WorldWideScience

Sample records for steroid hormone research

  1. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampl, R.; Starka, L.

    1976-01-01

    A list is given of steroids currently determined using the RIA method based on the reversible interaction of labelled and non-labelled steroids within the binding points of specific antibodies. Steroids do not have the properties of antigens, and antibodies are therefore obtained from conjugates of steroid derivatives with macromolecules where the steroid has the function of hapten. The most important synthetic methods of preparing the given derivatives are listed, and questions of the relation of the specificity of the antiserum and the structure of the respective derivative are discussed, the basic data characterizing the antiserum (titre, affinity and specificity) are described and methods are given used for measuring these variables. The technical aspects of RIA and the differences between the RIA determination of steroids and of other substances are given. The Amersham Radiochemical Centre antigens, kits and steroid hormones are recommended for use. (L.O.)

  2. Sex steroid hormones and brain function : PET imaging as a tool for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraga-Amaro, R; van Waarde, A; Doorduin, J; de Vries, E F J

    Sex steroid hormones are major regulators of sexual characteristic among species. These hormones, however, are also produced in the brain. Steroidal hormone-mediated signalling via the corresponding hormone receptors can influence brain function at the cellular level and thus affect behaviour and

  3. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tadashi

    1975-01-01

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3 H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  4. Quality Management of Steroid Hormone Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle, Jonathan G.

    This chapter describes the principles and practices of quality management of the steroid hormone in clinical laboratory service, and the assessment of the quality of that service by the author's EQA programme (UK NEQAS for Steroid Hormones).

  5. Steroid and sterol hormone action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelsberg, T.C.; Kumar, R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 21 selections. Some of the titles are: Estrogen control of vitellogenin gene transcription and mRNA stability; Inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor conversion to the DNA-binding state and inhibition of subunit dissociation; Steroid regulation of rRNA synthesis; Messenger RNA-S14 as a model of thyroid hormone action at the hepatocellular level; and The oxysterol receptor.

  6. Gene regulation by steroid hormones III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, A.K.; Clark, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    In this book, the authors discuss the latest advances in molecular endocrinology: - steroid receptor binding to DNA sequences of hormonally controlled genes, - structure of genes controlled by steroid hormones, - heterogeneity of steroid receptors, - immunochemical approaches to receptor studies, and - the most recent approaches to steroid hormone action and biological response. The Contents discussed are: Biochemical Evidence for the Exclusive Nuclear Localization of the Estrogen Receptor. - Structure, Dynamics, and Cloning of the Estrogen Receptor. - Structure, Dynamics, and Cloning of the Estrogen Receptor - Physical and Functional Parameters of Isolated Estrogen Receptor - Type II Binding Sites: Cellular Origin and an Endogeneous Ligand. - The Two Phosphorylation Reactions of the Progesterone Receptor. - Receptor Mediated Action of the Vitamin D Hormone. - Characterization of the Nuclear Binding Sites (Acceptor Sites) for a Steroid Receptor. Antibodies in Estrogen, Progesterone, Glucocorticoid, Vitamin D Receptors and Autoantibodies to Antrogene Receptor. - Isolation and Characterization of cDNA probes for Human CBG and Rat ABP. Ornithine Decarboxy lase mRNAs in Murine Kidney: Structure and Regulation by Androgens - Glucocorticoid Receptors and the Control of Gene Expression. - Activation and Regulation of the Vitellogenin Gene Family. - Intra- and Intercellular Aspects of the Hormonal Regulation of the ..cap alpha..2..mu.. Globulin Gene Expression. - Hormonal Regulation of Sexually Differentiated Isozymes of Cytochrome P-450 in Rat Liver. - Interaction of Thyroid Hormone and Carbohydrates on Hepatic Gene Expression.

  7. Impact of animal manure separation technologies on steroid hormone distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Popovic, Olga; Björklund, Erland

    2015-01-01

    water treatment processes. However more recently, it has been revealed that agricultural practices also may add to the environmental burden of steroid hormones. So far, research activities have mainly focused on steroid estrogens, but also androgens, progestagens and glucocorticoids, expressed......When steroid hormones are emitted into the environment, they may have harmful effects on the reproduction system of aquatic life. Until now, research has primarily focused on human excretion, demonstrating that steroid hormones reach the aquatic environment due to insufficient removal in waste...... in the vertebrate steroidogenesis, may occur at substantial levels in animal manure and should be addressed. In agricultural practices the animal manure can be applied to the soil as raw manure, but also as a solid or liquid manure fraction, since current livestock production facilities utilizes a recently...

  8. Steroid hormone sulphation in lead workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Apostoli, P; Romeo, L; Peroni, E; Ferioli, A; Ferrari, S; Pasini, F; Aprili, F

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of steroid hormones has been investigated in 10 workers exposed to lead and in 10 non-exposed subjects to determine whether lead interferes with the first or second phase reactions of steroid hormone biotransformation, or both. In the exposed workers blood lead concentrations (PbB) ranged from 45 to 69 micrograms/100 ml; in the controls PbB was less than 25 micrograms/100 ml. No statistical differences were found for the total amount of the urinary hormone metabolites, but a dr...

  9. Steroid hormone sulphation in lead workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoli, P; Romeo, L; Peroni, E; Ferioli, A; Ferrari, S; Pasini, F; Aprili, F

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of steroid hormones has been investigated in 10 workers exposed to lead and in 10 non-exposed subjects to determine whether lead interferes with the first or second phase reactions of steroid hormone biotransformation, or both. In the exposed workers blood lead concentrations (PbB) ranged from 45 to 69 micrograms/100 ml; in the controls PbB was less than 25 micrograms/100 ml. No statistical differences were found for the total amount of the urinary hormone metabolites, but a drop of about 50% was observed for the sulphated portion. It is suggested that lead interferes with the mechanisms of sulphoconjugation through an effect on the cytosol enzymes sulphotransferase and sulphokinase. PMID:2930732

  10. Association between steroid hormone receptors and PSA gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene is a member of the human kallikrein gene family and is known that to be tightly regulated by androgens in the male prostate The presence of PSA is strongly associated with presence of steroid hormone receptors. The aim of this research was to show differential expression and ...

  11. Conserved steroid hormone homology converges on NFκB to modulate inflammation in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Asha S.; Freishtat, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a complex, multifactorial disease comprising multiple different subtypes, rather than a single disease entity [1], yet has a consistent clinical phenotype: recurring episodes of chest tightness, wheezing, and difficulty breathing. Despite the complex pathogenesis of asthma, steroid hormones (e.g. glucocorticoids) are ubiquitous in the acute and chronic management of all types of asthma. Overall, steroid hormones are a class of widely-relevant, biologically-active compounds originating from cholesterol and altered in a stepwise fashion, but maintain a basic 17-carbon, 4-ring structure. Steroids are lipophilic molecules that diffuse readily through cell membranes to directly and/or indirectly affect gene transcription. In addition, they employ rapid, non-genomic actions to affect cellular products. Steroid hormones are comprised of several groups (including glucocorticoids, sex steroid hormones, and secosteroids) with critical divergent biological and physiological functions relevant to health and disease. However, the conserved homology of steroid hormone molecules, receptors, and signaling pathways suggest that each of these is part of dynamic system of hormone interaction, likely involving overlap of downstream signaling mechanisms. Therefore, we will review the similarities and differences of these three groups of steroid hormones (i.e. glucocorticoids, sex steroid hormones, and secosteroids), identifying NFκB as a common inflammatory mediator. Despite our understanding of the impact of individual steroids (e.g. glucocorticoids, sex steroids and secosteroids) on asthma, research has yet to explain the interplay of the dynamic system in which these hormones function. To do so, there needs to be better understanding of the interplay of classical, non-classical, and non-genomic steroid hormone function. However, clues from the conserved homology steroid hormone structure and function and signaling pathways, offer insight into a possible model of steroid

  12. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... steroids (say: STARE-oydz), they often mean illegal anabolic steroids. Anabolic steroids are artificially produced hormones that are the same ... these is testosterone (say: tes-TOSS-tuh-rone). Anabolic steroids can be taken in the form of pills, ...

  13. The art of measuring steroids: Principles and practice of current hormonal steroid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudy, S A; Schuler, G; Sánchez-Guijo, A; Hartmann, M F

    2018-05-01

    Steroids are small and highly important structural or signalling molecules in living organisms and their metabolism is complex. Due to the multiplicity of enzymes involved there are many different steroid related disorders. E.g., an individual enzyme defect is rather rare but can share various clinical symptoms and can thus be hardly diagnosed clinically. Therefore, reliable hormonal determination still presents the most reasonable initial diagnostic approach and helps to avoid uncritical and expensive attempts at molecular diagnostic testing. It also presents a backbone of monitoring these complex patients. In science, reliable hormone measurement is indispensable for the elucidation of new mechanisms of steroid hormone actions. Steroid analytics is highly challenging and should never be considered trivial. Most common methods for steroid determination comprise traditionally immunoassay, or more recently, mass spectrometry based methods. It is absolutely necessary that clinicians and scientists know the methods they are applying by heart. With the introduction of automated direct assays, a loss of quality could be observed over the last two decades in the field of steroid immunoassays. This review wants to meet the need for profound information and orientation in the field of steroid analysis. The pros and cons of the most important methods, such as immunoassays and mass spectrometry based methods will be discussed. The focus of the latter will lie on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Selected analytical applications from our Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Research Group FOR 1369 "Sulfated Steroids in Reproduction" will illustrate the contents. In brief, immunoassays have for long presented the traditional technique for steroid analysis. They are easy to set up. Only one analyte can be measured per immunoassay. Specificity problems can arise and caution has to be exerted especially regarding

  14. Steroid hormone receptors and human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szamel, I.

    1985-02-01

    Steroid hormone receptor (SR) binding capacity can be measured both in the cytosol and in the nuclear fraction of the cancerous cells. Approximately 30-40% of breast cancers are hormone dependent. SR-positive tumors can be treated by endocrine therapy resulting in a favourable clinical response in 60-70% of the cases. At the National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary, estradiol (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor assays are performed by a multipoint saturation analysis using Scatchard plot. Dextran coated charcoal technique is used for the separation of free and receptor protein-bound labelled hormones. Data obtained from 400 breast cancer patients show a correlation between the SR content of the tumor and the hormonal status of the patients. The ER binding capacity is higher after menopause compared to the premenopausal values. Specific correlation between the PR content of the tumor and the hormonal status of the patients cound not be observed. The PR binding capacity is the highest over 20 years. The highest clinical response rate, 80%, could be found in the group of patients with both ER and PR in their tumor tissues. (author).

  15. Role of sex steroid hormones in bacterial-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Elizabeth; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones play important physiological roles in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues, including immune cells. These hormones exert their functions by binding to either specific intracellular receptors that act as ligand-dependent transcription factors or membrane receptors that stimulate several signal transduction pathways. The elevated susceptibility of males to bacterial infections can be related to the usually lower immune responses presented in males as compared to females. This dimorphic sex difference is mainly due to the differential modulation of the immune system by sex steroid hormones through the control of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression, as well as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expression and antibody production. Besides, sex hormones can also affect the metabolism, growth, or virulence of pathogenic bacteria. In turn, pathogenic, microbiota, and environmental bacteria are able to metabolize and degrade steroid hormones and their related compounds. All these data suggest that sex steroid hormones play a key role in the modulation of bacterial-host interactions.

  16. From molecule to market: steroid hormones and financial risk-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, John M; Gurnell, Mark; Sarnyai, Zoltan

    2010-01-27

    Little is known about the role of the endocrine system in financial decision-making. Here, we survey research on steroid hormones and their cognitive effects, and examine potential links to trader performance in the financial markets. Preliminary findings suggest that cortisol codes for risk and testosterone for reward. A key finding of this endocrine research is the different cognitive effects of acute versus chronic exposure to hormones: acutely elevated steroids may optimize performance on a range of tasks; but chronically elevated steroids may promote irrational risk-reward choices. We present a hypothesis suggesting that the irrational exuberance and pessimism observed during market bubbles and crashes may be mediated by steroid hormones. If hormones can exaggerate market moves, then perhaps the age and sex composition among traders and asset managers may affect the level of instability witnessed in the financial markets.

  17. The rate of change in declining steroid hormones: a new parameter of healthy aging in men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Andreas; Philipp, Michel; Lozza, Niclà; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Research on healthy aging in men has increasingly focused on age-related hormonal changes. Testosterone (T) decline is primarily investigated, while age-related changes in other sex steroids (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], estradiol [E2], progesterone [P]) are mostly neglected. An integrated hormone parameter reflecting aging processes in men has yet to be identified. 271 self-reporting healthy men between 40 and 75 provided both psychometric data and saliva samples for hormone analysis. Correlation analysis between age and sex steroids revealed negative associations for the four sex steroids (T, DHEA, E2, and P). Principal component analysis including ten salivary analytes identified a principal component mainly unifying the variance of the four sex steroid hormones. Subsequent principal component analysis including the four sex steroids extracted the principal component of declining steroid hormones (DSH). Moderation analysis of the association between age and DSH revealed significant moderation effects for psychosocial factors such as depression, chronic stress and perceived general health. In conclusion, these results provide further evidence that sex steroids decline in aging men and that the integrated hormone parameter DSH and its rate of change can be used as biomarkers for healthy aging in men. Furthermore, the negative association of age and DSH is moderated by psychosocial factors. PMID:27589836

  18. Steroid hormone profile in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Jenssen, Bjorn Munro; Bytingsvik, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    -4 pathway in polar bears, similar to rodents. The large individual variability in steroid levels reported here most likely reflects the differences in reproductive status of the female polar bears during mating season. The steroid data establish reference values of steroid hormones and may...... is the first study to report circulating concentrations of nine steroid hormones (i.e., estrogens, androgens and progestagens) in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age, condition, location and reproductive status on steroid profile in female polar...... bears. Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone, androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in blood (serum) of free-living female polar bears (n = 15) from Svalbard, Norway, by gas...

  19. Steroid hormones in environmental matrices: extraction method comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaluri, Gangadhar; Suri, Rominder P S; Graham, Kendon

    2017-11-09

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed methods for the analysis of steroid hormones in water, soil, sediment, and municipal biosolids by HRGC/HRMS (EPA Method 1698). Following the guidelines provided in US-EPA Method 1698, the extraction methods were validated with reagent water and applied to municipal wastewater, surface water, and municipal biosolids using GC/MS/MS for the analysis of nine most commonly detected steroid hormones. This is the first reported comparison of the separatory funnel extraction (SFE), continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE), and Soxhlet extraction methods developed by the U.S. EPA. Furthermore, a solid phase extraction (SPE) method was also developed in-house for the extraction of steroid hormones from aquatic environmental samples. This study provides valuable information regarding the robustness of the different extraction methods. Statistical analysis of the data showed that SPE-based methods provided better recovery efficiencies and lower variability of the steroid hormones followed by SFE. The analytical methods developed in-house for extraction of biosolids showed a wide recovery range; however, the variability was low (≤ 7% RSD). Soxhlet extraction and CLLE are lengthy procedures and have been shown to provide highly variably recovery efficiencies. The results of this study are guidance for better sample preparation strategies in analytical methods for steroid hormone analysis, and SPE adds to the choice in environmental sample analysis.

  20. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja

    2016-01-01

    or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us to map......Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women......'s vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo...

  1. The organizing actions of adolescent gonadal steroid hormones on brain and behavioral development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kalynn M.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by dramatic changes in cognition, risk-taking and social behavior. Although gonadal steroid hormones are well-known mediators of these behaviors in adulthood, the role gonadal steroid hormones play in shaping the adolescent brain and behavioral development has only come to light in recent years. Here we discuss the sex-specific impact of gonadal steroid hormones on the developing adolescent brain. Indeed, the effects of gonadal steroid hormones during adolescence on brain structure and behavioral outcomes differs markedly between the sexes. Research findings suggest that adolescence, like the perinatal period, is a sensitive period for the sex-specific effects of gonadal steroid hormones on brain and behavioral development. Furthermore, evidence from studies on male sexual behavior suggests that adolescence is part of a protracted postnatal sensitive period that begins perinatally and ends following adolescence. As such, the perinatal and peripubertal periods of brain and behavioral organization likely do not represent two discrete sensitive periods, but instead are the consequence of normative developmental timing of gonadal hormone secretions in males and females. PMID:27497718

  2. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Okinaga, Hiroko; Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Tomoki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. → Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. → Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor α, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  3. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  4. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  5. PET imaging of brain sex steroid hormone receptors and the role of estrogen in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khayum, Mohamed Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Androgens and estrogens are steroid hormones that are involved in several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Decreased levels of steroid hormones are associated with e.g. decreased cognition, anxiety and depression. Androgens and estrogens exert their biological effects through their

  6. Towards the emerging crosstalk: ERBB family and steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Uva, Gabriele; Lauriola, Mattia

    2016-02-01

    Growth factors acting through receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) of ERBB family, along with steroid hormones (SH) acting through nuclear receptors (NRs), are critical signalling mediators of cellular processes. Deregulations of ERBB and steroid hormone receptors are responsible for several diseases, including cancer, thus demonstrating the central role played by both systems. This review will summarize and shed light on an emerging crosstalk between these two important receptor families. How this mutual crosstalk is attained, such as through extensive genomic and non-genomic interactions, will be addressed. In light of recent studies, we will describe how steroid hormones are able to fine-tune ERBB feedback loops, thus impacting on cellular output and providing a new key for understanding the complexity of biological processes in physiological or pathological conditions. In our understanding, the interactions between steroid hormones and RTKs deserve further attention. A system biology approach and advanced technologies for the analysis of RTK-SH crosstalk could lead to major advancements in molecular medicine, providing the basis for new routes of pharmacological intervention in several diseases, including cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Steroid hormone profile in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Bytingsvik, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The polar bear is an iconic Arctic species, threatened by anthropogenic impacts such as pollution and climate change. Successful reproduction of polar bears depends on a functioning steroid hormone system, which is susceptible to effects of persistent organic pollutants. The present study...... is the first study to report circulating concentrations of nine steroid hormones (i.e., estrogens, androgens and progestagens) in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age, condition, location and reproductive status on steroid profile in female polar...... bears. Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone, androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in blood (serum) of free-living female polar bears (n = 15) from Svalbard, Norway, by gas...

  8. Changes in steroid hormones during an international powerlifting competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Panse, Bénédicte; Labsy, Zakaria; Baillot, Aurélie; Vibarel-Rebot, Nancy; Parage, Gaston; Albrings, Detlev; Lasne, Françoise; Collomp, Katia

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess changes in the steroid hormone levels of elite athletes during an international powerlifting competition. Baseline cortisol, DHEA and testosterone were determined in saliva samples in 19 (8 men, 11 women) junior and sub-junior athletes on the day before competition, and then on the competition day during the official weighing and in the hour after competition. Performance was determined by total output and the Wilks formula. No change in saliva steroid concentrations was observed between samples collected on the day before competition and the weighing samples. There was no gender effect on cortisol concentrations but saliva testosterone levels were always significantly higher in men than in women (ppowerlifting competition produce a significant increase in adrenal steroid hormones in both genders, with an increase in male gonadal steroid hormone. Further studies are necessary to examine the changes in oestradiol and progesterone in women and their potential impact on performance during international powerlifting competition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychological, social, and spiritual effects of contraceptive steroid hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Hanna; Cortés, Manuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Governments and society have accepted and enthusiastically promoted contraception, especially contraceptive steroid hormones, as the means of assuring optimal timing and number of births, an undoubted health benefit, but they seldom advert to their limitations and side effects. This article reviews the literature on the psychological, social, and spiritual impact of contraceptive steroid use. While the widespread use of contraceptive steroid hormones has expanded life style and career choices for many women, their impact on the women's well-being, emotions, social relationships, and spirituality is seldom mentioned by advocates, and negative effects are often downplayed. When mentioned at all, depression and hypoactive sexual desire are usually treated symptomatically rather than discontinuing their most frequent pharmacological cause, the contraceptive. The rising incidence of premarital sex and cohabitation and decreased marriage rates parallel the use of contraceptive steroids as does decreased church attendance and/or reduced acceptance of Church teaching among Catholics. Lay summary: While there is wide, societal acceptance of hormonal contraceptives to space births, their physical side effects are often downplayed and their impact on emotions and life styles are largely unexamined. Coincidental to the use of “the pill” there has been an increase in depression, low sexual desire, “hook-ups,” cohabitation, delay of marriage and childbearing, and among Catholics, decreased church attendance and reduced religious practice. Fertility is not a disease. Birth spacing can be achieved by natural means, and the many undesirable effects of contraception avoided. PMID:26912936

  10. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical study on postoperative steroid hormon replacement for preclinical Cushing's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Nozomu; Koide, Haruhisa; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Miki, Jun; Kimura, Takahiro; Egawa, Shin

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria for preclinical Cushing's syndrome (PCS) were reported in 1996. However, requirement of postoperative steroid hormone replacement is still controversial issue. In this study, we observed recent surgical cases retrospectively and evaluate the use of postoperative steroid hormone replacement. Eighteen patients with PCS underwent surgery from 1997 to 2007 in Jikei University Hospital. Thirteen of them received postoperative steroid hormone replacement. We investigated preoperative hormone activity by 131 I-adosterol scintigraphy and suppression of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and evaluated the requirement of postoperative steroid hormone replacement. Preoperative serum cortisol was normal range in all patients. Serum ACTH was suppressed in 10 of them (56%). In 131 I-adosterol scintigraphy, accumulation in ipsilateral side was observed in all patients. Accumulation in contralateral side was observed in 13 patients whose serum ACTH had tendency to be suppressed. Mean period of steroid hormone replacement was 19.8 weeks. Patients with lower preoperative ACTH tended to require longer period until withdrawal of steroid hormone replacement. In addition, patients received steroid hormone replacement with higher starting dose significantly required longer period. Three of them had complications during tapering of steroid hormone. Postoperative adrenal insufficiency is important issue as postoperative management of PCS patients whose function of contralateral adrenal or pituitary gland is suppressed. 131 I-adosterol scintigraphy and preoperative serum ACTH were important factors to evaluate the requirement of postoperative steroid hormone replacement. Especially, patients with low preoperative serum ACTH tended to require long duration of postoperative steroid hormone replacement. On the other hand, patients with accumulation of contralateral side in 131 I-adosterol scintigraphy and without suppression of serum ACTH may not require steroid hormone

  12. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival in epithe......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival...... not provide prognostic information. Patients whose tumors coexpressed PR and AR had the most favorable prognosis, and this effect was retained in multivariable analyses. Analyses of the corresponding genes using an independent data set revealed differences among the molecular subtypes, but no clear...

  13. Steroid Hormone Receptor Signals as Prognosticators for Urothelial Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Ide

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of preclinical or clinical evidence suggesting that steroid hormone receptor-mediated signals play a critical role in urothelial tumorigenesis and tumor progression. These receptors include androgen receptor, estrogen receptors, glucocorticoid receptor, progesterone receptor, vitamin D receptor, retinoid receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, and others including orphan receptors. In particular, studies using urothelial cancer tissue specimens have demonstrated that elevated or reduced expression of these receptors as well as alterations of their upstream or downstream pathways correlates with patient outcomes. This review summarizes and discusses available data suggesting that steroid hormone receptors and related signals serve as biomarkers for urothelial carcinoma and are able to predict tumor recurrence or progression.

  14. Steroid Sex Hormones, Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin, and Diabetes Incidence in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, K J; Kim, C; Christophi, C A; Aroda, V R; Knowler, W C; Edelstein, S E; Florez, J C; Labrie, F; Kahn, S E; Goldberg, R B; Barrett-Connor, E

    2015-10-01

    Steroid sex hormones and SHBG may modify metabolism and diabetes risk, with implications for sex-specific diabetes risk and effects of prevention interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships of steroid sex hormones, SHBG and SHBG single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with diabetes risk factors and with progression to diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized clinical trial involving 27 U.S. academic institutions. The study included 2898 DPP participants: 969 men, 948 premenopausal women not taking exogenous sex hormones, 550 postmenopausal women not taking exogenous sex hormones, and 431 postmenopausal women taking exogenous sex hormones. Participants were randomized to receive intensive lifestyle intervention, metformin, or placebo. Associations of steroid sex hormones, SHBG, and SHBG SNPs with glycemia and diabetes risk factors, and with incident diabetes over median 3.0 years (maximum, 5.0 y). T and DHT were inversely associated with fasting glucose in men, and estrone sulfate was directly associated with 2-hour post-challenge glucose in men and premenopausal women. SHBG was associated with fasting glucose in premenopausal women not taking exogenous sex hormones, and in postmenopausal women taking exogenous sex hormones, but not in the other groups. Diabetes incidence was directly associated with estrone and estradiol and inversely with T in men; the association with T was lost after adjustment for waist circumference. Sex steroids were not associated with diabetes outcomes in women. SHBG and SHBG SNPs did not predict incident diabetes in the DPP population. Estrogens and T predicted diabetes risk in men but not in women. SHBG and its polymorphisms did not predict risk in men or women. Diabetes risk is more potently determined by obesity and glycemia than by sex hormones.

  15. Direct binding and activation of protein kinase C isoforms by steroid hormones.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo

    2008-10-01

    The non-genomic action of steroid hormones regulates a wide variety of cellular responses including regulation of ion transport, cell proliferation, migration, death and differentiation. In order to achieve such plethora of effects steroid hormones utilize nearly all known signal transduction pathways. One of the key signalling molecules regulating the non-genomic action of steroid hormones is protein kinase C (PKC). It is thought that rapid action of steroids hormones results from the activation of plasma membrane receptors; however, their molecular identity remains elusive. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have pointed at the selective binding and activation of specific PKC isoforms by steroid hormones. This has led to the hypothesis that PKC could act as a receptor as well as a transducer of the non-genomic effects of these hormones. In this review we summarize the current knowledge of the direct binding and activation of PKC by steroid hormones.

  16. Regulation of phase II biotransformation enzymes by steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohalmy, Krisztina; Vrzal, Radim

    2011-02-01

    Phase II biotransformation enzymes conjugate xenobiotics using small, organic donor molecules, such as glutathione, UDP-glucuronic acid, S-adenosyl-L-methionine, acetyl coenzyme A and amino acids (primarily glycine). These reactions generally resulted in detoxification by the loss of pharmacological activity and by quickening the elimination of xenobiotics from the body, however Bioactivation is also known to be occurred. Historically, it was placed more emphasis on research of phase I than of phase II enzymes. Nevertheless, it is well known that conjugation enzymes play an important role in drug and toxicant disposition since they can dramatically alter pharmacokinetics and therefore therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of drugs. In this context surprisingly, the exact regulation mechanism of phase II conjugation enzymes expression is not fully understood. However, available experimental data suggest that several transcriptional factors are involved in this process. In the current review, we characterize and summarize our knowledge about regulation of the most important phase II enzymes, such as UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), sulfotransferases (SULTs), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs), catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) and thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) by different steroid hormones.

  17. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique of steroid hormones in the laying hens, Gallus domesticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli bin Abdullah

    1990-01-01

    The principle of radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been applied to many organic compounds of biological interest. In this work, commercially available antisera developed for various steroid hormones were used in the analysis of steroid hormones in the laying hens. The RIA procedure for plasma steroid hormones was divided into three phases: sample preparation, incubation of the antibody-3H-steroid complex with prepared samples and a standard curve and separation of antibody bound 3H-steroid from free 3H-steroid. Results showed that it is possible to use commercially available antiserum source for the determination of steroid hormones in this species. This approach has the advantage of savings in both time and money, by eliminating time losses in screening potential animals producing steroid antiserum and the costs of maintaining these animals

  18. Preparation of directly iodinated steroid hormones and related directly halogenated compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahadevan, V.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation of directly iodinated radioactive steroid hormones is described for use in radioimmunoassays or radiolocalization and treatment of human breast tumours. The radioactive iodinated steroid hormone is prepared by reacting a parent steroid hormone with an alkali metal iodide containing radioactive 123 I, 125 I, 130 I or 131 I in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or chloramine-T. The parent steroid hormones include the adrenal corticosteroids, the estrogens, the progestogens, the progestins and the diuretic and antidiuretic agents. The radioactive iodinated steroid hormone is prepared by iodinating the parent steroid hormone directly on the cyclopentanophenanthrene nucleus. The radioactive iodinated steroid hormones have the same antigenicity and receptor site specificity as the parent steroid hormone. The invention is illustrated by 1) the method of iodination of estradiol-17β, 2) results for the percentage labelling of several steroids and steroid hormones, 3) results for the radioimmunoassay of 125 I-estradiol and 4) results for the binding of directly iodinated estradiol-17β in an estrogen receptor assay of human breast cancer. (U.K.)

  19. Multiple steroid and thyroid hormones detected in baleen from eight whale species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathleen E; Lysiak, Nadine S; Robbins, Jooke; Moore, Michael J; Seton, Rosemary E; Torres, Leigh; Buck, C Loren

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that some hormones are present in baleen powder from bowhead ( Balaena mysticetus) and North Atlantic right ( Eubalaena glacialis ) whales. To test the potential generalizability of this technique for studies of stress and reproduction in large whales, we sought to determine whether all major classes of steroid and thyroid hormones are detectable in baleen, and whether these hormones are detectable in other mysticetes. Powdered baleen samples were recovered from single specimens of North Atlantic right, bowhead, blue ( Balaenoptera [ B .] musculus ), sei ( B. borealis ), minke ( B. acutorostrata ), fin ( B. physalu s), humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae ) and gray ( Eschrichtius robustus ) whales. Hormones were extracted with a methanol vortex method, after which we tested all species with commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIAs, Arbor Assays) for progesterone, testosterone, 17β-estradiol, cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine, representing a wide array of steroid and thyroid hormones of interest for whale physiology research. In total, 64 parallelism tests (8 species × 8 hormones) were evaluated to verify good binding affinity of the assay antibodies to hormones in baleen. We also tested assay accuracy, although available sample volume limited this test to progesterone, testosterone and cortisol. All tested hormones were detectable in baleen powder of all species, and all assays passed parallelism and accuracy tests. Although only single individuals were tested, the consistent detectability of all hormones in all species indicates that baleen hormone analysis is likely applicable to a broad range of mysticetes, and that the EIA kits tested here perform well with baleen extract. Quantification of hormones in baleen may be a suitable technique with which to explore questions that have historically been difficult to address in large whales, including pregnancy and inter-calving interval, age of sexual

  20. EVALUATION OF STEROID HORMONES AND THEIR RECEPTORS IN DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Bennett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones and their receptors have important roles in normal kidney biology, and alterations in their expression and function help explain the differences in development of kidney diseases, such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. The distinct gender difference in incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, with males having almost twice the incidence as females globally, also suggests a role for sex hormones or their receptors in RCC development and progression. There was a peak in interest in evaluating the roles of androgen and estrogen receptors in RCC pathogenesis in the late 20th century, with some positive outcomes for RCC therapy that targeted estrogen receptors, especially for metastatic disease. Since that time, however, there have been few studies that look at use of steroid hormone modulators for RCC, especially in the light of new therapies such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitors and new immune therapies, which are having some success for treatment of metastatic RCC. This review summarises past and current literature and attempts to stimulate renewed interest in research into the steroid hormones and their receptors, which might be used to effect, for example, in combination with the other newer targeted therapies for RCC.

  1. Racial variation in sex steroid hormone concentration in black and white men: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, A.; Rohrmann, S.; Zhang, L.; Eichholzer, M.; Basaria, S.; Selvin, E.; Dobs, A. S.; Kanarek, N.; Menke, A.; Nelson, W. G.; Platz, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones are associated with chronic diseases and mortality with risk associations that differ between racial and ethnic groups. However, it is currently unclear whether sex steroid hormone levels differ between black and white men. The aim of this study was to assess racial variation in circulating testosterone, free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol levels in men. We searched PubMed for articles comparing circulating hormones in black and white men....

  2. Determination of steroid hormones in blood by GC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Jacobsen, Naja Wessel; Nielsen, Frederik Knud

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development, optimization and validation of a methodology to determine nine key steroid hormones (viz. pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, test......This paper presents the development, optimization and validation of a methodology to determine nine key steroid hormones (viz. pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, test...

  3. The Insect Prothoracic Gland as a Model for Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuxiang Ou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones are ancient signaling molecules found in vertebrates and insects alike. Both taxa show intriguing parallels with respect to how steroids function and how their synthesis is regulated. As such, insects are excellent models for studying universal aspects of steroid physiology. Here, we present a comprehensive genomic and genetic analysis of the principal steroid hormone-producing organs in two popular insect models, Drosophila and Bombyx. We identified 173 genes with previously unknown specific expression in steroid-producing cells, 15 of which had critical roles in development. The insect neuropeptide PTTH and its vertebrate counterpart ACTH both regulate steroid production, but molecular targets of these pathways remain poorly characterized. Identification of PTTH-dependent gene sets identified the nuclear receptor HR4 as a highly conserved target in both Drosophila and Bombyx. We consider this study to be a critical step toward understanding how steroid hormone production and release are regulated in all animal models.

  4. Steroidal Hormone Receptor Expression in Male Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Homaei-Shandiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The etiology of male breast cancer is unclear, but hormonal levels may play a role in development of this disease. It seems that the risk of male breast cancer related to increased lifelong exposure to estrogen or reduced androgen. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the steroid hormone receptors including estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR in Iranian cases with male breast cancer. Methods: This is a prospective review of 18 cases of male breast cancer in in Omid Hospital, Mashhad, North East of Iran, between October 2001 and October 2006. ER and PR were measured by immunohistochemistry. Clinicopathologic features and family history were obtained by interview. Data were analyzed with SPSS 13 using descriptive statistics.  Results: The median age was 63.2 year. All the cases were infiltrating ductal carcinoma. A high rate of expression of ER (88.8% and PR (66.6% was found in the studied cases. Conclusion: Cancers of the male breast are significantly more likely than cancers of the female breast to express hormonal receptors.

  5. Biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones by human adrenal carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a 15-year period, our university-based laboratory obtained 125 adrenal tumors, of which 15 (12% were adrenal cortical carcinomas. Of these, 6 (40% of the carcinomas occurred in patients with clear clinical manifestations of steroid hormone excess. Adrenal cortical carcinoma cells derived from the surgically resected tumors in 4 of these patients were isolated and established in primary culture. Radiotracer steroid interconversion studies were carried out with these cultures and also on mitochondria isolated from homogenized tissues. Large tumors had the lowest steroidogenic activities per weight, whereas small tumors had more moderately depressed enzyme activities relative to cells from normal glands. In incubations with pregnenolone as substrate, 1 mM metyrapone blocked the synthesis of corticosterone and cortisol and also the formation of aldosterone. Metyrapone inhibition was associated with a concomitant increase in the formation of androgens (androstenedione and testosterone from pregnenolone. Administration of metyrapone in vivo before surgery in one patient resulted in a similar increase in plasma androstenedione, though plasma testosterone levels were not significantly affected. In cultures of two of four tumors examined, dibutyryl cAMP stimulated 11ß-hydroxylase activity modestly; ACTH also had a significant stimulatory effect in one of these tumors. Unlike results obtained with normal or adenomatous adrenal cortical tissues, mitochondria from carcinomatous cells showed a lack of support of either cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme complex or steroid 11ß-hydroxylase activity by Krebs cycle intermediates (10 mM isocitrate, succinate or malate. This finding is consistent with the concept that these carcinomas may tend to function predominantly in an anaerobic manner, rather than through the oxidation of Krebs cycle intermediates.

  6. Steroid hormones and persistent organic pollutants in plasma from North-eastern Atlantic pilot whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoydal, Katrin S; Styrishave, Bjarne; Ciesielski, Tomasz M

    2017-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are known to have endocrine disruptive effects, interfering with endogenous steroid hormones. The present study examined nine steroid hormones and their relationships with the concentrations of selected POPs in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the Faroe...... Islands, NE Atlantic. The different steroids were detected in 15 to all of the 26 individuals. High concentrations of progesterone (83.3-211.7pmol/g) and pregnenolone (PRE; 4.68-5.69pmol/g) were found in three adult females indicating that they were pregnant or ovulating. High androgen concentrations...... and the steroid hormones reported herein are not evidence of cause-effect relationships, the positive correlations between steroids and POPs, particularly in females, suggest that POPs may have some endocrine disrupting effects on the steroid homeostasis in this species....

  7. Evolution of Minimal Specificity and Promiscuity in Steroid Hormone Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Geeta N.; Colucci, Jennifer K.; Harms, Michael J.; Ortlund, Eric A.; Thornton, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    Most proteins are regulated by physical interactions with other molecules; some are highly specific, but others interact with many partners. Despite much speculation, we know little about how and why specificity/promiscuity evolves in natural proteins. It is widely assumed that specific proteins evolved from more promiscuous ancient forms and that most proteins' specificity has been tuned to an optimal state by selection. Here we use ancestral protein reconstruction to trace the evolutionary history of ligand recognition in the steroid hormone receptors (SRs), a family of hormone-regulated animal transcription factors. We resurrected the deepest ancestral proteins in the SR family and characterized the structure-activity relationships by which they distinguished among ligands. We found that that the most ancient split in SR evolution involved a discrete switch from an ancient receptor for aromatized estrogens—including xenobiotics—to a derived receptor that recognized non-aromatized progestagens and corticosteroids. The family's history, viewed in relation to the evolution of their ligands, suggests that SRs evolved according to a principle of minimal specificity: at each point in time, receptors evolved ligand recognition criteria that were just specific enough to parse the set of endogenous substances to which they were exposed. By studying the atomic structures of resurrected SR proteins, we found that their promiscuity evolved because the ancestral binding cavity was larger than the primary ligand and contained excess hydrogen bonding capacity, allowing adventitious recognition of larger molecules with additional functional groups. Our findings provide an historical explanation for the sensitivity of modern SRs to natural and synthetic ligands—including endocrine-disrupting drugs and pollutants—and show that knowledge of history can contribute to ligand prediction. They suggest that SR promiscuity may reflect the limited power of selection within real

  8. Evolution of minimal specificity and promiscuity in steroid hormone receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta N Eick

    Full Text Available Most proteins are regulated by physical interactions with other molecules; some are highly specific, but others interact with many partners. Despite much speculation, we know little about how and why specificity/promiscuity evolves in natural proteins. It is widely assumed that specific proteins evolved from more promiscuous ancient forms and that most proteins' specificity has been tuned to an optimal state by selection. Here we use ancestral protein reconstruction to trace the evolutionary history of ligand recognition in the steroid hormone receptors (SRs, a family of hormone-regulated animal transcription factors. We resurrected the deepest ancestral proteins in the SR family and characterized the structure-activity relationships by which they distinguished among ligands. We found that that the most ancient split in SR evolution involved a discrete switch from an ancient receptor for aromatized estrogens--including xenobiotics--to a derived receptor that recognized non-aromatized progestagens and corticosteroids. The family's history, viewed in relation to the evolution of their ligands, suggests that SRs evolved according to a principle of minimal specificity: at each point in time, receptors evolved ligand recognition criteria that were just specific enough to parse the set of endogenous substances to which they were exposed. By studying the atomic structures of resurrected SR proteins, we found that their promiscuity evolved because the ancestral binding cavity was larger than the primary ligand and contained excess hydrogen bonding capacity, allowing adventitious recognition of larger molecules with additional functional groups. Our findings provide an historical explanation for the sensitivity of modern SRs to natural and synthetic ligands--including endocrine-disrupting drugs and pollutants--and show that knowledge of history can contribute to ligand prediction. They suggest that SR promiscuity may reflect the limited power of

  9. The role of alcohol and steroid hormones in human aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Pahlen, Bettina

    2005-01-01

    The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior is well established although a direct causal relationship has proven hard to demonstrate. There are, however, indications that alcohol facilitates aggression in individuals who already have a predisposition to behave aggressively. Aggressive personality disorders have in turn been explained by elevated testosterone level. A one-to-one relation between increased levels of testosterone and aggression has been, nevertheless, difficult to reveal. Two metabolites of testosterone, estradiol and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), have been studied much less in human aggressive behavior. Estradiol might reduce androgenic effects and have a counterbalancing influence on aggression. DHT, again, has a much higher affinity than testosterone to androgen receptors, and there are indications that some of the effects of testosterone-mediating aggressive behavior occur after aromatization. Disregard of seasonal and circadian fluctuations in male testosterone production might be responsible for some of the inconclusive testosterone-aggression results. In addition, increasing age decreases both aggressive behavior and testosterone production in males. Cortisol has yielded conflicting results as a mediator in aggressive behavior. Both higher and lower levels have been reported in aggressive and abusive men. Finally, the acute and chronic effects of alcohol influence the steroid hormone levels in various ways. The present understanding of the etiology of aggression is still vague. It is clear that a multidimensional approach, combining both biological and psychosocial factors, will be necessary for the development of a more general concept of human aggression in the future.

  10. Preparation of steroidal hormones with an emphasis on transformations of phytosterols and cholesterol - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Al Jasem

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, there is a big market for steroidal hormones as well as for their derivatives. This review traces the development in steroidal production from the first milligram-scale isolation of the products to their semi-synthesis from sapogenins, their total synthesis and finally their microbial enzymatic preparation from phytosterols.

  11. Association Between Sex Steroid Hormones and Hematocrit in a Nationally Representative Sample of Men

    OpenAIRE

    Paller, Channing J.; Shiels, Meredith S.; Rohrmann, Sabine; Menke, Andy; Rifai, Nader; Nelson, William G.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Dobs, Adrian S.

    2012-01-01

    Low or high hematocrit levels are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, mediated via anemia or thromboembolic events, respectively. It is therefore important to identify factors that influence hematocrit. Although androgens are known to stimulate hematopoietic cells, it is unknown whether circulating sex steroid hormones affect hematocrit. The association between serum sex steroid hormone concentrations and hematocrit in men aged ≥20 years was evaluated in a cross-sectional study...

  12. Specific DNA-binding proteins and DNA sequences involved in steroid hormone regulation of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelsberg, T.; Hora, J.; Horton, M.; Goldberger, A.; Littlefield, B.; Seelke, R.; Toyoda, H.

    1987-01-01

    Steroid hormones circulate in the blood and are taken by target cells via complexes with intracellular binding proteins termed receptors, that are hormone and tissue specific. Each receptor binds it specific steroid with very high affinity, having an equilibrium dissociation constant (K/sub d/) in the range of 10 -9 to 10 -10 M. Once bound by their specific steroid hormones, the steroid receptors undergo a conformational change which allows them to bind with high affinity to sites on chromatin, termed nuclear acceptor sites. There are estimated 5,000 to 10,000 of these sites expressed with an equal number not expressed (''masked'') in intact chromatin. The result of the binding to nuclear acceptor sites is an alteration of gene transcription or, in some cases, gene expression as measured by the changing levels of specific RNAs and proteins in that target tissue. Each steroid regulates specific effects on the RNA and protein profiles. The chronology of the above mechanism of action after injection of radiolabelled steroid as is follows: Steroid-receptor complex formation (1 minute), nuclear acceptor sites (2 minutes), effects on RNA synthesis (10 to 30 minutes), and finally the changing protein profiles via changes in protein synthesis and protein turnover (1 to 6 hours). Thus steroid receptors represent one of the first identified intracellular gene regulation proteins. The receptor molecules themselves are regulated by the presence or absence of the steroid molecule

  13. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  14. SDR-type human hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases involved in steroid hormone activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqiu; Lukacik, Petra; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Oppermann, Udo

    2007-02-01

    Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent oxidoreduction of hydroxyl and oxo-functions at distinct positions of steroid hormones. This reversible reaction constitutes an important pre-receptor control mechanism for nuclear receptor ligands of the androgen, estrogen and glucocorticoid classes, since the conversion "switches" between receptor ligands and their inactive metabolites. The major reversible activities found in mammals acting on steroid hormones comprise 3alpha-, 11beta- and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, and for each group several distinct isozymes have been described. The enzymes differ in their expression pattern, nucleotide cofactor preference, steroid substrate specificity and subcellular localization, and thus constitute a complex system ensuring cell-specific adaptation and regulation of steroid hormone levels. Several isoforms constitute promising drug targets, of particular importance in cancer, metabolic diseases, neurodegeneration and immunity.

  15. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Romano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include establishment of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that have only one host reciprocal intricate interactions occur. A bulk of evidence indicates that steroid hormones influence the development and course of parasitic infections, the host gender susceptibility to the infection and the associate differences in immunological response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In many but not all parasitosis the host hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activate immune responses that finally affect the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones like ecdysteroids and sex steroids and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium and tapeworms and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. Deeper knowledge of the endocrine properties of parasites will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and also may contribute to design tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations.

  16. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-25

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-01

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600 ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390 ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons.

  18. Synthesis and chemical reactions of the steroidal hormone 17α-methyltestosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Desoky, El-Sayed Ibrahim; Reyad, Mahmoud; Afsah, Elsayed Mohammed; Dawidar, Abdel-Aziz Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Structural modifications of natural products with complex structures like steroids require great synthetic effort. A review of literature is presented on the chemistry of the steroidal hormone 17α-methyltestosterone that is approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States as an androgen for estrogen-androgen hormone replacement therapy treatment. The analog also offers special possibilities for the prevention/treatment of hormone-sensitive cancers. The testosterone skeleton has important functionalities in the molecule that can act as a carbonyl component, an active methylene compound, α,β-unsaturated enone and tertiary hydroxyl group in various chemical reactions to access stereoisomeric steroidal compounds with potent activity. In addition, microbiological methods of synthesis and transformation of this hormone are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Masculinization on tilapia (Oreochromis sp. by natural hormone steroid agent from bee resin through artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinar Tri Soelistyowati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Masculinization on tilapia ( Oreochromis sp. has been done with approach of natural hormone steroid agent  from bee resin  through artificial diet before sexual differentiation. This research aim to increase male sex ratio and production performance. Treatment of bee resin dose is 0.6; 1.2; 1.8; 2.4; 3.0 feed ml/kg compared to Control (0 ml/kg diet were given  during 28 days at larva age 7 day in aquarium, then transferred to the farm ground until age 12 weeks. Average of masculine phenotype percentage increased significantly (PKeywords: bee resin, masculinization, masculine sex ratio, Oreochromis sp. ABSTRAKMaskulinisasi pada ikan nila  (Oreochromis sp. telah dilakukan dengan pendekatan hormonal menggunakan bahan aktif steroid alami yang berasal dari resin lebah melalui pakan buatan sebelum diferensiasi kelamin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan meliputi kelangsungan hidup, nisbah kelamin jantan, laju pertambahan bobot, dan konversi pakan (FCR.  Perlakuan yang diuji terdiri dari 5 dosis resin lebah  (0,6; 1,2; 1,8; 2,4; 3,0 mL/kg pakan dan Kontrol, diberikan selama 28 hari pada larva berumur 7 hari di akuarium, kemudian ikan dipelihara di kolam tanah sampai umur 12 minggu. Rata-rata persentase fenotipe jantan meningkat secara nyata (PKata kunci: Oreochromis sp, maskulinisasi, nisbah kelamin jantan, resin lebah.

