frame of Reference Model: An Extension to Dimensional Comparison Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Jens; Müller-Kalthoff, Hanno; Helm, Friederike; Nagy, Nicole; Marsh, Herb W.

    2016-01-01

    The dimensional comparison theory (DCT) focuses on the effects of internal, dimensional comparisons (e.g., "How good am I in math compared to English?") on academic self-concepts with widespread consequences for students' self-evaluation, motivation, and behavioral choices. DCT is based on the internal/external frame of reference model…

  10. One hundred prime references on hydrogeochemical and stream sediment surveying for uranium as internationally practiced, including 60 annotated references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Bolivar, S.L.

    1981-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), formerly the US ERDA, has initiated a nationwide Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). This program is part of the US National Uranium Resource Evaluation, designed to provide an improved estimate for the availability and economics of nuclear fuel resources and make available to industry information for use in exploration and development of uranium resources. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is responsible for completing the HSSR in Rocky Mountain states of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana and in the state of Alaska. This report contains a compilation of 100 prime references on uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance as internationally practiced prior to 1977. The major emphasis in selection of these references was directed toward constructing a HSSR program with the purpose of identifying uranium in the Los Alamos National Laboratory area of responsibility. The context of the annotated abstracts are the authors' concept of what the respective article contains relative to uranium geochemistry and hydrogeochemical and stream sediment surveying. Consequently, in many cases, significant portions of the original articles are not discussed. The text consists of two parts. Part I contains 100 prime references, alphabetically arranged. Part II contains 60 select annotated abstracts, listed in chronological order

  11. Impact of quasar proper motions on the alignment between the International Celestial Reference Frame and the Gaia reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.-C.; Malkin, Z.; Zhu, Z.

    2018-03-01

    The International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) is currently realized by the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of extragalactic sources with the zero proper motion assumption, while Gaia will observe proper motions of these distant and faint objects to an accuracy of tens of microarcseconds per year. This paper investigates the difference between VLBI and Gaia quasar proper motions and it aims to understand the impact of quasar proper motions on the alignment of the ICRF and Gaia reference frame. We use the latest time series data of source coordinates from the International VLBI Service analysis centres operated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSF2017) and Paris observatory (OPA2017), as well as the Gaia auxiliary quasar solution containing 2191 high-probability optical counterparts of the ICRF2 sources. The linear proper motions in right ascension and declination of VLBI sources are derived by least-squares fits while the proper motions for Gaia sources are simulated taking into account the acceleration of the Solar system barycentre and realistic uncertainties depending on the source brightness. The individual and global features of source proper motions in GSF2017 and OPA2017 VLBI data are found to be inconsistent, which may result from differences in VLBI observations, data reduction and analysis. A comparison of the VLBI and Gaia proper motions shows that the accuracies of the components of rotation and glide between the two systems are 2-4 μas yr- 1 based on about 600 common sources. For the future alignment of the ICRF and Gaia reference frames at different wavelengths, the proper motions of quasars must necessarily be considered.

  12. References

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Appiah, Kwame Anthony (2005) The Ethics of Identity, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. ______ (2006). Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers, Norton, New York. Clarke, Charles (2006) ‛Global Citizens and Quality International Education: Enlarging the Role of the Commonwealth’. Speech delivered to the Royal Commonwealth Society, 15 November, 2006, London. Estlund, Cynthia (2003) Working Together: How Workplace Bonds Strengthen a Diverse Democracy, Oxford University Press, New...

  13. The Role of Internal Reference Points in the Category Purchase Decision.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David R; Bucklin, Randolph E

    1999-01-01

    The authors study the role that reference effects play in the category purchase decision for consumer nondurable products. Category purchase behavior is represented by a nested logit model that is estimated on purchase records of shoppers in two Universal Product Code (UPC) scanner panels. A series of hypotheses are developed, modeled, and tested regarding the effects that internal reference points for product category attractiveness are likely to have on the decision to buy in a product cate...

  14. Special issue “International Geomagnetic Reference Field—the twelfth generation”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thébault, E.; Finlay, C. C.; Toh, H.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of Earth, Planets and Space, synthesizes the efforts made during the construction of the twelfth generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF-12) that was released online in December 2014 (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/IAGA/vmod/ igrf.html). The IGRF-12 is a ser......This special issue of Earth, Planets and Space, synthesizes the efforts made during the construction of the twelfth generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF-12) that was released online in December 2014 (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/IAGA/vmod/ igrf.html). The IGRF-12...

  15. Refer to AP1000 for discussing the betterment of seismic design of internal nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhenbang; Zhang Renyan

    2014-01-01

    As a reference technique of AP1000, This paper discussed the betterment of seismic design of nuclear power plant in three ways. (1) Establish design criteria and guidelines for protection from seismic interaction; (2) Nuclear power plant seismic design of eliminating or weaken operation-basis earthquake; (3) Develop the seismic margin analysis (SMA) of the nuclear power plant. These three aspect are frontier technology in internal seismic design of internal nuclear power plant, and also these three technology are related intimately. (authors)

  16. Proposal of a candidate international conventional reference measurement procedure for free thyroxine in serum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thienpont, L.M.; Beastall, G.H.; Christofides, N.D.; Faix, J.D.; Ieiri, T.; Jarrige, V.; Miller, W.G.; Miller, R.; Nelson, J.C.; Ronin, C.; Ross, H.A.; Rottmann, M.; Thijssen, J.H.; Toussaint, B.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper the IFCC WG-STFT recommends and provides the rationale to establish metrological traceability of serum free thyroxine (FT4) measurements to a candidate international conventional reference measurement procedure. It is proposed that this procedure be based on equilibrium dialysis

  17. Assessment of international reference materials for isotope-ratio analysis (IUPAC Technical Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Vogl, Jochen; Rosner, Martin; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the number of international measurement standards for anchoring stable isotope delta scales has mushroomed from 3 to more than 30, expanding to more than 25 chemical elements. With the development of new instrumentation, along with new and improved measurement procedures for studying naturally occurring isotopic abundance variations in natural and technical samples, the number of internationally distributed, secondary isotopic reference materials with a specified delta value has blossomed in the last six decades to more than 150 materials. More than half of these isotopic reference materials were produced for isotope-delta measurements of seven elements: H, Li, B, C, N, O, and S. The number of isotopic reference materials for other, heavier elements has grown considerably over the last decade. Nevertheless, even primary international measurement standards for isotope-delta measurements are still needed for some elements, including Mg, Fe, Te, Sb, Mo, and Ge. It is recommended that authors publish the delta values of internationally distributed, secondary isotopic reference materials that were used for anchoring their measurement results to the respective primary stable isotope scale.

  18. The International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) and the Relationship Between Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chopo

    2000-01-01

    The International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF), a catalog of VLBI source positions, is now the basis for astrometry and geodesy. Its construction and extension/maintenance will be discussed as well as the relationship of the ICRF, ITRF, and EOP/nutation.

  19. Absorbed Internal Dose Conversion Coefficients for Domestic Reference Animals and Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    This paper describes the methodology of calculating the internal dose conversion coefficient in order to assess the radiological impact on non-human species. This paper also presents the internal dose conversion coefficients of 25 radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 7}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 40}K, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 90}Sr, '9{sup 5}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 129}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 136}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 140}La, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu) for domestic seven reference animals (roe deer, rat, frog, snake, Chinese minnow, bee, and earthworm) and one reference plant (pine tree). The uniform isotropic model was applied in order to calculate the internal dose conversion coefficients. The calculated internal dose conversion coefficient (muGyd{sup -1} per Bqkg{sup -1}) ranged from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -2} according to the type of radionuclides and organisms studied. It turns out that the internal does conversion coefficient was higher for alpha radionuclides, such as {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu, and for large organisms, such as roe deer and pine tree. The internal dose conversion coefficients of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 14}C, {sup 3}H and {sup 99}Tc were independent of the organism

  20. Establishing International Blood Pressure References Among Nonoverweight Children and Adolescents Aged 6 to 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bo; Zong, Xin'nan; Kelishadi, Roya; Hong, Young Mi; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Steffen, Lyn M; Nawarycz, Tadeusz; Krzywińska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Bovet, Pascal; Chiolero, Arnaud; Pan, Haiyan; Litwin, Mieczysław; Poh, Bee Koon; Sung, Rita Y T; So, Hung-Kwan; Schwandt, Peter; Haas, Gerda-Maria; Neuhauser, Hannelore K; Marinov, Lachezar; Galcheva, Sonya V; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kim, Hae Soon; Khadilkar, Vaman; Krzyżaniak, Alicja; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Heshmat, Ramin; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Barbara; El Ati, Jalila; Qorbani, Mostafa; Kajale, Neha; Traissac, Pierre; Ostrowska-Nawarycz, Lidia; Ardalan, Gelayol; Parthasarathy, Lavanya; Zhao, Min; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-26

    Several distributions of country-specific blood pressure (BP) percentiles by sex, age, and height for children and adolescents have been established worldwide. However, there are no globally unified BP references for defining elevated BP in children and adolescents, which limits international comparisons of the prevalence of pediatric elevated BP. We aimed to establish international BP references for children and adolescents by using 7 nationally representative data sets (China, India, Iran, Korea, Poland, Tunisia, and the United States). Data on BP for 52 636 nonoverweight children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years were obtained from 7 large nationally representative cross-sectional surveys in China, India, Iran, Korea, Poland, Tunisia, and the United States. BP values were obtained with certified mercury sphygmomanometers in all 7 countries by using standard procedures for BP measurement. Smoothed BP percentiles (50th, 90th, 95th, and 99th) by age and height were estimated by using the Generalized Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape model. BP values were similar between males and females until the age of 13 years and were higher in males than females thereafter. In comparison with the BP levels of the 90th and 95th percentiles of the US Fourth Report at median height, systolic BP of the corresponding percentiles of these international references was lower, whereas diastolic BP was similar. These international BP references will be a useful tool for international comparison of the prevalence of elevated BP in children and adolescents and may help to identify hypertensive youths in diverse populations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) generation 12: BGS candidates and final models

    OpenAIRE

    Beggan, Ciaran D.; Hamilton, Brian; Taylor, Victoria; Macmillan, Susan; Thomson, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model is a reference main field magnetic model updated on a quinquennial basis. The latest revision (generation 12) was released in January 2015. The IGRF-12 consists of a definitive model (DGRF2010) of the main field for 2010.0, a model for the field at 2015.0 (IGRF2015) and a prediction of secular variation (IGRF-12 SV) for the forthcoming five years until 2020.0. The remaining coefficients of IGRF-12 are unchanged from IGRF-11. Nin...

  2. International reference reagents: antihuman globulin. An ISBT/ICSH joint working party report. International Society of Blood Transfusion. International Committee for Standardization in Haematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, J; Ford, D S; Chung, A; Collins, R; Kochman, S; Mazda, T; Overbeeke, M; Perera, R; Sakuldamrongpanich, T; Scott, M; Voak, D; Zupańska, B

    1999-01-01

    An international working party has conducted a study designed to select a suitable reference reagent for antihuman globulin, to replace those first made available in 1987. The chosen preparation contains levels of anti-IgG and anti-C3 (anti-C3c and anti-C3d) potency that are considered suitable to serve for reference when evaluating either polyspecific antihuman globulin reagents or those containing their separate monospecific components. The reference material is available in 2-ml freeze-dried aliquots from seven assigned distribution centres.

  3. Improving the efficiency of quantitative (1)H NMR: an innovative external standard-internal reference approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yande; Su, Bao-Ning; Ye, Qingmei; Palaniswamy, Venkatapuram A; Bolgar, Mark S; Raglione, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    The classical internal standard quantitative NMR (qNMR) method determines the purity of an analyte by the determination of a solution containing the analyte and a standard. Therefore, the standard must meet the requirements of chemical compatibility and lack of resonance interference with the analyte as well as a known purity. The identification of such a standard can be time consuming and must be repeated for each analyte. In contrast, the external standard qNMR method utilizes a standard with a known purity to calibrate the NMR instrument. The external standard and the analyte are measured separately, thereby eliminating the matter of chemical compatibility and resonance interference between the standard and the analyte. However, the instrumental factors, including the quality of NMR tubes, must be kept the same. Any deviations will compromise the accuracy of the results. An innovative qNMR method reported herein utilizes an internal reference substance along with an external standard to assume the role of the standard used in the traditional internal standard qNMR method. In this new method, the internal reference substance must only be chemically compatible and be free of resonance-interference with the analyte or external standard whereas the external standard must only be of a known purity. The exact purity or concentration of the internal reference substance is not required as long as the same quantity is added to the external standard and the analyte. The new method reduces the burden of searching for an appropriate standard for each analyte significantly. Therefore the efficiency of the qNMR purity assay increases while the precision of the internal standard method is retained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Special issue “International Geomagnetic Reference Field—the twelfth generation”

    OpenAIRE

    Thébault, E.; Finlay, C. C.; Toh, H.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of Earth, Planets and Space, synthesizes the efforts made during the construction of the twelfth generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF-12) that was released online in December 2014 (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/IAGA/vmod/ igrf.html). The IGRF-12 is a series of standard mathematical models describing the large scale internal part of the Earth’s magnetic field between epochs 1900.0 and 2015.0 with a forecast to epoch 2020.0. This activity has been main...

  5. Uncertainty evaluation in normalization of isotope delta measurement results against international reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meija, Juris; Chartrand, Michelle M G

    2018-01-01

    Isotope delta measurements are normalized against international reference standards. Although multi-point normalization is becoming a standard practice, the existing uncertainty evaluation practices are either undocumented or are incomplete. For multi-point normalization, we present errors-in-variables regression models for explicit accounting of the measurement uncertainty of the international standards along with the uncertainty that is attributed to their assigned values. This manuscript presents framework to account for the uncertainty that arises due to a small number of replicate measurements and discusses multi-laboratory data reduction while accounting for inevitable correlations between the laboratories due to the use of identical reference materials for calibration. Both frequentist and Bayesian methods of uncertainty analysis are discussed.

  6. Steroid isotopic standards for gas chromatography-combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Tobias, Herbert J; Brenna, J Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Carbon isotope ratio (CIR) analysis of urinary steroids using gas chromatography-combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS) is a recognized test to detect illicit doping with synthetic testosterone. There are currently no universally used steroid isotopic standards (SIS). We adapted a protocol to prepare isotopically uniform steroids for use as a calibrant in GCC-IRMS that can be analyzed under the same conditions as used for steroids extracted from urine. Two separate SIS containing a mixture of steroids were created and coded CU/USADA 33-1 and CU/USADA 34-1, containing acetates and native steroids, respectively. CU/USADA 33-1 contains 5alpha-androstan-3beta-ol acetate (5alpha-A-AC), 5alpha-androstan-3alpha-ol-17-one acetate (androsterone acetate, A-AC), 5beta-androstan-3alpha-ol-11, 17-dione acetate (11-ketoetiocholanolone acetate, 11k-AC) and 5alpha-cholestane (Cne). CU/USADA 34-1 contains 5beta-androstan-3alpha-ol-17-one (etiocholanolone, E), 5alpha-androstan-3alpha-ol-17-one (androsterone, A), and 5beta-pregnane-3alpha, 20alpha-diol (5betaP). Each mixture was prepared and dispensed into a set of about 100 ampoules using a protocol carefully designed to minimize isotopic fractionation and contamination. A natural gas reference material, NIST RM 8559, traceable to the international standard Vienna PeeDee Belemnite (VPDB) was used to calibrate the SIS. Absolute delta(13)C(VPDB) and Deltadelta(13)C(VPDB) values from randomly selected ampoules from both SIS indicate uniformity of steroid isotopic composition within measurement reproducibility, SD(delta(13)C)<0.2 per thousand. This procedure for creation of isotopic steroid mixtures results in consistent standards with isotope ratios traceable to the relevant international reference material.

  7. Towards better description of solar activity variation in the International Reference Ionosphere topside ion composition model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Truhlík, Vladimír; Bilitza, D.; Třísková, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 8 (2015), s. 2099-2105 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11123 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ion composition * topside ionosphere * solar activity * empirical model * International Reference Ionosphere Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.409, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027311771400489X

  8. Henry Hub and national balancing point prices: what will be the international gas price reference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazighi, A.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    One of the lessons in the history of international trade in commodities is the emergence - sooner or later - of an international price reference, most commonly known as an international marker price. In the area of oil, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) plays the role of a marker for sour crudes traded in the Atlantic basin. Brent oil fulfils this function for sweet crudes traded in Europe. Another important aspect in the area of global commodities is that the emergence of a marker price is not always necessarily related to the relative share of production of exports of the commodity, but primarily to the existence of an organized market for this commodity. Today, while international gas trade is intensifying, we still lack an international price reference for this commodity. This is due to the fact that the international trade of natural gas is still highly regionalized. It is also due to the fact that most gas markets are still regulated. Nevertheless, deregulation efforts have been implemented in both developed (the United States, the United Kingdom, continental Europe, Korea) and developing countries (Brazil, Chile) and have led to new market structures based on more competition in all segments of the gas chain, except transportation. In the meantime, price structures based on supply and demand principles are supposed to have emerged in the US and UK markets in the 1990s as a result of the implementation of deregulation measures. Today, the US gas market, which represents more than 660 billion cubic metres per year of consumption and the UK gas market, which is close to 100 bcm annually, are considered mature enough to make the principles of supply and demand operate inside these markets. In fact, the Henry Hub (HH) price, which is determined at a physical location in Louisiana, US, and the national balancing point (NBP) price, which is determined somewhere inside the national transmission system (NTS), without any precise location, are considered as potential

  9. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori-Negative, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Related Peptic Ulcer Disease in Patients Referred to Afzalipour Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Mirzaei, Seyed Mahdi; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Shafiei Pour, Sara

    2015-10-01

    BACKGROUND Although Helicobacter pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the main causes of peptic ulcers disease (PUD), recently the prevalence of idiopathic peptic ulcer (IPU) is increasing in most parts of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of IPU in Kerman, the center of largest province in south-east Iran. METHODS We included 215 patients with peptic ulcer in our study. Combined methods rapid urease test (RUT), histology, and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on endoscopic samples of peptic ulcers. NSAID use was determined by medical history. SPSS software version 16 was used for data analysis. p valuepeptic ulcer, four (1.8%) had H.pylorinegative and NSAID-negative PUD. There were not significant differences between patients with IPU and patients with peptic ulcer associated with H.pylori or NSAIDs regarding the sex, age, cigarette smoking, and opioid abuse. CONCLUSION Our study showed that in contrast to other reports from western and some Asian countries, the prevalence of IPU is low in Kerman and H.pylori infection is still the major cause of PUD. We recommend a large and multi-central study to determine the prevalence of IPU in Iran.

  10. Customized Internal Reference Controls for Improved Assessment of Circulating MicroRNAs in Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Schlosser

    Full Text Available Altered levels of circulating extracellular miRNA in plasma and serum have shown promise as non-invasive biomarkers of disease. However, unlike the assessment of cellular miRNA levels for which there are accepted housekeeping genes, analogous reference controls for normalization of circulating miRNA are lacking. Here, we provide an approach to identify and validate circulating miRNA reference controls on a de novo basis, and demonstrate the advantages of these customized internal controls in different disease settings. Importantly, these internal controls overcome key limitations of external spike-in controls.Using a global RT-qPCR screen of 1066 miRNAs in plasma from pulmonary hypertension patients (PAH and healthy subjects as a case example, we identified a large pool of initial candidate miRNAs that were systematically ranked according to their plasma level stability using a predefined algorithm. The performance of the top candidates was validated against multiple comparators, and in a second independent cohort of PAH and control subjects. The broader utility of this approach was demonstrated in a completely different disease setting with 372 miRNAs screened in plasma from septic shock patients and healthy controls.Normalization of data with specific internal reference controls significantly reduced the overall variation in circulating miRNA levels between subjects (relative to raw data, provided a more balanced distribution of up- and down-regulated miRNAs, replicated the results obtained by the benchmark geometric averaging of all detected miRNAs, and outperformed the commonly used external spike-in strategy.We demonstrate the feasibility of identifying circulating reference controls that can reduce extraneous technical variations, and improve the assessment of disease-related changes in plasma miRNA levels. This study provides a novel conceptual framework that addresses a critical and previously unmet need if circulating miRNAs are to

  11. The International Decision Support Initiative Reference Case for Economic Evaluation: An Aid to Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Thomas; Sculpher, Mark J; Claxton, Karl; Revill, Paul; Briggs, Andrew; Cairns, John A; Teerawattananon, Yot; Asfaw, Elias; Lopert, Ruth; Culyer, Anthony J; Walker, Damian G

    2016-12-01

    Policymakers in high-, low-, and middle-income countries alike face challenging choices about resource allocation in health. Economic evaluation can be useful in providing decision makers with the best evidence of the anticipated benefits of new investments, as well as their expected opportunity costs-the benefits forgone of the options not chosen. To guide the decisions of health systems effectively, it is important that the methods of economic evaluation are founded on clear principles, are applied systematically, and are appropriate to the decision problems they seek to inform. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, a major funder of economic evaluations of health technologies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), commissioned a "reference case" through the International Decision Support Initiative (iDSI) to guide future evaluations, and improve both the consistency and usefulness to decision makers. The iDSI Reference Case draws on previous insights from the World Health Organization, the US Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health Care, and the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Comprising 11 key principles, each accompanied by methodological specifications and reporting standards, the iDSI Reference Case also serves as a means of identifying priorities for methods research, and can be used as a framework for capacity building and technical assistance in LMICs. The iDSI Reference Case is an aid to thought, not a substitute for it, and should not be followed slavishly without regard to context, culture, or history. This article presents the iDSI Reference Case and discusses the rationale, approach, components, and application in LMICs. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M. [Geoscience Australia, P.O. Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Pursimo, T. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope Apartado 474E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Jauncey, David L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF and Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Maslennikov, K. [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Pulkovskoye Shosse, 65/1, 196140, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Boldycheva, A., E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate International Celestial Reference Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.

  13. Optical Spectra of Candidate International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Flat-spectrum Radio Sources. III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M. [Geoscience Australia, P.O. Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Pursimo, T. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope Apartado 474E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Jauncey, David L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF and Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Zenere, Katrina A., E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2017-04-01

    In extending our spectroscopic program, which targets sources drawn from the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Catalog, we have obtained spectra for ∼160 compact, flat-spectrum radio sources and determined redshifts for 112 quasars and radio galaxies. A further 14 sources with featureless spectra have been classified as BL Lac objects. Spectra were obtained at three telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, and the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile. While most of the sources are powerful quasars, a significant fraction of radio galaxies is also included from the list of non-defining ICRF radio sources.

  14. How Do Drug Prices Respond to a Change from External to Internal Reference Pricing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.

    (where they are based on the cheapest domestic substitute). We analyze three therapeutic classes with different treatment durations and show that the reform led to substantial price decreases for our lifelong treatment and to less substantial price reductions for our medium duration treatment while we do......We study the effects of a change in the way patient reimbursements are calculated on the prices of pharmaceuticals using quasi-experimental data for Denmark which switched from external (where reimbursements are based on prices of similar products in foreign countries) to internal reference pricing...

  15. Non-proliferation through effective international control, with particular reference to peaceful uses of nuclear material as a result of nuclear disarmament and international control of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Ryukichi

    1993-01-01

    The role of nuclear factors in the international political situation has changed. The emphasis is now on the new circumstance of the post cold-war world. Non-proliferation is dealt with through effective international control, with particular reference to peaceful uses of nuclear material as a result of nuclear weapons dismantling and international control of plutonium

  16. Calibrating NIST SRM 683 as A New International Reference Standard for Zn Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Yu, H.; Huang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Zinc isotopes have been widely applied in the cosmochemical, geochemical, and environmental studies (Moynier et al. 2017). Obtaining precise Zn isotopic data for inter-laboratory comparison is a prerequisite to these applications. Currently, the JMC3-0749L is the primary reference standard for Zn isotopes (Albarède 2004), but it is not commercially available now. Thus, it is necessary to calibrate a new international primary reference standard for Zn isotopic analysis. Chen et al. (2016) showed that NIST SRM 683 (a pure Zn metal nugget of 140 grams) has a δ66ZnJMC of 0.12‰, which is falling within the range of natural Zn isotopic compositions, and it may a good candidate for the next generation of international reference standard (Chen et al. 2016). In order to further examine whether NIST SRM 683 has a homogeneous Zn isotopic composition, we measured more NIST SRM 683 by double-spike methods using MC-ICPMS (Conway et al. 2013). The metal nuggets of NIST SRM 683 were intensively sampled by micro-drilling. Zinc isotope analyses for two nuggets show that they have δ66Zn of 0.14 ± 0.02‰ (2SD, N = 32) and 0.13 ± 0.02‰ (2SD, N = 33), respectively. These values are similar to those of two Zn metal nuggets (0.11 ± 0.02‰ vs. 0.12 ± 0.02‰) reported previously by Chen et al. (2016). We fully dissolved one nugget, producing pure Zn solution with identical Zn isotopic composition with the drilling samples. All results strongly support that NIST SRM 683 is homogeneous in Zn isotopic compositions which could be an ideal candidate for the next reference for Zn isotopes. Tests on more metal nuggets will be performed in a few months for further confirming the Zn isotope compositions and homogeneity. Reference: Albarède et al., 2004. 'The stable isotope geochemistry of copper and zinc', Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 55: 409-27. Chen et al., 2016. 'Zinc Isotopic Compositions of NIST SRM 683 and Whole-Rock Reference Materials', Geostandards and

  17. A study to establish international diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, J.; Rehani, M.; Kostova-Lefterova, D.; Al-Naemi, H.M.; Al Suwaidi, J.S.; Arandjic, D.; Bashier, E.H.O.; Kodlulovich Renha, S.; El-Nachef, L.; Aguilar, J.G.; Gershan, V.; Gershkevitsh, E.; Gruppetta, E.; Hustuc, A.; Jauhari, A.; Hassan Kharita, Mohammad; Khelassi-Toutaoui, N.; Khosravi, H.R.; Khoury, H.; Kralik, I.; Mahere, S.; Mazuoliene, J.; Mora, P.; Muhogora, W.; Muthuvelu, P.; Nikodemova, D.; Novak, L.; Pallewatte, A.; Pekarovic, D.; Shaaban, M.; Shelly, E.; Stepanyan, K.; Thelsy, N.; Visrutaratna, P.; Zaman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The article reports results from the largest international dose survey in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 32 countries and proposes international diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose length product (DLP). It also assesses whether mean or median values of individual facilities should be used. A total of 6115 individual patient data were recorded among four age groups: <1 y, >1-5 y, >5-10 y and >10-15 y. CTDI w , CTDI vol and DLP from the CT console were recorded in dedicated forms together with patient data and technical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed, and international DRLs were established at rounded 75. percentile values of distribution of median values from all CT facilities. The study presents evidence in favour of using median rather than mean of patient dose indices as the representative of typical local dose in a facility, and for establishing DRLs as third quartile of median values. International DRLs were established for paediatric CT examinations for routine head, chest and abdomen in the four age groups. DRLs for CTDI vol are similar to the reference values from other published reports, with some differences for chest and abdomen CT. Higher variations were observed between DLP values, based on a survey of whole multi-phase exams. It may be noted that other studies in literature were based on single phase only. DRLs reported in this article can be used in countries without sufficient medical physics support to identify non-optimised practice. Recommendations to improve the accuracy and importance of future surveys are provided. (authors)

  18. Prevalence of thinness in children and adolescents in the Seychelles: comparison of two international growth references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Kizirian, Nathalie; Madeleine, George; Blössner, Monika; Chiolero, Arnaud

    2011-06-09

    Thinness in children and adolescents is largely under studied, a contrast with abundant literature on under-nutrition in infants and on overweight in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of thinness using two recently developed growth references, among children and adolescents living in the Seychelles, an economically rapidly developing country in the African region. Weight and height were measured every year in all children of 4 grades (age range: 5 to 16 years) of all schools in the Seychelles as part of a routine school-based surveillance program. In this study we used data collected in 16,672 boys and 16,668 girls examined from 1998 to 2004. Thinness was estimated according to two growth references: i) an international survey (IS), defining three grades of thinness corresponding to a BMI of 18.5, 17.0 and 16.0 kg/m2 at age 18 and ii) the WHO reference, defined here as three categories of thinness (-1, -2 and -3 SD of BMI for age) with the second and third named "thinness" and "severe thinness", respectively. The prevalence of thinness was 21.4%, 6.4% and 2.0% based on the three IS cut-offs and 27.7%, 6.7% and 1.2% based on the WHO cut-offs. The prevalence of thinness categories tended to decrease according to age for both sexes for the IS reference and among girls for the WHO reference. The prevalence of the first category of thinness was larger with the WHO cut-offs than with the IS cut-offs while the prevalence of thinness of "grade 2" and thinness of "grade 3" (IS cut-offs) was similar to the prevalence of "thinness" and "severe thinness" (WHO cut-offs), respectively.

  19. Prevalence of thinness in children and adolescents in the Seychelles: comparison of two international growth references

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine George

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thinness in children and adolescents is largely under studied, a contrast with abundant literature on under-nutrition in infants and on overweight in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of thinness using two recently developed growth references, among children and adolescents living in the Seychelles, an economically rapidly developing country in the African region. Methods Weight and height were measured every year in all children of 4 grades (age range: 5 to 16 years of all schools in the Seychelles as part of a routine school-based surveillance program. In this study we used data collected in 16,672 boys and 16,668 girls examined from 1998 to 2004. Thinness was estimated according to two growth references: i an international survey (IS, defining three grades of thinness corresponding to a BMI of 18.5, 17.0 and 16.0 kg/m2 at age 18 and ii the WHO reference, defined here as three categories of thinness (-1, -2 and -3 SD of BMI for age with the second and third named "thinness" and "severe thinness", respectively. Results The prevalence of thinness was 21.4%, 6.4% and 2.0% based on the three IS cut-offs and 27.7%, 6.7% and 1.2% based on the WHO cut-offs. The prevalence of thinness categories tended to decrease according to age for both sexes for the IS reference and among girls for the WHO reference. Conclusion The prevalence of the first category of thinness was larger with the WHO cut-offs than with the IS cut-offs while the prevalence of thinness of "grade 2" and thinness of "grade 3" (IS cut-offs was similar to the prevalence of "thinness" and "severe thinness" (WHO cut-offs, respectively.

  20. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry—scaling factors given knowledge of patient internal anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2018-04-01

    Various computational tools are currently available that facilitate patient organ dosimetry in diagnostic nuclear medicine, yet they are typically restricted to reporting organ doses to ICRP-defined reference phantoms. The present study, while remaining computational phantom based, provides straightforward tools to adjust reference phantom organ dose for both internal photon and electron sources. A wide variety of monoenergetic specific absorbed fractions were computed using radiation transport simulations for tissue spheres of varying size and separation distance. Scaling methods were then constructed for both photon and electron self-dose and cross-dose, with data validation provided from patient-specific voxel phantom simulations, as well as via comparison to the scaling methodology given in MIRD Pamphlet No. 11. Photon and electron self-dose was found to be dependent on both radiation energy and sphere size. Photon cross-dose was found to be mostly independent of sphere size. Electron cross-dose was found to be dependent on sphere size when the spheres were in close proximity, owing to differences in electron range. The validation studies showed that this dataset was more effective than the MIRD 11 method at predicting patient-specific photon doses for at both high and low energies, but gave similar results at photon energies between 100 keV and 1 MeV. The MIRD 11 method for electron self-dose scaling was accurate for lower energies but began to break down at higher energies. The photon cross-dose scaling methodology developed in this study showed gains in accuracy of up to 9% for actual patient studies, and the electron cross-dose scaling methodology showed gains in accuracy up to 9% as well when only the bremsstrahlung component of the cross-dose was scaled. These dose scaling methods are readily available for incorporation into internal dosimetry software for diagnostic phantom-based organ dosimetry.

  1. Use of internal references for assessing CT density measurements of the pelvis as replacement for use of an external phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Martijn F; Slouwerhof, Inge; van Dalen, Jorn A; Edens, Mireille A; Mueller, Dirk; Milles, Julien; Maas, Mario

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the use of an internal reference standard for fat- and muscle as a replacement for an external reference standard with a phantom. By using a phantomless internal reference standard, Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements of various tissues can potentially be assessed in patients with a CT scan of the pelvis without an added phantom at time of CT acquisition. This paves the way for development of a tool for quantification of the change in tissue density in one patient over time and between patients. This could make every CT scan made without contrast available for research purposes. Fifty patients with unilateral metal-on-metal total hip replacements, scanned together with a calibration reference phantom used in bone mineral density measurements, were included in this study. On computed tomography scans of the pelvis without the use of intravenous iodine contrast, reference values for fat and muscle were measured in the phantom as well as within the patient's body. The conformity between the references was examined with the intra-class correlation coefficient. The mean HU (± SD) of reference values for fat for the internal- and phantom references were -91.5 (±7.0) and -90.9 (±7.8), respectively. For muscle, the mean HU (± SD) for the internal- and phantom references were 59.2 (±6.2) and 60.0 (±7.2), respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficients for fat and muscle were 0.90 and 0.84 respectively and show excellent agreement between the phantom and internal references. Internal references can be used with similar accuracy as references from an external phantom. There is no need to use an external phantom to asses CT density measurements of body tissue.

  2. Use of internal references for assessing CT density measurements of the pelvis as replacement for use of an external phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomsma, Martijn F.; Slouwerhof, Inge; Dalen, Jorn A. van [Isala Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Edens, Mireille A. [Isala Hospital, Department of Innovation and Science, Zwolle (Netherlands); Mueller, Dirk [Philips Healthcare systems, Hamburg (Germany); Milles, Julien [Philips Healthcare Benelux, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Maas, Mario [AMC, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this research is to study the use of an internal reference standard for fat- and muscle as a replacement for an external reference standard with a phantom. By using a phantomless internal reference standard, Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements of various tissues can potentially be assessed in patients with a CT scan of the pelvis without an added phantom at time of CT acquisition. This paves the way for development of a tool for quantification of the change in tissue density in one patient over time and between patients. This could make every CT scan made without contrast available for research purposes. Fifty patients with unilateral metal-on-metal total hip replacements, scanned together with a calibration reference phantom used in bone mineral density measurements, were included in this study. On computed tomography scans of the pelvis without the use of intravenous iodine contrast, reference values for fat and muscle were measured in the phantom as well as within the patient's body. The conformity between the references was examined with the intra-class correlation coefficient. The mean HU (± SD) of reference values for fat for the internal- and phantom references were -91.5 (±7.0) and -90.9 (±7.8), respectively. For muscle, the mean HU (± SD) for the internal- and phantom references were 59.2 (±6.2) and 60.0 (±7.2), respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficients for fat and muscle were 0.90 and 0.84 respectively and show excellent agreement between the phantom and internal references. Internal references can be used with similar accuracy as references from an external phantom. There is no need to use an external phantom to asses CT density measurements of body tissue. (orig.)

  3. International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF): mantenimiento y extensión

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C.; Arias, E. F.; Eubanks, T.; Fey, A. L.; Gontier, A.-M.; Jacobs, C. S.; Sovers, O. J.; Archinal, B. A.; Charlot, P.

    A partir de enero de 1998 el sistema de referencia celeste convencional está representado por el International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) y materializado a través de las coordenadas VLBI del conjunto de radiofuentes extragalácticas que conforman el International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). La primera realización del ICRF, fue elaborada en 1995 por un grupo de expertos designado por la IAU, la que encomendó al International Earth Rotation Service el mantenimiento del ICRS, del ICRF y del vínculo con marcos de referencia en otras frecuencias. Una primera extensión del ICRF se realizó entre abril y junio de 1999, con el objetivo primario de proveer posiciones de radiofuentes extragalácticas observadas a partir de julio de 1995 y de mejorar las posiciones de las fuentes ``candidatas" con la inclusión de observaciones adicionales. Objetivos secundarios fueron monitorear a las radiofuentes para verificar que siguen siendo adecuadas para realizar al ICRF y mejorar las técnicas de análisis de datos. Como resultado del nuevo análisis se obtuvo una solución a partir de la cual se construyó la primera extensión del ICRF, denominada ICRF - Ext.1. Ella representa al ICRS, sus fuentes de definición se mantienen con las mismas posiciones y errores que en la primera realización del ICRF; las demás radiofuentes tienen coordenadas mejor determinadas que en ICRF; el marco de referencia se densificó con el agregado de 59 nuevas radiofuentes.

  4. The role of internal reference prices in consumers' willingness to pay judgments: Thaler's Beer Pricing Task revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranyard, R; Charlton, J P; Williamson, J

    2001-02-01

    Alternative reference prices, either displayed in the environment (external) or recalled from memory (internal) are known to influence consumer judgments and decisions. In one line of previous research, internal reference prices have been defined in terms of general price expectations. However, Thaler (Marketing Science 4 (1985) 199; Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 12 (1999) 183) defined them as fair prices expected from specific types of seller. Using a Beer Pricing Task, he found that seller context had a substantial effect on willingness to pay, and concluded that this was due to specific internal reference prices evoked by specific contexts. In a think aloud study using the same task (N = 48), we found only a marginal effect of seller context. In a second study using the Beer Pricing Task and seven analogous ones (N = 144), general internal reference prices were estimated by asking people what they normally paid for various commodities. Both general internal reference prices and seller context influenced willingness to pay, although the effect of the latter was again rather small. We conclude that general internal reference prices have a greater impact in these scenarios than specific ones, because of the lower cognitive load involved in their storage and retrieval.

  5. Steroids (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build muscle, steroids can have very serious side effects. Using steroids for a long time can harm the reproductive ... Teen girls and women risk these additional side effects: male-type facial and body ... risks, kids who use steroids without a prescription are breaking the law. Drug ...

  6. Internal and external dose conversion coefficient for domestic reference animals and plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Park, Du Won; Choi, Young Ho

    2009-07-15

    This report presents the internal and external dose conversion coefficients for domestic reference animals and plant, which are essential to assess the radiological impact of an environmental radiation on non-human species. To calculate the dose conversion coefficients, a uniform isotropic model and a Monte Carlo method for a photon transport simulation in environmental media with different densities have been applied for aquatic and terrestrial animals, respectively. In the modeling all the target animals are defined as a simple 3D elliptical shape. To specify the external radiation source it is assumed that aquatic animals are fully immersed in infinite and uniformly contaminated water, and the on-soil animals are living on the surface of a horizontally infinite soil source, and the in-soil organisms are living at the center of a horizontally infinite and uniformly contaminated soil to a depth of 50cm. A set of internal and external dose conversion coefficients for 8 Korean reference animals and plant (rat, roe-deer, frog, snake, Chinese minnow, bee, earthworm, and pine tree) are presented for 25 radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 7}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 40}K, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 129}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 136}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 140}La, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu)

  7. An approach to local diagnostic reference levels (DRL's) in the context of national and international DRL's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, A.T.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years there has been a greater focus on the management of patient doses. This effort has been driven by the realisation of both the increasing magnitude of patient doses and their variation both intra- and inter-nationally. Legislators and guidance-issuing bodies have developed the idea of 'Diagnostic Reference Levels' (DRL's). In particular, the European Union, in their Council Directive 97/43/Euratom, required Member States to develop DRL's. The UK Government, when consolidating this EU Directive into UK legislation, extended the concept of DRL's from a national to an employer level. However, the methodologies used for development of national and international DRL's do not translate to a local level and hence a new approach is required. This paper describes one particular approach made by a UK hospital to introduce 'Local DRL's' in such a manner as to aid the optimisation process. This approach utilises a dose index, based on the local patient population, which is monitored for trends. Any trend in patient dose triggers an investigation linked to the clinical audit system within the Clinical Radiology Department. It is the audit cycle that ensures a continuing move towards an optimised situation. Additional triggers may be employed such as large patient dose variations. (author)

  8. Complete internal audit of a mammography service in a reference institution for breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badan, Gustavo Machado; Roveda Júnior, Décio; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Pecci; de Noronha Junior, Ozeas Alves

    2014-01-01

    Undertaking of a complete audit of the service of mammography, as recommended by BI-RADS(®), in a private reference institution for breast cancer diagnosis in the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and comparison of results with those recommended by the literature. Retrospective, analytical and cross-sectional study including 8,000 patients submitted to mammography in the period between April 2010 and March 2011, whose results were subjected to an internal audit. The patients were followed-up until December 2012. The radiological classification of 7,249 screening mammograms, according to BI-RADS, was the following: category 0 (1.43%), 1 (7.82%), 2 (80.76%), 3 (8.35%), 4 (1.46%), 5 (0.15%) and 6 (0.03%). The breast cancer detection ratio was 4.8 cases per 1,000 mammograms. Ductal carcinoma in situ was found in 22.8% of cases. Positive predictive values for categories 3, 4 and 5 were 1.3%, 41.3% and 100%, respectively. In the present study, the sensitivity of the method was 97.1% and specificity, 97.4%. The complete internal audit of a service of mammography is essential to evaluate the quality of such service, which reflects on an early breast cancer detection and reduction of mortality rates.

  9. The evaluation of a frame-of-reference training programme for intern psychometrists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdi Mulder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The use of assessment centres (ACs has drastically increased over the past decade. However, ACs are constantly confronted with the lack of construct validity. One aspect of ACs that could improve the construct validity significantly is that of assessor training. Unfortunately untrained or poorly trained assessors are often used in AC processes. Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate a frame-of-reference (FOR programme to train intern psychometrists as assessors at an assessment centre. Motivation of study: The role of an assessor is important in an AC; therefore it is vital for an assessor to be able to evaluate and observe candidates’ behaviour adequately. Commencing with this training in a graduate psychometrist programme gives the added benefit of sending skilled psychometrists to the workplace. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative research approach was implemented, utilising a randomised pre-test-post-test comparison group design. Industrial Psychology postgraduate students (N = 22 at a South African university were used and divided into an experimental group (n = 11 and control group (n = 11. Three typical AC simulations were utilised as pre- and post-tests, and the ratings obtained from both groups were statistically analysed to determine the effect of the FOR training programme. Main findings: The data indicated that there was a significant increase in the familiarity of the participants with the one-on-one simulation and the group discussion simulation. Practical/managerial implications: Training intern psychometrists in a FOR programme could assist organisations in the appointment of more competent assessors. Contribution/value-add: To design an assessor training programme using FOR training for intern psychometrists in the South African context, specifically by incorporating this programme into the training programme for Honours students at universities.

  10. First WHO/IFCC International Reference Reagent for Lipoprotein(a) for Immunoassay--Lp(a) SRM 2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dati, Francesco; Tate, Jillian R; Marcovina, Santica M; Steinmetz, Armin

    2004-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a) is an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk. The lack of internationally accepted standardization has impeded the broad application of this lipoprotein in laboratory medicine. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC), through its Working Group on Lipoprotein(a) and together with research institutions and several diagnostic companies, have succeeded in developing an international reference material that is intended for the transfer of a lipoprotein(a) concentration to manufacturers' master calibrators. IFCC SRM 2B has recently been accepted by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization as the 'First WHO/IFCC International Reference Reagent for Lipoprotein(a) for Immunoassay'. The assigned unitage of 0.1071 nanomoles of lipoprotein(a) per vial is traceable to the consensus reference method for lipoprotein(a) and will enable conformity by diagnostic companies to the European Union's Directive on In vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices for the metrological traceability of calibrator materials.

  11. ent-Steroids: novel tools for studies of signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Douglas F

    2009-07-01

    Membrane receptors are often modulated by steroids and it is necessary to distinguish the effects of steroids at these receptors from effects occurring at nuclear receptors. Additionally, it may also be mechanistically important to distinguish between direct effects caused by binding of steroids to membrane receptors and indirect effects on membrane receptor function caused by steroid perturbation of the membrane containing the receptor. In this regard, ent-steroids, the mirror images of naturally occurring steroids, are novel tools for distinguishing between these various actions of steroids. The review provides a background for understanding the different actions that can be expected of steroids and ent-steroids in biological systems, references for the preparation of ent-steroids, a short discussion about relevant forms of stereoisomerism and the requirements that need to be fulfilled for the interaction between two molecules to be enantioselective. The review then summarizes results of biophysical, biochemical and pharmacological studies published since 1992 in which ent-steroids have been used to investigate the actions of steroids in membranes and/or receptor-mediated signaling pathways.

  12. Dietary fibre, transit-time, faecal bacteria, steroids, and colon cancer in two Scandinavian populations. Report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer Intestinal Microecology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, R; Jensen, O M

    1977-07-30

    A comparison of dietary intake and faecal characteristics in population samples from two areas of Denmark and Finland with 4-fold variation in colon-cancer incidence suggests that the aetiology of colon cancer may be multifactorial and is not associated in a simple manner with dietary fat, neutral steroids, acid steroids, or their bacterial metabolites. However, meat consumption was greater in the high-incidence areas. Higher intakes of dietary fibre and milk in the low-incidence area suggest a possible protective effect, unrelated to mouth-anus transit-time. Further careful dietary and metabolic studies are needed to clarify the relationships between possible carcinogenic and protective effects of diet.

  13. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. Methods A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO and United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P Results Height, weight and BMI percentiles increased with age among both boys and girls, and both had approximately the same height and a lower weight and BMI as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P Conclusion Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed from the WHO and USCDC references. However, z score means relative to the WHO reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Overweight and obesity were significantly higher while underweight and thinness/wasting were significantly lower relative to the WHO reference as compared to the USCDC reference and the IOTF cut-offs. New growth charts for Pakistani children based on a nationally representative sample should be developed. Nevertheless, shifting to use of the 2007 WHO child growth reference might have important implications for child health programs and primary care pediatric clinics.

  14. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney-Walker, J.; Schulz, H.; Sievers, J.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes the recently completed Phase I of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE). Project FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of Principal Working Group No. 3 (PWG/3) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency's (NEA's) Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). Motivation for the project was derived from recognition by the CSNI-PWG/3 that inconsistencies were being revealed in predictive capabilities of a variety of fracture assessment methods, especially in ductile fracture applications. As a consequence, the CSNI/FAG was formed to evaluate fracture prediction capabilities currently used in safety assessments of nuclear components. Members are from laboratories and research organizations in Western Europe, Japan, and the United States of America (USA). On behalf of the CSNI/FAG, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen--und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), Koeln, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) had responsibility for organization arrangements related to Project FALSIRE. The group is chaired by H. Schulz from GRS, Koeln, FRG

  15. Paper Strip-based Fluorometric Determination of Cyanide with an Internal Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Nam; Hong, Jong-In [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyejin; Shin, Ik-Soo [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The rapid, selective, and sensitive determination of cyanide anion (CN{sup -}) using a simple paper strip is highly attractive because cyanide is acutely lethal to living organisms via all routes of administration, including alcohol consumption and inhaling cigarette smoke. Here, a synthetic probe (1) was designed for the selective determination of cyanide. The probe displays rapid and large blue spectral change (Δλ{sub abs}=148 nm, Δλ{sub em}= 165 nm) with respect to target recognition. Probe 1 exhibits a strong push-pull electronic effect and comprises a dimethylaminoaryl group as a donor and malononitrile as an acceptor; the π-conjugation system can be destroyed by the Michael-type addition of cyanide at the electrophilic β-positions of the nitrile groups, resulting in the marked emergence of a peak at λ{sub em}= 515 nm. The developed probe was successfully applied to a paper test strip because of its noticeable optical changes upon reaction with cyanide. The fabricated dumbbell-shaped paper strip with an internal reference allowed the cyanide detection, which is indispensable for quantitative analysis in point-of-care testing. The paper strip test showed selective response to cyanide, with a linear correlation in the range of 0-25 mM in a simple and cost-effective manner.