  20. THE ROLE OF STEROID HORMONES IN LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gurzu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient evidence has accumulated since the 1970s to support the hypothesis that gonadal steroids can influence processes that allow an organism to learn and remember new information. Although this conclusion quickly leads to exciting implications for our understanding of cognitive function and for the treatment of cognitive disability, it also raises questions regarding the nature, mechanism, and significance of the steroid modulation of learning and memory. In order to support the case that a steroid plays a meaningful role in cognition, several central issues must be addressed : adaptative value (the proposed effect of the steroid on learning and memory should have adaptive value to the organism; strenght of effect (empirical data supporting the role of the steroid in learning and memory should be sufficiently robust in magnitude and replicability; neural substrate (anatomical and physilogical substrates should exist to support the actions of the steroid on learning and memory ; and nonmnemonic processes (processes other than those directly mediating steroid effects on learning and memory systems should be identified (23. Sufficient evidence has accumulated since the 1970s to support the hypothesis that gonadal steroids can influence processes that allow an organism to learn and remember new information. Although this conclusion quickly leads to exciting implications for our understanding of cognitive function and for the treatment of cognitive disability, it also raises questions regarding the nature, mechanism, and significance of the steroid modulation of learning and memory. In order to support the case that a steroid plays a meaningful role in cognition, several central issues must be addressed : adaptative value (the proposed effect of the steroid on learning and memory should have adaptive value to the organism; strenght of effect (empirical data supporting the role of the steroid in learning and memory should be sufficiently robust

  1. In vitro binding of steroid hormones by natural and purified fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, T.D.; Howie, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    The in vitro binding of estrone, estradiol-17β, estriol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estrone-3-glucuronide by wheat, oat and corn brans, oat hulls, cellulose, lignin, and cholestyramine resin was measured. Steroid binding was carried out by mixing 50 mg of binding substance with varying substrate quantities (0.037 μCi; 0.50-2.51 pmol/incubation) of 3 H-estrone, 3 H-estradiol-17β, 3 H-estriol, 3 H-estrone-3-glucuronide, 4 H-testosterone, and 370 C for 1 hr with shaking. Following centrifugation of the reaction mixture, a 1 ml aliquot was analyzed for radioactivity. The extent of steroid sequestration was characteristic and reproducible for each hormone. Cholestyramine bound an average of 90% of all the steroids tested, whereas cellulose bound the least (12%). Of the other substances tested, lignin bound 87%; wheat and oat grans, 45% each; corn bran, 44%; and oat hulls, 32% of the unconjugated hormones. The conjugated steroid was less likely to bind than the unconjugated steroids. Lignin appeared to be an important component in the interaction with steroid hormones. The results support the hydrophobic of nature of adsorption and suggest that the components of the fiber in diet should be considered separately when evaluating in vivo metabolic effects. Implications include the possible modification of hormone-dependent cancer risk through dietary intervention

  2. Strategies for the Assessment of Metabolic Profiles of Steroid Hormones in View of Diagnostics and Drug Monitoring: Analytical Problems and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenis, Alina; Oledzka, Ilona; Kowalski, Piotr; Baczek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years there has been a growing interest in research focused on the metabolism of steroid hormones despite that the study of metabolic hormone pathways is still a difficult and demanding task because of low steroid concentrations and a complexity of the analysed matrices. Thus, there has been an increasing interest in the development of new, more selective and sensitive methods for monitoring these compounds in biological samples. A lot of bibliographic databases for world research literature were structurally searched using selected review question and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Next, the reports of the highest quality were selected using standard tools (181) and they were described to evaluate the advantages and limitations of different approaches in the measurements of the steroids and their metabolites. The overview of the analytical challenges, development of methods used in the assessment of the metabolic pathways of steroid hormones, and the priorities for future research with a special consideration for liquid chromatography (LC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques have been presented. Moreover, many LC and CE applications in pharmacological and psychological studies as well as endocrinology and sports medicine, taking into account the recent progress in the area of the metabolic profiling of steroids, have been critically discussed. The latest reports show that LC systems coupled with mass spectrometry have the predominant position in the research of steroid profiles. Moreover, CE techniques are going to gain a prominent position in the diagnosis of hormone levels in the near future.

  3. The impact of genetics and hormonal contraceptives on the steroid profile in female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Erkander Mullen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls.The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 to 45. Hormonal contraceptives were used by 32 % of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17.Subjects using hormonal contraceptives excreted 40 % less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p = 0.005 but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio was 29 % higher in the hormonal contraceptives group (p = 0.016. In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete’s steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of hormonal contraceptives on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of hormonal contraceptives should be a mandatory question on the doping control form.

  4. Xenobiotic action on steroid hormone synthesis and sulfonation the example of lead and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, L; Catalani, S; Pasini, F; Bergonzi, R; Perbellini, L; Apostoli, P

    2009-04-01

    In the present study, the metabolism of steroid hormones has been investigated to determine whether and how xenobiotics like lead (Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) interfere with steroid hormone biotransformation in humans. Three groups of subjects were tested for concentration of urinary total steroids, 17-ketosteroids (n = 5), pregnane derivates (n = 6), 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (n = 11) and their sulfonated compounds: 14 workers exposed to lead, with a mean Pb blood concentration (PbB) of 29.21 microg/dl; 15 subjects exposed to PCBs, with a mean PCB blood concentration (PCBB) of 61.69 microg/l; a control group (n = 25). The urinary concentrations of 17-ketosteroids and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids were significantly lower in the PCB-exposed groups. There were significantly fewer sulfonated 17-hydroxycorticosteroids in the subjects exposed to PCBs as compared to the controls, while the percentage of sulfonated steroids was lower for both 17-ketosteroids and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids in the PCB-exposed subjects, but only for the 17-hydroxycorticosteroids in the group of subjects exposed to Pb (P < 0.05). Pregnane derivate urinary concentrations did not differ between the three groups. Our results suggest that PCBs and Pb act on steroid hormone metabolism with different effects and only partially using the same hormone pathways; they may cause changes in endogenous hormone homeostasis and interfere with the xenobiotic phase II of detoxification. PCBs interfere on a larger number of steroids and cause more significant effects than Pb. It is likely that different mechanisms are involved in steroid hormone metabolism interference.

  5. Sex steroid hormones, upper body obesity, and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Nicola; Haffner, Steven M; Garg, Abhimanyu; Peshock, Ronald M; Grundy, Scott M

    2002-10-01

    Low plasma levels of SHBG and free testosterone have been associated with increased insulin resistance and risk for type 2 diabetes in males. As truncal obesity, a condition accompanied by increased insulin resistance, is also associated with low SHBG and testosterone levels, the independent association of low free testosterone and SHBG with excessive insulin resistance remains to be determined. In this study we evaluated whether in normogonadic men, plasma levels of SHBG and free testosterone are primarily related to insulin resistance or to generalized and regional adiposity. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps and iv glucose tolerance tests were performed in 24 healthy volunteer and 33 patients with mild type 2 diabetes. The 2 groups were chosen to have similar body mass index and were found to have similar body composition and fat distribution, assessed by underwater weighing, skinfold thickness, and magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen. In the 2 groups combined, plasma levels of SHBG correlated inversely with fat accumulation in both sc and intraabdominal areas. Plasma levels of free testosterone correlated inversely with both truncal and peripheral skinfold thickness only in the nondiabetic men. No associations between plasma levels of sex steroid hormones and insulin resistance, hepatic glucose output, or insulin secretion were found to be independent of adiposity. Furthermore, although patients with diabetes were more insulin resistant than those without diabetes, the 2 groups had similar plasma concentrations of free testosterone (55 +/- 14 and 67 +/- 27 pmol/liter, respectively), SHBG (19 +/- 13 and 19 +/- 13 nmol/liter), estradiol (83 +/- 5 and 81 +/- 21 pmol/liter), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (3.6 +/- 2.2 and 2.8 +/- 1.7 nmol/liter). We conclude that in normogonadal nondiabetic males, the variability in plasma bioavailable testosterone concentrations is predictive of the variability in fat deposition in the sc adipose tissue compartments of

  6. Identification of Target Genes of the Steroid Hormone Receptor Co-Activator AIB1 (Amplified in Breast Cancer 1)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    List, Heinz-Joachim

    2002-01-01

    Steroid hormones play pivotal roles in the control of breast cancer proliferation and differentiation, The biological effects of these hormones are mediated through intracellular receptor proteins, e.g...

  7. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Hansen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g −1 dry weight or 22.5 mg kg −1 N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones. -- Eight steroid hormones were found in biogas digestate byproduct in the ng g −1 dm levels. Anaerobic digestion processes do not completely remove steroid hormones from organic waste residues

  8. Comparative study between phenol and imidazole derivatives in radiolabeling of some steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, Kh.M.

    2010-01-01

    A phenol or imidazole ring is rarely present in steroid hormones, So, the molecule of steroid hormone requires chemical modification by addition of an iodinable residue like phenol or imedazole. So that the comparative study between phenol derivatives, include tyrosine methyl ester (TME) and tyramine, and imidazole derivatives, like histamine and histedine methyl ester (HME), for radiolabeling of some steroid hormones include estradiol and testosterone is the aim of the present study. The conjugation step was carried using mixed anhydride method and followed by radioiodination using iodogen as an oxidizing agent. Purification step was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Optimization and validation of the tracer were carried out. Immunoreactivity of the all obtained tracers was check by using specific polyclonal antibodies. The results indicated that imidazols derivatives are more suitable from immunoreactivity view and storage period.

  9. New insights into the role of sex steroid hormones in pregnancy: possible therapeutic approach by sex steroid hormones for the treatment of both preeclampsia and preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, S; Mizutani, E

    2015-03-01

    Fetal peptide hormones are essential for the development of fetus, which increase in accordance with pregnancy term. Concentration of these hormones within the feto-placental unit is normally higher than that of maternal circulation. Since these hormones are biologically active, the leakage of these hormones into the maternal circulation is regulated by degradation activity by placental aminopeptidases, in order to maintain the balance between carriage of pregnancy and onset of labor.Because the concentration of these hormones, being regulated by the amount of endogenous production and by physiological degradation by enzymes in the blood and tissue, the balance between production and degradation is a definitive element for maintaining normal gestation and term delivery.The changes of the balance between fetal angiotensin II (A-II) and vasopressin (AVP) andA-II and AVP degrading enzymes, between aminopeptidase A (APA) and placental leucine aminopeptidase( P-LAP) - in the placenta and maternal blood due to fetal stress such as hypoxia - are the provable causes of preeclampsia or preterm labor.Induction of APA and P-LAP by estradiol benzoate (E2) and progesterone (P) from placenta has been demonstrated. They are involved in the regulation of fetal peptide hormones via placental aminopeptidases in homeostasis of pregnancy.Recently it was shown that both APA and P-LAP could be potentially safe and effective drugs for preeclampsia and preterm labor. The authors' proposed sex steroid treatment with dose increasing manner by gestational week (sex steroid treatment) for severe preeclampsia and preterm labor could be candidates replacing conventional treatments. In light of lacking safe and effective medication, the proposed sex steroid treatment is worthwhile for the prospective controlled studies for the treatment of both preeclampsia and preterm labor. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Serum-sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin inprostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Mohammad A. Jalil; Begum, D.; Islam, F.

    2008-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develops in elderly males when serumandrogens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but is not wellunderstood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia.It is also uncertain that whether there is any change in sex steroids levelsin males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males isoften discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens onprostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatichyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significantchange in these hormones after the age of 40 years. We studied healthy malesof >40 years with (n=92) or without (n=93) clinical prostatic hyperplasia.Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-bindingglobulin (SHBG) were compared. The hormones and SHGB were also correlatedwith age. No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases withprostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significantage-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negativecorrelation (P<0.003) with age was found. Serum sex steroids and SHGBremained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except forestrdoil there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone,gonadotrophins and SHGB in healthy males after the fourth decade. Morestudies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.(author)

  11. Removal of natural steroid hormones from wastewater using membrane contactor processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartinella, Joshua L; Cath, Tzahi Y; Flynn, Michael T; Miller, Glenn C; Hunter, Kenneth W; Childress, Amy E

    2006-12-01

    Growing demands for potable water have strained water resources and increased interest in wastewater reclamation for potable reuse. This interest has brought increased attention to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) as emerging water contaminants. The effect of EDCs, and in particular natural steroid hormones, on humans is of heightened interest in the study of wastewater reuse in advanced life support systems (e.g., space missions) because they are excreted in urine and have high endocrine-disrupting potencies. Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) and forward osmosis (FO) are being investigated for wastewater treatment in space. Retention of two natural steroid hormones, estrone and 17beta-estradiol, by these two processes was evaluated in the current investigation. DCMD provided greater than 99.5% hormone rejection; DCMD also provided constant flux, greater than 99.9% urea and ammonia rejection, and high water recovery. FO provided from 77 to 99% hormone rejection depending on experiment duration and feed solution chemistry.

  12. Maternally derived egg yolk steroid hormones and sex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Whether an individual develops as a male or a female is one of the most important “decisions” that a ... Thus, the objective of the present review is (i) to provide an overview of such paradoxical observations on the role of maternal yolk steroids in sex ..... This second (non-adaptive) explanation fits well with the majority of ...

  13. Hormonally-mediated Epigenetic Changes to Steroid Receptors in the Developing Brain: Implications for Sexual Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of sex-specific neural morphology, which underlies sex-specific behaviors, occurs during a perinatal sensitive window in which brief exposure to gonadal steroid hormones produces permanent masculinization of the brain. In the rodent, estradiol derived from testicular androgens is a principle organizational hormone. The mechanism by which transient estradiol exposure induces permanent differences in neuronal anatomy has been widely investigated, but remains elusive. Epigeneti...

  14. Steroid hormones level in milk of non-pregnant and pregnant river buffalos at various gestational trimesters

    OpenAIRE

    Yaser Shahbazi; Hosein Tajik; Hasan Malekinejad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Milk is a valuable sources of nutrition in the human diet however; there are reports on safety of milk steroid hormones contain. This study designed to determine the level of steroid hormones including estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) in raw and pasteurized milk from non-pregnant and pregnant buffalos.Methods: Steroids was extracted using liquid extraction, enzymatical deconjugation, and C18 solid-phase extraction from collected milk samples. Estrogens were analy...

  15. Expression level of nuclear steroid hormone receptors in endometrium influence on female reproductive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Avramenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent years, rate of hyperplastic processes of reproductive system that relate to the common genital pathology in women of all age groups increased and ranges from 17 to 59% of all gynecological pathology. Recent studies have shown that the functional state of the endometrium is determined by the number of endometrial tissue receptors to corresponding steroid hormones. Objective. To explore the state of steroid hormones receptors in endometrial hyperplasia in compare with ultrasound, hysteroscopy and histological and hormonal background data research to improve diagnosis and recovery endometrium state. Methods: medical history analysis, clinical laboratory analysis, ultrasound diagnostics, hysteroscopy, histological methods. Hormones levels (FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, free testosterone, and expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the stroma and glands was evaluated by Histochemical score. Results. 50 women of 23–52 years with hyperplasia of endometrim, were divided into 3 randomized groups: I – 20 women with primary infertility, II – 13 women with secondary infertility, III – 17 women without infertility. Early sexual activity was almost twice as often observed in the first two groups of women (respectively 61.54%, 60.00% against 29.41% in the third group. Gynecological history was weighed almost all three groups of women with chronic bilateral salpingoophoritis, obesity (I gr. – 85%, II in December. – 76.92%, III gr. – 76.47%. Uterine leiomyoma found in every second woman III gr. – 9 (52.94%, p <0.05, 3 women (15%. At primary infertility there was US endometrial hyperplasia in every from four women, endometrial thickness less than the corresponding day of the cycle, which may indicate a lack of estrogen effect on the endometrium. In secondary infertility hyperplasia was detected in 14.29% of cases, in the third group – 7.14%. Estrogen (more and progesterone (less receptors level inhibition on

  16. Steroid Hormone (20-Hydroxyecdysone) Modulates the Acquisition of Aversive Olfactory Memories in Pollen Forager Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Lisa H.; McQuillan, H. James; Aiken, Alastair; Vergoz, Vanina; Mercer, Alison R.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we examine effects of the steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E), on associative olfactory learning in the honeybee, "Apis mellifera." 20-E impaired the bees' ability to associate odors with punishment during aversive conditioning, but did not interfere with their ability to associate odors with a food reward (appetitive…

  17. Involvement of Novel Multifunction Steroid Hormone Receptor Coactivator, E6-Associated Protein, in Prostate Gland Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    X, Loggie BW, Nawaz Z 2002 The roles of sex steroid receptor coregulators in cancer. Mol Cancer 1:7 14. Khan OY , Nawaz Z 2003 Nuclear hormone...PTEN in prostate cancer cell lines and xenografts. Cancer Res 58:2720-3. 31. Xin, L., M. A. Teitell, D. A. Lawson, A. Kwon , I. K. Mellinghoff, and O

  18. Expression of sex steroid hormone-related genes in the embryo of the leopard gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Daisuke; Kanaho, Yoh-Ichiro; Park, Min Kyun

    2008-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones are known to play a central role in vertebrate sex determination and differentiation. However, the tissues in which they are produced or received during development, especially around the period of sex determination of the gonads, have rarely been investigated. In this study, we identified the cDNA sequence, including the full-length of the coding region of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), from the leopard gecko; a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination. Embryonic expression analysis of two steroidogenic enzymes, P450scc and P450 aromatase (P450arom), and four sex steroid hormone receptors, androgen receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and beta, and progesterone receptor, was subsequently conducted. mRNA expression of both steroidogenic enzymes was observed in the brain and gonads prior to the temperature-sensitive period of sex determination. The mRNAs of the four sex steroid hormone receptors were also detected in the brain and gonads at all stages examined. These results suggest the existence of a gonad-independent sex steroid hormone signaling system in the developing leopard gecko brain.

  19. Fate of steroid hormones in sewage sludge and poultry litter prior to land application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steroid hormones can act as potent endocrine disruptors when released into the environment. The main sources of these chemicals are thought to be wastewater treatment plant discharges and waste from animal feeding operations. While these compounds have frequently been found in wastewater effluents...

  20. Gonadotropins and female sex steroid hormones in cyst fluid and serum from patients with ovarian tumors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, C.M.G.; Boss, E.A.; Boonstra, H.; Tienoven, D. van; Sweep, C.G.J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the concentrations of LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol and progesterone in ovarian cyst fluid and serum from patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors and to assess the correlation of the gonadotropin and female sex steroid hormone concentrations

  1. Presence and metabolism of endogenous androgenic-anabolic steroid hormones in meat-producing animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarth, J; Akre, C; van Ginkel, L; Le Bizec, B; De Brabander, H; Korth, W; Points, J; Teale, P; Kay, J

    2009-05-01

    The presence and metabolism of endogenous steroid hormones in meat-producing animals has been the subject of much research over the past 40 years. While significant data are available, no comprehensive review has yet been performed. Species considered in this review are bovine, porcine, ovine, equine, caprine and cervine, while steroid hormones include the androgenic-anabolic steroids testosterone, nandrolone and boldenone, as well as their precursors and metabolites. Information on endogenous steroid hormone concentrations is primarily useful in two ways: (1) in relation to pathological versus 'normal' physiology and (2) in relation to the detection of the illegal abuse of these hormones in residue surveillance programmes. Since the major focus of this review is on the detection of steroids abuse in animal production, the information gathered to date is used to guide future research. A major deficiency in much of the existing published literature is the lack of standardization and formal validation of experimental approach. Key articles are cited that highlight the huge variation in reported steroid concentrations that can result when samples are analysed by different laboratories under different conditions. These deficiencies are in most cases so fundamental that it is difficult to make reliable comparisons between data sets and hence it is currently impossible to recommend definitive detection strategies. Standardization of the experimental approach would need to involve common experimental protocols and collaboratively validated analytical methods. In particular, standardization would need to cover everything from the demographic of the animal population studied, the method of sample collection and storage (especially the need to sample live versus slaughter sampling since the two methods of surveillance have very different requirements, particularly temporally), sample preparation technique (including mode of extraction, hydrolysis and derivatization), the end

  2. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2015-01-01

    serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated with change in cerebral serotonin transporter (SERT) binding following intervention. METHODS...... = .02) from baseline within the GnRHa group. Depressive symptoms were associated with increases in neocortical SERT binding in the GnRHa group relative to placebo (p = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Our data imply both serotonergic signaling and estradiol in the mechanisms by which sex-steroid hormone fluctuations...

  3. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  4. The Role of Steroid Hormones on the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rodrigues Vasconcelos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain.The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role in neurodegenerative processes, including in disorders such as in Alzheimer´s and Parkinson´s diseases. Sex hormones have also been shown to modulate cognitive functioning. Inflammation is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders, and sex hormones/glucocorticoids can act to regulate inflammatory processes. Intermittent fasting can protect the brain against cognitive decline that is induced by an inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, obesity increases susceptibility to inflammation, whilst metabolic syndromes, like diabetes, are associated with neurodegeneration. Consequently, given that gonadal and/or adrenal steroids may significantly impact on the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, via their effect on inflammatory processes, this review focuses on how environmental factors, like calorie intake and intermittent fasting, acting through their modulation of steroid hormones, impact on inflammation that contributes to cognitive and neurodegenerative processes.

  5. Transport of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity across a swine lagoon/sprayfield system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Dietze, Julie E; Williams, C Michael; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W

    2014-10-07

    The inflow, transformation, and attenuation of natural steroid hormones and phytoestrogens and estrogenic activity were assessed across the lagoon/sprayfield system of a prototypical commercial swine sow operation. Free and conjugated steroid hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progesterone) were detected in urine and feces of sows across reproductive stages, with progesterone being the most abundant steroid hormone. Excreta also contained phytoestrogens indicative of a soy-based diet, particularly, daidzein, genistein, and equol. During storage in barn pits and the anaerobic lagoon, conjugated hormones dissipated, and androgens and progesterone were attenuated. Estrone and equol persisted along the waste disposal route. Following application of lagoon slurry to agricultural soils, all analytes exhibited attenuation within 2 days. However, analytes including estrone, androstenedione, progesterone, and equol remained detectable in soil at 2 months postapplication. Estrogenic activity in the yeast estrogen screen and T47D-KBluc in vitro bioassays generally tracked well with analyte concentrations. Estrone was found to be the greatest contributor to estrogenic activity across all sample types. This investigation encompasses the most comprehensive suite of natural hormone and phytoestrogen analytes examined to date across a livestock lagoon/sprayfield and provides global insight into the fate of these analytes in this widely used waste management system.

  6. The neurobiology and addiction potential of anabolic androgenic steroids and the effects of growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönbladh, Alfhild; Nylander, Erik; Hallberg, Mathias

    2016-09-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are substances that mimic the hormone testosterone, and primarily act via the androgen receptor. In addition to their physiological effect on muscle tissue and growth, research from the last decade has shown that AAS have a pronounced impact on the central nervous system. A large number of studies have demonstrated that AAS affect the mesolimbic reward system in the brain. However, whether the direct effects of AAS on endorphins, dopamine, serotonin and GABA etc. and on the corresponding and related systems lead to dependence needs to be further elucidated. According to recent studies, the prevalence of AAS dependence among AAS users has been estimated to be approximately 30%, and polysubstance use, of both pharmaceutical drugs and narcotics, within this group is common. The present review primarily discusses AAS in the context of addiction and dependence, and further addresses the issue of using multiple substances, i.e. stimulants and opiates in combination with AAS. In addition, aspects of the treatment of AAS dependence, the connection between AAS abuse and cognition, and AAS-induced neurotoxicity are presented. Currently, performance enhancing drugs are frequently used in combination with AAS. Therefore, a large section on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor is also included. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites...... that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g(-1) dry weight or 22.5 mg kg(-1) N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels....... Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate...

  8. Analysis of Naturally Occurring Steroid Hormones in Infant Formulas by HPLC-MS/MS and Contribution to Dietary Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Barreiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk is a natural fluid and as such contains small amounts of naturally occurring steroids. Human milk is recommended as the optimal source of nutrients for infants and young children, and it has been associated to several short- and long-term benefits. For this reason, its composition is used as a reference for designing infant formulas. However, the available information on the hormonal levels of these dairy products is scarce, and it is usually limited to estradiol and estrone. In the present study, six natural sex hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone, estrone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone and androstenedione have been extracted from sixteen milk-based infant formulas and analyzed with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS. The purpose of this research was to quantify natural steroid hormones in various infant formulas, to provide food and nutrition practitioners with information to estimate intakes in children. In addition, data found in the literature was used for comparison. The findings suggest that there are certain similarities between bovine milk and dairy products for infants. Furthermore, the detected levels were in general lower than those observed in human milk and/or colostrum. The reported results represent a valuable addition to the current knowledge on natural hormone content of infant foods.

  9. Analysis of Naturally Occurring Steroid Hormones in Infant Formulas by HPLC-MS/MS and Contribution to Dietary Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, Rocío; Regal, Patricia; Díaz-Bao, Mónica; Fente, Cristina A.; Cepeda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Milk is a natural fluid and as such contains small amounts of naturally occurring steroids. Human milk is recommended as the optimal source of nutrients for infants and young children, and it has been associated to several short- and long-term benefits. For this reason, its composition is used as a reference for designing infant formulas. However, the available information on the hormonal levels of these dairy products is scarce, and it is usually limited to estradiol and estrone. In the present study, six natural sex hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone, estrone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone and androstenedione) have been extracted from sixteen milk-based infant formulas and analyzed with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The purpose of this research was to quantify natural steroid hormones in various infant formulas, to provide food and nutrition practitioners with information to estimate intakes in children. In addition, data found in the literature was used for comparison. The findings suggest that there are certain similarities between bovine milk and dairy products for infants. Furthermore, the detected levels were in general lower than those observed in human milk and/or colostrum. The reported results represent a valuable addition to the current knowledge on natural hormone content of infant foods. PMID:28231225

  10. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones un......, but also constitute regulatory systems operating in the whole organism. This overview of gut hormone biology is supplemented with an annotation on some Scandinavian contributions to gastrointestinal hormone research....

  11. [Hormone modulation of organ donor. Utility of the steroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelena, Juna C; Chamorro, Carlos; Falcón, Juan A; Garcés, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the work group made up of the National Transplant Organization (Organización Nacional de Trasplantes, ONT), Spanish Society of Intensive, Critical Medicine and Coronary Units (Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y de Unidades Coronarias, SEMICYUC) and other Scientific Societies have recommended using 15 mg/kg of methyl prednisolone during the management of lung donors after brain death. This recommendation is based on descriptive and retrospective studies. However, the review of different experimental and clinical studies also suggests a potential benefit of using steroids in either thoracic or abdominal organ donors during management strategies. In brain death management, early steroid administration may decrease cytokine production and also may prevent alterations induced by proinflammatoy mediators, stabilize cell membranes, reduce expression of cell surface adhesion molecules and avoid lipid peroxidation after the ischemic period. This could be beneficial in increasing number and quality of organs harvested and in decreasing rejection episodes after transplant. It would be very recommendable to carry out prospective and comparative studies to demonstrate these potential utilities. Meanwhile and knowing the deleterious effects of inflammatory activity arising during and after brain death, we recommend using 15 mg/kg of methyl prednisolone in the organ donor management, as soon as possible. The potential benefit of its immunomodulation effects, its low cost and the absence of major side effects can justify this recommendation.

  12. Analysis of the hormone-binding domain of steroid receptors using chimeras generated by homologous recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Elisabeth D.; Pattabiraman, Nagarajan; Danielsen, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor and the mineralocorticoid receptor are members of the steroid receptor family that exhibit ligand cross-reactivity. Specificity of steroid receptor action is investigated in the present work by the construction and characterization of chimeras between the glucocorticoid receptor and the mineralocorticoid receptor. We used an innovative approach to make novel steroid receptor proteins in vivo that in general, contrary to our expectations, show increased ligand specificity compared to the parental receptors. We describe a receptor that is specific for the potent synthetic glucocorticoid triamcinolone acetonide and does not bind aldosterone. A further set of chimeras has an increased ability to discriminate between ligands, responding potently to mineralocorticoids and only very weakly to synthetic glucocorticoids. A chimera with the fusion site in the hinge highlights the importance of the region between the DNA-binding and the hormone-binding domains since, unlike both the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, it only responds to mineralocorticoids. One chimera has reduced specificity in that it acts as a general corticoid receptor, responding to glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids with similar potency and efficacy. Our data suggest that regions of the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor hormone-binding domains are functionally non-reciprocal. We present transcriptional, hormone-binding, and structure-modeling evidence that suggests that receptor-specific interactions within and across domains mediate aspects of specificity in transcriptional responses to steroids

  13. Variations in steroid hormone receptor content throughout age and menopausal periods, and menstrual cycle in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic-Vukosavljevic, D.; Vasiljevic, N.; Brankovic-Magic, M.; Polic, D.

    1996-01-01

    Variations in steroid hormone receptor contents throughout age and menopausal periods define three breast carcinoma groups: younger pre-menopausal carcinomas (aged up to 45), middle-aged carcinomas (aged up to 45), middle-aged carcinomas (pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal aged 45-59) and older postmenopausal carcinomas (aged over 59). Age-related steroid hormone receptor contents within pre-menopausal and postmenopausal carcinoma groups are characterized by the important increase of both receptor contents, while menopausal-related steroid hormone receptor contents within middle-aged carcinoma group (aged 45-59) are characterized by the important decrease of progesterone receptor content and estrogen receptor functionality. No variations in steroid hormone receptor contents throughout menstrual cycle within the follicular and the luteal phases were obtained. The important cycle within the follicular and the luteal phases were obtained. The important decrease of estrogen receptor content in the mid-cycle phase versus the peri-menstrual phase was found. Variations in steroid hormone receptor contents throughout age and menopausal periods, as well as throughout menstrual cycle could nod be associated with variations in the blood steroid hormone concentrations. However, important association between steroid hormone receptor contents and the blood steroid hormone concentrations was found within the luteal phase carcinoma group and within older postmenopausal carcinoma group. It is interesting that within carcinoma group with the highest concentration of progesterone, progesterone receptor content increases with an increase of the ration of estradiol and progesterone blood concentrations, while within carcinoma group with the lowest steroid hormone concentration and the highest content of estrogen receptor content, estrogen receptor content decreases with an increase of either the blood estradiol concentration or the ratio of the blood estradiol and progesterone blood

  14. Use of a surrogate to evaluate the impact of tillage on the transport of steroid hormones from manure-amended agricultural field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef feedlot manure distributed to row crop production areas is a potential surface water contaminant source of the steroid hormones commonly used in beef cattle production. This article reports on research conducted at the University of Nebraska Haskell Agricultural Laboratory near Concord, Nebrask...

  15. A Drosophila Genome-Wide Screen Identifies Regulators of Steroid Hormone Production and Developmental Timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas Danielsen, E.; E. Møller, Morten; Yamanaka, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones control important developmental processes and are linked to many diseases. To systematically identify genes and pathways required for steroid production, we performed a Drosophila genome-wide in vivo RNAi screen and identified 1,906 genes with potential roles in steroidogenesis...... and developmental timing. Here, we use our screen as a resource to identify mechanisms regulating intracellular levels of cholesterol, a substrate for steroidogenesis. We identify a conserved fatty acid elongase that underlies a mechanism that adjusts cholesterol trafficking and steroidogenesis with nutrition...

  16. Fat distribution and steroid hormones in women with alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, P; Ellsinger, B M; Sjöberg, C; Björntorp, P

    1990-10-01

    Anthropometric, hormonal and liver function parameters were examined in 18 premenopausal women with a history of early alcohol abuse, and compared with the data for randomly selected controls of the same age. The alcoholic women showed slightly elevated levels of transaminases, but no clinical or laboratory signs of advanced liver damage. These women were characterized by an increased waist-to-hip ratio, due to enlarged waist circumference. Several endocrine abnormalities were found, including irregular or absent menses as well as low oestrogen, progesterone and delta-4-androstendione levels. The concentration of free testosterone was high and that of sex-hormone-binding globulin was low. These data suggest abdominal distribution of body fat, as well as hyperandrogenicity in alcoholic, premenopausal women. It is postulated that the endocrine abnormalities might be responsible for the abdominal fat distribution.

  17. The Interaction of Steroid Hormones and Oncogene in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    fragment [3] at the 5’ end of our regulator under the control of the MMTV promoter and the bovine growth hormone polyadenylation signal (Figure 6A...appeared swollen exhibiting a classic case of mastitis due to the failure to release milk that is produced. A couple of unique wart-like structures... mastitis ). As previously mentioned, it was most likely that the levels of int- 2/fgf-3 expression are enormously higher than that needed for

  18. Association Between Sex Steroid Hormones and Hematocrit in a Nationally Representative Sample of Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paller, Channing J.; Shiels, Meredith S.; Rohrmann, Sabine; Menke, Andy; Rifai, Nader; Nelson, William G.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Dobs, Adrian S.

    2013-01-01

    Low or high hematocrit levels are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, mediated via anemia or thromboembolic events, respectively. It is therefore important to identify factors that influence hematocrit. Although androgens are known to stimulate hematopoietic cells, it is unknown whether circulating sex steroid hormones affect hematocrit. The association between serum sex steroid hormone concentrations and hematocrit in men aged ≥20 years was evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 1273 men in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1991). Outcomes were low (90th percentile), and mean hematocrit. Men with low free testosterone levels had a lower hematocrit than men with normal free testosterone levels (P = .03), although no relationship was found between total testosterone level and hematocrit. The relationship between sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) and hematocrit was complex, with both low (P hematocrit in men aged ≥20 years and only high (P = .01) SHBG levels in men aged ≥50 years. The odds ratio (OR) of high vs normal hematocrit increased as total estradiol (OR, 2.84; P trend = .04) and free estradiol (OR, 2.23; P trend = .09) levels increased. In this nationally representative study of men, sex steroid hormone levels, particularly low free testosterone and high SHBG levels, were associated with lower hematocrit, and high total and free estradiol levels were associated with high hematocrit. Thus, changes in sex hormone levels with aging may contribute to the increased prevalence of anemia and thromboembolic stroke in men as they age. PMID:22604627

  19. Effect of combined hormonal and insulin therapy on the steroid hormone receptors and growth factors signalling in diabetic mice prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávaro, Wagner J; Cagnon, Valéria H A

    2010-12-01

    Diabetes causes harmful effects on prostatic morphology and function. However, there still are doubts about the occurrence of various diseases in the prostate, as well as abnormal angiogenesis in relation to diabetes. Thus, the aim of this study was to correlate and quantify the level of the steroid hormone receptors and the angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors in non-obese diabetic mice (Nod) after combined hormonal and insulin therapy. Sixty mice were divided into six groups after 20 days of diabetes: the control group received 0.9% NaCl, as did the diabetic group. The diabetic-insulin group received insulin, the diabetic-testosterone group received testosterone cypionate, the diabetic-oestrogen group received 17β-oestradiol, and the diabetic-insulin-testosterone-oestrogen group received insulin, testosterone and oestrogen simultaneously. After 20 days, the ventral lobe was processed for immunocytochemical and hormonal analyses. The results showed that the lowest serum testosterone and androgen receptor levels were found in the diabetic group and the highest testosterone and androgen receptor levels in the diabetic-insulin-testosterone-oestrogen group. The serum oestrogen level and its receptor showed changes opposite to those of testosterone and its receptor. The endostatin reactivity was mainly decreased in diabetic mice. The greatest IGFR-1 and VEGF reactivities occurred in diabetic mice. Thus, diabetes led to the prostatic hormonal imbalance, affecting molecular dynamics and angiogenesis in this organ. Combined insulin and steroid hormone therapy partially restored the hormonal and angiogenic imbalance caused by diabetes. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2010 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  20. Levels of steroid hormone receptors in endometrium carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieglmayer, Ch.; Spona, J.; Ulm, R.; Husslein, P.

    1981-01-01

    The level of endometrium cytoplasma receptors was studied in 46 women with a normal cycle and 17 endometrium carcinoma patients. The levels of LH, FSH, PRL, E/sub 2/, and Pg were determined by RIA. Similar to hormonal levels, the E and Pg receptors undergo cyclic changes. As against the controls, the receptor levels in the endometrium cancer patients only attained half values. The receptor levels in the cancer patients decreased with reduced tissue differentiation. High concentrations of the Pg receptors in patients with histologically well differentiated carcinomas allow prognosis of better endocrine effects on the tumour.

  1. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2000-06-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function.

  2. Generation of breast cancer stem cells by steroid hormones in irradiated human mammary cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Vares

    Full Text Available Exposure to ionizing radiation was shown to result in an increased risk of breast cancer. There is strong evidence that steroid hormones influence radiosensitivity and breast cancer risk. Tumors may be initiated by a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs. In order to assess whether the modulation of radiation-induced breast cancer risk by steroid hormones could involve CSCs, we measured by flow cytometry the proportion of CSCs in irradiated breast cancer cell lines after progesterone and estrogen treatment. Progesterone stimulated the expansion of the CSC compartment both in progesterone receptor (PR-positive breast cancer cells and in PR-negative normal cells. In MCF10A normal epithelial PR-negative cells, progesterone-treatment and irradiation triggered cancer and stemness-associated microRNA regulations (such as the downregulation of miR-22 and miR-29c expression, which resulted in increased proportions of radiation-resistant tumor-initiating CSCs.

  3. The role of steroid hormone supplementation in non-assisted reproductive technology treatments for unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaas, Alexander M; Hansen, Karl R

    2016-12-01

    Fertility treatment strategies are evolving, with a more rapid transition to assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments after unsuccessful non-ART treatments. This trend increases the potential importance of adjuvant treatments in non-ART cycles, such as steroid hormone supplementation. It has been established that success rates of ART treatments are increased with the use of luteal support with progesterone. In the setting of non-ART cycles, however, the evidence is less clear, and clinical practices vary widely between providers and clinics. In this review, we aimed to provide an overview of the current evidence for the use of steroid hormone supplementation, including progesterone for luteal support, estrogens, androgens, and mineralocorticoids, in the setting of non-ART treatments for ovulatory women. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Fluorescence Polarization Assay To Detect Steroid Hormone Traces in Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varriale, Antonio; Pennacchio, Anna; Pinto, Gabriella; Oliviero, Giorgia; D'Errico, Stefano; Majoli, Adelia; Scala, Andrea; Capo, Alessandro; Pennacchio, Angela; Di Giovanni, Stefano; Staiano, Maria; D'Auria, Sabato

    2015-10-21

    Steroids are a class of hormones improperly used in livestock as growth-promoting agents. Due to their high risk for human health, the European Union (EU) has strictly forbidden the administration of all natural and synthetic steroid hormones to food-producing animals, and the development of new rapid detection methods are greatly encouraged. This work reports a novel fluorescence polarization assay, ready to use, capable of detecting 17β-estradiol directly in milk samples with a low limit of detection of <10 pmol. It is based on the coupling of monospecific antibodies against 17β-estradiol and fluorophores, capable of modulating the fluorescence polarization emission on the basis of the specific binding of antibodies to fluorescence-labeled 17β-estradiol derivative. The successful detection of 17β-estradiol has disclosed the development of an efficient method, easily extensible to any food matrix and having the potential to become a milestone in food quality and safety.

  5. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2010-01-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function. PMID:10903527

  6. The influence of a steroid hormone and of physical exercise on protein metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menschikowski, M.; Jung, K.; Junghans, P.; Petzke, K.J.; Albrecht, V.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Potsdam

    1989-01-01

    The influence of an anabolic steroid hormone preparation and of a physical exercise training program was studied on the nitrogen and protein metabolism in rats with the help of the 15 N tracer technique and the emission spectrometric 15 N isotope analysis. For the determination of the dynamic parameters of the protein metabolism graphic (stochastic) and computer-aided compartmental methods wer compared. Using the area method as a stochastic approach the animals showed significant differences in the protein turnover parameters under the influence of hormone treatment and (or) physical stress by swimming exercise in comparison to the controls. (author)

  7. Steroid hormones alter neuroanatomy and aggression independently in the tree lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabelik, David; Weiss, Stacey L; Moore, Michael C

    2008-02-27

    Steroid hormones effect changes in both neuroanatomy and aggressive behavior in animals of various taxa. However, whether changes in neuroanatomy directly underlie changes in aggression is unknown. We investigate this relationship among steroid hormones, neuroanatomy, and aggression in a free-living vertebrate with a relatively simple nervous system, the tree lizard (Urosaurus ornatus). Weiss and Moore [1] manipulated testosterone and progesterone levels in adult male tree lizards and found that both hormones facilitated aggressive behavior toward a conspecific. In this study, we examined the brains of a subset of these animals to determine whether changes in limbic morphology were associated with hormone-induced changes in aggressive behavior. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone and/or progesterone cause changes in neural morphology that are necessary for the expression of testosterone's effects on aggressive behavior. We found that both hormones increased aggression; however, only testosterone induced changes in neuroanatomy. Testosterone increased the size of both the amygdala and nucleus sphericus. However, we could detect no individual correlations between neuroanatomy and aggression levels suggesting that the observed large-scale changes in neuroanatomy are not precisely reflective of changes in mechanisms underlying aggression.

  8. Steroid hormones affect binding of the sigma ligand C-11-SA4503 in tumour cells and tumour-bearing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybczynska, Anna A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Sijbesma, Jurgen W.; Ishiwata, Kiichi; de Jong, Johan R.; de Vries, Erik F.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; van Waarde, Aren

    Sigma receptors are implicated in memory and cognitive functions, drug addiction, depression and schizophrenia. In addition, sigma receptors are strongly overexpressed in many tumours. Although the natural ligands are still unknown, steroid hormones are potential candidates. Here, we examined

  9. Steroid hormone regulation of EMP2 expression and localization in the endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Carmen J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tetraspan protein epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2, which mediates surface display of diverse proteins, is required for endometrial competence in blastocyst implantation, and is uniquely correlated with poor survival from endometrial adenocarcinoma tumors. Because EMP2 is differentially expressed in the various stages of the murine and human estrous cycle, we tested the hypothesis that the steroid hormones progesterone and estrogen influence EMP2 expression and localization. Methods Frozen human proliferative and secretory endometrium were collected and analyzed for EMP2 expression using SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis. The response of EMP2 to progesterone and estradiol was determined using a combination of real-time PCR, SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis, and confocal immunofluorescence in the human endometrial carcinoma cell line RL95-2. To confirm the in vitro results, ovariectomized mice were treated with progesterone or estradiol, and EMP2 expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Results Within normal human endometrium, EMP2 expression is upregulated in the secretory phase relative to the proliferative phase. To understand the role of steroid hormones on EMP2 expression, we utilized RL95-2 cells, which express both estrogen and progesterone receptors. In RL95-2 cells, both estradiol and progesterone induced EMP2 mRNA expression, but only progesterone induced EMP2 protein expression. To compare steroid hormone regulation of EMP2 between humans and mice, we analyzed EMP2 expression in ovarectomized mice. Similar to results observed in humans, progesterone upregulated endometrial EMP2 expression and induced EMP2 translocation to the plasma membrane. Estradiol did not promote translocation to the cell surface, but moderately induced EMP2 expression in cytoplasmic compartments in vivo. Conclusion These findings suggest that targeting of EMP2 to specific locations under the influence of these steroid hormones may

  10. EFFECT OF VEGETABLE FATS ON STEROID HORMONAL RELEASE OF PORCINE OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Kolesárová; Nora Maruniaková; Marek Halenár; Marína Medveďová; Shubhadeep Roychoudhury

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oils that are solid at room temperature are called vegetable fats. A study was conducted in western Slovakia to determine possible effect of used vegetable fats (100 µl/ml) and palm fats (100 µl/ml) after cooking in restaurants on secretion activity of steroid hormone progesterone and 17 β-estradiol on porcine ovarian granulosa cells in vitro. Progesterone and estradiol are essential for normal ovarian cycles and contribute to regulation of ovarian follicular development and remodel...

  11. Rainfall Driven Sorting of Soils and Manure in Beef Feedlot Pens, Implications for Steroid Hormone Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, R.; Harter, T.

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has documented elevated estrogenic and androgenic activity in surface waters receiving cattle feedlot effluent, while current research shows that significant concentrations of hydrophobic steroid hormones are transported in the solid phase of feedlot pen surface runoff. Accumulated manure in beef feedlot pens includes organic matter ranging from colloidal particles to partially digested feed, forming a complex soil-manure conglomerate at the pen surface. We hypothesized that the transport of solid phase particles in rainfall runoff on beef feedlots would be influenced but not limited by shield layer development. Soils and manure at a beef feedlot were evaluated before and after rainfall-runoff events to determine changes in soil composition and structure. Runoff samples were also collected during an hour of runoff and analyzed for suspended solids. Results indicate that rainfall actively sorts the soil and manure components through raindrop impact, depression storage and runoff. However, transport of solid phase constituents was found to be elevated throughout the hydrograph. This suggests that the surface shield layer conceptualization applied to other soils should be modified before application to the soil-manure conglomerate found in beef feedlot pens.

  12. Theory of partial agonist activity of steroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carson C. Chow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The different amounts of residual partial agonist activity (PAA of antisteroids under assorted conditions have long been useful in clinical applications but remain largely unexplained. Not only does a given antagonist often afford unequal induction for multiple genes in the same cell but also the activity of the same antisteroid with the same gene changes with variations in concentration of numerous cofactors. Using glucocorticoid receptors as a model system, we have recently succeeded in constructing from first principles a theory that accurately describes how cofactors can modulate the ability of agonist steroids to regulate both gene induction and gene repression. We now extend this framework to the actions of antisteroids in gene induction. The theory shows why changes in PAA cannot be explained simply by differences in ligand affinity for receptor and requires action at a second step or site in the overall sequence of reactions. The theory also provides a method for locating the position of this second site, relative to a concentration limited step (CLS, which is a previously identified step in glucocorticoid-regulated transactivation that always occurs at the same position in the overall sequence of events of gene induction. Finally, the theory predicts that classes of antagonist ligands may be grouped on the basis of their maximal PAA with excess added cofactor and that the members of each class differ by how they act at the same step in the overall gene induction process. Thus, this theory now makes it possible to predict how different cofactors modulate antisteroid PAA, which should be invaluable in developing more selective antagonists.

  13. Steroid hormone receptors: long- and short-term integrators of the internal milieu and the external environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, J D

    2012-07-01

    Many of the influences of estrogens and progestins on the brain and behavior are mediated by estrogen receptors and progestin receptors, acting as transcriptional regulators. The homologous and heterologous regulation of the concentrations of these receptors by cognate hormones is well established. However, although they were discovered and characterized based on their binding to cognate hormone and their role in transcriptional regulation, steroid hormone receptors have a more complex role and serve many more functions than originally suspected. First, besides being regulated by steroid hormones, the intracellular concentrations of brain steroid hormone receptors are regulated by neurotransmitters, a pathway by which stimuli from the environment, including from conspecific animals, can modulate the concentration of particular steroid hormone receptors in subsets of cells. Further, besides being activated by cognate steroid hormones, the receptors can be activated by a variety of neurotransmitters and phosphorylation pathways, providing a route through which environmental stimulation can activate steroid-receptor-dependent functions in specific cells. In addition, the transcription factor, estrogen receptor-α, produced from the estrogen receptor-α gene, can be modified to be targeted to membranes, where it can signal via kinase pathways. Finally, developmental experiences, such as particular stressors during the pubertal period, can permanently remodel the brain's response to ovarian hormones, most likely by long-term changes in regulation of the receptors mediating those responses. In addition to their function in responding to cognate ligand, it is now more appropriate to think of steroid hormone receptors as integrators of a wide variety of signaling pathways. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Steroid hormone runoff from agricultural test plots applied with municipal biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Gray, James L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Davis, Jessica G.; ReVollo, Rhiannon C.; Borch, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The potential presence of steroid hormones in runoff from sites where biosolids have been used as agricultural fertilizers is an environmental concern. A study was conducted to assess the potential for runoff of seventeen different hormones and two sterols, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens from agricultural test plots. The field containing the test plots had been applied with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. Target compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction (water samples) and pressurized solvent extraction (solid samples), derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Runoff samples collected prior to biosolids application had low concentrations of two hormones (estrone -1 and androstenedione -1) and cholesterol (22.5 ± 3.8 μg L-1). In contrast, significantly higher concentrations of multiple estrogens (-1), androgens (-1), and progesterone (-1) were observed in runoff samples taken 1, 8, and 35 days after biosolids application. A significant positive correlation was observed between antecedent rainfall amount and hormone mass loads (runoff). Hormones in runoff were primarily present in the dissolved phase (hormones from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters or redistributed to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. Although concentrations decrease over time, 35 days is insufficient for complete degradation of hormones in soil at this site.

  15. Steroid hormones and brain development: some guidelines for understanding actions of pseudohormones and other toxic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, B.S.

    1987-10-01

    Gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones affect the brain directly, and the sensitivity to hormones begins in embryonic life with the appearance of hormone receptor sites in discrete populations of neurons. Because the secretion of hormones is also under control by its neural and pituitary targets, the brain-endocrine axis during development is in a delicately balanced state that can be upset in various ways, and any agent that disrupts normal hormone secretion can upset normal brain development. Moreover, exogenous substances that mimic the actions of natural hormones can also play havoc with CNS development and differentiation. This paper addresses these issues in the following order: First, actions of glucocorticoids on the developing nervous system related to cell division dendritic growth and neurotransmitter phenotype will be presented followed by a discussion of the developmental effects of synthetic steroids. Second, actions of estrogens related to brain sexual differentiation will be described, followed by a discussion of the actions of the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, as an example of exogenous estrogenic substances. The most important aspect of the potency of exogenous estrogens appears to be the degree to which they either bypass protective mechanisms or are subject to transformations to more active metabolites. Third, agents that influence hormone levels or otherwise modify the neuroendocrine system, such as nicotine, barbiturates, alcohol, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol, will be noted briefly to demonstrate the diversity of toxic agents that can influence neural development and affect personality, cognitive ability, and other aspects of behavior. 53 references.

  16. The First Fifteen Years of Steroid Receptor Research in Zebrafish; Characterization and Functional Analysis of the Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel J. M. Schaaf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones regulate a wide range of processes in our body, and their effects are mediated by steroid receptors. In addition to their physiological role, these receptors mediate the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs and are widely used targets for dugs involved in the treatment of numerous diseases, ranging from cancer to inflammatory disorders. Over the last fifteen years, the zebrafish has increasingly been used as an animal model in steroid receptor research. Orthologues of all human steroid receptor genes appear to be present in zebrafish. All zebrafish steroid receptors have been characterized in detail, and their expression patterns have been analyzed. Functional studies have been performed using morpholino knockdown of receptor expression and zebrafish lines carrying mutations in one of their steroid receptor genes. To investigate the activity of the receptors in vivo, specific zebrafish reporter lines have been developed, and transcriptomic studies have been carried out to identify biomarkers for steroid receptor action. In this review, an overview of research on steroid receptors in zebrafish is presented, and it is concluded that further exploitation of the possibilities of the zebrafish model system will contribute significantly to the advancement of steroid receptor research in the next decade.

  17. Steroid hormone synthesis by the ovarian stroma surrounding epithelial ovarian tumors: a potential mechanism in ovarian tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Luis Z; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Morrison, Jane C; Bahadirli-Talbott, Asli; Smith-Sehdev, Anne; Kurman, Robert J

    2017-04-01

    Epithelial ovarian tumors are responsive to steroid hormone stimulation and the ovarian stroma may have a direct role in this process. We evaluated immunohistochemical markers of sex-steroid differentiation and steroidogenesis (calretinin, inhibin, steroidogenic factor 1), steroid enzymes involved in hormone biosynthesis (CYP17, CYP19, HSD17β1, AKR1C3), and hormone receptors (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and androgen receptor) in 101 epithelial ovarian tumors and in normal structures implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis (ovarian surface epithelium and cortical inclusion cysts) in an attempt to elucidate this process. We hypothesized that ovarian stroma immediately adjacent to tumors express markers of sex-steroid differentiation and steroidogenesis and steroid enzymes whereas the epithelium contains corresponding hormone receptors. As the findings in seromucinous, endometrioid, and clear cell neoplasms, tumors closely associated with endometriosis, were very similar, these were combined into a group designated 'endometriosis-related tumors.' Significantly increased expression of markers of sex-steroid differentiation and steroidogenesis was found in stroma immediately adjacent to endometriosis-related tumors (P=0.003) and mucinous tumors (primary and metastatic mucinous tumors were combined because of similar findings) (Povarian stroma. In addition, sex-steroid enzymes were increased in stroma adjacent to endometriosis-related tumors (P=0.02) and mucinous tumors (P=0.02) compared with more distant stroma. Steroid hormone receptors showed greater expression in epithelium compared with stroma in the endometriosis-related tumors (P=0.0009), low-grade serous tumors (Ptumors, which may be due to the fact that they are not derived from müllerian epithelium. In conclusion, our findings strongly support the view that the stroma surrounding epithelial tumors in the ovary is activated to elaborate steroid hormones which may stimulate further neoplastic growth

  18. Model approach for stress induced steroidal hormone cascade changes in severe mental diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volko, Claus D; Regidor, Pedro A; Rohr, Uwe D

    2016-03-01

    Stress was described by Cushing and Selye as an adaptation to a foreign stressor by the anterior pituitary increasing ACTH, which stimulates the release of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones. The question is raised whether stress can induce additional steroidal hormone cascade changes in severe mental diseases (SMD), since stress is the common denominator. A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed, where the steroidal hormone cascade of patients with SMD was compared to the impact of increasing stress on the steroidal hormone cascade (a) in healthy amateur marathon runners with no overtraining; (b) in healthy well-trained elite soldiers of a ranger training unit in North Norway, who were under extreme physical and mental stress, sleep deprivation, and insufficient calories for 1 week; and, (c) in soldiers suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia (SI), and bipolar disorders (BD). (a) When physical stress is exposed moderately to healthy men and women for 3-5 days, as in the case of amateur marathon runners, only few steroidal hormones are altered. A mild reduction in testosterone, cholesterol and triglycerides is detected in blood and in saliva, but there was no decrease in estradiol. Conversely, there is an increase of the glucocorticoids, aldosterone and cortisol. Cellular immunity, but not specific immunity, is reduced for a short time in these subjects. (b) These changes are also seen in healthy elite soldiers exposed to extreme physical and mental stress but to a somewhat greater extent. For instance, the aldosterone is increased by a factor of three. (c) In SMD, an irreversible effect on the entire steroidal hormone cascade is detected. Hormones at the top of the cascade, such as cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), aldosterone and other glucocorticoids, are increased. However, testosterone and estradiol and their metabolites, and other hormones at the lower end of the cascade, seem to be reduced. 1

  19. Determination of proteohormones and steroid hormones by RIA methods. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, P.; Chrpova, M.; Olsova, M.

    1977-01-01

    A reliable routine method was developed for users processing large sample series. Bovine somatotropic hormone (B-STH) was conjugated with toluyldiisocyanate. Immunization was carried out of a New Zealand white rabbit breed sample. A total of six antisera of acceptable titre were prepared of which one serum (1:40,000 titre) with the highest antibody specificity was selected. Immunochemical reaction affinity (characterized by the equilibrium constant 8.28x10 10 l/mol) was sufficient for the radioimmunoassay. B-STH was labelled with 125 I using the enzyme and chloramine methods. The average labelling efficiency was 57+-9%. The double-antibody method was used for separating bound and free B-STH. B-STH commercially available from Calbiochem was used as a standard for the establishment of a calibration curve. The calibration curve stability was satisfactory. The curve was linear up to values of a 4 to 8 ng/sample. Gamma radiation was measured in the energy region 20 to 80 keV by a Tesla NZQ 717 T scintillation gamma spectrometer (detection efficiency 85%). Measurement time was 100 to 200 sec. The amount of plasma for one analysis was 50 μl, sensitivity of the method 0.06 ng, scope of applicability 1.2 to 80 ng of B-STH in 1 ml of plasma, accuracy for parallel determination 5.9%, for nonparallel determination 10.2%. For the range of the 0.21 to 4.49 ng/sample, recovery was 97.4+-12.2%. Programs were written allowing the rapid and efficient evaluation of the radioimmunoassay using a Compucorp 445-44 Statistician minicomputer and yielding clear output data, calibration curve and final result print-outs. (J.F.)

  20. Hormonally-mediated Epigenetic Changes to Steroid Receptors in the Developing Brain: Implications for Sexual Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of sex-specific neural morphology, which underlies sex-specific behaviors, occurs during a perinatal sensitive window in which brief exposure to gonadal steroid hormones produces permanent masculinization of the brain. In the rodent, estradiol derived from testicular androgens is a principle organizational hormone. The mechanism by which transient estradiol exposure induces permanent differences in neuronal anatomy has been widely investigated, but remains elusive. Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, allow environmental influences to alter long-term gene expression patterns and therefore may be a potential mediator of estradiol-induced organization of the neonatal brain. Here we review data that demonstrate sex and estradiol-induced differences in DNA methylation on the estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), and progesterone receptor (PR) promoters in sexually dimorphic brain regions across development. Contrary to the overarching view of DNA methylation as a permanent modification directly tied to gene expression, these data demonstrate that methylation patterns on steroid hormone receptors change across the life span and do not necessarily predict expression. Although further exploration into the mechanism and significance of estradiol-induced alterations in DNA methylation patterns in the neonatal brain is necessary, these results provide preliminary evidence that epigenetic alterations can occur in response to early hormone exposure and may mediate estradiol-induced organization of sex differences in the neonatal brain. PMID:20800064

  1. [Research progresses of anabolic steroids analysis in doping control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yuanyuan; Wang, Dingzhong; Li, Ke'an; Liu, Feng

    2008-07-01

    Anabolic steroids, a kind of physiological active substance, are widely abused to improve athletic performance in human sports. They have been forbidden in sports by the International Olympic Committee since 1983. Since then, many researchers have been focusing their attentions on the establishment of reliable detection methods. In this paper, we review the research progresses of different analytical methods for anabolic steroids since 2002, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, immunoassay, electrochemistry analysis and mass spectrometry. The developing prospect of anabolic steroids analysis is also discussed.

  2. Accumulation of steroid hormones in soil and its adjacent aquatic environment from a typical intensive vegetable cultivation of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Song; Xie, Yun-Feng; Li, Xue-Wen; Wang, Dai-Yi; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Nie, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-12-15

    Steroid hormones released from manure agricultural application are a matter of global concern. The residual levels of steroid hormones were studied in a typical intensive vegetable cultivation area in northeast China, with a long history of heavy manure application. Seven steroids (estrone, 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, estriol, testosterone, androstendione and progesterone) were analyzed from soil sampled from vegetable greenhouses, from sediments and water from the adjacent drainage ditch and from the groundwater. The results showed that target steroids were detected in the soil samples, with detection frequencies varying from 3.13 to 100%. The steroid concentrations varied substantially in soils, ranging from below the detection limit to 109.7μg·kg(-1). Three steroids-progesterone, androstendione and estrone-were found to have relatively high residue concentrations in soil, with maximum concentrations of 109.7, 9.83 and 13.30μg·kg(-1), respectively. In adjacent groundwater, all the steroids, with the exception of estrone, were detected in one or more of the 13 groundwater samples. The concentrations of steroids in groundwater ranged from below the method detection limit to 2.38ng·L(-1). Six of the seven (excluding androstendione) were detected in drainage ditch water samples, with concentrations ranging from below the detection limit to 14ng·L(-1). Progesterone, androstendione and estrone accumulated relatively easily in soils; their concentrations in groundwater were lower than those of other steroids. The concentrations of testosterone and estriol were relatively low in soil, while in groundwater were higher than those of other steroids. The residual levels of steroids in soil and groundwater showed a clear spatial variation in the study area. The residual levels of steroid hormones in soil varied substantially between differently planted greenhouses. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Fate of steroid hormones and endocrine activities in swine manure disposal and treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combalbert, Sarah; Bellet, Virginie; Dabert, Patrick; Bernet, Nicolas; Balaguer, Patrick; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina

    2012-03-01

    Manure may contain high concern endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) such as steroid hormones, naturally produced by pigs, which are present at μgL(-1) levels. Manure may also contain other EDCs such as nonylphenols (NP), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. Thus, once manure is applied to the land as soil fertilizer these compounds may reach aquifers and consequently living organisms, inducing abnormal endocrine responses. In France, manure is generally stored in anaerobic tanks prior spreading on land; when nitrogen removal is requested, manure is treated by aerobic processes before spreading. However, little is known about the fate of hormones and multiple endocrine-disrupting activities in such manure disposal and treatment systems. Here, we determined the fate of hormones and diverse endocrine activities during manure storage and treatment by combining chemical analysis and in vitro quantification of estrogen (ER), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), androgen (AR), pregnane-X (PXR) and peroxysome proliferator-activated γ (PPARγ) receptor-mediated activities. Our results show that manure contains large quantities of hormones and activates ER and AhR, two of the nuclear receptors studied. Most of these endocrine activities were found in the solid fraction of manure and appeared to be induced mainly by hormones and other unidentified pollutants. Hormones, ER and AhR activities found in manure were poorly removed during manure storage but were efficiently removed by aerobic treatment of manure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex Steroid Hormones Matter for Learning and Memory: Estrogenic Regulation of Hippocampal Function Inmale and Female Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes…

  5. Simultaneous analysis of fourteen endogenous steroid hormones by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product Description: To understand how some chemicals affect the endocrine system, controlled lab experiments often monitor how chemicals impact natural steroid hormones in fish. Current methods can target only one or two hormones in a single sample, limiting the information that...

  6. Review Maternally derived egg yolk steroid hormones and sex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Iowa State University, USA), David Pike, Melanie Elphick. (University of Sydney, Australia) and four anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments, suggestions and discussion on an earlier version of the MS. I acknowledge the Australian Research Council (ARC, Australia) and. Environmental Futures Network (EFN, ...

  7. Automation of steroid radioimmunoassays for clinical and research purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vihko, R.; Hammond, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    In recent years an exponential increase in the research and clinical application of radioimmunoassays has created a demand for manipulative aids, to increase the general efficiency of the technique as well as precision of the determinations. At present a number of systems exist for sample preparation and the automation of assays. However, due to inherent problems of carry-over, priming, cleaning and the necessity for chemically inert components most of these systems tend to be rather inflexible. The instrument of choice ought therefore to be extremely versatile and provide the operator with a wide spectrum of alternatives, in order to optimize the initial capital outlay. Moreover, in the light of technological developments in the field of simultaneous, multisample gamma-counting and data processing, it is anticipated that a new generation of multisample processors will emerge of sufficient flexibility to accommodate the wide variety of assay protocols in present use. In this paper the problems encountered in the development of automated techniques for the radioimmunoassay of steroid hormones are reviewed, and a preliminary description of a versatile modular discrete instrument for the automation of radioimmunoassays is presented, which is based on simultaneous multisample preparation, and subsequent counting and data processing. (author)

  8. Steroid hormone signaling during development has a latent effect on adult male sexual behavior in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Ashley; Prudic, Kathleen L; Monteiro, Antónia

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that steroid hormones regulate sexual behavior in vertebrates via organizational and activational effects. However, whether the organizational/activational paradigm applies more broadly to the sexual behavior of other animals such as insects is not well established. Here we describe the hormonal regulation of a sexual behavior in the seasonally polyphenic butterfly Bicyclus anynana is consistent with the characteristics of an organizational effect. By measuring hormone titer levels, quantifying hormone receptor gene expression in the brain, and performing hormone manipulations, we demonstrate steroid hormone signaling early in pupal development has a latent effect on adult male sexual behavior in B. anynana. These findings suggest the organizational/activational paradigm may be more highly conserved across animal taxa than previously thought.

  9. Requirement for specific gravity and creatinine adjustments for urinary steroids and luteinizing hormone concentrations in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K S; Balzer, Ben W R; Desai, Reena; Jimenez, Mark; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Handelsman, David J

    2015-11-01

    Urinary hormone concentrations are often adjusted to correct for hydration status. We aimed to determine whether first morning void urine hormones in growing adolescents require adjustments and, if so, whether urinary creatinine or specific gravity are better adjustments. The study population was adolescents aged 10.1 to 14.3 years initially who provided fasting morning blood samples at 0 and 12 months (n = 343) and first morning urine every three months (n = 644). Unadjusted, creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted hormonal concentrations were compared by Deming regression and Bland-Altman analysis and grouped according to self-rated Tanner stage or chronological age. F-ratios for self-rated Tanner stages and age groups were used to compare unadjusted and adjusted hormonal changes in growing young adolescents. Correlations of paired serum and urinary hormonal concentration of unadjusted and creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted were also compared. Fasting first morning void hormone concentrations correlated well and were unbiased between unadjusted or adjusted by either creatinine or specific gravity. Urine creatinine concentration increases with Tanner stages, age and male gender whereas urine specific gravity was not influenced by Tanner stage, age or gender. Adjustment by creatinine or specific gravity of urinary luteinizing hormone, estradiol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations did not improve correlation with paired serum concentrations. Urine steroid and luteinizing hormone concentrations in first morning void samples of adolescents are not significantly influenced by hydration status and may not require adjustments; however, if desired, both creatinine and specific gravity adjustments are equally suitable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Steroid hormones in biosolids and poultry litter: a comparison of potential environmental inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, Christine E; Rice, Clifford P; Torrents, Alba; Ramirez, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Steroid hormones can act as potent endocrine disruptors when released into the environment. The main sources of these chemicals are thought to be wastewater treatment plant discharges and waste from animal feeding operations. While these compounds have frequently been found in wastewater effluents, few studies have investigated biosolids or manure, which are routinely land applied, as potential sources. This study assessed the potential environmental contribution of steroid hormones from biosolids and chicken litter. Hormone concentrations in samples of limed biosolids collected at a waste treatment plant over a four year period ranged from farms had averages of 41.4ng/g dry weight E1, 63.4ng/g dry weight progesterone, and 19.2ng/g dry weight E1-sulfate (E1-S). Other analytes studied were 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, E2-3-sulfate (E2-3-S), and E2-17-sulfate (E2-17-3). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Steroid and metabolic hormonal profile of porcine serum vis-à-vis ovarian follicular fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumen Naskar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to understand whether serum level of the steroid and metabolic hormones may be indicative of their level in ovarian follicular fluid (FF in porcine, and its influence on fertility. Materials and Methods: Ovaries from pigs (n=32 of two genetic groups, namely, native (Ghungroo; n=16 and crossbred (Hampshire × Ghungroo; n=16 were collected. Both the genetic groups comprised gilts (n=8 and sows (n=8, and sows were in luteal phase of estrus cycle. FF was aspirated from small, medium and large follicles, and centrifuged for the collection of supernatant for further analysis. Blood samples were collected from the same animals, and serum was separated. Hormones, namely, cortisol, T3, T4 and testosterone were estimated by radioimmunoassay. Two-way ANOVA was used for analysis of data considering genetic background (native or crossbred, stage of reproductive life (gilt or sow, and source of sample (serum or FF as fixed effects. Results: It was observed that all the hormones except cortisol differed significantly (p<0.01 based on genetic background. Stage of reproductive life and source of sample did not affect the studied hormonal level. Within the genetic groups, stage of reproductive life influenced T3 (p<0.01, cortisol (p<0.05 and testosterone (p<0.01 level in crossbred pigs as compared to T3 (p<0.01 only in native pigs. The level of T3 in serum, as well as FF, was higher (p<0.01 in Ghungroo gilts compared to sows. However, a reverse of this was observed in the case of crossbred pigs. The level of cortisol (p<0.05 and testosterone (p<0.01 was higher in crossbred sows than gilts in both serum and FF. Conclusion: The study revealed that serum level of the steroid and metabolic hormones is indicative of their level in the ovarian FF. Further, varying level of steroid and metabolic hormones in pigs based on genetic background may be due to variation in body size, rate of energy metabolism and stage of (reproductive life.

  12. Different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses by male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Andersen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Since both paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and stress alter male reproductive function, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of PSD and other stressors (restraint, electrical footshock, cold and forced swimming, N = 10 per group on steroid hormones in adult Wistar male rats. Rats were submitted to chronic stress for four days. The stressors (footshock, cold and forced swimming were applied twice a day, for periods of 1 h at 9:00 and 16:00 h. Restrained animals were maintained in plastic cylinders for 22 h/day whereas PSD was continuous. Hormone determination was measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (testosterone, competitive immunoassay (progesterone and by radioimmunoassay (corticosterone, estradiol, estrone. The findings indicate that PSD (13.7 ng/dl, footshock (31.7 ng/dl and cold (35.2 ng/dl led to lower testosterone levels compared to the swimming (370.4 ng/dl and control (371.4 ng/dl groups. However, progesterone levels were elevated in the footshock (4.5 ng/ml and PSD (5.4 ng/ml groups compared to control (1.6 ng/ml, swimming (1.1 ng/ml, cold (2.3 ng/ml, and restrained (1.2 ng/ml animals. Estrone and estradiol levels were reduced in the PSD, footshock and restraint groups compared to the control, swimming and cold groups. A significant increase in corticosterone levels was found only in the PSD (299.8 ng/ml and footshock (169.6 ng/ml groups. These changes may be thought to be the full steroidal response to stress of significant intensity. Thus, the data suggest that different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses, with PSD and footshock being the most similar.

  13. Different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses by male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M L; Bignotto, M; Machado, R B; Tufik, S

    2004-06-01

    Since both paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and stress alter male reproductive function, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of PSD and other stressors (restraint, electrical footshock, cold and forced swimming, N = 10 per group) on steroid hormones in adult Wistar male rats. Rats were submitted to chronic stress for four days. The stressors (footshock, cold and forced swimming) were applied twice a day, for periods of 1 h at 9:00 and 16:00 h. Restrained animals were maintained in plastic cylinders for 22 h/day whereas PSD was continuous. Hormone determination was measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (testosterone), competitive immunoassay (progesterone) and by radioimmunoassay (corticosterone, estradiol, estrone). The findings indicate that PSD (13.7 ng/dl), footshock (31.7 ng/dl) and cold (35.2 ng/dl) led to lower testosterone levels compared to the swimming (370.4 ng/dl) and control (371.4 ng/dl) groups. However, progesterone levels were elevated in the footshock (4.5 ng/ml) and PSD (5.4 ng/ml) groups compared to control (1.6 ng/ml), swimming (1.1 ng/ml), cold (2.3 ng/ml), and restrained (1.2 ng/ml) animals. Estrone and estradiol levels were reduced in the PSD, footshock and restraint groups compared to the control, swimming and cold groups. A significant increase in corticosterone levels was found only in the PSD (299.8 ng/ml) and footshock (169.6 ng/ml) groups. These changes may be thought to be the full steroidal response to stress of significant intensity. Thus, the data suggest that different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses, with PSD and footshock being the most similar.

  14. Towards an understanding of the evolution of the chorioallantoic placenta: steroid biosynthesis and steroid hormone signaling in the chorioallantoic membrane of an oviparous reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruze, Lori; Kohno, Satomi; McCoy, Michael W; Guillette, Louis J

    2012-09-01

    Amniotes, mammals, reptiles, and birds form common extraembryonic membranes during development to perform essential functions, such as protection, nutrient transfer, gas exchange, and waste removal. Together with the maternal uterus, extraembryonic membranes of viviparous (live-bearing) amniotes develop as an endocrine placenta that synthesizes and responds to steroid hormones critical for development. The ability of these membranes to synthesize and respond to steroid hormone signaling has traditionally been considered an innovation of placental amniotes. However, our laboratory recently demonstrated that this ability extends to the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of an oviparous (egg-laying) amniote, the domestic chicken, and we hypothesized that steroidogenic extraembryonic membranes could be an evolutionarily conserved characteristic of all amniotes because of similarities in basic structure, function, and shared evolutionary ancestry. In this study, we examined steroid hormone synthesis and signaling in the CAM of another oviparous amniote, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). We quantified mRNA expression of a steroidogenic factor involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis (NR5A1), the key steroidogenic enzymes involved in the synthesis of progestins (HSD3B1), androgens (CYP17A1), and estrogens (CYP19A1), and the receptors involved in the signaling of progestins (PR), androgens (AR), estrogens (ESR1 and ESR2), and glucocorticoids (GR). Furthermore, we performed protein immunolocalization for PR and ESR1. Collectively, our findings indicate that the alligator CAM has the capability to regulate, synthesize, and respond to steroid hormone signaling, thus, supporting our hypothesis that the extraembryonic membranes of Amniota share a unifying characteristic, that is, the ability to synthesize and respond to steroid hormones.

  15. Adipose tissue inflammation and cancer cachexia: the role of steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelaender, Marilia C L; Batista, Miguel Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue inflammation plays a role in the etiology of many chronic diseases, and has been the focus of much attention in the context of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Similarly, during cancer cachexia, a syndrome that markedly increases cancer-associated morbidity and mortality, local adipose inflammation is reported in animal models and in patients, potentially contributing to the chronic systemic inflammation that constitutes the hallmark of this condition. We discuss, on the basis of information generated by obesity-related studies, the possible relation between adipose tissue inflammation and compromised steroid hormone secretion and action in cachexia.

  16. Melatonin Regulates the Synthesis of Steroid Hormones on Male Reproduction: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a ubiquitous molecule and exhibits different effects in long-day and short-day breeding animals. Testosterone, the main resource of androgens in the testis, is produced by Leydig cells but regulated mainly by cytokine secreted by Sertoli cells. Melatonin acts as a local modulator of the endocrine activity in Leydig cells. In Sertoli cells, melatonin influences cellular proliferation and energy metabolism and, consequently, can regulate steroidogenesis. These suggest melatonin as a key player in the regulation of steroidogenesis. However, the melatonin-induced regulation of steroid hormones may differ among species, and the literature data indicate that melatonin has important effects on steroidogenesis and male reproduction.

  17. Enrichment of steroid hormones in water with porous and hydrophobic polymer-based SPE followed by HPLC-UV determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinfen; Zhang, Man; Tong, Changlun; Wu, Jianmin; Liu, Weiping

    2013-10-01

    There have been great concerns about the persistence of steroid hormones in surface water. Since the concentrations of these compounds in water samples are usually at a trace level, the efficient enrichment of steroid hormones is vital for further analysis. In this work, a porous and hydrophobic polymer was synthesized and characterized. The composition of solvent used as porogen in the synthetic process was shown to have an effect on the morphology of the polymer, which was successfully used as an SPE sorbent for simultaneously enriching steroid hormones in surface water samples. The recoveries of the steroid hormones on the custom-made polymer ranged from 93.4 to 106.2%, whereas those on commercialized ENVI-18, LC-18, and Oasis HLB ranged from 54.8 to 104.9, 66 to 93.6, and 77.2 to 106%, respectively. Five types of steroid hormones were simultaneously measured using HPLC-UV after they were enriched by the custom-made sorbent. Based on these findings, the SPE-HPLC method was developed. The LODs of this method for estriol, estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, progesterone were 0.07, 0.43, 0.61, 0.27, and 0.42 μg/L, respectively, while precision and reproducibility RSDs were <6.40 and 7.49%, respectively. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Pumpkin seed extract: Cell growth inhibition of hyperplastic and cancer cells, independent of steroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Hobiger, Stefanie; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bucar, Franz; Jungbauer, Alois

    2016-04-01

    Pumpkin seeds have been known in folk medicine as remedy for kidney, bladder and prostate disorders since centuries. Nevertheless, pumpkin research provides insufficient data to back up traditional beliefs of ethnomedical practice. The bioactivity of a hydro-ethanolic extract of pumpkin seeds from the Styrian pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca, was investigated. As pumpkin seed extracts are standardized to cucurbitin, this compound was also tested. Transactivational activity was evaluated for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor with in vitro yeast assays. Cell viability tests with prostate cancer cells, breast cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and a hyperplastic cell line from benign prostate hyperplasia tissue were performed. As model for non-hyperplastic cells, effects on cell viability were tested with a human dermal fibroblast cell line (HDF-5). No transactivational activity was found for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, for both, extract and cucurbitin. A cell growth inhibition of ~40-50% was observed for all cell lines, with the exception of HDF-5, which showed with ~20% much lower cell growth inhibition. Given the receptor status of some cell lines, a steroid-hormone receptor independent growth inhibiting effect can be assumed. The cell growth inhibition for fast growing cells together with the cell growth inhibition of prostate-, breast- and colon cancer cells corroborates the ethnomedical use of pumpkin seeds for a treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Moreover, due to the lack of androgenic activity, pumpkin seed applications can be regarded as safe for the prostate. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The correlation of anandamide with gonadotrophin and sex steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Cui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in plasma anandamide (AEA levels throughout the normal menstrual cycle, and to analyze the relationship among AEA, sex steroids and gonadotrophins. Materials and Methods: The patients were fertile women with normal menstrual cycle, proposed to get in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment due to oviduct obstruction or male infertility. Patients were divided into two groups, cross-sectional (n=79 and longitudinal (n=10. The plasma AEA levels were examined by the ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS system. The serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol (E2, and progesterone (P were measured by chemiluminescence. Results: The AEA levels in the late follicular phase were slightly higher than those in the early follicular phase. Subsequently, the AEA levels peaked at the time of ovulation in both two cohorts. Finally, the lowest AEA levels were measured in the luteal phase. Moreover, there were highly significant positive correlations between the plasma AEA concentration and the serum levels of FSH, LH and E2, whereas the AEA level was not correlated with P during the normal menstrual cycle. Conclusion: Our observations reveal a dynamic change in the plasma AEA level, which is closely associated with the levels of gonadotrophin and sex steroid hormones, suggesting that the hormones may be involved in the regulation of AEA levels during the menstrual cycle. Our studies help to design new strategies to improve implantation and treatments for reproductive diseases.

  20. Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... from some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  1. A DFT-D investigation of the mechanisms for activation of the wild-type and S810L mutated mineralocorticoid receptor by steroid hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Riley, Kevin Eugene; Hobza, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 10 (2008), s. 3157-3163 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550510; GA ČR GA203/05/0009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : steroid hormones * mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor * (DFT-D) molecular electronic structure method Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.189, year: 2008

  2. The pubertal spurt: effects of sex steroids on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caufriez, A

    1997-02-01

    In puberty, the growth spurt and the appearance of secondary sex characteristics occur concomitantly with an increase of sex steroids, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). A number of experiments indicate that sex steroids exert a stimulatory action on the somatotropic axis. This effect is due to an amplifying action of oestradiol (secreted by the ovaries or after testosterone aromatization) on the neuroendocrine regulation of pulsatile GH release.

  3. The steroid hormone ecdysone controls systemic growth by repressing dMyc function in Drosophila fat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoue, Rénald; Slaidina, Maija; Léopold, Pierre

    2010-06-15

    How steroid hormones shape animal growth remains poorly understood. In Drosophila, the main steroid hormone, ecdysone, limits systemic growth during juvenile development. Here we show that ecdysone controls animal growth rate by specifically acting on the fat body, an organ that retains endocrine and storage functions of the vertebrate liver and fat. We demonstrate that fat body-targeted loss of function of the Ecdysone receptor (EcR) increases dMyc expression and its cellular functions such as ribosome biogenesis. Moreover, changing dMyc levels in this tissue is sufficient to affect animal growth rate. Finally, the growth increase induced by silencing EcR in the fat body is suppressed by cosilencing dMyc. In conclusion, the present work reveals an unexpected function of dMyc in the systemic control of growth in response to steroid hormone signaling. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cellular localization of steroid hormone-regulated proteins during sexual development in achlya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunt, S.A.; Silver, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    In the fungus Achlya ambisexualis sexual development in the male strain E87 is controlled by the steroid hormone antheridiol. To investigate the effects of antheridiol on the synthesis and/or accumulation of specific cellular proteins we have analyzed [ 35 S]methionine-labeled proteins from control and hormone-treated cells using both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) PAGE. The addition of the hormone antheridiol to vegetatively growing cells of Achlya E87 was found to result in changes in the synthesis and/or accumulation of at least 16 specific proteins, which could be localized to the cytoplasmic, nuclear or cell was/cell membrane fractions. The most prominent changes observed in the hormone-treated cells included the appearance in the cytoplasmic fraction of labeled proteins at 28.4 and 24.3kD which were not detectable in control cells, and a significant enrichment in the labeling of a 24.3kD protein in the cell wall/cell membrane fraction. Quantitative changes in the [ 35 S]methionine labeling of several other proteins were noted in all three cell fractions

  5. Steroid hormone related male biased parasitism in chamois, Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoby, Stefan; Schwarzenberger, Franz; Doherr, Marcus G; Robert, Nadia; Walzer, Christian

    2006-06-15

    Parasites are linked with their host in a trophic interaction with implications for both hosts and parasites. Interaction stretches from the host's immune response to the structuring of communities and the evolution of biodiversity. As in many species sex determines life history strategy, response to parasites may be sex-specific. Males of vertebrate species tend to exhibit higher rates of parasites than females. Sex-associated hormones may influence immunocompetence and are hypothesised to lead to this bias. In a field study, we tested the prediction of male biased parasitism (MBP) in free ranging chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra), which are infested intensely by gastrointestinal and lung helminths. We further investigated sex differences in faecal androgen (testosterone and epiandrosterone), cortisol and oestrogen metabolites using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to evaluate the impact of these hormones on sex dependent parasite susceptibility. Non-invasive methods were used and the study was conducted throughout a year to detect seasonal patterns. Hormone levels and parasite counts varied significantly throughout the year. Male chamois had a higher output of gastrointestinal eggs and lungworm larvae when compared to females. The hypothesis of MBP originating in sex related hormone levels was confirmed for the elevated output of lungworm larvae, but not for the gastrointestinal nematodes. The faecal output of lungworm larvae was significantly correlated with androgen and cortisol metabolite levels. Our study shows that sex differences in steroid levels play an important role to explain MBP, although they alone cannot fully explain the phenomenon.

  6. Studies on the steroid hormone precursors of two tropical wild yams (Dioscorea bulbifera and Dioscorea manganotiana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, G.; Ekperigin, M.M.; Akindahunsi, A.A.

    2001-09-01

    Dioscorea bulbifera and Dioscorea manganotiana were evaluated for their potential as a source of saponin and sapogenin. The levels of these steroid hormone precursors were determined by solvent extraction and characterized by froth test, haemolytic test, colour, taste and TLC analysis. The saponin content of both yams were 1.04±0.08% (dioscorea bulbifera) and 1.58±0.26% (Dioscorea manganotiana). The sapogenin content of Dioscorea manganotiana was 6.04±0.06mg/g, while that of dioscerea bulbifera was 3.36±0.37mg/g. The saponin had a dark-brown colour, bitter taste, frothing ability and haemolysed blood. TLC analysis gave a purple spot with R f ranging from 0.55 to 0.56. Since the wild yams used for the present study are neither consumed by man nor used for livestock feeding, coupled with their relative abundance and low cost, they hold a good promise with respect to sourcing precursors for commercial production of steroid hormones. (author)

  7. In vivo absorption of steroidal hormones from smart polymer based delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sibao; Pederson, Daniel; Oak, Mayura; Singh, Jagdish

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop smart polymer based controlled delivery systems to deliver steroidal hormones after single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection at predetermined rates over extended period of time. In vivo absorption and pharmacokinetics of levonorgestrel (LNG) and testosterone (TSN) were investigated from the thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymeric controlled delivery systems. A selective, reliable, and rapid method for determination of serum LNG concentration was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandom mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface (HPLC-MS-MS with APCI), while TSN in serum samples was detected and quantified by a competitive immunoassay. The delivery systems controlled the absorption of LNG in rabbits up to 6 weeks from thermosensitive and approximately 4 weeks from phase sensitive polymeric delivery systems. In vivo study of TSN delivery systems in castrated rabbits controlled the release of TSN for at least 2 months from both thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymers. Thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymer formulations significantly (p < 0.05) increased relative bioavailability of steroidal hormones compared to control. In conclusion, thermosensitive and phase sensitive polymer based delivery systems controlled the release in vivo in rabbits for longer duration after single s.c. injection. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  8. DAF as a therapeutic target for steroid hormones: implications for host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Bogdan; Nowicki, Stella

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a concise historic prospective and a summary of accumulated knowledge on steroid hormones, DAF expression, and therapeutic implication of steroid hormone treatment on multiple pathologies, including infection and the host-pathogen interactions. DAF/CD55 plays multiple physiologic functions including tissue protection from the cytotoxic complement injury, an anti-inflammatory function due to its anti-adherence properties which enhance transmigration of monocytes and macrophages and reduce tissue injury. DAF physiologic functions are essential in many organ systems including pregnancy for protection of the semiallogeneic fetus or for preventing uncontrolled infiltration by white cells in their pro- and/or anti-inflammatory functions. DAF expression appears to have multiple regulatory tissue-specific and/or menstrual cycle-specific mechanisms, which involve complex signaling mechanisms. Regulation of DAF expression may involve a direct or an indirect effect of at least the estrogen, progesterone, and corticosteroid regulatory pathways. DAF is exploited in multiple pathologic conditions by pathogens and viruses in chronic tissue infection processes. The binding of Escherichia coli bearing Dr adhesins to the DAF/CD55 receptor is DAF density dependent and triggers internalization of E. coli via an endocytic pathway involving CD55, lipid rafts, and microtubules. Dr+ E. coli or Dr antigen may persist in vivo in the interstitium for several months. Further understanding of such processes should be instrumental in designing therapeutic strategies for multiple conditions involving DAF's protective or pathologic functions and tailoring host expression of DAF.

  9. TeBG- and CBG-bound steroid hormones in rabbits are available for influx into uterus in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, G.; Steingold, K.A.; Pardridge, W.M.; Judd, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of gonadal or adrenal steroid hormones in rabbits often does not bear the expected inverse relationship with hormone binding to testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) or corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). This suggests TeBG or CBG may not impede steroid hormone delivery to tissues. The effects of rabbit plasma proteins on the influxes of 3 H-labeled steroids from the circulation into the rabbit uterus were measured in vivo using a tissue sampling single-injection technique. In the absence of plasma proteins, estradiol (E 2 ) and testosterone (T) were freely diffusible through the uterine microvasculature (i.e., extraction >80%). The extractions of dihydrostestosterone (DHT) and corticosterone (B) ranged from 60 to 72%, while that of cortisol (F) was reduced at 40%. Rabbit serum exerted no inhibition of the influxes of the steroids tested. The influxes of T and B greatly exceeded the rates that would be expected if only the free and albumin-bound fractions estimated in vitro were diffusible in vivo. However, the extraction of [ 3 H]corticosteroid-binding globulin or bovine [ 3 H]albumin were low, consistent with little, if any, extravascular uptake of the plasma proteins. The results indicate both albumin-bound and globulin-bound steroid hormone are available for transport into the uterus in the rabbit in vivo without significant exodus of the plasma protein, per se

  10. Mitochondria and the insect steroid hormone receptor (EcR): A complex relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafopoulou, Xanthe; Steel, Colin G H

    2016-10-01

    The actions of the insect steroid molting hormones, ecdysteroids, on the genome of target cells has been well studied, but little is known of their extranuclear actions. We previously showed in Rhodnius prolixus that much of the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) resides in the cytoplasm of various cell types and undergoes shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm with circadian periodicity, possibly using microtubules as tracks for translocation to the nucleus. Here we report that cytoplasmic EcR appears to be also involved in extranuclear actions of ecdysteroids by association with the mitochondria. Western blots of subcellular fractions of brain lysates revealed that EcR is localized in the mitochondrial fraction, indicating an intimate association of EcR with mitochondria. Confocal laser microscopy and immunohistochemistry using anti-EcR revealed abundant co-localization of EcR with mitochondria in brain neurons and their axons, especially intense in the subplasmalemmal region, raising the possibility of EcR involvement in mitochondrial functions in subplasmalemmal microdomains. When mitochondria are dispersed by disruption of microtubules with colchicine, EcR remains associated with mitochondria showing strong receptor association with mitochondria. Treatment in vitro with ecdysteroids of brains of developmentally arrested R. prolixus (containing neither ecdysteroids nor EcR) induces EcR and abundant co-localization with mitochondria in neurons, concurrently with a sharp increase of the mitochondrial protein COX 1, suggesting involvement of EcR in mitochondrial function. These findings align EcR with various vertebrate steroid receptors, where actions of steroid receptors on mitochondria are widely known and suggest that steroid receptors across distant phyla share similar functional attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Abedelmalek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR. All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (−5~6 MJ/day. Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P<0.05 and performance (P<0.05. However, heart rate and SJFT index (P<0.05 increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH, leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P<0.05. Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P<0.05 and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P<0.05.

  12. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Your Family Social Media: Understanding a Teen's World Signs of Drug Use What’s Happening in Your ... hostility Increased risk of heart disease, liver damage Addiction Read More about Steroids Be Informed. Search for information about a drug View Popular Searches: POT , HEROIN , METH Previous Pause ...

  13. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-06-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization or differentiated posttranslational maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and cerebral or peripheral neurons but others also in other cell types. The extraintestinal cells may release different bioactive fragments of the same prohormone due to cell-specific processing pathways. Moreover, endocrine cells, neurons, cancer cells and, for instance, spermatozoa secrete gut peptides in different ways, so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions, but also constitute regulatory systems operating in the whole organism. This overview of gut hormone biology is supplemented with an annotation on some Scandinavian contributions to gastrointestinal hormone research.

  14. Postmenopausal serum sex steroids and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: a nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, R.E.; Lukanova, A.; Dossus, L.; Becker, S.; Rinaldi, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Mesrine, S.; Engel, P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Chang-Claude, J.; Vrieling, A.; Boeing, H.; Schutze, M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lagiou, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Palli, D.; Krogh, V.; Panico, S.; Tumino, R.; Sacerdote, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Buckland, G.; Sanchez, M.J.; Amiano, P.; Ardanaz, E.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.; Ros, M.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Key, T.J.; Allen, N.E.; Romieu, I.; Siddiq, A.; Cox, D.; Riboli, E.; Kaaks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of

  15. Postmenopausal Serum Sex Steroids and Risk of Hormone Receptor-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer : a Nested Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Dossus, Laure; Becker, Susen; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Engel, Pierre; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Boeing, Heiner; Schuetze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Rodriguez, Laudina; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Ros, Martine M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Allen, Naomi E.; Romieu, Isabelle; Siddiq, Afshan; Cox, David; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of

  16. Can concentrations of steroid hormones in brown bear hair reveal age class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattet, Marc; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Boulanger, John; Janz, David M; Kapronczai, Luciene; Swenson, Jon E; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Although combining genetic and endocrine data from non-invasively collected hair samples has potential to improve the conservation of threatened mammals, few studies have evaluated this opportunity. In this study, we determined if steroid hormone (testosterone, progesterone, estradiol and cortisol) concentration profiles in 169 hair samples collected from free-ranging brown bears ( Ursus arctos ) could be used to accurately discriminate between immature and adult bears within each sex. Because hair samples were acquired opportunistically, we also needed to establish if interactions between hormones and several non-hormone factors (ordinal day, year, contact method, study area) were associated with age class. For each sex, we first compared a suite of candidate models by Akaike Information Criteria model selection, using different adult-age thresholds (3, 4 and 5 years), to determine the most supported adult age. Because hair hormone levels better reflect the endocrine state at an earlier time, possibly during the previous year, then at the time of sampling, we re-analysed the data, excluding the records for bears at the adult-age threshold, to establish if classification accuracy improved. For both sexes, candidate models were most supported based on a 3-year-old adult-age threshold. Classification accuracy did not improve with the 3-year-old bear data excluded. Male age class was predicted with a high degree of accuracy (88.4%) based on the concomitant concentrations of all four hormones. Female age class was predicted with less accuracy (77.1%) based only on testosterone and cortisol. Accuracy was reduced for females, primarily because we had poor success in correctly classifying immature bears (60%) whereas classification success for adult females was similar to that for males (84.5%). Given the small and unbalanced sample used in this study, our findings should be viewed as preliminary, but they should also provide a basis for more comprehensive future studies.

  17. The role of sex steroid hormones, cytokines and the endocannabinoid system in female fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, T; Marczylo, T H; Maccarrone, M; Konje, J C

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana, the most used recreational drug, has been shown to have adverse effects on human reproduction. Endogenous cannabinoids (also called endocannabinoids) bind to the same receptors as those of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa. The most extensively studied endocannabinoids are anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. The endocannabinoids, their congeners and the cannabinoid receptors, together with the metabolic enzymes and putative transporters form the endocannabinoid system (ECS). In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the relationships of ECS, sex steroid hormones and cytokines in female fertility, and underline the importance of this endocannabinoid-hormone-cytokine network. Pubmed and the Web of Science databases were searched for studies published since 1985, looking into the ECS, sex hormones, type-1/2 T-helper (Th1/Th2) cytokines, leukaemia inhibitory factor, leptin and reproduction. The ECS plays a pivotal role in human reproduction. The enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids normalize levels of AEA for successful implantation. The AEA degrading enzyme (fatty acid amide hydrolase) activity as well as AEA content in blood may potentially be used for the monitoring of early pregnancies. Progesterone and oestrogen are involved in the maintenance of endocannabinoid levels. The ECS plays an important role in the immune regulation of human fertility. The available studies suggest that tight control of the endocannabinoid-hormone-cytokine network is required for successful implantation and early pregnancy maintenance. This hormone-cytokine network is a key element at the maternal-foetal interface, and any defect in such a network may result in foetal loss.

  18. Growth in children with chronic kidney disease: role of nutrition, growth hormone, dialysis, and steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingulli, Elizabeth G; Mak, Robert H

    2014-04-01

    Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have impaired growth that leads to short stature in adulthood. The problem persists even with successful transplantation and steroid withdrawal protocols. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the pressing issues related to growth failure in children with CKD both before and after transplantation. Although great strides have been made in dialysis and transplantation, the incidence of abnormal adult height in children growing up with CKD remains as high as 45-60%. The lack of catch-up growth and resultant short stature is a critical issue for self-esteem and quality of life in many children with CKD. Aggressive daily dialysis, improved nutrition, treatment of metabolic bone disease, and the use of recombinant human growth hormone provide some hope for catch-up growth in select patients. The causes of growth failure in the setting of CKD are multifactorial. Attention to all the details by optimizing nutritional, bone and mineral metabolism, correcting metabolic acidosis and anemia, achieving excellent blood pressure control, reversing cardiovascular complications such as left ventricular hypertrophy, and minimizing the use of corticosteroids is the current standard of care. Aggressive daily dialysis can reverse many of the uremic derangements. For patients not yet on dialysis or for those after renal transplant, early institution of recombinant human growth hormone can promote growth. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of hormone resistance may offer novel targets or measurements of treatment effectiveness.

  19. The somatic reproductive tissues of C. elegans promote longevity through steroid hormone signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy M Yamawaki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, removing the germline precursor cells increases lifespan. In worms, and possibly also in flies, this lifespan extension requires the presence of somatic reproductive tissues. How the somatic gonad signals other tissues to increase lifespan is not known. The lifespan increase triggered by loss of the germ cells is known to require sterol hormone signaling, as reducing the activity of the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, or genes required for synthesis of the DAF-12 ligand dafachronic acid, prevents germline loss from extending lifespan. In addition to sterol signaling, the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 is required to extend lifespan in animals that lack germ cells. DAF-12/NHR is known to assist with the nuclear accumulation of DAF-16/FOXO in these animals, yet we find that loss of DAF-12/NHR has little or no effect on the expression of at least some DAF-16/FOXO target genes. In this study, we show that the DAF-12-sterol signaling pathway has a second function to activate a distinct set of genes and extend lifespan in response to the somatic reproductive tissues. When germline-deficient animals lacking somatic reproductive tissues are given dafachronic acid, their expression of DAF-12/NHR-dependent target genes is restored and their lifespan is increased. Together, our findings indicate that in C. elegans lacking germ cells, the somatic reproductive tissues promote longevity via steroid hormone signaling to DAF-12.