  16. Paper Strip-based Fluorometric Determination of Cyanide with an Internal Reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong-Nam; Hong, Jong-In; Seo, Hyejin; Shin, Ik-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The rapid, selective, and sensitive determination of cyanide anion (CN"-) using a simple paper strip is highly attractive because cyanide is acutely lethal to living organisms via all routes of administration, including alcohol consumption and inhaling cigarette smoke. Here, a synthetic probe (1) was designed for the selective determination of cyanide. The probe displays rapid and large blue spectral change (Δλ_a_b_s=148 nm, Δλ_e_m= 165 nm) with respect to target recognition. Probe 1 exhibits a strong push-pull electronic effect and comprises a dimethylaminoaryl group as a donor and malononitrile as an acceptor; the π-conjugation system can be destroyed by the Michael-type addition of cyanide at the electrophilic β-positions of the nitrile groups, resulting in the marked emergence of a peak at λ_e_m= 515 nm. The developed probe was successfully applied to a paper test strip because of its noticeable optical changes upon reaction with cyanide. The fabricated dumbbell-shaped paper strip with an internal reference allowed the cyanide detection, which is indispensable for quantitative analysis in point-of-care testing. The paper strip test showed selective response to cyanide, with a linear correlation in the range of 0-25 mM in a simple and cost-effective manner.

  17. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney-Walker, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schulz, H.; Sievers, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Gemany)

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes the recently completed Phase I of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE). Project FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of Principal Working Group No. 3 (PWG/3) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency`s (NEA`s) Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). Motivation for the project was derived from recognition by the CSNI-PWG/3 that inconsistencies were being revealed in predictive capabilities of a variety of fracture assessment methods, especially in ductile fracture applications. As a consequence, the CSNI/FAG was formed to evaluate fracture prediction capabilities currently used in safety assessments of nuclear components. Members are from laboratories and research organizations in Western Europe, Japan, and the United States of America (USA). On behalf of the CSNI/FAG, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen--und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), Koeln, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) had responsibility for organization arrangements related to Project FALSIRE. The group is chaired by H. Schulz from GRS, Koeln, FRG.

  18. Neuroprotection of Sex Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyue; Kelley, Melissa H.; Herson, Paco S.; Hurn, Patricia D.

    2011-01-01

    Sex steroids are essential for reproduction and development in animals and humans, and sex steroids also play an important role in neuroprotection following brain injury. New data indicate that sex-specific responses to brain injury occur at the cellular and molecular levels. This review summarizes the current understanding of neuroprotection by sex steroids, particularly estrogen, androgen, and progesterone, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. Better understanding of the role of sex steroids under physiological and pathological conditions will help us to develop novel effective therapeutic strategies for brain injury. PMID:20595940

  19. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Gull, Sibgha; Mushtaq, Komal; Abdullah, Hussain Muhammad; Khurshid, Usman; Shahid, Ubeera; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Akram, Javed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. Methods A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed heigh...

  20. Applicability of Two International Risk Scores in Cardiac Surgery in a Reference Center in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garofallo, Silvia Bueno; Machado, Daniel Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Clarissa Garcia; Bordim, Odemir Jr.; Kalil, Renato A. K.; Portal, Vera Lúcia, E-mail: veraportal.pesquisa@gmail.com [Post-Graduation Program in Health Sciences: Cardiology, Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-06-15

    The applicability of international risk scores in heart surgery (HS) is not well defined in centers outside of North America and Europe. To evaluate the capacity of the Parsonnet Bernstein 2000 (BP) and EuroSCORE (ES) in predicting in-hospital mortality (IHM) in patients undergoing HS at a reference hospital in Brazil and to identify risk predictors (RP). Retrospective cohort study of 1,065 patients, with 60.3% patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 32.7%, valve surgery and 7.0%, CABG combined with valve surgery. Additive and logistic scores models, the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve (AUC) and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the RP. Overall mortality was 7.8%. The baseline characteristics of the patients were significantly different in relation to BP and ES. AUCs of the logistic and additive BP were 0.72 (95% CI, from 0.66 to 0.78 p = 0.74), and of ES they were 0.73 (95% CI; 0.67 to 0.79 p = 0.80). The calculation of the SMR in BP was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.27 to 1.99) and in ES, 1.43 (95% CI; 1.14 to 1.79). Seven RP of IHM were identified: age, serum creatinine > 2.26 mg/dL, active endocarditis, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure > 60 mmHg, one or more previous HS, CABG combined with valve surgery and diabetes mellitus. Local scores, based on the real situation of local populations, must be developed for better assessment of risk in cardiac surgery.

  1. Applicability of Two International Risk Scores in Cardiac Surgery in a Reference Center in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garofallo, Silvia Bueno; Machado, Daniel Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Clarissa Garcia; Bordim, Odemir Jr.; Kalil, Renato A. K.; Portal, Vera Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of international risk scores in heart surgery (HS) is not well defined in centers outside of North America and Europe. To evaluate the capacity of the Parsonnet Bernstein 2000 (BP) and EuroSCORE (ES) in predicting in-hospital mortality (IHM) in patients undergoing HS at a reference hospital in Brazil and to identify risk predictors (RP). Retrospective cohort study of 1,065 patients, with 60.3% patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 32.7%, valve surgery and 7.0%, CABG combined with valve surgery. Additive and logistic scores models, the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve (AUC) and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the RP. Overall mortality was 7.8%. The baseline characteristics of the patients were significantly different in relation to BP and ES. AUCs of the logistic and additive BP were 0.72 (95% CI, from 0.66 to 0.78 p = 0.74), and of ES they were 0.73 (95% CI; 0.67 to 0.79 p = 0.80). The calculation of the SMR in BP was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.27 to 1.99) and in ES, 1.43 (95% CI; 1.14 to 1.79). Seven RP of IHM were identified: age, serum creatinine > 2.26 mg/dL, active endocarditis, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure > 60 mmHg, one or more previous HS, CABG combined with valve surgery and diabetes mellitus. Local scores, based on the real situation of local populations, must be developed for better assessment of risk in cardiac surgery

  2. Internal Dose Conversion Coefficients of Domestic Reference Animal and Plants for Dose Assessment of Non-human Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, radiation protection has been focused on a radiation exposure of human beings. In the international radiation protection community, one of the recent key issues is to establish the methodology for assessing the radiological impact of an ionizing radiation on non-human species for an environmental protection. To assess the radiological impact to non-human species dose conversion coefficients are essential. This paper describes the methodology to calculate the internal dose conversion coefficient for non-human species and presents calculated internal dose conversion coefficients of 25 radionuclides for 8 domestic reference animal and plants

  3. When Students Doubt Their Teachers' Diagnostic Competence: Moderation in the Internal/External Frame of Reference Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Möller, Jens; Köller, Olaf

    2018-01-01

    The internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model) posits that individuals' achievement-related self-concepts are formed through social comparisons (e.g., self vs. peers) within academic domains and dimensional comparisons (e.g., math vs. verbal) between distinct domains. A large body of research has supported the theorized pattern of…

  4. Steroids in neuroinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Abraham

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of inflammatory response are primarily responsible for morbimortality in bacterial meningitis. Early use of steroids in these cases can reduce mortality and hearing loss and improve functional outcome without causing significant side effects. The formal recommendation towards pneumoccocal meningitis is being extended to other forms of Bacterial Meningitis. The same thought can be applied to tuberculous meningitis. In neurocysticercosis and neuroschistosomiasis steroids are more useful than parasiticides in most cases. Despite the evidence favoring the use of steroids in herpes simplex encephalitis, it is not sufficient to definitely support such indication. Among the opportunistic infections that affect AIDS patients, neurotoxoplasmosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopaty are those most often considered for the use of steroids; steroids are safe to use, but no definite benefit could be demonstrated in both conditions.

  5. Adjunctive steroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshin, André; Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Meyer, Christian N

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate local guidelines regarding early steroid treatment in adult community acquired bacterial meningitis, and assess the actual treatment given and its correlation to clinical outcome. Patient outcome was obtained retrospectively from the medical records of 210 adults...... admitted to 47 hospitals in Denmark during 2002-2004 (population 5.4 million) and was combined with results from a questionnaire regarding treatment guidelines in these hospitals. In 36 of 47 departments responding to the questionnaire, 21 recommended early steroid treatment, but none did so initially...... during 2002. Early steroid treatment was given to 15% of patients and was given more often when recommended locally (41% vs 11%, OR=5.7 (2.4-13.5)). Unfavourable outcome was demonstrated rarely in patients treated with early steroids compared to the non-steroid group (17% vs 42%, p

  6. Development of discrete choice model considering internal reference points and their effects in travel mode choice context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarif; Kurauchi, Shinya; Yoshii, Toshio

    2017-06-01

    In the conventional travel behavior models such as logit and probit, decision makers are assumed to conduct the absolute evaluations on the attributes of the choice alternatives. On the other hand, many researchers in cognitive psychology and marketing science have been suggesting that the perceptions of attributes are characterized by the benchmark called “reference points” and the relative evaluations based on them are often employed in various choice situations. Therefore, this study developed a travel behavior model based on the mental accounting theory in which the internal reference points are explicitly considered. A questionnaire survey about the shopping trip to the CBD in Matsuyama city was conducted, and then the roles of reference points in travel mode choice contexts were investigated. The result showed that the goodness-of-fit of the developed model was higher than that of the conventional model, indicating that the internal reference points might play the major roles in the choice of travel mode. Also shown was that the respondents seem to utilize various reference points: some tend to adopt the lowest fuel price they have experienced, others employ fare price they feel in perceptions of the travel cost.

  7. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicman, A T

    2008-06-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic-androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided.

  8. Establishing International Blood Pressure References Among Non-Overweight Children and Adolescents Aged 6–17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bo; Zong, Xin’nan; Kelishadi, Roya; Hong, Young Mi; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Steffen, Lyn M.; Nawarycz, Tadeusz; Krzywińska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Bovet, Pascal; Chiolero, Arnaud; Pan, Haiyan; Litwin, Mieczysław; Poh, Bee Koon; Sung, Rita Y.T.; So, Hung-Kwan; Schwandt, Peter; Haas, Gerda-Maria; Neuhauser, Hannelore K.; Marinov, Lachezar; Galcheva, Sonya V; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kim, Hae Soon; Khadilkar, Vaman; Krzyżaniak, Alicja; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Heshmat, Ramin; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Barbara; Ati, Jalila El; Qorbani, Mostafa; Kajale, Neha; Traissac, Pierre; Ostrowska-Nawarycz, Lidia; Ardalan, Gelayol; Parthasarathy, Lavanya; Zhao, Min; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background Several distributions of country-specific blood pressure (BP) percentiles by sex, age and height for children and adolescents have been established worldwide. However, there are no globally unified BP references for defining elevated BP in children and adolescents, which limit international comparisons of prevalence of pediatric elevated BP. We aimed to establish international BP references for children and adolescents using seven nationally representative data (China, India, Iran, Korea, Poland, Tunisia and USA). Methods and Results Data on BP for 52,636 non-overweight children and adolescents aged 6–19 years were obtained from seven large nationally representative cross-sectional surveys in China, India, Iran, Korea, Poland, Tunisia, and USA. BP values were obtained with certified mercury sphygmomanometers in all seven countries, using standard procedures for BP measurement. Smoothed BP percentiles (50th, 90th, 95th and 99th) by age and height were estimated using the Generalized Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) model. BP values were similar between males and females until the age of 13 years and were higher in males than females thereafter. Compared to BP level of the 90th and 95th percentiles of the U.S. Fourth Report at median height, systolic BP of the corresponding percentiles of these international references was lower while diastolic BP was similar. Conclusions These international BP references will be a useful tool for international comparison of the prevalence of elevated BP in children and adolescents and may help identify hypertensive youths in diverse populations. PMID:26671979

  9. The Principle of Integration in International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL with Reference to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Abdul Majid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC does not explicitly refer to sustainable development despite the fact that other United Nations (UN disarmament documents prescribe that international environmental law principles and sustainable development be considered among arms control agreements. This study’s objective is to utilize the principle of integration’s three components of environmental, economic, and social development, as found in the International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL from the New Delhi Declaration (Delhi Declaration of Principles of International Law Relating to Sustainable Development, in order to evaluate whether the BWC contains such components; thereby, making it possible for the BWC to contribute to sustainable development. The methodology of this study is necessarily qualitative, given that it is a socio-legal research that relies on international agreements such as the BWC, declarations, resolutions, plans of implementation, other non-binding documents of the UN, and secondary resources—all of which are analyzed through a document analysis. The results show that the BWC addresses the environment (Article II, prohibits transfers relating to export controls, international trade, and economic development (Article III, while at the same time, covering social development concerns, health, and diseases that make up the international social law (Article X. Since the BWC is found to be capable of contributing to sustainable development, it is concluded that ISDL cannot be restricted to international environmental, economic, and social law, but should be expanded to include international arms control law.

  10. Government Publications as Bibliographic References in the Periodical Literature of International Relations: A Citation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Margaret S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study that used citation analysis to identify the government publications cited in international relations journals for 1964, 1974, and 1984. U.S. government, foreign government, and international organization publications and documents are compared by citation rate; implications for collection development in libraries are discussed;…

  11. The International GPS Service (IGS) as a Continuous Reference System for Precise GPS Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Ruth; Heflin, Michael; Watkins, Michael; Zumberge, James

    1996-01-01

    The International GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS) is an organization which operates under the auspices of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and has been operational since January 1994. The primary objective of the IGS is to provide precise GPS data and data products to support geodetic and geophysical research activities.

  12. International panoram and Spanish contribution to the dissemination and evaluation of reference data for the ionizing radiations: Project BANDRRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, J.M.; Gonzalez, A.; Bailador, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Sanchez, E.; Gorostiza, C.; Ortiz, F.

    1998-01-01

    The present work shows the international panorama of the diverse sources of reference data commonly used in the environment of the radiations ionizantes, as well as the organized Spanish contribution recently around the project of the database of Reference for the radiations ionizantes (BANDRRI), developed jointly by the Unit of Metrology of Ionizing Radiations (UMRI) of the center of Environmental and Technological Investigations (CIEMAT), clerk of the Ministry of Industry and Spanish Energy, the University of Education to Distance and the Address of Computer science of the CIEMAT

  13. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry—scaling factors given knowledge of patient external anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2018-04-01

    Internal radiation dose estimates for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures are typically calculated for a reference individual. Resultantly, there is uncertainty when determining the organ doses to patients who are not at 50th percentile on either height or weight. This study aims to better personalize internal radiation dose estimates for individual patients by modifying the dose estimates calculated for reference individuals based on easily obtainable morphometric characteristics of the patient. Phantoms of different sitting heights and waist circumferences were constructed based on computational reference phantoms for the newborn, 10 year-old, and adult. Monoenergetic photons and electrons were then simulated separately at 15 energies. Photon and electron specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were computed for the newly constructed non-reference phantoms and compared to SAFs previously generated for the age-matched reference phantoms. Differences in SAFs were correlated to changes in sitting height and waist circumference to develop scaling factors that could be applied to reference SAFs as morphometry corrections. A further set of arbitrary non-reference phantoms were then constructed and used in validation studies for the SAF scaling factors. Both photon and electron dose scaling methods were found to increase average accuracy when sitting height was used as the scaling parameter (~11%). Photon waist circumference-based scaling factors showed modest increases in average accuracy (~7%) for underweight individuals, but not for overweight individuals. Electron waist circumference-based scaling factors did not show increases in average accuracy. When sitting height and waist circumference scaling factors were combined, modest average gains in accuracy were observed for photons (~6%), but not for electrons. Both photon and electron absorbed doses are more reliably scaled using scaling factors computed in this study. They can be effectively scaled using sitting

  14. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry-scaling factors given knowledge of patient external anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B; Bolch, Wesley E

    2018-04-13

    Internal radiation dose estimates for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures are typically calculated for a reference individual. Resultantly, there is uncertainty when determining the organ doses to patients who are not at 50th percentile on either height or weight. This study aims to better personalize internal radiation dose estimates for individual patients by modifying the dose estimates calculated for reference individuals based on easily obtainable morphometric characteristics of the patient. Phantoms of different sitting heights and waist circumferences were constructed based on computational reference phantoms for the newborn, 10 year-old, and adult. Monoenergetic photons and electrons were then simulated separately at 15 energies. Photon and electron specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were computed for the newly constructed non-reference phantoms and compared to SAFs previously generated for the age-matched reference phantoms. Differences in SAFs were correlated to changes in sitting height and waist circumference to develop scaling factors that could be applied to reference SAFs as morphometry corrections. A further set of arbitrary non-reference phantoms were then constructed and used in validation studies for the SAF scaling factors. Both photon and electron dose scaling methods were found to increase average accuracy when sitting height was used as the scaling parameter (~11%). Photon waist circumference-based scaling factors showed modest increases in average accuracy (~7%) for underweight individuals, but not for overweight individuals. Electron waist circumference-based scaling factors did not show increases in average accuracy. When sitting height and waist circumference scaling factors were combined, modest average gains in accuracy were observed for photons (~6%), but not for electrons. Both photon and electron absorbed doses are more reliably scaled using scaling factors computed in this study. They can be effectively scaled using sitting

  15. Thick-film voltammetric pH-sensors with internal indicator and reference species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musa, Arnaud Emmanuel; Alonso-Lomillo, María Asunción; del Campo, Francisco Javier

    2012-01-01

    , low cost and ease of fabrication. More importantly, as opposed to conventional voltammetric systems where the height of the voltammetric peaks is taken into account to quantify the amount of a species of interest, here, the difference between the peak potential of the indicator species and the peak...... potential of the reference species is used. Thus, this measurement principle makes the electrochemical system presented here less dependent on the potential of the reference electrode (RE), as is often the case in other electrochemical systems. The developed system displays very promising performances...

  16. FALSIRE Phase II. CSNI project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Phase II). Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, J.; Schulz, H.; Bass, R.; Pugh, C.; Keeney, J.

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE) is presented. A FALSIRE II Workshop focused on analyses of reference fracture experiments. More than 30 participants representing 22 organizations from 12 countries took part in the workshop. Final results for 45 analyses of the reference experiments were received from the participating analysts. For each experiment, analysis results provided estimates of variables that include temperature, crack-mouth-opening displacement, stress, strain, and applied K and J values. The data were sent electronically to the Organizing Committee, who assembled the results into a comparative data base using a special-purpose computer program. A comparative assessment and discussion of the analysis results are presented in the report. Generally, structural responses of the test specimens were predicted with tolerable scatter bands. (orig./DG)

  17. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  18. Anabolic Steroids (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the percentage of teens who misuse steroids. Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ... Drugs of Abuse Discover what happens to the brain on drugs. ... vs. drug use. Read More » 92 Comments Dopers Downfall ...

  19. Abuse of Anabolic Steroids and Their Precursors by Adolescent Amateur Athletes. Hearing before the Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Second Session (July 13, 2004). Senate Hearing 108-814

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Senate, 2005

    2005-01-01

    For more than two decades, the use of steroids by professional athletes has been widely reported. Indictments against executive officers of a San Francisco area nutritional supplements lab--and these indictments were Federal steroid distribution charges--have brought even more attention to the use of steroids. Recently, accusations of world-class…

  20. Sex steroids and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberden, Christine

    2017-10-01

    The brain has long been known as a dimorphic organ and as a target of sex steroids. It is also a site for their synthesis. Sex steroids in numerous ways can modify cerebral physiology, and along with many processes adult neurogenesis is also modulated by sex steroids. This review will focus on the effects of the main steroids, estrogens, androgens and progestogens, and unveil some aspects of their partly disclosed mechanisms of actions. Gonadal steroids act on different steps of neurogenesis: cell proliferation seems to be increased by estrogens only, while androgens and progestogens favor neuronal renewal by increasing cell survival; differentiation is a common target. Aging is characterized by a cognitive deficiency, paralleled by a decrease in the rate of neuronal renewal and in the levels of circulating gonadal hormones. Therefore, the effects of gonadal hormones on the aging brain are important to consider. The review will also be expanded to related molecules which are agonists to the nuclear receptors. Sex steroids can modify adult neuronal renewal and the extensive knowledge of their actions on neurogenesis is essential, as it can be a leading pathway to therapeutic perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Activity Predicts Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Non-referred Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Atypical respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, a biomarker of emotion dysregulation, is associated with both externalizing and internalizing behaviors. In addition, social adversity and gender may moderate this association. In this study, we investigated if RSA (both resting RSA and RSA reactivity in an emotion regulation task predicts externalizing and/or internalizing behaviors and the extent to which social adversity moderates this relationship. Two hundred and fifty-three children (at Time 1, mean age = 9.05, SD = 0.60, 48% boys and their caregivers from the community participated in this study. Resting RSA and RSA reactivity were assessed, and caregivers reported children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors at both Time 1 and Time 2 (1 year later. We found that lower resting RSA (but not RSA reactivity at Time 1 was associated with increased externalizing and internalizing behaviors at Time 2 in boys, even after controlling for the effects of Time 1 behavioral problems and Time 2 age. Moreover, there was a significant interaction effect between Time 1 resting RSA and social adversity such that lower resting RSA predicted higher externalizing and internalizing behaviors in boys only under conditions of high social adversity. Follow-up analyses revealed that these predictive effects were stronger for externalizing behavior than for internalizing behavior. No significant effects were found for girls. Our findings provide further evidence that low resting RSA may be a transdiagnostic biomarker of emotion dysregulation and a predisposing risk factor for both types of behavior problems, in particular for boys who grow up in adverse environments. We conclude that biosocial interaction effects and gender differences should be considered when examining the etiological mechanisms of child psychopathology.

  2. Determining the normal range for IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS: new reference data based on current internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Diana-Alexandra; Gleiss, Andreas; Sagmeister, Susanne; Haeusler, Gabriele

    2014-09-01

    The measurement of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP-3) often serves as first-line testing in children with growth disorders. The role of acid-labile subunit (ALS) as a screening parameter for homozygous or heterozygous mutations of the ALS gene still has to be determined. IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS were measured in 252 samples from children and adolescents. Reference curves were fitted using generalized additive model for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) models and SD-Scores were calculated. Bootstrap analysis was used to quantify the uncertainty of the estimated percentiles. Bland-Altman plots were used to investigate the discrepancy between our newly estimated standard deviation scores (SDS) and SDS calculated on the basis of previous reference data. We present reference data for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measurements based on recommended internal standard for IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS suitable for calculation of SD-scores. The Bland-Altman plot shows a rough agreement between the previous SDS calculation and our new one only for SDS around 1; for SDS at -2, an average difference of 0.83 SD was noticed. Our IGF-I reference values for the interval of interest in diagnosing growth hormone deficiency (GHD) (prepubertal age) are solid as proved by bootstrap analysis. The difference in calculated SD scores by using data provided previously highlights the importance of using labor and method specific reference data.

  3. Nuclear emergency response exercises and decision support systems - integrating domestic experience with international reference systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnicu, D.S.; Vamanu, D.V.; Gheorghiu, D.; Acasandrei, V.T.; Slavnicu, E.

    2010-01-01

    The paper glosses on the experience of a research-oriented team routinely involved in emergency preparedness and response management activities, with the assimilation, implementation, and application of decision support systems (DSS) of continental reference in Europe, and the development of supportive, domestic radiological assessment tools. Two exemplary nuclear alert exercises are discussed, along with solutions that emerged during drill planning and execution, to make decision support tools of various origins and strength to work synergistically and complement each other. (authors)

  4. Reference population for international comparisons and time trend surveillance of preterm delivery proportions in three countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morken, N.H.; Vogel, I.; Kallen, K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International comparison and time trend surveillance of preterm delivery rates is complex. New techniques that could facilitate interpretation of such rates are needed. METHODS: We studied all live births and stillbirths (>or= 28 weeks gestation) registered in the medical birth...

  5. Differential School Contextual Effects for Math and English: Integrating the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect and the Internal/External Frame of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The internal/external frame of reference and the big-fish-little-pond effect are two major models of academic self-concept formation which have considerable theoretical and empirical support. Integrating the domain specific and compensatory processes of the internal/external frame of reference model with the big-fish-little-pond effect suggests a…

  6. Internal nasal floor configuration in Homo with special reference to the evolution of Neandertal facial form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciscus, Robert G

    2003-06-01

    The presence of a steeply sloping or depressed nasal floor within the nasal cavity of Neandertals is frequently mentioned as a likely specialization or autapomorphy. The depressed nasal floor has also been seen as contributing to a relatively more capacious nasal cavity in Neandertals, which is tied to cold-climate respiratory adaptation and energetics. These observations have been limited largely to a relatively few intact crania, and the character states associated with this trait have not been as precisely codified or analyzed as those published for Plio-Pleistocene hominins (McCollum et al., 1993, J. Hum. Evol. 24, 87; McCollum, 2000, Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 112, 275). This study examines the internal nasal floor topography in complete crania and isolated maxillae in European, west Asian, and African fossil Homo (n=158) including 25 Neandertals, and a wide range of recent humans from Europe, the Near East, and Africa (n=522). The configuration of the internal nasal floor relative to the nasal cavity entrance is codified as: 1) level, forming a smooth continuous plane; 2) sloped or mildly stepped; or 3) bilevel with a pronounced vertical depression. The frequency of these nasal floor configurations, and their relationship to both nasal margin cresting patterning and a comprehensive set of nasofacial metrics is examined. Neandertals show a high frequency of the bilevel (depressed) configuration in both adults and subadults (80%), but this configuration is also present in lower frequencies in Middle Pleistocene African, Late Pleistocene non-Neandertal (Skhul, Qafzeh), and European Later Upper Paleolithic samples (15%-50%). The bilevel configuration is also present in lower frequencies (ca. 10%) in all recent human samples, but attains nearly 20% in some sub-Saharan African samples. Across extinct and extant Homo (excluding Neandertals), internal nasal floor configuration is not associated with piriform aperture nasal margin patterning, but the two are strongly

  7. An overview of international institutional mechanisms for environmental management with reference to Arctic pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Patricia E.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence is mounting of the environmental impact in the Far North of economic and industrial activity elsewhere in the world. While the sources of pollutants found in the Arctic are many and widespread, it is up to just a few countries - notably Canada, the former Soviet Union, Finland, Norway and Greenland - to assess the damage and deal with the impacts. This paper discusses the issue of Arctic pollution in the context of trends in world economic growth, globalization of economic activity, international trade and related institutional arrangements (such as trade and environmental agreements). The importance of tracing the sources of particular contaminants is stressed; this is a first step towards internalization of environmental costs of production, and is also politically a key in efforts to control emissions. Trade and investment agreements commonly discuss rules for cross-border flows of goods, services, personnel and investment capital, as well as matters specific to particular economic sectors. Cross-border flows of pollutants and other 'bads' also merit detailed sectoral attention. This linkage would make explicit the connections between production and pollution (making possible the 'polluter pays' approach), and also widen the scope for redistribution of economic resources to equilibrate the situation (via trade and investment measures, among others) if flows of goods are related directly to flows of 'bads'. The paper examines the outlook for addressing Arctic pollution via international environmental agreements (along the lines of the Basel Convention, the Montreal Protocol, CITES, etc.), existing and future trade agreements (such as GATT), or new institutional approaches

  8. Clearing and dissecting insects for internal skeletal morphological research with particular reference to bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sasso Porto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A detailed protocol for chemical clearing of bee specimens is presented. Dry specimens as well as those preserved in liquid media can be cleared using this protocol. The procedure consists of a combined use of alkaline solution (KOH or NaOH and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, followed by the boiling of the cleared specimens in 60–70% EtOH. Clearing is particularly useful for internal skeletal morphological research. This procedure allows for efficient study of internal projections of the exoskeleton (e.g., apodemes, furcae, phragmata, tentoria, internal ridges and sulci, but this process makes external features of the integument, as some sutures and sulci, readily available for observation as well. Upon completion of the chemical clearing process the specimens can be stored in glycerin. This procedure was developed and evaluated for the preparation of bees and other Apoidea, but modifications for use with other insect taxa should be straightforward after some experimentation on variations of timing of steps, concentration of solutions, temperatures, and the necessity of a given step. Comments on the long-term storage, morphological examination, and photodocumentation of cleared specimens are also provided.

  9. Comparison of US Birth Weight References and the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    ) status. OBJECTIVES: To compare the birth weight distributions of the INTERGROWTH-21st international standard to commonly used US references and examine the differences in the prevalence and neonatal mortality risk of SGA status (below the 10th percentile of a population reference). DESIGN, SETTING...... variance. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We examine neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days after birth) as the main outcome measure. RESULTS: The pooled SGA prevalence was 23.7% (95% CI, 16.5%-31.0%) using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard compared with 36.0% (95% CI, 27.0%-45.0%) with the US 2000...... and no significant change in the associated neonatal mortality risk, resulting in a decrease in the percentage of neonatal death attributable to SGA. Our study sheds light on how previously published studies on SGA status may be reinterpreted with the introduction of this new birth weight standard....

  10. Performance of NAA methods in an International Interlaboratory Reference Material Characterization Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihnat, M.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive database of analytical results from a recent biological matrix Reference Material Characterization Campaign permitted an intercomparison of the performances of various methods among each other and with 'true' best estimate concentration values established for these materials. Six different variants of neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods were employed including: instrumental neutron activation analysis, instrumental neutron activation analysis with acid digestion, neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation, neutron capture prompt gamma activation analysis, epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis, and neutron activation analysis with preconcentration. The precision and accuracy performance of NAA-based analytical methods are compared with three other major techniques, atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic emission spectrometry (AES) and mass spectrometry (MS) for 28 elements in 10 natural matrix materials. (author)

  11. External skeletal robusticity of children and adolescents - European references from birth to adulthood and international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Rebekka; Godina, Elena; Koziel, Slawomir; Musalek, Martin; Sedlak, Petr; Wittwer-Backofen, Ursula; Hesse, Volker; Dasgupta, Parasmani; Henneberg, Maciej; Scheffler, Christiane

    2018-02-20

    Background: In our modern world, the way of life in nutritional and activity behaviour has changed. As a consequence, parallel trends of an epidemic of overweight and a decline in external skeletal robusticity are observed in children and adolescents. Aim: We aim to develop reference centiles for external skeletal robusticity of European girls and boys aged 0 to 18 years using the Frame Index as an indicator and identify population specific age-related patterns. Methods: We analysed cross-sectional & longitudinal data on body height and elbow breadth of boys and girls from Europe (0-18 years, n = 41.679), India (7-18 years, n = 3.297) and South Africa (3-18 years, n = 4.346). As an indicator of external skeletal robusticity Frame Index after Frisancho (1990) was used. We developed centiles for boys and girls using the LMS-method and its extension. Results: Boys have greater external skeletal robusticity than girls. Whereas in girls Frame Index decreases continuously during growth, an increase of Frame Index from 12 to 16 years in European boys can be observed. Indian and South African boys are almost similar in Frame Index to European boys. In girls, the pattern is slightly different. Whereas South African girls are similar to European girls, Indian girls show a lesser external skeletal robusticity. Conclusion: Accurate references for external skeletal robusticity are needed to evaluate if skeletal development is adequate per age. They should be used to monitor effects of changes in way of life and physical activity levels in children and adolescents to avoid negative health outcomes like osteoporosis and arthrosis.

  12. Radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampl, R.; Stranska, I.; Starka, L.; Picha, J.; Chundela, B.

    1978-01-01

    Alternative antisera against 17 α-methyltestosterone and 19-nortestosterone were raised and used for radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids. Tritiated compounds were used as radioligands. The RIA method suitable for doping control is proposed for 17 α-alkylated anabolic steroids in both plasma and urine, using qoat antiserum against methyltestosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-BSA. Sensitivity of the method was expressed as least amount of nonradioactive methandienone which, when added to normal urine or plasma, caused statistically significant decrease of measured supernatant radioactivity at 99% level. The amounts from 50 to 500 pg were tested, each in eight parallel determinations. The amounts of 100 pg for plasma and 200 pg for urine met these criteria. The respective coefficients of variation did not depend on the amount of steroid added in this range. They averaged 4.60% for plasma and 4.95% for urine, respectively. (T.I.)

  13. Sleep, Internalizing Problems, and Social Withdrawal: Unique Associations in Clinic-Referred Youth With Elevated Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon, Ana T; Hilton, Dane C; Jarrett, Matthew A; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2018-02-01

    We compared clinic-referred youth with ADHD + sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT; n = 34), ADHD Only ( n = 108), and SCT Only ( n = 22) on demographics, co-occurring symptomatology, comorbid diagnoses, and social functioning. In total, 164 youth (age = 6-17 years, M = 9.97) and their parent(s) presented to an outpatient clinic for a psychoeducational assessment. Between-group analyses and regressions were used to examine study variables. SCT groups were older and exhibited more parent-reported internalizing problems, externalizing problems, sleep problems, and social withdrawal on the Child Behavior Checklist. No significant differences emerged between groups on the Teacher Report Form. Regression analyses involving multiple covariates revealed that SCT symptoms were uniquely related to social withdrawal but not general social problems. Based on parent report, SCT symptoms have a unique relationship with internalizing problems, sleep problems, and social withdrawal. Future research should explore correlates of SCT in youth using multiple informants.

  14. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schulz, H.; Sievers, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Gemany)

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for FALSIRE is presented. FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of the OECD/NEA`s Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CNSI) Principal Working Group No. 3. FALSIRE I in 1988 assessed fracture methods through interpretive analyses of 6 large-scale fracture experiments in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) loading. In FALSIRE II, experiments examined cleavage fracture in RPV steels for a wide range of materials, crack geometries, and constraint and loading conditions. The cracks were relatively shallow, in the transition temperature region. Included were cracks showing either unstable extension or two stages of extensions under transient thermal and mechanical loads. Crack initiation was also investigated in connection with clad surfaces and with biaxial load. Within FALSIRE II, comparative assessments were performed for 7 reference fracture experiments based on 45 analyses received from 22 organizations representing 12 countries. Temperature distributions in thermal shock loaded samples were approximated with high accuracy and small scatter bands. Structural response was predicted reasonably well; discrepancies could usually be traced to the assumed material models and approximated material properties. Almost all participants elected to use the finite element method.

  15. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney, J.; Schulz, H.; Sievers, J.

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for FALSIRE is presented. FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of the OECD/NEA's Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CNSI) Principal Working Group No. 3. FALSIRE I in 1988 assessed fracture methods through interpretive analyses of 6 large-scale fracture experiments in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) loading. In FALSIRE II, experiments examined cleavage fracture in RPV steels for a wide range of materials, crack geometries, and constraint and loading conditions. The cracks were relatively shallow, in the transition temperature region. Included were cracks showing either unstable extension or two stages of extensions under transient thermal and mechanical loads. Crack initiation was also investigated in connection with clad surfaces and with biaxial load. Within FALSIRE II, comparative assessments were performed for 7 reference fracture experiments based on 45 analyses received from 22 organizations representing 12 countries. Temperature distributions in thermal shock loaded samples were approximated with high accuracy and small scatter bands. Structural response was predicted reasonably well; discrepancies could usually be traced to the assumed material models and approximated material properties. Almost all participants elected to use the finite element method

  16. New Insights on Steroid Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Cabezon, Lorena; Galán, Beatriz; García, José L.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays steroid manufacturing occupies a prominent place in the pharmaceutical industry with an annual global market over $10 billion. The synthesis of steroidal active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) such as sex hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progestogens) and corticosteroids is currentl...

  17. JTRF2014, the JPL Kalman filter and smoother realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanza, Claudio; Chin, Toshio M.; Gross, Richard S.; Heflin, Michael B.; Parker, Jay W.; Soja, Benedikt S.; van Dam, Tonie; Wu, Xiaoping

    2017-10-01

    We present and discuss JTRF2014, the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) the Jet Propulsion Laboratory constructed by combining space-geodetic inputs from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), satellite laser ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite submitted for the realization of ITRF2014. Determined through a Kalman filter and Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother assimilating position observations, Earth orientation parameters, and local ties, JTRF2014 is a subsecular, time series-based TRF whose origin is at the quasi-instantaneous center of mass (CM) as sensed by SLR and whose scale is determined by the quasi-instantaneous VLBI and SLR scales. The dynamical evolution of the positions accounts for a secular motion term, annual, and semiannual periodic modes. Site-dependent variances based on the analysis of loading displacements induced by mass redistributions of terrestrial fluids have been used to control the extent of random walk adopted in the combination. With differences in the amplitude of the annual signal within the range 0.5-0.8 mm, JTRF2014-derived center of network-to-center of mass (CM-CN) is in remarkable agreement with the geocenter motion obtained via spectral inversion of GNSS, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations and modeled ocean bottom pressure from Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO). Comparisons of JTRF2014 to ITRF2014 suggest high-level consistency with time derivatives of the Helmert transformation parameters connecting the two frames below 0.18 mm/yr and weighted root-mean-square differences of the polar motion (polar motion rate) in the order of 30 μas (17 μas/d).

  18. (Pretexts for thinking educational cooperation in East Timor: some references to International Solidarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzani Cassiani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the profile of the Brazilian cooperators in the formation of Timor-Leste teachers. We start from a larger project under the Teacher Education Program and Portuguese Language Teaching in Timor-Leste (PQLP, managed by the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES and coordinated by the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC since 2009. In order to better understand such international cooperation we began with understandings of the production conditions of some intricacies of historic-political and socio-cultural context in which it occurs. The research involves the study of documents and discourse analysis of Brazilians who worked in East Timor. In addition, we propose to explain some limits, possibilities and progresses in our trajectory as active, including the challenges in drawing some more appropriate referrals. In these analyses, the problematizations involving the coloniality of knowledge/power, the assistentialist performances, peace-building, among others, encourage reflections that can be welcome in future cooperation.

  19. IPPAS guidelines. Reference document for the IAEA International Physical Protection Advisory Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The IAEA International Physical protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) provides advice to Member States to assist them in strengthening the effectiveness of their national physical protection system whilst recognizing the ultimate responsibility for physical protection is that of the Member State. The IPPAS is available to all countries with nuclear materials and facilities. The basic concepts, purposes and functions of physical protection are provided in INFCIR/225, 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities' as amended from time to time and 'the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (INFCIR/247/Rev.1). The guidance given in INFCIR/225 recognizes that implementation of these requirements vary from country to country depending on their existing constitutional, legal and administrative systems; the assessment of the threat for the potential theft of nuclear material or sabotage of nuclear facilities; the technical skills and professional and financial resources available to the competent authority; and social customs and cultural traditions. IPPAS missions are performance oriented in that they accept different approaches to the implementation of national physical protection system

  20. An internal reference model-based PRF temperature mapping method with Cramer-Rao lower bound noise performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Pan, Xinyi; Ying, Kui; Zhang, Qiang; An, Jing; Weng, Dehe; Qin, Wen; Li, Kuncheng

    2009-11-01

    The conventional phase difference method for MR thermometry suffers from disturbances caused by the presence of lipid protons, motion-induced error, and field drift. A signal model is presented with multi-echo gradient echo (GRE) sequence using a fat signal as an internal reference to overcome these problems. The internal reference signal model is fit to the water and fat signals by the extended Prony algorithm and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to estimate the chemical shifts between water and fat which contain temperature information. A noise analysis of the signal model was conducted using the Cramer-Rao lower bound to evaluate the noise performance of various algorithms, the effects of imaging parameters, and the influence of the water:fat signal ratio in a sample on the temperature estimate. Comparison of the calculated temperature map and thermocouple temperature measurements shows that the maximum temperature estimation error is 0.614 degrees C, with a standard deviation of 0.06 degrees C, confirming the feasibility of this model-based temperature mapping method. The influence of sample water:fat signal ratio on the accuracy of the temperature estimate is evaluated in a water-fat mixed phantom experiment with an optimal ratio of approximately 0.66:1. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Body mass index in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents: A national reference and comparison with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Herbish, Abdullah S; ElMouzan, Mohammed I; AlSalloum, Abdullah A; AlQureshi, Mansour M; AlOmar, Ahmed A; Fster, Peter J; Kecojevic, Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Because there are no reference standards for body mass index (BMI) in Saudi children, we established BMI reference percentiles for normal Saudi Arabian children and adolescents and compared them with international standards. Data from a stratified multistage probability sample were collected from the 13 health regions in Saudi Arabia, as part of a nationwide health profile survey of Saudi Arabian children and adolescents conducted to establish normal physical growth references. Selected households were visited by a trained team. Weight and length/height were measured and recorded following the WHO recommended procedures using the same equipment, which were subjected to both calibration and intra/interobserver variations. Survey of 11 874 eligible households yielded 35 275 full-term and healthy children and adolescents who were subjected to anthropometric measurements. Four BMI curves were produced, from birth to 36 months and 2 to 19 years for girls and boys. The 3rd, 5th, 10th ,25th , 5oth , 75th ,85th , 90th , 95th , and 97th percentiles were produced and compared with the WHO and CDC BMI charts. In the higher percentiles, the Saudi children differed from Western counterparts, indicating that Saudi children have equal or higher BMIs. The BMI curves reflect statistically representative BMI values for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. (author)

  2. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Download PDF 830.69 KB Anabolic steroids are artificial versions of a hormone that's in all of us—testosterone. Some people take anabolic steroid pills or injections to try to build muscle faster. The Brain's Response to Anabolic Steroids Hi, ...

  3. Selective amine catalysed steroidal dimerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of cholesterol is the formation of a green colour in concentrated sulphuric acid, and this was shown to be due to a polyenyl steroidal dimer carbocation.7–9 Many dimeric and oligomeric steroids exhibit interesting micellular, detergent and liquid crystal behaviour.10,11. Most of the steroidal dimmers are also well-known.

  4. Steroids facing emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, P.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis have been performed to gain a better understanding about motivational mediators of selective attention and memory for emotionally relevant stimuli, and about the roles that some steroid hormones play in regulation of human motivation and emotion. The stimuli used

  5. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tadashi

    1975-01-01

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3 H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  6. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  7. Agreement between diagnoses of childhood lymphoma assigned in Uganda and by an international reference laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jackson Orem,1–3 Sven Sandin,1 Caroline E Weibull,1 Michael Odida,4 Henry Wabinga,4 Edward Mbidde,2,3 Fred Wabwire-Mangen,5 Chris JLM Meijer,6 Jaap M Middeldorp,6 Elisabete Weiderpass1,7,81Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Uganda Cancer Institute, 3School of Medicine, 4School of Biomedical Sciences, 5School of Public Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; 6Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 7Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo; Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 8Samfundet Folkhälsan, Helsinki, FinlandBackground: Correct diagnosis is key to appropriate treatment of cancer in children. However, diagnostic challenges are common in low-income and middle-income countries. The objective of the present study was to assess the agreement between a clinical diagnosis of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL assigned in Uganda, a pathological diagnosis assigned in Uganda, and a pathological diagnosis assigned in The Netherlands.Methods: The study included children with suspected NHL referred to the Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, between 2004 and 2008. A clinical diagnosis was assigned at the Mulago National Referral Hospital, where tissue samples were also obtained. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were used for histological diagnosis in Uganda, and were re-examined in a pathology laboratory in The Netherlands, where additional pathological, virological and serological testing was also carried out. Agreement between diagnostic sites was compared using kappa statistics.Results: Clinical and pathological diagnoses from Uganda and pathological diagnosis from The Netherlands was available for 118 children. The agreement between clinical and pathological diagnoses of NHL assigned in Uganda was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI] 84–95; kappa 0.84; P < 0

  8. Nonprescription steroids on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Christen L; Marlowe, Douglas B; Patapis, Nicholas S; Festinger, David S; Forman, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular Web sites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March 2006 and June 2006 revealed that approximately half of the Web sites advocated their "safe" use, and roughly one third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The Web sites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the Web sites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment, and policy are discussed.

  9. International Linear Collider Reference Design Report Volume 2: Physics at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarons, Gerald; Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason; Ablikim, Medina; Abramowicz, Halina; Adey, David; Adloff, Catherine; Adolphsen, Chris; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Agapov, Ilya; Ahn, Jung-Keun; Aihara, Hiroaki; Akemoto, Mitsuo; del Carmen Alabau, Maria; Albert, Justin; Albrecht, Hartwig; Albrecht, Michael; Alesini, David; Alexander, Gideon; Alexander, Jim; Allison, Wade; /SLAC /Tokyo U. /Victoria U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Tel Aviv U. /Birmingham U. /Annecy, LAPP /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /DESY /Royal Holloway, U. of London /CERN /Pusan Natl. U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LAL /Notre Dame U. /Frascati /Cornell U., Phys. Dept. /Oxford U. /Hefei, CUST /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /Fermilab

    2011-11-14

    The triumph of 20th century particle physics was the development of the Standard Model and the confirmation of many of its aspects. Experiments determined the particle constituents of ordinary matter, and identified four forces that hold matter together and transform it from one form to another. Particle interactions were found to obey precise laws of relativity and quantum theory. Remarkable features of quantum physics were observed, including the real effects of 'virtual' particles on the visible world. Building on this success, particle physicists are now able to address questions that are even more fundamental, and explore some of the deepest mysteries in science. The scope of these questions is illustrated by this summary from the report Quantum Universe: (1) Are there undiscovered principles of nature; (2) How can we solve the mystery of dark energy; (3) Are there extra dimensions of space; (4) Do all the forces become one; (5) Why are there so many particles; (6) What is dark matter? How can we make it in the laboratory; (7) What are neutrinos telling us; (8) How did the universe begin; and (9) What happened to the antimatter? A worldwide program of particle physics investigations, using multiple approaches, is already underway to explore this compelling scientific landscape. As emphasized in many scientific studies, the International Linear Collider is expected to play a central role in what is likely to be an era of revolutionary advances. Discoveries from the ILC could have breakthrough impact on many of these fundamental questions. Many of the scientific opportunities for the ILC involve the Higgs particle and related new phenomena at Terascale energies. The Standard Model boldly hypothesizes a new form of Terascale energy, called the Higgs field, that permeates the entire universe. Elementary particles acquire mass by interacting with this field. The Higgs field also breaks a fundamental electroweak force into two forces, the electromagnetic

  10. International Linear Collider Reference Design Report. Volume 2: Physics at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarons, Gerald; Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason; Ablikim, Medina; Abramowicz, Halina; Adey, David; Adloff, Catherine; Adolphsen, Chris; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Agapov, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    The triumph of 20th century particle physics was the development of the Standard Model and the confirmation of many of its aspects. Experiments determined the particle constituents of ordinary matter, and identified four forces that hold matter together and transform it from one form to another. Particle interactions were found to obey precise laws of relativity and quantum theory. Remarkable features of quantum physics were observed, including the real effects of 'virtual' particles on the visible world. Building on this success, particle physicists are now able to address questions that are even more fundamental, and explore some of the deepest mysteries in science. The scope of these questions is illustrated by this summary from the report Quantum Universe: (1) Are there undiscovered principles of nature; (2) How can we solve the mystery of dark energy; (3) Are there extra dimensions of space; (4) Do all the forces become one; (5) Why are there so many particles; (6) What is dark matter? How can we make it in the laboratory; (7) What are neutrinos telling us; (8) How did the universe begin; and (9) What happened to the antimatter? A worldwide program of particle physics investigations, using multiple approaches, is already underway to explore this compelling scientific landscape. As emphasized in many scientific studies, the International Linear Collider is expected to play a central role in what is likely to be an era of revolutionary advances. Discoveries from the ILC could have breakthrough impact on many of these fundamental questions. Many of the scientific opportunities for the ILC involve the Higgs particle and related new phenomena at Terascale energies. The Standard Model boldly hypothesizes a new form of Terascale energy, called the Higgs field, that permeates the entire universe. Elementary particles acquire mass by interacting with this field. The Higgs field also breaks a fundamental electroweak force into two forces, the electromagnetic and weak

  11. Screening hybridomas for anabolic androgenic steroids by steroid analog antigen microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongwu; Chen, Guangyu; Bian, Yongzhong; Xing, Cenzan; Ding, Xue; Zhu, Mengliang; Xun, Yiping; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Yabin; Li, Shaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, dozens of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are forbidden in the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, however, despite extensive investigation, there are still lots of AAS without corresponding monoclonal antibodies. A steroid analog antigen microarray made up of ten AAS was fabricated to screen the hybridoma and it was found an original unsuccessful clone turned out to be a candidate anti-boldenone antibody, without any cross-reactions with endogenous AAS or 44 different AAS standard reference materials tested. Our findings suggested that steroid analog antigen microarray could be a promising tool to screen and characterize new applications of antibodies for structure analogs, and this also exhibits the potential to fast identify effective epitopes of hybridomas in a single assay.