  20. The Somatic Reproductive Tissues of C. elegans Promote Longevity through Steroid Hormone Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Tracy M.; Berman, Jennifer R.; Suchanek-Kavipurapu, Monika; McCormick, Mark; Gaglia, Marta Maria; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, removing the germline precursor cells increases lifespan. In worms, and possibly also in flies, this lifespan extension requires the presence of somatic reproductive tissues. How the somatic gonad signals other tissues to increase lifespan is not known. The lifespan increase triggered by loss of the germ cells is known to require sterol hormone signaling, as reducing the activity of the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, or genes required for synthesis of the DAF-12 ligand dafachronic acid, prevents germline loss from extending lifespan. In addition to sterol signaling, the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 is required to extend lifespan in animals that lack germ cells. DAF-12/NHR is known to assist with the nuclear accumulation of DAF-16/FOXO in these animals, yet we find that loss of DAF-12/NHR has little or no effect on the expression of at least some DAF-16/FOXO target genes. In this study, we show that the DAF-12-sterol signaling pathway has a second function to activate a distinct set of genes and extend lifespan in response to the somatic reproductive tissues. When germline-deficient animals lacking somatic reproductive tissues are given dafachronic acid, their expression of DAF-12/NHR-dependent target genes is restored and their lifespan is increased. Together, our findings indicate that in C. elegans lacking germ cells, the somatic reproductive tissues promote longevity via steroid hormone signaling to DAF-12. PMID:20824162

  1. Role of biofilms in sorptive removal of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, Jeffrey H.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Barber, Larry B.

    2011-01-01

    Stream biofilms play an important role in geochemical processing of organic matter and nutrients, however, the significance of this matrix in sorbing trace organic contaminants is less understood. This study focused on the role of stream biofilms in sorbing steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from surface waters using biofilms colonized in situ on artificial substrata and subsequently transferred to the laboratory for controlled batch sorption experiments. Steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds readily sorb to stream biofilms as indicated by organic matter partition coefficients (Kom, L kg–1) for 17β-estradiol (102.5–2.8 L kg–1), 17α-ethynylestradiol (102.5–2.9 L kg–1), 4-nonylphenol (103.4–4.6 L kg–1), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (103.5–4.0 L kg–1), and 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate (103.9–4.3 L kg–1). Experiments using water quality differences to induce changes in the relative composition of periphyton and heterotrophic bacteria in the stream biofilm did not significantly affect the sorptive properties of the stream biofilm, providing additional evidence that stream biofilms will sorb trace organic compounds under of variety of environmental conditions. Because sorption of the target compounds to stream biofilms was linearly correlated with organic matter content, hydrophobic partition into organic matter appears to be the dominant mechanism. An analysis of 17β-estradiol and 4-nonylphenol hydrophobic partition into water, biofilm, sediment, and dissolved organic matter matrices at mass/volume ratios typical of smaller rivers showed that the relative importance of the stream biofilm as a sorptive matrix was comparable to bed sediments. Therefore, stream biofilms play a primary role in attenuating these compounds in surface waters. Because the stream biofilm represents the base of the stream ecosystem, accumulation of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds in the stream biofilm may be an exposure pathway for

  2. Effect of rainfall timing and tillage on the transport of steroid hormones in runoff from manure amended row crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sagor; Kranz, William L; Shapiro, Charles A; Snow, Daniel D; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Mamo, Mitiku; Tarkalson, David D; Zhang, Tian C; Shelton, David P; van Donk, Simon J; Mader, Terry L

    2017-02-15

    Runoff generated from livestock manure amended row crop fields is one of the major pathways of hormone transport to the aquatic environment. The study determined the effects of manure handling, tillage methods, and rainfall timing on the occurrence and transport of steroid hormones in runoff from the row crop field. Stockpiled and composted manure from hormone treated and untreated animals were applied to test plots and subjected to two rainfall simulation events 30days apart. During the two rainfall simulation events, detection of any steroid hormone or metabolites was identified in 8-86% of runoff samples from any tillage and manure treatment. The most commonly detected hormones were 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol, testosterone, and α-zearalenol at concentrations ranging up to 100-200ngL -1 . Considering the maximum detected concentrations in runoff, no more than 10% of the applied hormone can be transported through the dissolved phase of runoff. Results from the study indicate that hormones can persist in soils receiving livestock manure over an extended period of time and the dissolved phase of hormone in runoff is not the preferred pathway of transport from the manure applied fields irrespective of tillage treatments and timing of rainfall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A sensitive and rapid mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous measurement of eight steroid hormones and CALIPER pediatric reference intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulou, L; Yazdanpanah, M; Colantonio, D A; Chan, M K; Daly, C H; Adeli, K

    2013-05-01

    To develop an accurate assay and establish the normal reference intervals for serum cortisol, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, androstenedione, 21-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and progesterone. These steroids are commonly used as biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of endocrine diseases such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Appropriate age- and gender-stratified reference intervals are essential in accurate interpretation of steroid hormone levels. The samples analyzed in this study were collected from healthy, ethnically diverse children in the Greater Toronto Area as part of the CALIPER program. A total of 337 serum samples from children between the ages of 0 and 18years were analyzed. The concentrations were measured by using an LC-MS/MS method. The data were analyzed for outliers and age- and gender-specific partitions were established prior to establishing the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles for the reference intervals. Reference intervals for all hormones required significant age-dependent stratification while testosterone and progesterone required additional sex-dependent stratification. We report a sensitive, accurate and relatively fast LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous measurement of eight steroid hormones. Detailed reference intervals partitioned based on both age and gender were also established for all eight steroid hormones. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Steroidal hormones in agricultural runoff: Lessons from studies at multiple scales in Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, S. P.; Aga, D.; Dutta, S.; Vaicunas, R.

    2012-12-01

    Emerging contaminants such as steroidal hormones have raised considerable environmental concerns and in elevated concentrations have been shown to cause physiological and reproductive disorders in aquatic and wildlife species. Large or concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in agricultural landscapes can be an important source of steroidal hormones, especially, if animal waste or manure is applied to the land and runs off with surface waters. Delaware is a state with a large poultry industry where a significant portion of poultry litter is applied to agricultural lands as fertilizer. Over the past four years, we have investigated the potential threat posed by hormones in agricultural landscapes by determining the concentrations of estrogens at various scales - field plots (Dutta et al. 2010; Journal of Environmental Quality); watershed scale (Dutta et al., 2012; Water Air Soil Pollution) and statewide surveys of surface waters (Vaicunas et al., submitted; Journal of American Water Resources Association). This talk summarizes the key lessons that we have learnt from these studies. Special emphasis was placed on evaluating the pollution potential under typical agronomic conditions and under natural storm and runoff conditions. Estrogen analysis was performed using LC-MS/MS. The key questions that we addressed were: (a) What are the concentrations and forms (free versus conjugate) of estrogens in runoff? Do the concentrations exceed environmental thresholds? (b) How do the concentrations in runoff change with time after land-application of manure? (c) How do the estrogens concentrations vary across different landscape positions and what are the key runoff flow paths? Our results suggest that concentrations of estrogens in runoff were low and much below the levels that have been used for exposure or toxicological assays. Concentrations of conjugated forms of estrogens were higher than the free, more toxic, forms. However, since these forms are inter

  5. Effects of nuclear receptor transactivation on steroid hormone synthesis and gene expression in porcine Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Matthew A; Squires, E James

    2013-01-01

    Male pigs are routinely castrated at a young age to prevent the formation of androstenone, a 16-androstene testicular steroid that is a major component of boar taint. The practice of castration has been increasingly viewed as unfavorable, due to both economic considerations and animal welfare concerns. Other means of controlling boar taint, including reducing the synthesis of androstenone in the testes, would eliminate the need for castration. In this study, we determined the effects of transactivation of three nuclear receptors, the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and farnesoid X receptor (FXR), on gene expression and steroid hormone metabolism in primary porcine Leydig cells. Primary cells were isolated from mature boars, and transcript expression levels were assayed using real-time PCR. The transcripts of interest included porcine orthologs of common phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes, enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, and transcripts previously shown to be differentially expressed in boars with high androstenone and boar taint levels. Transactivation of CAR, PXR, or FXR increased the expression of several genes involved in steroidogenesis, including cytochrome B5A (CYB5A) and cytochrome B5 reductase 1 (CYB5R1), as well as hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 4 (HSD17B4) and retinol dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12). Treatment with (6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde-O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime (CITCO), a CAR agonist, or rifampicin (RIF), a PXR agonist, resulted in significantly (pnuclear receptors may lead to increased levels of 16-androstene steroids, likely by altering the activity of CYP17A1 through CYB5A and CYB5R1 to the andien-β synthase reaction and away from the 17α-hydroxylase and C17, 20 lyase reactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sex steroid hormones during the ovarian cycle of an all-female, parthenogenetic lizard and their correlation with pseudosexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M C; Whittier, J M; Crews, D

    1985-11-01

    Cnemidophorus uniparens is a unisexual lizard that reproduces by parthenogenesis. Individuals of this species display male-like and female-like copulatory behaviors during different phases of the ovarian cycle suggesting that these pseudocopulatory behaviors are hormonally activated. To learn more about both the endocrinology of parthenogenesis and the possible hormonal activation of male-like copulatory behavior in female individuals, we (1) characterized changes in plasma levels of the sex steroid hormones progesterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol during the ovarian cycle in both free-living and captive individuals, and (2) measured sex steroid hormones in plasma collected from captive individuals immediately after they expressed male-like or female-like copulatory behavior. In general, the pattern of secretion of ovarian hormones in C. uniparens appears to be similar to that of other oviparous vertebrates with similar reproductive cycles. Estradiol is elevated only during the preovulatory phase, whereas progesterone increases slightly during vitellogenesis and then increases dramatically following ovulation. Circulating levels of androgen are very low and are generally below the sensitivity of our radioimmunoassay at all stages of the ovarian cycle. The hormonal correlates of female-like copulatory behavior suggest that, as in other vertebrates, female receptivity is activated by a synergism of estradiol and progesterone. There is no evidence that the hormonal cycle has been altered to produce elevated levels of androgens during the phase of the cycle when male-like behavior is expressed. Rather it seems more likely that the central nervous system has evolved a novel response to a typical pattern of ovarian steroid hormone secretion. At present, the best hormonal correlate of male-like behavior is that changes in plasma levels of progesterone closely parallel changes in probability of expressing male-like behavior.

  7. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2. They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50 were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42. All children were tested using standard clonidine test and their serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (IGF-I. Additionally the growth and GH-IGF-I data of the two groups of children were compared with those for 32 short children (HtSDS 9 years. The peak GH response to clonidine provocation test did not differ before (n = 42 versus after 9 years (n = 32 of age. Conclusions: In this randomized study priming with sex steroids before GH testing did not significantly increase the yield of diagnosing short patients with normal GH secretion. In addition, GH response to provocation did not vary significantly between young (9 years short children.

  8. The corpus luteum of the dog: source and target of steroid hormones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, P C; Hoffmann, B

    2011-08-01

    Aim of this paper is to review our present understanding on the endocrine control of luteal function in the bitch and to add some new data generated in our laboratories in support of the hypothesis of a paracrine/autocrine role of corpus luteum (CL) derived steroid hormones. Luteal lifespan in non-pregnant dogs often exceeds that of pregnant dogs, where luteal regression terminates in a rapid luteolysis, immediately prior to parturition. In non-pregnant dogs, luteal regression occurs independently of a uterine luteolysin and in spite of increased gonadotropic support during the last third of dioestrus. The CL is the only source of progesterone (P(4)) maintaining pregnancy, and they have the capacity to synthesize oestrogens as substantiated by expression of the CYP19 (aromatase) gene observed in this study. Our data demonstrated that lutein and non-lutein cells of the canine CL express in a rather constant manner the progesterone receptor (PR) and the oestrogen receptor, classifying them as targets for an autocrine/paracrine activity of CL-derived steroids. Therefore, a functional role of P(4) within a positive loop feedback system, including StAR and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, has been postulated. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Modulation of HIV replication in monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) by steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Lee, Sherwin; Dayton, Andrew; Hewlett, Indira

    2018-01-01

    Significant sex specific differences in the progression of HIV/AIDS have been reported. Several studies have implicated steroid hormones in regulating host factor expression and modulating HIV transmission and replication. However, the exact mechanism exerted by steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone in the regulation of HIV-1 replication is still unclear. Results from the current study indicated a dose dependent down regulation of HIV-1 replication in monocyte derived macrophages pre-treated with high concentrations of estrogen or progesterone. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms associated with the down regulation of HIV-1 replication by estrogen and progesterone we used PCR arrays to analyze the expression profile of host genes involved in antiviral responses. Several chemokines, cytokines, transcription factors, interferon stimulated genes and genes involved in type-1 interferon signaling were down regulated in cells infected with HIV-1 pre-treated with high concentrations of estrogen or progesterone compared to untreated HIV-1 infected cells or HIV-1 infected cells treated with low concentrations of estrogen or progesterone. The down regulation of CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 chemokines and IL-1β, IL-6 cytokines in response to high concentrations of estrogen and progesterone pre-treatment in HIV-1 infected cells was confirmed at the protein level by quantitating chemokine and cytokine concentrations in the culture supernatant. These results demonstrate that a potent anti-inflammatory response is mediated by pre-treatment with high concentrations of estrogen and progesterone. Thus, our study suggests a strong correlation between the down-modulation of anti-viral and pro-inflammatory responses mediated by estrogen and progesterone pre-treatment and the down regulation of HIV-1 replication. These findings may be relevant to clinical observations of sex specific differences in patient populations and point to the need for further investigation.

  10. [Effect of female steroid hormones on expression of adhesion molecules by peripheral blood leukocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshov, V P; Vodianyk, M O; Hrekova, S P

    2002-01-01

    The specific adhesion of cells to other cells or to extracellular matrices is a basic component of cell migration and recognition, and it underlies a lot of biologic processes including embryogenesis, tissue repair, and both immune and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of female steroid hormones on expression of the adhesion molecules on the leukocytes. The whole blood from healthy people was incubated in a presence or an absence of progesterone (2 micrograms/ml) or 17 beta-estradiol (0.2 microgram/ml) for 4 h., and then with TNF for 18 h. The phenotype of the leukocytes was investigated by flow cytometry. Progesterone inhibited an expression of CD54 on monocytes and lymphocytes due to reducing density of these molecules on the cellular surface; 17 beta-estradiol inhibited an expression of CD54 on monocytes and CD69 molecules on monocytes and lymphocytes due to reducing density of these molecules on the cellular surface. Progesterone inhibited TNF-stimulated CD54 and CD11b expression on the granulocytes and CD69 expression on lymphocytes by reducing partly the density of these molecules on the surface of cells, and in such way it partly blocked the proinflammatory activity of this cytokine. Progesterone also reduced CD62L expression on the granulocytes by reducing an amount of a marker, positive to those cells but enhanced the effect of TNF. The data obtained evidence that female steroid hormones take part in the regulation of an expression of adhesion molecules by the leukocytes and are likely to be important in the circulation and activation of the leucocytes.

  11. Liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) of steroid hormone metabolites and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Trevor M.; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Jin, Yi; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Blair, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be used to measure steroid hormone metabolites in vitro and in vivo. We find that LC-Electrospray Ionization (ESI)-MS using a LCQ ion trap mass spectrometer in the negative ion mode can be used to monitor the product profile that results from 5α–dihydrotestosterone(DHT)-17β-glucuronide, DHT-17β-sulfate, and tibolone-17β-sulfate reduction catalyzed by human members of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C subfamily and assign kinetic constants to these reactions. We also developed a stable-isotope dilution LC-electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ECAPCI)-MS method for the quantitative analysis of estrone (E1) and its metabolites as pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) derivatives in human plasma in the attomole range. The limit of detection for E1-PFB was 740 attomole on column. Separations can be performed using normal-phase LC because ionization takes place in the gas phase rather than in solution. This permits efficient separation of the regioisomeric 2- and 4-methoxy-E1. The method was validated for the simultaneous analysis of plasma E2 and its metabolites: 2-methoxy-E2, 4-methoxy-E2, 16α-hydroxy-E2, estrone (E1), 2-methoxy-E1, 4-methoxy-EI, and 16α-hydroxy-E1 from 5 pg/mL to 2,000 pg/mL. Our LC-MS methods have sufficient sensitivity to detect steroid hormone levels in prostate and breast tumors and should aid their molecular diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20083198

  12. Rapid determination of natural steroidal hormones in saliva for the clinical diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jin-Aa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saliva samples are easily collectable and non-invasive, and the monitoring of natural steroidal hormones, such as estrone (E1, 17β-estradiol (E2, estriol (E3, progesterone (P, and testosterone (T, in saliva has attracted much attention due to its numerous potential clinical and health-related applications. Because E1, E2, E3, P and T are useful indicators in numerous clinical and health-related diagnoses, there is a need for simultaneous determination. Results A gas chromatography-mass spectrometric assay was developed for rapid simultaneous determination of E1, E2, E3, P and T in saliva for clinical diagnoses. Extraction was achieved with a liquid extraction using 3.0 mL of pentane. The extract was dried and silylated with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl trifluoroacetamide/NH4I (100:2 under a catalysis of 1.5% dithioerythritol for 10 min at 90°C. The accuracy of the analytes was in the range of 96% to 112% at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.10 μg/L (5.0 and 10.0 μg/L for E3, respectively, with relative standard deviations of less than 11%. The lowest quantification limits were from 0.002 to 0.6 μg/L for 1.0 mL of saliva. Conclusion Natural steroidal hormones were detected in the concentration ranges of nd to 0.2 μg/L in human saliva. The salivary testosterone values in the patients with prostatic carcinoma were significantly lower than in normal males. The method may useful in numerous clinical and health-related diagnoses.

  13. Sex-steroid and thyroid hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from contaminated and reference lakes in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain, D.A.; Guillette, L.J.; Pickford, D.B.; Percival, H.F.; Woodward, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-171?? (E2), testosterone (T), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) in juvenile alligators (60-140 cm total length) from two contaminated lakes and one reference lake in Florida. First, the data were analyzed by comparing hormone concentrations among males and females from the different lakes. Whereas there were no differences in plasma E2 concentrations among animals of the three lakes, male alligators from the contaminated lakes (Lake Apopka and Lake Okeechobee) had significantly lower plasma T concentrations compared 10 males from the reference take (Lake Woodruff). Concentrations of thyroid hormones also differed in animals of the three lakes, with T4 concentrations being elevated in Lake Okeechobee males compared to Lake Woodruff males. Second, the relationship between body size and hormone concentration was examined using regression analysis. Most notably for steroid hormones, no clear relationship was detected between E2 and total length in Apopka females (r2 0.09, p = 0.54) or between T and total length in Apopka males (r2 = 0.007, p = 0.75). Females from Apopka (r2 = 0.318, p = 0.09) and Okeechobee (r2 = 0.222, p = 0.09) exhibited weak correlations between T3 and total length. Males from Apopka (r2 = 0.015, p = 0.66) and Okeechobee (r2 = 0.128, p = 0.19) showed no correlation between T4 and total length. These results indicate: some of the previously reported abnormalities in steroid hormones of hatchling alligators persist, at least, through the juvenile years; steroid and thyroid hormones are related to body size in juvenile alligators from the reference lake, whereas alligators living in lakes Apopka and Okeechobee experience alterations in circulating thyroid and steroid

  14. Identification and Quantification of Several Mammalian Steroid Hormones in Plants by UPLC-MS/MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simerský, Radim; Novák, Ondřej; Morris, David; Pouzar, Vladimír; Strnad, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2009), s. 125-136 ISSN 0721-7595 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) * Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) * Immunoaffinity purification * Steroids * Plant extracts * Digitalis purpurea * Nicotiana tabacum * Inula helenium Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.438, year: 2009

  15. Protein Biomarkers for Breast Cancer Risk Are Specifically Correlated with Local Steroid Hormones in Nipple Aspirate Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidfar, Ali; Fatokun, Tolulope; Ivancic, David; Chatterton, Robert T; Khan, Seema A; Wang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The local endocrine environment of the breast may have stronger relations to breast cancer risk than systemic hormones. Nipple aspiration fluid (NAF) provides a window into this milieu. We hypothesized that the correlations between proteins and steroid hormones in NAF are stronger, and specific relationships may reveal links to breast cancer risk. NAF and blood samples were obtained simultaneously from 54 healthy women and from the contralateral unaffected breast of 60 breast cancer patients. The abundance of five proteins, superoxide dismutase (SOD1), C-reactive protein (CRP), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL40), cathepsin D (CatD), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in NAF was measured using ELISA. The NAF and serum concentrations of estradiol, estrone, progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrostrerone (DHEA) were measured using ELISA or RIA. The correlations between proteins and hormones revealed that NAF proteins correlated with each other: SOD1 with CRP (R = 0.276, P = 0.033) and CatD (R = 0.340, P = 0.0036), and bFGF with CRP (R = 0.343, P = 0.0021). NAF proteins displayed significant correlations with NAF steroids, but not with serum steroids: SOD1 with DHEA (R = 0.333, P = 0.019), YKL40 with testosterone (R = 0.389, P = 0.0012), and bFGF negatively correlated with testosterone (R = -0.339, P = 0.015). The regulation of YKL40 and bFGF by testosterone was confirmed in breast cancer cell lines. In summary, NAF proteins were more strongly related to local hormone levels than to systematic hormone levels. Some proteins were specifically correlated with different NAF steroids, suggesting that these steroids may contribute to breast cancer risk through different mechanisms.

  16. Dielectric screening of early differentiation patterns in mesenchymal stem cells induced by steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Amit; Shur, Irena; Daniel, Ramiz; Singh, Ragini Raj; Fishelson, Nick; Croitoru, Nathan; Benayahu, Dafna; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi

    2010-06-01

    In the framework of this study, target identification and localization of differentiation patterns by means of dielectric spectroscopy is presented. Here, a primary pre-osteoblastic bone marrow-derived MBA-15 cellular system was used to study the variations in the dielectric properties of mesenchymal stem cells while exposed to differentiation regulators. Using the fundamentals of mixed dielectric theories combined with finite numerical tools, the permittivity spectra of MBA-15 cell suspensions have been uniquely analyzed after being activated by steroid hormones to express osteogenic phenotypes. Following the spectral analysis, significant variations were revealed in the dielectric properties of the activated cells in comparison to the untreated populations. Based on the differentiation patterns of MBA-15, the electrical modifications were found to be highly correlated with the activation of specific cellular mechanisms which directly react to the hormonal inductions. In addition, by describing the dielectric dispersion in terms of transfer functions, it is shown that the spectral perturbations are well adapted to variations in the electrical characteristics of the cells. The reported findings vastly emphasize the tight correlation between the cellular and electrical state of the differentiated cells. It therefore emphasizes the vast abilities of impedance-based techniques as potential screening tools for stem cell analysis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups are ... in the body; some more steroid medicines; important dosing considerations; and our research on steroids. Learn more ...

  18. Effects of PBDE-47 on thyroid and steroid hormone status in juvenile turbot (Schophtalamus maximus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, G.; Tyrhaug, I.B.; Sormo, E.G. [Dept. of Biology, Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Andersen, O.K. [Rogaland Research Akvamiljo, Mekjarvik (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Many of the brominated flame retardant (BFR) chemicals, and particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), has become of increasing concern to scientists over the past decade. Many of the PBDEs are persistent and lipophilic and have been shown to bioaccumulate. The levels of PBDEs in biota seem to be increasing, and several trends, including in humans, indicate that this increase may be rapid1. In general, BFRs have a low acute toxicity, but there is concern about their long-term toxic effects. Exposure studies have revealed a range of subtle biochemical, cellular and physiological effects following low-dose exposure, and many BFRs have been reported to have endocrine disruptive properties. Thus, there is concern about their potential to affect organisms and populations. Thyroid hormones (THs) play an important role in organism's development, metabolism, growth and behavior. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) including BFRs may affect the thyroid system through several mechanisms. They may directly affect the thyroid gland function, the peripheral metabolism of THs and/or the binding of THs to plasma transport proteins. Effects of PHAHs on TH homeostasis have been documented in a number of species, including fish. Du to its persistence against degradation PBDE-47 is among the most abundant PBDE congener in biota, and there is a great concern about its ecotoxicological effects on organisms and populations. The aim of the present study was to examine if PBDE-47 may affect levels of circulating steroid and thyroid hormones in juvenile turbot (Scophtalamus maximus). The turbot is a benthic living flatfish that can be exposed to PHAHs via the sediment living organisms. Thus, plasma levels of T, E, and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were determined in juvenile turbot that had been continuously exposed to PBDE-47 via water for 3 weeks.

  19. Steroid hormones level in milk of non-pregnant and pregnant river buffalos at various gestational trimesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Shahbazi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk is a valuable sources of nutrition in the human diet however; there are reports on safety of milk steroid hormones contain. This study designed to determine the level of steroid hormones including estrone (E1, 17β-estradiol (E2, and estriol (E3 in raw and pasteurized milk from non-pregnant and pregnant buffalos.Methods: Steroids was extracted using liquid extraction, enzymatical deconjugation, and C18 solid-phase extraction from collected milk samples. Estrogens were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography equipped by fluorescence detector.Results: Free E1 (554.1±77.0 ng/L and deconjugated E1 (701.6±44.7 ng/L was found highest level estrogen followed by E2, while E3 level was under the detection limit (10 ng/L. The lowest E1: 554.1±77.0 and E2: 28.1±4.4ng/L estrogens level were determined in raw milk from non-pregnant and highest E1: 1014.7±123.8 and E2: 108.2±9.1 ng/L estrogens were found in milk of animals in the third trimester of gestation. The estrogens concentration in pasteurized milk did not show significant (P>0.05 differences with those in raw milk.Conclusion: As buffalo milk poses more fat than cow's milk, it may contain higher level of steroid hormones. Since consumption of buffalo's milk with higher amount of steroidal hormones could be considered one of the potential risk factors for carcinogenesis.

  20. Decidualization Mediated by Steroid Hormones Modulates the Innate Immunity in Response to Group B Streptococcal Infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Leyva, Violeta; Zaga-Clavellina, Veronica; Espejel-Nuñez, Aurora; Vega-Sanchez, Rodrigo; Flores-Pliego, Arturo; Reyes-Muñoz, Enrique; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Nava-Salazar, Sonia; Espino Y Sosa, Salvador; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    Decidual cells play a role in the modulation of the innate immune response to protect pregnancy against infection. Steroid hormones regulate the innate immune response in different tissues, and they are involved in several biological processes like decidualization. The aim of this study was to assess if steroid hormones modulate the innate immunity in endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and decidual stromal cells (DSCs) in response to group B streptococcus (GBS) infection in vitro. Primary cultures of ESC were differentiated into DSC using 36 nM estradiol + 300 nM progesterone, and both were infected with GBS overnight. Concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-10, and TGF-β), chemokines (IL-8 and GCP-2), and human β-defensins (HBD-1, HBD-2, and HBD-3) were measured in the culture supernatants. DSCs showed a significant increase in IL-6 (p infection, while these changes were not observed in infected ESCs. IL-8 and GCP-2 increased after GBS infection, regardless of decidualization. β-Defensins 1-3 decreased (p infection, and hormone decidualization preserved the secretion of these antimicrobial peptides. Decidualization mediated by steroid hormones balance the pro- and anti-inflammatory response at the maternal-fetal interface under infection conditions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Peculiarities of axonal transport of steroid hormones (hydrocortisone, testosterone) in spinal root fibres of adult and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolkis, V V; Tanin, S A

    1999-01-01

    The labelled steroid hormones [3H]hydrocortisone and [14C]testosterone, being injected into the gray matter of the rat spinal cord L5-L6 segments, were shown to be transported at a high velocity along the ventral (anterograde) and dorsal (retrograde) root fibres. The maximum velocity of axonal transport along the ventral and dorsal roots in adult rats was, on average, 3006 +/- 101 and 3028 +/- 48 mm/day for [3H]hydrocortisone and 4594 +/- 186 and 5185 +/- 485 mm/day for [14C]testosterone, respectively. In old rats, axonal transport of steroid hormones was markedly slower. Its maximum velocity along the ventral and dorsal roots averaged to 756 +/- 64 and 738 +/- 48 mm/day for [3H]hydrocortisone and 624 +/- 54 and 608 +/- 80 mm/day for [14C]testosterone, respectively. In old rats the amount of labelled hydrocortisone incorporated into the ventral root fibres was sharply reduced (by more than an order of the value) as compared to that in adult animals. At the same time, the intensity of the labelled testosterone incorporation into the ventral root fibres did not demonstrate any significant age-related difference. The injection of low doses of steroid hormones (from less than one microgram to a few micrograms) into the lumbar spinal cord resulted in a significant hyperpolarization several hours later first of the gastrocnemius and then of deltoideus muscle fibres. In old rats, such a hyperpolarization occurred much later. It is suggested that axonal transport of steroid hormones is one of the mechanisms responsible for the effects of hormones on the tissues, which undergoes considerable changes with ageing.

  2. The effect of steroid hormones on the mRNA expression of oct4 and sox2 in uterine tissue of the ovariectomized mice model of menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Davoudi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The uterus is a dynamic tissue responding to hormonal changes during reproductive cycles. As such, uterine stem cells have been studied in recent years. Transcription factors oct4 and sox2 are critical for effective maintenance of pluripotent cell identity. Objective: The present research evaluated the mRNA expression of oct4 and sox2 in the uterine tissues of ovariectomized mice treated with steroid hormones. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, adult virgin female mice were ovariectomized and treated with estradiol 17β (E2, progesterone (P4, and a combination of E2 and P4 (E2 & P4 for 5 days. Uterine tissues were removed, and immunofluorescent (IF staining and quantitative real-time PCR of oct4 and sox2 markers were performed. Results: IF showed oct4 and sox2 expression in the uterine endometrium and myometrium among all groups. The mRNA expression of oct4 (p=0.022 and sox2 (p=0.042 in the E2-treated group significantly were decreased compared to that in the control group. By contrast, the mRNA expression of oct4 and sox2 in the P4 (p=0.641 and 0.489 respectively and E2 & P4-treated groups (p=0.267 and 0.264 respectively did not show significant differences compared to the control group. Conclusion: The results indicate ovarian steroid hormones change the expression of oct4 and sox2 in the mice uterine tissues, which suggest the involvement of steroid hormonal regulation in uterine stem cells.

  3. Aging in peripheral nerves: regulation of myelin protein genes by steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcangi, R C; Magnaghi, V; Martini, L

    2000-02-01

    The process of aging deeply influences morphological and functional parameters of the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, recent observations performed in our laboratory on the rat sciatic nerves have indicated that the deterioration of myelin occurring in the peripheral nerves during aging may be explained by the fall of the messenger levels of the major peripheral myelin proteins (glycoprotein Po, myelin basic protein and peripheral myelin protein 22). At least in the case of the Po, the low levels of its messengers and of the protein itself found in aged animals are increased by the treatment with a physiological progesterone derivative like dihydroprogesterone. It has also been found that in normal adult male rats the levels of the messengers for Po in the sciatic nerve are increased by progesterone, dihydroprogesterone and tetrahydroprogesterone; surprisingly, the gene expression of peripheral myelin protein 22 is stimulated only by tetrahydroprogesterone. These observations have been confirmed in parallel studies performed on Schwann cell cultures. Since tetrahydroprogesterone does not bind to the progesterone receptor but is a ligand for the GABAA receptor, the hypothesis has been put forward that part of the steroidal effects reported might occur not through the classical progesterone receptor, but rather via an interaction with the GABAA receptor. In other experiments it has been found that the gene expression of Po may be decreased by orchidectomy and restored by treatment with the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Altogether, these observations suggest the future use of physiological and/ or synthetic steroid hormones as a possible therapeutic approach for some pathological situations occurring in peripheral nerves during aging and demyelinating diseases.

  4. Combining xenoestrogens at levels below individual no-observed-effect concentrations dramatically enhances steroid hormone action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Nissanka; Silva, Elisabete; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2002-09-01

    The low potency of many man-made estrogenic chemicals, so-called xenoestrogens, has been used to suggest that risks arising from exposure to individual chemicals are negligible. Another argument used to dismiss concerns of health effects is that endogenous steroidal estrogens are too potent for xenoestrogens to contribute significantly to estrogenic effects. Using a yeast reporter gene assay with the human estrogen receptoralpha, we tested these ideas experimentally by assessing the ability of a combination of 11 xenoestrogens to affect the actions of 17ss-estradiol. Significantly, each xenoestrogen was present at a level well below its no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC). To derive accurate descriptions of low effects, we recorded concentration-response relationships for each xenoestrogen and for 17ss-estradiol. We used these data to predict entire concentration-response curves of mixtures of xenoestrogens with 17ss-estradiol, assuming additive combination effects. Over a large range of concentrations, the experimentally observed responses decisively confirmed the model predictions. The combined additive effect of the 11 xenoestrogens led to a dramatic enhancement of the hormone's action, even when each single agent was present below its NOEC. Our results show that not even sub-NOEC levels of xenoestrogens can be considered to be without effect on potent steroidal estrogens when they act in concert with a large number of similarly acting chemicals. It remains to be seen to what degree these effects can be neutralized by environmental chemicals with antiestrogenic activity. Nevertheless, potential human and wildlife responses induced by additive combination effects of xenoestrogens deserve serious consideration.

  5. Building a better hormone therapy? How understanding the rapid effects of sex steroid hormones could lead to new therapeutics for age-related memory decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M

    2012-02-01

    A wealth of data collected in recent decades has demonstrated that ovarian sex-steroid hormones, particularly 17β-estradiol (E2), are important trophic factors that regulate the function of cognitive regions of the brain such as the hippocampus. The loss of hormone cycling at menopause is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in women, and the onset of memory decline in animal models. However, hormone therapy is not currently recommended to prevent or treat cognitive decline, in part because of its detrimental side effects. In this article, it is proposed that investigations of the rapid effects of E2 on hippocampal function be used to further the design of new drugs that mimic the beneficial effects of E2 on memory without the side effects of current therapies. A conceptual model is presented for elucidating the molecular and biochemical mechanisms through which sex-steroid hormones modulate memory, and a specific hypothesis is proposed to account for the rapid memory-enhancing effects of E2. Empirical support for this hypothesis is discussed as a means of stimulating the consideration of new directions for the development of hormone-based therapies to preserve memory function in menopausal women.

  6. The EGPs: the eclosion hormone and cyclic GMP-regulated phosphoproteins. II. Regulation of appearance by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone in Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D B; Truman, J W

    1988-04-01

    Two proteins (the EGPs) in the CNS of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta are phosphorylated by the action of the neuropeptide eclosion hormone (EH), which triggers ecdysis behavior (Morton and Truman, 1986, 1988). The onset of sensitivity to EH requires prior exposure to the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE). A series of steroid removal and replacement experiments indicates that the EGPs are also regulated by 20-HE with a time course that is similar to that seen for the 20-HE regulation of behavioral sensitivity to EH. This suggests that the steroid regulation of EH sensitivity is due to the regulation of the EGPs. The appearance of the EGPs requires not only the presence of 20-HE, but also its subsequent removal. The appearance of the EGPs can be blocked in vivo and in vitro by maintaining artificially elevated levels of 20-HE, but only up to a particular time in development. The ending of this steroid-sensitive period occurs 4 hr before the normal appearance of the EGPs, consistent with the hypothesis that the EGPs are synthesized de novo in response to the removal of 20-HE.

  7. Bisphenol A Exposure, Ovarian Follicle Numbers, and Female Sex Steroid Hormone Levels: Results From a CLARITY-BPA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreya; Brehm, Emily; Gao, Liying; Rattan, Saniya; Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Flaws, Jodi A

    2017-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical found in thermal receipts and food and beverage containers. Previous studies have shown that BPA can affect the numbers and health of ovarian follicles and the production of sex steroid hormones, but they often did not include a wide range of doses of BPA, used a small sample size, focused on relatively short-term exposures to BPA, and/or did not examine the consequences of chronic BPA exposure on the ovaries or steroid levels. Thus, this study was designed to examine the effects of a wide range of doses of BPA on ovarian morphology and sex steroid hormone production. Specifically, this study tested the hypothesis that prenatal and continuous BPA exposure reduces ovarian follicle numbers and sex steroid hormone levels. To test this hypothesis, rats were dosed with vehicle, ethinyl estradiol (0.05 and 0.5 μg/kg body weight/d), or BPA (2.5, 25, 250, 2500, and 25,000 μg/kg body weight/d) from gestation day 6 until 1 year as part of the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA). Ovaries and sera were collected on postnatal days 1, 21, and 90, and at 6 months and 1 year. The ovaries were subjected to histological evaluation of follicle numbers and the sera were subjected to measurements of estradiol and progesterone. Collectively, these data indicate that BPA exposure at some doses and time points affects ovarian follicle numbers and sex steroid levels, but these effects are different than those observed with ethinyl estradiol exposure and some previous studies on BPA. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  8. Steroid hormones and aggression in female Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Dustin R; Wikelski, Martin

    2005-09-01

    We studied steroid hormone patterns and aggression during breeding in female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Females display vigorously towards courting males after copulating (female-male aggression), as well as fight for and defend nest sites against other females (female-female aggression). To understand the neuroendocrine basis of this aggressive behavior, we examined changes in testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), corticosterone (CORT), and progesterone (P4) during the mating and nesting periods, and then measured levels in nesting females captured during aggressive interactions. Testosterone reached maximal levels during the mating stage when female-male aggression was most common, and increased slightly, but significantly, during the nesting stage when female-female aggression was most common. However, fighting females had significantly lower T, but higher E2 and P4, than non-fighting females. It remains unclear whether these changes in hormone levels during aggressive interactions are a cause or a consequence of a change in behavior. Our results support the "challenge hypothesis", but suggest that E2 and/or P4 may increase in response to aggressive challenges in females just as T does in males. Females may be rapidly aromatizing T to elevate circulating levels of E2 during aggressive interactions. This hypothesis could explain why non-fighting females had slightly elevated baseline T, but extremely low E2, during stages when aggressive interactions were most common. Although P4 increased rapidly during aggressive encounters, it is unclear whether it acts directly to affect behavior, or indirectly via conversion to E2. The rapid production and conversion of E2 and P4 may be an important mechanism underlying female aggression in vertebrates.

  9. Expression of Sex Steroid Hormone Receptors in Vagal Motor Neurons Innervating the Trachea and Esophagus in Mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Ichi Matsuda, Ken; Bando, Hideki; Takanami, Keiko; Nishio, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Hisa, Yasuo; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The medullary vagal motor nuclei, the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), innervate the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. We conducted immunohistochemical analysis of expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα), in relation to innervation of the trachea and esophagus via vagal motor nuclei in mice. AR and ERα were expressed in the rostral NA and in part of the DMV. Tracing experiments using cholera toxin B subunit demonstrated that neurons of vagal motor nuclei that innervate the trachea and esophagus express AR and ERα. There was no difference in expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between trachea- and esophagus-innervating neurons. These results suggest that sex steroid hormones may act on vagal motor nuclei via their receptors, thereby regulating functions of the trachea and esophagus

  10. The impact of common genetic variations in genes of the sex hormone metabolic pathways on steroid hormone levels and prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong; Oh, William K; Jacobus, Susanna; Regan, Meredith; Pomerantz, Mark; Freedman, Matthew L; Lee, Gwo-Shu Mary; Kantoff, Philip W

    2011-12-01

    Our previous work suggested that there was no significant association between plasma steroid hormone levels and prostate cancer tumor grade at diagnosis. In this study, we systematically tested the hypothesis that inherited variations in the androgen and estrogen metabolic pathways may be associated with plasma levels of steroid hormones, or prostate cancer aggressiveness at diagnosis. Plasma hormone levels including total testosterone, total estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured in a cohort of 508 patients identified with localized prostate cancer. D'Amico risk classification at diagnosis was also determined. A total of 143 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 30 genes that are involved in androgen and estrogen metabolism were selected for analysis. The global association of genotypes with plasma hormone levels and prostate cancer aggressiveness (D'Amico risk classification) was statistically analyzed. Q values were estimated to account for multiple testing. We observed significant associations between plasma testosterone level and SNPs in HSD17B2 (rs1424151), HSD17B3 (rs9409407), and HSD17B1 (rs12602084), with P values of 0.002, 0.006, and 0.006, respectively. We also observed borderline significant associations between prostate aggressiveness at diagnosis and SNPs in AKR1C1 (rs11252845; P = 0.005), UGT2B15 (rs2045100; P = 0.007), and HSD17B12 (rs7932905; P = 0.008). No individual SNP was associated with both clinical variables. Genetic variants of genes in hormone metabolic pathways may influence plasma androgen levels or prostate cancer aggressiveness. However, it seems that the inherited variations affecting plasma hormone levels differ from those affecting disease aggressiveness. 2011 AACR

  11. Endocrine control of canine mammary neoplasms: serum reproductive hormone levels and tissue expression of steroid hormone, prolactin and growth hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerri, Michèle; Guscetti, Franco; Hartnack, Sonja; Boos, Alois; Oei, Christine; Balogh, Orsolya; Nowaczyk, Renata M; Michel, Erika; Reichler, Iris M; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2015-09-15

    Neoplasms of the mammary gland are among the most common diseases in female domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). It is assumed that reproductive hormones influence tumorigenesis in this species, although the precise role of the endocrine milieu and reproductive state is subject to continuing discussion. In line with this, a recent systematic review of available data on the development of mammary neoplasms revealed weak evidence for risk reduction after neutering and an effect of age at neutering. Investigation of several hormone receptors has revealed decreased expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα, ESR1), progesterone (P4) receptor (PGR), prolactin (PRL) receptor (PRLR) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) associated with neoplastic differentiation of mammary tissues. In other studies, increased levels of estrogens, progesterone and prolactin were found in serum and/or tissue homogenates of dogs with malignant neoplasms. However, the association between these entities within one animal population was never previously examined. Therefore, this study investigated the association between circulating serum concentrations of estradiol-17β, progesterone and prolactin, and gene expression of ERα (ESR1), ERβ (ESR2), PGR, PRLR, PRL and GHR, with respect to reproductive state (spayed vs. intact) and cycle stage (anestrus vs. diestrus). Additionally, the expression of E-cadherin (CDH-1) was evaluated as a possible indicator of metastatic potential. For all receptors, the lowest gene expression was found in malignant tumors compared to normal tissues of affected dogs. Steroid levels were not influenced by their corresponding receptor expression in mammary neoplasms, but increased PRL levels were negatively associated with low PRLR gene expression in malignant tumors. The expression of CDH-1 was influenced by tumor malignancy and cycle stage, i.e., the highest gene expression was found in benign mammary tumors in diestrous dogs compared to normal and malignant mammary

  12. The fate of pharmaceuticals, steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, UV-filters and pesticides during MBR treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijekoon, Kaushalya C; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Nghiem, Long D

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between molecular properties and the fate of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in the aqueous and solid phases during wastewater treatment by MBR. A set of 29 TrOCs was selected to represent pharmaceuticals, steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, UV-filters and pesticides that occur ubiquitously in municipal wastewater. Both adsorption and biodegradation/transformation were found responsible for the removal of TrOCs by MBR treatment. A connection between biodegradation and molecular structure could be observed while adsorption was the dominant removal mechanism for the hydrophobic (logD>3.2) compounds. Highly hydrophobic (logD>3.2) but readily biodegradable compounds did not accumulate in sludge. In contrast, recalcitrant compounds with a moderate hydrophobicity, such as carbamazepine, accumulated significantly in the solid phase. The results provide a framework to predict the removal and fate of TrOCs by MBR treatment. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relation of steroid hormones to glucose tolerance and plasma insulin levels in men. Importance of visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernof, A; Després, J P; Dupont, A; Bélanger, A; Nadeau, A; Prud'homme, D; Moorjani, S; Lupien, P J; Labrie, F

    1995-03-01

    Low plasma testosterone levels are associated with hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance in men. However, it is unclear whether these abnormalities are related to the concomitant alteration in regional adipose tissue (AT) accumulation associated with reduced androgen levels. We measured plasma steroid levels in a sample of 79 men, ranging from lean to obese (aged 29-42 years), for whom an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), anthropometric and computed tomography (CT) measurements of body fatness, and AT distribution were performed. Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and the following steroids were measured after extraction from plasma and chromatography: dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, androst-5-ene-3 beta,17 beta-diol, testosterone, estrone, and estradiol (E2). Several significant negative correlations were found between adrenal C19 steroid precursors, testosterone, SHBG, and fasting insulin levels, as well as between plasma glucose and insulin concentrations measured during the OGTT (-0.25 or = P > or = 0.001). The best steroid correlate of plasma glucose and insulin homeostasis indexes was the E2: testosterone ratio (0.34 or = P > or = 0.001). However, after correction of steroid levels for either fat mass, body mass index (BMI), or visceral AT area, as measured by CT, no significant residual associations were noted between testosterone, adrenal C19 steroid, SHBG, and estrogen levels and indexes of plasma glucose-insulin homeostasis, although the positive association between the E2: testosterone ratio and glucose area remained significant after adjustment for total body fat mass and BMI. Furthermore, 15 pairs of obese subjects, matched for visceral AT area, showing either low or high levels of the steroids studied, did not differ in fasting insulin and postglucose plasma insulin levels or in glucose tolerance. These results suggest that the previously reported relationships between androgen levels and indexes of plasma glucose-insulin homeostasis

  14. The relationship between plasma steroid hormone concentrations and the reproductive cycle in the Northern Pacific rattlesnake, Crotalus oreganus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Husak, Jerry F; Eikenaar, Cas; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2010-05-01

    We describe the reproductive cycle of Northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus) by quantifying steroid hormone concentrations and observing reproductive behaviors in free-ranging individuals. Additionally, we examined reproductive tissues from museum specimens. Plasma steroid hormone concentrations were quantified for both male and female snakes throughout the active season (March-October). We measured testosterone (T), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and corticosterone (B) concentrations in both sexes and 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in females only. We observed reproductive behaviors (e.g., consortship, courtship, and copulation) in the field and measured testis and follicle size in male and female snakes from museum collections to relate steroid hormone concentrations to the timing of reproductive events. Our study revealed that C. oreganus in central California exhibits a bimodal pattern of breeding, with most mating behavior occurring in the spring and some incidences of mating behavior observed in late summer/fall. Each breeding period corresponded with elevated androgen (T or DHT) levels in males. Testes were regressed in the spring when the majority of reproductive behavior was observed in this population, and they reached peak volume in August and September during spermatogenesis. Although we did not detect seasonal variation in female hormone concentrations, some females had high E2 in the spring and fall, coincident with mating and with increased follicle size (indicating vitellogenesis) in museum specimens. Females with high E2 concentrations also had high T and DHT concentrations. Corticosterone concentrations in males and females were not related either to time of year or to concentrations of any other hormones quantified. Progesterone concentrations in females also did not vary seasonally, but this likely reflected sampling bias as females tended to be underground, and thus unobtainable, in summer months when P would be

  15. Steroidal compounds as carriers of juvenile hormone bioanalogues applicable in environmentally safe insect pest control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurček, Ondřej; Wimmer, Zdeněk; Bennettová, Blanka; Kuldová, Jelena; Hrdý, Ivan; Drašar, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, Suppl. 1 (2007), A131-A132 ISSN 1738-2297. [International Congress of Insect Biotechnology and Industry. 19.08.2007-24.08.2007, Daegu] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : juvenile hormone bioanalogues * juvenoid * juvenogen Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  16. Profiles of Steroid Hormones in Canine X-Linked Muscular Dystrophy via Stable Isotope Dilution LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Júnior, Helio A; Simas, Rosineide C; Brolio, Marina P; Ferreira, Christina R; Perecin, Felipe; Nogueira, Guilherme de P; Miglino, Maria A; Martins, Daniele S; Eberlin, Marcos N; Ambrósio, Carlos E

    2015-01-01

    Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) provides the best animal model for characterizing the disease progress of the human disorder, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The purpose of this study was to determine steroid hormone concentration profiles in healthy golden retriever dogs (control group - CtGR) versus GRMD-gene carrier (CaGR) and affected female dogs (AfCR). Therefore, a sensitive and specific analytical method was developed and validated to determine the estradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone levels in the canine serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To more accurately understand the dynamic nature of the serum steroid profile, the fluctuating levels of these four steroid hormones over the estrous cycle were compared across the three experimental groups using a multivariate statistical analysis. The concentration profiles of estradiol, cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone revealed a characteristic pattern for each studied group at each specific estrous phase. Additionally, several important changes in the serum concentrations of cortisol and estradiol in the CaGR and AfCR groups seem to be correlated with the status and progression of the muscular dystrophy. A comprehensive and quantitative monitoring of steroid profiles throughout the estrous cycle of normal and GRMD dogs were achieved. Significant differences in these profiles were observed between GRMD and healthy animals, most notably for estradiol. These findings contribute to a better understanding of both dog reproduction and the muscular dystrophy pathology. Our data open new venues for hormonal behavior studies in dystrophinopathies and that may affect the quality of life of DMD patients.