  12. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  13. [Research progresses of anabolic steroids analysis in doping control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yuanyuan; Wang, Dingzhong; Li, Ke'an; Liu, Feng

    2008-07-01

    Anabolic steroids, a kind of physiological active substance, are widely abused to improve athletic performance in human sports. They have been forbidden in sports by the International Olympic Committee since 1983. Since then, many researchers have been focusing their attentions on the establishment of reliable detection methods. In this paper, we review the research progresses of different analytical methods for anabolic steroids since 2002, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, immunoassay, electrochemistry analysis and mass spectrometry. The developing prospect of anabolic steroids analysis is also discussed.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of synthetic steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynaud, J -P; Bucourt, R; Salmon, J

    1975-12-01

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay depends on the intrinsic association constant of the interaction between ligand and antibody. Its specificity depends on the position of the chain which forms the link with the antigen. Thus, an antibody specific of estradiol has been obtained by coupling estradiol to albumin via a chain at position 7. For synthetic steroids the structure of which is sufficiency different from that of natural hormones, the requirements for a sensitive assay method not involving chromatography are simply maximum affinity and positioning of the couple at a site which does not undergo metabolic attack. These criteria were used to develop assays for R 2858 and R 2453 which obviate the need to administer radioactive product in clinical pharmacology. Cross-reaction with structural analogs may be used to assay competitors. Thus, R 2323 antibody, highly specific for endogenous steroids, may be used to assay other trienes such as R 1697 (trenbolone) and R 2010 (norgestrienone).

  15. The standardisation of trace elements in international biological standard reference materials with neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieterse, H.

    1981-12-01

    An investigation was undertaken into the analytical procedures and the identification of problem areas, for the certification of a new biological standard reference material supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency, namely, a human hair sample designated as HH-I. The analyses comprised the determination of the elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, and Zn in the hair sample by using two analytical techniques, namely, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption. Three other certified biological reference materials, namely, Orchard Leaves (ORCH-L), Sea Plant Material (SPM-I) and Copepod (MAA-I) were used as control standards. Determinations were made of the moisture content of the samples, using varying conditions of drying, and the necessary corrections were applied to all analytical results so that the final elemental values related to dry weight of samples. Attention was also given to the possible loss of specific elements during ashing of the samples prior to the actual instrumental analysis. The results obtained for the hair sample by the two techniques were in good agreement for the elements Co, Fe, Mn, and Zn, but did not agree for the elements Cr and Sb. As, Hg and Se could only be determined with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, and Cd, Cu and Ni only with Atomic Absorption. Most of the results obtained for the three control standard reference materials were within the ranges specified for the individual elements in each sample. The analytical procedures used for determining Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Sb with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and As, Cr, Sb and Se with Atomic Absorption, need further investigation. The measurement of the moisture content and the ashing of samples also require further investigation with a view to improving accuracy

  16. "I Wish My People Can Be Like the Ducks": Children's References to Internal States with Siblings and Friends from Early to Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Jamie; Howe, Nina; DeHart, Ganie

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated children's internal state language during play with their sibling and friend across early and middle childhood. Specifically, the category type of internal state language (e.g., cognitions and goals), referent (e.g., own and other), and associations with children's birth order were examined. A total of 65 (T1: Time…

  17. Anabolic steroids and head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James D; Bailes, Julian E; Turner, Ryan C; Dodson, Sean C; Sakai, Jun; Maroon, Joseph C

    2012-01-01

    The suggestion has been made that neurological changes seen in the syndrome of chronic traumatic encephalopathy may be due to exogenous anabolic steroid use rather than traumatic brain injury. To determine whether administration of anabolic steroids alters the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and a linear acceleration model of traumatic brain injury were used. Experimental groups were (1) preinjury anabolic steroids, (2) preinjury placebo carrier, (3) anabolic steroids without injury, (4) no steroids and no injury, (5) postinjury placebo carrier, and (6) postinjury anabolic steroids. Following a 30-day recovery, rats were euthanized, and brainstem white matter tracts underwent fluorescent immunohistochemical processing and labeling of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), a marker of axonal injury. Digital imaging and statistical analyses were used to determine whether anabolic steroid administration resulted in a significant change in the number of injured axons. There was no statistically significant difference in number of APP-positive axons by immunohistochemical analysis between respective anabolic steroid and placebo groups. Using a standard acceleration-deceleration model of mild traumatic brain injury, we have shown successful visualization of traumatically injured axons with antibody staining of APP. Our results indicate no statistically significant effect of anabolic steroids on the number of APP-positive axons. With the use of this model, and within its limitations, we see no adverse effect or causative role of anabolic steroid administration on the brain following mild traumatic brain injury using APP counts as a marker for anatomic injury.

  18. Quantitative estimation of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. 4. Toxoids as international reference materials defining Lf-units for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyng, J

    1990-01-01

    The Lf-unit, which is used in the control of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid production and in some countries also to follow immunization of horses for production of antitoxins, has hitherto been defined by means of antitoxin preparations. A diphtheria toxoid and a tetanus toxoid preparation, both freeze-dried, were examined in an international collaborative study for their suitability to serve as reference reagents in the flocculation tests and for defining the Lf-units. It was shown that flocculation tests using the reference toxoids are very reproducible and reliable and the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization established: the toxoid called DIFT as the International Reference Reagent of Diphtheria Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 900 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule; and the toxoid called TEFT as the International Reference Reagent of Tetanus Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 1000 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule.

  19. Oral contraceptives and neuroactive steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapkin, Andrea J; Biggio, Giovanni; Concas, Alessandra

    2006-08-01

    A deregulation in the peripheral and brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids has been found in certain pathological conditions characterized by emotional or affective disturbances, including major depression and anxiety disorders. In this article we summarize data pertaining to the modulatory effects of oral contraceptive treatment on neuroactive steroids in women and rats. Given that the neuroactive steroids concentrations are reduced by oral contraceptives, together with the evidence that a subset of women taking oral contraceptives experience negative mood symptoms, we propose the use of this pharmacological treatment as a putative model to study the role of neuroactive steroids in the etiopathology of mood disorders. Moreover, since neuroactive steroids are potent modulators of GABA(A) receptor function and plasticity, the treatment with oral contraceptives might also represent a useful experimental model to further investigate the physiological role of these steroids in the modulation of GABAergic transmission.

  20. [Reference citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  1. An analysis of the gastro-intestinal side-effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, with particular reference to comparative studies in man and laboratory species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainsford, K D

    1982-01-01

    A critical analysis has been performed of reports published on the incidence of gastro-intestinal (GI) side-effects found in arthritic patients being treated with non-steroid anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs. The results show the following: 1. The incidence of GI ulceration (as revealed by gastroscopy) and haemorrhage in arthritic patients taking NSAI drugs may be higher than suspected from clinical trial data. 2. Incidence of all GI side-effects (including ulceration and haemorrhage) may be lower with some of the new NSAI drugs than with traditional drugs (e.g. aspirin, indomethacin and phenylbutazone). 3. Arthritic patients may be more susceptible to the ulcerogenic actions of NSAI drugs. Experiments with animals, together with evidence from clinical studies, indicate that stress factors and the presence of decreased mucosal resistance in the diseased state may contribute to the enhanced susceptibility of the GI tract towards the ulcerogenicity of NSAI drugs. 4. Comparison of data on gastroscopic observations in man with the author's data on the effects of NSAI drugs in stress-sensitized rats shows the latter technique appears to be a useful means of predicting the ulcerogenic potential of NSAI drugs in man. The comparison has also been used to predict the ulcerogenicity of drug - alcohol combinations; alcohol being a common ulcerogen consumed by many patients. Some NSAI drugs with low ulcerogenic activity (i.e. azapropazone, benoxaprofen and fenclofenac) in the stressed-rat assay show little or no interaction with alcohol. These studies using laboratory animals show the importance of employing conditions to mimic environmental factors (e.g. stress and alcohol consumption) which might predispose individuals to ulcerogenic or other side-effects of NSAI drugs. From these studies it appears possible to construct 'predictive profiles' of the relative ulcerogenicity of NSAI drugs which may be applicable to the clinical situation in man.

  2. Falsire: CSNI project for fracture analyses of large-scale international reference experiments (Phase 1). Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of the recently completed Phase I of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE) is presented. Project FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of Principal Working Group No. 3 (PWG/3) of the OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), formed to evaluate fracture prediction capabilities currently used in safety assessments of nuclear vessel components. The aim of the Project FALSIRE was to assess various fracture methodologies through interpretive analyses of selected large-scale fracture experiments. The six experiments used in Project FALSIRE (performed in the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the U.S.A.) were designed to examine various aspects of crack growth in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) loading conditions. The analysis techniques employed by the participants included engineering and finite-element methods, which were combined with Jr fracture methodology and the French local approach. For each experiment, analysis results provided estimates of variables such as crack growth, crack-mouth-opening displacement, temperature, stress, strain, and applied J and K values. A comparative assessment and discussion of the analysis results are presented; also, the current status of the entire results data base is summarized. Some conclusions concerning predictive capabilities of selected ductile fracture methodologies, as applied to RPVs subjected to PTS loading, are given, and recommendations for future development of fracture methodologies are made

  3. Ionosonde-based indices for improved representation of solar cycle variation in the International Reference Ionosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven; Bilitza, Dieter; Yiǧit, Erdal

    2018-06-01

    A new monthly ionospheric index, IGNS, is presented to improve the representation of the solar cycle variation of the ionospheric F2 peak plasma frequency, foF2. IGNS is calculated using a methodology similar to the construction of the "global effective sunspot number", IG, given by Liu et al. (1983) but selects ionosonde observations based on hemispheres. We incorporated the updated index into the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model and compared the foF2 model predictions with global ionospheric observations. We also investigated the influence of the underlying foF2 model on the IG index. IRI has two options for foF2 specification, the CCIR-66 and URSI-88 foF2 models. For the first time, we have calculated IG using URSI-88 and assessed the impact on model predictions. Through a retrospective model-data comparison, results show that the inclusion of the new monthly IGNS index in place of the current 12-month smoothed IG index reduce the foF2 model prediction errors by nearly a factor of two. These results apply to both day-time and nightime predictions. This is due to an overall improved prediction of foF2 seasonal and solar cycle variations in the different hemispheres.

  4. Cognitive ability, academic achievement and academic self-concept: extending the internal/external frame of reference model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ssu-Kuang; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S J

    2012-06-01

    Marsh's internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model depicts the relationship between achievement and self-concept in specific academic domains. Few efforts have been made to examine concurrent relationships among cognitive ability, achievement, and academic self-concept (ASC) within an I/E model framework. To simultaneously examine the influences of domain-specific cognitive ability and grades on domain self-concept in an extended I/E model, including the indirect effect of domain-specific cognitive ability on domain self-concept via grades. Tenth grade respondents (628 male, 452 female) to a national adolescent survey conducted in Taiwan. Respondents completed surveys designed to measure maths and verbal aptitudes. Data on Maths and Chinese class grades and self-concepts were also collected. Statistically significant and positive path coefficients were found between cognitive ability and self-concept in the same domain (direct effect) and between these two constructs via grades (indirect effect). The cross-domain effects of either ability or grades on ASC were negatively significant. Taiwanese 10th graders tend to evaluate their ASCs based on a mix of ability and achievement, with achievement as a mediator exceeding ability as a predictor. In addition, the cross-domain effects suggest that Taiwanese students are likely to view Maths and verbal abilities and achievements as distinctly different. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Steroids and Autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Amelia Chiara; Meroni, Marianna; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    From the middle of the 19th century, it is known that endocrine and immune systems interact bi-directionally in different processes that ensure organism homeostasis. Endocrine and nervous systems have a pivotal role in the balancing of pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of immune system, and constitute a complex circadian neuroendocrine network. Autoimmune diseases have in fact a complex pathogenic origin in which the importance of endocrine system was demonstrated. In this chapter, we will mention the structure and function of steroidal hormones involved in the neuroendocrine immune network and we will address the ways in which endocrine and immune systems influence each other, in a bi-directional fashion. Adrenal hormones, sex hormones, vitamin D, and melatonin and prolactin importantly all contribute to the homeostasis of the immune system. Indeed, some of the steroidal hormone activities determine inhibition or stimulation of immune system components, in both physiological (i.e. suppression of an unwanted response in pregnancy, or stimulation of a protective response in infections) and pathological conditions. We will finally mention the rationale for optimization of exogenous administration of glucocorticoids in chronic autoimmune diseases, and the latest developments concerning these drugs. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Steroidal saponins from Sansevieria trifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimaki, Y; Inoue, T; Kuroda, M; Sashida, Y

    1996-12-01

    The methanol extract of the whole plant of Sansevieria trifasciata has yielded 12 steroidal saponins, 10 of which are new constituents. The respective structures of the new compounds have been shown by the spectroscopic evidence, and alkaline- and acid-catalysed degradation. This is the first report of the isolation of steroidal saponins from S. trifasciata.

  7. Cushing's Syndrome and Steroid Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, Giampaolo; Tricò, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cushing's Syndrome (CS) is associated with a specific spectrum of dementia-like symptoms, including psychiatric disorders, such as major depression, anxiety and mania, and neurocognitive alterations, like impairment of memory and concentration. This pattern of clinical complications, which significantly impair the health-related quality of life of CS patients, is sometimes referred to as "steroid dementia syndrome" (SDS). The SDS is the result of anatomical and functional anomalies in brain areas involved in the processing of emotion and cognition, which are only partially restored after the biochemical remission of the disease. Therefore, periodical neuropsychiatric evaluations are recommended in all CS patients, and a long-term follow-up is required after normalization of hypercortisolism. Recent evidences demonstrate that three classes of drugs (glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, steroidogenesis inhibitors, and pituitary tumor-targeted drugs), which are used for medical treatment of CS, can rapidly relief neuropsychiatric symptoms of SDS. Furthermore, several psychoactive medications have demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of symptoms induced by the acute or chronic glucocosteroid administration. In this paper, a review of the current and future patents for the treatment and prevention of CS and SDS will be presented.

  8. A jaundiced bodybuilder Cholestatic hepatitis as side effect of injectable anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boks, Marije N; Tiebosch, Anton T; van der Waaij, Laurens A

    2017-11-01

    The use of anabolic steroids is prevalent in recreational athletes. This case report describes a young amateur bodybuilder who was referred to our outpatient clinic with jaundice and loss of appetite due to cholestatic hepatitis. Additional tests including a liver biopsy made it likely that the hepatitis was caused by the injectable anabolic steroid trenbolone enanthate. Cholestatic hepatitis may not be limited to the use of oral anabolic-androgenic steroids, as is widely assumed. Therefore, and because of other side effects, the recreational use of all forms of anabolic steroids should be discouraged.

  9. Comparison of platelet counts by sysmex XE 2100 and LH-750 with the international flow reference method in thrombocytopenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Dadu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several methods for counting platelets, of which the international flow reference method (IRM is considered to be the gold standard. We compared the platelet count given by this method to the count given by automated analyzers using other methods, such as optical fluorescence and impedance. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the platelet counts obtained by Sysmex XE 2100 by Impedance (Sysmex-I, optical florescence (Sysmex-O and reported (Sysmex-R based on the switching algorithm and LH-750 by Impedance (LH-750 with the IRM in thrombocytopenic blood samples. To calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of various technologies at the clinically relevant transfusion thresholds of 10 × 10 9 /l and 20 × 10 9 /l. Materials and Methods: A total of 118 blood samples with platelet count of <50 × 10 9 /l were selected for the study. Platelet counts of all samples were analyzed by all methods using the Sysmex analyzer, LH-750 and IRM in parallel within 6 h of collection. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation, bland Altman analysis, sensitivity and specificity, PPV and NPV. Results and Conclusions: Sysmex-R had the least Bias and 95% limits of agreement (95%LA range and thus correlated best with IRM values. LH-750 had a higher Bias compared to Sysmex-O and Sysmex-R, but a strikingly similar 95% LA ensures similar results in all three methods. In fact, in the oncology subset, it had the narrowest 95% LA, which made it the best performer in this subgroup. Of the three Sysmex results, Sysmex-I had the highest bias, widest 95% LA and highest potential risk of over transfusion. Hence, Sysmex-R and LH-750 were found to be reliable tools for estimation of platelet count in thrombocytopenic patients.

  10. Explaining Paradoxical Relations Between Academic Self-Concepts and Achievements: Cross-Cultural Generalizability of the Internal/External Frame of Reference Predictions Across 26 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2004-01-01

    The internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model explains a seemingly paradoxical pattern of relations between math and verbal self-concepts and corresponding measures of achievement, extends social comparison theory, and has important educational implications. In a cross-cultural study of nationally representative samples of 15-year-olds from…

  11. The Internal/External Frame of Reference Model of Self-Concept and Achievement Relations: Age-Cohort and Cross-Cultural Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah; Parker, Philip D.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Nagengast, Benjamin; Möller, Jens; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.

    2015-01-01

    The internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model and dimensional comparison theory posit paradoxical relations between achievement (ACH) and self-concept (SC) in mathematics (M) and verbal (V) domains; ACH in each domain positively affects SC in the matching domain (e.g., MACH to MSC) but negatively in the nonmatching domain (e.g., MACH to…

  12. A Short Review on Cardiotonic Steroids and Their Aminoguanidine Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo San Feliciano

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A short review on cardiotonic steroids and their analogues is presented. The natural, semisynthetic and synthetic derivatives, as well as their mechanism of action and structure-activity relationships are shown, with a special reference to aminoguanidine derivatives.

  13. Topical steroid-damaged skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder.

  14. Steroid radioimmunoassay: contribution of standards to blank values, ch. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froelich, M.; Termorshuizen, W.; Kenter, E.; Molenaar, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay of steroids is considerably reduced by high blank values which may be derived in part from co-chromatographed standards. Blank levels approach the detection limit of the radioimmunoassay of aldosterone, testosterone and androstenedione when 10,000 dpm (30-35 pg) labelled steroids are used as reference standard. When 20 μg aldosterone, testosterone, or androstenedione is used as standard, blank levels of up to 12,800 pg were measured in the radioimmunoassay. Application of the standards on a separate strip does not improve the results. From the experiments it appeared that contamination took place by transport by the solvent

  15. Comparison of ion temperature and ion density measured during geomagnetically very quiet conditions on board of the geophysical rocket ''Vertical-6'' with the international reference ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencze, P.; Kovacs, K.; Apathy, I.; Szemerey, I.; Afonin, V.; Bezrukih, V.; Shutte, N.

    1980-05-01

    Ion temperature and ion density, measured on October 25, 1977 during the flight of the geophyisical rocket ''Vertical-6'' by means of a group of five retarding potential analyzers looking into different directions of space, are compared with the International Reference Ionosphere 1978. The measurements were carried out in a geomagnetically quiet period to a height of 1500 km. The results show that both the ion temperature and the ion density are lower than the values predicted by the Reference Ionosphere, the difference is decreasing with increasing altitude. (author)

  16. Legal protection of private persons in the case of acts of foreign states contrary to international law - with special reference to international environmental law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarze, J

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the basis for claims following to international law for a case like Chernobyl. He examines possibilities of enforcement of private claims, regarding legal protection in courts of the state where the incident occurred, and of the state where the damage was suffered, of the International Court of Justice, and by way of diplomatic protection. Individual guarantees of procedure still can be improved at present.

  17. Legal protection of private persons in the case of acts of foreign states contrary to international law - with special reference to international environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarze, J.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the basis for claims following to international law for a case like Chernobyl. He examines possibilities of enforcement of private claims, regarding legal protection in courts of the state where the incident occurred, and of the state where the damage was suffered, of the International Court of Justice, and by way of diplomatic protection. Individual guarantees of procedure still can be improved at present. (CW) [de

  18. BILATERAL STEROID INDUCED GLAUCOMA IN VERNAL KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangal Surekha V, Bankar Mahima S, Bhandari Akshay J, Kalkote Prasad R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vernal Keratoconjunctivits (VKC is a bilateral recurrent allergic interstitial conjunctival inflammation with a periodic seasonal incidence and of self limiting nature, mainly affecting the younger population. Patients of VKC on steroid therapy are at higher risk of developing steroid induced glaucoma. Raised intraocular pressure due to steroids typically occurs within few weeks of starting steroid therapy and comes back to normal on immediate stoppage of steroids. A case of steroid induced glaucoma in a 30 years old female with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. She was on topical steroids for 3-4 years. She was incompliant with the instructions to stop steroids. She eventually developed steroid induced glaucoma and glaucomatous optic neuropathy with tunnel vision.

  19. Tails from previous exposures: a general problem in setting reference levels for the assessment of internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, F.; Frittelli, L.

    1988-01-01

    Reference levels for retention and excretion are evaluated for routine and special monitoring following the intake of a fraction of ICRP annual limits (ALIs) or of a unit activity. Methodologies are also suggested for taking into account the contribution by previous intakes to excretion or retention

  20. Corticosteroids and obesity in steroid-sensitive and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Lestari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Children with nephrotic syndrome need high-dose corticosteroids to achieve remission. Studies have estimated a 35-43% risk of obesity in these patients after corticosteroid treatment. Objective To determine the prevalence of obesity in children who received corticosteroids for nephrotic syndrome, and to compare the risk of obesity in children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study in 50 children with SSNS or SRNS who received corticosteroid treatment. Obesity was defined to be a BMI-for-age Z-score above +2.0 SD, according to the WHO Growth Reference 2007. Central obesity was defined to be a waist-to-height ratio > 0.50. Results The overall prevalence of obesity was 22%, with 29% and 14% in the SSNS and SRNS groups, respectively. The overall prevalence of central obesity was 50%, with 54% and 46% in the SSNS and SRNS groups, respectively. The cumulative steroid doses in this study were not significantly different between the SSNS and SRNS groups. There were also no significant differences between groups for risk of obesity (RR 2.53; 95%CI 0.58 to 10.99 or central obesity (RR 1.39; 95%CI 0.45 to 4.25. Conclusion In children with nephrotic syndrome who received corticosteroids, the prevalence of obesity is 22% and of central obesity is 50%. In a comparison of SSNS and SRNS groups, cumulative steroid dose as well as risks of obesity and central obesity do not significantly differ between groups.

  1. The importance of reference materials in doping-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Lindsey G; Kazlauskas, Rymantas

    2011-08-01

    Currently a large range of pure substance reference materials are available for calibration of doping-control methods. These materials enable traceability to the International System of Units (SI) for the results generated by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)-accredited laboratories. Only a small number of prohibited substances have threshold limits for which quantification is highly important. For these analytes only the highest quality reference materials that are available should be used. Many prohibited substances have no threshold limits and reference materials provide essential identity confirmation. For these reference materials the correct identity is critical and the methods used to assess identity in these cases should be critically evaluated. There is still a lack of certified matrix reference materials to support many aspects of doping analysis. However, in key areas a range of urine matrix materials have been produced for substances with threshold limits, for example 19-norandrosterone and testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio. These matrix-certified reference materials (CRMs) are an excellent independent means of checking method recovery and bias and will typically be used in method validation and then regularly as quality-control checks. They can be particularly important in the analysis of samples close to threshold limits, in which measurement accuracy becomes critical. Some reference materials for isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) analysis are available and a matrix material certified for steroid delta values is currently under production. In other new areas, for example the Athlete Biological Passport, peptide hormone testing, designer steroids, and gene doping, reference material needs still need to be thoroughly assessed and prioritised.

  2. Disse fire typer bruger steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders Schmidt; Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2017-01-01

    Vi render i motionscentret som aldrig før, og ønsket om at forbedre sin krop lokker nogle ud i at bruge steroider. Brugerne kan inddeles i fire typer – fra den eksperimenterende YOLO-type til de, der gerne vil være klar til stranden.......Vi render i motionscentret som aldrig før, og ønsket om at forbedre sin krop lokker nogle ud i at bruge steroider. Brugerne kan inddeles i fire typer – fra den eksperimenterende YOLO-type til de, der gerne vil være klar til stranden....

  3. Diferencias en las prevalencias de desnutrición al usarse referencias nacionales e internacionales Differences in the prevalence of malnutrition resulting from using a national growth reference or an international growth reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Edith Oyhenart

    2005-09-01

    prevalencia de retraso del crecimiento.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if using an international growth reference versus a national growth reference leads to differences in the prevalences of low weight-for-height (wasting and low height-for-age (stunting in a sample of children 8 to 14 years old. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1 470 school-children (both boys and girls in the city of La Plata, in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Based on the data on weight and height, Z-scores were calculated with regard to the reference values from the United States of America's first and second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I and NHANES II, and the reference values for Argentina from the Argentine Pediatric Society. The prevalences of wasting and stunting were calculated, using as the cutoff point two standard deviations below the median of the reference. The prevalences were compared using the chi-squared test with Yates' correction, and odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS: The international reference was positively associated with a higher prevalence of stunting in the entire sample (OR = 5.12; 95% CI: 3.27 to 8.05, in the boys (OR = 4.36; 95% CI: 2.43 to 7.93, and in the girls (OR = 6.32; 95% CI: 3.10 to 13.27. The prevalence of wasting was similar with both references. The distribution of height-for-age was skewed to the left with respect to the international reference and to the right with respect to the Argentine reference, while the distribution of weight-for-height overlapped both references. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in the prevalences of stunting calculated according to the two references that were used indicate a different nutritional status for the population studied. The increase in the height of the children with respect to the Argentine reference points to the presence of a positive secular trend, and the increase can explain part of the differences in the prevalence

  4. Determination of steroids in manure and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Bengt Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    A genuine analytical method to determine native steroids (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, 17b-estradiol, and 17a-estradiol) and one anthropogenic steroid (ethynylestradiol) in environmental solid samples is presented...

  5. Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their s...

  6. [Reference values of apolipoproteins A1 and B. Contribution of international standardization. Travail collaboratif entre la SFBC, l'Arcol et le SFRL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, J; Caces, E; Couderc, R; Beucler, I; Legrand, A; Henny, J

    1997-01-01

    The utilization of two WHO reference materials, liquid and lyophilized, permitted international standardization of apolipoprotein measurements. We report here the results of a collaborative study between Arcol, SFBC and SFRL in order to establish reference ranges for apo A1 and B on nine standardized systems. A population of 1027 men and women supposed healthy, 4 to 60 year old, have been selected in two Centers for Preventive Medicine. The serum samples were aliquoted frozen at -20 degrees C the day of sampling and analysed by the manufacturers with IFCC standardized calibrants. A specific quality control was performed using a frozen pool of sera. For apo A1, the centile 2.5 of the reference population varies from 1.04 to 1.16 g/l. The range values for the centile 97.5 varies from 1.87 to 2.24 g/l. For apoB, the centile 2.5 varies from 0.43 to 0.57 g/l, and the centile 97.5 from 1.30 to 1.39 g/l. Only one system has a problem of dispersion with an upper limit equal to 1.20 g/l. These results improve that international standardization allowed actually a good comparability of the results, especially for apoB.

  7. Docking Offset Between the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station and Resulting Impacts to the Transfer of Attitude Reference and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, W. Jason; Pohlkamp, Kara M.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle does not dock at an exact 90 degrees to the International Space Station (ISS) x-body axis. This offset from 90 degrees, along with error sources within their respective attitude knowledge, causes the two vehicles to never completely agree on their attitude, even though they operate as a single, mated stack while docked. The docking offset can be measured in flight when both vehicles have good attitude reference and is a critical component in calculations to transfer attitude reference from one vehicle to another. This paper will describe how the docking offset and attitude reference errors between both vehicles are measured and how this information would be used to recover Shuttle attitude reference from ISS in the event of multiple failures. During STS-117, ISS on-board Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) computers began having problems and after several continuous restarts, the systems failed. The failure took the ability for ISS to maintain attitude knowledge. This paper will also demonstrate how with knowledge of the docking offset, the contingency procedure to recover Shuttle attitude reference from ISS was reversed in order to provide ISS an attitude reference from Shuttle. Finally, this paper will show how knowledge of the docking offset can be used to speed up attitude control handovers from Shuttle to ISS momentum management. By taking into account the docking offset, Shuttle can be commanded to hold a more precise attitude which better agrees with the ISS commanded attitude such that start up transients with the ISS momentum management controllers are reduced. By reducing start-up transients, attitude control can be transferred from Shuttle to ISS without the use of ISS thrusters saving precious on-board propellant, crew time and minimizing loads placed upon the mated stack.

  8. Sundhedspolitik på steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2012-01-01

    Danmark er det land i verden der har valgt den måske mest drastiske metode til bekæmpelse af brug af anabole androgene steroider (AAS) i fitness- og styrketræningsmiljøerne. Ikke pga. oplysningskampagnerne, samarbejdet med SKAT eller at AAS er ulovlige. Der hvor Danmark skiller sig ud er ved brugen...

  9. Steroid profiling in doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Daniël Henri van de

    2001-01-01

    Profiling androgens in urine samples is used in doping analysis for the detection of abused steroids of endogenous origin. These profiling techniques were originally developed for the analysis of testosterone, mostly by means of the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio). A study was

  10. Recent advances in steroid radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffcoate, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    The advances since 1974 in the techniques of measuring steroid molecules by radioimmunoassay are reviewed in this paper. They are considered under the following headings: preparation and use of antisera; preparation and use of tracers; preparation of biological samples before assay; dispensing of the reagents in the assay; separation of free and bound radioactivity; counting and data processing; quality control and standardization. (orig.) [de

  11. Generation and Characterization of Six Recombinant Botulinum Neurotoxins as Reference Material to Serve in an International Proficiency Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Weisemann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The detection and identification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT is complex due to the existence of seven serotypes, derived mosaic toxins and more than 40 subtypes. Expert laboratories currently use different technical approaches to detect, identify and quantify BoNT, but due to the lack of (certified reference materials, analytical results can hardly be compared. In this study, the six BoNT/A1–F1 prototypes were successfully produced by recombinant techniques, facilitating handling, as well as improving purity, yield, reproducibility and biosafety. All six BoNTs were quantitatively nicked into active di-chain toxins linked by a disulfide bridge. The materials were thoroughly characterized with respect to purity, identity, protein concentration, catalytic and biological activities. For BoNT/A1, B1 and E1, serotypes pathogenic to humans, the catalytic activity and the precise protein concentration were determined by Endopep-mass spectrometry and validated amino acid analysis, respectively. In addition, BoNT/A1, B1, E1 and F1 were successfully detected by immunological assays, unambiguously identified by mass spectrometric-based methods, and their specific activities were assigned by the mouse LD50 bioassay. The potencies of all six BoNT/A1–F1 were quantified by the ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm assay, allowing a direct comparison. In conclusion, highly pure recombinant BoNT reference materials were produced, thoroughly characterized and employed as spiking material in a worldwide BoNT proficiency test organized by the EQuATox consortium.

  12. Characteristics and outcome of patients with heart failure due to anabolic-androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva Bjerre; Thune, Jens Jakob; Gustafsson, Finn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to analyse the outcome of patients with advanced heart failure due to abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids. DESIGN: A retrospective chart review of patients admitted or referred for advanced heart failure, due to anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse...... with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers. The remaining 3 patients required implantation of a LV assist device (LVAD) and were listed for heart transplantation. No recovery of LV function in the patients treated with assist device was seen. CONCLUSION: Anabolic-androgenic steroid...

  13. Anabolic steroids for rehabilitation after hip fracture in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Vaqas; Berg, Maayken E L van den; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Hip fracture occurs predominantly in older people, many of whom are frail and undernourished. After hip fracture surgery and rehabilitation, most patients experience a decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. They may have similar effects in older people who are recovering from hip fracture. To examine the effects (primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events) of anabolic steroids after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register (10 September 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2013 Issue 8), MEDLINE (1946 to August Week 4 2013), EMBASE (1974 to 2013 Week 36), trial registers, conference proceedings, and reference lists of relevant articles. The search was run in September 2013.Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials of anabolic steroids given after hip fracture surgery, in inpatient or outpatient settings, to improve physical functioning in older patients with hip fracture.Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently selected trials (based on predefined inclusion criteria), extracted data and assessed each study's risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements. Only very limited pooling of data was possible. The primary outcomes were function (for example, independence in mobility and activities of daily living) and adverse events, including mortality. We screened 1290 records and found only three trials involving 154 female participants, all of whom were aged above 65 years and had had hip fracture surgery. All studies had methodological shortcomings that placed them at high or unclear risk of bias. Because of this high risk of bias, imprecise results and likelihood of publication bias

  14. Anabolic steroids for rehabilitation after hip fracture in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaqas Farooqi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hip fracture occurs predominantly in older people, many of whom are frail and undernourished. After hip fracture surgery and rehabilitation, most patients experience a decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. They may have similar effects in older people who are recovering from hip fracture. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects (primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events of anabolic steroids after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register (10 September 2013, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, 2013 Issue 8, MEDLINE (1946 to August Week 4 2013, EMBASE (1974 to 2013 Week 36, trial registers, conference proceedings, and reference lists of relevant articles. The search was run in September 2013. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials of anabolic steroids given after hip fracture surgery, in inpatient or outpatient settings, to improve physical functioning in older patients with hip fracture. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently selected trials (based on predefined inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed each study's risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements. Only very limited pooling of data was possible. The primary outcomes were function (for example, independence in mobility and activities of daily living and adverse events, including mortality. MAIN RESULTS: We screened 1290 records and found only three trials involving 154 female participants, all of whom were aged above 65 years and had had hip fracture surgery. All studies had methodological shortcomings that placed them at high or unclear risk of bias. Because of this high

  15. Mental Health and Its Associated Variables Among International Students at a Japanese University: With Special Reference to Their Financial Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Kumi; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2015-12-01

    We attempted to identify the risk factors that may affect mental health status of the international students and we conducted the survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The students were divided into two groups; (1) those who received scholarships and (2) those who didn't since we thought the division represented practical patterns of their financial status. The associations of socio-demographic characteristics with depressive symptoms were examined. Of the 726 students, 480 (66.1%) responded and 207 (43.1%) had depressive symptoms. The logistic regression analysis indicated that quality of sleep, amount of exercise, and housing conditions--but not financial status--were statistically associated with the risk of developing depressive symptoms. Although the inversion of the cause and effect is yet to be ascertained, the students who are unsatisfied with their housing conditions, quality of sleep and less exercise need more attention.

  16. Mobile eye services: Literature review with special reference to the experience of Al-Basar International Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A Rushood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the concept of quality assured mobile eye services (MES in implementing the vision 2020 initiative. Materials and Methods: Literature review as well as the medical records of Al-Basar International Foundation (BIF on MES. Emphasis was focused on the causes of blindness, objectives, operation, management and the benefits of MES, a critical appraisal of MES, training for MES and the relationship with other organizations and concerned government agencies. Findings: More than 38 countries have been included in this exercise during which more than 620 eye camps have been conducted. More than two million people have benefited from the services provided including medicines and glasses in these eye camps and about 180,000 sight restoring surgeries performed for cataract, glaucoma etc. Conclusion: Quality assured MES are a very important means of tackling the problems of blindness and implementing the vision 2020 initiative. The adoption of this concept by major stake-holders in the prevention of blindness (e.g. WHO, IAPB will bring an additional momentum to the achievement of this noble goal.

  17. Quality control in environmental radioactivity measurements: experience of the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation, acting as International Reference Center Of the World Health Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, M L; Gahinet, M E; Moroni, J P; De Zertucha, J; Pellerin, P [Service Central de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - Le Vesinet (France)

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to make known the experiences in the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (SCPRI) in two fields: (i)in relation to the survey of, and research on, environmental radiation in France for 15 years, and (ii) as the International Reference Center (IRC), a responsibility which has been assigned to it by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for more than 7 years. The SCPRI has no permanent activity in pure metrology but the control which it exerts on a national scale (more than 30,000 environmental samples analyzed each year) and the periodic intercomparisons which it organizes with a large number of foreign Public Health Laboratories have led to the development of a strict quality control program for the techniques of preparation and verification of standard sources and reference samples which are essential in the use of counters, the application and development of spectrometric and radiochemical analytical methods and in the distribution of samples for intercomparison purposes. A description is given of practical experience of quality control in the preparation of standards and in international inter-comparisons organized under the sponsorship of the World Health Organization.

  18. International collaborative study of the endogenous reference gene, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingxi; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Haibo; Guo, Jinchao; Mazzara, Marco; Van den Eede, Guy; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-05-13

    One rice ( Oryza sativa ) gene, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), has been proven to be a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) rice detection in a previous study. Herein are the reported results of an international collaborative ring trial for validation of the SPS gene as an endogenous reference gene and its optimized qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems. A total of 12 genetically modified organism (GMO) detection laboratories from seven countries participated in the ring trial and returned their results. The validated results confirmed the species specificity of the method through testing 10 plant genomic DNAs, low heterogeneity, and a stable single-copy number of the rice SPS gene among 7 indica varieties and 5 japonica varieties. The SPS qualitative PCR assay was validated with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1%, which corresponded to about 230 copies of haploid rice genomic DNA, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) for the quantitative PCR system was about 23 copies of haploid rice genomic DNA, with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. Furthermore, the bias between the test and true values of eight blind samples ranged from 5.22 to 26.53%. Thus, we believe that the SPS gene is suitable for use as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM rice and its derivates.

  19. Certification of a reference material for determination of total cyanide in soil to support implementation of the International Standard ISO 11262:2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Holger; Bremser, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    Cyanides are among the most important inorganic pollutants to be tested and monitored in environmental compartments. They can be distinguished and determined as free cyanide, weak acid dissociable cyanide or as total cyanide. However, in any case obtained, measurement results are operationally defined referring to the applied analytical method. In 2011, the International Standard ISO 11262 has been published which specifies a normative analytical method for the determination of total cyanide in soil. The objective of the project described in this paper was to provide the first soil reference material (CRM) certified for its mass fraction of total cyanide on the basis of this standard. A total of 12 German laboratories with proven experience in the determination of cyanides in environmental samples participated in the certification study. Measurement results were evaluated in full compliance with the requirements of ISO Guide 35. Taking into account the results of the inter-laboratory comparison as well as the outcome of the homogeneity and stability studies, a certified mass fraction of total cyanide of 21.1 mg/kg and an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 1.3 mg/kg were assigned to the material. The reference material has been issued as CRM BAM-U114.

  20. New design and facilities for the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements (AGrav): A support for the Establishment of a new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Rülke, Axel

    2017-04-01

    After about 10 years of successful joint operation by BGI and BKG, the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements "AGrav" (see references hereafter) was under a major revision. The outdated web interface was replaced by a responsive, high level web application framework based on Python and built on top of Pyramid. Functionality was added, like interactive time series plots or a report generator and the interactive map-based station overview was updated completely, comprising now clustering and the classification of stations. Furthermore, the database backend was migrated to PostgreSQL for better support of the application framework and long-term availability. As comparisons of absolute gravimeters (AG) become essential to realize a precise and uniform gravity standard, the database was extended to document the results on international and regional level, including those performed at monitoring stations equipped with SGs. By this it will be possible to link different AGs and to trace their equivalence back to the key comparisons under the auspices of International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) as the best metrological realization of the absolute gravity standard. In this way the new AGrav database accommodates the demands of the new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System as recommended by the IAG Resolution No. 2 adopted in Prague 2015. The new database will be presented with focus on the new user interface and new functionality, calling all institutions involved in absolute gravimetry to participate and contribute with their information to built up a most complete picture of high precision absolute gravimetry and improve its visibility. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be provided by BGI to contributors to give a better traceability and facilitate the referencing of their gravity surveys. Links and references: BGI mirror site : http://bgi.obs-mip.fr/data-products/Gravity-Databases/Absolute-Gravity-data/ BKG mirror site: http

  1. Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents from Mérida city, Venezuela: Comparison of results using local and international reference values (CREDEFAR study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos Reyes, Marjorie; Mederico, Maracelly; Paoli de Valeri, Mariela; Briceño, Yajaira; Zerpa, Yajaira; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Camacho, Nolis; Martínez, José Luis; Valeri, Lenín; Arata-Bellabarba, Gabriela

    2014-11-01

    To obtain local reference values for blood lipids and blood pressure (BP), and to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in children and adolescents from Mérida, Venezuela, and to compare results using local and international cut-off values. The study enrolled 916 participants of both sexes aged 9-18 years of age from educational institutions. Demographic, anthropometric, and BP data were collected. Fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were measured. Percentile distribution of lipid and BP values was done by age group and sex. Prevalence of MS was estimated based on the NCEP-ATPIII classification (as modified by Cook et al.) and the classification of the International Diabetes Federation, using percentiles of Mérida and the USA as cut-off points. Agreement between both classifications was estimated using the kappa test (κ). Prevalence of MS was 2.2% by Cook-Merida percentiles, as compared to 1.8% by Cook-USA percentiles, a moderate agreement (κ=0.54). Agreement between Cook et al. and IDF using Merida percentiles was weak (κ=0.28). There was a higher frequency of abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension, and a lower frequency of low HDL-C using Mérida percentiles. The risk (odds ratio) of having MS is greater if abdominal obesity exists (OR: 98.63, CI: 22.45-433.35, p=0.0001). MS was significantly more common in obese subjects (18.3%, p=0.0001). Prevalence of MS in this sample of children and adolescents was 2.2%. Lipid and BP values were lower in Venezuelan as compared to US, European, and Asian children and adolescents, and similar to those in Latin-American references. Own reference values are required for accurate diagnosis of MS, as well as a worldwide consensus on its diagnostic criteria. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of steroid pulse therapy and conventional oral steroid therapy as initial treatment for autoimmune pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Takashi; Uchida, Kazushige; Matsushita, Mitsunobu; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Fukui, Toshiro; Takaoka, Makoto; Nishio, Akiyoshi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of oral steroid therapy for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is well known, and oral prednisolone treatment is most usually commenced at 30-40 mg/day, but there have been few reports about comparative studies of oral steroid therapy and steroid pulse therapy as the initial treatment for AIP. We studied the clinical course and image findings to estimate the utility of steroid pulse therapy for AIP, comparing it with oral steroid therapy. Laboratory and image findings were assessed retrospectively in 11 patients who received steroid pulse therapy, and the findings were compared to those in 10 patients who received conventional oral steroid therapy. Change in pancreatic size showed no significant difference between the therapies after 2 weeks of treatment. Significant improvement of lower bile duct strictures after 2 weeks of treatment and that of immunoglobulin values within 6 months were shown with both therapies. However, steroid pulse therapy showed significant improvement of γ-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) in 2 weeks and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in 2 and 8 weeks, compared with oral steroid therapy. Moreover, there was one patient in whom the lower bile duct stricture was not improved by oral steroid therapy, but it did show improvement with steroid pulse therapy. Initial steroid pulse therapy is a beneficial alternative to oral steroid therapy for the improvement of bile duct lesions. In future, the accumulation of a larger number of patients receiving steroid pulse therapy is needed, and prospective studies will be required. (author)

  3. Anabolic steroids for treating pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Whittaker, Maxine A

    2017-06-20

    Pressure ulcers, also known as bed sores, pressure sores or decubitus ulcers develop as a result of a localised injury to the skin or underlying tissue, or both. The ulcers usually arise over a bony prominence, and are recognised as a common medical problem affecting people confined to a bed or wheelchair for long periods of time. Anabolic steroids are used as off-label drugs (drugs which are used without regulatory approval) and have been used as adjuvants to usual treatment with dressings, debridement, nutritional supplements, systemic antibiotics and antiseptics, which are considered to be supportive in healing of pressure ulcers. Anabolic steroids are considered because of their ability to stimulate protein synthesis and build muscle mass. Comprehensive evidence is required to facilitate decision making, regarding the benefits and harms of using anabolic steroids. To assess the effects of anabolic steroids for treating pressure ulcers. In March 2017 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing and unpublished studies, and scanned reference lists of relevant included studies as well as reviews, meta-analyses and health technology reports to identify additional studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. Published or unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of anabolic steroids with alternative treatments or different types of anabolic steroids in the treatment of pressure ulcers. Two review authors independently carried out study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment. The review contains only one trial with a total of 212 participants, all with spinal cord injury and open pressure ulcers classed as stage III and IV. The participants were

  4. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male-internal electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Bolch, Wesley; Rajon, Didier; Jokisch, Derek; Lee, Choonsik

    2011-01-01

    -averaged values of absorbed fraction in the present model are noted to be very compatible with those weighted by the skeletal tissue distributions found in the ICRP Publication 110 adult male and female voxel phantoms, but are in many cases incompatible with values used in current and widely implemented internal dosimetry software.

  5. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male-internal electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Rajon, Didier [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Jokisch, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC (United States); Lee, Choonsik, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-04-21

    -averaged values of absorbed fraction in the present model are noted to be very compatible with those weighted by the skeletal tissue distributions found in the ICRP Publication 110 adult male and female voxel phantoms, but are in many cases incompatible with values used in current and widely implemented internal dosimetry software.

  6. Asbestos and Asbestos-related Diseases in Vietnam: In reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hai Pham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes progress on formulating a national asbestos profile for the country of Vietnam. The Center of Asbestos Resource, Vietnam, formulated a National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health, with due reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile. The Center of Asbestos Resource was established by the Vietnamese Health Environment Management Agency and the National Institute of Labor Protection, with the support of the Australian Agency for International Development, as a coordinating point for asbestos-related issues in Vietnam. Under the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health framework, the Center of Asbestos Resource succeeded in compiling relevant information for 15 of the 18 designated items outlined in the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile, some overlaps of the information items notwithstanding. Today, Vietnam continues to import and use an average of more than 60,000 metric tons of raw asbestos per year. Information on asbestos-related diseases is limited, but the country has begun to diagnose mesothelioma cases, with the technical cooperation of Japan. As it stands, the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health needs further work and updating. However, we envisage that the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health will ultimately facilitate the smooth transition to an asbestos-free Vietnam.

  7. Determination of dose to patient in different teams of TC and assessment with international reference levels; Determinacion de dosis a pacientes en diferentes equipos de TC y evaluacion con niveles de referencia internacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Morales, C.; Fernandez lara, A. A.; Buades Forner, M. J.; Tobarra Gonzalez, B. M.

    2013-07-01

    The increase in CT studies and the differences observed between the different equipment used in our hospital prompted us to determine the doses to patients in different studies and check the results obtained with the reference values published internationally. (Author)

  8. Essay: city on steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison, Steve

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It was love at first sight, an ancient town surrounded in oriental mystery, serene, enchanted and most importantly untouched by the advances and ravages of time. Frozen in the past with a lazy river and a way of life that brought back happy childhood memories of an innocent simplicity, her people laid back, content and satisfied. The surrounding countryside with thatched bamboo huts, farm cottages and slow easy-going country folk riding rusty bicycles. In 2003 I bought a house in Hoi An on that slow flowing river and settled back to watch the days of my life drift past at a snails pace, savouring the sweetness of every lazy moment. Content in the thought that nothing could ever disturb these tranquil days, that flowed without a care like that slow moving river. Travelling every week to Da Nang was a dull but necessary chore and one I would postpone as often as possible. 28 kilometres north the big city was a deserted metropolis, a throng of urban industrial sprawl. The city looked like the war with America had finished only yesterday, dull, lifeless and beaten. My wife and I would venture there along a rutted ill kept excuse for a road over a rusting crusty bridge to see her family and to buy provisions unobtainable in sleepy Hoi An. Getting back home to Hoi An was just that, getting Home to our safe haven. So that was only 12 years ago. Now every direction you turn is a construction site, everywhere and everyone and I mean everyone is building new glamorous homes. Roads literally appear out of nowhere overnight to newer and grander developments. Da Nang, well, the city has shaken the sands of war off her dusty back and become an indescribably beautiful city. Golden beaches and cloud kissed mountains, new wide roads, bridges, parks, round-a-bouts, shopping malls, theatres, entertainment centres and five star international resorts abound. Every square meter is being bought up and developed, high-rise apartments spring up overnight and the horizon

  9. Academic Librarians Should Be Sensitive to Language and Cultural Barriers When Providing Reference Service to International Students. A review of: Curry, Ann and Deborah Copeman. “Reference Service to International Students: A Field Stimulation Research Study.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 31.5 (Sep. 2005: 409‐20.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie A. Kloda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To evaluate the quality of reference service provided to non‐native, English‐speaking international students in academic libraries.Design – Field stimulation (unobtrusive testing.Setting – Eleven college and university libraries in the lower mainland of British Columbia, Canada, in the fall of 2003.Subjects – Library staff offering reference service at one of the participating libraries.Methods – The study utilized field stimulation, whereby an individual, or “proxy,” posed as a library user and initiated a reference encounter with library staff at each institution. In each case the proxy asked the same question to the library staff member. After the interaction was completed the proxy recorded all observed behaviours. Data were collected using a checklist of actions; a narrative record written by the proxy; and several evaluative questions. Each library was visited by the same proxy on two separate occasions for a total of 22 visits, of which 20 instances resulted in usable data. The narrative recordings of the reference encounters were analyzed using an open coding process.Main results – In 75% of the cases, the proxy was “‘satisfied” or “very satisfied” with help received from the library staff member and was “likely to” or “definitely would return to the staff member” in the future. The reference encounters lasted between a few minutes to half an hour in length, with most lasting between 5 and 15 minutes. Encounters that were brief (less than 5 minutes resulted in an evaluation of “dissatisfied” or “very dissatisfied” and “not likely to” or “definitely would not return.” Encounters where the library staff member extended an invitation to the proxy to return in the future were all rated with “high satisfaction” and “willingness to return.” The following reference service actions were observed in at least half of the encounters:• Asked questions for clarification (20

  10. Predator-induced defences in Daphnia pulex: Selection and evaluation of internal reference genes for gene expression studies with real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Don

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The planktonic microcrustacean Daphnia pulex is among the best-studied animals in ecological, toxicological and evolutionary research. One aspect that has sustained interest in the study system is the ability of D. pulex to develop inducible defence structures when exposed to predators, such as the phantom midge larvae Chaoborus. The available draft genome sequence for D. pulex is accelerating research to identify genes that confer plastic phenotypes that are regularly cued by environmental stimuli. Yet for quantifying gene expression levels, no experimentally validated set of internal control genes exists for the accurate normalization of qRT-PCR data. Results In this study, we tested six candidate reference genes for normalizing transcription levels of D. pulex genes; alpha tubulin (aTub, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, TATA box binding protein (Tbp syntaxin 16 (Stx16, X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1 and CAPON, a protein associated with the neuronal nitric oxide synthase, were selected on the basis of an earlier study and from microarray studies. One additional gene, a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP, was tested to validate its transcriptional response to Chaoborus, which was earlier observed in a microarray study. The transcription profiles of these seven genes were assessed by qRT-PCR from RNA of juvenile D. pulex that showed induced defences in comparison to untreated control animals. We tested the individual suitability of genes for expression normalization using the programs geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Intriguingly, Xbp1, Tbp, CAPON and Stx16 were selected as ideal reference genes. Analyses on the relative expression level using the software REST showed that both classical housekeeping candidate genes (aTub and GAPDH were significantly downregulated, whereas the MMP gene was shown to be significantly upregulated, as predicted. aTub is a particularly ill suited reference gene because five copies are

  11. Evaluating new HbA1c methods for adoption by the IFCC and NGSP reference networks using international quality targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenters-Westra, Erna; English, Emma

    2017-08-28

    As a reference laboratory for HbA1c, it is essential to have accurate and precise HbA1c methods covering a range of measurement principles. We report an evaluation of the Abbott Enzymatic (Architect c4000), Roche Gen.3 HbA1c (Cobas c513) and Tosoh G11 using different quality targets. The effect of hemoglobin variants, other potential interferences and the performance in comparison to both the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) and the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) reference systems was assessed using certified evaluation protocols. Each of the evaluated HbA1c methods had CVs HbA1c. Partly based on the result of this study, the Abbott Enzymatic method on the Architect c4000 and the Roche Gen.3 HbA1c on the Cobas c513 are now official, certified IFCC and NGSP SRMPs in the IFCC and NGSP networks. Sigma metrics quality criteria presented in a graph distinguish between good and excellent performance.

  12. Computational modeling of the mathematical dummy of the Brazilian woman for calculations of internal dosimetry and ends of comparison of the fractions absorbed specific with the woman reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ximenes, Edmir

    2006-01-01

    Tools for dosimetric calculations are of the utmost importance for the basic principles of radiological protection, not only in nuclear medicine, but also in other scientific calculations. In this work a mathematical model of the Brazilian woman is developed in order to be used as a basis for calculations of Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) in internal organs and in the skeleton, in accord with the objectives of diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. The model developed here is similar in form to that of Snyder, but modified to be more relevant to the case of the Brazilian woman. To do this, the formalism of the Monte Carlo method was used by means of the ALGAM- 97 R computational code. As a contribution to the objectives of this thesis, we developed the computational system cSAF - consultation for Specific Absorbed Fractions (cFAE from Portuguese acronym) - which furnishes several 'look-up' facilities for the research user. The dialogue interface with the operator was planned following current practices in the utilization of event-oriented languages. This interface permits the user to navigate by means of the reference models, choose the source organ, the energy desired, and receive an answer through an efficient and intuitive dialogue. The system furnishes, in addition to the data referring to the Brazilian woman, data referring to the model of Snyder and to the model of the Brazilian man. The system makes available not only individual data to the SAFs of the three models, but also a comparison among them. (author)

  13. Steroid metabolism by monkey and human spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Sehgal, A.; Pruthi, J.S.; Anand-Kumar, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from monkey and human were washed and incubated with tritium labelled androgens or estradiol to study the pattern of spermatozoa steroid metabolism. When equal concentrations of steroid substrates were used for incubation, monkey and human spermatozoa showed very similar pattern of steroid conversion. Spermatozoa from both species converted testosterone mainly to androstenedione, but reverse conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was negligible. Estradiol-17 beta was converted mainly to estrone. The close similarity between the spermatozoa of monkey and men in their steroid metabolic pattern indicates that the rhesus monkey could be an useful animal model to study the effect of drugs on the metabolic pattern of human spermatozoa

  14. Analysis of SMELS and reference materials for validation of the k0-based internal monostandard NAA method using in-situ detection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, R.; Swain, K. K.; Reddy, A. V. R.

    2010-10-01

    Three synthetic multielement standards (SMELS I, II and III) and two reference materials (RMs), SL-3 and Soil-7 of IAEA were analyzed for validation of the k0-based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis (IM-NAA) method utilizing in-situ relative detection efficiency. The internal monostandards used in SMELS and RMs were Au and Sc, respectively. The samples were irradiated in Apsara and Dhruva reactors, BARC and radioactive assay was carried out using a 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to an 8 k MCA. Concentrations of 23 elements were determined in both SMELS and RMs. In the case of RMs, concentrations of a few elements, whose certified values are not available, could also be determined. The % deviations for the elements determined in SMELS with respect to the assigned values and RMs with respect to certified values were within ±8%. The Z-score values at 95% confidence level for most of the elements in both the materials were within ±1.

  15. Certified Reference Material for Use in 1H, 31P, and 19F Quantitative NMR, Ensuring Traceability to the International System of Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigger, Romana; Rück, Alexander; Hellriegel, Christine; Sauermoser, Robert; Morf, Fabienne; Breitruck, KathrinBreitruck; Obkircher, Markus

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, quantitative NMR (qNMR) spectroscopy has become one of the most important tools for content determination of organic substances and quantitative evaluation of impurities. Using Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) as internal or external standards, the extensively used qNMR method can be applied for purity determination, including unbroken traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The implementation of qNMR toward new application fields, e.g., metabolomics, environmental analysis, and physiological pathway studies, brings along more complex molecules and systems, thus making use of 1H qNMR challenging. A smart workaround is possible by the use of other NMR active nuclei, namely 31P and 19F. This article presents the development of three classes of qNMR CRMs based on different NMR active nuclei (1H, 31P, and 19F), and the corresponding approaches to establish traceability to the SI through primary CRMs from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Metrology Institute of Japan. These TraceCERT® qNMR CRMs are produced under ISO/IEC 17025 and ISO Guide 34 using high-performance qNMR.

  16. Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinology Products, warns teens and parents about the dangers of steroid use. Q: What are anabolic steroids ... لعربية | Kreyòl Ayisyen | Français | Polski | Português | Italiano | Deutsch | 日本語 | ف ...

  17. Osteonecrosis following alcohol, cocaine, and steroid use.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ziraldo, Laura

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol, steroids and cocaine have all been shown to be independent risk factors for osteonecrosis when taken in excess. Here we present a case of a young girl who developed debilitating osteonecrosis secondary to low doses of alcohol, steroids and cocaine. We feel it is important to highlight to those caring for such patients of the potential devastating complication of these three agents.

  18. Development of a GC/C/IRMS method--confirmation of a novel steroid profiling approach in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Pieter; Polet, Michael; Brooker, Lance; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2012-09-01

    In doping control, an athlete can only be convicted with the misuse with endogenous steroids like testosterone (T), if abnormal values of steroid metabolites and steroid ratios are observed and if the subsequent analysis with isotope ratios mass spectrometry (IRMS) confirms the presence of exogenously administered androgens. In this work, we compare the results of a novel steroid profiling approach with the performance an in-house developed IRMS method. The developed IRMS has the advantage over other methods to be relatively short in time and with target compounds androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5β-androstane 3α,17β-diol and 5α-androstane 3α,17β-diol. Pregnanediol was used as an endogenous reference compound (ERC). Reference limits for the IRMS values were established and applied as decision limits for the evaluation of excretion urine from administration with oral T, T-gel, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) - gel and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Results indicated the importance of both androstanediols as important IRMS markers where relative values compared to an ERC (Δδ(13)C) yielded better detection accuracy than absolute δ(13)C-values. The detection times of all administered endogenous steroids were evaluated using the proposed thresholds. The results of traditional steroid profiling and a new approach based upon minor steroid metabolites monitoring introduced in a longitudinal framework were evaluated with IRMS. With traditional steroid profiling methods, 95% of the atypical samples could be confirmed whereas an additional 74% of IRMS confirmed was provided by a new biomarkers strategy. These results prove that the other steroid profiling strategies can improve the efficiency in detection of misuse with endogenous steroids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Steroid radioimmunoassays. The problems of blanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Y; Hacker, R R; Ntunde, B; Smith, V G [Guelph Univ., Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Animal and Poultry Science

    1981-06-01

    An estrogen radioimmunoassay was used to study the problem of blanks in steroid assays. Negligible binding (1.5 percent) in the non-antibody tubes prevailed throughout the study. The assay was validated using accepted procedures. Both water and solvent blanks had estrogen concentrations of 7-9 pg/tube. However, neither water nor solvent blanks showed a dose-related response, indicating that they were 'real' blanks. Exogenous estradiol, when added to water and solvent in quantities less than the estimated blank, was not quantitatively recovered. However, exogenous estradiol added to the water solvent in quantities greater than the blank estimate was quantitatively recovered. The sensitivity of the reference standard curve was 6-10 pg/tube, approximately the same as the blank estimate. These results indicated that the estimates of water and solvent blanks were measures of the assay sensitivity. In such circumstances, it is suggested that blank estimates should not be subtracted from sample values. If the blank estimates are high, attention should be directed towards improving the sensitivity of the assay.

  20. A simple method for the small scale synthesis and solid-phase extraction purification of steroid sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Christopher C; McLeod, Malcolm D

    2014-12-01

    Steroid sulfates are a major class of steroid metabolite that are of growing importance in fields such as anti-doping analysis, the detection of residues in agricultural produce or medicine. Despite this, many steroid sulfate reference materials may have limited or no availability hampering the development of analytical methods. We report simple protocols for the rapid synthesis and purification of steroid sulfates that are suitable for adoption by analytical laboratories. Central to this approach is the use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for purification, a technique routinely used for sample preparation in analytical laboratories around the world. The sulfate conjugates of sixteen steroid compounds encompassing a wide range of steroid substitution patterns and configurations are prepared, including the previously unreported sulfate conjugates of the designer steroids furazadrol (17β-hydroxyandrostan[2,3-d]isoxazole), isofurazadrol (17β-hydroxyandrostan[3,2-c]isoxazole) and trenazone (17β-hydroxyestra-4,9-dien-3-one). Structural characterization data, together with NMR and mass spectra are reported for all steroid sulfates, often for the first time. The scope of this approach for small scale synthesis is highlighted by the sulfation of 1μg of testosterone (17β-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one) as monitored by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF to describe children referred to special care or paediatric dental services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Faulks

    Full Text Available Children in dentistry are traditionally described in terms of medical diagnosis and prevalence of oral disease. This approach gives little information regarding a child's capacity to maintain oral health or regarding the social determinants of oral health. The biopsychosocial approach, embodied in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY (WHO, provides a wider picture of a child's real-life experience, but practical tools for the application of this model are lacking. This article describes the preliminary empirical study necessary for development of such a tool - an ICF-CY Core Set for Oral Health. An ICF-CY questionnaire was used to identify the medical, functional, social and environmental context of 218 children and adolescents referred to special care or paediatric dental services in France, Sweden, Argentina and Ireland (mean age 8 years ± 3.6 yrs. International Classification of Disease (ICD-10 diagnoses included disorders of the nervous system (26.1%, Down syndrome (22.0%, mental retardation (17.0%, autistic disorders (16.1%, and dental anxiety alone (11.0%. The most frequently impaired items in the ICF Body functions domain were 'Intellectual functions', 'High-level cognitive functions', and 'Attention functions'. In the Activities and Participation domain, participation restriction was frequently reported for 25 items including 'Handling stress', 'Caring for body parts', 'Looking after one's health' and 'Speaking'. In the Environment domain, facilitating items included 'Support of friends', 'Attitude of friends' and 'Support of immediate family'. One item was reported as an environmental barrier - 'Societal attitudes'. The ICF-CY can be used to highlight common profiles of functioning, activities, participation and environment shared by children in relation to oral health, despite widely differing medical, social and geographical contexts. The results of this empirical

  2. Anabolic steroids detected in bodybuilding dietary supplements - a significant risk to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, V; Kicman, A T; Evans-Brown, M; McVeigh, J; Cowan, D A; Wilson, C; Coles, S J; Walker, C J

    2015-07-01

    Twenty-four products suspected of containing anabolic steroids and sold in fitness equipment shops in the United Kingdom (UK) were analyzed for their qualitative and semi-quantitative content using full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), accurate mass liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), UV-Vis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, X-ray crystallography enabled the identification of one of the compounds, where reference standard was not available. Of the 24 products tested, 23 contained steroids including known anabolic agents; 16 of these contained steroids that were different to those indicated on the packaging and one product contained no steroid at all. Overall, 13 different steroids were identified; 12 of these are controlled in the UK under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. Several of the products contained steroids that may be considered to have considerable pharmacological activity, based on their chemical structures and the amounts present. This could unwittingly expose users to a significant risk to their health, which is of particular concern for naïve users. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Prevalence of use of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders using three methods in a city of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaee, Mohammad Reza; Pakravan, Faezeh; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of substance use among bodybuilding athletes has been poorly studied in Iran. This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of drug use, especially anabolic steroids, among bodybuilding athletes. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the first half of 2013 among body building athletes referring to gyms located in Kerman, Iran. Five gyms were selected randomly and 380 athletes were invited to complete a self-administered anonymous questionnaire, consecutively. The questionnaire included two parts; baseline characteristics and substance related questions. The prevalence of anabolic steroids was estimated based on three methods; self-report, projective question, and crosswise model. We enrolled 298 male athletes in the final analysis. Mean ± SD age of subjects was 25.9 ± 8.4. The most frequent recent (past 30 days) drug use was waterpipe smoking (45%). The second most frequently used drug was alcohol (26.5%, recent use). Based on self-reports, the prevalence of lifetime anabolic steroid use was calculated to be 24.5%. The corresponding figure based on crosswise method was obtained to be 56.8%. Participants believed that a median of 40% of athletes had used anabolic steroids in their lifetime. The prevalence of anabolic steroid was higher in single and less educated individuals (P bodybuilding athletes. We could not rely on self-reports to examine anabolic steroid use.

  4. Prevalence of pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure among non-overweight children and adolescents using international blood pressure references in developed regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Changwei; Xu, Shuang; Wang, Hua; Wang, Wenming; Shen, Hui

    2017-09-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of pre-high blood pressure (PreHBP) and high blood pressure (HBP), based on recent international blood pressure references, in non-overweight children and adolescents. To describe the prevalence of PreHBP and HBP in non-overweight children and adolescents in developed regions of China. In total, 588 097 non-overweight children and adolescents aged 6-17 years from the National Surveys on Chinese Students' Constitution and Health in 2015 were included. The prevalence of PreHBP was 13.41% and subjects in urban areas had a higher prevalence of PreHBP (14.14%) than those in rural areas (12.92%). Subjects in regions with a high (13.56%) or moderate (13.61%) socioeconomic status showed a higher prevalence of PreHBP than those in regions with a relatively low socioeconomic status (12.76%). A similar pattern was found for the prevalence of HBP, and the prevalence of HBP was 18.25% for all participants, 20.55% for subjects in urban areas, 16.71% in rural areas, 18.76% in high socioeconomic areas, 18.62% in moderate socioeconomic areas and 16.70% in relatively low socioeconomic areas. A large proportion of non-overweight children and adolescents had elevated blood pressure and there were urban-rural and socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of elevated blood pressure.

  5. Development of a Geomagnetic Storm Correction to the International Reference Ionosphere E-Region Electron Densities Using TIMED/SABER Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, C. J.; Xu, X.; Fernandez, J. R.; Bilitza, D.; Russell, J. M., III; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Auroral infrared emission observed from the TIMED/SABER broadband 4.3 micron channel is used to develop an empirical geomagnetic storm correction to the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) E-region electron densities. The observation-based proxy used to develop the storm model is SABER-derived NO+(v) 4.3 micron volume emission rates (VER). A correction factor is defined as the ratio of storm-time NO+(v) 4.3 micron VER to a quiet-time climatological averaged NO+(v) 4.3 micron VER, which is linearly fit to available geomagnetic activity indices. The initial version of the E-region storm model, called STORM-E, is most applicable within the auroral oval region. The STORM-E predictions of E-region electron densities are compared to incoherent scatter radar electron density measurements during the Halloween 2003 storm events. Future STORM-E updates will extend the model outside the auroral oval.

  6. Comparison of electron density profiles observed in China's low latitude station with that produced by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Manlian; Shi Jiankui; Wang Xiao

    2003-01-01

    One month's data of ionograms observed by DPS-4 digisonde in China's low latitude station Hainan (19.4 deg N/109.0 deg E) for the high solar activity year 2002 is used to make a comparison study between the observational electron density profiles and that produced by the newly updated International Reference Ionosphere (IRI2001). The present study showed that for the month studied (April, 2002): (1) When B0-Tab value is used, profiles given by IRI2001 are in poor agreement with the observational results during daytime and nearby midnight hours when standard Ne(h) option is chosen, whereas when the LAY functions version is chosen, IRI2001 produces profiles with erroneous features during evening and nighttime hours, although it produces profiles in a reasonable good agreement with the observational ones during daytime hours. (2) In general, profiles produced by IRI2001 with B0-Gulyaeva choice is in better agreement with observational profiles than when B0-Tab is chosen. When the B0-Gulyaeva and LAY functions version of Ne(h) are both chosen, IRI2001 produced the best results when compared with the observational results. (3) The B0 parameter given by B0-Gulyaeva choice in IRI2001 is much closer to the observed (best fitted) one than that given by the B0-Tab choice is. (author)

  7. Reference sources for the calibration of surface contamination monitors - Beta-emitters (maximum beta energy greater than MeV) and alpha-emitters (International Standard Publication ISO 8769:1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    2001-01-01

    This International Standard specifies the characteristics of reference sources of radioactive surface contamination, traceable to national measurement standards, for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. This International Standard relates to alpha-emitters and to beta-emitters of maximum beta energy greater than 0,15 MeV. It does not describe the procedures involved in the use of these reference sources for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. Such procedures are specified in IEC Publication 325 and other documents. This International Standard specifies reference radiations for the calibration of surface contamination monitors which take the form of adequately characterized large area sources specified, without exception, in terms of activity and surface emission rate, the evaluation of these quantities being traceable to national standards

  8. Inter-laboratory exercise on steroid estrogens in aqueous samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, E., E-mail: ester.heath@ijs.s [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kosjek, T. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Andersen, H.R.; Holten Luetzhoft, H.-C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Adolfson Erici, M. [Stockholm University, ITM SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Coquery, M. [Cemagref, U.R. QELY, F-69336 Lyon (France); Duering, R.-A. [Giessen University, Institute of Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Giessen (Germany); Gans, O. [Umweltbundesamt GmbH, Unit Organic Analysis, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Guignard, C. [CRP Gabriel Lippmann, EVA, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Karlsson, P. [Lantmannen Analycen AB, Research and Development, Sjoehagsgatan 3 Box 905, 5319, Lidkoeping (Sweden); Manciot, F. [CAE VEOLIA ENVIRONMENT, 1 Place de Turenne, 94417 Saint Maurice Cedex (France); Moldovan, Z. [National Institute of Research and Development for Isotopic and Molecular Technology, Mass Spectrometry Department, Str. Donath 65-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Patureau, D. [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnemet (LBE), Avenue des etangs, F-11100 Narbonne (France); Cruceru, L. [Pollution Control Department, National Research Institute for Industrial Ecology (ECOIND), Sos.Panduri 90-92, sector 5, Bucharest (Romania); Sacher, F. [DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser, Karlsruher Strasse 84, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ledin, A. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2010-03-15

    An inter-laboratory comparison exercise was organized among European laboratories, under the aegis of EU COST Action 636: 'Xenobiotics in Urban Water Cycle'. The objective was to evaluate the performance of testing laboratories determining 'Endocrine Disrupting Compounds' (EDC) in various aqueous matrices. As the main task three steroid estrogens: 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 17beta-estradiol and estrone were determined in four spiked aqueous matrices: tap water, river water and wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS. Results were compared and discussed according to the analytical techniques applied, the accuracy and reproducibility of the analytical methods and the nature of the sample matrices. Overall, the results obtained in this inter-laboratory exercise reveal a high level of competence among the participating laboratories for the detection of steroid estrogens in water samples indicating that GC-MS as well as LC-MS/MS can equally be employed for the analysis of natural and synthetic hormones. - Herein are presented the results of the first international inter-laboratory study on determination of selected steroid hormones in environmental aqueous samples.

  9. Inter-laboratory exercise on steroid estrogens in aqueous samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, E.; Kosjek, T.; Andersen, H.R.; Holten Luetzhoft, H.-C.; Adolfson Erici, M.; Coquery, M.; Duering, R.-A.; Gans, O.; Guignard, C.; Karlsson, P.; Manciot, F.; Moldovan, Z.; Patureau, D.; Cruceru, L.; Sacher, F.; Ledin, A.

    2010-01-01

    An inter-laboratory comparison exercise was organized among European laboratories, under the aegis of EU COST Action 636: 'Xenobiotics in Urban Water Cycle'. The objective was to evaluate the performance of testing laboratories determining 'Endocrine Disrupting Compounds' (EDC) in various aqueous matrices. As the main task three steroid estrogens: 17α-ethinylestradiol, 17β-estradiol and estrone were determined in four spiked aqueous matrices: tap water, river water and wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS. Results were compared and discussed according to the analytical techniques applied, the accuracy and reproducibility of the analytical methods and the nature of the sample matrices. Overall, the results obtained in this inter-laboratory exercise reveal a high level of competence among the participating laboratories for the detection of steroid estrogens in water samples indicating that GC-MS as well as LC-MS/MS can equally be employed for the analysis of natural and synthetic hormones. - Herein are presented the results of the first international inter-laboratory study on determination of selected steroid hormones in environmental aqueous samples.

  10. Screening for anabolic steroids in urine of forensic cases using fully automated solid phase extraction and LC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, David W; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A screening method for 18 frequently measured exogenous anabolic steroids and the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in forensic cases has been developed and validated. The method involves a fully automated sample preparation including enzyme treatment, addition of internal standards and solid phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) using electrospray ionization with adduct formation for two compounds. Urine samples from 580 forensic cases were analyzed to determine the T/E ratio and occurrence of exogenous anabolic steroids. Extraction recoveries ranged from 77 to 95%, matrix effects from 48 to 78%, overall process efficiencies from 40 to 54% and the lower limit of identification ranged from 2 to 40 ng/mL. In the 580 urine samples analyzed from routine forensic cases, 17 (2.9%) were found positive for one or more anabolic steroids. Only seven different steroids including testosterone were found in the material, suggesting that only a small number of common steroids are likely to occur in a forensic context. The steroids were often in high concentrations (>100 ng/mL), and a combination of steroids and/or other drugs of abuse were seen in the majority of cases. The method presented serves as a fast and automated screening procedure, proving the suitability of LC-MS-MS for analyzing anabolic steroids. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Stable isotope labeling – Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of androgenic and progestagenic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Ning; Liu, Ping; Ding, Jun; Zheng, Shu-Jian; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones play important roles in mammal at very low concentrations and are associated with numerous endocrinology and oncology diseases. Therefore, quantitative analysis of steroid hormones can provide crucial information for uncovering underlying mechanisms of steroid hormones related diseases. In the current study, we developed a sensitive method for the detection of steroid hormones (progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, pregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone) in body fluids by stable isotope labeling coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. In this respect, a pair of isotopes labeling reagents, Girard reagent P (GP) and d_5-Girard reagent P (d_5-GP), were synthesized and utilized to label steroid hormones in follicular fluid samples and steroid hormone standards, respectively. The heavy labeled standards were used as internal standards for quantification to minimize quantitation deviation in MS analysis due to the matrix and ion suppression effects. The ionization efficiencies of steroid hormones were greatly improved by 4–504 folds through the introduction of a permanent charged moiety of quaternary ammonium from GP. Using the developed method, we successfully quantified steroid hormones in human follicular fluid. We found that the contents of testosterone and androstenedione exhibited significant increase while the content of pregnenolone had significant decrease in follicular fluid of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients compared with healthy controls, indicating that these steroid hormones with significant change may contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Taken together, the developed stable isotope labeling coupled LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis demonstrated to be a promising method for the sensitive and accurate determination of steroid hormones, which may facilitate the in-depth investigation of steroid hormones related

  12. Stable isotope labeling – Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of androgenic and progestagenic steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ning; Liu, Ping; Ding, Jun; Zheng, Shu-Jian; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi, E-mail: yqfeng@whu.edu.cn

    2016-01-28

    Steroid hormones play important roles in mammal at very low concentrations and are associated with numerous endocrinology and oncology diseases. Therefore, quantitative analysis of steroid hormones can provide crucial information for uncovering underlying mechanisms of steroid hormones related diseases. In the current study, we developed a sensitive method for the detection of steroid hormones (progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, pregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone) in body fluids by stable isotope labeling coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. In this respect, a pair of isotopes labeling reagents, Girard reagent P (GP) and d{sub 5}-Girard reagent P (d{sub 5}-GP), were synthesized and utilized to label steroid hormones in follicular fluid samples and steroid hormone standards, respectively. The heavy labeled standards were used as internal standards for quantification to minimize quantitation deviation in MS analysis due to the matrix and ion suppression effects. The ionization efficiencies of steroid hormones were greatly improved by 4–504 folds through the introduction of a permanent charged moiety of quaternary ammonium from GP. Using the developed method, we successfully quantified steroid hormones in human follicular fluid. We found that the contents of testosterone and androstenedione exhibited significant increase while the content of pregnenolone had significant decrease in follicular fluid of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients compared with healthy controls, indicating that these steroid hormones with significant change may contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Taken together, the developed stable isotope labeling coupled LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis demonstrated to be a promising method for the sensitive and accurate determination of steroid hormones, which may facilitate the in-depth investigation of steroid hormones

  13. STEROIDS MOST OFTEN USED BY SPORTSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vasić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abusage of steroids can cause serious health problems some of which are incurable, such as liver cancer. They cause a series of other effects: pimples, hairiness, boldness, gynecomastness, headaches, impotence, problems with heart and kidney functions. In addition to physical disorders, there are psychological problems too, such as aggression, depression and even addiction. Why do sportsmen abuse steroids? The main reason is to improve results in sports competitions. Others do that in order to increase muscular mass and decrease fat tissue. So you should decide for yourselves – steroids or health?

  14. Fundamental discrepancies in abortion estimates and abortion-related mortality: A reevaluation of recent studies in Mexico with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Elard Koch,1,2 Paula Aracena,1 Sebastián Gatica,1 Miguel Bravo,1 Alejandra Huerta-Zepeda,3 Byron C Calhoun41Institute of Molecular Epidemiology (MELISA, Center of Embryonic Medicine and Maternal Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile; 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; 3Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla UPAEP, Puebla, México; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West Virginia University, Charleston, WV, USAAbstract: In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD. We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold, where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35% was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6% from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births. Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than

  15. Subject-based steroid profiling and the determination of novel biomarkers for DHT and DHEA misuse in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Pieter; Van Eenoo, Peter; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Saugy, Martial; Delbeke, Frans

    2010-01-01

    Doping with natural steroids can be detected by evaluating the urinary concentrations and ratios of several endogenous steroids. Since these biomarkers of steroid doping are known to present large inter-individual variations, monitoring of individual steroid profiles over time allows switching from population-based towards subject-based reference ranges for improved detection. In an Athlete Biological Passport (ABP), biomarkers data are collated throughout the athlete's sporting career and individual thresholds defined adaptively. For now, this approach has been validated on a limited number of markers of steroid doping, such as the testosterone (T) over epitestosterone (E) ratio to detect T misuse in athletes. Additional markers are required for other endogenous steroids like dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). By combining comprehensive steroid profiles composed of 24 steroid concentrations with Bayesian inference techniques for longitudinal profiling, a selection was made for the detection of DHT and DHEA misuse. The biomarkers found were rated according to relative response, parameter stability, discriminative power, and maximal detection time. This analysis revealed DHT/E, DHT/5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol and 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol/5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol as best biomarkers for DHT administration and DHEA/E, 16α-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone/E, 7β-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone/E and 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol/5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol for DHEA. The selected biomarkers were found suitable for individual referencing. A drastic overall increase in sensitivity was obtained. The use of multiple markers as formalized in an Athlete Steroidal Passport (ASP) can provide firm evidence of doping with endogenous steroids. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Steroid receptor expression in the fish inner earvaries with sex, social status, and reproductive state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernald Russell D

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadal and stress-related steroid hormones are known to influence auditory function across vertebrates but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for steroid-mediated auditory plasticity at the level of the inner ear remain unknown. The presence of steroid receptors in the ear suggests a direct pathway for hormones to act on the peripheral auditory system, but little is known about which receptors are expressed in the ear or whether their expression levels change with internal physiological state or external social cues. We used qRT-PCR to measure mRNA expression levels of multiple steroid receptor subtypes (estrogen receptors: ERα, ERβa, ERβb; androgen receptors: ARα, ARβ; corticosteroid receptors: GR2, GR1a/b, MR and aromatase in the main hearing organ of the inner ear (saccule in the highly social African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, and tested whether these receptor levels were correlated with circulating steroid concentrations. Results We show that multiple steroid receptor subtypes are expressed within the main hearing organ of a single vertebrate species, and that expression levels differ between the sexes. We also show that steroid receptor subtype-specific changes in mRNA expression are associated with reproductive phase in females and social status in males. Sex-steroid receptor mRNA levels were negatively correlated with circulating estradiol and androgens in both males and females, suggesting possible ligand down-regulation of receptors in the inner ear. In contrast, saccular changes in corticosteroid receptor mRNA levels were not related to serum cortisol levels. Circulating steroid levels and receptor subtype mRNA levels were not as tightly correlated in males as compared to females, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms between sexes. Conclusions This is the most comprehensive study of sex-, social-, and reproductive-related steroid receptor mRNA expression in the peripheral

  17. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the Administrator...

  18. IAEA biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Schelenz, R.; Ballestra, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services programme of the IAEA encompasses a wide variety of intercomparisons and reference materials. This paper reviews only those aspects of the subject having to do with biological reference materials. The 1988 programme foresees 13 new intercomparison exercises, one for major, minor and trace elements, five for radionuclides, and seven for stable isotopes. Twenty-two natural matrix biological reference materials are available: twelve for major, minor and trace elements, six for radionuclides, and four for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Seven new intercomparisons and reference materials are in preparation or under active consideration. Guidelines on the correct use of reference materials are being prepared for publication in 1989 in consultation with other major international producers and users of biological reference materials. The IAEA database on available reference materials is being updated and expanded in scope, and a new publication is planned for 1989. (orig.)

  19. Fundamental discrepancies in abortion estimates and abortion-related mortality: A reevaluation of recent studies in Mexico with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Elard; Aracena, Paula; Gatica, Sebastián; Bravo, Miguel; Huerta-Zepeda, Alejandra; Calhoun, Byron C

    2012-01-01

    In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold), where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35%) was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6%) from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births). Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than induced abortion, such as hemorrhage, hypertension and eclampsia, indirect causes, and other pathological conditions. Therefore, only marginal or null effects would be expected from changes in the legal status of abortion on overall maternal mortality rates. Rather, maternal health in Mexico would greatly benefit from increasing access to emergency and specialized obstetric care. Finally, more reliable methodologies to assess abortion-related deaths are clearly required. PMID:23271925

  20. Standardization of clinical enzyme analysis using frozen human serum pools with values assigned by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qing; Chen, Baorong; Zhang, Rui; Zuo, Chang

    Variation in clinical enzyme analysis, particularly across different measuring systems and laboratories, represents a critical but long-lasting problem in diagnosis. Calibrators with traceability and commutability are imminently needed to harmonize analysis in laboratory medicine. Fresh frozen human serum pools were assigned values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) by six laboratories with established International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures. These serum pools were then used across 76 laboratories as a calibrator in the analysis of five enzymes. Bias and imprecision in the measurement of the five enzymes tested were significantly reduced by using the value-assigned serum in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration. The median (interquartile range) of the relative biases of ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH were 2.0% (0.6-3.4%), 0.8% (-0.8-2.3%), 1.0% (-0.5-2.0%), 0.2% (-0.3-1.0%) and 0.2% (-0.9-1.1%), respectively. Before calibration, the interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CVs) in the analysis of patient serum samples were 8.0-8.2%, 7.3-8.5%, 8.1-8.7%, 5.1-5.9% and 5.8-6.4% for ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH, respectively; after calibration, the CVs decreased to 2.7-3.3%, 3.0-3.6%, 1.6-2.1%, 1.8-1.9% and 3.3-3.5%, respectively. The results suggest that the use of fresh frozen serum pools significantly improved the comparability of test results in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration.

  1. Pain assessment according to the International Spinal Cord Injury Pain classification in patients with spinal cord injury referred to a multidisciplinary pain center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnig, S; Landmann, G; Stockinger, L; Opsommer, E

    2016-10-01

    This is a retrospective study. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of pain types in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) according to the International Spinal Cord Injury Pain (ISCIP) classification. This study was conducted in a multidisciplinary pain center. Socio-demographic and clinical data were examined and ISCIP classification was applied. Sixty-six individuals (51±13 years) with SCI had pain, a lesion older than 5 years in 67% and a pain history older than 5 years in 54% of patients. According to the ISCIP classification, nociceptive pain was present in 58% (musculoskeletal pain) and 3% (visceral pain) of the patients. At-level, below-level neuropathic pain and other neuropathic pain were observed, respectively in 53, 42 and 5% of patients. Unknown pain type was found in 8% of patients. Patients with complete lesions showed significantly more frequent neuropathic pain (P=0.021) and more frequent at-level SCI pain (P=0.00) compared with those with incomplete lesions. Patients with paraplegia had more often at-level pain (P=0.00), whereas patients with tetraplegia reported more often below-level pain (P=0.00). Patients had severe pain (mean intensity: 8.2 (±1.6) on a 0 to 10 numerical scale) and showed high grades of pain chronicity. Mild to severe depression and anxiety were present, respectively in 53 and 56% of patients. The health-related quality of life was low. The use of the ISCIP classification in a clinical setting is mirroring the very complex pain situation in patients with SCI referred to a multidisciplinary pain center, and it might be an important step for adequate pain therapy.

  2. Effects of achievement differences for internal/external frame of reference model investigations: A test of robustness of findings over diverse student samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Isabelle; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis

    2017-11-12

    Achievement in math and achievement in verbal school subjects are more strongly correlated than the respective academic self-concepts. The internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986, Am. Educ. Res. J., 23, 129) explains this finding by social and dimensional comparison processes. We investigated a key assumption of the model that dimensional comparisons mainly depend on the difference in achievement between subjects. We compared correlations between subject-specific self-concepts of groups of elementary and secondary school students with or without achievement differences in the respective subjects. The main goals were (1) to show that effects of dimensional comparisons depend to a large degree on the existence of achievement differences between subjects, (2) to demonstrate the generalizability of findings over different grade levels and self-concept scales, and (3) to test a rarely used correlation comparison approach (CCA) for the investigation of I/E model assumptions. We analysed eight German elementary and secondary school student samples (grades 3-8) from three independent studies (Ns 326-878). Correlations between math and German self-concepts of students with identical grades in the respective subjects were compared with the correlation of self-concepts of students having different grades using Fisher's Z test for independent samples. In all samples, correlations between math self-concept and German self-concept were higher for students having identical grades than for students having different grades. Differences in median correlations had small effect sizes for elementary school students and moderate effect sizes for secondary school students. Findings generalized over grades and indicated a developmental aspect in self-concept formation. The CCA complements investigations within I/E-research. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Development of internal dosimetry protocols using the code MCNPx and voxelized phantoms of Reference of ICRP 110; Desenvolvimento de protocolos de dosimetria interna empregando o codigo MCNPx e fantomas voxelizados de referencia da ICRP 110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, B.M.; Fonseca, T.C.F., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.br [Centro de esenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Trindade, B.M.; Campos, T.P.R. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this work was to perform internal dosimetry calculations for {sup 18}F-FDG employing the MCNPx code and ICRP 110 voxelized reference phantoms (RCP{sub A}F and RCP{sub A}M). The methodologies developed and validated here represent protocols of internal dosimetry holding a better anthropomorphic and anthropometric representation of the human model in which heterogeneous distributions of the emissions can be adopted, useful in the study of new radiopharmaceuticals and internal contamination cases. The reference phantoms were implemented to run on MCNPx. Biodistribution data of {sup 18}F-FDG radiopharmaceutical provided in ICRP 128 were used in the simulations. The organs average absorbed doses and the effective doses were calculated for each model. The values obtained were compared with two reference works available in the literature for validation purposes. The means of the difference of our values and Zankl et al., 2012 reference values were -0.3% for RCP{sub A}M and -0.4% for RCP{sub A}F. Considering Hadid et al., 2013 reference values, the means of the deviation were -2.9% and -2.2% for RCP{sub A}M and RCP{sub A}F respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed (p <0.01) between the reference values and the values calculated by the internal dosimetry protocols developed by our group. Considering the {sup 18}F-FDG validation study performed in this work, the internal dosimetry protocols developed by our group have produced suitable dosimetry data. (author)

  4. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  5. Steroids for Treating Cancer (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... Radiation Therapy Caring for a Seriously Ill Child Definition: Corticosteroids Steroids and Cancer Treatment View more About ...

  6. Cyclosporin in steroid- resistant nephrotic syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-11-11

    Nov 11, 1994 ... steroid-unresponsive and alternative therapies therefore need to be assessed. ..... glomerular sclerosis. No vascular or tubular epithelial lesions ... acute tubular necrosis, and probable cyclosporin toxicity. No renal biopsy ...

  7. Steroid dysregulation and stomatodynia (burning mouth syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Alain; Dao, Thuan; Gremeau-Richard, Christelle

    2009-01-01

    Stomatodynia ( burning mouth syndrome) is characterized by a spontaneous, continuous burning pain felt in the oral mucosa typically of anxiodepressive menopausal women. Because there is no obvious organic cause, it is considered a nonspecific pain. This Focus Article proposes a hypothesis based on the following pathophysiological cascade: chronic anxiety or post traumatic stress leads to a dysregulation of the adrenal production of steroids. One consequence is a decreased or modified production of some major precursors for the neuroactive steroid synthesis occurring in the skin, mucosa, and nervous system. At menopause, the drastic fall of the other main precursor supply , the gonadal steroids, leads to a brisk alteration of the production of neuroactive steroids. This results in neurodegenerative alterations of small nerves fibers of the oral mucosa and /or some brain areas involved in oral somatic sensations. These neuropathic changes become irreversible and precipitate the burning pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia associated with stomatodynia, which all involve thin nerve fibers.

  8. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhin, A G; Papadopoulos, V; Costa, E; Krueger, K E

    1989-01-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine bin...

  9. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Robert M; Rajanahally, Saneal; Kovac, Jason R; Smith, Ryan P; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-12-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids has not been traditionally discussed in mainstream medicine. With the increased diagnosis of hypogonadism a heterogeneous population of men is now being evaluated. In this larger patient population the existence of anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism, whether transient or permanent, should now be considered. We performed an initial retrospective database analysis of all 6,033 patients who sought treatment for hypogonadism from 2005 to 2010. An anonymous survey was subsequently distributed in 2012 to established patients undergoing testosterone replacement therapy. Profound hypogonadism, defined as testosterone 50 ng/dl or less, was identified in 97 men (1.6%) in the large retrospective cohort initially reviewed. The most common etiology was prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure, which was identified in 42 men (43%). Because of this surprising data, we performed an anonymous followup survey of our current hypogonadal population of 382 men with a mean±SD age of 49.2±13.0 years. This identified 80 patients (20.9%) with a mean age of 40.4±8.4 years who had prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure. Hypogonadal men younger than 50 years were greater than 10 times more likely to have prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure than men older than 50 years (OR 10.16, 95% CI 4.90-21.08). Prior anabolic androgenic steroid use significantly correlated negatively with education level (ρ=-0.160, p=0.002) and number of children (ρ=-0.281, panabolic androgenic steroid use is common in young men who seek treatment for symptomatic hypogonadism and anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism is the most common etiology of profound hypogonadism. These findings suggest that it is necessary to refocus the approach to evaluation and treatment paradigms in young hypogonadal men. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ent-Steroids: Novel Tools for Studies of Signaling Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Covey, Douglas F.

    2008-01-01

    Membrane receptors are often modulated by steroids and it is necessary to distinguish the effects of steroids at these receptors from effects occurring at nuclear receptors. Additionally, it may also be mechanistically important to distinguish between direct effects caused by binding of steroids to membrane receptors and indirect effects on membrane receptor function caused by steroid perturbation of the membrane containing the receptor. In this regard, ent-steroids, the mirror images of natu...

  12. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4'-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit 3 H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations

  13. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. (Georgetown Univ. School of Medicine, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

  14. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  15. Spectrum of steroid-resistant and congenital nephrotic syndrome in children: the PodoNet registry cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Agnes; Bodria, Monica; Ozaltin, Fatih; Gheisari, Alaleh; Melk, Anette; Azocar, Marta; Anarat, Ali; Caliskan, Salim; Emma, Francesco; Gellermann, Jutta; Oh, Jun; Baskin, Esra; Ksiazek, Joanna; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Erdogan, Ozlem; Akman, Sema; Dusek, Jiri; Davitaia, Tinatin; Özkaya, Ozan; Papachristou, Fotios; Firszt-Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Urasinski, Tomasz; Testa, Sara; Krmar, Rafael T; Hyla-Klekot, Lidia; Pasini, Andrea; Özcakar, Z Birsin; Sallay, Peter; Cakar, Nilgun; Galanti, Monica; Terzic, Joelle; Aoun, Bilal; Caldas Afonso, Alberto; Szymanik-Grzelak, Hanna; Lipska, Beata S; Schnaidt, Sven; Schaefer, Franz

    2015-04-07

    Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome is a rare kidney disease involving either immune-mediated or genetic alterations of podocyte structure and function. The rare nature, heterogeneity, and slow evolution of the disorder are major obstacles to systematic genotype-phenotype, intervention, and outcome studies, hampering the development of evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic concepts. To overcome these limitations, the PodoNet Consortium has created an international registry for congenital nephrotic syndrome and childhood-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Since August of 2009, clinical, biochemical, genetic, and histopathologic information was collected both retrospectively and prospectively from 1655 patients with childhood-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, congenital nephrotic syndrome, or persistent subnephrotic proteinuria of likely genetic origin at 67 centers in 21 countries through an online portal. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome manifested in the first 5 years of life in 64% of the patients. Congenital nephrotic syndrome accounted for 6% of all patients. Extrarenal abnormalities were reported in 17% of patients. The most common histopathologic diagnoses were FSGS (56%), minimal change nephropathy (21%), and mesangioproliferative GN (12%). Mutation screening was performed in 1174 patients, and a genetic disease cause was identified in 23.6% of the screened patients. Among 14 genes with reported mutations, abnormalities in NPHS2 (n=138), WT1 (n=48), and NPHS1 (n=41) were most commonly identified. The proportion of patients with a genetic disease cause decreased with increasing manifestation age: from 66% in congenital nephrotic syndrome to 15%-16% in schoolchildren and adolescents. Among various intensified immunosuppressive therapy protocols, calcineurin inhibitors and rituximab yielded consistently high response rates, with 40%-45% of patients achieving complete remission. Confirmation of a genetic diagnosis but not the

  16. Pattern of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in children and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) remains a challenge for paediatric nephrologists. e underlying histopathology usually affects the course of the disease and the response to treatment.[1] ere is still controversy over the role of renal biopsy in the management of children with. SRNS.[2] Studies by the International ...