  17. Removal of reproductive suppression reveals latent sex differences in brain steroid hormone receptors in naked mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Mo, Kaiguo; Peragine, Deane E; Monks, D Ashley; Holmes, Melissa M

    2015-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial mammals, living in large colonies with a single breeding female and 1-3 breeding males. Breeders are socially dominant, and only the breeders exhibit traditional sex differences in circulating gonadal steroid hormones and reproductive behaviors. Non-reproductive subordinates also fail to show sex differences in overall body size, external genital morphology, and non-reproductive behaviors. However, subordinates can transition to breeding status if removed from their colony and housed with an opposite-sex conspecific, suggesting the presence of latent sex differences. Here, we assessed the expression of steroid hormone receptor and aromatase messenger RNA (mRNA) in the brains of males and females as they transitioned in social and reproductive status. We compared in-colony subordinates to opposite-sex subordinate pairs that were removed from their colony for either 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, or until they became breeders (i.e., produced a litter). Diencephalic tissue was collected and mRNA of androgen receptor (Ar), estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1), progesterone receptor (Pgr), and aromatase (Cyp19a1) was measured using qPCR. Testosterone, 17β-estradiol, and progesterone from serum were also measured. As early as 1 week post-removal, males exhibited increased diencephalic Ar mRNA and circulating testosterone, whereas females had increased Cyp19a1 mRNA in the diencephalon. At 1 month post-removal, females exhibited increased 17β-estradiol and progesterone. The largest changes in steroid hormone receptors were observed in breeders. Breeding females had a threefold increase in Cyp19a1 and fivefold increases in Esr1 and Pgr, whereas breeding males had reduced Pgr and increased Ar. These data demonstrate that sex differences in circulating gonadal steroids and hypothalamic gene expression emerge weeks to months after subordinate animals are removed from reproductive suppression in their home colony.

  18. Profiles of Steroid Hormones in Canine X-Linked Muscular Dystrophy via Stable Isotope Dilution LC-MS/MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio A Martins-Júnior

    Full Text Available Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD provides the best animal model for characterizing the disease progress of the human disorder, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. The purpose of this study was to determine steroid hormone concentration profiles in healthy golden retriever dogs (control group - CtGR versus GRMD-gene carrier (CaGR and affected female dogs (AfCR. Therefore, a sensitive and specific analytical method was developed and validated to determine the estradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone levels in the canine serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. To more accurately understand the dynamic nature of the serum steroid profile, the fluctuating levels of these four steroid hormones over the estrous cycle were compared across the three experimental groups using a multivariate statistical analysis. The concentration profiles of estradiol, cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone revealed a characteristic pattern for each studied group at each specific estrous phase. Additionally, several important changes in the serum concentrations of cortisol and estradiol in the CaGR and AfCR groups seem to be correlated with the status and progression of the muscular dystrophy. A comprehensive and quantitative monitoring of steroid profiles throughout the estrous cycle of normal and GRMD dogs were achieved. Significant differences in these profiles were observed between GRMD and healthy animals, most notably for estradiol. These findings contribute to a better understanding of both dog reproduction and the muscular dystrophy pathology. Our data open new venues for hormonal behavior studies in dystrophinopathies and that may affect the quality of life of DMD patients.

  19. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  20. An isotope-dilution standard GC/MS/MS method for steroid hormones in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Lindley, Chris E.; Losche, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    An isotope-dilution quantification method was developed for 20 natural and synthetic steroid hormones and additional compounds in filtered and unfiltered water. Deuterium- or carbon-13-labeled isotope-dilution standards (IDSs) are added to the water sample, which is passed through an octadecylsilyl solid-phase extraction (SPE) disk. Following extract cleanup using Florisil SPE, method compounds are converted to trimethylsilyl derivatives and analyzed by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Validation matrices included reagent water, wastewater-affected surface water, and primary (no biological treatment) and secondary wastewater effluent. Overall method recovery for all analytes in these matrices averaged 100%; with overall relative standard deviation of 28%. Mean recoveries of the 20 individual analytes for spiked reagent-water samples prepared along with field samples analyzed in 2009–2010 ranged from 84–104%, with relative standard deviations of 6–36%. Detection levels estimated using ASTM International’s D6091–07 procedure range from 0.4 to 4 ng/L for 17 analytes. Higher censoring levels of 100 ng/L for bisphenol A and 200 ng/L for cholesterol and 3-beta-coprostanol are used to prevent bias and false positives associated with the presence of these analytes in blanks. Absolute method recoveries of the IDSs provide sample-specific performance information and guide data reporting. Careful selection of labeled compounds for use as IDSs is important because both inexact IDS-analyte matches and deuterium label loss affect an IDS’s ability to emulate analyte performance. Six IDS compounds initially tested and applied in this method exhibited deuterium loss and are not used in the final method.

  1. Simultaneous determination of endogenous steroid hormones in human and animal plasma and serum by liquid or gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalik, Jonas; Björklund, Erland; Hansen, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Analytical methodologies based on liquid or gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of two or more endogenous steroid hormones in human and animal plasma and serum has received increased attention the last few years. Especially in the clinical setting steroid profiling is of major importance in disease diagnostics. This paper discusses recent findings in such multi-steroid hormone procedures published from 2001 to 2012. The aim was to elucidate possible relationships between chosen analytical technique and the obtained analyte sensitivity for endogenous steroid hormones. By evaluating the success, at which the currently applied techniques have been utilized, more general knowledge on the field is provided. Furthermore the evaluation provides directions in which future studies may be interesting to conduct. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Two simple cleanup methods combined with LC-MS/MS for quantification of steroid hormones in in vivo and in vitro assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisser, Johan Juhl; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Poulsen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    Measuring both progestagens, androgens, corticosteroids as well as estrogens with a single method makes it possible to investigate the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the main pathways in the mammalian steroidogenesis. This paper presents two simple methods for the determination...... of the major steroid hormones in biological matrixes using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(2)). A novel method was developed for the determination of 14 steroids in the H295R in vitro assay without the need for solid phase extraction (SPE) purification prior to LC-MS(2) analysis....... The in vitro assay was validated by exposing H295R cells to prochloraz for inhibiting steroid hormone secretion and by exposing cells to forskolin for inducing steroid hormone secretion. The developed method fulfills the recommendations for the H295R assay suggested by the OECD. Furthermore, a simple off...

  3. The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in comorbid depression: possible linkage with steroid hormones, cytokines, and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro eNumakawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence demonstrates a connection between growth factor function (including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, glucocorticoid levels (one of the steroid hormones, and the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. Because both BDNF and glucocorticoids regulate synaptic function in the central nervous system, their functional interaction is of major concern. Interestingly, alterations in levels of estrogen, another steroid hormone, may play a role in depressive-like behavior in postpartum females with fluctuations of BDNF-related molecules in the brain. BDNF and cytokines, which are protein regulators of inflammation, stimulate multiple intracellular signaling cascades involved in neuropsychiatric illness. Pro-inflammatory cytokines may increase vulnerability to depressive symptoms, such as the increased risk observed in patients with cancer and/or autoimmune diseases. In this review, we discuss the possible relationship between inflammation and depression, in addition to the crosstalk among cytokines, BDNF and steroids. Further, since nutritional status has been shown to affect critical pathways involved in depression through both BDNF function and the monoamine system, we also review current evidence surrounding diet and supplementation (e.g., flavonoids on BDNF-mediated brain functions.

  4. Molecular characterization of a genetic variant of the steroid hormone-binding globulin gene in heterozygous subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, D.O.; Catterall, J.F. [Population Council, New York, NY (United States); Carino, C. [Instituto National de la Nutricion, Mexico City, MX (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Steroid hormone-binding globulin in human serum displays different isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns among individuals, suggesting genetic variation in the gene for this extracellular steroid carrier protein. Analysis of allele frequencies and family studies suggested the existence of two codominant alleles of the gene. Subsequent determination of the molecular basis of a variant of the gene was carried out using DNA from homozygous individuals from a single Belgian family. It was of interest to characterize other variant individuals to determine whether all variants identified by IEF phenotyping were caused by the same mutation or whether other mutations occurred in the gene in different populations. Previous studies identified Mexican subjects who were heterozygous for the variant IEF phenotype. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to localize the mutation in these subjects and to purify the variant allele for DNA sequence analysis. The results show that the mutation in this population is identical to that identified in the Belgian family, and no other mutations were detected in the gene. These data represent the first analysis of steroid hormone-binding globulin gene variation in heterozygous subjects and further support the conclusion of biallelism of the gene worldwide. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Steroid hormone mediation of limbic brain plasticity and aggression in free-living tree lizards, Urosaurus ornatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabelik, David; Weiss, Stacey L; Moore, Michael C

    2006-05-01

    The neural mechanisms by which steroid hormones regulate aggression are unclear. Although testosterone and its metabolites are involved in both the regulation of aggression and the maintenance of neural morphology, it is unknown whether these changes are functionally related. We addressed the hypothesis that parallel changes in steroid levels and brain volumes are involved in the regulation of adult aggression. We examined the relationships between seasonal hormone changes, aggressive behavior, and the volumes of limbic brain regions in free-living male and female tree lizards (Urosaurus ornatus). The brain nuclei that we examined included the lateral septum (LS), preoptic area (POA), amygdala (AMY), and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). We showed that the volumes of the POA and AMY in males and the POA in females vary with season. However, reproductive state (and thus hormonal state) was incompletely predictive of these seasonal changes in males and completely unrelated to changes in females. We also detected male-biased dimorphisms in volume of the POA, AMY, and a dorsolateral subnucleus of the VMH but did not detect a dimorphism between alternate male morphological phenotypes. Finally, we showed that circulating testosterone levels were higher in males exhibiting higher frequency and intensity of aggressive display to a conspecific, though brain nucleus volumes were unrelated to behavior. Our findings fail to support our hypothesis and suggest instead that plasma testosterone level covaries with aggression level and in a limited capacity with brain nucleus volumes but that these are largely unrelated relationships.

  6. Glue protein production can be triggered by steroid hormone signaling independent of the developmental program in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaieda, Yuya; Masuda, Ryota; Nishida, Ritsuo; Shimell, MaryJane; O'Connor, Michael B; Ono, Hajime

    2017-10-01

    Steroid hormones regulate life stage transitions, allowing animals to appropriately follow a developmental timeline. During insect development, the steroid hormone ecdysone is synthesized and released in a regulated manner by the prothoracic gland (PG) and then hydroxylated to the active molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), in peripheral tissues. We manipulated ecdysteroid titers, through temporally controlled over-expression of the ecdysteroid-inactivating enzyme, CYP18A1, in the PG using the GeneSwitch-GAL4 system in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We monitored expression of a 20E-inducible glue protein gene, Salivary gland secretion 3 (Sgs3), using a Sgs3:GFP fusion transgene. In wild type larvae, Sgs3-GFP expression is activated at the midpoint of the third larval instar stage in response to the rising endogenous level of 20E. By first knocking down endogenous 20E levels during larval development and then feeding 20E to these larvae at various stages, we found that Sgs3-GFP expression could be triggered at an inappropriate developmental stage after a certain time lag. This stage-precocious activation of Sgs3 required expression of the Broad-complex, similar to normal Sgs3 developmental regulation, and a small level of nutritional input. We suggest that these studies provide evidence for a tissue-autonomic regulatory system for a metamorphic event independent from the primary 20E driven developmental progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K S; Balzer, Ben W R; Kelly, Patrick J; Paxton, Karen; Hawke, Catherine I; Handelsman, David J; Steinbeck, Katharine S

    2015-01-01

    The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development. A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female) was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and LH by immunoassay. A high proportion (92%) of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage. We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth.

  8. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmeet K S Singh

    Full Text Available The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T, estradiol (E2 and luteinizing hormone (LH in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development.A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and LH by immunoassay.A high proportion (92% of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage.We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth.

  9. Determination of selected steroid hormones in some surface water around animal farms in Cape Town using HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Olatunde S; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Opeolu, Beatrice O; Ximba, Bhekumusa J; Chitongo, Rumbidzai

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a method for the simultaneous determination of two steroid hormones, 17β-estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3), and a hormone mimicking polycarbonate, bisphenol-A (BPA), was developed and validated. This was thereafter used for the determination of the levels of the hormones in surface water collected around some livestock farms. The sensitivity of the method allowed the LODs and LOQs of the hormones and mimic hormone in the range 1.14-2.510 and 3.42-7.53 μg/L, respectively. The results revealed wide variability in the concentrations of E2 and E3, while BPA was not detected at any of the sampling stations. The concentration of E3 ranged between <1.14 and 45.5 μg/L (N = 120) in station 2 water. The highest concentration of E2 (15.7 μg/L, N = 80) was observed in water from station 1. The varied concentrations may be connected with the nature and sources of release, inconsistencies in analyte distribution due to dynamics of water flow pattern and the physical/chemical properties of the receiving water bodies.

  10. Relationships of sex steroid hormone levels in benign and cancerous breast tissue and blood: A critical appraisal of current science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanczyk, Frank Z; Mathews, Brett W; Sherman, Mark E

    2015-07-01

    A systematic review of the literature on sex steroid measurement in breast tissue identified only 19 articles meeting the following criteria: menopausal status given; steroids measured in tissue homogenates by conventional RIA with a purification step or by mass spectrometry; and values reported per g tissue or per g protein. Twelve articles were analyzed in detail for: ratios of sex steroid hormone levels in cancerous or benign tissues to blood levels, stratified by menopausal status; ratios between the different hormone levels within tissues or within blood; and difference in these ratios between tissue and blood compartments. Estrogen and androgen concentrations varied greatly in benign and cancerous tissues and in blood between individuals. Postmenopausal, but not premenopausal, estradiol concentrations were significantly higher in cancerous compared to benign breast tissue. The estradiol/estrone ratio was lowest in premenopausal benign tissue, and substantially higher in premenopausal cancerous tissue and postmenopausal benign and cancerous tissues. Estradiol and estrone levels were considerably higher in tissue than in plasma in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Androgen levels were generally higher in the benign than the cancerous tissue, and tissue androgen levels were higher than in plasma, suggesting in situ aromatization of androgens to estrogens in breast cancer tissue. Limited available data on levels of hydroxylated estrogens in breast tissue compared to corresponding levels in plasma or urine were reviewed, but due to the paucity of studies no conclusions can presently be drawn regarding the relationship of the 2-hydroxyestrone:16α-hydroxyestrone ratio to breast cancer risk and genotoxic effects of 4-hydroxylated estrogens. Finally, data on hormone levels in breast adipose tissue were analyzed; high levels of androstenedione and testosterone and significant estrone and estradiol levels in breast adipocytes from postmenopausal breast

  11. Development of a solid phase extraction method for the simultaneous determination of steroid hormones in H295R cell line using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalik, Jonas; Björklund, Erland; Hansen, Martin

    2013-09-15

    The H295R in vitro cell line produces the majority of the steroidogenesis, for which reason it is commonly used as a screening tool for endocrine disrupting chemicals. Simultaneous determination of the precursor cholesterol and key steroid hormones could give a broad insight into the mechanistic disruption of the steroidogenesis. Steroid hormones have primarily been extracted from H295R incubation medium by means of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and the obtained recoveries and matrix effects have typically not been stated or assessed. In the present study a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous extraction of cholesterol and five key steroid hormones pregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, cortisol and aldosterone from H295R incubation medium, and finally detected by LC-MS/MS. Cholesterol was recovered at a level of 55.7%, while steroid hormone recoveries ranged from 98.2 to 109.4%. Matrix effects varied between -0.6% and 62.8%. Intra-day precision was deemed acceptable, but the inter-day precision for pregnenolone and aldosterone exceeded the precision limit of 15% RSD. Although LLE has been the most frequently used extraction method in H295R studies, however, our investigation has shown that SPE may relatively easily extract and recover steroid hormones, potentially replacing LLE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Steroid hormone receptor expression in ovarian cancer: progesterone receptor B as prognostic marker for patient survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenhard, Miriam; Tereza, Lennerová; Heublein, Sabine; Ditsch, Nina; Himsl, Isabelle; Mayr, Doris; Friese, Klaus; Jeschke, Udo

    2012-01-01

    There is partially conflicting evidence on the influence of the steroid hormones estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) on the development of ovarian cancer (OC). The aim of this study was to assess the expression of the receptor isoforms ER-α/-β and PR-A/-B in OC tissue and to analyze its impact on clinical and pathological features and patient outcome. 155 OC patients were included who had been diagnosed and treated between 1990 and 2002. Patient characteristics, histology and follow-up data were available. ER-α/-β and PR-A/-B expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. OC tissue was positive for ER-α/-β in 31.4% and 60.1% and PR-A/-B in 36.2% and 33.8%, respectively. We identified significant differences in ER-β expression related to the histological subtype (p=0.041), stage (p=0.002) and grade (p=0.011) as well as PR-A and tumor stage (p=0.03). Interestingly, median receptor expression for ER-α and PR-A/-B was significantly higher in G1 vs. G2 OC. Kaplan Meier analysis revealed a good prognosis for ER-α positive (p=0.039) and PR-B positive (p<0.001) OC. In contrast, ER-β negative OC had a favorable outcome (p=0.049). Besides tumor grade and stage, Cox-regression analysis showed PR-B to be an independent prognostic marker for patient survival (p=0.009, 95% CI 0.251-0.823, HR 0.455). ER-α/-β and PR-A/-B are frequently expressed in OC with a certain variability relating to histological subtype, grade and stage. Univariate analysis indicated a favorable outcome for ER-α positive and PR-B positive OC, while multivariate analysis showed PR-B to be the only independent prognostic marker for patient survival. In conclusion, ER and PR receptors may be useful targets for a more individualized OC therapy

  13. Exogenous female sex steroid hormones and risk of asthma and asthma-like symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, P; Parner, J; Prescott, E

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests a role for hormonal factors in the aetiology of asthma. METHODS: Data from a large study of women selected from the general population were used to relate treatment with oral hormonal contraceptives (OCP) and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT...

  14. Sex steroid hormones matter for learning and memory: estrogenic regulation of hippocampal function in male and female rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes the effects of E2 on hippocampal spinogenesis, neurogenesis, physiology, and memory, with particular attention paid to the effects of E2 in male rodents. The estrogen receptors, cell-signaling pathways, and epigenetic processes necessary for E2 to enhance memory in female rodents are also discussed in detail. Finally, practical considerations for working with female rodents are described for those investigators thinking of adding females to their experimental designs. PMID:26286657

  15. Oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1 expression in human breast and prostate cancer cases, and its regulation by sex steroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Jorge Maia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1 is an interferon-induced protein characterised by its capacity to catalyse the synthesis of 2ʹ-5ʹ-linked oligomers of adenosine from adenosine triphosphate (2-5A. The 2-5A binds to a latent Ribonuclease L (RNase L, which subsequently dimerises into its active form and may play an important role in the control of cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Previously, our research group identified OAS1 as a differentially-expressed gene in breast and prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal cells. This study evaluates: i the expression of OAS1 in human breast and prostate cancer specimens; and ii the effect of sex steroid hormones in regulating the expression of OAS1 in breast (MCF-7 and prostate (LNCaP cancer cell lines. The obtained results showed that OAS1 expression was down-regulated in human infiltrative ductal carcinoma of breast, adenocarcinoma of prostate, and benign prostate hyperplasia, both at mRNA and protein level. In addition, OAS1 expression was negatively correlated with the progression of breast and prostate cancer. With regards to the regulation of OAS1 gene, it was demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E2 down-regulates OAS1 gene in MCF-7 cell lines, an effect that seems to be dependent on the activation of oestrogen receptor (ER. On the other hand, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT treatment showed no effect on the expression of OAS1 in LNCaP cell lines. The lower levels of OAS1 in breast and prostate cancer cases indicated that the OAS1/RNaseL apoptotic pathway may be compromised in breast and prostate tumours. Moreover, the present findings suggested that this effect may be enhanced by oestrogen in ER-positive breast cancers.

  16. Characterization of seasonal reproductive and stress steroid hormones in wild Radiated Tortoises, Astrochelys radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currylow, Andrea F T; Rafeliarisoa, Tsilavo H; Louis, Edward E; Stanford, Craig B; Randrianjafizanaka, Soary T; Chinn, Sarah M; Crocker, Daniel E

    2017-11-01

    The critically endangered Radiated Tortoise (Astrochelys radiata) is endemic to the southern coastlines of Madagascar. Once common, wild populations of this tortoise have undergone dramatic declines in recent years. Although there have been studies documenting reproductive activities, reproductive physiological parameters are unknown yet may be crucial in the recovery of the species. Over four research seasons in remote field locations native to A. radiata, we surveyed for, radio-tracked, and sampled wild, free ranging tortoises. We sampled and measured stress and reproductive parameters (corticosterone [CORT], testosterone [T], estradiol-17β [E2], and progesterone [P]) in 311 plasma samples from 203 wild A. radiata, capturing their active period. Generally, hormone concentrations were associated with body condition, temperature, and humidity. There was wide variation in CORT that varied monthly and by group. Juvenile tortoises maintained more than twice the mean basal CORT concentrations than either adult sex, with the most dramatic distinctions in the middle of the wet season. For adult sex hormones, the last months of the dry season and into the wet season when ground humidities are low and just begin to rise prior to temperature declines, male T concentrations gradually increased to a peak before returning to near undetectable values into the dry season. We had limited data for T concentrations in females, but found average T concentrations were much lower than in males and positively correlated with larger female home range sizes. For female hormone cycles, E2 also peaked in the early 1/3 of the wet season along with male T, and was followed by an uptick in P which correlates to the putative ovulatory cycle. Females tracked over four years showed variation in patterns of P, indicating that number and frequency of clutches vary. Our results suggest that 1) there is high species plasticity in response to stress; 2) A. radiata reproductive cycling is somewhat

  17. Prenatal versus postnatal sex steroid hormone effects on autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auyeung Bonnie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones predict autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 and at 96 months of age. However, it is not known whether postnatal exposure to these hormones has a similar effect. This study compares prenatal and postnatal sex steroid hormone levels in relation to autistic traits in 18 to 24-month-old children. Fetal testosterone (fT and fetal estradiol (fE levels were measured in amniotic fluid from pregnant women (n = 35 following routine second-trimester amniocentesis. Saliva samples were collected from these children when they reached three to four months of age and were analyzed for postnatal testosterone (pT levels. Mothers were asked to complete the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT, a measure of autistic traits in children 18 to 24 months old. Finding fT (but not pT levels were positively associated with scores on the Q-CHAT. fE and pT levels showed no sex differences and no relationships with fT levels. fT levels were the only variable that predicted Q-CHAT scores. Conclusions These preliminary findings are consistent with the hypothesis that prenatal (but not postnatal androgen exposure, coinciding with the critical period for sexual differentiation of the brain, is associated with the development of autistic traits in 18 to 24 month old toddlers. However, it is recognized that further work with a larger sample population is needed before the effects of postnatal androgen exposure on autistic traits can be ruled out. These results are also in line with the fetal androgen theory of autism, which suggests that prenatal, organizational effects of androgen hormones influence the development of autistic traits in later life.

  18. Hormonal contraception and physiology: a research-based theory of discontinuation due to side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Virginia J; Ringheim, Karin

    2005-03-01

    Side effects influence the acceptability and continuation of hormonal contraceptives. Counseling the client about the management of side effects is a principal approach advocated for increasing continuation. Evidence of a biological basis for variation in women's tolerance of hormonal contraceptives argues, however, that greater attention should be given to altering the product rather than principally attempting to alter a woman's ability to deal with the product. Discontinuation rates for hormonal contraceptives, largely attributable to side effects and health concerns, are high in nearly all less-developed countries for which Demographic and Health Survey data are available. Oral contraceptives appear to be particularly problematic for Latin American women, most notably in Bolivia. Clinical trials suggest substantial variation in the physiological response to exogenous hormones, and new evidence confirms the hypothesis that the normal hormonal profiles of Bolivian women are significantly lower than those of women in the United States. These findings suggest a need for more population-specific physiological research linked to analyses of the possible association between endogenous hormone differences and contraceptive continuation. Appropriately adjusting the level of the steroid delivered may benefit women's health and improve the acceptability and continuation of hormonal contraceptives.

  19. In situ relationship between energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in Nereis diversicolor (O.F. Müller) from clean and contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouneyrac, C; Pellerin, J; Moukrim, A; Ait Alla, A; Durou, C; Viault, N

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in situ, the temporal effects of urban effluent discharge on energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in the intrasedimentary worm Nereis diversicolor. Results have shown no differences in energy reserves (glycogen, lipids) in organisms originating from a contaminated site (Oued Souss) and a comparatively clean site (Oualidia). Both sites are located on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. In contrast, steroid hormone (progesterone, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol) levels were significantly decreased in animals from Oued Souss. The differences in the responses suggest that organisms from the polluted site have been exposed to endocrine disruptors.

  20. Vestigialization of an Allosteric Switch: Genetic and Structural Mechanisms for the Evolution of Constitutive Activity in a Steroid Hormone Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgham, Jamie T.; Keay, June; Ortlund, Eric A.; Thornton, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    An important goal in molecular evolution is to understand the genetic and physical mechanisms by which protein functions evolve and, in turn, to characterize how a protein's physical architecture influences its evolution. Here we dissect the mechanisms for an evolutionary shift in function in the mollusk ortholog of the steroid hormone receptors (SRs), a family of biologically essential transcription factors. In vertebrates, the activity of SRs allosterically depends on binding a hormonal ligand; in mollusks, however, the SR ortholog (called ER, because of high sequence similarity to vertebrate estrogen receptors) activates transcription in the absence of ligand and does not respond to steroid hormones. To understand how this shift in regulation evolved, we combined evolutionary, structural, and functional analyses. We first determined the X-ray crystal structure of the ER of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (CgER), and found that its ligand pocket is filled with bulky residues that prevent ligand occupancy. To understand the genetic basis for the evolution of mollusk ERs' unique functions, we resurrected an ancient SR progenitor and characterized the effect of historical amino acid replacements on its functions. We found that reintroducing just two ancient replacements from the lineage leading to mollusk ERs recapitulates the evolution of full constitutive activity and the loss of ligand activation. These substitutions stabilize interactions among key helices, causing the allosteric switch to become “stuck” in the active conformation and making activation independent of ligand binding. Subsequent changes filled the ligand pocket without further affecting activity; by degrading the allosteric switch, these substitutions vestigialized elements of the protein's architecture required for ligand regulation and made reversal to the ancestral function more complex. These findings show how the physical architecture of allostery enabled a few large-effect mutations

  1. Rapid and sensitive analysis of phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, and endogenous steroid hormones in human urine by mixed-mode solid-phase extraction, dansylation, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He-xing; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2013-05-01

    Steroid hormone levels in human urine are convenient and sensitive indicators for the impact of phthalates and/or bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on the human steroid hormone endocrine system. In this study, a rapid and sensitive method for determination of 14 phthalate metabolites, BPA, and ten endogenous steroid hormones in urine was developed and validated on the basis of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The optimized mixed-mode solid phase-extraction separated the weakly acidic or neutral BPA and steroid hormones from acidic phthalate metabolites in urine: the former were determined in positive ion mode with a methanol/water mobile phase containing 10 mM ammonium formate; the latter were determined in negative ion mode with a acetonitrile/water mobile phase containing 0.1 % acetic acid, which significantly alleviated matrix effects for the analysis of BPA and steroid hormones. Dansylation of estrogens and BPA realized simultaneous and sensitive analysis of the endogenous steroid hormones and BPA in a single chromatographic run. The limits of detection were less than 0.84 ng/mL for phthalate metabolites and less than 0.22 ng/mL for endogenous steroid hormones and BPA. This proposed method had satisfactory precision and accuracy, and was successfully applied to the analyses of human urine samples. This method could be valuable when investigating the associations among endocrine-disrupting chemicals, endogenous steroid hormones, and relevant adverse outcomes in epidemiological studies.

  2. Correspondence between Gonadal Steroid Hormone Concentrations and Secondary Sexual Characteristics Assessed by Clinicians, Adolescents, and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age,…

  3. Can we use steroid hormones to immunomodulate rheumatic diseases? Rheumatoid arthritis as an example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    This review discusses the available clinical trials in which steroids have been used in the (adjuvant) treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Glucocorticosteroids have a positive effect on symptoms and signs of inflammation, but probably not on structural damage. Therefore glucocorticosteroids should be

  4. Altered diurnal pattern of steroid hormones in relation to various behaviors, external factors and pathologies: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collomp, K; Baillot, A; Forget, H; Coquerel, A; Rieth, N; Vibarel-Rebot, N

    2016-10-01

    The adrenal and gonadal stress steroids [i.e., cortisol, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)] have gathered considerable attention in the last few decades due to their very broad physiological and psychological actions. Their diurnal patterns have become a particular focus following new data implicating altered diurnal hormone patterns in various endocrine, behavioral and cardiovascular risk profiles. In this review of the current literature, we present a brief overview of the altered diurnal patterns of these hormones that may occur in relation to chronic stress, nutritional behaviors, physical exercise, drugs and sleep deprivation/shift. We also present data on the altered diurnal hormone patterns implicated in cardiometabolic and psychiatric/neurologic diseases, cancer and other complex pathologies. We consider the occasionally discrepant results of the studies, and summarize the current knowledge in this new field of interest, underlining the potential effects on both biological and psychological functioning, and assess the implications of these effects. Last, we conclude with some practical considerations and perspectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Steroid Hormones on the Physical Performance of Boys and Girls During an Olympic Weightlifting Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair; Obminski, Zbigniew; Cook, Christian

    2016-11-01

    To examine the steroid hormone effect on the physical performance of young athletes during an Olympic weightlifting competition. 26 boys and 26 girls were monitored across 2 weightlifting competitions. Pre- and post-competition testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-s) were measured in blood, with pre-event free T (FT) and the free androgen index (FAI) calculated. Body mass (BM) and weightlifting performance were recorded. The boys had a larger BM, superior performance with more T, FT and a higher FAI than girls (p < .01). Although C (32%) and DHEA-s (8%) levels were elevated across competition, no sex differences in hormone reactivity were seen. In boys, DHEA-s correlated with performance (r = .46), but not after controlling for BM (r = .14). For girls, T correlated with performance (r = -0.51) after BM was controlled. The sex differences that emerge during puberty were observable, whereby the boys were larger and stronger with a more anabolic profile than girls. Individual DHEA-s (boys) and T (girls) levels were related to performance, but BM appeared to be acting as a mediating (boys) or suppressing (girls) variable. This adds new insight regarding the hormonal contribution to competitive performance in young athletes.

  6. Fecal steroid hormones reveal reproductive state in female blue whales sampled in the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Molina, Marcia; Atkinson, Shannon; Mashburn, Kendall; Gendron, Diane; Brownell, Robert L

    2018-05-15

    Steroid hormone assessment using non-invasive sample collection techniques can reveal the reproductive status of aquatic mammals and the physiological mechanisms by which they respond to changes in their environment. A portion of the eastern North Pacific blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) population that seasonally visits the Gulf of California, Mexico has been monitored using photo-identified individuals for over 30 years. The whales use the area in winter-early spring for nursing their calves and feeding and it therefore is well suited for fecal sample collection. Using radioimmunoassays in 25 fecal samples collected between 2009 and 2012 to determine reproductive state and stress, we validated three steroid hormones (progesterone, corticosterone and cortisol) in adult female blue whales. Females that were categorized as pregnant had higher mean fecal progesterone metabolite concentrations (1292.6 ± 415.6 ng·g -1 ) than resting and lactating females (14.0 ± 3.7 ng·g -1 ; 23.0 ± 5.4 ng·g -1 , respectively). Females classified as pregnant also had higher concentrations of corticosterone metabolites (37.5 ± 9.9 ng·g -1 ) than resting and lactating females (17.4 ± 2.0 ng·g -1 ; 16.8 ± 2.8 ng·g -1 , respectively). In contrast, cortisol metabolite concentrations showed high variability between groups and no significant relationship to reproductive state. We successfully determined preliminary baseline parameters of key steroid hormones by reproductive state in adult female blue whales. The presence of pregnant or with luteal activity and known lactating females confirms that the Gulf of California is an important winter-spring area for the reproductive phase of these blue whales. The baseline corticosterone levels we are developing will be useful for assessing the impact of the increasing coastal development and whale-watching activities on the whales in the Gulf of California. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Steroid hormones affect binding of the sigma ligand 11C-SA4503 in tumour cells and tumour-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybczynska, Anna A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Sijbesma, Jurgen W.; Jong, Johan R. de; Vries, Erik F. de; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Waarde, Aren van; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2009-01-01

    Sigma receptors are implicated in memory and cognitive functions, drug addiction, depression and schizophrenia. In addition, sigma receptors are strongly overexpressed in many tumours. Although the natural ligands are still unknown, steroid hormones are potential candidates. Here, we examined changes in binding of the sigma-1 agonist 11 C-SA4503 in C6 glioma cells and in living rats after modification of endogenous steroid levels. 11 C-SA4503 binding was assessed in C6 monolayers by gamma counting and in anaesthetized rats by microPET scanning. C6 cells were either repeatedly washed and incubated in steroid-free medium or exposed to five kinds of exogenous steroids (1 h or 5 min before tracer addition, respectively). Tumour-bearing male rats were repeatedly treated with pentobarbital (a condition known to result in reduction of endogenous steroid levels) or injected with progesterone. Binding of 11 C-SA4503 to C6 cells was increased (∝50%) upon removal and decreased (∝60%) upon addition of steroid hormones (rank order of potency: progesterone > allopregnanolone = testosterone = androstanolone > dehydroepiandrosterone-3-sulphate, IC 50 progesterone 33 nM). Intraperitoneally administered progesterone reduced tumour uptake and tumour-to-muscle contrast (36%). Repeated treatment of animals with pentobarbital increased the PET standardized uptake value of 11 C-SA4503 in tumour (16%) and brain (27%), whereas the kinetics of blood pool radioactivity was unaffected. The binding of 11 C-SA4503 is sensitive to steroid competition. Since not only increases but also decreases of steroid levels affect ligand binding, a considerable fraction of the sigma-1 receptor population in cultured tumour cells or tumour-bearing animals is normally occupied by endogenous steroids. (orig.)

  8. Steroid hormones affect binding of the sigma ligand {sup 11}C-SA4503 in tumour cells and tumour-bearing rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybczynska, Anna A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Sijbesma, Jurgen W.; Jong, Johan R. de; Vries, Erik F. de; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Waarde, Aren van [University of Groningen, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen Medical Center, Groningen (Netherlands); Ishiwata, Kiichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Positron Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Sigma receptors are implicated in memory and cognitive functions, drug addiction, depression and schizophrenia. In addition, sigma receptors are strongly overexpressed in many tumours. Although the natural ligands are still unknown, steroid hormones are potential candidates. Here, we examined changes in binding of the sigma-1 agonist {sup 11}C-SA4503 in C6 glioma cells and in living rats after modification of endogenous steroid levels. {sup 11}C-SA4503 binding was assessed in C6 monolayers by gamma counting and in anaesthetized rats by microPET scanning. C6 cells were either repeatedly washed and incubated in steroid-free medium or exposed to five kinds of exogenous steroids (1 h or 5 min before tracer addition, respectively). Tumour-bearing male rats were repeatedly treated with pentobarbital (a condition known to result in reduction of endogenous steroid levels) or injected with progesterone. Binding of {sup 11}C-SA4503 to C6 cells was increased ({proportional_to}50%) upon removal and decreased ({proportional_to}60%) upon addition of steroid hormones (rank order of potency: progesterone > allopregnanolone = testosterone = androstanolone > dehydroepiandrosterone-3-sulphate, IC{sub 50} progesterone 33 nM). Intraperitoneally administered progesterone reduced tumour uptake and tumour-to-muscle contrast (36%). Repeated treatment of animals with pentobarbital increased the PET standardized uptake value of {sup 11}C-SA4503 in tumour (16%) and brain (27%), whereas the kinetics of blood pool radioactivity was unaffected. The binding of {sup 11}C-SA4503 is sensitive to steroid competition. Since not only increases but also decreases of steroid levels affect ligand binding, a considerable fraction of the sigma-1 receptor population in cultured tumour cells or tumour-bearing animals is normally occupied by endogenous steroids. (orig.)

  9. Simultaneous determination of ten steroid hormones in animal origin food by matrix solid-phase dispersion and liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ya-bing; Yin, Yu-Min; Jiang, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yi-Ping; Yang, Jia-Wei; Wu, Jia; Xie, Meng-Xia

    2014-01-01

    An UPLC-MS/MS method for determination of ten steroid hormones in animal origin food has been developed with pretreatment of the samples by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD). The MSPD conditions, including the dispersing sorbents, elution solvents, ratio of sorbent to sample and the volume of the elution solvent have been investigated and optimised, and the method has been evaluated and validated. The results showed that the developed method has satisfactory linearity between the MS/MS responses of the analytes and the concentration of the steroid hormones, and the limits of the detection can reach 0.01μg/kg for most of the analytes. The spiking recoveries of the steroid hormones in chicken, pork, beef and sausage samples were between 76.8% and 98.7% with RSDs lower than 10%. The results demonstrated that the developed approach has high sensitivity and repeatability, and can rapidly determinate the trace residues of steroid hormones in complex food matrices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The stimulatory effect of albumin on luteinizing hormone-stimulated Leydig cell steroid production depends on its fatty acid content and correlates with conformational changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Melsert (R.); O.J.M. Bos (O. J M); R.F. van der Linden (R.); M.J.E. Fischer (M. J E); S.M. Wilting (Saskia); L.H.M. Janssen (Lambert); J.W. Hoogerbrugge (Jos); F.F.G. Rommerts (Focko)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The effects of purified albumin species and albumin fragments (0.2–1% w/v) on short-term (4 h) steroid secretion by immature rat Leydig cells, in the presence of a maximally stimulating dose of luteinizing hormone (LH), were investigated. Human albumin and the peptic

  11. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  12. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the menstrual cycle enlarged clitoris deepened voice In teens: stunted growth (when high hormone levels from steroids signal to the body to stop bone growth too early) stunted height (if teens use steroids before their growth spurt) Some of ...

  13. Urinary steroid hormone patterns: III. Effect of continuous daily administration of low dose megestrol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, G L; Roy, S; Allag, I S; Ghosal, J

    1975-12-01

    The effect of megestrol acetate, administered in daily doses of .5 mg, on urinary steroid levels was studied before, during, and after therapy in 4 women volunteers. In each case, pregnanediol levels were reduced, though ovulatory biphasic patterns, as reflected in basal body temperature patterns, were apparent in the majority of the cycles, which suggests that corpus luteum function, but not ovulation, was impaired. 17-ketosteroid levels were significantly (p less than .001) increased either during or after treatment, while 17-hydroxycorticoid levels were reduced in 3 of the women. 2 subjects showed a marked reduction in levels of 17-ketogenic steroids and corticoid levels. Total estrogen levels seemed to correlate with the levels of corticoid excretion.

  14. Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2001-09-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α; 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  15. Combining xenoestrogens at levels below individual no-observed-effect concentrations dramatically enhances steroid hormone action.

    OpenAIRE

    Rajapakse, Nissanka; Silva, Elisabete; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The low potency of many man-made estrogenic chemicals, so-called xenoestrogens, has been used to suggest that risks arising from exposure to individual chemicals are negligible. Another argument used to dismiss concerns of health effects is that endogenous steroidal estrogens are too potent for xenoestrogens to contribute significantly to estrogenic effects. Using a yeast reporter gene assay with the human estrogen receptoralpha, we tested these ideas experimentally by assessing the ability o...

  16. Gonadotropins in the Russian Sturgeon: Their Role in Steroid Secretion and the Effect of Hormonal Treatment on Their Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Yom-Din

    Full Text Available In the reproduction process of male and female fish, pituitary derived gonadotropins (GTHs play a key role. To be able to specifically investigate certain functions of Luteinizing (LH and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH in Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii; st, we produced recombinant variants of the hormones using the yeast Pichia pastoris as a protein production system. We accomplished to create in vitro biologically active heterodimeric glycoproteins consisting of two associated α- and β-subunits in sufficient quantities. Three dimensional modelling of both GTHs was conducted in order to study the differences between the two GTHs. Antibodies were produced against the unique β-subunit of each of the GTHs, in order to be used for immunohistochemical analysis and to develop an ELISA for blood and pituitary hormone quantification. This detection technique revealed the specific localization of the LH and FSH cells in the sturgeon pituitary and pointed out that both cell types are present in substantially higher numbers in mature males and females, compared to immature fish. With the newly attained option to prevent cross-contamination when investigating on the effects of GTH administration, we compared the steroidogeneic response (estradiol and 11-Keto testosterone (11-KT in female and males, respectively of recombinant stLH, stFSH, and carp pituitary extract in male and female sturgeon gonads at different developmental stages. Finally, we injected commercially available gonadotropin releasing hormones analog (GnRH to mature females, and found a moderate effect on the development of ovarian follicles. Application of only testosterone (T resulted in a significant increase in circulating levels of 11-KT whereas the combination of GnRH + T did not affect steroid levels at all. The response pattern for estradiol demonstrated a similar situation. FSH levels showed significant increases when GnRH + T was administered, while no changes

  17. Pathways and genes involved in steroid hormone metabolism in male pigs: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robic, Annie; Faraut, Thomas; Prunier, Armelle

    2014-03-01

    This paper reviews state-of-the-art knowledge on steroid biosynthesis pathways in the pig and provides an updated characterization of the porcine genes involved in these pathways with particular focus on androgens, estrogens, and 16-androstenes. At least 21 different enzymes appear to be involved in these pathways in porcine tissues together with at least five cofactors. Until now, data on several porcine genes were scarce or confusing. We characterized the complete genomic and transcript sequences of the single porcine CYP11B gene. We analyzed the porcine AKR1 gene cluster and identified four AKR1C, one AKR1C like genes and one AKR1E2 gene. We provide evidence that porcine AKR1C genes are not orthologous to human AKR1C. A new nomenclature is thus needed for this gene family in the pig. Thirty-two genes are now described: transcript (30+2 characterized in this study) and genomic (complete: 18+1 and partial: 12+1) sequences are identified. However, despite increasing knowledge on steroid metabolism in the pig, there is still no explanation of why porcine testes can produce androstenone and epiandrosterone, but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is also a reduced steroid. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Endocrino-pharmacological study of reproduction: Role and biosynthesis of steroid hormones in the feto-placental unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, M; Masubuchi, Y; Komoriyama, K

    1981-03-01

    Although considerable information is available concerning steroidogenesis in the human fetus, the function of the different steroids formed during pregnancy and the factors regulating this delicate hormones balance are poorly understood. During human pregnancy, the placenta synthesizes large quantities of progesterone, estradiol, estrone and estriol and secretes these hormones into both the maternal and fetal circulations; progesterone from maternal lipoprotein-cholesterol, estradiol and estrone from maternal and fetal dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHAS), and estriol largely from fetal 16 alpha-OH-DHAS. It has been demonstrated that preimplantation blastocysts of several animal species have the capacity to accumulate steroids to pregnenolone to progesterone, and to interconvert estrone and estradiol. Estetrol (E4), 15 alpha-hydroxy derivative of estriol is an interesting compound, since its formation is relatively unique to fetal liver function. Of special interest is that placental sulfatase deficiencies result in an extension of the gestation, and Cesarean section has to be done. This raises the question of the role of estrogens in determining the onset of labor, much as in the case of anencephaly. In general, progesterone may decline prior to an abortion, but there has not been a direct application to clinical practice. Estrogen levels during pregnancy are influenced by factors other than fetal well-being and include fetal weight, placental enzyme function, fetal adrenal function, maternal intestinal flora, maternal renal excretion and maternal liver function. Although not yet extensively utilized, such a dynamic test as the infusion of DHAS may yield useful information within a short period in otherwise complicated cases related to fetal and placental function.

  19. Event-related brain potentials to emotional images and gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia and paired controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eChampagne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prominent disturbances in the experience, expression, and emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia have been relatively well documented over the last few years. Furthermore, sex differences in behavior and brain activity, associated with the processing of various emotions, have been reported in the general population and in schizophrenia patients. Others proposed that sex differences should be rather attributed to testosterone, which may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Also, it had been suggested that estradiol may play a protective role in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, few studies investigating this pathology have focused on both brain substrates and gonadal steroid hormone levels, in emotional processing. In the present study, we investigated electrocortical responses related to emotional valence and arousal as well as gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia. Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded during exposition to emotional pictures in 18 patients with schizophrenia and in 24 control participants paired on intelligence, manual dominance and socioeconomic status. Given their previous sensitivity to emotional and attention processes, the P200, N200 and the P300 were selected for analysis. More precisely, emotional valence generally affects early components (N200, which reflect early process of selective attention, whereas emotional arousal and valence both influences the P300 component, which is related to memory context updating, and stimulus categorization. Results showed that, in the control group, the amplitude of the N200 was significantly more lateralized over the right hemisphere, while there was no such lateralization in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, significantly smaller anterior P300 amplitude was observed to the unpleasant, compared to the pleasant. That anterior P300 reduction was also correlated with negative symptoms.

  20. A bibliometric analysis of research updates and tendencies on steroid biotransformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoyu

    2018-03-01

    Steroid biotransformation, as a powerful tool for generation of steroid active pharmaceutical ingredients and key intermediates, has received widespread attention with increasing market demand for steroid-based drugs. In our study, a bibliometric analysis of steroid biotransformation was performed to trace the research updates and tendencies from 1993 to 2016, based on the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. Results showed a notable growth trend in publication outputs. Although the USA was the most productive country between 1993 and 2016, developing nations, including China and India, contributed the prominent growth in recent years (2005–2016). Steroids was the leading journal in this field, and the research outputs had notably increased in the field of ‘Chemistry’, ‘Pharmacology and Pharmacy’ and ‘Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology’. Finally, research focused mainly on the efficient production of novel steroid active pharmaceutical ingredients and key intermediates through steroid biotransformation. Furthermore, cytochrome P450 involved in the side-chain oxidation of sterols has gradually become a hotspot issue in recent years.