  17. [Effective immunosuppresive therapies including steroid pulse treatment for intramuscular hematoma in iliopsoas in acquired hemophilia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohri, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Juichi; Takagi, Hiroshi; Murata, Takashi

    2007-12-01

    Acquired hemophilia is a life-threatening bleeding disorder by the development of autoantibody against factor VIII. The therapeutic approach relies on steroid, cyclophosphamide and/or cyclosporine. A 64-year-old man was referred to our hospital with extensive hematoma in both psoas muscles, severe anemia of 6.8 g/dl, prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time over 200 seconds, and factor VIII coagulation activity (FVIII: C) of 1.9%. A factor VIII inhibitor was detected at 118 Bethesda units (BU). The diagnosis of acquired hemophilia was made in the absence of a detectable cause. The inhibitor was IgG with a subclass of IgG4 and reacted with 72 kDa fragment of factor VIII light chain. Steroid pulse therapy following steroid treatment resulted in the resolution of acquired hemophila with marked and prolonged efficacy.

  18. The Effects of Inhaled Steroids on Recurrent Wheeze After Acute Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Green MD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute bronchiolitis infection during infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma later in life. The objective of this study was to determine if inhaled steroids are effective in preventing the development of recurrent wheeze or asthma following acute bronchiolitis. Methods. Multiple databases and bibliographies of selected references were searched. Inclusion required (a a randomized controlled trial of inhaled steroids and control group, (b at least 2 weeks duration of therapy started during the acute phase of disease, and (c identification of the rate of recurrent wheeze or asthma at least 6 months after therapy. Results. Of 1410 studies reviewed, 8 reports were included in this meta-analysis (748 patients. The overall odds ratio for developing recurrent wheeze or asthma with treatment versus without treatment was 1.02 (95% confidence interval = 0.58-1.81. Conclusions. A course of inhaled steroids after acute bronchiolitis is not effective in preventing recurrent wheeze or asthma.

  19. Anabolic steroid-induced cardiomyopathy underlying acute liver failure in a young bodybuilder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Miguel; Valente, Ana; Maldonado, Rosário; Palma, Rui; Glória, Helena; Nóbrega, João; Alexandrino, Paula

    2009-06-21

    Heart failure may lead to subclinical circulatory disturbances and remain an unrecognized cause of ischemic liver injury. We present the case of a previously healthy 40-year-old bodybuilder, referred to our Intensive-Care Unit of Hepatology for treatment of severe acute liver failure, with the suspicion of toxic hepatitis associated with anabolic steroid abuse. Despite the absence of symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure at admission, an anabolic steroid-induced dilated cardiomyopathy with a large thrombus in both ventricles was found to be the underlying cause of the liver injury. Treatment for the initially unrecognized heart failure rapidly restored liver function to normal. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of severe acute liver failure due to an unrecognized anabolic steroid-induced cardiomyopathy. Awareness of this unique presentation will allow for prompt treatment of this potentially fatal cause of liver failure.

  20. Optimized slice-selective 1H NMR experiments combined with highly accurate quantitative 13C NMR using an internal reference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jézéquel, Tangi; Silvestre, Virginie; Dinis, Katy; Giraudeau, Patrick; Akoka, Serge

    2018-04-01

    Isotope ratio monitoring by 13C NMR spectrometry (irm-13C NMR) provides the complete 13C intramolecular position-specific composition at natural abundance. It represents a powerful tool to track the (bio)chemical pathway which has led to the synthesis of targeted molecules, since it allows Position-specific Isotope Analysis (PSIA). Due to the very small composition range (which represents the range of variation of the isotopic composition of a given nuclei) of 13C natural abundance values (50‰), irm-13C NMR requires a 1‰ accuracy and thus highly quantitative analysis by 13C NMR. Until now, the conventional strategy to determine the position-specific abundance xi relies on the combination of irm-MS (isotopic ratio monitoring Mass Spectrometry) and 13C quantitative NMR. However this approach presents a serious drawback since it relies on two different techniques and requires to measure separately the signal of all the carbons of the analyzed compound, which is not always possible. To circumvent this constraint, we recently proposed a new methodology to perform 13C isotopic analysis using an internal reference method and relying on NMR only. The method combines a highly quantitative 1H NMR pulse sequence (named DWET) with a 13C isotopic NMR measurement. However, the recently published DWET sequence is unsuited for samples with short T1, which forms a serious limitation for irm-13C NMR experiments where a relaxing agent is added. In this context, we suggest two variants of the DWET called Multi-WET and Profiled-WET, developed and optimized to reach the same accuracy of 1‰ with a better immunity towards T1 variations. Their performance is evaluated on the determination of the 13C isotopic profile of vanillin. Both pulse sequences show a 1‰ accuracy with an increased robustness to pulse miscalibrations compared to the initial DWET method. This constitutes a major advance in the context of irm-13C NMR since it is now possible to perform isotopic analysis with high

  1. Idiopathic Supraglottic Stenosis Refractory to Multiple Interventions Improved With Serial Office-based Steroid Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew R; Mai, Johnny P; Dailey, Seth H

    2017-10-30

    The objective of this study was to describe a patient with idiopathic supraglottic stenosis who experienced persistent disease despite multiple office-based and operative interventions, whose disease is now better controlled with scheduled serial office-based steroid injections. This is a case report and literature review. A 42-year-old female was referred for worsening supraglottic stenosis despite systemic steroids. She underwent awake tracheotomy. A thorough historical, histologic, and laboratory workup did not reveal an etiology to her stenosis. She later underwent endoscopic partial laryngectomy and was able to be decannulated. She underwent a second endoscopic partial laryngectomy two years later for worsening disease and then was managed over the next seven years with intermittent systemic steroids. Over the last year, she has undergone eight office-based steroid injections with improvement in her degree of stenosis and symptom burden. There are only four prior reported cases of idiopathic supraglottic stenosis, none of which has been managed with serial office-based steroid injections. This case report adds to the small body of literature on the management of this rare disease and proposes a new office-based treatment pathway that may help induce regression of stenosis. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimised deconjugation of androgenic steroid conjugates in bovine urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2017-01-01

    and glucuronidase resulting in free steroids in the extract. It is well known that some sulphates are not deconjugated using aryl sulphatase; instead, for example, solvolysis can be used for deconjugation of these aliphatic sulphates. The effectiveness of solvolysis on androgenic steroid sulphates was tested......After administration of steroids to animals the steroids are partially metabolised in the liver and kidney to phase 2 metabolites, i.e., glucuronic acid or sulphate conjugates. During analysis these conjugated metabolites are normally deconjugated enzymatically with aryl sulphatase...... with selected aliphatic steroid sulphates (boldenone sulphate, nortestosteron sulphate and testosterone sulphate), and the method was validated for analysis of androgenic steroids in bovine urine using free steroids, steroid sulphates and steroid glucuronides as standards. Glucuronidase and sulphuric acid...

  3. Direct analysis of anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption-dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Nonami, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-08-11

    Rapid detection of trace level anabolic steroids in urine is highly desirable to monitor the consumption of performance enhancing anabolic steroids by athletes. The present article describes a novel strategy for identifying the trace anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption (LPTD) coupled to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ionization mass spectrometry. Using this method the steroid molecules are enriched within a liquid droplet during the thermal desorption process and desorbed all-together at the last moment of droplet evaporation in a short time domain. The desorbed molecules were ionized using a dielectric barrier discharge ion-source in front of the mass spectrometer inlet at open atmosphere. This process facilitates the sensitivity enhancement with several orders of magnitude compared to the thermal desorption at a lower temperature. The limits of detection (LODs) of various steroid molecules were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1 ng mL(-1) for standard solutions and around two orders of magnitude higher for synthetic urine samples. The detection limits of urinary anabolic steroids could be lowered by using a simple and rapid dichloromethane extraction technique. The analytical figures of merit of this technique were evaluated at open atmosphere using suitable internal standards. The technique is simple and rapid for high sensitivity and high throughput screening of anabolic steroids in urine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Catching the cheats: advances in the detection of endogenous steroid abuse in sport. Chemistry, pharmacology and biology have a pivotal role in doping control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazlawskas, R.; Trout, G.J.; George, A.V.; Cawley, A.T.; Silk, A.J.; Marshall-Gradisnik, S.; Weatherby, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    . Merely elevated levels of A and Et are insufficient proof of a doping offence, but gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) confirms the presence of synthetic copies of endogenous steroids. This technology uses differences in stable carbon isotope ratios (δ 13 C) that reflect the source of origin of the carbon in a compound. In the case of steroids, synthetic copies of endogenous steroids are derived from plant sources, such as soy, that have a low 13 C content. This isotopic signature is carried forward to urinary steroid metabolites that are 13 C depleted in relation to their endogenous analogues that are derived from dietary sources. The differences between the body and the bottle are very small, but measurable using a δ 13 C scale that is now referenced to the international standard, Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB). This enables 13 C/ 12 C measurements to be interpreted in a meaningful manner, where one per mille (% 0 ) represents a one-thousandth difference in 13 C content relative to VPDB; 1% 0 = 0.001099 atom %. While the differences that GC-C-IRMS instruments measure are small, the precision of the IRMS technique is very high, with an estimated uncertainty of 0.2% 0 . Biological internal standards: the δ 13 C value on an endogenous reference compound (ERC) was also measured to minimise inter-individual variations (diet, ethnicity, age, gender). The ERC used was produced by metabolic pathways distinct from the androgen biosynthetic pathway. The averaged difference of δ 13 C A and δ 13 C Et to δ 13 C ERC was observed to increase from 1.1% 0 to 14.5% 0 . To demonstrate that the 13 C depleted values of A and Et observed following endogenous steroid administration are not within natural variations across different populations a comprehensive δ 13 C profiling study was undertaken using 1120 urine samples collected from erythropoietin validation for the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Comparison of these δ 13 C values to those

  5. Reference Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  6. Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd

    2001-07-31

    An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the damage that anabolic steroids can cause from both a physical and a psychological standpoint. Most individuals who use AASs do so to increase their muscle mass because they wish to gain some type of competitive edge during athletic competition or they wish to enhance their physical features for self-satisfaction and self-esteem (i.e., body building). Security officers are one group of men who often take high doses of anabolic steroids, according to the Second Report of the Senate Standing Committee (1990). The negative psychological characteristics for AAS use is extensive and includes prominent hostility, aggressiveness, irritability, euphoria, grandiose beliefs, hyperactivity, reckless behavior, increased sexual appetite, unpredictability, poor impulse control, mood fluctuations, and insomnia. The drug may invoke a sense of power and invincibility (Leckman and Scahill, 1990). Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, fatigue, impaired concentration, decreased libido, and even suicidality (Pope and Katz, 1992) have been noted with steroid withdrawal. It appears that long-term users of AAS experience similar characteristics as other substance abusers (i.e., craving, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms).

  7. Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukaya M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mototsugu Fukaya,1 Kenji Sato,2 Mitsuko Sato,3 Hajime Kimata,4 Shigeki Fujisawa,5 Haruhiko Dozono,6 Jun Yoshizawa,7 Satoko Minaguchi8 1Tsurumai Kouen Clinic, Nagoya, 2Department of Dermatology, Hannan Chuo Hospital, Osaka, 3Sato Pediatric Clinic, Osaka, 4Kimata Hajime Clinic, Osaka, 5Fujisawa Dermatology Clinic, Tokyo, 6Dozono Medical House, Kagoshima, 7Yoshizawa Dermatology Clinic, Yokohama, 8Department of Dermatology, Kounosu Kyousei Hospital, Saitama, Japan Abstract: The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. Keywords: topical steroid addiction, atopic dermatitis, red burning skin syndrome, rebound, corticosteroid, eczema

  8. Acute toxicity and gastroprotection studies with a newly synthesized steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketuly, Kamal A; Hadi, A Hamid A; Golbabapour, Shahram; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood A

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic steroids, such as 9α-bromobeclomethasonedipropionate, have shown gastroprotective activity. For example, the potent glucocorticoid steroid, beclomethasone dipropionate, has been used for treatment of bowel ulcerations. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a synthetic steroid, (20S)-22-acetoxymethyl-6β-methoxy-3α,5-dihydro-3'H-cyclopropa[3α,5]-5α-pregnane (AMDCP), on ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injuries in rats. Rats were divided into 8 groups. The negative control and ethanol control groups were administered Tween 20 (10%v/v) orally. The reference control group, 20 mg/kg omeprazole (10% Tween 20, 5 mL/kg), was administrated orally. The experimental groups received 1, 5, 10, 15 or 20 mg/kg of the AMDCP compound (10% Tween 20, 5 mL/kg). After 60 min, Tween 20 and absolute ethanol was given orally (5 mL/kg) to the negative control group and to the rest of the groups, and the rats were sacrificed an hour later. The acidity of gastric content, gastric wall mucus and areas of mucosal lesions were assessed. In addition, histology and immunohistochemistry of the gastric wall were assessed. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were also measured. The ethanol control group exhibited severe mucosal lesion compared with the experimental groups with fewer mucosal lesions along with a reduction of edema and leukocyte infiltration. Immunohistochemical staining of Hsp70 and Bax proteins showed over-expression and under-expression, respectively, in the experimental groups. The experimental groups also exhibited high levels of PGE2 as well as a reduced amount of MDA. AMDCP decreased the acidity and lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes. The current investigation evaluated the gastroprotective effects of AMDCP on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. This study also suggests that AMDCP might be useful as a gastroprotective agent.

  9. Whole-Transcriptome Selection and Evaluation of Internal Reference Genes for Expression Analysis in Protocorm Development of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqiang An

    Full Text Available Dendrobium officinale Kimu et Migo has increased many researchers' interest for its high medical and horticultural values and the molecular mechanism of its protocorm development remains unclear. In this study, 19 genes from 26 most stably expressed genes in whole transcriptome of protocorms and 5 housekeeping genes were used as candidate reference genes and screened with 4 application softwares (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder. The results showed that a few reference genes could effectively normalize expression level of specific genes in protocorm development and the optimal top 2 reference genes were ASS and APH1L. Meanwhile, validation of GNOM, AP2 and temperature induced gene (TIL for normalization demonstrates the usefulness of the validated candidate reference genes. The expression profiles of these genes varied under protocorms and temperature stress according to the stablest and unstablest reference genes, which proved the importance of the choice of appropriate reference genes. The first systematic evaluation of stably expressed genes will be very useful in the future analysis of specific genes expression in D. officinale.

  10. MAGIC biomarkers predict long term outcomes for steroid-resistant acute GVHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major-Monfried, Hannah; Renteria, Anne S; Pawarode, Attaphol; Reddy, Pavan; Ayuk, Francis; Holler, Ernst; Efebera, Yvonne A; Hogan, William J; Wölfl, Matthias; Qayed, Muna; Hexner, Elizabeth O; Wudhikarn, Kitsada; Ordemann, Rainer; Young, Rachel; Shah, Jay; Hartwell, Matthew J; Chaudhry, Mohammed; Aziz, Mina; Etra, Aaron; Yanik, Gregory A; Kröger, Nicolaus; Weber, Daniela; Chen, Yi-Bin; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Rösler, Wolf; Kitko, Carrie L; Harris, Andrew C; Pulsipher, Michael; Reshef, Ran; Kowalyk, Steven; Morales, George; Torres, Ivan; Özbek, Umut; Ferrara, James L M; Levine, John E

    2018-03-15

    Acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) is treated with systemic corticosteroid immunosuppression. Clinical response after one week of therapy often guides further treatment decisions, but long term outcomes vary widely between centers and more accurate predictive tests are urgently needed. We analyzed clinical data and blood samples taken after one week of systemic treatment for GVHD from 507 patients from 17 centers of the Mount Sinai Acute GVHD International Consortium (MAGIC), dividing them into test (n=236) and two validation cohorts separated in time (n = 142 and 129, respectively). Initial response to systemic steroids correlated with response at four weeks, one-year non-relapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival (OS). A previously validated algorithm of two MAGIC biomarkers (ST2 and REG3α) consistently separated steroid resistant patients into two groups with dramatically different NRM and OS (p<0.001 for all three cohorts). High biomarker probability, resistance to steroids and GVHD severity (Minnesota risk) were all significant predictors of NRM in multivariate analysis. A direct comparison of receiver operating curves showed the area under the curve for biomarker probability (0.82) was significantly greater than that for steroid response (0.68, p=0.004) and for Minnesota risk (0.72, p=0.005). In conclusion, MAGIC biomarker probabilities generated after one week of systemic treatment for GVHD predict long term outcomes in steroid resistant GVHD better than clinical criteria and should prove useful in developing better treatment strategies. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hematology.

  11. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  12. Detection of anabolic androgenic steroid use by elite athletes and by members of the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawalt, Bradley D

    2018-03-15

    Because national and international sports competitions are sources of community pride and financial revenue, there have been great efforts to prevent and detect the use of performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic androgenic steroids by elite athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency and its national affiliate anti-doping agencies have created sophisticated monitoring systems and advanced testing techniques to detect the use of banned substances including anabolic androgenic steroids by participants in international and national athletic competitions. The creation of a longitudinal monitoring program known as the biological passport is a recent, important development in the efforts to prevent and detect the use of banned performance-enhancing drugs and methods. The biological passport program consists of the measurement of urinary and blood markers of anabolic androgenic steroid use (and other banned drugs or methods) at baseline and at random times. A panel of experts reviews the longitudinal data and interprets the likelihood of the use of banned drugs and methods. These advances in anti-doping appear to be highly effective, but some athletes persist in their efforts to cheat the detection process. In addition, some members of the general public use anabolic androgenic steroids for a variety of reasons including to improve physical appearance or to enhance performance in athletics. Clinicians must depend on clinical acumen and the measurement of serum testosterone and gonadotropins to guide them in making a tentative diagnosis of anabolic androgenic steroid use. Definitive diagnosis requires that the patient disclose the use of the drugs. Because anabolic androgenic steroids are effective for improving certain aspects of physical performance, some elite athletes (and members of the general public) will continue to use these drugs. Effective efforts to curtail the use of these drugs will require decreasing the ease of access to them, continued advancements in

  13. Uptake and metabolism of sulphated steroids by the blood-brain barrier in the adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, M Zeeshan; Dolman, Diana E M; Begley, David J; Abbott, N Joan; Cazacu-Davidescu, Mihaela; Corol, Delia I; Fry, Jonathan P

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the origin of the neuroactive steroids dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and pregnenolone sulphate (PregS) in the brain or of their subsequent metabolism. Using rat brain perfusion in situ, we have found 3 H-PregS to enter more rapidly than 3 H-DHEAS and both to undergo extensive (> 50%) desulphation within 0.5 min of uptake. Enzyme activity for the steroid sulphatase catalysing this deconjugation was enriched in the capillary fraction of the blood-brain barrier and its mRNA expressed in cultures of rat brain endothelial cells and astrocytes. Although permeability measurements suggested a net efflux, addition of the efflux inhibitors GF120918 and/or MK571 to the perfusate reduced rather than enhanced the uptake of 3 H-DHEAS and 3 H-PregS; a further reduction was seen upon the addition of unlabelled steroid sulphate, suggesting a saturable uptake transporter. Analysis of brain fractions after 0.5 min perfusion with the 3 H-steroid sulphates showed no further metabolism of PregS beyond the liberation of free steroid pregnenolone. By contrast, DHEAS underwent 17-hydroxylation to form androstenediol in both the steroid sulphate and the free steroid fractions, with some additional formation of androstenedione in the latter. Our results indicate a gain of free steroid from circulating steroid sulphates as hormone precursors at the blood-brain barrier, with implications for ageing, neurogenesis, neuronal survival, learning and memory. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  15. Understanding the Potential Content and Structure of an International Convention on the Human Rights of People with Disabilities: Sample Treaty Provisions Drawn from Existing International Instruments. A Reference Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Janet E.

    This document is designed to prepare advocates in the international disability community for productive participation in the development of international conventions on the human rights of people with disabilities. Knowledge of the standard categories of international law provisions will help participants address issues related to the structure of…

  16. Circulating steroids negatively correlate with tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrbolka, Pavel; Palúch, Zoltán; Hill, Martin; Alušík, Štefan

    2017-07-01

    While not a disease entity in itself; symptoms of tinnitus (from Latin tinnio - clink) accompany a number of diseases. Tinnitus prevalence increases with age, deteriorates one's quality of life, and may even result in suicidal behavior. Tinnitus develops in response to a variety of risk factors, otoxic substances, noise exposure, hearing disorders, and psychological alterations. Tinnitus is closely related to mood, depression, and psychological state. In the present study, we focused on alterations of the steroid metabolome and particularly neuroactive, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory steroids in patients with tinnitus. The study group consisted of 28 patients without evidence of an organic cause of tinnitus as well as without associated diseases or the effect of ototoxic medications. All patients underwent a complete audiological assessment and laboratory tests including routine biochemical markers and quantification of circulating steroids using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassays. To rule out a pathology in the cerebellopontine angle area, CT scan or MRI were performed. To diagnose stem lesions, evoked potentials were also measured. Pearson's correlations and multivariate regression were used to assess any links between tinnitus intensity and frequency on the one hand, and steroid levels on the other. Results indicated a significant and consistent negative correlation between tinnitus indices and intensity of adrenal steroidogenesis. The circulating steroid metabolome including hormones and neuroactive, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory steroids negatively correlates with the degree of tinnitus due to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis malfunction. Our results may help explain the pathophysiology of tinnitus and improve its diagnosis. However, further studies are needed to verify our postulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Radioimmunoassay of nortestosterone and related steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampl, R.; Starka, L.; Picha, J.; Chundela, B.

    1979-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay of nortestosterone and related steroids, including its principal metabolites, is described and evaluated. Antisera against nortestosterone-17β-hemisuccinate- and nortestosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-bovine serum albumin were raised in goats. By using a mixture of such antisera with different selectivity, the cross-reactions of several naturally occuring steroids can be reduced. The method can be applied for the detection of nortestosterone in both unprocessed or hydrolyzed urine extracts and also in plasma. It has been used as a screening test for anabolics in doping control. (orig.) [de

  18. Chemoselective construction of novel steroid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Luigino; Florio, Saverio; Granito, Catia

    2002-07-01

    Alpha-halo-alpha-heteroarylalkyllithiums, generated by deprotonation of the corresponding halides, when added promptly to steroids with C=O or C=NR groups, lead to epoxides and aziridines. The reactions are regio- and stereoselective; in fact, in the presence of more than one C=O group, the oxido or aziridino functions are formed uniquely at the C=O of C-17 (or C-20 depending on its position in the starting molecule), and the C-20(R) stereoisomer is often the only product isolated. Protection of the hydroxyl group present on several considered steroids was required, and it was accomplished through derivatization in acetyl, ether, or lactone.

  19. Steroid metabolism in the mouse placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okker-Reitsma, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this thesis was to investigate the capacity for steroid synthesis of the mouse placenta - especially the production of progesterone, androgens and estrogens - and to determine, if possible, the relation of steroid synthesis to special cell types. In an introductory chapter the androgen production in the mouse placenta is surveyed by means of a histochemical and bioindicator study of different stages of development of the placenta. The metabolism of [ 3 H]-dehydroepiandrosterone and [ 3 H]-progesterone by mouse placental tissue in vitro is studied. The metabolism of [ 3 H]-progesterone by the mouse fetal adrenal in vitro is also studied

  20. IFCC primary reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 °C. Part 9: reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of alkaline phosphatase International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) Scientific Division, Committee on Reference Systems of Enzymes (C-RSE) (1)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Gerhard; Klauke, Rainer; Canalias, Francesca; Bossert-Reuther, Steffen; Franck, Paul F H; Gella, F-Javier; Jørgensen, Poul J; Kang, Dongchon; Lessinger, Jean-Marc; Panteghini, Mauro; Ceriotti, Ferruccio

    2011-09-01

    Abstract This paper is the ninth in a series dealing with reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 °C and the certification of reference preparations. Other parts deal with: Part 1. The concept of reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes; Part 2. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of creatine kinase; Part 3. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of lactate dehydrogenase; Part 4. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of alanine aminotransferase; Part 5. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of aspartate aminotransferase; Part 6. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of γ-glutamyltransferase; Part 7. Certification of four reference materials for the determination of enzymatic activity of γ-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase at 37 °C; Part 8. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of α-amylase. The procedure described here is derived from the previously described 30 °C IFCC reference method. Differences are tabulated and commented on in Appendix 1.

  1. The international face of sports science through the window of the Journal of Sports Sciences--with a special reference to kinanthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas

    2008-02-15

    The history of the Journal of Sports Sciences is traced from the antecedents of its initiation to the current time. The developments of the sports sciences at large are reflected in the content of the journal. Its links with the international agenda are described, and related to landmark publications. Special attention is given to the relationships with international bodies, the International Society for Advancement of Kinanthropometry and the World Commission of Science and Sports. The expansion of sport and exercise sciences, both nationally and internationally, was reflected in the increased frequency of publication of the journal. Key areas in the kinanthropometric content are identified and placed in context. The review culminates in the highlighting of likely areas for future research.

  2. Steroid implants and markers of bone turnover in steers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jannes

    Steroidal implants are used extensively in beef cattle management to take ... The practice of administering androgenic and estrogenic steroid implants to increase lean .... ELISA in bovine serum, so the assay was validated in our laboratory.

  3. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, Andrea; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  4. Effects of Sex Steroids in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Ducharme, Simon; Karama, Sherif

    2017-11-01

    Sex steroids are thought to play a critical developmental role in shaping both cortical and subcortical structures in the human brain. Periods of profound changes in sex steroids invariably coincide with the onset of sex differences in mental health vulnerability, highlighting the importance of sex steroids in determining sexual differentiation of the brain. Yet, most of the evidence for the central effects of sex steroids relies on non-human studies, as several challenges have limited our understanding of these effects in humans: the lack of systematic assessment of the human sex steroid metabolome, the different developmental trajectories of specific sex steroids, the impact of genetic variation and epigenetic changes, and the plethora of interactions between sex steroids, sex chromosomes, neurotransmitters, and other hormonal systems. Here we review how multimodal strategies may be employed to bridge the gap between the basic and clinical understanding of sex steroid-related changes in the human brain.

  5. Steroid allergy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malik, M

    2007-11-01

    Background: Contact allergy to a steroid enema leading to worsening of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has recently been reported. This study was designed to look for evidence of steroid allergy in patients with IBD.

  6. Selection of internal reference genes for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis in the rumen epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V; Baldwin, Ransom L; Rowland, Lisa J; Li, Robert; Oh, Sunghee; Li, Congjun; Connor, Erin E; Ranilla, Maria-Jose

    2017-01-01

    The rumen is lined on the luminal side by a stratified squamous epithelium that is responsible for not only absorption, but also transport, extensive short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolism and protection. Butyrate has been demonstrated to initiate the differentiation of the tissue following introduction of solid feed to the weaning neonate as well as affecting the metabolism of other nutrients and absorption of nutrients in in vitro experiments. The objective of the present study was to validate expression stability of eight putative reference genes bovine rumen, considering the intrinsic heterogeneity of bovine rumen with regard to different luminal characteristics due to direct infusion of butyrate to double the intra-ruminal content of the rumen liquor. Our focus was on identifying stable reference genes which are suitable to normalize real-time RT-qPCR experiments from rumen samples collected from clinical assays, irrespective of localization within the organ and the across physiological state. The most stably expressed genes included: ACTB, UXT, DBNDD2, RPS9, DDX54 and HMBS. Their high stability values suggest these reference genes will facilitate better evaluation of variation of across an array of conditions including: localization within the rumen, differences among cattle fed an array of rations, as well as response to development in the weaning animal. Moreover, we anticipate these reference genes may be useful for expression studies in other ruminants.

  7. Selection of internal reference genes for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR analysis in the rumen epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die

    Full Text Available The rumen is lined on the luminal side by a stratified squamous epithelium that is responsible for not only absorption, but also transport, extensive short-chain fatty acid (SCFA metabolism and protection. Butyrate has been demonstrated to initiate the differentiation of the tissue following introduction of solid feed to the weaning neonate as well as affecting the metabolism of other nutrients and absorption of nutrients in in vitro experiments. The objective of the present study was to validate expression stability of eight putative reference genes bovine rumen, considering the intrinsic heterogeneity of bovine rumen with regard to different luminal characteristics due to direct infusion of butyrate to double the intra-ruminal content of the rumen liquor. Our focus was on identifying stable reference genes which are suitable to normalize real-time RT-qPCR experiments from rumen samples collected from clinical assays, irrespective of localization within the organ and the across physiological state. The most stably expressed genes included: ACTB, UXT, DBNDD2, RPS9, DDX54 and HMBS. Their high stability values suggest these reference genes will facilitate better evaluation of variation of across an array of conditions including: localization within the rumen, differences among cattle fed an array of rations, as well as response to development in the weaning animal. Moreover, we anticipate these reference genes may be useful for expression studies in other ruminants.

  8. Method for the quantitation of steroids in umbilical cord plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, A.E.; Sparke, H.

    1975-01-01

    A method for simultaneous quantitation of nine steroids in cord plasma is described which consisted of Amberlite XAD-2 column chromatography at constant temperature of 45 degC, enzyme hydrolysis with β-glucoronidase/aryl sulfatase, addition of five radioactive internal standards, ethyl acetate extraction, thin-layer chromatography and quantitation by gas-liquid chromatography after trimethylsilyl ether derivative formation. Reliability criteria were established and the following steroid concentrations found: progesterone, 132.1+-102.5 μg/100 ml; pregnenolone, 57.3+-45.7 μg/100 ml; dehydroepiandrosterone, 46.5+-29.4 μg/100 ml; pregnanediol, 67.5+-46.6 μg/100 ml; 16-ketoandrostenediol, 19.8+-13.7 μg/100 ml; 16 α-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone, 126.3+-86.9 μg/100 ml; 16 α-hydroxypregnenolone, 78.2+-56.5 μg/100 ml; androstenetriol, 22.2+-17.5 μg/100 ml and oestriol, 127.7+-116.9 μg/100 ml. (author)

  9. A structural view on the functional importance of the sugar moiety and steroid hydroxyls of cardiotonic steroids in binding to Na,K-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Flemming; Kanai, Ryuta; Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2013-03-01

    The Na,K-ATPase is specifically inhibited by cardiotonic steroids (CTSs) like digoxin and is of significant therapeutic value in the treatment of congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Recently, new interest has arisen in developing Na,K-ATPase inhibitors as anticancer agents. In the present study, we compare the potency and rate of inhibition as well as the reactivation of enzyme activity following inhibition by various cardiac glycosides and their aglycones at different pH values using shark Na,K-ATPase stabilized in the E2MgPi or in the E2BeFx conformations. The effects of the number and nature of various sugar residues as well as changes in the positions of hydroxyl groups on the β-side of the steroid core of cardiotonic steroids were investigated by comparing various cardiac glycoside compounds like ouabain, digoxin, digitoxin, and gitoxin with their aglycones. The results confirm our previous hypothesis that CTS binds primarily to the E2-P ground state through an extracellular access channel and that binding of extracellular Na(+) ions to K(+) binding sites relieved the CTS inhibition. This reactivation depended on the presence or absence of the sugar moiety on the CTS, and a single sugar is enough to impede reactivation. Finally, increasing the number of hydroxyl groups of the steroid was sterically unfavorable and was found to decrease the inhibitory potency and to confer high pH sensitivity, depending on their position on the steroid β-face. The results are discussed with reference to the recent crystal structures of Na,K-ATPase in the unbound and ouabain-bound states.

  10. The Incidence of Anabolic Steroid Use among Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Ray; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated incidence of anabolic steroid use among 380 competitive male and female bodybuilders in Kansas and Missouri. Results indicated more than half (54 percent) of the male bodybuilders were using steroids on a regular basis compared to 10 percent of the female competitors. Found main reason for use of steroids was desire to win. (Author/TE)

  11. Hypercholesterolemia in Male Power Lifters Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of serum cholesterol concentrations in male power lifters who used anabolic-androgenic steroids for eight weeks, three years, or eight years indicated that mean serum cholesterol levels increased with drug use, but decreased promptly to near pre-steroid levels after steroid use ended. (Author/CB)

  12. Physicochemical properties and transport of steroids across Caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faassen, F.; Kelder, J.; Lenders, J.; Onderwater, R.; Vromans, H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this work was to study the relevant physicochemical properties for the absorption of steroids. Methods. Various physicochemical properties of steroids were calculated (molecular weight, ClogP, static polar surface area [PSA], etc.). Within this series of steroids, different

  13. Advances in immunoassay of anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampl, R.; Putz, Z.; Bicikova, M.; Starka, L.

    1985-01-01

    A specific RIA for the main nortestosterone metabolites, norandrosterone and noretiocholanolone and a rapid, automatizable modification of testosterone RIA in urine are described. Additionally, an enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) variant for detection of 17α-methyltestosterone and related steroids is suggested. (Auth.)

  14. Preventing Anabolic Steroid Use: Guidelines and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June; Rauhe, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Information about anabolic steroids should be included in the school health curriculum as early as possible. The paper presents suggestions for planning education programs and offers a variety of activities and strategies appropriate for many age groups, including case studies, story completion, posters, demonstrations, projects, creative writing,…

  15. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Mi Sook

    2006-01-01

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections

  16. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Mi Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Pucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections.

  17. Extracellular and intracellular steroid binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    Steroid hormone binding proteins can be measured, after the removal of endogenous steroids, as specific complexes with radio-labelled hormones. In this study all the requirements for a quantitative determination of steroid hormone binding proteins are defined. For different methods, agargel electrophoresis, density gradient centrifugation, equilibrium dialysis and polyacrylamide electrophoresis have been evaluated. Agar electrophoresis at low temperature was found to be the simplest and most useful procedure. With this method the dissociation rates of high affinity complexes can be assessed and absolute binding protein concentrations can be determined. The dissociation rates of the oestradiol-oestrogen receptor complex and the R-5020-progestin receptor complex are low (1-2% per h run time.) In contrast, that of complexes between androgen receptor and dihydrotestosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one (DHT), progestin receptor and progesterone, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and cortisol or progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and DHT were hign (16-27% per h run time). Target tissue extracts (cytosols) contain, besides soluble tissue proteins, large amounts of plasma proteins. The extent of this plasma contamination can be determined by measuring the albumin concentration in cytosols by immunodiffusion. In cytosols of 4 different human target tissues the albumin content varied from 20-30% corresponding to an even higher whole plasma concentration. Steroid binding plasma proteins, such as CBG and SHBG are constituents of this containment. (author)

  18. NEPHROTIC SYNDROME steroid sensitive renal condition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nephrotic syndrome is primarily a paediatric disorder and is 15 times more common in children than adults. The incidence is 2–3/100,000 children per year, and the majority of affected children will have steroid- sensitive minimal change disease. The characteristic features of nephrotic syndrome are heavy proteinuria.

  19. Synthesis of synthons for steroidal dendrimer construction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drašar, Pavel; Král, Vladimír; Dukh, Mykhaylo; Kalvoda, L.; Černý, Ivan; Pouzar, Vladimír; Šaman, David

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 11 (2003), s. 1102-1103 ISSN 0009-2770. [Pokroky v organické, bioorganické a farmaceutické chemii /38./. 28.11.2003-30.11.2003, Nymburk] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : synthesis * steroids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  20. Lactose contaminant as steroid degradation enhancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwmeyer, Florentine; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort; Vromans, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. By pharmaceutical processes and in the presence of solid excipients physical-chemical changes are known to occur, leading to increased rate of chemical degradation. The purpose of this work was to determine the critical aspects in the stability of a steroid in the presence of a commonly

  1. Ultrasound guided local steroid injection versus extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nayera Saber

    2011-12-17

    Dec 17, 2011 ... Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in plantar fascia .... Several previous studies evaluate the effects of either local ... The choice of ultrasound guided technique of steroid injection was related to the accuracy of application and supe- ..... chronic proximal plantar fasciitis: a meta analysis.

  2. Sex Steroid Actions in Male Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Michaël R.; Claessens, Frank; Gielen, Evelien; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Börjesson, Anna E.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroids are chief regulators of gender differences in the skeleton, and male gender is one of the strongest protective factors against osteoporotic fractures. This advantage in bone strength relies mainly on greater cortical bone expansion during pubertal peak bone mass acquisition and superior skeletal maintenance during aging. During both these phases, estrogens acting via estrogen receptor-α in osteoblast lineage cells are crucial for male cortical and trabecular bone, as evident from conditional genetic mouse models, epidemiological studies, rare genetic conditions, genome-wide meta-analyses, and recent interventional trials. Genetic mouse models have also demonstrated a direct role for androgens independent of aromatization on trabecular bone via the androgen receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes, although the target cell for their key effects on periosteal bone formation remains elusive. Low serum estradiol predicts incident fractures, but the highest risk occurs in men with additionally low T and high SHBG. Still, the possible clinical utility of serum sex steroids for fracture prediction is unknown. It is likely that sex steroid actions on male bone metabolism rely also on extraskeletal mechanisms and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We propose that estrogens influence fracture risk in aging men via direct effects on bone, whereas androgens exert an additional antifracture effect mainly via extraskeletal parameters such as muscle mass and propensity to fall. Given the demographic trends of increased longevity and consequent rise of osteoporosis, an increased understanding of how sex steroids influence male bone health remains a high research priority. PMID:25202834

  3. ABUSE OF STEROID PRESCRIPTION- A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpashri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids are widely used and highly effective in treatment for number of conditions like immunological condition inflammation, systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer and chronic pain conditions. Steroid-induced psychiatric disturbances appear in 3 to 6% of patient on treatment. Glucocorticoid is one of the most cause of avascular necrosis, affects hip joint, and other joints.

  4. Lactose contaminant as steroid degradation enhancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwmeyer, Florentine; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort; Vromans, Herman

    Purpose. By pharmaceutical processes and in the presence of solid excipients physical-chemical changes are known to occur, leading to increased rate of chemical degradation. The purpose of this work was to determine the critical aspects in the stability of a steroid in the presence of a commonly

  5. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Robert D.; Elliot, Diane L.; Goldberg, Linn; Kanayama, Gen; Leone, James E.; Pavlovich, Mike; Pope, Harrison G.

    2012-01-01

    This NATA position statement was developed by the NATA Research & Education Foundation. Objective This manuscript summarizes the best available scholarly evidence related to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) as a reference for health care professionals, including athletic trainers, educators, and interested others. Background Health care professionals associated with sports or exercise should understand and be prepared to educate others about AAS. These synthetic, testosterone-based derivatives are widely abused by athletes and nonathletes to gain athletic performance advantages, develop their physiques, and improve their body image. Although AAS can be ergogenic, their abuse may lead to numerous negative health effects. Recommendations Abusers of AAS often rely on questionable information sources. Sports medicine professionals can therefore serve an important role by providing accurate, reliable information. The recommendations provide health care professionals with a current and accurate synopsis of the AAS-related research. PMID:23068595

  6. International comparison of the economy of constructing nuclear power plants by using the method of referred investment costs in Czechoslovakia and in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, P.; Jelen, J.

    1989-01-01

    The method of referred investment costs was applied to a comparison of the economy of constructing the nuclear power plant at Temelin, Czechoslovakia, with that for the hypothetic nuclear power plant at Middletown, USA. For a reasonably adopted Czechoslovak crown/USD rate, the obtained costs for building the Temelin power plant are 50% higher than those for building the reference Middletown power plant. This compares rather favorably with the general level of investment costs in Czechoslovakia under the present economic conditions. The analysis performed shows that savings in investment costs should be sought in the fields of technological modernization of preparatory work and in all construction work, with the aim to reduce particularly live work. (P.A.). 12 tabs., 8 refs

  7. Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property [and] The ERCIM Technical Reference Digital Library [and] International Information Gateway Collaboration [and] The Standards Fora for Online Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladney, Henry M.; Andreoni, Antonella; Baldacci, Maria Bruna; Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Castelli, Donatella; Pagano, Pasquale; Peters, Carol; Pisani, Serena; Dempsey, Lorcan; Gardner, Tracy; Day, Michael; van der Werf, Titia; Bacsich, Paul; Heath, Andy; Lefrere, Paul; Miller, Paul; Riley, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss the impact of the emerging digital information infrastructure on intellectual property; the implementation of a digital library for a European consortium of national research institutions; an international information gateway collaboration; and developing standards for the description and sharing of educational…

  8. Neuroactive steroid levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of male multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Donatella; Melis, Marta; Fenu, Giuseppe; Giatti, Silvia; Romano, Simone; Grimoldi, Maria; Crippa, Donatella; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Cavaletti, Guido; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2014-08-01

    Neuroactive steroid family includes molecules synthesized in peripheral glands (i.e., hormonal steroids) and directly in the nervous system (i.e., neurosteroids) which are key regulators of the nervous function. As already reported in clinical and experimental studies, neurodegenerative diseases affect the levels of neuroactive steroids. However, a careful analysis comparing the levels of these molecules in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in plasma of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is still missing. To this aim, the levels of neuroactive steroids were evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in CSF and plasma of male adults affected by Relapsing-Remitting MS and compared with those collected in control patients. An increase in pregnenolone and isopregnanolone levels associated with a decrease in progesterone metabolites, dihydroprogesterone, and tetrahydroprogesterone was observed in CSF of MS patients. Moreover, an increase of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and of 17β-estradiol levels associated with a decrease of dihydrotestosterone also occurred. In plasma, an increase in pregnenolone, progesterone, and dihydrotestosterone and a decrease in dihydroprogesterone and tetrahydroprogesterone levels were reported. This study shows for the first time that the levels of several neuroactive steroids, and particularly those of progesterone and testosterone metabolites, are deeply affected in CSF of relapsing-remitting MS male patients. We here demonstrated that, the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma levels of several neuroactive steroids are modified in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis male patients. Interestingly, we reported for the first time that, the levels of progesterone and testosterone metabolites are deeply affected in cerebrospinal fluid. These findings may have an important relevance in therapeutic and/or diagnostic field of multiple sclerosis. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. Androgenic anabolic steroids also impair right ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikcioglu, Erdem; Oflaz, Huseyin; Umman, Berrin; Bugra, Zehra

    2009-05-01

    Chronic anabolic steroid use suppresses left ventricular functions. However, there is no information regarding the chronic effects of anabolic steroids on right ventricular function which also plays a key role in global cardiac function. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of androgenic anabolic steroids usage among athletes on remodeling the right part of the heart. Androgenic-anabolic steroids-using bodybuilders had smaller diastolic velocities of both ventricles than drug-free bodybuilders and sedentary counterparts. This study shows that androgenic anabolic steroids-using bodybuilders exhibited depressed diastolic functions of both ventricles.

  10. Fractionation of fecal neutral steroids by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, E.M.; Kloss, C.A.; Weintraub, S.T.; Mott, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Fecal neutral steroids were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into three major fractions: 5 beta-H, 3-keto steroids; 5 beta-H, 3 beta-hydroxy steroids; and 5 alpha-H and delta 5-3 beta-hydroxy steroids. This separation was achieved in about 10 minutes, with greater than 97% recovery of standards in each fraction. Gas-liquid chromatographic quantitation of fecal steroids fractionated by either HPLC or thin-layer chromatography gave nearly identical results. A method using both C18 reverse phase and silica HPLC to purify radiolabeled sterols is also described

  11. A meta-analysis of echocardiographic measurements of the left heart for the development of normative reference ranges in a large international cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    , from multiple studies around the world. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Echocardiographic Normal Ranges Meta-Analysis of the Left heart (EchoNoRMAL) collaboration was established and population-based data sets of echocardiographic measurements combined to perform an individual person data meta-analysis. Data...... from 43 studies were received, representing 51 222 subjects, of which 22 404 adults aged 18-80 years were without clinical cardiovascular or renal disease, hypertension or diabetes. Quantile regression or an appropriate parametric regression method will be used to derive reference values at the 5th...

  12. Successful treatment of dwarfism secondary to long-term steroid therapy in steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Linlin; Chen, Dongping; Zhao, Xuezhi; Xu, Chenggang; Mei, Changlin

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged steroid therapy is generally used for steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome in pediatric patients. However, dwarfism secondary to a long-term regimen and its successful reverse is rarely reported. The underlying mechanism of dwarfism is still poorly understood, as both long-term steroid use and nephrotic syndrome may interact or independently interfere with the process of growth. Here, we present a 17-year-old patient with dwarfism and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome and the successful treatment by recombinant human growth factor and cyclosporine A with withdrawal of steroid. We also briefly review the current understanding and the management of dwarfism in pediatric patients with nephrotic syndrome.

  13. Reference values for electrooculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos Castanno, Alberto; Herrera Mora, Maritza; Garcia Baez, Obel

    2012-01-01

    Obtain electrooculographic reference values based on the patterns set by the Standardization Committee of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). the lowest amplitude values of the potential ranged between 388 and 882 μv in the dark phase. The light peak was obtained between 9 and 10 minutes, and during this phase the potential reached an amplitude ranging between 808 and 1 963 μv. This amplitude variability may be related to the fact that the test was conducted without pupillary mydriasis. The reference value obtained for Arden index was 1,55 to 2,87

  14. Characterizing the distribution of steroid sulfatase during embryonic development: when and where might metabolites of maternal steroids be reactivated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paitz, Ryan T; Duffield, Kristin R; Bowden, Rachel M

    2017-12-15

    All vertebrate embryos are exposed to maternally derived steroids during development. In placental vertebrates, metabolism of maternal steroids by the placenta modulates embryonic exposure, but how exposure is regulated in oviparous vertebrates is less clear. Recent work in oviparous vertebrates has demonstrated that steroids are not static molecules, as they can be converted to more polar steroid sulfates by sulfotransferase enzymes. Importantly, these steroid sulfates can be converted back to the parent compound by the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS). We investigated when and where STS was present during embryonic development in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta We report that STS is present during all stages of development and in all tissues we examined. We conclude that STS activity may be particularly important for regulating maternal steroid exposure in oviparous vertebrates. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Oral steroids alone or followed by intranasal steroids versus watchful waiting in the management of otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, A; Fathy, H; Amin, S M; Elsisy, N

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral steroids alone or followed by intranasal steroids versus watchful waiting on the resolution of otitis media with effusion in children aged 2-11 years. A total of 290 children with bilateral otitis media with effusion were assigned to 3 groups: group A was treated with oral steroids followed by intranasal steroids, group B was treated with oral steroids alone and group C was managed with watchful waiting. Patients were evaluated with audiometry and tympanometry. The complete resolution rates of otitis media with effusion were higher in groups A and B than in group C at six weeks. There were no significant differences in otitis media with effusion resolution rates between the groups at three, six and nine months. Oral steroids lead only to a quick resolution of otitis media with effusion, with no long-term benefits. There was no benefit of using intranasal steroids in the management of otitis media with effusion.

  16. Acute bile nephropathy secondary to anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed M; ElTigani, Mohamed A; Rabah, Rola S; Nasr, Samih H

    2016-02-01

    Renal dysfunction in cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial. Acute kidney injury may develop secondary to renal vasoconstriction in the setting of peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolemia, tubular obstruction by bile casts, and direct tubular toxicity from bile. Anabolic steroids are frequently used by athletes to boost endurance and increase muscle mass. These agents are a recently recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and jaundice and may lead to acute kidney injury. To increase awareness about this growing problem and to characterize the pathology of acute kidney injury in this setting, we report on a young male who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of severe cholestatic jaundice related to ingestion of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Kidney biopsy showed bile casts within distal tubular lumina, filamentous bile inclusions within tubular cells, and signs of acute tubular injury. This report supports the recently re-emerged concept of bile nephropathy cholemic nephrosis.