  1. Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on the development of long-acting growth hormone preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrino...

  2. Exogenous female sex steroid hormones and risk of asthma and asthma-like symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, P; Parner, J; Prescott, E

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests a role for hormonal factors in the aetiology of asthma. METHODS: Data from a large study of women selected from the general population were used to relate treatment with oral hormonal contraceptives (OCP) and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT......) to the following asthma indicators: self-reported asthma, wheezing, cough at exertion, and use of medication for asthma. The study sample comprised 1536 premenopausal and 3016 postmenopausal women who participated in the third round of the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1991-4. A total of 377 women were taking OCP...... (24.5% of premenopausal women) and 458 were on HRT (15.2% of postmenopausal women). RESULTS: In premenopausal women 4.8% reported having asthma. The prevalence of self-reported asthma, wheeze, use of asthma medication, and cough at exertion was not significantly related to use of OCP...

  3. Comprehensive Analysis of Hormone and Genetic Variation in 36 Genes Related to Steroid Hormone Metabolism in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, L.; Husing, A.; Setiawan, V. W.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Sex steroids play a central role in breast cancer development.Objective: This study aimed to relate polymorphic variants in 36 candidate genes in the sex steroid pathway to serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones and SHBG.Design: Data on 700 genetic polymorphisms were combined...... with existing hormone assays and data on breast cancer incidence, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) cohorts; significant findings were reanalyzed in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC).Setting and Participants: We analyzed data from...... a pooled sample of 3852 pre- and postmenopausal Caucasian women from EPIC and NHS and 454 postmenopausal women from MEC.Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures were SHBG, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS), androstenedione, estrone (E1), and estradiol (E2) as well as breast cancer risk...

  4. Effects of Evolocumab on Vitamin E and Steroid Hormone Levels: Results From the 52-Week, Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled DESCARTES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Dirk J; Djedjos, C Stephen; Monsalvo, Maria Laura; Bridges, Ian; Wasserman, Scott M; Scott, Rob; Roth, Eli

    2015-09-25

    Vitamin E transport and steroidogenesis are closely associated with low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) metabolism, and evolocumab can lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) to low levels. To determine the effects of evolocumab on vitamin E and steroid hormone levels. After titration of background lipid-lowering therapy per cardiovascular risk, 901 patients with an LDL-C ≥2.0 mmol/L were randomized to 52 weeks of monthly, subcutaneous evolocumab, or placebo. Vitamin E, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and gonadal hormones were analyzed at baseline and week 52. In a substudy (n=100), vitamin E levels were also measured in serum, LDL, high-density lipoprotein, and red blood cell membranes at baseline and week 52. Absolute vitamin E decreased in evolocumab-treated patients from baseline to week 52 by 16% but increased by 19% when normalized for cholesterol. In the substudy, vitamin E level changes from baseline to week 52 mirrored the changes in the lipid fraction, and red blood cell membrane vitamin E levels did not change. Cortisol in evolocumab-treated patients increased slightly from baseline to week 52, but adrenocorticotropic hormone and the cortisol:adrenocorticotropic hormone ratio did not change. No patient had a cortisol:adrenocorticotropic hormone ratio <3.0 (nmol/pmol). Among evolocumab-treated patients, gonadal hormones did not change from baseline to week 52. Vitamin E and steroid changes were consistent across subgroups by minimum postbaseline LDL-C <0.4 and <0.6 mmol/L. As expected, vitamin E levels changed similarly to lipids among patients treated for 52 weeks with evolocumab. No adverse effects were observed in steroid or gonadal hormones, even at very low LDL-C levels. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01516879. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Group-level competition influences urinary steroid hormones among wild red-tailed monkeys, indicating energetic costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Adrian V; Trumble, Benjamin C; Brown, Michelle

    2018-04-10

    Various theories emphasize that intergroup competition should affect intragroup cooperation and social relationships, especially if the cost of intergroup competition outweighs that of intragroup competition. This cost of intergroup competition may be quantified by changes in physiological status, such as in the steroid hormones cortisol (C) and testosterone (T), which rise or are depressed during periods of energetic stress, respectively. Here we tested for changes in urinary C and T after intergroup encounters (IGEs) among wild red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius), a species that experiences frequent intergroup feeding competition, at the Ngogo station in Kibale National Park, Uganda. We assayed 108 urine samples, of which 36 were collected after IGEs, from 23 individuals in four social groups. Bayesian multilevel models controlling for various confounds revealed that IGEs increased C and decreased T relative to baseline, consistent with an energetic cost to IGEs. The C change was more apparent in samples collected early after IGEs, suggesting an anticipatory increase, whereas the T change was stronger in later samples, suggesting sustained energetic trade-offs. Hormone responses were not affected by the IGE outcome. This cost to intergroup competition, together with little evidence for intragroup competition in redtails and other guenons, establishes an interesting test case for theories emphasizing the effect of intergroup competition on intragroup cooperation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prolactin, EGFR, vimentin and α-actin profiles in elderly rat prostate subjected to steroid hormonal imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzl, Amanda Cia; Montico, Fabio; Kido, Larissa Akemi; Cagnon, Valéria Helena Alves

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and relate the prolactin (PR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), α-actin and vimentin immunoreactivity in the prostate of elderly rats subjected to steroid hormonal imbalance. Senile and young rats were divided into the young group (YNG), the senile group (SE), the castrated group (CAS), the estrogen-deficient group (ED), the castrated+estrogen group (CASE), and the estrogen-deficient+androgen group (EDTEST). PR and EGFR increased in the estrogen and androgen ablation groups. In addition, EGFR influenced the immunolocalization by changing it from the prostatic stroma to the epithelium in elderly rats. Hormone ablation in elderly rats, not only related to androgen but also estrogen, led to increased stromal EGFR immunolocalization. The α-actin pattern decreased in the groups with estrogenic imbalance. Moreover, vimentin increased in the senile and estrogen deficient group. To conclude, we can suggest that EGFR contributed towards the proliferative process in the prostate, by means however, of different mechanisms, considering the androgenic and estrogenic pathways. Also, our results indicated that prolactin could be activated not only in an androgen-independent pathway but also in an estrogen independent pathway. Finally, PR and vimentin immunolocalization increase, in the prostatic stroma in the group showing estrogenic ablation, could be one of the factors which contribute to the reactive stroma formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantification of sexual steroid hormones in faeces of Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus): a non-invasive sex typing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barja, I; Silván, G; Rosellini, S; Piñeiro, A; Illera, M J; Illera, J C

    2008-12-01

    The determination of gender in wild animals is essential for behavioural and ecological studies, and also for conservation. The objectives of this study were (i) the determination of gender in faecal samples of Iberian wolf based on the differential concentrations of sexual steroid hormones (SSH) and (ii) to analyse the profiles of SSH in males and females (considering the gender determination carried out previously) during the non-reproductive and reproductive periods. The quantification of androgens (testosterone, T), progestin (progesterone, P) and oestrogen (oestradiol, E) was conducted by means of enzyme immunoassay. The k-means conglomerate analysis showed that the 59 faecal samples grouped into three different conglomerates, considering SSH levels. Groups 1 and 2 showed higher levels of T than group 3. Therefore, the faecal samples included in groups 1 and 2 (17 samples) corresponded to males and those of group 3 (42 samples) to females. The levels of T + P + E and T/P were higher in the group of males than in the group of females. The results of this study also showed that levels of T in males were higher during the reproductive period than in the non-reproductive period. However, the concentrations of P and E turned out to be higher during the non-reproductive season. In females, the levels of the three hormones (T, P and E) were higher during the reproductive period.

  8. In vitro metabolism of steroid hormones by ovary and hepatopancreas of the crustacean Penaeid shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Summavielle

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Radioimmunoassay (RIA was applied to identify selected metabolites obtained in in vitro incubations of ovarian and hepatopancreatic tissues from female Marsupenaeus japonicus in previtellogenic and vitellogenic maturation stages. Depending on the precursors used, progesterone, 17?-hydroxyprogesterone or testosterone, it was possible to observe the presence of several enzymatic activities through metabolites detected in incubations. The present study provides evidence that the ovary of the shrimp M. japonicus is capable of synthesising 17?-estradiol from progesterone, evidencing the presence of 17?-hydroxylase, C17-C20 lyase, 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17?-HSD and aromatase. Enzymatic activities of aromatase, 3?-HSD and 17?-hydroxylase were detected in hepatopancreas, but not that of C17-C20 lyase. These results suggest that 17?-estradiol could be the vitellogenesis stimulating ovarian hormone (VSOH, and together with former in vivo and in vitro studies this leads us to propose that in fact there may be a physiological role for steroid hormones in the maturation cycle of crustaceans.

  9. Steroid hormones, boar taint compounds, and reproductive organs in pigs according to the delay between immunocastration and slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubale, V; Batorek, N; Skrlep, M; Prunier, A; Bonneau, M; Fazarinc, G; Candek-Potokar, M

    2013-01-01

    The producer of vaccine against GnRH recommends that immunocastrated pigs are to be slaughtered within 4 to 6 weeks after the second vaccination (V2). The objective of the study was to examine the effect of shorter or longer delay on steroid hormones, boar taint compounds, and morphologic and histologic traits of reproductive organs. Forty male pigs (individually housed and fed a commercial diet) were assigned within litter to four treatment groups, 10 pigs were left entire (EM27) and the others were vaccinated against GnRH (Improvac, Pfizer Animal Health) at the age of 12 and 19 weeks. Pigs were slaughtered at 21 (IC21), 24 (IC24), and 27 (IC27 and EM27) weeks of age. Two EM27 pigs died during the experiment, one IC21 pig was excluded because of illness, one IC27 pig was a nonresponder, and two pigs (IC24 and IC27) were hermaphrodites. To assess the effect on steroid hormones, blood was taken at 12, 15, 19, 21, and 24 weeks of age. Subcutaneous fat and reproductive organs were sampled after slaughter for determination of androstenone, skatole, morphologic, and histologic measurements. Immmunocastration interrupted the rise of estrogen and caused a substantial fall of testosterone in IC21, IC24, and IC27 pigs. As a result, androstenone and skatole levels were successfully reduced regardless of the time elapsed from V2. The weight of the reproductive organs was also drastically reduced, the shrinkage being proportional to the length of the interval between V2 and slaughter and was the most evident for vesicular glands, followed by bulbourethral glands, and testes. Corresponding changes were observed also on a histologic level with a progressive decrease in the size and number of Leydig cells, a diminishing immunoreactivity of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ-5-4 isomerase, and luteinizing hormone receptor, along with a shrinkage of tubuli seminiferi, atrophy of seminiferous epithelium, and a loss of germ cells, indicating a disruption in testicular

  10. Evolutionary origin of the mitochondrial cholesterol transport machinery reveals a universal mechanism of steroid hormone biosynthesis in animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjiang Fan

    Full Text Available Steroidogenesis begins with the transport of cholesterol from intracellular stores into mitochondria via a series of protein-protein interactions involving cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins located at both the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. In adrenal glands and gonads, this process is accelerated by hormones, leading to the production of high levels of steroids that control tissue development and function. A hormone-induced multiprotein complex, the transduceosome, was recently identified, and is composed of cytosolic and outer mitochondrial membrane proteins that control the rate of cholesterol entry into the outer mitochondrial membrane. More recent studies unveiled the steroidogenic metabolon, a bioactive, multimeric protein complex that spans the outer-inner mitochondrial membranes and is responsible for hormone-induced import, segregation, targeting, and metabolism of cholesterol by cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP11A1 in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The availability of genome information allowed us to systematically explore the evolutionary origin of the proteins involved in the mitochondrial cholesterol transport machinery (transduceosome, steroidogenic metabolon, and signaling proteins, trace the original archetype, and predict their biological functions by molecular phylogenetic and functional divergence analyses, protein homology modeling and molecular docking. Although most members of these complexes have a history of gene duplication and functional divergence during evolution, phylogenomic analysis revealed that all vertebrates have the same functional complex members, suggesting a common mechanism in the first step of steroidogenesis. An archetype of the complex was found in invertebrates. The data presented herein suggest that the cholesterol transport machinery is responsible for steroidogenesis among all vertebrates and is evolutionarily conserved throughout the entire animal kingdom.

  11. Adrenal steroid hormone concentrations in dogs with hair cycle arrest (Alopecia X) before and during treatment with melatonin and mitotane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Linda A; Hnilica, Keith A; Oliver, Jack W

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate intermediate adrenal steroid hormones (ISH) in neutered dogs with hair cycle arrest (Alopecia X) during treatment with melatonin, and to see if hair re-growth is associated with sex hormone concentrations within the normal ranges. Twenty-nine neutered, euthyroid, and normo-cortisolemic dogs were enrolled in the study (23 Pomeranians, three keeshonds, two miniature poodles, and one Siberian husky). Coat assessment and an ACTH stimulation test were performed pre-treatment and approximately every 4 months for a year post treatment. Melatonin was administered initially at 3-6 mg, every 12 h. Based on clinical progression, each dog was continued on the current dose of melatonin, given an increased dose of melatonin or changed to mitotane. Partial to complete hair re-growth occurred in 14/23 Pomeranians, and partial re-growth in 3/3 keeshond and 1/2 poodle dogs. A Siberian husky dog failed to re-grow hair. Fifteen dogs had partial hair re-growth at the first re-evaluation. Melatonin dosage was increased in eight dogs but only one had improved hair re-growth. On mitotane treatment, partial to complete hair re-growth was seen in 4/6 dogs and no re-growth in 2/6 dogs. No significant decrease in sex hormone concentrations were seen during melatonin or mitotane treatment. Concentrations of ISH in dogs with hair re-growth did not differ significantly from pre-treatment values. At the completion of the study, androstenedione, progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were still above reference ranges in 21, 64 and 36%, respectively, of dogs with partial to complete hair re-growth. In conclusion, 62% of dogs had partial to complete hair re-growth. However, not all dogs with hair re-growth had concentrations of ISH within the normal range.

  12. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits antral follicle growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroid hormone production in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, Patrick R., E-mail: phannon2@illinois.edu; Brannick, Katherine E., E-mail: kbran@illinois.edu; Wang, Wei, E-mail: Wei.Wang2@covance.com; Gupta, Rupesh K., E-mail: drrupesh@yahoo.com; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2015-04-01

    inhibits the production of antral follicle produced sex steroid hormones.

  13. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits antral follicle growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroid hormone production in cultured mouse antral follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, Patrick R.; Brannick, Katherine E.; Wang, Wei; Gupta, Rupesh K.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    inhibits the production of antral follicle produced sex steroid hormones

  14. Moderate alcohol consumption in chronic form enhances the synthesis of cholesterol and C-21 steroid hormones, while treatment with Tinospora cordifolia modulate these events in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Suman; Mittal, Ashwani; Dabur, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Chronic and heavy alcohol consumption disrupts lipid metabolism and hormonal balance including testosterone levels. However, studies doubt the relationship between moderate alcohol intake and sex hormone levels. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to establish the direct impact of chronic and moderate alcohol intake on cholesterol homeostasis and steroid hormone synthesis. Asymptomatic chronic and moderate alcoholics (n=12) without chronic liver disease and healthy volunteers (n=14) were selected for the study. Furthermore, effects of standardized water extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Mier. (Menispermaceae) (TCJ), a well reported anti-alcoholic herbal drug, on urinary steroids was studied. This study included four groups, i.e. a) healthy; b) healthy+TCJ; c) alcoholic; d) alcoholic+TCJ. The blood and urine samples from each group were collected on day 0 and 14 of the post-treatment with TCJ and analyzed. Alcoholic blood samples showed the significantly higher values of traditional biomarkers γ-GT and MCV along with cholesterol, LDL, TGL and urinary methylglucuronide compared to healthy. Qualitative analysis of steroids showed that moderate alcohol intake in a chronic manner increased the cholesterol synthesis and directed its flow toward C-21 steroids; shown by increased levels of corticosterone (2.456 fold) and cortisol (3.7 fold). Moreover, alcohol intake also increased the synthesis of estradiol and clearance rate of other steroids through the formation of glucuronides. Therefore, it decreased the synthesis and increased the clearance rate of testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A). Quantitative analysis confirmed decreased T/A ratio from 2.31 to 1.59 in plasma and 2.47 to 1.51 in urine samples of alcoholics. TCJ intervention normalized the levels of steroids and significantly improved the T:A ratio to 2.0 and 2.12 in plasma and urine. The study revealed that TCJ modulated lipid metabolism by inhibiting cholesterol and glucuronides

  15. Racial/ethnic differences in serum sex steroid hormone concentrations in US adolescent males

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, David S; Peskoe, Sarah B; Joshu, Corinne E; Dobs, Adrian; Feinleib, Manning; Kanarek, Norma; Nelson, William G; Selvin, Elizabeth; Rohrmann, Sabine; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Contrary to the hypothesis that the racial/ethnic disparity in prostate cancer has a hormonal basis, we did not observe a difference in serum testosterone concentration between non-Hispanic black and white men in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), although non-Hispanic black men had a higher estradiol level. Unexpectedly, Mexican-American men had the highest testosterone level. Next, we evaluated whether the same patterns are observed during ad...

  16. Investigating the Interactive Effects of Sex Steroid Hormones and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor during Adolescence on Hippocampal NMDA Receptor Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cushla R. McCarthny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex steroid hormones have neuroprotective properties which may be mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. This study sought to determine the interactive effects of preadolescent hormone manipulation and BDNF heterozygosity (+/− on hippocampal NMDA-R expression. Wild-type and BDNF+/− mice were gonadectomised, and females received either 17β-estradiol or progesterone treatment, while males received either testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT treatment. Dorsal (DHP and ventral hippocampus (VHP were dissected, and protein expression of GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B, and PSD-95 was assessed by Western blot analysis. Significant genotype × OVX interactions were found for GluN1 and GluN2 expression within the DHP of female mice, suggesting modulation of select NMDA-R levels by female sex hormones is mediated by BDNF. Furthermore, within the DHP BDNF+/− mice show a hypersensitive response to hormone treatment on GluN2 expression which may result from upstream alterations in TrkB phosphorylation. In contrast to the DHP, the VHP showed no effects of hormone manipulation but significant effects of genotype on NMDA-R expression. Castration had no effect on NMDA-R expression; however, androgen treatment had selective effects on GluN2B. These data show case distinct, interactive roles for sex steroid hormones and BDNF in the regulation of NMDA-R expression that are dependent on dorsal versus ventral hippocampal region.

  17. A Survey of Naturally-Occurring Steroid Hormones in Raw Milk and the Associated Health Risks in Tangshan City, Hebei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyin Qu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, high levels of hormone residue in food, capable of damaging the health of consumers, have been recorded frequently. In this study, 195 raw milk samples were obtained from Tangshan City, China, and the concentrations of 22 steroid hormones were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS. Cortisol was detected in 12.5% of raw milk samples (mean 0.61 µg/kg; range: steroid hormone concentrations. Based on the mean and maximum concentrations of progesterone detected in milk, the contribution was 0.85% and 0.9%, and 1.48% and 1.6% of the acceptable daily intake for boys and girls, respectively. These results imply that the concentrations of steroid hormones present in raw milk should not present a health risk for young children.

  18. Rapid detection of selected steroid hormones from sewage effluents using an ELISA in the Kuils River water catchment area, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Nelius; Pool, Edmund

    2007-01-01

    Steroid hormones are naturally synthesized by both humans and animals and are released into the environment. Significant levels of steroid hormones have been detected in sewage effluent around the world. The potential problem is that these hormones may interfere with the normal function of the endocrine systems, thus affecting reproduction and development in wildlife. Due to the major shortage of water in Western Cape, South Africa there is a great need to recycle water by either direct or indirect methods. The treated sewage effluent-natural surface water mixture found in the Kuils and Eerste Rivers is used directly for irrigation of agricultural areas. Sewage effluents were collected from four sites (Jonkershoek, Belville, Zandvliet, and Macassar) and subjected to C(18) solid phase extraction. Commercially available rapid ELISA kits were validated for the quantification of estrogens in these sewage effluent samples. Analysis of estrone, estradiol, and estriol levels showed a significant difference between the control site (Jonkershoek) and sewage effluent from the three sewage treatment works. Steroid hormone concentrations detected in these sewage effluents were similar to reports from Britain, Italy, Germany, Canada, and Netherlands.

  19. Effects on steroid hormones secretion resulting from the acute stimulation of sectioning the superior ovarian nerve to pre-pubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Ledesma Leticia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the adult rat, neural signals arriving to the ovary via the superior ovarian nerve (SON modulate progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 secretion. The aims of the present study were to analyze if the SON in the pre-pubertal rat also modulates ovarian hormone secretion and the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing (LH hormone. P4, T, E2, FSH and LH serum levels were measured 30 or 60 minutes after sectioning the SON of pre-pubertal female rats. Our results indicate that the effects on hormone levels resulting from unilaterally or bilaterally sectioning the SON depends on the analyzed hormone, and the time lapse between surgery and autopsy, and that the treatment yielded asymmetric results. The results also suggest that in the pre-pubertal rat the neural signals arriving to the ovaries via the SON regulate the enzymes participating in P4, T and E2 synthesis in a non-parallel way, indicating that the mechanisms regulating the synthesis of each hormone are not regulated by the same signals. Also, that the changes in the steroids hormones are not explained exclusively by the modifications in gonadotropins secretion. The observed differences in hormone levels between rats sacrificed 30 and 60 min after surgery reflect the onset of the compensatory systems regulating hormones secretion.

  20. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D Coviello

    Full Text Available Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8 × 10(-106, PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p = 1.4 × 10(-11, GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p = 2.2 × 10(-16, ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p = 3.4 × 10(-09, JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p = 6.1 × 10(-35, SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p = 1.9 × 10(-08, NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p = 8.3 × 10(-12, ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p = 3.5 × 10(-14, TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p = 4.1 × 10(-14, LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p = 1.3 × 10(-07, BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p = 2.7 × 10(-08, and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p = 5.5 × 10(-06. These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5 × 10(-08, women p = 0.66, heterogeneity p = 0.003. Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion

  1. Endocrine control of canine mammary neoplasms : serum reproductive hormone levels and tissue expression of steroid hormone, prolactin and growth hormone receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoerri, Michèle; Guscetti, Franco; Hartnack, Sonja; Boos, Alois; Oei, Christine; Balogh, Orsolya; Nowaczyk, Renata M; Michel, Erika; Reichler, Iris M; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neoplasms of the mammary gland are among the most common diseases in female domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). It is assumed that reproductive hormones influence tumorigenesis in this species, although the precise role of the endocrine milieu and reproductive state is subject to

  2. Lipodystrophy defined by a clinical score in HIV-infected men on highly active antiretroviral therapy: correlation between dyslipidaemia and steroid hormone alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christeff, N; Melchior, J C; de Truchis, P; Perronne, C; Nunez, E A; Gougeon, M L

    1999-11-12

    A syndrome of lipodystrophy, associated with hypertriglyceridaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and peripheral insulin resistance has been reported in protease inhibitor (PI)-treated HIV-infected patients. Because lipid metabolism, fat mass distribution and insulin resistance are partly regulated by steroid hormones, we questioned whether lipodystrophy is related to hormonal perturbations. To evaluate serum lipid and steroid hormone concentrations in HIV-positive men on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in order to determine whether dyslipidaemia, peripheral loss of fatty tissue and central fat accumulation are related to steroid hormone modifications. A cross-sectional study. Thirty-seven HIV-1-positive men on HAART, 23 of whom had symptoms of lipodystrophy, according to a subjective clinical score of lipodystrophy (SCSL), were tested. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides and their subclasses, apolipoproteins and steroid hormones, including cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulphate, androstenedione, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were measured. Serum cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) triglycerides, apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and atherogenic ratios of cholesterol:HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol:HDL cholesterol and ApoB:apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) were significantly increased in lipodystrophy-positive compared with lipodystrophy-negative men. The serum cortisol level was similar in lipodystrophy-positive versus lipodystrophy-negative men, but was elevated compared with controls. Serum DHEA was significantly lower in lipodystrophy-positive versus lipodystrophy-negative men and, consequently, the cortisol:DHEA ratio was increased in lipodystrophy-positive patients. A positive correlation was found between the cortisol:DHEA ratio and increased levels of atherogenic lipids. In addition, the

  3. Evidence for inhibition of steroid hormone secretion by arginine vasotocin (AVT) in tissue culture of isolated ovarian follicular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoklosowa, S.; Gregoraszczuk, E.; Galas, J.; Rzasa, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two follicular compartments, granulosa (G) and theca interna (T) cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured alone or in co-culture (GT). Cells were grown as monolayers in a control medium without hormone and in a media supplemented with arginine-vasotocin (AVT) at a concentration of either 10 -7 M or 2x10 -7 M. Progesterone (P4), estrogen (E2) and androgen (A) concentrations in the culture media were taken as measures of the effect of AVT on the function of follicular cells. Steroids were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. AVT action in this culture system was expressed as a decrease in progesterone secretion by cultures of granulosa cells alone, and specially as a change in the pattern of estradiol and androgen secretion by co-cultures. Control T and G cells cultured alone secreted small amounts of A (238.0 pg/10 5 cells, respectively), and E2 272.5 pg/10 5 cells, 10.6 pg/10 5 cells, respectively) while in co-culture these two cell types interacted and the result of this positive interaction was a significant increase in secretion of these two steroids (941.0 pg/10 5 cell androgen secretion and 854.1 pg/10 5 cells estradiol secretion). This phenomenon is similar to that observed in the intact follicle 'in vivo'. AVT introduced to the culture medium impaired the effect of this positive interaction of mixed G and T cells on the production of high levels of E2 and A by untreated co-cultures. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  4. Detection of multiple hormonal activities in wastewater effluents and surface water, using a panel of steroid receptor CALUX bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, S.C.; Heringa, M.B.; Man, H.Y.; Sonneveld, E.; Puijker, L.M.; Brouwer, A.; van der Burg, B.

    2008-01-01

    It is generally known that there are compounds present in the aquatic environment that can disturb endocrine processes, for example via interaction with the endogenous hormone receptors. Most research so far has focused on compounds that bind to the estrogen and/or androgen receptor, but ligands for

  5. 17β-trenbolone, an anabolic–androgenic steroid as well as an environmental hormone, contributes to neurodegeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Fucui, E-mail: mafucui@hotmail.com [Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering, No. 16 Xinshan Road, Hi-tech Industry Park, Wenzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Resistance, College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 East Wenhua Road, Jinan 250014 (China); Liu, Daicheng, E-mail: liudch@sdnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Animal Resistance, College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 East Wenhua Road, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to neurodegenerative disorders. In a large number of neurodegenerative diseases (for example, Alzheimer's disease (AD)), patients do not carry the mutant genes. Other risk factors, for example the environmental factors, should be evaluated. 17β-trenbolone is a kind of environmental hormone as well as an anabolic–androgenic steroid. 17β-trenbolone is used as a growth promoter for livestock in the USA. Also, a large portion of recreational exercisers inject 17β-trenbolone in large doses and for very long time to increase muscle and strength. 17β-trenbolone is stable in the environment after being excreted. In the present study, 17β-trenbolone was administered to adult and pregnant rats and the primary hippocampal neurons. 17β-trenbolone's distribution and its effects on serum hormone levels and Aβ42 accumulation in vivo and its effects on AD related parameters in vitro were assessed. 17β-trenbolone accumulated in adult rat brain, especially in the hippocampus, and in the fetus brain. It altered Aβ42 accumulation. 17β-trenbolone induced apoptosis of primary hippocampal neurons in vitro and resisted neuroprotective function of testosterone. Presenilin-1 protein expression was down-regulated while β-amyloid peptide 42 (Aβ42) production and caspase-3 activities were increased. Both androgen and estrogen receptors mediated the processes. 17β-trenbolone played critical roles in neurodegeneration. Exercisers who inject large doses of trenbolone and common people who are exposed to 17β-trenbolone by various ways are all influenced chronically and continually. Identification of such environmental risk factors will help us take early prevention measure to slow down the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights: • The widely used anabolic–androgenic steroid 17β-trenbolone has neurotoxicity. • 17β-trenbolone crosses the blood brain barrier and placental barrier. • Rat has high level of

  6. 17β-trenbolone, an anabolic–androgenic steroid as well as an environmental hormone, contributes to neurodegeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Fucui; Liu, Daicheng

    2015-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to neurodegenerative disorders. In a large number of neurodegenerative diseases (for example, Alzheimer's disease (AD)), patients do not carry the mutant genes. Other risk factors, for example the environmental factors, should be evaluated. 17β-trenbolone is a kind of environmental hormone as well as an anabolic–androgenic steroid. 17β-trenbolone is used as a growth promoter for livestock in the USA. Also, a large portion of recreational exercisers inject 17β-trenbolone in large doses and for very long time to increase muscle and strength. 17β-trenbolone is stable in the environment after being excreted. In the present study, 17β-trenbolone was administered to adult and pregnant rats and the primary hippocampal neurons. 17β-trenbolone's distribution and its effects on serum hormone levels and Aβ42 accumulation in vivo and its effects on AD related parameters in vitro were assessed. 17β-trenbolone accumulated in adult rat brain, especially in the hippocampus, and in the fetus brain. It altered Aβ42 accumulation. 17β-trenbolone induced apoptosis of primary hippocampal neurons in vitro and resisted neuroprotective function of testosterone. Presenilin-1 protein expression was down-regulated while β-amyloid peptide 42 (Aβ42) production and caspase-3 activities were increased. Both androgen and estrogen receptors mediated the processes. 17β-trenbolone played critical roles in neurodegeneration. Exercisers who inject large doses of trenbolone and common people who are exposed to 17β-trenbolone by various ways are all influenced chronically and continually. Identification of such environmental risk factors will help us take early prevention measure to slow down the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights: • The widely used anabolic–androgenic steroid 17β-trenbolone has neurotoxicity. • 17β-trenbolone crosses the blood brain barrier and placental barrier. • Rat has high level of

  7. Androgen-like activities in blood cleared for endogenous steroid hormones across European and Inuit populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Tanja; Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian; Goralczyk, Katarzyna

    of the present study was to compare the actual level of androgen-like activity in serum fractions containing the lipophilic POPs but free of endogenous hormones between different European and Inuit populations for finally to evaluate whether the xeno-androgenic activity is correlated to bio-accumulated POPs...... and /or lifestyle.To obtain the serum fraction containing the actual mixture of bio-accumulated POPs SPE-HPLC extraction was performed. The effect of the serum extract on the function of the androgen receptor (AR) trans-activity was determined using the Chinese Hamster Ovary cells CHO-K1, which were...

  8. Endocrine control of canine mammary neoplasms: serum reproductive hormone levels and tissue expression of steroid hormone, prolactin and growth hormone receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Spoerri, Michèle; Guscetti, Franco; Hartnack, Sonja; Boos, Alois; Oei, Christine; Balogh, Orsolya; Nowaczyk, Renata M; Michel, Erika; Reichler, Iris M; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2015-01-01

    Background Neoplasms of the mammary gland are among the most common diseases in female domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). It is assumed that reproductive hormones influence tumorigenesis in this species, although the precise role of the endocrine milieu and reproductive state is subject to continuing discussion. In line with this, a recent systematic review of available data on the development of mammary neoplasms revealed weak evidence for risk reduction after neutering and an effect of age a...

  9. [Gender and the effects of steroid hormones in the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, N; Vierk, R; Fester, L; Zhou, L; Imholz, P; Rune, G M

    2014-09-01

    Degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, the incidence and prevalence of which vary between men and women, often manifest in the hippocampus. Neurosteroids are hormones that are synthesized in the CNS, and it is here that they exert their influence. Estrogen and testosterone are examples of neurosteroid hormones. In the hippocampus, an area of the brain closely associated with learning and memory, the local synthesis of estrogen in females, but not in males, is essential for the plasticity and stability of the synapses. The inhibition of estrogen synthesis in the female hippocampus causes a reduction in long-term potentiation (LTP), an electrophysiological parameter of learning and memory, thus resulting in a significant loss of synapses. In light of this, the fact that estrogen has been attributed with many neuroprotective functions in degenerative diseases of the CNS suggests that therapeutic concepts involving the use of estrogen are possibly only effective in women, but not in men. These findings similarly provide a basis for explaining the gender dimorphism that has been found in certain degenerative illnesses of the CNS.

  10. Analytical method for the determination of trace levels of steroid hormones and corticosteroids in soil, based on PLE/SPE/LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gineys, N; Giroud, B; Vulliet, E

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient, sensitive and reliable analytical method for the determination of traces of steroid hormones (including oestrogen, androgens and progestagens) and corticosteroids in soil. A method of sample preparation involving pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the determination of six steroids and five corticosteroids in soils, followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The conditions employed for PLE involved acetone/methanol (50:50) as the extracting solvent, a temperature of 80 degrees C, two cycles and a static time of 5 min. The extraction was followed by a SPE clean-up based on a polymeric phase. With use of protocol, a residual matrix effect was, however, highlighted. The limit of detection in soil was 0.08-0.89 ng/g for steroids and 0.09-2.84 ng/g for corticosteroids.

  11. Sex-dependent expression of caveolin 1 in response to sex steroid hormones is closely associated with development of obesity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (CAV1 is a conserved group of structural membrane proteins that form special cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich compartments, especially in adipocytes. Recently, it has been reported that CAV1 is an important target protein in sex hormone-dependent regulation of various metabolic pathways, particularly in cancer and diabetes. To clarify distinct roles of CAV1 in sex-dependent obesity development, we investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD and sex steroid hormones on CAV1 expression in adipose tissues of male and female rats. Results of animal experiments revealed that estrogen (17-β-estradiol, E2 and androgen (dihydrotestosterone, DHT had opposite effects on body weight gain as well as on the regulation of CAV1, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in adipose tissues. Furthermore, sex hormone receptors and aromatase were differentially expressed in a sex-dependent manner in response to E2 and DHT treatments. In vivo data were confirmed using 3T3-L1 and HIB1B cell lines, where Cav1 knock down stimulated lipogenesis but suppressed sex hormone receptor signaling proteins. Most importantly, co-immunoprecipitation enabled the identification of previously unrecognized CAV1-interacting mitochondrial or lipid oxidative pathway proteins in adipose tissues. Taken together, current data showed that CAV1 may play important preventive role in the development of obesity, with more prominent effects in females, and proved to be an important target protein for the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue metabolism by manipulating sex hormone receptors and mitochondrial oxidative pathways. Therefore, we can report, for the first time, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of sex steroid hormones in the sex-dimorphic regulation of CAV1.

  12. The effect of Ligula intestinalis on blood sex steroid hormones, gonadal tissue and some other biological parameters changes of Chalcalburnus mossulensis in Vahdat dam of Kordestan-Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khanghah, Ali Parsa

    2010-01-01

    Chalcalburnus mossulensis from the cyprinidae family is one of the indigenous fish in Gheshlag Lake of Kordestan-Iran. Ligula intestinalis is one of the infective parasites of this fish. In this study, the effect of this parasite on some biological aspects of this fish like weight, length, PI, CF, GSR, blood sex steroid hormones and gonadal tissue, was investigated. During one year, by seasonal sampling, 144 fish sample from mentioned species were collected using trap net. By considering the ...

  13. Moderate heat challenge increased yolk steroid hormones and shaped offspring growth and behavior in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bertin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental challenges might affect the maternal organism and indirectly affect the later ontogeny of the progeny. We investigated the cross-generation impact of a moderate heat challenge in chickens. We hypothesized that a warm temperature--within the thermotolerance range--would affect the hormonal environment provided to embryos by mothers, and in turn, affect the morphology and behavioral phenotype of offspring. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Laying hens were raised under a standard thermal condition at 21°C (controls or 30°C (experimental for 5 consecutive weeks. A significant increase was observed in the internal temperature of hens exposed to the warm treatment; however plasma corticosterone levels remained unaffected. The laying rate was not affected, but experimental hens laid lighter eggs than the controls during the treatment. As expected, the maternal thermal environment affected yolk hormone contents. Eggs laid by the experimental hens showed significantly higher concentrations of yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol. All chicks were raised under standard thermal conditions. The quality of hatchlings, growth, feeding behavior and emotional reactivity of chicks were analyzed. Offspring of experimental hens (C30 chicks were lighter but obtained better morphological quality scores at hatching than the controls (C21 chicks. C30 chicks expressed lesser distress calls when exposed to a novel food. Unlike C21 chicks, C30 chicks expressed no preference for energetic food. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that moderate heat challenge triggers maternal effects and modulate the developmental trajectory of offspring in a way that may be adaptive. This suggests that the impact of heat challenges on captive or wild populations might have a cross-generation effect.

  14. Relationship between uterine morphology and peripheral concentrations of sex steroid hormone in wild Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Masako; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Osawa, Takeshi

    2009-07-01

    Developing a better understanding of the reproductive physiology and breeding condition peculiar to wild Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) is crucial for estimation of their habitat distribution. The aim of this study was to clarify the changes in morphology of the genital organs, cellular proliferation in the endometrium and sex steroid hormone concentrations along with the reproductive cycle in Japanese black bears. Samples were collected from a total of 24 female Japanese black bears (1-15 presumptive years old) that were caught in the wild in Iwate prefecture during the period between August 1999 and September 2005. Twenty-two out of the 24 animals were hunted from May to October. The ovaries from the 24 animals and the uteri from 23 animals were observed macroscopically and histologically to examine the relationship between morphology of the genital organs and the month of the year the animal was caught. The staining pattern of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the endometrium was characterised. Peripheral concentrations of oestradiol-17beta and progesterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. All the animals that had a corpus luteum (n=12) were captured from August to October. The thickness of the endometrium in the animals captured from August to October (n=16) was significantly greater than those in animals captured from May to July (n=5) (Pblack bears.

  15. The interaction between a sexually transferred steroid hormone and a female protein regulates oogenesis in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; South, Adam; Valim, Clarissa; Mancini, Francesca; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2013-10-01

    Molecular interactions between male and female factors during mating profoundly affect the reproductive behavior and physiology of female insects. In natural populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, blood-fed females direct nutritional resources towards oogenesis only when inseminated. Here we show that the mating-dependent pathway of egg development in these mosquitoes is regulated by the interaction between the steroid hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E) transferred by males during copulation and a female Mating-Induced Stimulator of Oogenesis (MISO) protein. RNAi silencing of MISO abolishes the increase in oogenesis caused by mating in blood-fed females, causes a delay in oocyte development, and impairs the function of male-transferred 20E. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that MISO and 20E interact in the female reproductive tract. Moreover MISO expression after mating is induced by 20E via the Ecdysone Receptor, demonstrating a close cooperation between the two factors. Male-transferred 20E therefore acts as a mating signal that females translate into an increased investment in egg development via a MISO-dependent pathway. The identification of this male-female reproductive interaction offers novel opportunities for the control of mosquito populations that transmit malaria.

  16. Steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone regulation of the very-high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) receptor phosphorylation for VHDL uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Du-Juan; Liu, Wen; Cai, Mei-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2013-04-01

    During the metamorphic stage of holometabolous insects, the biosynthetic precursors needed for the synthesis of a large number of adult proteins are acquired from the selective absorption of storage proteins. The very-high-density lipoprotein (VHDL), a non-hexameric storage protein, is consumed by the fat body from the hemolymph through VHDL receptor (VHDL-R)-mediated endocytosis. However, the mechanism of the uptake of VHDL by a VHDL-R remains unclear. In this study, a VHDL-R from Helicoverpa armigera was found to be involved in 20E-regulated VHDL uptake through the regulation of steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). The transcripts of VHDL-R were detected mainly in the fat body and integument during the wandering stage. The transcription of VHDL-R was upregulated by 20E through the ecdysteroid receptor (EcRB1) and Ultraspiracle (USP1). In addition, 20E stimulates the phosphorylation of VHDL-R through protein kinase C for ligand binding. VHDL-R knockdown in larvae results the inhibition of development to adulthood. These data imply that 20E regulates VHDL-R on both transcriptional and posttranslational levels for VHDL absorption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intracellular colocalization of HAP1/STBs with steroid hormone receptors and its enhancement by a proteasome inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinaga, Ryutaro; Takeshita, Yukio; Yoshioka, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Shinoda, Shuhei; Islam, Md. Nabiul; Jahan, Mir Rubayet; Yanai, Akie; Kokubu, Keiji; Shinoda, Koh, E-mail: shinoda@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

    2011-07-15

    The stigmoid body (STB) is a cytoplasmic inclusion containing huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1), and HAP1/STB formation is induced by transfection of the HAP1 gene into cultured cells. In the present study, we examined the intracellular colocalization of HAP1/STBs with steroid hormone receptors (SHRs), including the androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and mineralocorticoid receptor, in COS-7 cells cotransfected with HAP1 and each receptor. We found that C-terminal ligand-binding domains of all SHRs had potential for colocalization with HAP1/STBs, whereas only AR and GR were clearly colocalized with HAP1/STBs when each full-length SHR was coexpressed with HAP1. In addition, it appeared that HAP1/STBs did not disrupt GR and AR functions because the receptors on HAP1/STBs maintained nuclear translocation activity in response to their specific ligands. When the cells were treated with a proteasome inhibitor, GR and AR localized outside HAP1/STBs translocated into the nucleus, whereas the receptors colocalized with HAP1/STBs persisted in their colocalization even after treatment with their ligands. Therefore, HAP1/STBs may be involved in cytoplasmic modifications of the nuclear translocation of GR and AR in a ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  18. Testosterone Represses Estrogen Signaling by Upregulating miR-22: A Mechanism for Imbalanced Steroid Hormone Production in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xuan; Liu, Yanlei; Liu, Ming; Wang, Yongqing; Yan, Liying; Wang, Hao; Ma, Liyang; Li, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Yangyu; Wang, Yan-Ling

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia, a multisystem syndrome occurring during mid- to late gestation in humans, is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Patients usually present with high circulating testosterone and reduced estradiol production, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Revealing the mechanism that modulating the imbalance of testosterone and estradiol in preeclampsia is of great value in understanding the cause of the disease. The placenta is the predominant source of steroid hormone production during gestation, and we observed markedly increased 17β-HSD3 (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3) levels and downregulated aromatase expression, the key enzymes responsible for synthesis of testosterone and estradiol, respectively, in preeclamptic placentas compared with controls. Furthermore, we found a significant upregulation of microRNA (miR)-22 in preeclamptic placentas. In a trophoblast cell line, JEG-3 cells, testosterone repressed the expression of aromatase and estrogen receptor α and the production of estradiol while promoting miR-22 expression. miR-22 directly targeted and inhibited estrogen receptor α expression while indirectly decreasing aromatase expression and estradiol production by interfering with estrogen receptor α signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-22 expression significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of testosterone on de novo estradiol synthesis in human trophoblastic cells. The findings reveal a mechanism underlying the balanced production of androgen and estrogen modulated by miR-22 in the human placenta and provide new insights into the pathogenesis of preeclampsia from the aspect of endocrine regulation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Effect of methomyl on sex steroid hormone and vitellogenin levels in serum of male tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and recovery pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shun-Long; Qiu, Li-Ping; Hu, Geng-Dong; Fan, Li-Min; Song, Chao; Zheng, Yao; Wu, Wei; Qu, Jian-Hong; Li, Dan-Dan; Chen, Jia-Zhang; Xu, Pao

    2017-07-01

    Tilapia were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of 0, 0.2, 2, 20 or 200 μg/L for 30 days, then transferred to methomyl-free water for 18 days. E 2 , T, 11-KTand VTG in serum were examined. There were no significant changes in all the parameters in serum of tilapia exposed to 0.2 μg/L and 2 μg/L methomyl compared to the control. However, 20 μg/L and 200 μg/L have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system of male tilapia, as shown by its ability to increase VTG and E 2 and decrease T and 11-KT in serum. Thus it would appear the no observed adverse effect level for sexual steroid hormones of methomyl is lower than 2 μg/L. Recovery data showed that the effects produced by 20μg/L were reversible but not at 200μg/L. Furthermore, the sensitivity of above parameters to methomyl followed the order of VTG>E 2 >11-KT>T>GSI, suggesting VTG being the better biomarkers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Steroidal hormones and other endocrine active compounds in shallow groundwater in nonagricultural areas of Minnesota—Study design, methods, and data, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Melinda L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, completed a study on the occurrence of steroidal hormones and other endocrine active compounds in shallow groundwater in nonagricultural areas of Minnesota during 2009–10. This report describes the study design and methods, and presents the data collected on steroidal hormones and other related compounds. Environmental and quality-control samples were collected from 40 wells as part of this study. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory for 16 steroidal hormones and 4 other related compounds, of which all but 2 compounds are endocrine active compounds. Most of the water samples did not contain detectable concentrations of any of the 20 compounds analyzed. Water samples from three wells had detectable concentrations of one or more compounds. Bisphenol A was detected in samples from three wells, and trans-diethylstilbestrol was detected in one of the samples in which bisphenol A also was detected.

  1. Dioscorea esculenta-induced increase in muscle sex steroid hormones is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity in a type 2 diabetes rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koji; Fujita, Satoshi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2017-02-01

    The effects of chronic Dioscorea esculenta administration and exercise training on muscle sex steroid hormone levels and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes rats was assessed. Twenty-week-old male Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were assigned randomly to the control, D. esculenta treatment, D. esculenta with 5α-reductase inhibitor treatment, or the exercise training groups (running at 25 m/min for 1 h, 5 d/wk; n = 10 each group). Eight weeks of D. esculenta treatment or exercise training significantly attenuated the increase in plasma insulin and fasting glucose levels. Plasma and muscle concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the expression of 5α-reductase increased significantly in the D. esculenta-treated and exercise training groups, and both treatments led to the upregulation of glucose transporter-4 translocation with concomitant increases in PKB and PKC-ζ/λ phosphorylation. Furthermore, the glucose metabolic clearance rate, which represents insulin sensitivity, increased significantly in both the D. esculenta-treated and exercise training groups. These effects were suppressed by administration of the DHT synthetic inhibitor. Together, these findings suggest that the D. esculenta-induced increase in muscle sex steroid hormone levels helps decrease insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.-Sato, K., Fujita, S., Iemitsu, M. Dioscorea esculenta-induced increase in muscle sex steroid hormones is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity in a type 2 diabetes rat model. © FASEB.

  2. Effects of sex steroid hormones and menopause on serum leptin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, C; Tommaselli, G A; Nappi, C

    2002-12-01

    Leptin is a protein secreted by adipocytes; its circulating levels are correlated to fat mass and it acts on the hypothalamic centers regulating body weight. Leptin may also play an important role in regulating reproductive function. Indeed, ob/ob mice, lacking leptin due to a genetic mutation, are obese and infertile; administration of recombinant leptin to these animals reduces body weight and restores fertility. A sexual dimorphism in serum leptin levels has also been observed, with higher concentrations in women. Studies in vitro seem to indicate that estrogens stimulate leptin secretion, while in vivo studies are extremely discordant. In humans, several studies showed increased, unmodified and decreased leptin levels after the menopause. Furthermore, hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) after the menopause was reported to result in unmodified, increased or decreased leptin levels. It is likely that the effects of postmenopausal hypoestrogenism on leptin levels are masked by the postmenopausal changes in body composition. Indeed, after menopause, there is an increase in body weight, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass with a centralization of fat distribution. Administration of HRT may stop these changes and even restore a premenopausal pattern, leading then to decreased leptin levels.

  3. Halloween genes encode P450 enzymes that mediate steroid hormone biosynthesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lawrence I

    2004-02-27

    Mutation of members of the Halloween gene family results in embryonic lethality. We have shown that two of these genes code for enzymes responsible for specific steps in the synthesis of ecdysone, a polyhydroxylated sterol that is the precursor of the major molting hormone of all arthropods, 20-hydroxyecdysone. These two mitochondrial P450 enzymes, coded for by disembodied (dib) (CYP302A1) and shadow (sad) (CYP315A1), are the C22 and C2 hydroxylases, respectively, as shown by transfection of the gene into S2 cells and subsequent biochemical analysis. These are the last two enzymes in the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway. A third enzyme, necessary for the critical conversion of ecdysone to 20-hydroxyecdysone, the 20-monooxygenase, is encoded by shade (shd) (CYP314A1). All three enzymes are mitochondrial although shade has motifs suggesting both mitochondrial and microsomal locations. By tagging these enzymes, their subcellular location has been confirmed by confocal microscopy. Shade is present in several tissues as expected while disembodied and shadow are restricted to the ring gland. The paradigm used should allow us to define the enzymes mediating the entire ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway.

  4. The Role of ApoE Polymorphism in the Relationship between Serum Steroid Hormone Levels and Cognition in Older Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEpidemiology studies have indicated an association of apolipoprotein E (ApoE genetic polymorphism and circulating steroid hormone levels with the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. The established physiologic relationship between apolipoproteins and steroid hormone indicate an important role of ApoE polymorphism in impacting the relationship between serum steroid hormones and cognition in the elderly.Study designA total of 500 Chinese adults aged between 50 and 75 participated in this community-based cross-sectional study. Blood samples were collected in the morning for ApoE genotyping and serum parameter assessment. Cognitive performance of participants was evaluated by Montreal Cognitive Assessment test.ResultsAge, gender, educational level, smoking, and physical activity levels are factors associated with cognitive performance in this older Chinese adults. Compared to the control subjects, MCI subjects demonstrated higher serum total cholesterol, HDL-C, and estradiol status (P < 0.05. ApoE genotype difference of serum lipid profile was observed with a relatively higher mean serum triglyceride levels in ApoE2 and ApoE4 carriers (P < 0.05, and lower mean serum HDL-C level in ApoE4 carriers (P < 0.05. Memory and delayed recall ability was serum estradiol level related; and subjects with higher circulating estradiol concentration exhibited lower memory and delayed recall ability (P < 0.05. The association of serum estradiol and cortisol concentration with cognitive performance was ApoE genotypes dependent. Poor cognitive performance was observed in ApoE2 and ApoE4 carriers with higher serum estradiol level (P < 0.05. Moreover, ApoE2 and ApoE4 carriers with higher serum cortisol status demonstrated decreased language ability (P < 0.05. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicates that subjects with higher serum estradiol status may have an increased risk for MCI [OR = 2.004, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1

  5. The cAMP analogue, dbcAMP affects release of steroid hormones by cultured rabbit ovarian cells and their response to FSH, IGF-I and ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrenek, Peter; Grossmann, Roland; Sirotkin, Alexander V

    2010-08-25

    The aim of the present study was to examine possible involvement of cAMP-dependent intracellular mechanisms in control of ovarian cell steroidogenesis and its response to hormonal regulators. For this purpose, we examined the influence of administration of dbcAMP, a cAMP analogue (50 microg/animal) in vivo, on release of progesterone, testosterone and estradiol by isolated ovarian fragments, as well their response to hormonal regulators of ovarian steroidogenesis-FSH, IGF-I and ghrelin (all added at doses of 100 ng/ml). It was observed, that administration of dbcAMP resulted reduction in progesterone and testosterone, but not of estradiol release by isolated ovarian fragments. In ovarian tissue isolated from control animals, additions of hormones were able to reduce release of progesterone (FSH, IGF-I and ghrelin) and increase release of testosterone (ghrelin) but did not change estradiol output. Previous administration of dbcAMP modified action of exogenous hormones: it inverted inhibitory action of FSH, IGF-I and ghrelin on progesterone release to stimulatory action and induced stimulatory action of IGF-I on testosterone release and stimulatory effect of FSH on estradiol output. The present observations confirm involvement of peptide hormones FSH, IGF-I and ghrelin in the control of rabbit ovarian steroid hormones release and demonstrate the involvement of cAMP-dependent intracellular mechanisms in down-regulation of rabbit ovarian steroidogenesis and in modification, but not in mediating effect of FSH, IGF-I and ghrelin on ovarian steroid hormones release. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of sex steroid hormones in the immunopathology of experimental pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Isabel Bini

    Full Text Available The relation between men and women suffering pulmonary tuberculosis is 7/3 in favor to males. Sex hormones could be a significant factor for this difference, considering that testosterone impairs macrophage activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines production, while estrogens are proinflammatory mediator's inducer. The aim of this work was to compare the evolution of tuberculosis in male and female mice using a model of progressive disease. BALB/c mice, male and female were randomized into two groups: castrated or sham-operated, and infected by the intratracheal route with a high dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Mice were euthanized at different time points and in their lungs were determined bacilli loads, inflammation, cytokines expression, survival and testosterone levels in serum. Non-castrated male mice showed significant higher mortality and bacilli burdens during late disease than female and castrated male animals. Compared to males, females and castrated males exhibited significant higher inflammation in all lung compartments, earlier formation of granulomas and pneumonia, while between castrated and non-castrated females there were not significant differences. Females and castrated males expressed significant higher TNF-α, IFN γ, IL12, iNOS and IL17 than non-castrated males during the first month of infection. Serum Testosterone of males showed higher concentration during late infection. Orchidectomy at day 60 post-infection produced a significant decrease of bacilli burdens in coexistence with higher expression of TNFα, IL-12 and IFNγ. Thus, male mice are more susceptible to tuberculosis than females and this was prevented by castration suggesting that testosterone could be a tuberculosis susceptibility factor.

  7. The Influence of Sex Steroid Hormones in the Immunopathology of Experimental Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Estela Isabel; Mata Espinosa, Dulce; Marquina Castillo, Brenda; Barrios Payán, Jorge; Colucci, Darío; Cruz, Alejandro Francisco; Zatarain, Zyanya Lucía; Alfonseca, Edgar; Pardo, Marta Romano; Bottasso, Oscar; Pando, Rogelio Hernández

    2014-01-01

    The relation between men and women suffering pulmonary tuberculosis is 7/3 in favor to males. Sex hormones could be a significant factor for this difference, considering that testosterone impairs macrophage activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines production, while estrogens are proinflammatory mediator’s inducer. The aim of this work was to compare the evolution of tuberculosis in male and female mice using a model of progressive disease. BALB/c mice, male and female were randomized into two groups: castrated or sham-operated, and infected by the intratracheal route with a high dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Mice were euthanized at different time points and in their lungs were determined bacilli loads, inflammation, cytokines expression, survival and testosterone levels in serum. Non-castrated male mice showed significant higher mortality and bacilli burdens during late disease than female and castrated male animals. Compared to males, females and castrated males exhibited significant higher inflammation in all lung compartments, earlier formation of granulomas and pneumonia, while between castrated and non-castrated females there were not significant differences. Females and castrated males expressed significant higher TNF-α, IFN γ, IL12, iNOS and IL17 than non-castrated males during the first month of infection. Serum Testosterone of males showed higher concentration during late infection. Orchidectomy at day 60 post-infection produced a significant decrease of bacilli burdens in coexistence with higher expression of TNFα, IL-12 and IFNγ. Thus, male mice are more susceptible to tuberculosis than females and this was prevented by castration suggesting that testosterone could be a tuberculosis susceptibility factor. PMID:24722144

  8. Effects of a high-fiber, low-fat diet intervention on serum concentrations of reproductive steroid hormones in women with a history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Stefanick, Marcia L; Newman, Vicky A; Jones, Lovell A; Natarajan, Loki; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Hollenbach, Kathryn A; Pierce, John P; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2004-06-15

    Diet intervention trials are testing whether postdiagnosis dietary modification can influence breast cancer recurrence and survival. One possible mechanism is an effect on reproductive steroid hormones. Serum reproductive steroid hormones were measured at enrollment and 1 year in 291 women with a history of breast cancer who were enrolled onto a randomized, controlled diet intervention trial. Dietary goals for the intervention group were increased fiber, vegetable, and fruit intakes and reduced fat intake. Estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured. The intervention (but not the comparison) group reported a significantly lower intake of energy from fat (21% v 28%), and higher intake of fiber (29 g/d v 22 g/d), at 1-year follow-up (P <.001). Significant weight loss did not occur in either group. A significant difference in the change in bioavailable estradiol concentration from baseline to 1 year in the intervention (-13 pmol/L) versus the comparison (+3 pmol/L) group was observed (P <.05). Change in fiber (but not fat) intake was significantly and independently related to change in serum bioavailable estradiol (P <.01) and total estradiol (P <.05) concentrations. Results from this study indicate that a high-fiber, low-fat diet intervention is associated with reduced serum bioavailable estradiol concentration in women diagnosed with breast cancer, the majority of whom did not exhibit weight loss. Increased fiber intake was independently related to the reduction in serum estradiol concentration.

  9. Evaluation of mesoporous silicas functionalized with C18 groups as stationary phases for the solid-phase extraction of steroid hormones in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, Virginia; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; García, María Ángeles; Marina, María Luisa; Alonso, Isabel Sierra

    2014-06-01

    In this work, two mesoporous silicas functionalized with C18 groups (SM-C18 and SBA-15-C18) have been synthesized for their evaluation as stationary phases in SPE for the extraction and preconcentration of seven steroid hormones (estrone, estradiol, estriol, ethinyl estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, testosterone, and progesterone ) from milk. The characterization of both materials by diverse techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, SEM, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and adsorption-desorption isotherms showed that the mesoporous silicas had a high surface area, high pore volume, and a homogeneous distribution of the pores and that both silicas presented a similar degree of functionalization. An analytical methodology for the simultaneous separation of the seven selected steroids by HPLC-DAD was developed. Both silicas were evaluated as stationary phases in SPE for the extraction of the steroid hormones from milk. This HPLC-DAD method was applied to the analysis of all extracts obtained in the SPE experiments, showing that from the two synthesized mesoporus silicas, SBA-15-C18 silica enabled the extraction of the seven compounds with recoveries between 88 and 108% for all except for estriol, for which a recovery of 62% was obtained. The analytical characteristics of this methodology were evaluated, showing good precision and linearity (R2 > 0.994) for all analytes. The comparison of the results obtained with this silica and those obtained with commercial C18 particles and with some other commercial cartridges usually employed in the extraction of steroids showed that SBA-15-C18 silica was able to extract the seven steroids with higher recovery values. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. C-peptide, IGF-I, sex-steroid hormones and adiposity : a cross-sectional study in healthy women within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, ID; Rinaldi, S; Dossus, L; van Gils, CH; Peeters, PHM; Noord, PAH; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Johnsen, SP; Overvad, K; Olsen, A; Tjonneland, A; Boeing, H; Lahmann, PH; Linseisen, J; Nagel, G; Allen, N; Roddam, A; Bingham, S; Khaw, KT; Kesse, E; Tehard, B; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Agudo, A; Ardanaz, E; Quiros, [No Value; Amiano, P; Martinez-Garcia, C; Tormo, MJ; Pala, [No Value; Panico, S; Vineis, P; Palli, D; Tumino, R; Trichopoulou, A; Baibas, N; Zilis, D; Hemon, B; Norat, T; Riboli, E; Kaaks, R

    Objectives: The risk of some cancers is positively associated with body weight, which may influence circulating levels of sex-steroid hormones, insulin and IGF-I. Interrelationships between these hormones and the associations with adiposity were evaluated in healthy women participating in the

  11. [Determination of eleven steroid hormones in animal muscle tissues and eggs using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Limin; Huang, Xianhui; Fang, Binghu; Huang, Shixin; Cao, Ying; Chen, Jianxin; Zeng, Zhenling; Chen, Zhangliu

    2008-11-01

    A credible method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eleven steroid hormone residues in animal muscle tissues and eggs based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The eleven steroid hormones were testosterone, methyltestosterone, trenbolone, boldenone, nandrolone, methandienone, stanozolol, progesterone, nadrolone propionate, testosterone propionate and nadrolone phenylpropionate. The samples were extracted with tert-butyl methyl ether at alkaline pH and then cleaned up by freezing-lipid filtration. All these drugs can be assayed in 10 min by UPLC-MS/MS using electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring mode. The limits of detection were 0.3 microg/kg for testosterone, methyltestosterone, boldenone, methandienone and stanozolol, and 0.4 microg/kg for trenbolone nandrolone, progesterone, testosterone propionate and nadrolone phenylpropionate. Overall recoveries of testosterone, methyltestosterone, boldenone, methandienone and stanozolol were 62.3% - 105% from pork, beef, mutton and chicken muscle tissues, and eggs fortified at the 1, 2 and 10 microg/kg levels, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 0.5% - 15%. The recoveries of trenbolone nandrolone, progesterone, testosterone propionate and nadrolone phenylpropionate were higher than 50.0%, and the RSDs were lower than 16%. The matrix calibration curve for each drug was linear (r > 0.99) from 1 to 100 microg/L. The established method is simple, rapid, sensitive and specific, and is appropriate for the identification and quantification of anabolic androgenic steroids in animal muscle tissues and eggs.

  12. Morphometric Criteria for Bioassay of Agonist and Antagonist Actions of Steroid Hormones in the Mammary Gland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hufriy, A.; Köhlerová, Eva; Škarda, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 72, - (2003), s. 483-491 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5020115; GA ČR GA524/02/0406; GA AV ČR IBS5045302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : mice * epithelium growth * estradiol Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2003

  13. Climatic correlates of female and male reproductive cycles and plasma steroid hormone levels in the many-lined sun skink Eutropis multifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Yan; Du, Yu; Yang, Jing; Lin, Chi-Xian; Ji, Xiang

    2012-09-01

    Gonadal activity and plasma steroid hormone (testosterone and 17β-estradiol) levels in males and females of a viviparous skink (Eutropis multifasciata) were investigated. Changes in the hormone profiles were then correlated to changes in environmental factors such as temperature and rainfall and were found to vary seasonally in both sexes. Gonadal activity, calculated using testicular mass and volume, seminiferous tubule diameter and epithelial height in males and, in females, ovary mass and largest follicular volume also varied seasonally. Peak spermiogenesis was in synchrony with maximal vitellogenic activity, but reproductive synchronicity among females was low. Ovary mass and largest follicular volumes were negatively related to air temperature and rainfall. Testicular mass and volume were not related to air temperature, but both were negatively related to rainfall. Rainfall explained a greater proportion of variation in vitellogenic activity than temperature. As for the climatic correlates of seasonal variation in plasma steroid hormones, we found only in males that the plasma level of testosterone was negatively related to rainfall. Taken together, our data show that male and female reproductive activities are more tightly correlated with rainfall than temperature in E. multifasciata. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex steroid hormones in natural populations of a sexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus inornatus, a direct evolutionary ancestor of a unisexual parthenogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M C; Crews, D

    1986-09-01

    The lizard genus Cnemidophorus consists of both sexual species and unisexual, all-female species. We characterized changes in circulating levels of gonadal sex steroid hormones in males and females in one of the sexual species, C. inornatus, to compare them to previously measured levels in a unisexual, parthenogenetic species, C. uniparens. Reproductively active male C. inornatus have high levels of dihydrotestosterone and somewhat lower levels of testosterone. These levels are highest immediately after females become sexually receptive and decrease later at the onset of testicular regression. Female C. inornatus have high levels of estradiol and low levels of progesterone during the previtellogenic and vitellogenic phases of the ovarian cycle. During the postovulatory phase, they have low levels of estradiol and high levels of progesterone. We could not detect circulating levels of androgen at any phase of the ovarian cycle. The patterns of hormone secretion in the female C. inornatus are virtually identical to those of its direct evolutionary descendant, C. uniparens. This confirms our previous conclusion that the evolution of the parthenogenetic mode of reproduction and expression of male-like pseudosexual behavior that are characteristic of the unisexual C. uniparens has not been accomplished by evolutionary modifications in the pattern of sex steroid hormone secretion. Rather it is the response to this pattern of secretion that has been modified.

  15. Steroid receptors and their ligands: effects on male gamete functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [The resting-state functional connectivity of the hypothalamus and its relationships with gonadal steroid hormones and depression symptoms in perimenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianglan; Tao, Jiong; Zhong, Zhiyong; Liu, Sha; Han, Zili; Zhang, Jinbei; Li, Lingjiang

    2015-10-20

    This study aimed to investigate the resting-state functional connectivity of the hypothalamus and its relationships with gonadal steroid hormones and depression symptoms in perimenopausal women. Total 66 perimenopausal women voluntarily participated in this study from October 2012 to June 2013. Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSDS) was used to assess depression symptoms. Plasma gonadal steroid hormones including estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone were determined by the chemiluminescence immunoassay. A 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner was utilized to acquire resting-state functional MRI data. The z-value functional connectivity map of each participant was calculated voxel-wisely based on the seed region of the hypothalamus. One sample t test of Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) were used to determine the brain areas with statistically significant functional connectivity to the hypothalamus, then multiple regression of SPM was used to calculate the correlated areas with 3 gonadal steroid hormones, respectively. Finally, Pearson correlation was performed to analyze bivariate correlations between mean z-values and ZSDS scores. Significant functional connectivity to the hypothalamus were found in brain areas as follows:the lateral inferior frontal gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, subgenual cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, cuneus and precuneus, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, and angular gyrus (False Discovery Rate qdepression symptoms (r=0.278, P=0.024) and somatic symptoms (r=0.357, P=0.003). In perimenopausal women, the hypothalamus has resting-state functional connectivity with widespread areas involved in the brain depression-related network and default mode network, and the plasma androgen level may modulate the functional connectivity strengths of the hypothalamus and decrease the susceptibility of perimenopausal women to depression.

  17. Endogenous and exogenous sex steroid hormones in asthma and allergy in females: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nwaru, Bright; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Before puberty, asthma and allergy are more common in males than in females, but these conditions become more common in females than in males during adulthood until around the time of menopause.(1-7) The disease severity, healthcare utilisation and impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are also considerably higher in post-pubertal females than in males.(1-7) Although the specific mechanisms for these differences are unclear, it has been suggested that female sex steroid hormones ma...

  18. Incorporation of (14)C-cholesterol in human adrenal corticocarcinoma H295R cell line and online-radiodetection of produced (14)C-steroid hormone metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Khalik, Jonas; Björklund, Erland; Nielsen, Frederik Knud

    2017-01-01

    in the steroidogenesis of H295R cells, radioactive cholesterol may potentially only need to be added just before the cells are incubated for 72h in well plates. Based on the obtained HPLC-FSA chromatograms, and confirmation of the observations by studies in the literature, a qualitative time profile for the production......, the concept of radiolabeling the steroidogenesis in H295R cells with (14)C-cholesterol and detecting the radiolabeled steroid hormones online was proved and may assist in further toxicological studies....

  19. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on sexual maturation, sex steroids and thyroid hormone levels in Caspian lamprey (Caspiomyzon wagneri Kessler, 1870)

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, M.; Mojazi Amiri, B.; Abdoli, A.; Javanshir, A.; Benam, S.; Namdarian, A.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on sexual maturation, plasma sex steroids [17β-estradiol, (E2) and 17α-hydroxy progesterone (17α_OHP)] and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine, T3 and thyroxin, T4) levels in upstream - migrating Caspian lamprey. During the experiment, 36 fish (24 females and 12 males) in spring 2013 and 36 fish (24 females and 12 males) in fall 2013 were collected from the Shirud River estuary in Mazandaran Province,...

  20. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  1. Do changes in sex steroid hormones precede or follow increases in body weight during the menopause transition? Results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, Rachel P; Tepper, Ping G; Crawford, Sybil; Finkelstein, Joel S; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Thurston, Rebecca C; Santoro, Nanette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Greendale, Gail A

    2012-09-01

    Whether menopause-related changes in sex steroids account for midlife weight gain in women or whether weight drives changes in sex steroids remains unanswered. The objective of the study was to characterize the potential reciprocal nature of the associations between sex hormones and their binding protein with waist circumference in midlife women. The study included 1528 women (mean age 46 yr) with 9 yr of follow-up across the menopause transition from the observational Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Waist circumference, SHBG, testosterone, FSH, and estradiol were measured. Current waist circumference predicted future SHBG, testosterone, and FSH but not vice versa. For each SD higher current waist circumference, at the subsequent visit SHBG was lower by 0.04-0.15 SD, testosterone was higher by 0.08-0.13 SD, and log(2) FSH was lower by 0.15-0.26 SD. Estradiol results were distinct from those above, changing direction across the menopause transition. Estradiol and waist circumference were negatively associated in early menopausal transition stages and positively associated in later transition stages (for each SD higher current waist circumference, future estradiol was lower by 0.15 SD in pre- and early perimenopause and higher by 0.38 SD in late peri- and postmenopause; P for interaction changes in sex steroids rather than vice versa.

  2. Dicamba affects sex steroid hormone level and mRNA expression of related genes in adult rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lifei; Li, Wei; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Zijian

    2015-01-01

    Dicamba is a benzoic acid herbicide that has been detected in surface and ground water. The herbicide has been shown to have cytogeneic and DNA damaging effects and to cause organ damage in mammals; however, little is known about the endocrine disrupting effects of dicamba in fish. In this study, histological changes, plasma vitellogenin (VTG) and sex hormone levels, and mRNA expression of sex steroid hormone-related genes were determined in adult rare minnow exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of dicamba (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, and 50 μg/L) for 40 days. The results showed inhibition of spermatogenesis in male testes and ovarian degeneration in females. Plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) levels were significantly increased in both genders, and plasma VTG levels were significantly increased in males (pdicamba. Moreover, the mRNA levels of vtg were significantly upregulated in the livers and gonads of both male and female rare minnows (p dicamba exposure could result in histological lesions, plasma VTG increases, changes in sex hormone levels, and alterations of hormone-related gene expression. Therefore, dicamba should be considered to be a potential endocrine disruptor. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sexual maturation, serum steroid concentrations, and mRNA expression of IGF-1, luteinizing and progesterone hormone receptors and survivin gene in Japanese quail hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shit, N; Sastry, K V H; Singh, R P; Pandey, N K; Mohan, J

    2014-03-15

    In avian species, sexual maturation represents the evidence of start laying, which is a consequence of the development of ovarian follicles. These follicles are the functional reproductive unit whose maturation and viability critically depends on endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors beyond the signals from the central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to investigate the correlation of sexual maturity with tissue growth, mRNA expression of certain genes, and serum steroid concentrations in Japanese quail hens. To carry out the present study, a total of forty Japanese quail hens (5 weeks) were housed individually under uniform husbandry condition with ad libitum quail layer ration and water at 14-hour photo schedule. On sixth week onwards, four birds were sacrificed at each time on 1, 3, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28 days. Serum was extracted aseptically to analyze the gonadal steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone) and corticosterone to investigate the liaison with sexual maturation of the species. Expression analyses of four genes i.e., insulin-like growth factor-1, luteinizing hormone receptor, progesterone receptor, and survivin were carried out in the three largest ovarian yellow follicles. A significant (P Japanese quail may be completed by the time of 8 weeks after its birth in support of the analyzed information studied in the current investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of long-term treatment with steroid hormones or tamoxifen on the progesterone receptor and androgen receptor in the endometrium of ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cline J Mark

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The progesterone receptor (PR and androgen receptor (AR belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Two isoforms of PR (A and B have been identified with different functions. The expression of AR, each isoform of PR and their involvement in long-term effects on the endometrium after hormonal replacement therapy (HRT or tamoxifen (TAM treatment is not known. The aims of this study were to determine PR(A+B, PRB and AR distribution by immunohistochemistry in the macaque (Macaca fascicularis endometrium. Ovariectomized (OVX animals were orally treated continuously for 35 months with either conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; the combination of CEE/MPA; or TAM. Treatment with CEE/MPA tended to down-regulate PR in the superficial glands, but increased it in the stroma. TAM treatment increased both the PR and PRB levels in the stroma. Overall, less than 20% of the cells were positive for the PRB isoform and less variation was observed after steroid treatment. AR was found in the stroma, mainly distributed in the basal layer of the endometrium in the OVX and steroid treated groups, but was absent in the TAM treated group. No AR was found in the glandular epithelium. The present data show that long-term hormone treatment affects the PR level, and also the ratio between PRA and PRB in the endometrium.

  5. Steroid Hydroxylase Activities as Noninvasive Biomarkers of Toxicant Exposure and Effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leblanc, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    .... The overall goal of this research project was to test the hypothesis that changes in the metabolic elimination of the steroid hormone testosterone could serve as a non-invasive biomarker of toxicant...

  6. Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on the development of long-acting growth hormone preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Backeljauw, Philippe F; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). PARTICIPANTS: A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including...... pediatric and adult endocrinologists, basic scientists, regulatory scientists, and participants from the pharmaceutical industry. EVIDENCE: Current literature was reviewed for gaps in knowledge. Expert opinion was used to suggest studies required to address potential safety and efficacy issues. CONSENSUS...... day of the workshop. Scientists from industry and regulatory agencies reviewed the manuscript to identify any factual errors. CONCLUSIONS: LAGH compounds may represent an advance over daily GH injections because of increased convenience and differing phamacodynamic properties, providing the potential...

  7. Serotonergic outcome, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in a South American cichlid fish fed with an L-tryptophan enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, Leonel; Ramallo, Martín Roberto; Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Höcht, Christian; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Silva, Ana; Pandolfi, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Reared animals for edible or ornamental purposes are frequently exposed to high aggression and stressful situations. These factors generally arise from conspecifics in densely breeding conditions. In vertebrates, serotonin (5-HT) has been postulated as a key neuromodulator and neurotransmitter involved in aggression and stress. The essential amino acid L-tryptophan (trp) is crucial for the synthesis of 5-HT, and so, leaves a gateway for indirectly augmenting brain 5-HT levels by means of a trp-enriched diet. The cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus, locally known as chanchita, is an autochthonous, potentially ornamental species and a fruitful laboratory model which behavior and reproduction has been studied over the last 15years. It presents complex social hierarchies, and great asymmetries between subordinate and dominant animals in respect to aggression, stress, and reproductive chance. The first aim of this work was to perform a morphological description of chanchita's brain serotonergic system, in both males and females. Then, we evaluated the effects of a trp-supplemented diet, given during 4weeks, on brain serotonergic activity, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in isolated specimens. Results showed that chanchita's brain serotonergic system is composed of several populations of neurons located in three main areas: pretectum, hypothalamus and raphe, with no clear differences between males and females at a morphological level. Animals fed with trp-enriched diets exhibited higher forebrain serotonergic activity and a significant reduction in their relative cortisol levels, with no effects on sexual steroid plasma levels or growth parameters. Thus, this study points to food trp enrichment as a "neurodietary'' method for elevating brain serotonergic activity and decreasing stress, without affecting growth or sex steroid hormone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Steroid metabolism in the hormone dependent MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line and its two hormone resistant subpopulations MCF-7/LCC1 and MCF-7/LCC2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L; Brünner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1998-01-01

    and 17beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase were investigated isolating the following steroids: estriol (E3), estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), 3alpha/beta-androstanediol (A-diol), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (AND), androstenedion (4-AD) and androstanedione (A-dion). For all...

  9. The effect of brassinolide, a plant steroid hormone, on drug resistant small-cell lung carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadava, David; Kane, Susan E

    2017-11-04

    Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) has a dismal prognosis in part because of multidrug resistance (MDR). Epibrassinolide (EB) is a steroid hormone in plants, with many physiological effects. It acts via a membrane receptor and GSK3 pathway, resulting in stabilization of a transcription factor. The parallels to the Wnt signaling pathway, which is activated in SCLC and results in increased β-catenin, prompted investigations of the effects of EB on drug-resistant (VPA17) and drug-sensitive (H69) SCLC cells. EB was cytotoxic to both cell lines (IC 50  = 2 μM), indicating a lack of cross-resistance in the VPA17 cell line. EB was pro-apoptotic after 24 h as measured by ELISA of BUdR-labeled DNA fragments and caspase-3 specific activity (2.5 enzyme units/mg protein vs. 0.01 units/mg protein for untreated controls). Matrigel assays showed that EB reduced the SCLC cell invasion phenotype by 80%. Pre-incubation of VPA17 cells in 1 μM EB for 96 h reversed resistance to etoposide (IC 50  = 6.0 μM, reduced to 1.8 μM with EB) and doxorubicin (IC 50  = 0.37 μM, reduced to 0.09 μM). Synergism between EB and chemotherapy drugs was investigated by exposure of VPA17 cells to 1:1 ratios at the respective IC 50 values, with serial dilutions at 0.25 to 2.0 × IC 50 and determination of the combination index (CI). EB and etoposide showed synergism (CI = 0.80 at ED50); EB and doxorubicin also showed synergism (CI = 0.65 at ED50). Incubation of SCLC cells in EB led to a time- and dose dependent reduction of β-catenin (maximum 80% reduction). Gene expression analyses of SCLC cells showed EB incubation resulted in significant reduction in expression of β-catenin-dependent genes that are anti-apoptotic (e.g., c-Jun, survivin), cell division-related (e.g., CCND1 cyclin, sox9), and metastasis-related (e.g., MMP7, uPAR). WIKI4, a known inhibitor of Wnt signaling, was cytotoxic to SCLC cells (IC 50  = 0.02 μM). Synergism between EB and WIKI4 was determined by

  10. Male Snakes Allocate Time and Energy according to Individual Energetic Status: Body Condition, Steroid Hormones, and Reproductive Behavior in Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms will hedge current reproductive investment against potential costs in terms of survivorship and future fecundity. However, little is known regarding the endocrine mechanisms underlying bet-hedging strategies in free-ranging male vertebrates. We examined the relationships among individual energetic status, steroid hormones, mate search, and reproductive behavior in free-ranging male timber rattlesnakes. Snakes were monitored over four active seasons in order to test two hypotheses: (1) males adjust the amount of time and energy allocated toward reproduction according to the level of individual energy stores, and (2) observed condition-dependent reproductive allocation is associated with circulating concentrations of steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) thought to regulate reproductive behaviors in vertebrates. A positive relationship between body condition and testosterone was observed in both the field and the laboratory. Male mate search effort was positively correlated with both body condition and testosterone. Body condition and testosterone concentrations were negatively related to time allocated toward foraging during the breeding season. A strong effect of year was observed in the analysis of testosterone and search effort, suggesting that multiple environmental factors impact hormone production and reproductive investment. Corticosterone was not related to any measured variable. Therefore, our results did not indicate a clear role of corticosterone in mediating observed relationships between energetic status and behavior. Observed relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that males allocate time and energy toward reproduction according to individual energetic status and that testosterone plays a role in mediating the trade-off between current reproductive investment and residual reproductive value.

  11. Sex steroid hormones and sex hormone binding globulin levels, CYP17 MSP AI (-34T:C) and CYP19 codon 39 (Trp:Arg) variants in children with developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hiwa; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Rahimi, Zohreh; Faghihi, Faezeh; Khazaie, Habibolah; Farhangdoost, Hashem; Mehrpour, Masoud

    2017-12-01

    Developmental stuttering is known to be a sexually dimorphic and male-biased speech motor control disorder. In the present case-control study, we investigated the relationship between developmental stuttering and steroid hormones. Serum levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oestradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), as well as the 2nd/4th digit ratio (2D:4D), an indicator of prenatal testosterone level, were compared between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS). Moreover, two SNPs (CYP17 -34 T:C (MSP AI) and CYP19 T:C (Trp:Arg)) of cytochrome P450, which is involved in steroid metabolism pathways, were analysed between the groups. Our results showed significantly higher levels of testosterone, DHT, and oestradiol in CWS in comparison with CWNS. The severity of stuttering was positively correlated with the serum levels of testosterone, DHEA, and cortisol, whereas no association was seen between the stuttering and digit ratio, progesterone, or SHBG. The CYP17CC genotype was significantly associated with the disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PERCEPTION OF THE MOLTING HORMONE 20-HYDROXECDYSONE BY HOMARUS AMERICANUS: LOCALIZATION OF STEROID RECEPTORS AND EFFECT ON BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing evidence that hormones, when released from an animal into the environment, act as chemical signals to other organisms. There is also evidence to suggest that hormones are released by lobsters during sexual and agonistic encounters to signal conspecifics. The go...

  13. Intracellular actions of steroid hormones and their therapeutic value, including the potential of radiohalosteroids against ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.A.; Scharl, A.; Kullander, S.; Beckmann, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    With recombinant cDNA technology, yeast and cultured animal cells can be made to express mammalian cDNA steroid receptors from cDNA clones that contain deletions and substitutions. Among the leading problems addressed in these models is the characterization of sequences that promote association or interaction with other transcription regulating molecules, including oncogene products. Recently it has been found that heat shock proteins may serve not only to stabilize the receptor proteins but also to precondition the activation imparted by ligand binding. Aberrant receptor proteins can be found in ovarian cancer. Whether aberrant receptor proteins are associated with transformation in general or with a variable clinical response to steroidal or anti-steroidal therapy is not known. Even after chemotherapy, steroid receptors are expressed in the metastases of ovarian cancers seen clinically, and they may have potential use for localization and treatment of receptor-rich cancers. Radioligand pharmaceuticals appropriate for imaging or for site-directed radiocytotoxicity can be sequestered to the nuclei of receptor-rich cancers. Initial clinical imaging and therapy trials with such pharmaceuticals have been approved and begun. In the use of halogenated estrogen radiopharmaceuticals, liver metabolism and enterohepatic recirculation are important considerations. Ascites prolongs retention of radiohalogenated estrogen in the abdominal cavity. Distant metastases have been localized with [ 123 I]-estrogen in breast cancer patients in pre-operative procedures. Receptor-mediated cytotoxicity occurs when estrogen receptor radioligand pharmaceuticals that are Auger electron emitters are used in vitro. (au) (119 refs., 3 figs.)

  14. Intracellular actions of steroid hormones and their therapeutic value, including the potential of radiohalosteroids against ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, J.A. (Chicago Univ. (United States). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology); Scharl, A. (Koeln Univ., Cologne (Germany). Frauen-Klinik); Kullander, S. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Womens Hospital Malmoe); Beckmann, M.W. (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Zentrum fuer Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe)

    1992-01-01

    With recombinant cDNA technology, yeast and cultured animal cells can be made to express mammalian cDNA steroid receptors from cDNA clones that contain deletions and substitutions. Among the leading problems addressed in these models is the characterization of sequences that promote association or interaction with other transcription regulating molecules, including oncogene products. Recently it has been found that heat shock proteins may serve not only to stabilize the receptor proteins but also to precondition the activation imparted by ligand binding. Aberrant receptor proteins can be found in ovarian cancer. Whether aberrant receptor proteins are associated with transformation in general or with a variable clinical response to steroidal or anti-steroidal therapy is not known. Even after chemotherapy, steroid receptors are expressed in the metastases of ovarian cancers seen clinically, and they may have potential use for localization and treatment of receptor-rich cancers. Radioligand pharmaceuticals appropriate for imaging or for site-directed radiocytotoxicity can be sequestered to the nuclei of receptor-rich cancers. Initial clinical imaging and therapy trials with such pharmaceuticals have been approved and begun. In the use of halogenated estrogen radiopharmaceuticals, liver metabolism and enterohepatic recirculation are important considerations. Ascites prolongs retention of radiohalogenated estrogen in the abdominal cavity. Distant metastases have been localized with [[sup 123]I]-estrogen in breast cancer patients in pre-operative procedures. Receptor-mediated cytotoxicity occurs when estrogen receptor radioligand pharmaceuticals that are Auger electron emitters are used in vitro. (au) (119 refs., 3 figs.).

  15. Sex Steroid Hormone Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms, Pesticide Use, and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Nested Case–Control Study within the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Carol H.; Barry, Kathryn Hughes; Andreotti, Gabriella; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Cook, Michael B.; Kelly, Scott P.; Burdett, Laurie A.; Yeager, Meredith; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Koutros, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic investigations suggest that certain pesticides may alter sex steroid hormone synthesis, metabolism or regulation, and the risk of hormone-related cancers. Here, we evaluated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in hormone homeostasis alter the effect of pesticide exposure on prostate cancer risk. We evaluated pesticide–SNP interactions between 39 pesticides and SNPs with respect to prostate cancer among 776 cases and 1,444 controls nested in the Agricultural Health Study cohort. In these interactions, we included candidate SNPs involved in hormone synthesis, metabolism or regulation (N = 1,100), as well as SNPs associated with circulating sex steroid concentrations, as identified by genome-wide association studies (N = 17). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multiplicative SNP–pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. We translated p-values for interaction into q-values, which reflected the false discovery rate, to account for multiple comparisons. We observed a significant interaction, which was robust to multiple comparison testing, between the herbicide dicamba and rs8192166 in the testosterone metabolizing gene SRD5A1 (p-interaction = 4.0 × 10−5; q-value = 0.03), such that men with two copies of the wild-type genotype CC had a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with low use of dicamba (OR = 0.62 95% CI: 0.41, 0.93) and high use of dicamba (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68), compared to those who reported no use of dicamba; in contrast, there was no significant association between dicamba and prostate cancer among those carrying one or two copies of the variant T allele at rs8192166. In addition, interactions between two organophosphate insecticides and SNPs related to estradiol metabolism were observed to result in an increased risk of prostate cancer. While replication is

  16. Sex Steroid Hormone Gene Variants, Pesticide Use and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study within the Agricultural Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol H Christensen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and epidemiologic investigations suggest that certain pesticides may alter sex steroid hormone synthesis, metabolism or regulation and the risk of hormone-related cancers. Here we evaluated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs involved in hormone homeostasis alter the effect of pesticide exposure on prostate cancer risk. We evaluated pesticide–SNP interactions between 39 pesticides and SNPs with respect to prostate cancer among 776 cases and 1444 controls nested in the Agricultural Health Study cohort. In these interactions, we included candidate SNPs involved in hormone synthesis, metabolism and regulation (N=1100, as well as SNPs associated with circulating sex steroid concentrations as identified by genome-wide association studies (N=17. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Multiplicative SNP–pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. We translated p-values for interaction into q-values, which reflected the false discovery rate, to account for multiple comparisons. We observed a significant interaction, which was robust to multiple comparison testing, between the herbicide dicamba and rs8192166 in the testosterone metabolizing gene SRD5A1 (p-interaction=4.0x10-5; q-value=0.03, such that men with two copies of the wild-type genotype CC had a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with low use of dicamba (OR=0.62 95% CI: 0.41, 0.93, and high use of dicamba (OR=0.44, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68, compared to those who reported no use of dicamba; in contrast, there was no significant association between dicamba and prostate cancer among those carrying one or two copies of the variant T allele at rs8192166. In addition, interactions between two organophosphate insecticides and SNPs related to estradiol metabolism were observed to result in an increased risk of prostate cancer. While replication is needed, these data suggest both

  17. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.deamicis@unical.it

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens

  18. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens

  19. Full automation of solid-phase microextraction/on-fiber derivatization for simultaneous determination of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and steroid hormones by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua; Lan, Chongyu; Liu, Hongtao; Dong, Jun; Luan, Tiangang

    2006-09-01

    A fully automated method using direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) and headspace on-fiber silylation for simultaneous determinations of exogenous endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and endogenous steroid hormones in environmental aqueous and biological samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and compared to a previously reported manual method. Three EDCs and five endocrine steroid hormones were selected to evaluate this method. The extraction and derivatization time, ion strength, pH, incubation temperature, sample volume, and extraction solvent were optimized. Satisfactory results in pure water were obtained in terms of linearity of calibration curve (R2=0.9932-1.0000), dynamic range (3 orders of magnitude), precision (4-9% RSD), as well as LOD (0.001-0.124 microg L(-1)) and LOQ (0.004-0.413 microg L(-1)), respectively. These results were similar to those obtained using a manual method, and moreover, the precision was improved. This new automated method has been applied to the determinations of target compounds in real samples used in our previous study on a manual SPME method. Exogenous octylphenol (OP), technical grade nonylphenol (t-NP), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) were at 0.13, 5.03, and 0.02 microg L(-1) in river water and 3.76, 13.25, and 0.10 microg L(-1) in fish serum, respectively. Natural steroid hormones estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T) were at 0.19, 0.11, and 6.22 microg L(-1) in river water; and in female fish serum E1, E2, and pregnenolone (PREG) were at 1.37, 1.95, and 6.25 microg L(-1), respectively. These results were confirmed by the manual method. The developed fully automated SPME and on-fiber silylation procedures showed satisfactory applications in environmental analysis and the performances show improved precision and a reduced analysis time compared to the manual method.

  20. [Cytological State of Gonads and Level of Thyroid and Sex Steroid Hormones in Black Sea Trout Salmo trutta labrax Pall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, E D; Ganzha, E V; Kostin, V V; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    Cytological state of the gonads and hormonal state of hatchery Black Sea trout before differentiation into resident and anadromous forms (parr) at an age of 15 months have been examined. It has been shown that the hormonal changes associated with the choice of life strategy in the Black Sea trout females and males are pronounced to different degrees. As compared with the resident and anadromous individuals; the female parr display a low rate of oogenesis and similar hormonal status, while characteristic of the male parr are an intermediate rate of spermatogenesis, a low level of thyroid hormones and estradiol, and a medium testosterone level. As has been found, the undifferentiated Black Sea trout individuals predominantly develop into the resident form.

  1. Determination of ten steroid hormones in animal waste manure and agricultural soil using inverse and integrated clean-up pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2011-01-01

    ... Martin Hansen , Kristine A. Krogh , Bent Halling ... in a 22 mL PLE cell : firstly by flushing the sample with heptane to remove unwanted matrix components (inverse- PLE , i- PLE ) and secondly, performing internal clean-up (ic- PLE ) and eluting the steroid hormones by attaching an ...

  2. Growth and obesity and its association with plasma level of steroid hormones and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in Slovak female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatko, T; Matejovicova, B; Boledovicova, M; Vondrakova, M; Bezakova, A; Sirotkin, A V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role of steroid hormones and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) in the control of human growth and obesity. We measured plasma level of progesterone, testosterone, estradiol and IGF-I in 301 young women at different stages of their ovarian cycle, and compared them to the standard morphometric indexes of their growth and obesity - body height, body weight, abdomen circumstance and waist to hip ratio (WHR). The ovarian cycle-dependent changes in plasma progesterone and estradiol, but not in testosterone and IGF-I level were found. Young women with higher body height had significantly higher plasma level of estradiol, testosterone and IGF-I, but not of progesterone, compared to subjects with lower body height in both follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle. Subjects with a higher body weight had significantly higher plasma estradiol and progesterone, but not testosterone and IGF-I than subjects with lower body weight in both follicular and luteal phases of ovarian cycle. Women with a higher abdomen circumference had significantly lower plasma estradiol, but not the other hormones than the subjects with lower abdomen circumference. Women with higher WHR index had significantly higher plasma level of estradiol, but not other hormones than subjects with lower WHR index in both follicular and luteal phases of ovarian cycle. The present observations suggests: (1) that luteal phase of the women ovarian cycle is characterised by a dramatically increase in both progesterone and estradiol, but not in testosterone and IGF-I release, (2) that in human females growth can be up-regulated by testosterone, estradiol and IGF-I, but not by progesterone, (3) that body mass can be up-regulated by progesterone and estradiol, but not by testosterone or IGF-I, and (4) that women obesity (high WHR, but not abdomen circumference) can be promoted by estradiol, but not by other steroid hormones or IGF-I (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref

  3. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance.To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study.Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured.Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%.A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  4. Quantification of three steroid hormone receptors of the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination: their tissue distributions and the effect of environmental change on their expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Daisuke; Park, Min Kyun

    2003-12-01

    Sex steroid hormones play a central role in the reproduction of all vertebrates. These hormones function through their specific receptors, so the expression levels of the receptors may reflect the responsibility of target organs. However, there was no effective method to quantify the expression levels of these receptors in reptilian species. In this study, we established the competitive-PCR assay systems for the quantification of the mRNA expression levels of three sex steroid hormone receptors in the leopard gecko. These assay systems were successfully able to detect the mRNA expression level of each receptor in various organs of male adult leopard geckoes. The expression levels of mRNA of these receptors were highly various depending on the organs assayed. This is the first report regarding the tissue distributions of sex steroid hormone receptor expressions in reptile. The effects of environmental conditions on these hormone receptor expressions were also examined. After the low temperature and short photoperiod treatment for 6 weeks, only the androgen receptor expression was significantly increased in the testes. The competitive-PCR assay systems established in this report should be applicable for various studies of the molecular mechanism underlying the reproductive activity of the leopard gecko.

  5. Steroid metabolism in the hormone dependent MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line and its two hormone resistant subpopulations MCF-7/LCC1 and MCF-7/LCC2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L; Brünner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1998-01-01

    Androgen and estrogen metabolism was investigated in the hormone-dependent human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and its two hormone-resistant sublines MCF-7/LCC1 and MCF-7/LCC2. Using the product isolation method, the activity of aromatase, 5alpha-reductase, 3alpha/beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase......, and preincubation with cortisol had no effect on the enzyme activity. With [14C]T as the substrate, the metabolized level of DHT was very similar in the three cell lines, though MCF-7/LCC1 and MCF-7/LCC2 utilized the substrate to a much lesser extent. The amount of DHT and 4-AD produced were comparable in the two...... hormone-resistant cell lines, while the amount of 4-AD was significantly higher in MCF-7 cells. No differences in enzyme activity were found in the three cell lines when [14C]4-AD was used as the substrate. This study showed an altered androgen metabolism in the MCF-7/LCC1 and MCF-7/LCC2 sublines compared...

  6. Glucuronidation of antiepileptic drugs in women with epilepsy : on the role of age, steroid hormones and oral contraceptives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegner, I.

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with clinically important gender differences in both the expression and the impact of epilepsy. Understanding the complex interactions between sex hormones, epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can greatly improve the care for women with epilepsy. This

  7. The effects of ozonation on select waterborne steroid hormones in recirculation aquaculture systems containing sexually mature Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    A controlled 3-month study was conducted in 6 replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) containing a mixture of sexually mature and immature Atlantic salmon Salmo salar to determine whether water ozonation is associated with a reduction in waterborne hormones. Post-smolt Atlantic salm...

  8. The effect of long-term thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy on the gonadal steroid hormones of patients with thyroid carcinoma after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ying; Liang, Nan; Hong, Yang; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Sun, Hui

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the effect of long-term thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppressive therapy on the gonadal hormones and related symptoms in patients after surgery. From 2008 to 2011, totally 238 patients were recruited, who underwent thyroid surgery and subsequent TSH suppression treatment in Department of thyroid Surgery, China-Japan Union hospital, Jilin University. Then their postoperative follow-up data (3-8 years) were collected, including operational method, pathological diagnosis, whether processed radioiodine therapy and the period/dose of TSH suppression treatment. In addition, the menstrual cycle, menstruation quantity, whether accompanied with dysmenorrheal and menstrual disorder or not, date of last menstrual period, ages of menopause and so on were also collected. (I) Neither the level nor the duration of TSH treatment had any function on estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in male patients; (II) in the subgroup of patients with TSH treatment for 3-5 years, patients who took high dose of TSH (TSH ≥0.5 U/L) obtained the lower T level compared with the group of medium dose (1.08±0.34 vs. 1.36±0.46 nmol/L, P=0.001); (III) in the medium dose (0.1 IU/L ≤ TSH hormone (FSH) did not show any change in terms of the dose and the duration of TSH treatment; (V) the menstrual volume, dysmenorrhea condition, menstrual cycle and menopause related indicators did not show any difference in terms of doses and duration of TSH treatment (P=0.701, 0.412 and 0.507 respectively). The long term of TSH repressive therapy after surgery did not affect T and E2 level in male patients. As for female patients, the impact was mainly reflected in the T and E2 levels especially in female sexual maturity but not FSH level. In addition, TSH treatment did not play any role on menstruation or menopause.