  17. Determination of blood leukocyte concentration with constant volume acquisition on a flow cytometer is comparable to individualized single platform testing with beads as internal reference standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susan; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    at a high rate has a median of 163 microl (IQR 156-170) with TruCount tubes. Leukocyte concentrations of 26 healthy volunteers were measured twice on up to four occasions with a Bürker-Türk chamber, by single platform technology (SPT) with TruCount tubes and on the same data set using CVA. Total leukocyte...... concentrations determined by CVA correlated better with measurements in a Bürker-Türk (BT) chamber than with SPT. Concentrations determined with CVA were 1.86% higher than with BT whereas SPT data were 5.35% higher than BT (p...LeukoGating can be established using microscopy as a reference, and is comparable to BT chamber and SPT determination. Leukocyte concentrations can be measured with CVA on flow cytometers in research and clinical settings....

  18. Tennis elbow: role of local steroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Gulzar Saeed; Ali, Muhammad; Trago, Imtiaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Tennis elbow is a condition, characterised by pain and tenderness over the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, and pain on resisted dorsiflexion of the wrist, middle finger, or both. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the short term efficacy of local steroid injection compared with oral and topical NSAIDs. Sixty patients (45 male and 15 female) were included in the study. The mean age was 42 years for men and 40 years for women. They were placed in group A and B (30 cases each). Group A received local steroid injection (triamcinolone 20 mg mixed with lignocaine 2% 1 cc) and topical NSAID cream application (diclofenac diethylammonium) twice a day, tab. diclofenac sodium 50 mg twice a day for 3 weeks. Group B received tab diclofenac 50 mg twice a day and, topical NSAID cream application twice a day for 3 weeks. Assessment of patients was made 3 times; first at the start of the study, 2nd time after 6 weeks, and 3rd time after 12 weeks. A blinded assessor rated the elbow complaints of the patients at resisted dorsiflexion of wrist using VAS (0 = no severity, 1-3 mild, 4-6 moderate, 7-9 sever, 10 = maximum severity). At six weeks, 22 (73.33%) patient in group A had no pain as compared to 7 (23.33%) patients in group B who were pain free (p < 0.0001, chi2 = 38.75). At 12 weeks 27 (90%) patients in group A were pain free compared to group B in which 7 (23.33%) patients were pain free (p < 0.0001, chi2 = 27.56). In patients with tennis elbow, the use of local steroid injection in combination with topical and oral NSAIDs is superior to the use of combination of topical and oral NSAIDs. Better results with combination therapy using local steroid injection may be limited to the short term.

  19. Spreading characteristics of proprietary rectal steroid preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Three types of rectal steroid preparation were labelled with Technetium 99 or Indium 111, and the extent of spread of each within the bowel was followed, immediately after administration and at 2hrs, using a gamma camera. Patients with ulcerative colitis were compared with controls. Results indicate that 'Colifoam' enema and 'Predsol' suppository act mainly in the rectum, but 'Predsol retention' enema spreads further into the colon, making it more useful for patients with extensive ulcerative colitis. (U.K.)

  20. Management issues with exogenous steroid therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Patt, Hiren; Bandgar, Tushar; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are extensively used for various inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, but long term use of these agents is not without complications. Almost every GC formulations (e.g. oral, topical, inhaled, etc.) can cause systemic side effects. It can range from minor side effects (e.g. weight gain) to life-threatening effects (e.g. adrenal suppression, sepsis, etc.), which may require immediate intervention. Therefore, the decision to institute steroid therapy always requires care...

  1. Correlates and determinants of physical activity in persons with spinal cord injury: A review using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as reference framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Christine; Rauch, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    Participation in physical activity (PA) decreases after the onset of a spinal cord injury (SCI) and is generally low in persons with SCI. To provide an overview of findings on correlates/determinants of PA in persons with SCI applying the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to analyze and report results. A systematic literature review using the databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SSCI, and CINHAL was conducted. Independent variables were extracted and linked to ICF codes. Quality of evidence was rated using internationally accepted standards. Overall, evidence quality of the 25 included studies is low. Environmental Factors were consistently found as correlates of PA, whereas Personal Factors (socio-demographics and psychological constructs) were weakly associated with PA in the SCI population. Associations with Body Functions, Body Structures, Activities and Participation and Health Conditions were less frequently studied. Although quality of evidence of reviewed literature is low, results indicate that rather environmental barriers than the 'classical' socio-demographic factors known from social epidemiology correlate with PA in persons with SCI. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions concerning the association of Body Functions and Structures and Activity and Participation with PA. Future research is encouraged to better understand the interplay between functioning, contextual factors, health conditions and PA in SCI to establish a sound basis for intervention planning in this special needs population. In addition, our experience showed that linking study results to the ICF facilitates data analysis and reporting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories.

  3. [Intramuscular depot steroids : Possible treatment of postsurgical cystoid macula edema with steroid response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuthe, A-M; Szurman, P; Boden, K T

    2017-11-01

    We report on a patient with postsurgical cystoid macular edema (CME) after phacoemulsification and multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) implantation. At first, there was a very good reaction to intravitreal triamcinolone, inducing complete regression of the edema without increasing intraocular pressure (IOP). One year later the patient suffered from retinal detachment and was treated with vitrectomy, laser, and gas tamponade. Afterward, he developed macular pucker with edema. After surgical treatment with pucker peeling and intravitreal triamcinolone, the patient showed a steroid response and an increase IOP. Postoperatively, there was a recurrence of CME. A coincidental administration of a steroid injection intramuscularly by the general practitioner achieved a prompt reduction of the CME without increasing IOP. This case shows that an initially good reaction to triamcinolone without increasing IOP does not rule out a future steroid response, and that a potential treatment option for CME in patients with a known steroid response could consist of intramuscularly injected steroids.

  4. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A.; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P.; Siddiqui, Rafat A.

    2012-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction. PMID:23016123

  5. Steroidal compounds in commercial parenteral lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P; Siddiqui, Rafat A

    2012-08-01

    Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn(®) II, Liposyn(®) III, Lipofundin(®) MCT, Lipofundin(®) N, Structolipid(®), Intralipid(®), Ivelip(®) and ClinOleic(®). Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction.

  6. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat A. Siddiqui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction.

  7. Computational modeling of the mathematical phantoms of the Brazilian woman to internal dosimetry calculations and for comparison of the absorbed fractions with specific reference women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ximenes, Edmir; Guimaraes, Maria Ines C. C.

    2008-01-01

    The theme of this work is the study of the concept of mathematical dummy - also called phantoms - used in internal dosimetry and radiation protection, from the perspective of computer simulations. In this work he developed the mathematical phantom of the Brazilian woman, to be used as the basis of calculations of Specific Absorbed Fractions (AEDs) in the body's organs and skeleton by virtue of goals with regarding the diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. The phantom now developed is similar, in form, to Snyder phantom making it more realistic for the anthropomorphic conditions of Brazilian women. For so we used the Monte Carlo method of formalism, through computer modeling. As a contribution to the objectives of this study, it was developed and implemented the computer system cFAE - consultation Fraction Specific Absorbed, which makes it versatile for the user's query researcher

  8. CHALLENGES TO ILLEGAL MIGRATION POLICIES AND NATIONAL SECURITY OF MEXICO: ANALYSIS FROM THE MANAGEMENT CONDUCTED BETWEEN 2001 AND 2014 AND THE CASE CONCERNING INTERNATIONAL REFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO RODRÍGUEZ MORENO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of political-legal, social and human rights challenges imposed by irregular migration to Mexico, a nation that has been converted into an important area of destination and transit to the United States. The criminalization of the phenomenon and, therefore, the securitization of immigration policy, endorsed by the National Security Policy, has led to social and humanitarian conditions that are deplorable for undocumented migrants most of the times. It then examines the situation of Mexico between 2001 and 2014 and the reality of international benchmarks in the field. One of the challenges recognized for Immigration and National Security policies on the social level is the stigmatization suffered by irregular migrants both adults and children. In the political-legal arena to challenge the institutionalization of irregular migration as a threat that affects national security and overcomes the disjunction between the established regulations and their implementation. Key

  9. Systematic review of reporting rates of adverse events following immunization: an international comparison of post-marketing surveillance programs with reference to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Biao; Page, Andrew; Wang, Huaqing; Taylor, Richard; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-01-11

    China is the most populous country in the world, with an annual birth cohort of approximately 16 million, requiring an average of 500 million vaccine doses administered annually. In China, over 30 domestic and less than 10 overseas vaccine manufacturers supply over 60 licensed vaccine products, representing a growing vaccine market mainly due to recent additions to the national immunization schedule, but data on post-marketing surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) are sparse. To compare reporting rates for various categories of AEFI from China with other routine post-marketing surveillance programs internationally. Systematic review of published studies reporting rates of AEFI by vaccine, category of reaction and age from post-marketing surveillance systems in English and Chinese languages. Overall AEFI reporting rates (all vaccines, all ages) in Chinese studies were consistent with those from similar international studies elsewhere, but there was substantial heterogeneity in regional reporting rates in China (range 2.3-37.8/100,000 doses). The highest AEFI reporting rates were for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis whole-cell (DTwP) and acellular (DTaP) vaccines (range 3.3-181.1/100,000 doses for DTwP; range 3.5-92.6/100,000 doses for DTaP), with higher median rates for DTwP than DTaP, and higher than expected rates for DTaP vaccine. Similar higher rates for DTwP and DTaP containing vaccines, and relatively lower rates for vaccines against hepatitis B virus, poliovirus, and Japanese encephalitis virus were found in China and elsewhere in the world. Overall AEFI reporting rates in China were consistent with similar post-marketing surveillance systems in other countries. Sources of regional heterogeneity in AEFI reporting rates, and their relationships to differing vaccine manufacturers versus differing surveillance practices, require further exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  11. Vitamin D deficiency and low ionized calcium are linked with semen quality and sex steroid levels in infertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are low vitamin D levels linked with semen quality and sex steroids in infertile men? SUMMARY ANSWER: Infertile men with vitamin D deficiency had lower sperm motility, total numbers of motile sperm, Inhibin B, sex-hormone-binding-globulin (SHBG) and testosterone/estradiol ratio......, but higher levels of free sex steroids, than infertile men with normal vitamin D levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Low vitamin D levels have been associated with decreased sperm motility in healthy men, but a relationship between vitamin D and calcium with semen quality and especially sex steroids has not been...... infertile men, consecutively referred to our tertiary andrological centre for fertility workup, underwent a physical examination and had semen quality assessed based on two samples and blood analysed for serum testosterone, SHBG, estradiol, inhibin B, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH...

  12. Preparation, preliminary screening of new types of steroid conjugates and their activities on steroid receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurášek, M.; Džubák, P.; Sedlák, David; Dvořáková, H.; Hajduch, M.; Bartůněk, Petr; Drasar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 3 (2013), s. 356-361 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0616; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1951 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : click chemistry * steroid ribbons * cytotoxic activity * steroid receptor reporter assay * 2,6-bis((1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)pyridine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.716, year: 2013

  13. Extensive 5.8S nrDNA polymorphism in Mammillaria (Cactaceae) with special reference to the identification of pseudogenic internal transcribed spacer regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpke, Doerte; Peterson, Angela

    2008-05-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2) represents the most widely applied nuclear marker in eukaryotic phylogenetics. Although this region has been assumed to evolve in concert, the number of investigations revealing high degrees of intra-individual polymorphism connected with the presence of pseudogenes has risen. The 5.8S rDNA is the most important diagnostic marker for functionality of the ITS region. In Mammillaria, intra-individual 5.8S rDNA polymorphisms of up to 36% and up to nine different types have been found. Twenty-eight of 30 cloned genomic Mammillaria sequences were identified as putative pseudogenes. For the identification of pseudogenic ITS regions, in addition to formal tests based on substitution rates, we attempted to focus on functional features of the 5.8S rDNA (5.8S motif, secondary structure). The importance of functional data for the identification of pseudogenes is outlined and discussed. The identification of pseudogenes is essential, because they may cause erroneous phylogenies and taxonomic problems.

  14. Comparative study of genetic activity of chlorambucil's active metabolite steroidal esters: The role of steroidal skeleton on aneugenic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimiou, M.; Ouranou, D.; Stephanou, G.; Demopoulos, N.A.; Nikolaropoulos, S.S.; Alevizos, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    p-N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)aminophenylacetic acid (PHE), a nitrogen mustard analogue and chlorambucil's active metabolite used as chemotherapeutic agent, has been shown that, in addition to its clastogenic activity, induces chromosome delay. In the present study an efford has been made (a) to investigate if the steroidal analogues of PHE (EA-92, EA-97, AK-333, AK-409 and AK-433) exert the same genetic activity as the parent compound, (b) to further analyze the aneugenic activity of nitrogen mustard analogues, (c) to investigate the mechanism by which they exert aneugenic potential and (d) to correlate the genetic activity with chemical structure. For this purpose the Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus (CBMN) assay was conducted in human lymphocytes in vitro and the micronucleus (MN) frequency was determined to investigate their genetic activity. The mechanism of micronucleation was determined in combination with Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using pancentromeric DNA probe. Since one of the mechanisms that chemicals cause aneuploidy is through alterations in the mitotic spindle, we also investigated the effect of the above compounds on the integrity and morphology of the mitotic spindle using double immunofluorescence of β- and γ-tubulin in C 2 C 12 mouse cell line. We found that PHE and its steroidal analogues, EA-92, EA-97, AK-333, AK-409 and AK-433, affect cell proliferation in human lymphocytes and C 2 C 12 mouse cells. All studied compounds are capable of inducing chromosome breakage events, as indicated by the enhanced C - MN frequencies. The less lipophilic compounds are the most genetically active molecules. PHE and only two of the studied analogues, AK-409 and AK-433, the most hydrophilic ones, showed aneugenic potential, by increasing the frequencies of MN containing a whole chromosome. The aneugenic potential of the above referred analogues is associated with amplification of centrosome number, since they caused high multipolar metaphase

  15. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole M; Dayyeh, Barham K Abu; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery. This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks. PMID:18680242

  16. 3D model of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Michael E., E-mail: mbaker@ucsd.edu [Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0693 (United States); Chang, David J. [Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0693 (United States)

    2009-08-28

    The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This 3D model indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ER{alpha} are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ER{alpha} in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The 3D model predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.

  17. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole M; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-07-28

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery. This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks.

  18. Steroid withdrawal in renal transplant patients: the Irish experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, P J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity in renal transplant recipients. However, there is concern that steroid withdrawal will adversely affect outcome. METHODS: We report on 241 renal transplant recipients on different doses of corticosteroids at 3 months (zero, <\\/= 5 mg\\/day, > 5 mg\\/day). Parameters analysed included blood pressure, lipid profile, weight change, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), allograft survival and acute rejection. RESULTS: Elimination of corticosteroids had no impact on allograft survival at 1 year. There were no cases of NODAT in the steroid withdrawal group compared with over 7% in each of the steroid groups. There were no significant improvements in weight gain, blood pressure control or total cholesterol with withdrawal of steroids before 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In renal transplant patients treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate, early withdrawal of steroids does not appear to adversely affect allograft outcome at 1 year. It may result in less NODAT.

  19. Principles and clinical applications of liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of adrenal and gonadal steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulle, A E; Welzel, M; Holterhus, P-M; Riepe, F G

    2011-10-01

    Liquid-chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is becoming the method of choice for clinical steroid analysis. In most instances, it has the advantage of higher sensitivity, better reproducibility and greater specificity than commercial immunoassay techniques. The method requires only minimal sample preparation and a small sample volume. Furthermore, it has the potential to analyze multiple steroids simultaneously. Modern instruments guarantee high throughput, allowing an affordable price for the individual assay. All this makes LC-MS/MS an attractive method for use in a clinical setting. Reliable reference ranges for the detected analytes are the pre-requisite for their clinical use. If these are available, LC-MS/MS can find application in congenital disorders of steroid metabolism, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, disorders of sex development and disorders of salt homeostasis, as well as in acquired disorders of steroid metabolism, such as primary aldosteronism, Cushing's disease, Addison's disease, and hyperandrogenemia, as well as in psychiatric disease states such as depression or anxiety disorders. The principles of LC-MS/MS for steroid measurement, the pros and cons of LC-MS/MS compared with conventional immunoassays and the possible applications in clinical routine, with a special focus on pediatric endocrinology needs, are discussed here.

  20. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1985-01-01

    To make real and accurate dose assessment method so far, it is necessitated to provide ''Reference Japanese Man'' based on anotomical, physiological and biochemical data of Japanese people instead of the Reference Man presented in ICRP Publications 23 and 30. This review describes present status of researched for the purpose of establishing of Reference Japanese Man. The Reference Japanese Man is defined as a male or female adult who lives in Japan with a Japanese life-style and food custom. His stature and body weight, and the other data was decided as mean values of male or female people of Japan. As for food custom, Japanese people take significantly smaller amount of meat and milk products than Western people, while larger intake amount of cereals and marine products such as fish or seaweeds. Weight of organs is a principal factor for internal dose assessment and mean values for living Japanese adult has been investigated and the value employable for dose assessment for organs and tissues are shown. To employ these values of Reference Japanese Man, it should be taken into account of age. Metabolic parameters should also be considered. Iodine metabolism in Japanese is quite different from that of Western people. The above-mentioned data are now tentatively employing in modification of table of MIRD method and others. (Takagi, S.)

  1. Methods for the synthesis of tritium labelled steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkova, V.S.; Tatarkina, F.V.; Kaklyushkina, L.N.; Ignat'eva, N.A.; Tupitsyn, I.F.; Efimova, Ts.I.

    1977-01-01

    The catalytic substitution of bromine for tritium in corresponding bromo-derivatives of steroids was used for the preparation of 4 steroids labelled with tritium at position 7. The bromination of the starting steroids was effected with N-bromosuccinimide. Ten steroids labelled with tritium at the positions 1, 2, 6 and 7 were prepared by reduction of the unsaturated derivatives with gaseous tritium in the presence of either the heterogeneous Pd/C catalyst, or the homogeneous chloride of tris(triphenylphosphine)rhodium

  2. The alteration of the urinary steroid profile under the stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gronowska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of twentieth century anabolic-androgenic steroids were introduced into doping practice and received continuously increasing significance. In order to prove the usage of doping substances, the determination of steroid profile in the urine came into practice. Several factors may be responsible for alterations in the normal steroid profile for example age, sex and diet. The aim of this study was to find out, whether the psychological stress may cause modifications in the steroid profile and T/Et ratio. The effect of physical activity was also considered. The steroid profile was determined in the group of 34 students being in non-stress conditions and under stress immediately before an important university exam. The intensity of stress was rated by self-reported questionnaire. The GC/MS method was applied to determine the steroid profile in the urine samples. The results of the experiment have shown that psychological stress may cause significant changes in the steroid profile, especially in females. Physical activity, independently of stress significantly modified the steroid profile. In summary, observed changes in steroid profile suggest, that major fluctuations of T/Et and A/E ratios under the influence of stressogenic factors and physical activity are unlikely.

  3. Steroids for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezk, Emtithal; Nofal, Yazan H; Hamzeh, Ammar; Aboujaib, Muhammed F; AlKheder, Mohammad A; Al Hammad, Muhammad F

    2015-11-08

    Infectious mononucleosis, also known as glandular fever or the kissing disease, is a benign lymphoproliferative disorder. It is a viral infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous herpes virus that is found in all human societies and cultures. Epidemiological studies show that over 95% of adults worldwide have been infected with EBV. Most cases of symptomatic infectious mononucleosis occur between the ages of 15 and 24 years. It is transmitted through close contact with an EBV shedder, contact with infected saliva or, less commonly, through sexual contact, blood transfusions or by sharing utensils; however, transmission actually occurs less than 10% of the time. Precautions are not needed to prevent transmission because of the high percentage of seropositivity for EBV. Infectious mononucleosis is self-limiting and typically lasts for two to three weeks. Nevertheless, symptoms can last for weeks and occasionally months.Symptoms include fever, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, hepatosplenomegaly and fatigue. Symptom relief and rest are commonly recommended treatments. Steroids have been used for their anti-inflammatory effects, but there are no universal criteria for their use. The objectives of the review were to determine the efficacy and safety of steroid therapy versus placebo, usual care or different drug therapies for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis. For this 2015 update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 7), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register; MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2015) and EMBASE (January 1974 to August 2015). We also searched trials registries, however we did not identify any new relevant completed or ongoing trials for inclusion. We combined the MEDLINE search with the Cochrane search strategy for identifying randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We adapted the search terms when searching EMBASE. RCTs comparing the

  4. Management issues with exogenous steroid therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Patt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids (GCs are extensively used for various inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, but long term use of these agents is not without complications. Almost every GC formulations (e.g. oral, topical, inhaled, etc. can cause systemic side effects. It can range from minor side effects (e.g. weight gain to life-threatening effects (e.g. adrenal suppression, sepsis, etc., which may require immediate intervention. Therefore, the decision to institute steroid therapy always requires careful consideration of the relative risk and benefit in each patient. The objectives of this study are to discuss monitoring of patients on GCs and management of the complications of GCs.

  5. Management issues with exogenous steroid therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Hiren; Bandgar, Tushar; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are extensively used for various inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, but long term use of these agents is not without complications. Almost every GC formulations (e.g. oral, topical, inhaled, etc.) can cause systemic side effects. It can range from minor side effects (e.g. weight gain) to life-threatening effects (e.g. adrenal suppression, sepsis, etc.), which may require immediate intervention. Therefore, the decision to institute steroid therapy always requires careful consideration of the relative risk and benefit in each patient. The objectives of this study are to discuss monitoring of patients on GCs and management of the complications of GCs. PMID:24910822

  6. Comparison study for the CCME reference method for determination of PHC in soil by using internal and external standard methods and by using silica gel column cleanup and in-situ silica gel cleanup methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Sigouin, L.; Yang, C.; Hollebone, B.

    2003-01-01

    The assessment, cleanup, and remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites is covered in the Reference Method for Canada-Wide Standard for Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Tier 1 Method. It replaces several analytical methods used in the past by some laboratories and jurisdictions in Canada. The authors conducted two comparative evaluations to validate the Tier 1 Analytical Method. The first compared the Internal and External Standard Methods, and the second compared the Silica Gel Column Cleanup Method with the In-situ Silica Gel Cleanup Method. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) Tier 1 Method recommends and requires the External Standard Method to determine petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in soil samples. The Internal Method is widely used to quantify various organic and inorganic pollutants in environmental samples. The Tier 1 Method offers two options for the same extract cleanup. They are: Option A - In-situ Silica Gel Cleanup, and Option B - Silica Gel Column Cleanup. Linearity, precision, and PHC quantification results were the parameters considered for diesel and motor oil solutions, for diesel spiked soil samples, and for motor oil spiked soil samples. It was concluded that both the External and Internal Standard Methods for gas chromatograph (GC) determination of PHC in soil possess their own advantages. The PHC results obtained using the In-Situ Silica Gel Cleanup Method were lower than those obtained with the Silica Gel Column Cleanup Methods. The more efficient and effective sample cleanup method proved to be the Silica Gel Column Method. 13 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs

  7. Transition-Metal-Mediated or -Catalyzed Syntheses of Steroids and Steroid-Like Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotora, Martin; Hessler, F.; Eignerová, B.

    -, č. 1 (2012), s. 29-42 ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : steroids * synthesis design * synthetic methods * asymmetric synthesis * transition metals Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.344, year: 2012

  8. Classification of two steroids, prostanozol and methasterone, as Schedule III anabolic steroids under the Controlled Substance Act. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    With the issuance of this Final Rule, the Administrator of the DEA classifies the following two steroids as "anabolic steroids'' under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA): prostanozol (17[beta]-hydroxy-5[alpha]-androstano[3,2-c]pyrazole) and methasterone (2[alpha],17[alpha]-dimethyl-5[alpha]-androstan-17[beta]-ol-3-one). These steroids and their salts, esters, and ethers are Schedule III controlled substances subject to the regulatory control provisions of the CSA.

  9. Anabolic steroids, acute myocardial infarction and polycythemia: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Stergiopoulos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen Stergiopoulos1, Joseph J Brennan2, Robin Mathews1, John F Setaro2, Smadar Kort11Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, USA; 2Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: The association between testosterone-replacement therapy and cardiovascular risk remains unclear with most reports suggesting a neutral or possibly beneficial effect of the hormone in men and women. However, several cardiovascular complications including hypertension, cardiomyopathy, stroke, pulmonary embolism, fatal and nonfatal arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction have been reported with supraphysiologic doses of anabolic steroids. We report a case of an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with traditional cardiac risk factors using supraphysiologic doses of supplemental, intramuscular testosterone. In addition, this patient also had polycythemia, likely secondary to high-dose testosterone. The patient underwent successful percutaneous intervention of the right coronary artery. Phlebotomy was used to treat the polycythemia acutely. We suggest that the chronic and recent “stacked” use of intramuscular testosterone as well as the resultant polycythemia and likely increased plasma viscosity may have been contributing factors to this cardiovascular event, in addition to traditional coronary risk factors. Physicians and patients should be aware of the clinical consequences of anabolic steroid abuse.Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, anabolic steroid use, polycythemia

  10. Genetics Home Reference: corticosterone methyloxidase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism steroid 18-hydroxylase deficiency steroid 18-oxidase deficiency Visser-Cost syndrome ... Potassium Test Health Topic: Adrenal Gland Disorders Health Topic: Fluid ...

  11. Epidural versus intravenous steroids application following percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Annan; Gu, Xin; Guan, Xiaofei; Fan, Guoxin; He, Shisheng

    2018-05-01

    Retrospectively study.The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intraoperative epidural steroids and single dose intravenous steroids following a percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD).Inflammatory irritation of dorsal root ganglia or sensory nerve roots may cause postoperative pain. Epidural steroids have been applied after a lumbar discectomy for more than 20 years. Epidural steroid application after a PELD is easier to perform and safer because the operations are under observation of the scope.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation who had undergone transforaminal PELD at our department. There are 60 patients in epidural steroid group, intravenous steroid group, and control group, respectively. Visual analog scores (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were collected. Successful pain control is defined as 50% or more reduction in back and leg pain (VAS scores).VAS scores (back and leg) and ODI showed a significant decrease in all groups when comparing pre- and postoperatively. Epidural steroid group had a significant improvement in successful pain control compared with the control group at 2 weeks of follow-up. VAS scores (leg) in the epidural steroid group showed a significant decrease compared with the intravenous steroids group at 1, 3, and 7 days after the surgery, but this difference had no statistical significance at 1, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. All groups did not show a significant difference in ODI at 1, 6, and 12 months follow-up.Epidural application of steroid has a better effect on controlling the postoperative pain of PELD in the short term. The epidural application of steroid did not show a tendency to cause infection.

  12. Brazilian consensus on Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Part 1: diagnosis, steroid therapy and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra P. Q. C. Araujo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Significant advances in the understanding and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD took place since international guidelines were published in 2010. Our objective was to provide an evidence-based national consensus statement for multidisciplinary care of DMD in Brazil. A combination of the Delphi technique with a systematic review of studies from 2010 to 2016 was employed to classify evidence levels and grade of recommendations. Our recommendations were divided in two parts. We present Part 1 here, where we describe the guideline methodology and overall disease concepts, and also provide recommendations on diagnosis, steroid therapy and new drug treatment perspectives for DMD. The main recommendations: 1 genetic testing in diagnostic suspicious cases should be the first line for diagnostic confirmation; 2 patients diagnosed with DMD should have steroids prescribed; 3 lack of published results for phase 3 clinical trials hinders, for now, the recommendation to use exon skipping or read-through agents.

  13. The role of steroids in follicular growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drummond Ann E

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The steroidogenic pathway within the ovary gives rise to progestins, androgens and oestrogens, all of which act via specific nuclear receptors to regulate reproductive function and maintain fertility. The role of progestins in follicular growth and development is limited, its action confined largely to ovulation, although direct effects on granulosa cell function have been reported. Consistent with these findings, progesterone receptor knockout mice are infertile because they cannot ovulate. Androgens have been shown to promote early follicular growth, but also to impede follicular development by stimulating atresia and apoptosis. The inability of androgens to transduce a signal in mice lacking androgen receptors culminates in reduced fertility. Oestrogens are known to exert effects on granulosa cell growth and differentiation in association with gonadotrophins. Studies with oestrogen receptor knockouts and oestrogen depleted mice have shown us that oestrogen is essential for folliculogenesis beyond the antral stage and is necessary to maintain the female phenotype of ovarian somatic cells. In summary, the action of steroids within the ovary is based on the developmental status of the follicle. In the absence of any single sex steroid, ovarian function and subsequently fertility, are compromised.

  14. Inhalational Steroids and Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A V, Raveendran

    2014-01-01

    Bronchial asthma (BA) and Allergic rhinitis (AR) are common clinical problems encountered in day to day practice, where inhalational corticosteroids (ICS) or intranasal steroids (INS) are the mainstay of treatment. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome (CS) is a well known complication of systemic steroid administration. ICS /INS were earlier thought to be safe, but now more and more number of case reports of Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome have been reported, especially in those who are taking cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) inhibitors. Comparing to the classical clinical features of spontaneous Cushing syndrome, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome is more commonly associated with osteoporosis, increase in intra-ocular pressure, benign intracranial hypertension, aseptic necrosis of femoral head and pancreatitis, where as hypertension, hirsuitisum and menstrual irregularities are less common. Endocrine work up shows low serum cortisol level with evidence of HPA (hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal) axis suppression. In all patients with features of Cushing syndrome with evidence of adrenal suppression always suspect iatrogenic CS. Since concomitant administration of cytochrome P450 inhibitors in patients on ICS/INS can precipitate iatrogenic CS, avoidance of CYP450 inhibitors, its dose reduction or substitution of ICS are the available options. Along with those, measures to prevent the precipitation of adrenal crisis has to be taken. An update on ICS-/INS- associated iatrogenic CS and its management is presented here.

  15. Gonadal steroids and bone metabolism in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Benjamin

    2007-06-01

    Over the past decade, our increasing awareness of the clinical importance of osteoporosis in men has stimulated intense interest in trying to better understand male skeletal physiology and pathophysiology. The present review focuses on a major focus of research in this area, namely the attempt to define the influence and therapeutic potential of gonadal steroids in male bone metabolism. Building on previous work defining the relative roles of androgens and estrogens in the developing male skeleton and in maintaining normal bone turnover, recent studies have begun to define these issues from epidemiologic, physiologic and therapeutic perspectives. With access to data from large prospectively defined populations of men, investigators are confirming and challenging existing hypotheses and forwarding new concepts. Clinical trials have expanded beyond standard androgen replacement studies to explore more complex hormonal interventions. Physiologic investigation has continued to probe the mechanisms underlying the differential and independent roles of androgens and estrogens in male bone metabolism. Recent work has added significantly to our understanding of the role of gonadal steroids in male skeletal physiology. Nonetheless, further research is necessary to build on these initial human studies and to capitalize on rapidly emerging advances in our understanding of the basic biology of bone metabolism.

  16. Neuroactive Steroids: Receptor Interactions and Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kald Beshir Tuem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuroactive steroids (NASs are naturally occurring steroids, which are synthesized centrally as de novo from cholesterol and are classified as pregnane, androstane, and sulfated neurosteroids (NSs. NASs modulate many processes via interacting with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, N-methyl-d-aspartate, serotonin, voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-dependent anion channels, α-adrenoreceptors, X-receptors of the liver, transient receptor potential channels, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurotrophin nerve growth factor, and σ1 receptors. Among these, NSs (especially allopregnanolone have high potency and extensive GABA-A receptors and hence demonstrate anticonvulsant, anesthetic, central cytoprotectant, and baroreflex inhibitory effects. NSs are also involved in mood and learning via serotonin and anti-nociceptive activity via T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Moreover, they are modulators of mitochondrial function, synaptic plasticity, or regulators of apoptosis, which have a role in neuroprotective via voltage-dependent anion channels receptors. For proper functioning, NASs need to be in their normal level, whereas excess and deficiency may lead to abnormalities. When they are below the normal, NSs could have a part in development of depression, neuro-inflammation, multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. On the other hand, stress and attention deficit disorder could occur during excessive level. Overall, NASs are very important molecules with major neuropsychiatric activity.

  17. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): the natural gas becoming a world commodity and creating international price references; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): o gas natural se tornando uma commodity mundial e criando referencias de preco internacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demori, Marcio Bastos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Comercializacao de Gas e GNL; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    The transportation of large quantities of natural gas through long distances has been done more frequently by Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The increase of natural gas demand and the distance of major reserves, allied to technological improvements and cost reduction through LNG supply chain, have triggered the expressive increase of LNG world market This paper tries to evaluate the influence that LNG should cause on natural gas world market dynamic, analyzing the tendency of gas to become a world commodity, creating international price references, like oil and its derivates. For this, are shown data as natural gas world reserves, the participation of LNG in natural gas world market and their increase. Furthermore, will be analyzed the interaction between major natural gas reserves and their access to major markets, still considering scheduled LNG projects, the following impacts from their implementation and price arbitrage that should be provoked on natural gas markets. (author)

  18. Research Needs and Challenges from Science to Decision Support. Lesson Learnt from the Development of the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Recommendations for Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Serenella; Pant, Rana; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2012-01-01

    Environmental implications of the whole supply-chain of products, both goods and services, their use, and waste management, i.e., their entire life cycle from "cradle to grave" have to be considered to achieve more sustainable production and consumption patterns. Progress toward environmental...... sustainability requires enhancing the methodologies for quantitative, integrated environmental assessment and promoting the use of these methodologies in different domains. In the context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of products, in recent years, several methodologies have been developed for Life Cycle Impact...... Assessment (LCIA). The Joint Research Center of the European Commission (EC-JRC) led a "science to decision support" process which resulted in the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook, providing guidelines to the decision and application of methods for LCIA. The Handbook...

  19. Establishment of an international reference data library of nuclear activation cross sections. Summary report of the first research co-ordination meeting held in Debrecen, Hungary, from 4 to 7 October 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.

    1995-02-01

    The report contains the Summary of the First IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of the new Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Establishment of an International Reference Data Library of Nuclear Activation Cross Sections''. The meeting was organized by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section with co-operation and assistance of local organizers from the Institute of Experimental Physics and held in Debrecen, Hungary, from 4 to 7 October 1994. The purpose of the RCM was to discuss the scope and goals of the CRP, to report and evaluate the first results of the research carried out by each participating laboratory, to review the current tasks, identify further actions of participants and agree on the coordination of work under this CRP. The detailed agenda, the list of participants, conclusions and recommendations of the meeting are presented in the summary report. (author)

  20. Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the ...

  1. Ibuprofen versus steroids: risk and benefit, efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giovannini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years we have observed an upward trend in the employment of ibuprofen as anti-inflammatory and antipyretic therapy. Therefore the pediatrician has often a precious option in the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatment in children instead of using steroids and paracetamol. In clinical practice ibuprofen can be used in the treatment of headache, toothache, otalgy, dysmenorrhea, neuralgia, arthralgia, myalgia, abdominal pain and fever: it is the first choice for these common diseases. However, the use of steroids is a routine, even if non-corticosteroid anti-inflammatory molecules could be useful. Certainly steroids are powerful anti-inflammatory, indicated for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders and in acute respiratory and allergic diseases. Beside, thanks to their chemical and pharmacological profile, they also provide patients with an antipyretic effect. However, the use of steroids must be reserved to cases in which other classical antipyretics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not effective. The possible side effects and risks associated with stepping down steroids must be considered. Although “steroids-phobia” should be discouraged, steroids are to be reserved only as the first indication. In all other cases the pediatrician can use ibuprofen, whose efficacy and safety are widely demonstrated by now.

  2. Steroid induced diabetes mellitus in patients receiving prednisolone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Steroids are a useful component of combination chemotherapy or as a single agent in the treatment of haematological disorders even though there are adverse effects associated with its use. Methods: We report four patients who developed diabetes mellitus (DM) during treatment with steroids for ...

  3. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  4. Cyclodextrin dimers as receptor molecules for steroid sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.R.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2000-01-01

    The dansyl-modified dimer 9 complexes strongly with the steroidal bile salts. Relative to native -cyclodextrin, the binding of cholate (1 a) and deoxycholate (1 b) salts is especially enhanced. These steroids bind exclusively in a 1:1 fashion. For other bile salts (1 c-1 e) both 1:1 and 1:2

  5. Metabolic Action Of Sex Steroids: The Effects Of Testosterone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been widely reported that sex steroids affect carbohydrate metabolism and may have influences on hepatic enzymes. There have also been reports that glucocorticoids and sex steroids sometimes bind to similar receptors. All these suggest possible functional similarities or antagonism between glucocorticoids and ...

  6. Steroid sulfatase and sulfuryl transferase activities in human brain tumors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, L.; Bičíková, M.; Mohapl, M.; Hill, M.; Černý, Ivan; Hampl, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 1 (2008), s. 31-39 ISSN 0960-0760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : dehydroepiandrosterone * steroid sulfatase * steroid sulfuryl transferase * brain Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.827, year: 2008

  7. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  8. Homicide and Associated Steroid Acute Psychosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Airagnes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of an old man treated with methylprednisolone for chronic lymphoid leukemia. After two months of treatment, he declared an acute steroid psychosis and beat his wife to death. Steroids were stopped and the psychotic symptoms subsided, but his condition declined very quickly. The clinical course was complicated by a major depressive disorder with suicidal ideas, due to the steroid stoppage, the leukemia progressed, and by a sudden onset of a fatal pulmonary embolism. This clinical case highlights the importance of early detection of steroid psychosis and proposes, should treatment not be stopped, a strategy of dose reduction combined with a mood stabilizer or antipsychotic treatment. In addition have been revised the risks of the adverse psychiatric effects of steroids.

  9. The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daya, S.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture

  10. Mechanical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Parrish, A

    1973-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer's Reference Book: 11th Edition presents a comprehensive examination of the use of Systéme International d' Unités (SI) metrication. It discusses the effectiveness of such a system when used in the field of engineering. It addresses the basic concepts involved in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Some of the topics covered in the book are the metallurgy of iron and steel; screw threads and fasteners; hole basis and shaft basis fits; an introduction to geometrical tolerancing; mechanical working of steel; high strength alloy steels; advantages of making components as castings

  11. Symptomatic lumbosacral transitional vertebra: a review of the current literature and clinical outcomes following steroid injection or surgical intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holm Emil Kongsted

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bertolotti’s syndrome (BS refers to the possible association between the congenital malformation lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV, and low back pain (LBP. Several treatments have been proposed including steroid injections, resections of the LSTV, laminectomy, and lumbar spinal fusion. The aim of this review was to compare the clinical outcomes in previous trials and case reports for these treatments in patients with LBP and LSTV. A PubMed search was conducted. We included English studies of patients diagnosed with LSTV treated with steroid injection, laminectomy, spinal fusion or resection of the transitional articulation. Of 272 articles reviewed 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Their level of evidence were graded I–V and the clinical outcomes were evaluated. Only 1 study had high evidence level (II. The remainders were case series (level IV. Only 5 studies used validated clinical outcome measures. A total of 79 patients were reported: 31 received treatment with steroid injections, 33 were treated with surgical resection of the LSTV, 8 received lumbar spinal fusion, and 7 cases were treated with laminectomy. Surgical management seems to improve the patient’s symptoms, especially patients diagnosed with “far out syndrome” treated with laminectomy. Clinical outcomes were more heterogenetic for patient’s treated with steroid injections. The literature regarding BS is sparse and generally with low evidence. Non-surgical management (e.g., steroid injections and surgical intervention could not directly be compared due to lack of standardization in clinical outcome. Generally, surgical management seems to improve patient’s clinical outcome over time, whereas steroid injection only improves the patient’s symptoms temporarily. Further studies with larger sample size and higher evidence are warranted for the clinical guidance in the treatment of BS.

  12. Symptomatic lumbosacral transitional vertebra: a review of the current literature and clinical outcomes following steroid injection or surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Emil Kongsted; Bünger, Cody; Foldager, Casper Bindzus

    2017-01-01

    Bertolotti's syndrome (BS) refers to the possible association between the congenital malformation lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV), and low back pain (LBP). Several treatments have been proposed including steroid injections, resections of the LSTV, laminectomy, and lumbar spinal fusion. The aim of this review was to compare the clinical outcomes in previous trials and case reports for these treatments in patients with LBP and LSTV. A PubMed search was conducted. We included English studies of patients diagnosed with LSTV treated with steroid injection, laminectomy, spinal fusion or resection of the transitional articulation. Of 272 articles reviewed 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Their level of evidence were graded I-V and the clinical outcomes were evaluated. Only 1 study had high evidence level (II). The remainders were case series (level IV). Only 5 studies used validated clinical outcome measures. A total of 79 patients were reported: 31 received treatment with steroid injections, 33 were treated with surgical resection of the LSTV, 8 received lumbar spinal fusion, and 7 cases were treated with laminectomy. Surgical management seems to improve the patient's symptoms, especially patients diagnosed with "far out syndrome" treated with laminectomy. Clinical outcomes were more heterogenetic for patient's treated with steroid injections. The literature regarding BS is sparse and generally with low evidence. Non-surgical management (e.g., steroid injections) and surgical intervention could not directly be compared due to lack of standardization in clinical outcome. Generally, surgical management seems to improve patient's clinical outcome over time, whereas steroid injection only improves the patient's symptoms temporarily. Further studies with larger sample size and higher evidence are warranted for the clinical guidance in the treatment of BS. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  13. Steroid acne vs. Pityrosporum folliculitis: the incidence of Pityrosporum ovale and the effect of antifungal drugs in steroid acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H J; Lee, S K; Son, S J; Kim, Y S; Yang, H Y; Kim, J H

    1998-10-01

    Steroid acne is a folliculitis that can result from systemic or topical administration of steroid, and has been described as showing a similar clinical picture to Pityrosporum folliculitis, but there have been few reports about the incidence of Pityrosporum ovale and the effect of antimycotic drugs in steroid acne and other acneiform eruptions. Our purpose was to describe the association between steroid acne and P. ovale, and to confirm the superior efficacy of oral antifungal drugs over anti-acne drugs in the treatment of steroid acne. The history, clinical features direct microscopy, histopathologic analysis, and therapeutic results of 125 cases with steroid acne or other acneiform eruptions were described and compared. Over 80% of patients with acneiform eruption receiving systemic steroid revealed significant numbers of P. ovale in the lesional follicle. Furthermore, oral antifungal drug (itraconazole) showed significantly better clinical and mycologic effects than any other group of medications used in this study. Steroid acne and other acneiform eruptions showing discrete follicular papules and/or pustules localized to the upper trunk and acneiform facial skin lesions associated with multiple acneiform lesions on the body in the summer period should be suspected as Pityrosporum folliculitis. In addition, oral antifungal drugs recommended for Pityrosporum folliculitis; however, it will require a larger case-control study to confirm the superiority of antifungal therapy over anti-acne treatment.

  14. Use of [125I]-iodohistamine-labelled steroid derivatives as radioligands for radioimmunoassay of natural and synthetic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanczyk, F.Z.; Goebelsmann, U.

    1981-01-01

    [ 125 I]-Iodohistamine-labelled steroid derivatives were prepared and utilized as radioligands in radioimmunoassays of progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, estriol-16α-glucuronide, levonorgestrel, norethindrone and medroxyprogesterone acetate. The binding of these iodinated radioligands was compared to that of the corresponding tritiated steroids and their effect on the sensitivity and slope of standard curves was examined. The results demonstrate that much higher antibody dilutions could be used with iodinated than with tritiated radioligands. In general, standard curves obtained with iodinated radioligands were more sensitive than those obtained with tritiated steroids, but standard curves had steeper slopes when tritiated rather than iodinated radioligands were used. The data, summarizing our 5-year experience with steroid-[ 125 I]-iodohistamine derivatives, indicate that these tracers play an important role in radioimmunoassay systems for both natural and synthetic steroids. (author)

  15. Efficacy of steroidal vs non-steroidal agents in oral lichen planus: a randomised, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A R; Rai, A; Aftab, M; Jain, S; Singh, M

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of steroidal and non-steroidal agents for treating oral lichen planus. Forty patients with clinical and/or histologically proven oral lichen planus were randomly placed into four groups and treated with topical triamcinolone, oral dapsone, topical tacrolimus or topical retinoid for three months. Pre- and post-treatment symptoms and signs were scored for each patient. Patients in all treatment groups showed significant clinical improvement after three months (p 0.05) and for topical retinoid vs topical tacrolimus (p > 0.05). Non-steroidal drugs such as dapsone, tacrolimus and retinoid are as efficacious as steroidal drugs for treating oral lichen planus, and avoid the side effects associated with steroids.

  16. Topical steroids in the current clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Belousova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses issues related to current criteria for selection of glucocorticosteroids for external use as the basic therapy for a great number of allergic and inflammatory skin diseases. The authors emphasize that non-fluorinated GCSs having the best efficacy-to-safety ratio must be the drugs of first choice. The article provides data on a positive clinical experience of using a non-halogenated glucocorticosteroid for external use - hydrocortisone 17-butyrate (Laticort - for treatment of steroid-sensitive dermatoses in children and adults. The drug has a high anti-inflammatory action and minimum risk of the development of side effects, which is sufficient for using it in sensitive areas of skin (face, neck, folds, genitals both in children and in adults. The availability of three forms of the drug (solution, cream and ointment ensures the expedience and convenience of its application at any stage of the inflammatory process and for any localization.

  17. Steroids in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossen, Ida; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Dimmen, Malene V

    2016-01-01

    . In male house sparrows, ornamental traits involved in male quality signalling are important for female selection. These traits are governed by endocrinological systems, and POPs may therefore interfere with male quality signalling. The aim of the present study was to use the house sparrow as a mid......At high trophic levels, environmental contaminants have been found to affect endocrinological processes. Less attention has been paid to species at lower trophic levels. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) may be a useful model for investigating effects of POPs in mid-range trophic level species......-range trophic level model species to study the effects of environmental contaminants on endocrinology and male quality signalling. We analysed the levels of selected PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs and investigated the possible effects of these contaminants on circulating levels of steroid hormones (4 progestagens, 4...

  18. Breakthroughs in neuroactive steroid drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Maria-Jesus; La, Daniel; Coughlin, Quinn; Newman, Caitlin A; Griffin, Andrew M; Harrison, Boyd L; Salituro, Francesco G

    2018-01-15

    Endogenous and synthetic neuroactive steroids (NASs) or neurosteroids are effective modulators of multiple signaling pathways including receptors for the γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA A ) and glutamate, in particular N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA). These receptors are the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS), and there is growing evidence suggesting that dysregulation of neurosteroid production plays a role in numerous neurological disorders. The significant unmet medical need for treatment of CNS disorders has increased the interest for these types of compounds. In this review, we highlight recent progress in the clinical development of NAS drug candidates, in addition to preclinical breakthroughs in the identification of novel NASs, mainly for GABA A and NMDA receptor modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Two new steroidal glycosides were isolated from Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-12-one-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  20. Developmental reprogramming of reproductive and metabolic dysfunction in sheep: native steroids vs. environmental steroid receptor modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Sarma, Hiren N.; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Steckler, Teresa L.; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    The inappropriate programming of developing organ systems by exposure to excess native or environmental steroids, particularly the contamination of our environment and our food sources with synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals that can interact with steroid receptors, is a major concern. Studies with native steroids have found that in utero exposure of sheep to excess testosterone, an estrogen precursor, results in low birth weight offspring and leads to an array of adult reproductive / metabolic deficits manifested as cycle defects, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine / ovarian defects, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Furthermore, the severity of reproductive dysfunction is amplified by excess postnatal weight gain. The constellation of adult reproductive and metabolic dysfunction in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep is similar to features seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Prenatal dihydrotestosterone treatment failed to result in similar phenotype suggesting that many effects of prenatal testosterone excess are likely facilitated via aromatization to estradiol. Similarly, exposure to environmental steroid imposters such as bisphenol A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC) from days 30-90 of gestation had long-term but differential effects. Exposure of sheep to BPA, which resulted in maternal levels of 30-50 ng/ml BPA, culminated in low birth-weight offspring. These female offspring were hypergonadotropic during early postnatal life and characterized by severely dampened preovulatory LH surges. Prenatal MXC-treated females had normal birth weight and manifested delayed but normal amplitude LH surges. Importantly, the effects of BPA were evident at levels, which approximated twice the highest levels found in human maternal circulation of industrialized nations. These findings provide evidence in support of developmental origin of adult reproductive and metabolic diseases and highlight the risk posed by exposure to environmental endocrine

  1. Cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelle, Sven; Reichenbach, Stephan; Wandel, Simon; Hildebrand, Pius; Tschannen, Beatrice; Villiger, Peter M; Egger, Matthias; Jüni, Peter

    2011-01-11

    To analyse the available evidence on cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Network meta-analysis. Bibliographic databases, conference proceedings, study registers, the Food and Drug Administration website, reference lists of relevant articles, and reports citing relevant articles through the Science Citation Index (last update July 2009). Manufacturers of celecoxib and lumiracoxib provided additional data. All large scale randomised controlled trials comparing any non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or placebo. Two investigators independently assessed eligibility. The primary outcome was myocardial infarction. Secondary outcomes included stroke, death from cardiovascular disease, and death from any cause. Two investigators independently extracted data. 31 trials in 116 429 patients with more than 115 000 patient years of follow-up were included. Patients were allocated to naproxen, ibuprofen, diclofenac, celecoxib, etoricoxib, rofecoxib, lumiracoxib, or placebo. Compared with placebo, rofecoxib was associated with the highest risk of myocardial infarction (rate ratio 2.12, 95% credibility interval 1.26 to 3.56), followed by lumiracoxib (2.00, 0.71 to 6.21). Ibuprofen was associated with the highest risk of stroke (3.36, 1.00 to 11.6), followed by diclofenac (2.86, 1.09 to 8.36). Etoricoxib (4.07, 1.23 to 15.7) and diclofenac (3.98, 1.48 to 12.7) were associated with the highest risk of cardiovascular death. Although uncertainty remains, little evidence exists to suggest that any of the investigated drugs are safe in cardiovascular terms. Naproxen seemed least harmful. Cardiovascular risk needs to be taken into account when prescribing any non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

  2. Synthetic lipid nanoparticles targeting steroid organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merian, Juliette; Boisgard, Raphael; Theze, Benoit; Decleves, Xavier; Texier, Isabelle; Tavitian, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Lipidots are original nano-particulate lipid delivery vectors for drugs and contrast agents made from materials generally regarded as safe. Here, we characterized the in vivo stability, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics of lipidots. Lipidots 55 nm in diameter and coated with a phospholipid/poly(ethyleneglycol) surfactant shell were triply labeled with 3 H-cholesteryl-hexadecyl-ether, cholesteryl- 14 C-oleate, and the 1,19-dioctadecyl-3,3,39,39-tetramethyl-indo-tri-carbocyanine infrared fluorescent dye and injected intravenously into immunocompetent Friend virus B-type mice. The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of lipidots were analyzed quantitatively in serial samples of blood and tissue and with in vivo optical imaging and were refined by microscopic examination of selected target tissues. The plasmatic half-life of lipidots was approximately 30 min. Radioactive and fluorescent tracers displayed a similar nanoparticle-driven biodistribution, indicative of the lipidots' integrity during the first hours after injection. Lipidots distributed in the liver and, surprisingly, in the steroid-rich organs adrenals and ovaries, but not in the spleen. This tropism was confirmed at the microscopic level by histologic detection of 1,19-dioctadecyl- 3,3,39,39-tetramethyl-indo-tri-carbocyanine. Nanoparticle loading with cholesterol derivatives increased accumulation in ovaries in a dose dependent manner. This previously unreported distribution pattern is specific to lipidots and attributed to their nano-metric size and composition, conferring on them a lipoprotein-like behavior. The affinity of lipidots for steroid hormone-rich areas is of interest to address drugs and contrast agents to lipoprotein-receptor-over-expressing cancer cells found in hormone-dependent tumors. (authors)

  3. The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; Glidden, David V.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Hong, Kevin C.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Lee, Salena M.; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Acharya, Nisha R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide comprehensive trial methods and baseline data for the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial and to present epidemiological characteristics such as risk factors, causative organisms, and ulcer severity. Methods Baseline data from a 1:1 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked clinical trial comparing prednisolone phosphate, 1%, with placebo as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Eligible patients had a culture-positive bacterial corneal ulcer and had been taking moxifloxacin for 48 hours. The primary outcome for the trial is best spectacle-corrected visual acuity at 3 months from enrollment. This report provides comprehensive baseline data, including best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, infiltrate size, microbio-logical results, and patient demographics, for patients enrolled in the trial. Results Of 500 patients enrolled, 97% were in India. Two hundred twenty patients (44%) were agricultural workers. Median baseline visual acuity was 0.84 logMAR (Snellen, 20/125) (interquartile range, 0.36-1.7; Snellen, 20/50 to counting fingers). Baseline visual acuity was not significantly different between the United States and India. Ulcers in India had larger infiltrate/scar sizes (P=.04) and deeper infiltrates (P=.04) and were more likely to be localized centrally (P=.002) than ulcers enrolled in the United States. Gram-positive bacteria were the most common organisms isolated from the ulcers (n=366, 72%). Conclusions The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial will compare the use of a topical corticosteroid with placebo as adjunctive therapy for bacterial corneal ulcers. Patients enrolled in this trial had diverse ulcer severity and on average significantly reduced visual acuity at presentation. PMID:21987581

  4. Long-term use of steroids protects from the development of symptomatic diverticulitis requiring hospitalization in the Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shen-Shong; Hu, Hsiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of diverticulitis is poorly understood. Factors such as physical inactivity, constipation, obesity, smoking, and the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with an increased risk of diverticular disease. To evaluate whether patients exhibiting long-term steroid use are at increased risk of colonic diverticulitis. We conducted a population-based, nested case-control study. Data were retrospectively collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised patients diagnosed with diverticulitis, identified using inpatient discharge records using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes (562.11 and 562.13), and those who were administered one or more prescriptions for corticosteroids for systemic use. Control patients were matched to cases by age, sex, NSAID use, laxative drug use, and index date. We enrolled 690 patients with colonic diverticulitis and 2760 in the control group. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Compared with steroid nonusers, the adjusted ORs were 0.60 (95% CI = 0.35-1.06) and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.64-1.008) in current steroid users and previous steroid users, respectively. In addition, the adjusted ORs were 0.55 (95% CI = 0.31-0.98), 0.57 (95% CI = 0.31-0.98), and 0.44 (95% CI = 0.22-0.86) for steroid use duration more than half time by an exposure period of 90 days, 180 days, and 365 days before the claim date of colonic diverticulitis, respectively. The results indicated that long-term steroid use within one year is associated with lower risk of colonic diverticulitis.

  5. Long-term use of steroids protects from the development of symptomatic diverticulitis requiring hospitalization in the Asian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Shong Chang

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of diverticulitis is poorly understood. Factors such as physical inactivity, constipation, obesity, smoking, and the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been associated with an increased risk of diverticular disease. To evaluate whether patients exhibiting long-term steroid use are at increased risk of colonic diverticulitis.We conducted a population-based, nested case-control study. Data were retrospectively collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised patients diagnosed with diverticulitis, identified using inpatient discharge records using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM codes (562.11 and 562.13, and those who were administered one or more prescriptions for corticosteroids for systemic use. Control patients were matched to cases by age, sex, NSAID use, laxative drug use, and index date. We enrolled 690 patients with colonic diverticulitis and 2760 in the control group. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using conditional logistic regression.Compared with steroid nonusers, the adjusted ORs were 0.60 (95% CI = 0.35-1.06 and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.64-1.008 in current steroid users and previous steroid users, respectively. In addition, the adjusted ORs were 0.55 (95% CI = 0.31-0.98, 0.57 (95% CI = 0.31-0.98, and 0.44 (95% CI = 0.22-0.86 for steroid use duration more than half time by an exposure period of 90 days, 180 days, and 365 days before the claim date of colonic diverticulitis, respectively.The results indicated that long-term steroid use within one year is associated with lower risk of colonic diverticulitis.

  6. Use of steroids in rhinoplasty with lateral osteotomies for reducing post operative oedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanober, A.; Rashid, M.; Khan, M.I.; Rehman, S.U.; Fatima, S.; Hussain, A.

    2018-01-01

    Postoperative periorbital edema is a commonly encountered side effect of rhinoplasties in which lateral osteotomies have been incorporated. It dissatisfies the surgeon as well as the patient. Osteotomies are done at the end of all soft tissue manipulation to reduce the development of edema. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of intravenous dexamethasone in reducing edema in patients who undergo rhinoplasty with lateral osteotomies. Methods A Prospective randomized controlled trial was done at department of plastic and reconstructive surgery, Shifa International Hospital Islamabad. Sixty patients age between 16- 55 requiring open rhinoplasty were taken for this study and divided in two groups. One group received dexamethasone 8mg intravenously peroperatively and second dose 4 hours postoperatively. The second group did not receive anything. Both groups were assessed on first post operative day and 7th day for periorbital edema. Result The overall decrease in edema in patients who received steroid was by 50% while in control group was 33.3%. By the 7th day control group 13.3% patients had grade III edema as compared to 3.33% in steroid group. Chi test was applied and p value of 0.0289 was obtained which was found to be statistically very significant. Conclusion Dexamethasone used in minimal dosage showed significant advantage in reducing periorbital edema after rhinoplasty with no evidence of any side effects secondary to steroid administration. (author)

  7. Prolonged Hypogonadism in Males Following Withdrawal from Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: an Underrecognized Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; DeLuca, James; Isaacs, Stephanie; Baggish, Aaron; Weiner, Rory; Bhasin, Shalender; Pope, Harrison G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the frequency and severity of hypogonadal symptoms in male long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) misusers who have discontinued AAS use. Design Cross-sectional, naturalistic. Setting Outpatient facility. Participants Twenty-four male former long-term AAS users and 36 non-AAS-using weightlifters, recruited by advertisement in Massachusetts, USA. Five of the former users were currently receiving treatment with physiologic testosterone replacement, leaving 19 untreated users for the numerical comparisons below. Measurements The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, questions regarding history of AAS use, physical examination, serum hormone determinations, and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Findings Compared with the 36 non-AAS-using weightlifters, the 19 untreated former AAS users displayed significantly smaller testicular volumes (estimated difference [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 2.3 [0.1, 4.5] ml; p = 0.042) and lower serum testosterone levels (estimated difference: 131 [25, 227] dL; p = 0.009), with five users showing testosterone levels below 200 ng/dL despite abstinence from AAS for 3–26 months. Untreated former users also displayed significantly lower scores on the IIEF Sexual Desire subscale (estimated difference: 2.4 [1.3, 3.5] points on a 10-point scale; p treatment. Conclusions Among long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid misusers, anabolic-androgenic steroid-withdrawal hypogonadism appears to be common, frequently prolonged, and associated with substantial morbidity. PMID:25598171

  8. Quantification of steroid conjugates using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskell, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Fast atom bombardment/mass spectrometry or liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry provides the capability for direct analysis of steroid conjugates (sulfates, glucuronides) without prior hydrolysis or derivatization. During the analysis of biologic extracts, limitations on the sensitivity of detection arise from the presence of co-extracted material which may suppress or obscure the analyte signal. A procedure is described for the quantitative determination of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in serum which achieved selective isolation of the analyte using immunoadsorption extraction and highly specific detection using tandem mass spectrometry. A stable isotope-labeled analog [( 2H2]dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) was used as internal standard. Fast atom bombardment of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate yielded abundant [M-H]- ions that fragmented following collisional activation to give HSO4-; m/z 97. During fast atom bombardment/tandem mass spectrometry of serum extracts, a scan of precursor ions fragmenting to give m/z 97 detected dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and the [2H2]-labeled analog with a selectivity markedly superior to that observed using conventional mass spectrometry detection. Satisfactory agreement was observed between quantitative data obtained in this way and data obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the heptafluorobutyrates of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and [2H2]dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate obtained by direct derivatization. 21 refs

  9. Sugammadex Improves Neuromuscular Function in Patients Receiving Perioperative Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, A B; Bolat, E; Erhan, O L; Kilinc, M; Demirel, I; Toprak, G Caglar

    2018-02-01

    Sugammadex has steroid-encapsulating effect. This study was undertaken to assess whether the clinical efficacy of sugammadex was altered by the administration of steroids. Sixty patients between 18 and 60 years of age with the American Society of Anesthesiologists I-IV and undergoing elective direct laryngoscopy/biopsy were included in this study. Patients were assigned to two groups based on the intraoperative steroid use: those who received steroid (Group S) and who did not (Group C). After standard general anesthesia, patients were monitored with the train of four (TOF) monitoring. The preferred steroid and its dose, timing of steroid administration, and TOF value before and after sugammadex as well as the time to recovery (TOF of 0.9) were recorded. SPSS software version 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. There is no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of age, gender, preoperative medication use, and TOF ratio just before administering sugammadex. The reached time to TOF 0.9 after sugammadex administration was significantly shorter in Group S than Group C (P sugammadex as well as the dose of sugammadex in those who received prednisolone; time to TOF 0.9 was higher in prednisolone receivers as compared to dexamethasone receivers (P sugammadex was found, in contrast with what one expect. Further studies are required to determine the cause of this effect which is probably due to a potential interaction between sugammadex and steroids.

  10. Symptomatic lumbosacral transitional vertebra: a review of the current literature and clinical outcomes following steroid injection or surgical intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Holm Emil Kongsted; Bünger Cody; Foldager Casper Bindzus

    2017-01-01

    Bertolotti’s syndrome (BS) refers to the possible association between the congenital malformation lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV), and low back pain (LBP). Several treatments have been proposed including steroid injections, resections of the LSTV, laminectomy, and lumbar spinal fusion. The aim of this review was to compare the clinical outcomes in previous trials and case reports for these treatments in patients with LBP and LSTV. A PubMed search was conducted. We included English st...

  11. Physicochemical and biological properties of new steroid metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, R.

    1980-04-01

    The aim of this investigation was to prepare stable steroid metal chelates by chemical conversion of the natural steroid hormones testerone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) and estradiol and to characterize these by means of their spectroscopic and other physico-chemical properties. In addition, various measuring techniques for the qualitative and quantitative study of complex stabilities and hydrolytic properties were employed. The distribution of some tritiated steroid metal complexes in the tissues of rats was tested using whole animal autoradiography, mainly with a view to identifying whether selective concentration occurs in certain organs. (orig.) [de

  12. The Central Effects of Androgenic-anabolic Steroid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mędraś, Marek; Brona, Anna; Jóźków, Paweł

    : Millions of men use androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) to stimulate muscle growth and improve physical appearance. Although 1 out of 3 people who uses androgenic-anabolic steroids develops a steroid use disorder, the effects of the drugs on the central nervous system and the psyche are still not well understood. Although most addictive substances improve mood immediately after administration, AAS exert less pronounced euphoric effects. Instead, they are primarily taken for the delayed gratification of increased muscle mass. Withdrawal from AAS may lead to a range of somatic and psychiatric symptoms, and, in many cases, comprehensive treatment supervised by an endocrinologist and a psychiatrist is required.

  13. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja

    2016-01-01

    's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo...... or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us to map...

  14. International Society of Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM)-ITS reference DNA barcoding database--the quality controlled standard tool for routine identification of human and animal pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinyi, Laszlo; Serena, Carolina; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Arabatzis, Michael; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Vu, Duong; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Arthur, Ian; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Giraldo, Alejandra; da Cunha, Keith Cassia; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Hendrickx, Marijke; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; de Azevedo Melo, Analy Salles; Merseguel, Karina Bellinghausen; Khan, Aziza; Parente Rocha, Juliana Alves; Sampaio, Paula; da Silva Briones, Marcelo Ribeiro; e Ferreira, Renata Carmona; de Medeiros Muniz, Mauro; Castañón-Olivares, Laura Rosio; Estrada-Barcenas, Daniel; Cassagne, Carole; Mary, Charles; Duan, Shu Yao; Kong, Fanrong; Sun, Annie Ying; Zeng, Xianyu; Zhao, Zuotao; Gantois, Nausicaa; Botterel, Françoise; Robbertse, Barbara; Schoch, Conrad; Gams, Walter; Ellis, David; Halliday, Catriona; Chen, Sharon; Sorrell, Tania C; Piarroux, Renaud; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Pais, Célia; de Hoog, Sybren; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Toriello, Conchita; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Delhaes, Laurence; Stubbe, Dirk; Dromer, Françoise; Ranque, Stéphane; Guarro, Josep; Cano-Lira, Jose F; Robert, Vincent; Velegraki, Aristea; Meyer, Wieland

    2015-05-01

    Human and animal fungal pathogens are a growing threat worldwide leading to emerging infections and creating new risks for established ones. There is a growing need for a rapid and accurate identification of pathogens to enable early diagnosis and targeted antifungal therapy. Morphological and biochemical identification methods are time-consuming and require trained experts. Alternatively, molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, a powerful and easy tool for rapid monophasic identification, offer a practical approach for species identification and less demanding in terms of taxonomical expertise. However, its wide-spread use is still limited by a lack of quality-controlled reference databases and the evolving recognition and definition of new fungal species/complexes. An international consortium of medical mycology laboratories was formed aiming to establish a quality controlled ITS database under the umbrella of the ISHAM working group on "DNA barcoding of human and animal pathogenic fungi." A new database, containing 2800 ITS sequences representing 421 fungal species, providing the medical community with a freely accessible tool at http://www.isham.org/ and http://its.mycologylab.org/ to rapidly and reliably identify most agents of mycoses, was established. The generated sequences included in the new database were used to evaluate the variation and overall utility of the ITS region for the identification of pathogenic fungi at intra-and interspecies level. The average intraspecies variation ranged from 0 to 2.25%. This highlighted selected pathogenic fungal species, such as the dermatophytes and emerging yeast, for which additional molecular methods/genetic markers are required for their reliable identification from clinical and veterinary specimens. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are expressly...

  16. Urinary Steroid Profile in Ironman Triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos-Serrano Marta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine variations in the urinary steroid profile of triathletes following an Ironman event. A total of 10 male participants (age = 36.0 ± 1.27 years; body height = 179.29 ± 10.77 cm; body mass = 74.50 ± 1.04 kg completed an Ironman Championship. Urine samples were collected before, immediately after, and 24 hours following the race. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS was used to detect and quantify catabolic and anabolic hormones: Androsterone, Dehydroepiandrosteone (DHEA, Androstenedione and Testosterone (T, Betaestradiol, Estrone, Progesterone, Cortisol (C, Cortisone, Tetrahydrocortisol (THE and Tetrahydrocortisone (THF. These were measured in their glucuroconjugated and free forms. Androsterone (3297.80 ± 756.83 vs. 2154.26 ± 1375.38, DHEA (47.80 ± 19.21 vs. 32.62 ± 15.96 and Beta-estradiol (59.36 ± 11.7 vs. 41.67 ± 10.59 levels decreased after the event. The significant decrease of DHEA (47.80 ± 19.21 vs. 32.11 ± 14.03 remained at 24 hours. Cortisol (200.38 ± 56.60 vs. 257.10 ± 74.00 and THE (238.65 ± 81.55 vs. 289.62 ± 77.13 increased after exercise and remained elevated 24 hours later (200.38 ± 56.60 vs. 252.48 ± 62.09; 238.65 ± 81.55 vs. 284.20 ± 66.66. The following anabolic/catabolic ratios fell after exercise: T/C (0.85 ± 0.54 vs. 0.54 ± 0.29, T/THE (0.66 ± 0.29 vs. 0.40 ± 0.08, T/THE+THF (0.38 ± 0.17 vs. 0.24 ± 0.06, DHEA/THE (0.22 ± 0.05 vs. 0.12 ± 0.05, DHEA/THF (0.34 ± 0.02 vs. 0.21 ± 0.01 and DHEA/THE+THF (0.12 ± 0.02 vs. 0.08 ± 0.03. The steroid profile showed that athletes were fatigued after finishing the competition and a catabolic state remained 24 hours later.

  17. Long-term experience of steroid-free pediatric renal transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, Per; Thiesson, Helle C; Baudier, François

    2014-01-01

    Increased focus on the potential negative side effects of steroid usage in pediatric transplantation has led to steroid minimization or steroid-free transplantation. In this study, we report results after complete steroid avoidance in renal transplantation in the period 1994-2009. We evaluate...... in the youngest (renal transplantation is safe and protects against steroid-induced obesity and short stature....... the effects of complete steroid avoidance on allograft function, BMI, and linear growth. The majority of transplanted children were induced with antithymocyte globulin and immunosuppressed with a calcineurin inhibitor and mycophenolate mofetil. Steroids were given only when rejection occurred or due...

  18. Anabolic Steroids and Strength and Power Related Athletic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, David R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficacy of steroids in development of muscular strength in athletes is not proven. Their long-term use is increasingly being associated with liver disorders, including liver cancer, and other health problems. (JD)

  19. Effects of ovariectomy and anabolic steroid implantation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of ovariectomy and anabolic steroid implantation on the somatotrophic axis in feedlot heifers. CR Bailey, GC Duff, SR Sanders, SP Cuneo, CP McMurphy, SW Limesand, JA Marchello, DW Schafer, ML Rhoads, DM Hallford ...

  20. Multiple arterial thromboses associated with anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Neil Arthur; Abbas, Jonathan Raihan; Simms, Malcolm Harold

    2014-03-01

    The use of supraphysiological doses of anabolic androgenic steroids can have serious side effects. This article reports the case of a young man who suffered potentially life-threatening arterial thromboses following the use of these drugs.

  1. Detection and distribution of endogenous steroids in human stratum corneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ping Tseng

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The results demonstrate that, with the achievable sensitivity of current analytical technology, physiological concentrations of endogenous steroids, such as hydrocortisone and cortisone, can be found in the SC of some individuals.

  2. A Steroid-resistant Cryptogenic Multifocal Ulcerous Stenosing Enteritis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-22

    May 22, 2018 ... consists of nutrition supplement, systemic steroids, intestinal resection, or balloon ... onset at early ages involved gastric and duodenum, who had a mutation in cytosolic ... cancer or death has been reported. In this situation,.

  3. Bell's Palsy: Treatment with Steroids and Antiviral Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drooping of a corner of the mouth • Difficulty smiling, frowning, or making other facial expressions • Twitching or ... no definite added improvement. If there is any benefit to adding an antiviral to steroid treatment, it ...

  4. Prevalence and awareness of anabolic androgenic steroid use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on demographics, as well as the use of AAS, was included in ... the side effects of anabolic steroids among bodybuilders. Keywords: Anabolic ... These drugs are available by ..... and reproduction in any medium, provided the.

  5. Clinical aspects of patients with sarcoglycanopathies under steroids therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. V. Albuquerque

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with sarcoglycanopathies, which comprise four subtypes of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies, usually present with progressive weakness leading to early loss of ambulation and premature death, and no effective treatment is currently available. Objective To present clinical aspects and outcomes of six children with sarcoglycanopathies treated with steroids for at least one year. Method Patient files were retrospectively analyzed for steroid use. Results Stabilization of muscle strength was noted in one patient, a slight improvement in two, and a slight worsening in three. In addition, variable responses of forced vital capacity and cardiac function were observed. Conclusions No overt clinical improvement was observed in patients with sarcoglycanopathies under steroid therapy. Prospective controlled studies including a larger number of patients are necessary to determine the effects of steroids for sarcoglycanopathies.

  6. Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewbank, W.B.

    1978-08-01

    The use of the Nuclear Structure References file by the Nuclear Data Project at ORNL is described. Much of the report concerns format information of interest only to those preparing input to the system or otherwise needing detailed knowledge of its internal structure. 17 figures

  7. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  8. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination and profiling of prohibited steroids in human biological matrices. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosetti, Fabio; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Gennaro, Maria Carla; Marengo, Emilio

    2013-05-15

    The use of doping agents, once restricted to professional athletes, has nowadays become a problem of public health, since it also concerns young people and non-competing amateurs in different sports. The use is also diffused in social life for improving physical appearance and enhancing performance and even dietary supplements assumed to improve performance often contain anabolic steroids. While decades ago the so-called "classical doping agents" (like stimulants and narcotics) were used, to-day anabolic steroids are more widely diffused. Anabolic steroids are synthetic substances prepared by introducing modifications in the molecular structure of testosterone, the main natural androgenic anabolic steroid that forms in testes interstitial cells. The first report concerning the use of anabolic steroids by an athlete who searched for increased weight and power dates 1954. In 1974 the misuse of anabolic steroids in sports was banned by the International Olympic Committee and control tests were implemented in 1976 Montreal Olympic Games through radioimmunoassay analysis: the technique, however, only allows for unspecific detection of a limited number of exogenous steroids. Over the years, always new doping substances are synthesized and, as a consequence, the list of prohibited compounds is continuously updated and new suitable analytical methods for their detection and determination in biological matrices are continuously required. In doping control analysis the knowledge of steroid metabolism pathway in human body is of primary importance and the analytical methods must permit the simultaneous detection and determination not only of the forbidden precursor agents but also of their metabolites. In addition, the potential presence and amount in the biological samples of species that can interfere in the analysis should be evaluated. Also the several anabolic steroids, specifically designed to circumvent doping control, put on the market have been incorporated in the

  9. Research Needs and Challenges from Science to Decision Support. Lesson Learnt from the Development of the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD Recommendations for Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serenella Sala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental implications of the whole supply-chain of products, both goods and services, their use, and waste management, i.e., their entire life cycle from “cradle to grave” have to be considered to achieve more sustainable production and consumption patterns. Progress toward environmental sustainability requires enhancing the methodologies for quantitative, integrated environmental assessment and promoting the use of these methodologies in different domains. In the context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA of products, in recent years, several methodologies have been developed for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA. The Joint Research Center of the European Commission (EC-JRC led a “science to decision support” process which resulted in the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD Handbook, providing guidelines to the decision and application of methods for LCIA. The Handbook is the result of a comprehensive process of evaluation and selection of existing methods based on a set of scientific and stakeholder acceptance criteria and involving review and consultation by experts, advisory groups and the public. In this study, we report the main features of the ILCD LCIA recommendation development highlighting relevant issues emerged from this “from science to decision support” process in terms of research needs and challenges for LCIA. Comprehensiveness of the assessment, as well as acceptability and applicability of the scientific developments by the stakeholders, are key elements for the design of new methods and to guarantee the mainstreaming of the sustainability concept.

  10. Biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones by human adrenal carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J.W.; Fishman, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    Over a 15-year period, our university-based laboratory obtained 125 adrenal tumors, of which 15 (12%) were adrenal cortical carcinomas. Of these, 6 (40% of the carcinomas) occurred in patients with clear clinical manifestations of steroid hormone excess. Adrenal cortical carcinoma cells derived from the surgically resected tumors in 4 of these patients were isolated and established in primary culture. Radiotracer steroid interconversion studies were carried out with these cultures and also on...

  11. Mythbusting: There is no steroid “epidemic”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders Schmidt; Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2017-01-01

    When you watch the news, it is evident that steroid use is a growing public health concern that demands a solution. But when you look at the numbers, there is little evidence to support that claim.......When you watch the news, it is evident that steroid use is a growing public health concern that demands a solution. But when you look at the numbers, there is little evidence to support that claim....

  12. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Iaquinto, G; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World today. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World today. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  13. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens

  14. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.deamicis@unical.it

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens

  15. Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography in Steroid Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Fanny

    2017-01-01

    The latest version of liquid chromatography is ultra-high performance (or pressure) chromatography (UHPLC). In the technique, short and narrow-bore columns with particle sizes below 3 µm are used. The extremely high pressure used results in very short analysis times, excellent separation, and good resolution. This makes UHPLC a good choice for steroidal analysis. Steroids are a highly interesting area of study; they can be recognized as biomarkers for several diseases and are a relevant topic...

  16. Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  17. Steroid metabolism in pregnant hamster. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchut, M.

    1980-01-01

    Quartered placentae from 12- and 15-day pregnant hamsters were incubated with 14 C labelled pregnenolone and progesterone and the products of their conversion were identified by chromatographic and isotope dilution methods. Pregnenolone was converted to progesterone, 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, 7α-hydroxyprogesterone, 3α-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one, 3β-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one, 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one, 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione and 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione. Except for 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, the same metabolites were identified in the incubates of the placental tissue with progesterone. Thus, the activity of Δ 5 -3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and Δsup(5→4) isomerase, 7α-hydrΔ 4 -5β- and Δ 4 -5α-reductase enzyme systems was shown in the hamster placenta. The formation of androgens from pregnenolone, progesterone and their 17-hydroxy-derivatives was not observed. There was also no evidence of the formation of estrogens from the above C-21 steroid precursors. (author)

  18. Acute steroid myopathy: a highly overlooked entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haran, Michal; Schattner, Ami; Kozak, Natasha; Mate, Andras; Berrebi, Alain; Shvidel, Lev

    2018-02-15

    Myopathy in patients being treated with corticosteroids is known primarily among chronically-treated patients or in critically ill and mechanically-ventilated patients receiving corticosteroids, often in high doses. To highlight the entity of acute, early-onset corticosteroid-treatment-associated myopathy and its characteristics. Reporting our experience with four patients and reviewing all published reports of myopathy developing ≤14 days of initiating corticosteroid-treatment. Acute corticosteroid myopathy (ASM) exists, though the syndrome appears to be rare. It is characterized by unpredictability and heterogeneity, sometimes developing within 1-3 days, after a single dose, which may not be high and administered by varied routes. Proximal limb muscle weakness is the most common form, but distal limb, bulbar and respiratory muscles may be involved. Steroid cessation often leads to improvement/resolution, but irreversibility may occur. A high index of suspicion for the possibility of ASM is necessary, to ensure drug discontinuation and recovery. This is particularly true since the entity is not widely recognized and its symptoms are often erroneously interpreted as due to the patient's underlying disease.

  19. Steroid use in acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karkhanis, Jamuna; Verna, Elizabeth C; Chang, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Drug-induced and indeterminate acute liver failure (ALF) might be due to an autoimmune-like hepatitis that is responsive to corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether corticosteroids improve survival in fulminant autoimmune hepatitis, drug-induced, or indete......UNLABELLED: Drug-induced and indeterminate acute liver failure (ALF) might be due to an autoimmune-like hepatitis that is responsive to corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether corticosteroids improve survival in fulminant autoimmune hepatitis, drug......-induced, or indeterminate ALF, and whether this benefit varies according to the severity of illness. We conducted a retrospective analysis of autoimmune, indeterminate, and drug-induced ALF patients in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group from 1998-2007. The primary endpoints were overall and spontaneous survival (SS......% versus 66%, P = 0.41), nor with improved survival in any diagnosis category. Steroid use was associated with diminished survival in certain subgroups of patients, including those with the highest quartile of the Model for Endstage Liver Disease (MELD) (>40, survival 30% versus 57%, P = 0...

  20. Predictors of future anabolic androgenic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Lars

    2006-09-01

    To prospectively study the stability of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and predictors of AAS use, and to investigate whether AAS use alters the risk of later emotional and behavioral problems. Survey of a national sample of Norwegian high school students (age 15-19) in 1994 followed up in 1999 (N = 2924). Measures of frequent alcohol intoxication (50+ times per 12 months), cannabis use (12 months), hard drug use (12 months), being offered cannabis, eating problems, conduct problems, sexual debut before age 15, BMI, involvement in power sports, perceived physical appearance, and satisfaction with body parts were obtained. Life-time prevalence of AAS use were 1.9 and 0.8% in the follow-up period. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that future AAS use was predicted by young age, male gender, previous AAS use, involvement in power sports, and frequent alcohol intoxication. AAS use did not predict future emotional or behavioral problems other than reducing the risk of future frequent alcohol intoxication. Frequent alcohol intoxication and involvement in power sports appear to predict future AAS use. At the population level there was little stability in individual AAS use from adolescence to early adulthood. No detrimental effects of AAS use could be detected in this study, but low statistical power limits this conclusion.

  1. Steroid therapy and conduction disturbances after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havakuk, Ofer; Konigstein, Maayan; Ben Assa, Eyal; Arbel, Yaron; Abramowitz, Yigal; Halkin, Amir; Bazan, Samuel; Shmilovich, Haim; Keren, Gad; Finkelstein, Ariel; Banai, Shmuel

    2016-10-01

    Direct mechanical compression of the frame struts on the adjacent bundle branch with local inflammatory reaction might cause conduction system disturbances and need for pacemaker implantation following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We assessed the impact of preprocedural anti-inflammatory steroid therapy on the occurrence of conduction disturbances following TAVI. From a cohort of 324 patients who underwent transfemoral TAVI, 39 (12%) were pretreated with steroids because of iodine allergy (n=29) or active obstructive pulmonary disease (n=10). We compared the rate of occurrence of new conduction disturbances and pacemaker implantation between TAVI patients with (n=39) and without (n=285) steroid treatment, using Cox logistic regression estimates and proportional hazards models. The overall occurrence of new conduction defects and the need for new pacemaker implantation were similar among steroid and non-steroid-treated patients (38.4% vs 37.5% and 25.6% vs 25.3%, respectively). New conduction disturbances were more prevalent in patients treated with CoreValve prosthesis, low implantation, and smaller aortic annulus diameter (P<.001, P<.001, and P=.006, respectively). Thirty-day mortality and complication rates were similar between the groups. Although safe, steroid treatment prior to TAVI failed to reduce the incidence of new conduction defects and the need for pacemaker implantation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sex steroid-related candidate genes in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Elias

    2008-07-01

    Sex steroids readily pass the blood-brain barrier, and receptors for them are abundant in brain areas important for the regulation of emotions, cognition and behaviour. Animal experiments have revealed both important early effects of these hormones on brain development and their ongoing influence on brain morphology and neurotransmission in the adult organism. The important effects of sex steroids on human behaviour are illustrated by, for example, the effect of reduced levels of these hormones on sexual drive and conditions such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder, perimenopausal dysphoria, postpartum depression, postpartum psychosis, dysphoria induced by oral contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and anabolic steroid-induced aggression. The fact that men and women (as groups) differ with respect to the prevalence of several psychiatric disorders, certain aspects of cognitive function and certain personality traits may possibly also reflect an influence of sex steroids on human behaviour. The heritability of most behavioural traits, including personality, cognitive abilities and susceptibility to psychiatric illness, is considerable, but as yet, only few genes of definite importance in this context have been identified. Given the important role of sex steroids for brain function, it is unfortunate that relatively few studies so far have addressed the possible influence of sex steroid-related genes on interindividual differences with respect to personality, cognition and susceptibility to psychiatric disorders. To facilitate further research in this area, this review provides information on several such genes and summarizes what is currently known with respect to their possible influence on brain function.

  3. Steroid withdrawal in renal transplant patients: the Irish experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, P J

    2010-10-29

    BACKGROUND: Steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity in renal transplant recipients. However, there is concern that steroid withdrawal will adversely affect outcome. METHODS: We report on 241 renal transplant recipients on different doses of corticosteroids at 3 months (zero, ≤5 mg\\/day, >5 mg\\/day). Parameters analysed included blood pressure, lipid profile, weight change, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), allograft survival and acute rejection. RESULTS: Elimination of corticosteroids had no impact on allograft survival at 1 year. There were no cases of NODAT in the steroid withdrawal group compared with over 7% in each of the steroid groups. There were no significant improvements in weight gain, blood pressure control or total cholesterol with withdrawal of steroids before 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In renal transplant patients treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate, early withdrawal of steroids does not appear to adversely affect allograft outcome at 1 year. It may result in less NODAT.

  4. [Body cult and use of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein; Chaves, José Carlos; Orleans, Roberto Ghignone de

    2009-04-01

    This study focused on the reasons for practicing bodybuilding and the use of anabolic steroids, as well as the social representations and uses of the body among bodybuilding steroid users. This ethnographic study involved participant observation in middle and lower-class bodybuilding gyms in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, and 43 in-depth interviews with steroid users. Aesthetic reasons are the main motivation for bodybuilding and steroid use in both middle and lower-class users. Dissatisfaction with one's real body as compared to the ideal standard flaunted by the mass media, fear of being devalued or shunned by one's peer groups, the symbolic capital associated with a 'pumped-up' body, and the sense of immediacy in obtaining results all contributed to steroid use. Preventive campaigns are needed, targeting young people and combining a critical view and deconstruction of the values assigned to the body by consumer society, counteracted by high-quality information on the health risks associated with anabolic steroid use.

  5. Effect of Tween 80 on 9a-steroid hydroxylating activity and ultrastructural characteristics of Rhodococcus sp. cells

    OpenAIRE

    Avramova , Tatyana; Spassova , Dimitrina; Mutafov , Sava; Momchilova , Svetlana; Boyadjieva , Lilyana; Damyanova , Boryana; Angelova , Blaga

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Studied is the effect of the non-ionic surfactant Tween 80 on the microbial transformation of 4-androstene- 3,17-dione into its 9a-hydroxy-derivative by resting Rhodococcus sp. cells. The surfactant was applied in the cultivation medium as an additional source of carbon, in the transformation reaction medium as a mediator of the steroid substrate solubility or was used for permeabilization of the glucose grown Rhodococcus sp. cells. Special attention is paid to the fac...

  6. Do mollusks use vertebrate sex steroids as reproductive hormones? II. Critical review of the evidence that steroids have biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alexander P

    2013-02-01

    In assessing the evidence as to whether vertebrate sex steroids (e.g. testosterone, estradiol, progesterone) have hormonal actions in mollusks, ca. 85% of research papers report at least one biological effect; and 18 out of 21 review papers (published between 1970 and 2012) express a positive view. However, just under half of the research studies can be rejected on the grounds that they did not actually test steroids, but compounds or mixtures that were only presumed to behave as steroids (or modulators of steroids) on the basis of their effects in vertebrates (e.g. Bisphenol-A, nonylphenol and sewage treatment effluents). Of the remaining 55 papers, some can be criticized for having no statistical analysis; some for using only a single dose of steroid; others for having irregular dose-response curves; 40 out of the 55 for not replicating the treatments; and 50 out of 55 for having no within-study repetition. Furthermore, most studies had very low effect sizes in comparison to fish-based bioassays for steroids (i.e. they had a very weak 'signal-to-noise' ratio). When these facts are combined with the fact that none of the studies were conducted with rigorous randomization or 'blinding' procedures (implying the possibility of 'operator bias') one must conclude that there is no indisputable bioassay evidence that vertebrate sex steroids have endocrinological or reproductive roles in mollusks. The only observation that has been independently validated is the ability of estradiol to trigger rapid (1-5 min) lysosomal membrane breakdown in hemocytes of Mytilus spp. This is a typical 'inflammatory' response, however, and is not proof that estradiol is a hormone - especially when taken in conjunction with the evidence (discussed in a previous review) that mollusks have neither the enzymes necessary to synthesize vertebrate steroids nor nuclear receptors with which to respond to them. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. AREVA - 2013 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, as well as estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Description of major risks confronting the company; 5 - Information about the issuer; 6 - Business overview; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment; 9 - Situation and activities of the company and its subsidiaries; 10 - Capital resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 - Trend information; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Management and supervisory bodies; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of the management and supervisory bodies; 17 - Human resources information; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information; 22 - Major contracts; 23 - Third party information, statements by experts and declarations of interest; 24 - Documents on display; 25 - Information on holdings; Appendix 1: report of the supervisory board chairman on the preparation and organization of the board's activities and internal control procedures; Appendix 2: statutory auditors' reports; Appendix 3: environmental report; Appendix 4: non-financial reporting methodology and independent third-party report on social, environmental and societal data; Appendix 5: ordinary and extraordinary general shareholders' meeting; Appendix 6: values charter; Appendix 7: table of concordance of the management report; glossaries

  8. Gas chromatography/chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis of anabolic steroids: ionization and collision-induced dissociation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, Michael; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2016-02-28

    The detection of new anabolic steroid metabolites and new designer steroids is a challenging task in doping analysis. Switching from electron ionization gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS/MS) to chemical ionization (CI) has proven to be an efficient way to increase the sensitivity of GC/MS/MS analyses and facilitate the detection of anabolic steroids. CI also extends the possibilities of GC/MS/MS analyses as the molecular ion is retained in its protonated form due to the softer ionization. In EI it can be difficult to find previously unknown but expected metabolites due to the low abundance or absence of the molecular ion and the extensive (and to a large extent unpredictable) fragmentation. The main aim of this work was to study the CI and collision-induced dissociation (CID) behavior of a large number of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) as their trimethylsilyl derivatives in order to determine correlations between structures and CID fragmentation. Clarification of these correlations is needed for the elucidation of structures of unknown steroids and new metabolites. The ionization and CID behavior of 65 AAS have been studied using GC/CI-MS/MS with ammonia as the reagent gas. Glucuronidated AAS reference standards were first hydrolyzed to obtain their free forms. Afterwards, all the standards were derivatized to their trimethylsilyl forms. Full scan and product ion scan analyses were used to examine the ionization and CID behavior. Full scan and product ion scan analyses revealed clear correlations between AAS structure and the obtained mass spectra. These correlations were confirmed by analysis of multiple hydroxylated, methylated, chlorinated and deuterated analogs. AAS have been divided into three groups according to their ionization behavior and into seven groups according to their CID behavior. Correlations between fragmentation and structure were revealed and fragmentation pathways were postulated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley

  9. Targeted Metabolomics Approach To Detect the Misuse of Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors in Equine Sports by Biomarker Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, George Ho Man; Ho, Emmie Ngai Man; Leung, David Kwan Kon; Wong, Kin Sing; Wan, Terence See Ming

    2016-01-05

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prohibited in both human and equine sports. The conventional approach in doping control testing for AAS (as well as other prohibited substances) is accomplished by the direct detection of target AAS or their characteristic metabolites in biological samples using hyphenated techniques such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Such an approach, however, falls short when dealing with unknown designer steroids where reference materials and their pharmacokinetics are not available. In addition, AASs with fast elimination times render the direct detection approach ineffective as the detection window is short. A targeted metabolomics approach is a plausible alternative to the conventional direct detection approach for controlling the misuse of AAS in sports. Because the administration of AAS of the same class may trigger similar physiological responses or effects in the body, it may be possible to detect such administrations by monitoring changes in the endogenous steroidal expression profile. This study attempts to evaluate the viability of using the targeted metabolomics approach to detect the administration of steroidal aromatase inhibitors, namely androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione (6-OXO) and androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione (ATD), in horses. Total (free and conjugated) urinary concentrations of 31 endogenous steroids were determined by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for a group of 2 resting and 2 in-training thoroughbred geldings treated with either 6-OXO or ATD. Similar data were also obtained from a control (untreated) group of in-training thoroughbred geldings (n = 28). Statistical processing and chemometric procedures using principle component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) have highlighted 7 potential biomarkers that could be used to differentiate urine samples obtained from the control and the treated groups

  10. Steroid metabolism and steroid receptors in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eechaute, W.; de Thibault de Boesinghe, L.; Lacroix, E.

    1983-01-01

    Mammary tumors were induced in rats by treatment with dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Cytosol receptors for 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone were estimated by means of sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the metabolism of [ 14 C]progesterone, [ 14 C]testosterone, and 17 beta-[ 14 C]estradiol by minced tumor tissue was studied. The estradiol receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) levels of the tumors varied considerably from less than 5 to 48 fmol/mg protein for ER and to 243 fmol/mg protein for PR. Considering a receptor level lower than 5 fmol/mg protein to be negative, four groups of tumors were found: ER-negative and PR-negative; ER-positive and PR-negative; ER-negative and PR-positive; ER-positive and PR-positive. In dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced tumor tissue, high 5 alpha-reductase and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities and somewhat lower 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 6 alpha-hydroxylase activities were found. No aromatization was detectable. Steroids, especially estradiol, were also metabolized in a high degree to unextractable metabolites. It was concluded that steroid metabolism of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors was not related to the ER and/or PR concentration of tumor tissue

  11. MEDICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLIC STEROID USE: ARE THEY EXAGGERATED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Hoffman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes

  12. Idiopathic urethritis in children: Classification and treatment with steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Sivasankar; Pringle, Kirsty; Ninan, George K

    2014-07-01

    Idiopathic urethritis [IU] in children is of unknown etiology and treatment options are limited. We propose a classification for IU based on cystourethroscopy findings and symptoms (Grade 1 - 4) and report our experience with use of topical and oral steroids in IU. Retrospective data collection of all male children (0-16 years) diagnosed with IU over a period of 8 years between 2005 and 2012 at our institution. Data was collected on patient demographics, laboratory and radiological investigations, cystourethroscopy findings, management and outcomes. A total of 19 male children were diagnosed with IU. The median age of the patients was 13(7-16) years. Presenting symptoms included dysuria in 12; hematuria in 9; loin pain in 6; and scrotal pain in 2 patients. Both patients with scrotal pain had previous left scrotal exploration that revealed epididymitis. Serum C-reactive protein and Full blood count was tested in 15 patients and was within normal limits in all of them. Cystourethroscopy revealed urethritis of grade-I in 2; grade-II in 11; and grade-III in 3 patients. There were 3 patients with systemic symptoms from extra-urethral extension of inflammation (grade-IV). Mean follow up was 18.9(1-74) months. All patients had steroid instillation at the time of cystourethroscopy. Three patients with IU grade IV required oral steroids (prednisolone) in view of exacerbation of symptoms and signs despite steroid instillation. Complete resolution of symptoms and signs occurred in 18(94.7%) patients. Significant improvement in symptoms and signs was noted in 1(5.3%) patient who is still undergoing treatment. IU in male children can be successfully managed with steroid instillation, especially in grade I and II. Grade III, will need steroid instillation but treatment of scarring and stricture will necessitate longer duration of treatment. In children with IU and extra-urethral symptoms (grade IV), oral steroids may be required.

  13. Idiopathic urethritis in children: Classification and treatment with steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivasankar Jayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Idiopathic urethritis [IU] in children is of unknown etiology and treatment options are limited. We propose a classification for IU based on cystourethroscopy findings and symptoms (Grade 1 - 4 and report our experience with use of topical and oral steroids in IU. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data collection of all male children (0-16 years diagnosed with IU over a period of 8 years between 2005 and 2012 at our institution. Data was collected on patient demographics, laboratory and radiological investigations, cystourethroscopy findings, management and outcomes. Results: A total of 19 male children were diagnosed with IU. The median age of the patients was 13(7-16 years. Presenting symptoms included dysuria in 12; hematuria in 9; loin pain in 6; and scrotal pain in 2 patients. Both patients with scrotal pain had previous left scrotal exploration that revealed epididymitis. Serum C-reactive protein and Full blood count was tested in 15 patients and was within normal limits in all of them. Cystourethroscopy revealed urethritis of grade-I in 2; grade-II in 11; and grade-III in 3 patients. There were 3 patients with systemic symptoms from extra-urethral extension of inflammation (grade-IV. Mean follow up was 18.9(1-74 months. All patients had steroid instillation at the time of cystourethroscopy. Three patients with IU grade IV required oral steroids (prednisolone in view of exacerbation of symptoms and signs despite steroid instillation. Complete resolution of symptoms and signs occurred in 18(94.7% patients. Significant improvement in symptoms and signs was noted in 1(5.3% patient who is still undergoing treatment. Conclusions: IU in male children can be successfully managed with steroid instillation, especially in grade I and II. Grade III, will need steroid instillation but treatment of scarring and stricture will necessitate longer duration of treatment. In children with IU and extra-urethral symptoms (grade IV, oral

  14. Risk of Infection After Intra-articular Steroid Injection at the Time of Ankle Arthroscopy in a Medicare Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Cancienne, Jourdan M; Burrus, M Tyrrell; Park, Joseph S; Perumal, Venkat; Cooper, M Truitt

    2016-02-01

    To employ a national database to evaluate the association between intraoperative corticosteroid injection at the time of ankle arthroscopy and postoperative infection rates in Medicare patients. A national insurance database was queried for Medicare patients who underwent ankle arthroscopy, including arthroscopic removal of loose body, synovectomy, and limited or extensive debridement. Two groups were created: ankle arthroscopy with concomitant local steroid injection (n = 459) and a control group of patients who underwent ankle arthroscopy without intraoperative local steroid injection (n = 9,327). The demographics and Charlson Comorbidity Index of each group were compared. Infection rates within 6 months postoperatively were assessed using International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, and Current Procedural Terminology codes and compared between groups using χ(2)-tests. A total of 9,786 unique patients who underwent ankle arthroscopy were included in the study. There were no statistically significant differences between the steroid injection study group and controls for the assessed infection-related variables, including gender, age group, obesity, smoking, and average Charlson Comorbidity Index. The infection rate for patients who had a local steroid injection at the time of surgery was 3.9% (18/459 patients), compared with 1.8% (168/9,327 patients) in the control group (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 3.7; P = .002.) The majority of this difference was noted between the 65 and 79 years age groups. The use of intraoperative intraarticular corticosteroid injection at the time of ankle arthroscopy in Medicare patients is associated with significantly increased rates of postoperative infection compared with controls without intraoperative steroid injections. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Self- image as a performer in perception of the steroid “beneficiaries”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mroczkowska

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess differences between the current and former users of anabolic steroids (AS and the control subjects in the following cognitive processes describing one’s self-image as a performer: 1 conviction about exerting control over one’s own achievements, and 2 self-protective interpretation of the achievement. Two inquiry techniques were used: 1 the “Delta” questionnaire for estimation of the feeling of internal-external control; 2 the I-E Scale for estimation of the attributive patterns of success and failure. Three groups of male subjects were examined: bodybuilders currently on steroids (+ +, bodybuilders – former AS users (+ –, and control athletes (– –. The obtained results allow to draw two conclusions. Firstly, compared to the current and/or former AS users, the subjects with no AS experience (controls demonstrated a significantly stronger sense of being a performer, exerting the internal control. Secondly, the differences in the individual feeling of being a performer were expressed in the ways in which the subjects interpreted causes of the achieved results by means of the so-called attributive patterns: the subjects with no AS experience exhibited a more beneficial and self-protective pattern of the attribution of failure than did the former and/or current AS users.

  16. Pulse cyclophosphamide therapy for steroid-resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salloum, Abdullah A.

    2004-01-01

    In children, steroid-resistant nephritic syndrome due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is frequently a progressive condition resulting in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We report the response of 15 patients with steroid resistant FSGS to treatment with intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide (IVCP) and oral prednisone after 4 years of follow up. 5 patients had initial steroid resistance and 10 patients had late steroid resistance. All patients were treated with IVCP at a dose of 500 mg/m/day for four weeks followed by 40/mg/m on alternate days for 4 weeks and then tapered over next 4 weeks. All patients with initial resistance to steroids showed no response to IVCP and continued to be steroid resistant. 3 developed CRF during the observation period. The other 10 patients with late steroid resistance responded to IVCP but all were steroid dependent at the end of observation period. 5 could not be weaned from steroids during the IVCP period. The other 5 patients achieved relatively prolonged remission (7 months to 24 months), but eventually become steroid dependent. 67% of the steroid resistant FSGS become steroid dependent. Patient with initial steroid resistance did not respond to IVCP. We no correlation between IgM deposition and the response to therapy. The side effects of IVCP were negligible. Beneficial therapy for initial steroid-resistant FSGS remains to be determined. (author)

  17. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  18. Neuroactive steroid levels are modified in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of post-finasteride patients showing persistent sexual side effects and anxious/depressive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Caruso, Donatella; Abbiati, Federico; Giatti, Silvia; Calabrese, Donato; Piazza, Fabrizio; Cavaletti, Guido

    2013-10-01

    plasma. The present observations confirm that an impairment of neuroactive steroid levels, associated with depression symptoms, is still present in androgenic alopecia patients treated with finasteride despite the discontinuation of the treatment. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Steroid - induced rosacea: A clinical study of 200 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen J Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Topical corticosteroids were first introduced for use in 1951. Since then uncontrolled use (abuse has caused many different reactions resembling rosacea - steroid dermatitis or iatrosacea. Multiple pathways including rebound vasodilatation and proinflammatory cytokine release have been proposed as the mechanism for such reactions. Aim: The aim was to study the adverse effects of topical steroid abuse and the response to various treatment modalities. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients with a history of topical steroid use on face for more than 1 month were studied clinically and various treatments tried. Results: The duration of topical corticosteroid use varied from 1 month to 20 years with an average of 19.76 months. Majority of patients were using potent (class II topical steroids for trivial facial dermatoses. The common adverse effects were erythema, telangiectasia, xerosis, hyperpigmentation, photosensitivity, and rebound phenomenon. No significant change in laboratory investigations was seen. Conclusion: A combination of oral antibiotics and topical tacrolimus is the treatment of choice for steroid-induced rosacea.

  20. Steroid hormones in environmental matrices: extraction method comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaluri, Gangadhar; Suri, Rominder P S; Graham, Kendon

    2017-11-09

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed methods for the analysis of steroid hormones in water, soil, sediment, and municipal biosolids by HRGC/HRMS (EPA Method 1698). Following the guidelines provided in US-EPA Method 1698, the extraction methods were validated with reagent water and applied to municipal wastewater, surface water, and municipal biosolids using GC/MS/MS for the analysis of nine most commonly detected steroid hormones. This is the first reported comparison of the separatory funnel extraction (SFE), continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE), and Soxhlet extraction methods developed by the U.S. EPA. Furthermore, a solid phase extraction (SPE) method was also developed in-house for the extraction of steroid hormones from aquatic environmental samples. This study provides valuable information regarding the robustness of the different extraction methods. Statistical analysis of the data showed that SPE-based methods provided better recovery efficiencies and lower variability of the steroid hormones followed by SFE. The analytical methods developed in-house for extraction of biosolids showed a wide recovery range; however, the variability was low (≤ 7% RSD). Soxhlet extraction and CLLE are lengthy procedures and have been shown to provide highly variably recovery efficiencies. The results of this study are guidance for better sample preparation strategies in analytical methods for steroid hormone analysis, and SPE adds to the choice in environmental sample analysis.

  1. Androgenic anabolic steroid use among male adolescents in Falkenberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, S

    1995-01-01

    Recent reports show that androgenic anabolic steroids are used by many teenagers, not as a deliberate attempt to give them strength, better athletic performance, etc., but to improve their looks. The so-called macho cult among young boys tempts them into using androgenic anabolic steroids to give them bigger muscles and a more powerful appearance. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of androgenic anabolic steroid use among teenagers in a small town and to create a platform for future work with the aim of decreasing the misuse of these drugs. In Falkenberg, a town in the county of Halland in the west of Sweden, the pupils at two high schools were investigated by means of an anonymous multiple-choice questionnaire. A total of 1383 students (688 males and 695 females) aged 14-19 years participated in the study, giving a participation rate of 96%. The number of answers completed was 99%. The use of androgenic anabolic steroids is a reality among male teenagers in Falkenberg, with 5.8% of them using the drugs. Among 15- to 16-year-old boys misuse of these drugs is as high as 10%, and of these 50% (5.0% of total) also inject ampoules of the drugs. This prevalence is alarming since the adverse effects of androgenic anabolic steroids are more serious in teenagers. Serious action must be taken to inform teenagers of the consequences of misusing drugs.

  2. Neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids in cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drača Sanja

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The central and peripheral nervous system are important targets of sex steroids. Sex steroids affect the brain development and differentiation, and influence neuronal functions. Recent evidence emphasizes a striking sex-linked difference in brain damage after experimental stroke, as well as the efficacy of hormones in treating cerebral stroke injury. Several different models of cerebral ischemia have been utilized for hormone neuroprotection studies, including transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, transient global ischemia, and transient forebrain ischemia. Extensive experimental studies have shown that female sex steroids such as progesterone and 176-estradiol exert neuroprotective effects in the experimental models of stroke, although deleterious effects have also been reported. Also, a significance of numerous factors, including gender and age of experimental animals, localization of brain lesion, duration of ischemia and precise dose of steroids has been pointed out. There are multiple potential mechanisms that might be invoked to explain the beneficial effects of female sex steroids in brain injury, involving neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory properties, effects on vasculature and altered transcriptional regulation. A several clinical trials on the effects of sex hormones to traumatic brain injury have been performed, suggesting that hormone therapy may represent a new therapeutic tool to combat certain diseases, such as traumatic brain injury. Further basic science studies and randomized clinical trials are necessary to reveal a potential application of these molecules as a new therapeutic strategy.

  3. In vivo detection of fluctuating brain steroid levels SHORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Maaya; Rensel, Michelle A.; Schlinger, Barney A.; Remage-Healey, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes a method for in vivo measurement of steroid hormones in brain circuits of the zebra finch. In vivo microdialysis has been used successfully to detect fluctuating neurosteroids in the auditory forebrain (Remage-Healey et al., 2008; 2012; Ikeda et al., 2012) and in the hippocampus (Rensel et al., 2012; 2013) of behaving adult zebra finches. In some cases, the steroids measured are derived locally (e.g., ‘neurosteroids’ like estrogens in males) whereas in other cases the steroids measured reflect systemic circulating levels and/or central conversion (e.g., the primary androgen testosterone and the primary glucocorticoid corticosterone). We also describe the method of reverse-microdialysis (‘retrodialysis’) of compounds that can influence local steroid neurochemistry as well as behavior. In vivo microdialysis can now be used to study steroid signaling in the brain for a variety of experimental purposes. Furthermore, similar methods have been developed to examine changing levels of catecholamines in behaving zebra finches (e.g., Sasaki et al., 2006). Thus, the combined study of neurochemistry and behavior in a vocal learning species now has a new set of powerful tools. PMID:25342066

  4. Radiation therapy for renal transplant rejection refractory to pulse steroids and OKT3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, William R.; Rodriguez, Rey; Knechtle, Stuart J.; Pirsch, John D.; Sollinger, Hans W.; D'Alessandro, Anthony M.; Chappell, Rick; Belzer, Folkert O.; Kinsella, Timothy J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the response rate and kidney graft survival following local irradiation to the transplanted renal graft undergoing persistent rejection after medical management including pulse steroids and OKT3. The role of radiation for renal transplant rejection after failure of OKT3 has not been previously reported. Methods and Materials: From July 1, 1988 to July 1, 1994, 72 consecutive patients with kidney graft rejection were treated with local irradiation to the transplanted renal graft following failure of medical management. All patients received pulse steroids and OKT3, an anti-CD3 immunosuppressant. Patients who failed to respond to methylprednisolone and OKT3 therapy were referred for radiation therapy. The median time from the diagnosis of rejection to irradiation was 8 days. All kidney grafts received local graft irradiation to a total of 8 Gy delivered in four daily fractions. Results: Sixty (83%) patients initially responded to radiotherapy at 7 days after completion of radiotherapy, as defined by a decrease in serum creatinine. Thirty-five responding patients have not experienced a second episode of graft rejection. Overall, 43 (60%) patients have renal graft survival, with a median follow-up of 16 months (range of 6-73 months). Conclusion: It is concluded that there is a subgroup of kidney graft patients undergoing graft rejection who are refractory to pulse steroids and OKT3 therapy where irradiation may be an effective modality with high rates of response and a moderate rate of graft survival. However, a prospective, randomized trial in these medically refractory patients is needed to ascertain whether these results are clinically significant

  5. Steroid profile and IRMS analysis of musk administration for doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhu; He, Yi; Liu, Xin; Yang, Zhiyong; Yang, Wenning

    2017-11-01

    Musk, the dried secretion of the musk pod (sac) of adult male musk deer, has been used as traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in China and south-east Asian countries for thousands of years. Due to the anabolic steroid component in this TCM, musk preparations have been included in the list of medical products containing prohibited substances employed for doping by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. The application of musk pod formulation was claimed to be responsible for some adverse analytical findings (AAFs) in the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup. Our preliminary study has suggested that musk ingestion did not lead to AAFs of doping control with the single dosage of 100 mg. However, the influences of musk administration in large and multi dosage are still unclear. The aim of this study is to further investigate the influences of musk administration for doping control. Wild and domestic deer musk samples were collected. The concentrations and δ 13 C-values of steroids in musk were analyzed. In an excretion study, 200 and 100 mg of wild and domestic deer musk samples were administrated by 29 subjects, respectively. Fluctuations in steroid profile could be observed, and the ratio of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol to 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol was more sensitive than other parameters. In the IRMS test, the ∆Δδ 13 C-value between endogenous reference compound and etiocholanolone was a sensitive parameter, and AAFs were obtained. It is the first time to confirm with excretion study that musk administration could lead to positive result of doping control. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Significant Acute Kidney Injury Due to Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs: Inpatient Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul Dixit

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the United States non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID are freely available over-the-counter. Because of the adverse effects on the kidneys and the popularity of these drugs, unregulated use of NSAIDs is an under recognized and potentially dangerous problem. Fifteen inpatients, mean age of 15.2 ± 2.3 years (five males, 10 females, were referred to nephrology for acute kidney injury. All patients admitted to taking ibuprofen and six also consumed naproxen. None of the patients had underlying renal diseases at the time of admission. Nine patients had proteinuria and 12 had hematuria (including one with gross hematuria. One patient had nephrotic syndrome but the condition resolved spontaneously without steroids and has remained in remission for four years. Two patients required dialysis. Only one of the dialyzed patients required steroid therapy for recovery of renal function. The mean duration of hospitalization was 7.4 ± 5.5 days. The serum creatinine peaked at 4.09 ± 4.24 (range 1.2-15.3 mg/dL. All patients recovered renal function with normalization of serum creatinine to 0.71 ± 0.15 mg/dL. The estimated GFR (glomerular filtration rate at peak of renal failure was 38.2 ± 20.5 mL/min but did improve to a baseline of 134 ± 26.2 mL/min (range 89-177, p < 0.01. However, the duration from onset to normalization of serum creatinine was 37 ± 42 days indicating that majority of patients had abnormal renal function for a prolonged period. In conclusion, NSAIDs pose a significant risk of renal failure for significant duration and as an entity may be under recognized.

  7. Steroid-induced suppression of gallium uptake in tumors of the central nervous system: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waxman, A.D.; Beldon, J.R.; Richli, W.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Siemsen, J.K.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of steroids given in greater than replacement doses on the gallium and technetium glucoheptonate brain scan is evaluated by comparing the relative sensitivity of both radiopharmaceuticals in patients both on and off steroids. The study shows a significant steroid effect on the sensitivity of 95% to 64% following steroids. Steroids did not significantly alter the sensitivity of the technetium glucoheptonate study. The superiority of the TcGH brain scan over the gallium citrate brain scan in the steroid population suggests a difference in the uptake mechanism for the two radiopharmaceuticals

  8. Steroid hormone profile in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Bytingsvik, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The polar bear is an iconic Arctic species, threatened by anthropogenic impacts such as pollution and climate change. Successful reproduction of polar bears depends on a functioning steroid hormone system, which is susceptible to effects of persistent organic pollutants. The present study...... is the first study to report circulating concentrations of nine steroid hormones (i.e., estrogens, androgens and progestagens) in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age, condition, location and reproductive status on steroid profile in female polar...... bears. Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone, androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in blood (serum) of free-living female polar bears (n = 15) from Svalbard, Norway, by gas...

  9. Stingless Bee Larvae Require Fungal Steroid to Pupate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paludo, Camila R; Menezes, Cristiano; Silva-Junior, Eduardo A; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Andrade-Dominguez, Andres; Pishchany, Gleb; Khadempour, Lily; do Nascimento, Fabio S; Currie, Cameron R; Kolter, Roberto; Clardy, Jon; Pupo, Mônica T

    2018-01-18

    The larval stage of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis must consume a specific brood cell fungus in order to continue development. Here we show that this fungus is a member of the genus Zygosaccharomyces and provides essential steroid precursors to the developing bee. Insect pupation requires ecdysteroid hormones, and as insects cannot synthesize sterols de novo, they must obtain steroids in their diet. Larval in vitro culturing assays demonstrated that consuming ergosterol recapitulates the developmental effects on S. depilis as ingestion of Zygosaccharomyces sp. cells. Thus, we determined the molecular underpinning of this intimate mutualistic symbiosis. Phylogenetic analyses showed that similar cases of bee-Zygosaccharomyces symbiosis may exist. This unprecedented case of bee-fungus symbiosis driven by steroid requirement brings new perspectives regarding pollinator-microbiota interaction and preservation.

  10. Advances in bioanalytical techniques to measure steroid hormones in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Steroid hormones are measured clinically to determine if a patient has a pathological process occurring in the adrenal gland, or other hormone responsive organs. They are very similar in structure making them analytically challenging to measure. Additionally, these hormones have vast concentration differences in human serum adding to the measurement complexity. GC-MS was the gold standard methodology used to measure steroid hormones clinically, followed by radioimmunoassay, but that was replaced by immunoassay due to ease of use. LC-MS/MS has now become a popular alternative owing to simplified sample preparation than for GC-MS and increased specificity and sensitivity over immunoassay. This review will discuss these methodologies and some new developments that could simplify and improve steroid hormone analysis in serum.

  11. Sex steroids, immune system, and parasitic infections: facts and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Castro, Karen; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2012-07-01

    It has been widely reported that the incidence and the severity of natural parasitic infections are different between males and females of several species, including humans. This sexual dimorphism involves a distinct exposure of males and females to various parasite infective stages, differential effects of sex steroids on immune cells, and direct effects of these steroids on parasites, among others. Typically, for a large number of parasitic diseases, the prevalence and intensity is higher in males than females; however, in several parasitic infections, males are more resistant than females. In the present work, we review the effects of sex hormones on immunity to protozoa and helminth parasites, which are the causal agents of several diseases in humans, and discuss the most recent research related to the role of sex steroids in the complex host-parasite relationship. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangesweran Ayakannu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The “endocannabinoid system (ECS” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2, some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed.

  13. Discontinuation of steroids in ABO-incompatible renal transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novosel, Marija Kristina; Bistrup, C.

    2016-01-01

    A steroid-free protocol for ABO-compatible renal transplantation has been used at our center since 1983. To minimize the adverse effects of steroids, we also developed a steroid sparing protocol for ABO-incompatible renal transplantation in 2008. The present study is a report of our results....... A retrospective review of the first 50 ABO-incompatible renal transplantations performed at a single university center. If no immunological events occurred in the post-transplant period, prednisolone tapering was initiated approximately 3 months after transplantation. Forty-three patients completed prednisolone...... to antirejection treatment. Overall, 1-year rejection rate was 19%. One- and 3-year graft survival was 94% and 91%, respectively. One-year post-transplant median serum creatinine was 123 mol/L. We found acceptable rejection rates, graft survival, and creatinine levels in patients undergoing ABO-incompatible renal...

  14. Comparative Effectiveness of Tacrolimus-Based Steroid Sparing versus Steroid Maintenance Regimens in Kidney Transplantation: Results from Discrete Event Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Vibha C A; Ferrand, Yann; Cavanaugh, Teresa M; Kelton, Christina M L; Caro, J Jaime; Goebel, Jens; Heaton, Pamela C

    2017-10-01

    Corticosteroids used as immunosuppressants to prevent acute rejection (AR) and graft loss (GL) following kidney transplantation are associated with serious cardiovascular and other adverse events. Evidence from short-term randomized controlled trials suggests that many patients on a tacrolimus-based immunosuppressant regimen can withdraw from steroids without increased AR or GL risk. To measure the long-term tradeoff between GL and adverse events for a heterogeneous-risk population and determine the optimal timing of steroid withdrawal. A discrete event simulation was developed including, as events, AR, GL, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, cytomegalovirus, and new onset diabetes mellitus (NODM), among others. Data from the United States Renal Data System were used to estimate event-specific parametric regressions, which accounted for steroid-sparing regimen (avoidance, early 7-d withdrawal, 6-mo withdrawal, 12-mo withdrawal, and maintenance) as well as patients' demographics, immunologic risks, and comorbidities. Regression-equation results were used to derive individual time-to-event Weibull distributions, used, in turn, to simulate the course of patients over 20 y. Patients on steroid avoidance or an early-withdrawal regimen were more likely to experience AR (45.9% to 55.0% v. 33.6%, P events and other outcomes with no worsening of AR or GL rates compared with steroid maintenance.

  15. Update on the Systemic Risks of Superpotent Topical Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mio; Abrouk, Michael; Zhu, Henry; Farahnik, Benjamin; Koo, John; Bhutani, Tina

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: The potential for systemic effects due to percutaneous absorption of superpotent topical steroids has been a longstanding concern. The Food and Drug Administration currently recommends limiting the use of superpotent topical steroids to 50g per week for 2 or 4 consecutive weeks depending on the formulation, which is mostly based on the exact duration with which phase 3 clinical trials were allowed to be conducted per the FDA. This article reviews all published clinical incidence of adrenal adverse effects in the medical literature, specifically Cushing's syndrome (CS) and pathologic adrenal suppression (PAAS), to try to ascertain a more realistic limit for the safe use of superpotent topical steroids as it pertains to its potential systemic effects. METHODS: Literature search was conducted using PubMed. Only cases of CS and PAAS secondary to the use of Class I superpotent topical steroids were included. Pediatric cases and full articles unavailable in English were excluded. RESULTS: There were a total of 14 cases of CS and 5 cases of subsequent PAAS found in the current literature. DISCUSSION: From our review of these cases, if the amount used per week is within FDA guidelines, it appears that patients needed to use superpotent topical steroids for far greater than 2 or 4 weeks to develop CS or PAAS. CS did not necessarily predict occurrence of PAAS, but in all cases CS appeared to be a prerequisite for developing PAAS. All cases of CS and all but one case of PAAS were reversible. If excessive amount of greater than 50g per week is avoided, it appears that superpotent topical steroids may be safe to use consecutively for months, perhaps even years, without causing systemic effects. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):643-648..

  16. Taenia solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, R A; Jiménez, P; Fernández Presas, A M; Aguilar, L; Willms, K; Romano, M C

    2014-09-01

    Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium cestodes that belongs to the family Taeniidae that affects a number of hosts including humans. Taeniids tapeworms are hermaphroditic organisms that have reproductive units called proglottids that gradually mature to develop testis and ovaries. Cysticerci, the larval stage of these parasites synthesize steroids. To our knowledge there is no information about the capacity of T. solium tapeworms to metabolize progesterone or other precursors to steroid hormones. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate if T. solium tapeworms were able to transform steroid precursors to corticosteroids and sex steroids. T. solium tapeworms were recovered from the intestine of golden hamsters that had been orally infected with cysticerci. The worms were cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone or androstenedione. At the end of the experiments the culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The experiments described here showed that small amounts of testosterone were synthesized from (3)H-progesterone by complete or segmented tapeworms whereas the incubation of segmented tapeworms with (3)H-androstenedione, instead of (3)H-progesterone, improved their capacity to synthesize testosterone. In addition, the incubation of the parasites with (3)H-progesterone yielded corticosteroids, mainly deoxicorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxicortisol. In summary, the results described here, demonstrate that T. solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroid and sex steroid like metabolites. The capacity of T. solium tapeworms to synthesize steroid hormones may contribute to the physiological functions of the parasite and also to their interaction with the host. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adverse Event Rates Associated with Transforaminal and Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injections: A Multi-Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Yahchouchi, Christine A; Plastaras, Christopher T; Maus, Timothy P; Carr, Carrie M; McCormick, Zachary L; Geske, Jennifer R; Smuck, Matthew; Pingree, Matthew J; Kennedy, David J

    2016-02-01

    Transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESI) have demonstrated efficacy and effectiveness in treatment of radicular pain. Despite little evidence of efficacy/effectiveness, interlaminar epidural steroid injections (ILESI) are advocated by some as primary therapy for radicular pain due to purported greater safety. To assess immediate and delayed adverse event rates of TFESI and ILESI injections at three academic medical centers utilizing International Spine Intervention Society practice guidelines. Quality assurance databases from a Radiology and two physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) practices were interrogated. Medical records were reviewed, verifying immediate and delayed adverse events. There were no immediate major adverse events of neurologic injury or hemorrhage in 16,638 consecutive procedures in all spine segments (14,956 TFESI; 1,682 ILESI). Vasovagal reactions occurred in 1.2% of procedures, more frequently (P = 0.004) in TFESI (1.3%) than ILESI (0.5%). Dural punctures occurred in 0.06% of procedures, more commonly after ILESI (0.2% vs 0.04%, P = 0.006). Delayed follow up on PM&R patients (92.5% and 78.5, next business day) and radiology patients (63.1%, 2 weeks) identified no major adverse events of neurologic injury, hemorrhage, or infection. There were no significant differences in delayed minor adverse event rates. Central steroid response (sleeplessness, flushing, nonpositional headache) was seen in 2.6% of both TFESI and ILESI patients. 2.1% of TFESI and 1.8% of ILESI patients reported increased pain. No long-term sequelae were seen from any immediate or delayed minor adverse event. Both transforaminal and ILESI are safely performed with low immediate and delayed adverse event rates when informed by evidence-based procedural guidelines. By demonstrating comparable safety, this study suggests that the choice between ILESI and TFESIs can be based on documented efficacy and effectiveness and not driven by safety concerns.

  18. Mechanistic studies with solubilized rat liver steroid 5 alpha-reductase: Elucidation of the kinetic mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.A.; Brandt, M.; Greway, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    A solubilized preparation of steroid 5 alpha-reductase from rat liver has been used in studies focused toward an understanding of the kinetic mechanism associated with enzyme catalysis. From the results of analyses with product and dead-end inhibitors, a preferentially ordered binding of substrates and release of products from the surface of the enzyme is proposed. The observations from these experiments were identical with those using the steroid 5 alpha-reductase activity associated with rat liver microsomes. The primary isotope effects on steady-state kinetic parameters when [4S-2H]NADPH was used also were consistent with an ordered kinetic mechanism. Normal isotope effects were observed for all three kinetic parameters (Vm/Km for both testosterone and NADPH and Vm) at all substrate concentrations used experimentally. Upon extrapolation to infinite concentration of testosterone, the isotope effect on Vm/Km for NADPH approached unity, indicating that the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate is the first substrate binding to and the second product released from the enzyme. The isotope effects on Vm/Km for testosterone at infinite concentration of cofactor and on Vm were 3.8 +/- 0.5 and 3.3 +/- 0.4, respectively. Data from the pH profiles of these three steady-state parameters and the inhibition constants (1/Ki) of competitive inhibitors versus both substrates indicate that the binding of nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate involves coordination of its anionic 2'-phosphate to a protonated enzyme-associated base with an apparent pK near 8.0. From these results, relative limits have been placed on several of the internal rate constants used to describe the ordered mechanism of the rat liver steroid 5 alpha-reductase

  19. AREVA 2009 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. This information provides an adequate picture of the size of these markets and of the AREVA group's competitive position. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document and Attestation by the person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory and Deputy Auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risks: Risk management and coverage, Legal risk, Industrial and environmental risk, Operating risk, Risk related to major projects, Liquidity and market risk, Other risk; 5 - Information about the issuer: History and development, Investments; 6 - Business overview: Markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, AREVA customers and suppliers, Overview and strategy of the group, Business divisions, Discontinued operations: AREVA Transmission and Distribution; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment: Principal sites of the AREVA group, Environmental issues that may affect the issuer's; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance: Overview, Financial position, Cash flow, Statement of financial position, Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2009; 10 - Capital Resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 -trend information: Current situation, Financial objectives; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of corporate bodies; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties: French state, CEA, EDF group; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information: Share capital, Certificate of incorporation and by-laws; 22 - Major

  20. The correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Yousefichaijan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrotic syndrome (NS is characterized by nephritic-range proteinuria and the triad of clinical findings associated with large urinary losses of protein, hypoalbuminemia, edema and hyperlipidemia. More than 80% of children below 13 years of age with primary NS have steroid-responsive forms. There is no identifiable cause of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. It is likely that the symptoms of ADHD represent a final common pathway of diverse causes, including genetic, organic and environmental etiologies. This case-control study was performed on 130 children aged between 5 and 13 years who were followed-up for two years. Sixty-five children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS as the case group and 65 healthy children as the control group were included in the study. Patients with minimal change NS were treated with prednisolone for at least six months. Conner′s Parent Rating Scale - 48 (CPRS-48 was completed by the parents and the children were identified with any form of ADHD. Then, children were referred to an expert psychiatrist. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS software. The result showed that there was no significant relationship between different types of ADHD in both groups. Thus, based on current study, one may conclude that there are no significant differences between prevalence of ADHD in children with SDNS and the control group.

  1. Androgen - secreting steroid cell tumor of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras Ratilal Udhreja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid cell tumors (SCTs, not otherwise specified of the ovary are rare subgroup of sex cord tumors, which account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors and also that will present at any age. The majority of these tumors produce steroids with testosterone being the most common. A case of a 28-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of virilization is reported. Although SCTs are generally benign, there is a risk for malignant transformation. Surgery is the most important and hallmark treatment.

  2. Inhaled Steroids: First Line Treatment of Adult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cartier

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids are the most potent inhaled anti-inflammatory drugs for asthma treatment. This paper reviews the clinical evidence supporting the early use of inhaled steroids in asthma as a first line treatment. Inhaled steroids can probably alter the course of asthma, especially in mild asthmatics. Once they have been shown to improve control of asthma and even if the need for beta2-agonists is virtually nil, their use should be continued at low doses (ie, equivalent to 400 to 500 μg of budesonide or beclomethasone for at least one year before attempting to reduce the dosage.

  3. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND ADVERSE EVENTS OF THEIR APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic compounds originating from testosterone. Their main effects are the control of development and expression of male secondary sexual characteristics, which are known as androgenic effects, and encourage muscle growth or anabolic effects. Anabolic androgenic steroids are most commonly used illegal substances. Besides these physiological effects, which are achieved using therapeutic doses of these preparations, higher doses than recommended, especially over the longer term, may be associated with the emergence of numerous adverse events. Adverse events may be registered in almost all organs and organ systems, but usually include changes in the reproductive system, skin, liver and cardiovascular system.

  4. Bardet-Biedl syndrome presenting with steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by postaxial polydactyly, retinitis pigmentosa, central obesity, mental retardation, hypogonadism, and renal involvement. Renal involvement in various forms has been seen in BBS. Cases with nephrotic range proteinuria not responding to steroid have been described in this syndrome. Here we report a case of BBS who presented with nephrotic range proteinuria. The biopsy findings were suggestive of minimal change disease. The child responded well to steroid therapy and remains in remission.

  5. Trilobolide-steroid hybrids: Synthesis, cytotoxic and antimycobacterial activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurášek, M.; Džubák, P.; Rimpelová, S.; Sedlák, David; Konečný, P.; Frydrych, I.; Gurska, S.; Hajdúch, M.; Bogdanová, K.; Kolář, M.; Muller, Tomáš; Kmoníčková, Eva; Ruml, T.; Harmatha, Juraj; Drašar, P. B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 117, JAN (2017), s. 97-104 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304; GA MŠk LO1220; GA MŠk LM2015063 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04329S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:68378041 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Trilobolide * Steroids * Click chemistry * Cytotoxicity * sar * Steroid receptor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; CC - Organic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology; Organic chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 2.282, year: 2016

  6. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome caused by intranasal steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Fatma; Kirmizibekmez, Heves

    2017-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is common after oral steroid use and has also been reported following topical or inhaled use, but it is extremely uncommon after intranasal administration. This is the case of a 6-year-old child who developed Cushing's syndrome after intranasal application of dexamethasone sodium phosphate for a period of 6 months. Pediatricians and other clinical practitioners should be aware that high-dose and long-term nasal steroid administration may cause iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome characterized by complications of glucocorticoid excess as well as serious and even life-threatening complications of adrenal insufficiency.

  7. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  8. 26 CFR 1.807-2 - Cross-reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cross-reference. 1.807-2 Section 1.807-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Investment Income § 1.807-2 Cross-reference. For special rules regarding the treatment of...

  9. Modification of behavioral effects of drugs in mice by neuroactive steroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ungard, JT; Beekman, M; Gasior, M; Carter, RB; Dijkstra, D; Witkin, JM

    Rationale: Neuroactive steroids represent a novel class of potential therapeutic agents (epilepsy, anxiety, migraine, drug dependence) thought to act through positive allosteric modulation of the GABA(A) receptor A synthetically derived neuroactive steroid, ganaxolone (3 alpha-hydroxy-3

  10. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique of steroid hormones in the laying hens, Gallus domesticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli bin Abdullah

    1990-01-01

    The principle of radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been applied to many organic compounds of biological interest. In this work, commercially available antisera developed for various steroid hormones were used in the analysis of steroid hormones in the laying hens. The RIA procedure for plasma steroid hormones was divided into three phases: sample preparation, incubation of the antibody-3H-steroid complex with prepared samples and a standard curve and separation of antibody bound 3H-steroid from free 3H-steroid. Results showed that it is possible to use commercially available antiserum source for the determination of steroid hormones in this species. This approach has the advantage of savings in both time and money, by eliminating time losses in screening potential animals producing steroid antiserum and the costs of maintaining these animals

  11. Steroid hormones and persistent organic pollutants in plasma from North-eastern Atlantic pilot whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoydal, Katrin S; Styrishave, Bjarne; Ciesielski, Tomasz M

    2017-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are known to have endocrine disruptive effects, interfering with endogenous steroid hormones. The present study examined nine steroid hormones and their relationships with the concentrations of selected POPs in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the Faroe...

  12. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and the risk of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manthripragada, Angelika D; Schernhammer, Eva S; Qiu, Jiaheng

    2011-01-01

    Experimental evidence supports a preventative role for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD).......Experimental evidence supports a preventative role for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD)....

  13. A retrospective study of epidural and intravenous steroids after percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for large lumbar disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Patients who underwent PELD with epidural steroid administration for large lumbar disc herniation showed favorable curative effect compared with those who underwent PELD with intravenous steroid administration.

  14. Anabolic steroid use among students at a British college of technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, D J

    1993-01-01

    To determine the rate of current or previous use of anabolic steroids by students at a UK college of technology, a questionnaire survey of 687 day students was conducted. The questionnaire began with a general section for all of the students, which ended with the question 'Have you ever used anabolic steroids?'. A further section specifically for anabolic steroid users examined patterns of use, and how certain circumstances might affect the individual's decision to use anabolic steroids. The ...

  15. Urinary detection of conjugated and unconjugated anabolic steroids by dilute-and-shoot liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudela, Eva; Deventer, Koen; Geldof, Lore; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are an important class of doping agents. The metabolism of these substances is generally very extensive and includes phase-I and phase-II pathways. In this work, a comprehensive detection of these metabolites is described using a 2-fold dilution of urine and subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The method was applied to study 32 different metabolites, excreted free or conjugated (glucuronide or sulfate), which permit the detection of misuse of at least 21 anabolic steroids. The method has been fully validated for 21 target compounds (8 glucuronide, 1 sulfate and 12 free steroids) and 18 out of 21 compounds had detection limits in the range of 1-10 ng mL(-1) in urine. For the conjugated compounds, for which no reference standards are available, metabolites were synthesized in vitro or excretion studies were investigated. The detection limits for these compounds ranged between 0.5 and 18 ng mL(-1) in urine. The simple and straightforward methodology complements the traditional methods based on hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Reference Librarian in Digital Environment:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Sohili

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The information explosion of the latter half of the twentieth century, gave rise to online databases and various information media that gradually impacted on the very physical environment of the library. It transformed the librarians’ role. Reference librarians are no exception. The present study aims to investigate the need or lack of need to reference librarians within the digital domains based on the views expressed by LIS authorities in Iran. It would attempt further, to identify the qualities required for such librarian should a need for her/his expressed. The research, while descriptive in nature, was based on analyzing the results obtained by the checklist devised by the authors. LIS Specialist sample was composed of 57 people who filled the checklist. Findings show that there is a significance between employing ICT and need for a reference librarian. LIS experts in Iran believe that introduction of ICT, especially Internet and the WWW not only didn’t decrease the need for such librarians, but has caused the reference librarian to attain a more important and better status than before. Findings further demonstrated that while Iran is not a signatory to the international copyright conventions, the Iranian reference librarians are fully committed to observing author’s copyright and intellectual rights and frown on using software crackers.

  17. DAF as a therapeutic target for steroid hormones: implications for host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Bogdan; Nowicki, Stella

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a concise historic prospective and a summary of accumulated knowledge on steroid hormones, DAF expression, and therapeutic implication of steroid hormone treatment on multiple pathologies, including infection and the host-pathogen interactions. DAF/CD55 plays multiple physiologic functions including tissue protection from the cytotoxic complement injury, an anti-inflammatory function due to its anti-adherence properties which enhance transmigration of monocytes and macrophages and reduce tissue injury. DAF physiologic functions are essential in many organ systems including pregnancy for protection of the semiallogeneic fetus or for preventing uncontrolled infiltration by white cells in their pro- and/or anti-inflammatory functions. DAF expression appears to have multiple regulatory tissue-specific and/or menstrual cycle-specific mechanisms, which involve complex signaling mechanisms. Regulation of DAF expression may involve a direct or an indirect effect of at least the estrogen, progesterone, and corticosteroid regulatory pathways. DAF is exploited in multiple pathologic conditions by pathogens and viruses in chronic tissue infection processes. The binding of Escherichia coli bearing Dr adhesins to the DAF/CD55 receptor is DAF density dependent and triggers internalization of E. coli via an endocytic pathway involving CD55, lipid rafts, and microtubules. Dr+ E. coli or Dr antigen may persist in vivo in the interstitium for several months. Further understanding of such processes should be instrumental in designing therapeutic strategies for multiple conditions involving DAF's protective or pathologic functions and tailoring host expression of DAF.

  18. VBE reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Ermilova, E.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Ollus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Defining a comprehensive and generic "reference framework" for Virtual organizations Breeding Environments (VBEs), addressing all their features and characteristics, is challenging. While the definition and modeling of VBEs has become more formalized during the last five years, "reference models"

  19. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  20. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Among 1,010 College Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Harrison G., Jr.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two percent of 1,010 male college students responding to a questionnaire about anabolic-androgenic steroid use reported using steroids; most of the users were competitive athletes, although some used steroids to improve their physical appearance. Users were not distinguished from non-users in terms of academic achievement or use of other illicit…

  1. Self-Reported Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids by Elite Power Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesalis III, Charles E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-three percent of a sample of 45 power lifters surveyed by questionnaire admitted to using steroids, while 55 percent of 20 lifters surveyed by phone admitted steroid use. The researchers suggest that there was significant underreporting by these athletes, who consider steroids primarily as a means to improve athletic performance. (IAH)

  2. Knowledge about Anabolic Steroids of Rhode Island Adolescents: Implications for Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June

    Although anabolic steroids are associated with short term behavior and long term health problems, few schools address this issue. Adolescents were surveyed to determine their general knowledge of anabolic steroids, attitudes related to fair play, and interest in limiting anabolic steroid use. Data from 322 boys and 331 girls in grades 7-12 were…

  3. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Prevalence, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Junior and Senior High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)

  4. Examining Athletes' Attitudes toward Using Anabolic Steroids and Their Knowledge of the Possible Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…

  5. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Education on Knowledge and Attitudes of At-Risk Preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenhaile, Jay; Choi, Hee-Sook; Proctor, Theron B.; Work, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effect of anabolic steroid education on preadolescents' knowledge of and attitudes toward anabolic steroids with 35 male athletes. Information on psychological and physiological aspects of anabolic steroid use, weight training techniques, nutrition, social decision making, and self-esteem training were provided. Participants…

  6. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary...

  7. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant... OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application. (a) Any person seeking...

  8. Levamisole in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome of childhood: the lost paradise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davin, J. C.; Merkus, M. P.

    2005-01-01

    Among the different drugs used for sparing steroids in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) with frequent relapses and steroid dependency, levamisole is the least toxic and the least expensive. However, it is neither approved for this indication nor widely used in Europe. This may be

  9. The role of steroids in the management of uveitic macular edema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, Marc D.; Julian, Karina

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To review the role of steroids in the management of uveitic macular edema. Methods. Review of recent literature on the physiopathology of macular edema and clinical trials involving steroids as main treatment of uveitic macular edema. Results. The steroid-glucocorticoid receptor complex

  10. Prevalence and awareness of anabolic androgenic steroid use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the prevalence and awareness of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use among male bodybuilders visiting gyms in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 500 male bodybuilders visiting gyms in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. Information on ...

  11. Anabolic Steroid Use: Indications of Habituation among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesalis, Charles E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Identified characteristics of adolescent male anabolic steroid (AS) user and addictive potential. Found AS user population different from nonuser in self-perceptions of health and strength, interest in controlling AS use, and perception of peer AS use. Found subgroups with significantly different attitudes and/or behaviors. Suggests prevention…

  12. Psychological Predictors of Anabolic Steroid Use: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, Michael J.; Corcoran, Kevin J.; LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Fisher, Leslee; Patterson, David; Olrich, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    Examined social physique anxiety, upper body esteem, social anxiety, and body dissatisfaction as possible predictors of anabolic steroid (AS) use. Results based on 185 AS-using bodybuilders and various control groups indicated that the upper body strength subscale of two measures, along with age, were significant predictors of AS use. (RJM)

  13. Project Right Way: An Anabolic Steroid Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June

    There is increasing concern by medical experts in this country about the use of anabolic steroids by teenagers. Over one million Americans are believed to be currently using or have used the synthetic hormones in the past. While drug testing and a reduction in the supply of the drugs appear to be reducing the number of adult users, use by…

  14. Adverse cardiovascular effects of anabolic steroids : pathophysiology imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golestani, Reza; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Tio, Rene A.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42 (7): 795803 Abstract Background Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely abused for enhancing muscle mass, strength, growth and improving athletic performance. Materials and methods In recent years, many observational and interventional studies have shown important

  15. MR evaluation of bone cysts treated with intracavital steroid injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zampa, Virna; Bargellini, Irene; Michelassi, Maria Chiara; Trippi, Donatella; Ortori, Simona; Bartolozzi, Carlo; Cosottini, Mirco

    2003-01-01

    Heading Abstract.The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of MR examination in showing the effects of intralesional steroid injection on bone cysts. Nineteen patients with radiologically suspected (group A, n=15) or already treated (group B, n=4) bone cysts underwent MRI (0.5 T; protocol: T2* gradient recalled echo; short tau inversion recovery or inversion recovery fast spin echo; T1 SE before and after contrast administration, 0.2 mmol/kg). All patients underwent steroid therapy for bone cysts and were followed up for 6-18 months after treatment. Evaluation of bone cyst response to therapy was based mainly on the detection of reparative tissue outlining all cystic portions at first MRI control. In group A, as early as 1 month after the first injection, the presence of a thin reparative tissue lining the cystic wall was observed. Follow-up studies revealed the progressive thickening of this reparative tissue and new bone formation. Similar features were present in the cysts of group B. Residual cystic cavities were depicted in 7 cases, with no evidence of enhancing tissue, requiring further treatment. The formation of a reparative tissue is the first feature of bone cyst recovery after intracavital steroid injection and is appreciable only on MRI. Because of the optimal visualisation of this reparative tissue and of residual cystic cavities, MRI could be proposed as a non-invasive, alternative and effective tool for evaluating the efficacy of steroid injection therapy of bone cysts. (orig.)

  16. Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S.

    This review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) first looks at aspects of the history and prevalence of AS use in competitive sports. Research suggests that one-quarter to one-half million adolescents in the United States have used, or are currently using AS. Some effects of androgens…

  17. Oral candidiasis following steroid therapy for oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marable, D R; Bowers, L M; Stout, T L; Stewart, C M; Berg, K M; Sankar, V; DeRossi, S S; Thoppay, J R; Brennan, M T

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this multicentre study was to determine the incidence of oral candidiasis in patients treated with topical steroids for oral lichen planus (OLP) and to determine whether the application of a concurrent antifungal therapy prevented the development of an oral candidiasis in these patients. Records of 315 patients with OLP seen at four Oral Medicine practices treated for at least 2 weeks with steroids with and without the use of an antifungal regimen were retrospectively reviewed. The overall incidence of oral fungal infection in those treated with steroid therapy for OLP was 13.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of oral candidiasis development in those treated with an antifungal regimen vs those not treated prophylactically (14.3% vs 12.6%) (P = 0.68). Despite the use of various regimens, none of the preventive antifungal strategies used in this study resulted in a significant difference in the rate of development of an oral candidiasis in patients with OLP treated with steroids. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The effect of steroidal contraceptives on liver enzymes and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the influence of steroidal contraceptives on liver enzymes and serum total protein using 48 adult female rats in four groups -A as control and B, C and D as tests. The animals were further divided into two subgroups - treatment (A1 - D1; n=6 each) and reversal (A2 - D2; n=6 each). Groups A1&A2 ...

  19. Towards the emerging crosstalk: ERBB family and steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Uva, Gabriele; Lauriola, Mattia

    2016-02-01

    Growth factors acting through receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) of ERBB family, along with steroid hormones (SH) acting through nuclear receptors (NRs), are critical signalling mediators of cellular processes. Deregulations of ERBB and steroid hormone receptors are responsible for several diseases, including cancer, thus demonstrating the central role played by both systems. This review will summarize and shed light on an emerging crosstalk between these two important receptor families. How this mutual crosstalk is attained, such as through extensive genomic and non-genomic interactions, will be addressed. In light of recent studies, we will describe how steroid hormones are able to fine-tune ERBB feedback loops, thus impacting on cellular output and providing a new key for understanding the complexity of biological processes in physiological or pathological conditions. In our understanding, the interactions between steroid hormones and RTKs deserve further attention. A system biology approach and advanced technologies for the analysis of RTK-SH crosstalk could lead to major advancements in molecular medicine, providing the basis for new routes of pharmacological intervention in several diseases, including cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Steroidal saponins from fresh stems of Dracaena angustifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six new steroidal saponins (1-6), angudracanosides A-F, were isolated from fresh stems of Dracaena angustifolia, together with eight known compounds. The structures of compounds 1-6 were determined by detailed spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Antifungal testing of all compounds showed th...