  9. [Effect of Transcutaneuos Acupoint Electrostimulation on Serum Sex Hormone Levels and Expression of Ovarian Steroid Hormone Metabolic Enzymes in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-yong; Zhang, Xiao-yue; Yu, Mei-ling; Lu, Sheng-feng; Chen, Xia

    2016-02-01

    To observe the effect of transcutaneuos acupoint electrostimulation(TAES) on ovarian serum sex hormone levels and ovarian follicle granular cell aromatase cytochrome P 450 (P 450 arom) protein and follicle theca cell cytochrome P 450 17 α-hydroxylase/c 17-20 lyase cytochrome P 450 (P 450 c 17 α) protein expression in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improvement of PCOS. METHODS Forty SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, model, medication and TAES (10 rats/group). The PCOS model was established by giving (gavage) the animals with letrozole solution (1.0 mg/kg, once daily for 21 consecutive days). Rats of the medication group were treated with Clomiphene (1 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days, and those of the TAES group were treated with electrical stimulation (2 Hz, 3 mA) of "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) areas for 30 min, once daily for 7 consecutive days. The rats body weight and bilateral ovarian weight were detected, and the ovarian structure and follicular development degree were observed under light microscope after H. E. stain, and the serum testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), luteotrophic hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) contents were detected using radioimmunoassay. The expression of ovarian P 450 arom (for production of estrogen)protein and P 450 c 17 α (for production of androgen) protein was detected by using immunohistochemical stain and Western blot, respectively. The body weight, bilateral ovary weight, serum T and LH contents, and ratio of LH/FSH, and ovarian P 450 c 17 α immunoactivity and protein expression levels in the model group were all significantly increased compared with the normal control group (P ovary weight, serum T and LH contents, ratio of LH/FSH, and ovarian P 450 c 17 α immunoactivity and protein expression levels, and the decreased ovarian P 450 arom immunoactivity and protein expression levels were reversed in the TAES group (P 0

  10. Oct-GnRH, the first protostomian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide and a critical mini-review of the presence of vertebrate sex steroids in molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Hiroyuki; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    In protostome and deuterosome invertebrates, neurosecretory cells play major roles in the endocrine system. The optic glands of cephalopods are indicators of sexual maturation. In mature octopuses, optic glands enlarge and secrete a gonadotropic hormone. A peptide with structural features similar to that of vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was isolated from the octopus, Octopus vulgaris, and was named oct-GnRH. The discovery of oct-GnRH has triggered structural determinations and predictions of other mollusc GnRH-like peptides in biochemical and in silico studies. Interestingly, cephalopods studied so far are characterized by a single molecular form of oct-GnRH with a C-terminal -Pro-Gly-NH2 sequence, which is critical for gonadotropin-releasing activity in vertebrates. Other molluscan GnRH-like peptides lack the C-terminal -Pro-Gly-NH2 sequence but have -X-NH2 or -Pro-Gly although all protostome GnRH-like peptides have yet to be sequenced. In marine molluscs, relationships between GnRH-like peptides and sex steroids have been studied to verify the hypothesis that molluscs have vertebrate-type sex steroid system. However, it is currently questionable whether such sex steroids are present and whether they play endogenous roles in the reproductive system of molluscs. Because molluscs uptake and store steroids from the environment and fishes release sex steroids into the external environment, it is impossible to rule out the contamination of vertebrate sex steroids in molluscs. The function of key enzymes of steroidogenesis within molluscs remains unclear. Thus, evidence to deny the existence of the vertebrate-type sex steroid system in molluscs has been accumulated. The elucidation of substances, which regulate the maturation and maintenance of gonads and other reproductive functions in molluscs will require rigorous and progressive scientific study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rooibos Flavonoids Inhibit the Activity of Key Adrenal Steroidogenic Enzymes, Modulating Steroid Hormone Levels in H295R Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindie Schloms

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Major rooibos flavonoids—dihydrochalcones, aspalathin and nothofagin, flavones—orientin and vitexin, and a flavonol, rutin, were investigated to determine their influence on the activity of adrenal steroidogenic enzymes, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD2 and cytochrome P450 (P450 enzymes, P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1, P450 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2 and P450 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1. All the flavonoids inhibited 3βHSD2 and CYP17A1 significantly, while the inhibition of downstream enzymes, CYP21A2 and CYP11B1, was both substrate and flavonoid specific. The dihydrochalcones inhibited the activity of CYP21A2, but not that of CYP11B1. Although rutin, orientin and vitexin inhibited deoxycortisol conversion by CYP11B1 significantly, inhibition of deoxycorticosterone was <20%. These three flavonoids were unable to inhibit CYP21A2, with negligible inhibition of deoxycortisol biosynthesis only. Rooibos inhibited substrate conversion by CYP17A1 and CYP21A2, while the inhibition of other enzyme activities was <20%. In H295R cells, rutin had the greatest inhibitory effect on steroid production upon forskolin stimulation, reducing total steroid output 2.3-fold, while no effect was detected under basal conditions. Nothofagin and vitexin had a greater inhibitory effect on overall steroid production compared to aspalathin and orientin, respectively. The latter compounds contain two hydroxyl groups on the B ring, while nothofagin and vitexin contain a single hydroxyl group. In addition, all of the flavonoids are glycosylated, albeit at different positions—dihydrochalcones at C3' and flavones at C8 on ring A, while rutin, a larger molecule, has a rutinosyl moiety at C3 on ring C. Structural differences regarding the number and position of hydroxyl and glucose moieties as well as structural flexibility could indicate different mechanisms by which these flavonoids influence the activity of adrenal steroidogenic enzymes.

  12. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karman, Bethany N., E-mail: bklement@illinois.edu; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S., E-mail: mbshivapur@gmail.com; Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2012-05-15

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 μM) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ►TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ►Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ►TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  13. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karman, Bethany N.; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S.; Craig, Zelieann R.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2012-01-01

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 μM) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ►TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ►Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ►TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  14. Multidrug ABC transporter Cdr1 of Candida albicans harbors specific and overlapping binding sites for human steroid hormones transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghel, Pratima; Rawal, Manpreet Kaur; Khan, Mohammad Firoz; Sen, Sobhan; Siddiqui, Mohammed Haris; Chaptal, Vincent; Falson, Pierre; Prasad, Rajendra

    2017-10-01

    The present study examines the kinetics of steroids efflux mediated by the Candida drug resistance protein 1 (Cdr1p) and evaluates their interaction with the protein. We exploited our in-house mutant library for targeting the 252 residues forming the twelve transmembrane helices (TMHs) of Cdr1p. The screening revealed 65 and 58 residues critical for β-estradiol and corticosterone transport, respectively. Notably, up to 83% critical residues for corticosterone face the lipid interface compared to 54% for β-estradiol. Molecular docking identified a possible peripheral corticosterone-binding site made of 8/14 critical/non-critical residues between TMHs 3, 4 and 6. β-estradiol transport was severely hampered by alanine replacements of Cdr1p core residues involving TMHs 2, 5 and 8, in a binding site made of 10/14 critical residues mainly shared with rhodamine 6G with which it competes. By contrast, TMH11 was poorly impacted, although being part of the core domain. Finally, we observed the presence of several contiguous stretches of 3-5 critical residues in TMHs 2, 5 and 10 that points to a rotation motion of these helices during the substrate transport cycle. The selective structural arrangement of the steroid-binding pockets in the core region and at the lipid-TMD interface, which was never reported before, together with the possible rotation of some TMHs may be the structural basis of the drug-transport mechanism achieved by these type II ABC transporters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Concentrations of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and sex steroid hormones and the expression of the androgen receptor in the pituitary and adrenal glands of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-01-01

    Androgens take part in the regulation of puberty and promote growth and development. They play their biological role by binding to a specific androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the pituitary and adrenal glands, to localize AR protein in luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing pituitary and adrenocortical cells, to determine plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4) and oestradiol (E2) in the adrenal glands of male turkeys at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. The concentrations of hormones and the expression of AR varied during development. The expression of AR mRNA and protein in pituitary increased during the growth. The increase of AR mRNA levels in pituitary occurred earlier than increase of AR protein. The percentage of pituitary cells expressing ARs in the population of LH-secreting cells increased in week 20. It suggests that AR expression in LH-producing pituitary cells is determined by the phase of development. The drop in adrenal AR mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of adrenal androgens. Those results could point to the presence of a compensatory mechanism that enables turkeys to avoid the potentially detrimental effects of high androgen concentrations. Our results will expand our knowledge of the role of steroids in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys from the first month of age until maturity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Control of motor activity in crayfish by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone via motoneuron excitability and sensory-motor integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacqué-Cazenave, Julien; Bouvet, Flora; Fossat, Pascal; Cattaert, Daniel; Delbecque, Jean Paul

    2013-05-15

    We studied the effects of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) on leg sensory-motor networks of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. The hormone was injected in isolated crayfish and network activity was analyzed 3 days after injection using electrophysiology on an in vitro preparation of the leg locomotor network. This 20E treatment deeply reduced motor activity, by affecting both intrinsic motoneuron (MN) properties and sensory-motor integration. Indeed, we noticed a general decrease in motor nerve tonic activities, principally in depressor and promotor nerves. Moreover, intracellular recordings of depressor MNs confirmed a decrease of MN excitability due to a drop in input resistance. In parallel, sensory inputs originating from a proprioceptor, which codes joint movements controlled by these MNs, were also reduced. The shape of excitatory post-synaptic potentials (PSPs) triggered in MNs by sensory activity of this proprioceptor showed a reduction of polysynaptic components, whereas inhibitory PSPs were suppressed, demonstrating that 20E acted also on interneurons relaying sensory to motor inputs. Consequently, 20E injection modified the whole sensory-motor loop, as demonstrated by the alteration of the resistance reflex amplitude. These locomotor network changes induced by 20E were consistent with the decrease of locomotion observed in a behavioral test. In summary, 20E controls locomotion during crayfish premolt by acting on both MN excitability and sensory-motor integration. Among these cooperative effects, the drop of input resistance of MNs seems to be mostly responsible for the reduction of motor activity.

  17. Sex steroid-related candidate genes in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Elias

    2008-07-01

    Sex steroids readily pass the blood-brain barrier, and receptors for them are abundant in brain areas important for the regulation of emotions, cognition and behaviour. Animal experiments have revealed both important early effects of these hormones on brain development and their ongoing influence on brain morphology and neurotransmission in the adult organism. The important effects of sex steroids on human behaviour are illustrated by, for example, the effect of reduced levels of these hormones on sexual drive and conditions such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder, perimenopausal dysphoria, postpartum depression, postpartum psychosis, dysphoria induced by oral contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and anabolic steroid-induced aggression. The fact that men and women (as groups) differ with respect to the prevalence of several psychiatric disorders, certain aspects of cognitive function and certain personality traits may possibly also reflect an influence of sex steroids on human behaviour. The heritability of most behavioural traits, including personality, cognitive abilities and susceptibility to psychiatric illness, is considerable, but as yet, only few genes of definite importance in this context have been identified. Given the important role of sex steroids for brain function, it is unfortunate that relatively few studies so far have addressed the possible influence of sex steroid-related genes on interindividual differences with respect to personality, cognition and susceptibility to psychiatric disorders. To facilitate further research in this area, this review provides information on several such genes and summarizes what is currently known with respect to their possible influence on brain function.

  18. Oral steroid contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R

    2015-11-01

    Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.

  19. Anabolic Steroid Abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    The use of anabolic steroids is on the increase among athletes as well as other segments of the population. Data from the "Monitoring the Future" study showed a significant increase from 1998 to 1999 in steroid abuse among middle school students. During the same year, there was a decline in the percentage of 12th graders who believed…

  20. Anabolic Steroids: A Threat to Body and Mind. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report, based on findings of recent studies on the use of anabolic steroids in the United States, was written to educate the public about these drugs and the dangers of misusing them. It notes that the nonmedical use of anabolic/androgenic steroids among adolescents and young adults is of growing concern, with possibly as many as half a…

  1. [Concentration of steroid hormones in the follicular fluid of mature and immature ovarian follicles of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome submitted to in vitro fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Resende, Luciana Ochuiuto Teixeira; dos Reis, Rosana Maria; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Vireque, Alessandra Aparecida; Santana, Laura Ferreira; de Sá Rosa e Silva, Ana Carolina Japur; Martins, Wellington de Paula

    2010-09-01

    to evaluate the concentration of steroid hormones in follicular fluid (FF) of small (10-14 mm) and large (> 18 mm) follicles of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) submitted to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. a case-control study was conducted on 13 infertile women with PCOS (17 cycles) and 31 infertile women due to male factor - Control Group (31 cycles). FF was aspirated individually and divided into four groups: G1 (FF of small follicles of the Control Group), G2 (FF of small follicles of the PCOS group), G3 (FF of large follicles of the Control Group) and G4 (FF of large follicles of the PCOS group). Estrogen, progesterone and β-hCG were determined by chemiluminescence, and testosterone and androstenedione by radioimmunoassay. The unpaired t-test was used to compare the hormone determinations in the FF of the PCOS and Control Groups, and the four groups were compared by ANOVA. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the pregnancy rates. the small follicles of the two groups had lower progesterone levels (8,435 ± 3,305 ng/mL) than large follicles (10,280 ± 3,475 ng/mL), p-value Control (9,824 ± 3,128 ng/mL), p-value =0.03. Testosterone differed between G1 (326.6 ± 124.4 ng/dL) and G3 (205.8 ± 98.91 ng/dL), p-value Control groups (9/31, 40.9%), p-value =072. women with PCOS had high testosterone concentrations in the FF, regardless of the stage of follicle development, and reduced progesterone levels, suggesting that paracrine factors may inhibit the secretion of the latter by follicular cells. The pregnancy rates showed that treatment with COH and IVF is a good option for women with infertility secondary to PCOS.

  2. Determination of steroid hormones and their metabolite in several types of meat samples by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Marina; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2018-03-09

    A new analytical method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap-HRMS) has been developed for the determination of steroid hormones (hydrocortisone, cortisone, progesterone, prednisone, prednisolone, testosterone, melengesterol acetate, hydrocortisone-21-acetate, cortisone-21-acetate, testosterone propionate, 17α-methyltestosterone, 6α-methylprednisolone and medroxyprogesterone) and their metabolite (17α-hydroxyprogesterone) in three meat samples (chicken, pork and beef). Two different extraction approaches were tested (QuEChERS "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" and "dilute and shoot"), observing that the QuEChERS method provided the best results in terms of recovery. A clean-up step was applied comparing several sorbents, obtaining the best results when florisil and aluminum oxide were used. The optimized method was validated, obtaining suitable results for all validation parameters in the three meat matrices evaluated. Recovery values ranged from 70% to 103% (except for prednisone in beef samples), meanwhile repeatability and reproducibility were obtained at values lower than 18% and 21%, respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was established for most of the compounds at 1.0 μg/kg, except for testosterone in chicken and hydrocortisone-21-acetate and cortisone-21-acetate in pork at 2.0 μg/kg. Decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) values ranged from 1.0-2.7 μg/kg and 1.9-5.5 μg/kg, respectively, in the three matrices. Finally, thirty one meat samples were analyzed and two hormones, progesterone and hydrocortisone, were detected in a beef and pork sample at 1.7 and 2.8 μg/kg respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hormonal therapy for endometriosis: from molecular research to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Claudia; Biscione, Antonella; Morgante, Giuseppe; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Luisi, Stefano; Petraglia, Felice

    2017-02-01

    Endometriotic lesions are associated with hormonal imbalance, including increased estrogen synthesis, metabolism and progesterone resistance. These hormonal changes cause increased proliferation, inflammation, pain and infertility. Hormonal imbalances are targets for treatment. Therapeutic strategies and innovations of hormonal drugs for endometriosis are increasing. Acting on estrogen receptors are hormonal drugs decreasing systemic and local estrogen synthesis (GnRH analogs, GnRH antagonists, Aromatase inhibitors) or estrogen activity (selective estrogen receptor modulators). The progesterone resistance is counteracted by progestins (Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Dienogest, Danazol, Levonorgestrel) or by Selective progesterone receptor modulators, a class of drugs under development. The future trend will be to define new drugs to use for prolonged period of time and with poor side effects considering endometriosis a chronic disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits antral follicle growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroid hormone production in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Patrick R.; Brannick, Katherine E.; Wang, Wei; Gupta, Rupesh K.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant found in consumer products that causes ovarian toxicity. Antral follicles are the functional ovarian units and must undergo growth, survival from atresia, and proper regulation of steroidogenesis to ovulate and produce hormones. Previous studies have determined that DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth and decreases estradiol levels in vitro; however, the mechanism by which DEHP elicits these effects is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that DEHP directly alters regulators of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis to inhibit antral follicle functionality. Antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or DEHP (1-100μg/ml) for 24-96 hr to establish the temporal effects of DEHP on the follicle. Following 24-96 hr of culture, antral follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis, and media were subjected to measurements of hormone levels. DEHP increased the mRNA levels of cyclin D2, cyclin dependent kinase 4, cyclin E1, cyclin A2, and cyclin B1 and decreased the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A prior to growth inhibition. Additionally, DEHP increased the mRNA levels of BCL2-associated agonist of cell death, BCL2-associated X protein, BCL2-related ovarian killer protein, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and Bcl2-like 10, leading to an increase in atresia. Further, DEHP decreased the levels of progesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone prior to the decrease in estradiol levels, with decreased mRNA levels of side-chain cleavage, 17α-hydorxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase. Collectively, DEHP directly alters antral follicle functionality by inhibiting growth, inducing atresia, and inhibiting steroidogenesis. PMID:25701202

  5. Interaction of sex steroid hormones and obesity on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in men: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Lai, Hong; Chen, Shaoguang; Zhu, Hong; Lai, Shenghan

    2017-02-01

    We examined interaction of sex steroid hormones and obesity with regard to insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) by using nationally representative data from the US. Data of 1461 men aged ≥20years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Multiplicative interaction was calculated by cross-product interaction terms in multivariable logistic regression models. Additive interaction was assessed by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). After adjusting for demographic and lifestyle covariates, the odds of IR were greatest among obese men with low free testosterone and high androstanediol glucuronide. Multiplicative interactions for total testosterone, free testosterone, and free estradiol index (FEI) were statistically significant with central obesity but not with overweight and obesity regarding to T2D (Pobesity or central obesity were detected for total testosterone (RERI=2.75, 95% CI=0.92,4.59), SHBG (RERI=5.71, 95% CI=0.77,10.64), and FEI (RERI=-9.96, 95% CI=-19.18,-0.74) with regard to IR, beta-cell dysfunction, and T2D. Our findings add to the evidence suggesting that low testosterone and high estradiol may be associated greater risks of IR and T2D by interacting with overall and central obesity in adult men. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Prenatal and childhood exposure to phthalate diesters and sex steroid hormones in 2-, 5-, 8-, and 11-year-old children: A pilot study of the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hui-Ju; Sie, Lillian; Su, Pen-Hua; Chuang, Chia-Jui; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Sun, Chien-Wen; Huang, Li-Hua; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Julie Wang, Shu-Li

    2017-11-01

    Phthalate diesters are commonly used and have been well established as environmental endocrine disruptors. However, few studies have examined their effects on sex steroid hormones in children. We followed children over time to examine the association between pre- and post-natal phthalate exposure and sex steroid hormone levels at 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. We recruited 430 pregnant women from central Taiwan from 2000 to 2001 and assessed their children at birth, 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. We studies children with at least one measurement for both phthalate and hormone levels during each any of the follow-up time point (n = 193). Estradiol, free testosterone, testosterone, and progesterone were measured from venous blood. Three monoesters of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate, and mono-methyl phthalate were measured in maternal urine collected during the 3rd trimester and child urine collected at each follow-up point. The sum of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (∑MEHP) was calculated by summing the concentrations of the three DEHP monoesters. Generalized estimating equation regression analysis with repeated measures was used to estimate associations between phthalate metabolites and hormone levels. After adjustment for potential confounders, maternal ∑MEHP level was associated with decreased levels of progesterone in girls (β = -0.309 p = 0.001). The child ∑MEHP concentration was associated with decreased levels of progesterone for girls (β = -0.194, p = 0.003) and with decreased levels of free testosterone for boys (β = -0.124, p = 0.004). Early-life DEHP exposure may alter sex steroid hormones of children over time, which may pose potential reproductive health risks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of sex hormones on brain lateralization: Research Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Beking, Tess; Geuze, Reint; Groothuis, Antonius

    2015-01-01

    Between and within sexes individuals differ in lateralization of brain and behaviour that might affect cognitive performance. There is long standing debate to what extent variation in lateralization is due to variation in early or late exposure to sex hormones. We will use two unique data sets to test this by 1) correlating existing data on prenatal hormone exposure with brain lateralization and cognitive performance in healthy children of 14-15 years; 2) analysing the association between bra...

  8. Steroid hormones profile during an ovarian synchronization procedure in different age categories of red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šperanda Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare estradiol/progesterone ratios of different age categories of red deer hinds and use it as a predictor of estrus synchronization success and consequently conception rate. To accomplish this we used 38 red deer hinds to establish serum progesterone and estradiol levels in young (21 animals, mature (10 animals and old (7 animals hinds during the estrus synchronization procedure (transvaginal/cervical AI. The following estrus synchronization was used: at the start of the experiment each hind received a controlled intravaginal drug-releasing device (CIDR, Pharmacia&Upjohn, New Zealand containing 0.3 g of progesterone. The device was removed on day 11, simultaneously with an application of 250 IU of Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG, Folligon® Intervet International, Boxmeer, Holland. Transvaginal/ cervical AI (artificial insemination was performed 48 hours after CIDR withdrawal (day 13. Blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein using a Venoject® vacutainer without an anticoagulant for hormonal tests on the same experimental day (0, 11th and 13th day. A statistically (p<0.01 higher progesterone level was found in young hinds on the 11th day after controlled intravaginal drug-releasing device insertion. A significantly higher (p<0.01 estrogen level was observed in the young in regard to mature and old hinds on the expected day of estrus (13th day. Estradiol/progesterone ratios showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.01 on insemination day (13th day between old and young hinds (98.67 : 46.59 and between old and mature hinds (98.67 : 51.79. Out of a total of 38 hinds only 9 had their offspring, 6 of the young and 3 of the mature hinds.

  9. Adolescents and Steroids: A User Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids ("steroids") are synthetic derivatives of the natural male hormone testosterone. They were first used non-medically by elite athletes seeking to improve performance. More recently, however, steroid use has filtered down to high school and junior high school levels. The purpose of this study was to describe…

  10. Steroids facing emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, P.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis have been performed to gain a better understanding about motivational mediators of selective attention and memory for emotionally relevant stimuli, and about the roles that some steroid hormones play in regulation of human motivation and emotion. The stimuli used

  11. Adverse eff ects of polymeric nanoparticle poly(ethylene glycol)- block-polylactide methyl ether (PEG-b-PLA) on steroid hormone secretion by porcine granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scsukova, Sona; Bujnakova, Mlynarcikova A; Kiss, A; Rollerova, E

    2017-04-25

    results indicate that polymeric NPs PEG-b-PLA might induce alterations in steroid hormone production by ovarian GCs and thereby could modify reproductive functions.

  12. Clinically insignificant improvement of prostate cancer prediction by addition of sex steroid hormones and SHBG serum levels to serum PSA, fPSA%, and age in a screening setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Isabel; Popovscaia, Marina; Ramoner, Reinhold; Schäfer, Georg; Stenzel, Birgit; Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang; Klocker, Helmut

    2012-10-01

    Abstract Various findings implicate sex hormones in prostate growth and development and also in prostate carcinogenesis. We investigated if addition of sex steroid hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) serum levels to standard risk assessment parameters [prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA percentage (fPSA%), and age] improves prostate cancer prediction in a PSA screening setting. Steroid hormones testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and estradiol (E2), and binding protein SHBG levels were measured in 762 men undergoing prostate biopsy due to suspect PSA serum levels. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 286 (37.5%) of these men. Our data confirmed that PSA (mean BE=5.09; mean CA=6.05; p=1.24×10-5), fPSA% (mean BE=22.08; mean CA=18.67; p=1.97×10-7), and age (mean BE=60.64; mean CA=64.5; p=7.05×10-10) differentiate men with cancer (CA) and men with benign disease (BE), such as benign prostate hyperplasia. In addition, SHBG (mean BE=50.3; mean CA=54.9; p=0.008) also differed statistically significantly between these two groups. All hormones except E2 and tumor markers correlated significantly with age (T: ρ=-0.09; fT: ρ=-0.27; SHBG: ρ=0.21; PSA: ρ=0.32; and fPSA%: ρ=0.22). Furthermore, we found that PSA correlates with E2 (ρ=0.08), and fPSA% with SHBG (ρ=0.1) and fT (ρ=-0.09). Addition of hormones and SHBG to a baseline marker model including PSA, fPSA%, and age improved cancer prediction in three multivariate classification methods; however, the improvement was minimal. The best improvement by 0.8% was obtained in the logistic regression model with the addition of T and SHBG or of E2 and SHBG, or in the support vector machine model with the addition of SHBG and all steroid hormones to the combination of standard markers PSA, fPSA%, and age; however, this additional gain of accuracy is too small to justify the additional efforts and costs.

  13. The influence of sex hormones on brain lateralization : Research Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, Tess; Geuze, Reint; Groothuis, Antonius

    2015-01-01

    Between and within sexes individuals differ in lateralization of brain and behaviour that might affect cognitive performance. There is long standing debate to what extent variation in lateralization is due to variation in early or late exposure to sex hormones. We will use two unique data sets to

  14. Screening and association testing of common coding variation in steroid hormone receptor co-activator and co-repressor genes in relation to breast cancer risk: the Multiethnic Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiman, Christopher A; Stallcup, Michael R; Greene, Geoffrey L; Press, Michael F; Garcia, Rachel R; Hsu, Chris; Xia, Lucy; Ha, Helen; Sheng, Xin; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E

    2009-01-01

    Only a limited number of studies have performed comprehensive investigations of coding variation in relation to breast cancer risk. Given the established role of estrogens in breast cancer, we hypothesized that coding variation in steroid receptor coactivator and corepressor genes may alter inter-individual response to estrogen and serve as markers of breast cancer risk. We sequenced the coding exons of 17 genes (EP300, CCND1, NME1, NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3, SMARCA4, SMARCA2, CARM1, FOXA1, MPG, NCOR1, NCOR2, CALCOCO1, PRMT1, PPARBP and CREBBP) suggested to influence transcriptional activation by steroid hormone receptors in a multiethnic panel of women with advanced breast cancer (n = 95): African Americans, Latinos, Japanese, Native Hawaiians and European Americans. Association testing of validated coding variants was conducted in a breast cancer case-control study (1,612 invasive cases and 1,961 controls) nested in the Multiethnic Cohort. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for allelic effects in ethnic-pooled analyses as well as in subgroups defined by disease stage and steroid hormone receptor status. We also investigated effect modification by established breast cancer risk factors that are associated with steroid hormone exposure. We identified 45 coding variants with frequencies ≥ 1% in any one ethnic group (43 non-synonymous variants). We observed nominally significant positive associations with two coding variants in ethnic-pooled analyses (NCOR2: His52Arg, OR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.05–3.05; CALCOCO1: Arg12His, OR = 2.29; 95% CI, 1.00–5.26). A small number of variants were associated with risk in disease subgroup analyses and we observed no strong evidence of effect modification by breast cancer risk factors. Based on the large number of statistical tests conducted in this study, the nominally significant associations that we observed may be due to chance, and will need to be confirmed in other studies. Our findings suggest that common coding

  15. Screening and association testing of common coding variation in steroid hormone receptor co-activator and co-repressor genes in relation to breast cancer risk: the Multiethnic Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stallcup Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a limited number of studies have performed comprehensive investigations of coding variation in relation to breast cancer risk. Given the established role of estrogens in breast cancer, we hypothesized that coding variation in steroid receptor coactivator and corepressor genes may alter inter-individual response to estrogen and serve as markers of breast cancer risk. Methods We sequenced the coding exons of 17 genes (EP300, CCND1, NME1, NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3, SMARCA4, SMARCA2, CARM1, FOXA1, MPG, NCOR1, NCOR2, CALCOCO1, PRMT1, PPARBP and CREBBP suggested to influence transcriptional activation by steroid hormone receptors in a multiethnic panel of women with advanced breast cancer (n = 95: African Americans, Latinos, Japanese, Native Hawaiians and European Americans. Association testing of validated coding variants was conducted in a breast cancer case-control study (1,612 invasive cases and 1,961 controls nested in the Multiethnic Cohort. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for allelic effects in ethnic-pooled analyses as well as in subgroups defined by disease stage and steroid hormone receptor status. We also investigated effect modification by established breast cancer risk factors that are associated with steroid hormone exposure. Results We identified 45 coding variants with frequencies ≥ 1% in any one ethnic group (43 non-synonymous variants. We observed nominally significant positive associations with two coding variants in ethnic-pooled analyses (NCOR2: His52Arg, OR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.05–3.05; CALCOCO1: Arg12His, OR = 2.29; 95% CI, 1.00–5.26. A small number of variants were associated with risk in disease subgroup analyses and we observed no strong evidence of effect modification by breast cancer risk factors. Based on the large number of statistical tests conducted in this study, the nominally significant associations that we observed may be due to chance, and will need to be confirmed in other

  16. Sex steroids and lipoprotein metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers Leuven, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Lipoprotein metabolism is involved in atherogenesis. Female sex-hormones have substantial effects on both lipoprotein metabolism and the vessel wall. Cholesterol, one of the major lipids in lipoproteins, is both the substrate for, and the target of, the steroidal sex hormones.

  17. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

  18. Incorporation of 14C-cholesterol in human adrenal corticocarcinoma H295R cell line and online-radiodetection of produced 14C-steroid hormone metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Khalik, Jonas; Björklund, Erland; Nielsen, Frederik Knud

    2017-01-01

    in the steroidogenesis of H295R cells, radioactive cholesterol may potentially only need to be added just before the cells are incubated for 72h in well plates. Based on the obtained HPLC-FSA chromatograms, and confirmation of the observations by studies in the literature, a qualitative time profile for the production......, the concept of radiolabeling the steroidogenesis in H295R cells with (14)C-cholesterol and detecting the radiolabeled steroid hormones online was proved and may assist in further toxicological studies....

  19. Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal breast cancer: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Schock, Helena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lehtinen, Matti; Pukkala, Eero; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Tanner, Minna; Kallio, Raija; Joensuu, Heikki; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva; Surcel, Helja-Marja

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy, parity, and circulating steroid hormone levels are associated with risk of breast cancer, but little is known about hormone concentrations during pregnancy and subsequent breast cancer risk. We evaluated early pregnancy (breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study in the Finnish Maternity Cohort. The cohort includes 98% of pregnancies registered in Finland since 1983. Individuals with samples collected in the first pregnancy leading to a live birth were eligible. Breast cancer cases (n = 1,199) were identified through linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry; 2,281 matched controls were selected using incidence density sampling. ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Hormone concentrations were not associated with breast cancer overall. Estradiol was positively associated with risk of breast cancer diagnosed age breast cancer diagnosed at age ≥40 [4th vs. 1st quartile OR 0.71 (0.51-1.00); Ptrend = 0.02]. Elevated concentrations of the steroid hormones were associated with increased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative tumors in women age pregnancy steroid hormones and risk of ER(-)/PR(-) breast cancer in women diagnosed age breast cancer diagnosed age ≥40. Further research on pregnancy hormones and risk of steroid receptor-negative cancers is needed to further characterize this association. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Tissue bioaccumulation patterns, xenobiotic biotransformation and steroid hormone levels in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed a diet containing perfluoroactane sulfonic or perfluorooctane carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Anne S; Letcher, Robert J; Cangialosi, Maria V; Chu, Shaogang; Arukwe, Augustine

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed gelatine capsules containing fish-food spiked with PFOA or PFOS (0.2 mg kg(-1) fish) and solvent (methanol). The capsules were given at days 0, 3 and 6. Blood, liver and whole kidney samples were collected prior to exposure (no solvent control), and at days 2, 5, 8 and 14 after exposure (Note: that day 14 after exposure is equal to 7d recovery period). We report on the differences in the tissue bioaccumulation patterns of PFOS and PFOA, in addition to tissue and compound differences in modulation pattern of biotransformation enzyme genes. We observed that the level of PFOS and PFOA increased in the blood, liver and kidney during the exposure period. Different PFOS and PFOA bioaccumulation patterns were observed in the kidney and liver during exposure- and after the recovery periods. Particularly, after the recovery period, PFOA levels in the kidney and liver tissues were almost at the control level. On the contrary, PFOS maintained an increase with tissue-specific differences, showing a higher bioaccumulation potential (also in the blood), compared with PFOA. While PFOS and PFOA produced an apparent time-dependent increase in kidney CYP3A, CYP1A1 and GST expression, similar effects were only temporary in the liver, significantly increasing at sampling day 2. PFOA and PFOS exposure resulted in significant decreases in plasma estrone, testosterone and cortisol levels at sampling day 2, and their effects differed with 17α-methyltestostrerone showing significant decrease by PFOA (also for cholesterol) and increase by PFOS. PFOA significantly increased estrone and testosterone, and no effects were observed for cortisol, 17α-methyltestosterone and cholesterol at sampling day 5. Overall, the changes in plasma steroid hormone levels parallel changes in CYP3A mRNA levels. Given that there are no known studies that have demonstrated such tissue differences in bioaccumulation patterns with

  1. Steroidal Saponins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  2. Steroid-binding receptors in fungi: implication for systemic mycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa chadeganipour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that some of the mycotic infections especially systemic mycoses show increased male susceptibility and some steroids have been known to influence the immune response. Researchers found that some fungi including yeasts use "message molecules" including hormones to elicit certain responses, especially in the sexual cycle, but until recently no evidence was available to link specific hormonal evidence to this pronounced sex ratio. More evidence needed to demonstrate that a steroid (s might in some manner influence the pathogenicity of the fungus in vivo. Therefore, the aim of this review paper is to shed some light on this subject along with effort to make mycologists more aware of this research as a stimulus for the explore of new ideas and design further research in this area of medical mycology.

  3. Optimization of a Pre-MEKC Separation SPE Procedure for Steroid Molecules in Human Urine Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Olędzka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many steroid hormones can be considered as potential biomarkers and their determination in body fluids can create opportunities for the rapid diagnosis of many diseases and disorders of the human body. Most existing methods for the determination of steroids are usually time- and labor-consuming and quite costly. Therefore, the aim of analytical laboratories is to develop a new, relatively low-cost and rapid implementation methodology for their determination in biological samples. Due to the fact that there is little literature data on concentrations of steroid hormones in urine samples, we have made attempts at the electrophoretic determination of these compounds. For this purpose, an extraction procedure for the optimized separation and simultaneous determination of seven steroid hormones in urine samples has been investigated. The isolation of analytes from biological samples was performed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE with dichloromethane and compared to solid phase extraction (SPE with C18 and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB columns. To separate all the analytes a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECK technique was employed. For full separation of all the analytes a running buffer (pH 9.2, composed of 10 mM sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax, 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, and 10% methanol was selected. The methodology developed in this work for the determination of steroid hormones meets all the requirements of analytical methods. The applicability of the method has been confirmed for the analysis of urine samples collected from volunteers—both men and women (students, amateur bodybuilders, using and not applying steroid doping. The data obtained during this work can be successfully used for further research on the determination of steroid hormones in urine samples.

  4. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, as well as pulmonary hypertension. Whether such differences are inherent and/or whether sex steroids play a role in modulating these differences is currently under investigation. The purpose of this review is to define sex differences in lung structure/function under normal and specific disease states, with exploration of whether and how sex hormone signaling mechanisms may explain these clinical observations. Focusing on adult age groups, the review addresses the following: 1) inherent sex differences in lung anatomy and physiology; 2) the importance of certain time points in life such as puberty, pregnancy, menopause, and aging; 3) expression and signaling of sex steroid receptors under normal vs. disease states; 4) potential interplay between different sex steroids; 5) the question of whether sex steroids are beneficial or detrimental to the lung; and 6) the potential use of sex steroid signaling as biomarkers and therapeutic avenues in lung diseases. The importance of focusing on sex differences and sex steroids in the lung lies in the increasing incidence of lung diseases in women and the need to address lung diseases across the life span. PMID:22240244

  5. Steroid osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible

  6. Endogenous steroid profiling by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics for the detection of natural hormone abuse in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokland, M.H.; Tricht, van E.F.; Rossum, van H.J.; Sterk, S.S.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    For years it has been suspected that natural hormones are illegally used as growth promoters in cattle in the European Union. Unfortunately there is a lack of methods and criteria that can be used to detect the abuse of natural hormones and distinguish treated from non-treated animals. Pattern

  7. Tritiumlabelling of steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.

    1986-01-01

    The present paper gives a survey of the preparation of specific tritium labelled steroids of high and highest activity (up to 58 Ci/mM and 2150 GBq/mM, resp.) using the method of catalytic tritiation. It concerns steroids of all classes - androstanes, estratrienes, norandrostanes and progesterones - labelled in different positions of all the four possible rings of the steroid skeleton. The tritium labelled products have been applied in many research laboratories of the GDR and also been exported abroad. (author)

  8. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of natural steroid hormones in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) plasma and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiyong; Bussy, Ugo; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Li, Weiming

    2016-01-15

    This study aims to provide a rapid, sensitive and precise UPLC-MS/MS method for target steroid quantitation in biological matrices. We developed and validated an UPLC-MS/MS method to simultaneously determine 16 steroids in plasma and tissue samples. Ionization sources of Electrospray Ionization (ESI) and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI) were compared in this study by testing their spectrometry performances at the same chromatographic conditions, and the ESI source was found up to five times more sensitive than the APCI. Different sample preparation techniques were investigated for an optimal extraction of steroids from the biological matrices. The developed method exhibited excellent linearity for all analytes with regression coefficients higher than 0.99 in broad concentration ranges. The limit of detection (LOD) was from 0.003 to 0.1ng/mL. The method was validated according to FDA guidance and applied to determine steroids in sea lamprey plasma and tissues (fat and testes) by the developed method. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Phytosterol consumption and the anabolic steroid boldenone in humans: a hypothesis piloted.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, M.M.; Sterk, S.S.; Verhagen, H.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Jong, N. de

    2007-01-01

    The presence of the anabolic steroid boldenone in animals has become a research topic as its occurrence is proposed to be a marker for illegal hormone administration. However, boldenone can also be formed from beta-sitosterol, a phytosterol present in animal feed, as well as from endogenous sources.

  10. Inhaled Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including how oral steroids are used, what a 'steroid burst' is, and routine use and possible side effects. This information has been approved by Ronina Covar, MD and Ann Mullen, RN, MSN, CNS, AE-C (December 2012). Asthma Medications ... Long-Term Control Medications Anti-IgE Treatment Combination ...

  11. Molecular Genetics and Hormones: New Frontiers in Entrepreneurship Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.H.M. van der Loos (Matthijs)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRecent studies suggest that entrepreneurship is partly heritable, but are unable to pinpoint the specific genes involved. This thesis presents results from novel research aiming to identify genes associated with entrepreneurship using genetic data on the molecular level. In addition, the

  12. Lack of cyclical fluctuations of endometrial GLUT4 expression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Evidence for direct regulation of GLUT4 by steroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Cui

    2015-12-01

    We conclude that P4 can induce changes in endometrial GLUT4 expression during the menstrual cycle and that abnormal hormonal conditions such as PCOS disrupt normal patterns of GLUT4 expression in endometrial cells.

  13. Sex-Steroid Hormones and Electrocardiographic QT-Interval Duration: Findings From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yiyi; Ouyang, Pamela; Post, Wendy S.; Dalal, Darshan; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2011-01-01

    The association between physiologic levels of sex hormones and QT-interval duration in humans was evaluated using data from 727 men enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 2,942 men and 1,885 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured in serum and free testosterone was calculated from those values. QT interval was measured using a standard 1...

  14. Steroid hormones in blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen polluted minke whalte (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Letcher, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    conducted in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) as a sentinel species for adverse effects on steroid homeostasis. The control and exposed groups were composed of four sister-bitches all fed pork fat (Suis suis) and organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber......, which were ∑Androgen (dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and dehydrotestosterone), ∑Estrogen (estrone, 17α-estradiol and 17β-estradiol), and ∑Progestagen (pregnenolone, progesterone, 17-OH-pregnenolone, and 17-OH-progesterone) concentrations. This allowed us to study the mechanisms...... underlying possible disruption of blood steroid concentrations. Results showed that exposed bitches had significantly higher concentrations of all OHC compounds. Unexpectedly, ∑Androgen, ∑Estrogen and ∑Progestagen concentrations were also significantly higher in exposed dogs. Data indicated that daily OHC...

  15. Determination of steroid hormones and related compounds in filtered and unfiltered water by solid-phase extraction, derivatization, and gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Lindley, Chris E.; Losche, Scott A.; Barber, Larry B.

    2012-01-01

    A new analytical method has been developed and implemented at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory that determines a suite of 20 steroid hormones and related compounds in filtered water (using laboratory schedule 2434) and in unfiltered water (using laboratory schedule 4434). This report documents the procedures and initial performance data for the method and provides guidance on application of the method and considerations of data quality in relation to data interpretation. The analytical method determines 6 natural and 3 synthetic estrogen compounds, 6 natural androgens, 1 natural and 1 synthetic progestin compound, and 2 sterols: cholesterol and 3--coprostanol. These two sterols have limited biological activity but typically are abundant in wastewater effluents and serve as useful tracers. Bisphenol A, an industrial chemical used primarily to produce polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins and that has been shown to have estrogenic activity, also is determined by the method. A technique referred to as isotope-dilution quantification is used to improve quantitative accuracy by accounting for sample-specific procedural losses in the determined analyte concentration. Briefly, deuterium- or carbon-13-labeled isotope-dilution standards (IDSs), all of which are direct or chemically similar isotopic analogs of the method analytes, are added to all environmental and quality-control and quality-assurance samples before extraction. Method analytes and IDS compounds are isolated from filtered or unfiltered water by solid-phase extraction onto an octadecylsilyl disk, overlain with a graded glass-fiber filter to facilitate extraction of unfiltered sample matrices. The disks are eluted with methanol, and the extract is evaporated to dryness, reconstituted in solvent, passed through a Florisil solid-phase extraction column to remove polar organic interferences, and again evaporated to dryness in a reaction vial. The method compounds are reacted with

  16. Circadian variation in concentration of anti-Mullerian hormone in regularly menstruating females: relation to age, gonadotrophin and sex steroid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bungum, Leif; Jacobsson, Anna-Karin; Rosén, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a promising marker of ovarian reserve. The aim of the study is to assess the circadian variation in AMH, and to evaluate its clinical relevance and biological aspects as an effect of age and other endocrine mechanisms involved in the regulation of AMH secretion....

  17. Concentration of anti-Mullerian hormone and inhibin-B in relation to steroids and age in follicular fluid from small antral human follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Rosendahl, M.; Byskov, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ovaries surgically removed for fertility preservation served as a source of follicle fluid from human small antral follicles. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure intrafollicular concentrations of anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH), inhibin-B, progesterone, androstenedione, tes...

  18. Role of gonadotrophin releasing hormone baseline concentrations in the control of pituitary gonadotrophin and ovarian steroid secretion in the pseudopregnant rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA; Valkhof, N; Koiter, TR

    To study the effect of moderately elevated gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) baseline concentrations during the luteal and the follicular phase, pseudopregnant rats were infused s.c. with GnRH at several doses for 5 days, These rats were also treated with oestradiol or sham-treated during the

  19. Sex steroid hormone levels and reproductive development of eight-year-old children following in utero and environmental exposure to phthalates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pen-Hua Su

    Full Text Available In utero exposure to phthalates may adversely affect reproductive development in children due to the anti-androgenic properties of the pthalates. Accordingly, we aimed to determine the effects of in utero and environmental phthalate exposure on the reproductive development of eight-year-old children. We recruited 180 children in central Taiwan during November 2001 and followed them until August 2009 when all children became eight years old. Birth outcomes were collected. Bone age, hormone concentrations, and reproductive developmental stages were determined. Phthalate metabolite levels, including mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP], mono-n-butyl phthalate [MnBP], and mono-benzyl phthalate [MBzP], were assessed. No significant gender differences were found in in utero phthalate exposure. Maternal urinary levels of phthalate metabolites did not correlate significantly with birth outcomes, physical characteristics, and reproductive hormones of the eight-year-old children. Regarding the urinary phthalate metabolite levels of the eight-year-old children, MEHP correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MEHP levels in girls correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MnBP correlated significantly with serum FSH in all children. In girls, MnBP correlated with serum FSH, and MBzP correlated with serum progesterone and FSH levels. Urinary phthalate metabolite levels did not correlate with female developmental stages or the development of female reproductive organs. Phthalate metabolites did not correlate with the physical characteristics and reproductive hormones in boys. Therefore, environmental exposure to phthalates, as determined by urinary phthalate metabolite levels of eight-year-old children, may affect reproductive hormone levels in children, indicating that further studies on the environmental health effects of phthalates are warranted.

  20. Expression of the androgen receptor in the testes and the concentrations of gonadotropins and sex steroid hormones in male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiezun, J; Leska, A; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-04-01

    Androgens, including testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4), are essential for puberty, fertility and sexual functions. The biological activity of those hormones is mediated via the androgen receptor (AR). The regulation of androgen action in birds is poorly understood. Therefore, the present study analysed mRNA and protein expression of AR in the testes, plasma concentrations of the luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), T, A4 and oestradiol (E2), as well as the levels of T, A4 and E2 in testicular homogenates of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. Plasma concentrations of LH and FSH, as well as plasma and testicular levels of T and A4 began to increase at 20weeks of age. The lowest plasma levels of E2 were noted at 20weeks relative to other growth stages. The 20th week of life seems to be the key phase in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys. The AR protein was found in the nuclei of testicular cells in all examined growth stages. Higher expression of AR protein in the testes beginning at 20weeks of age was accompanied by high plasma concentrations of LH and high plasma and testicular levels of androgens. This relationship seems to be necessary to regulate male sexual function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A perspective on current research investigating the effects of hormonal contraceptives on determinants of female athlete performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel MARTIN

    Full Text Available Abstract Hormonal contraceptives are used by approximately half of female athletes and may affect athletic performance as a result of their action on the endogenous hormonal milieu. In athletes, hormonal contraceptive use appears to have little effect on body composition, however further studies are needed assessing progestin-only contraceptives as they may have a negative effect in the general population. The type of progestin contained within the contraceptive may influence the anabolic response of muscle to loading although this relationship is complex as it may be due to either direct or indirect effects of exogenous hormones on protein synthesis and satellite cell proliferation. The altered hormonal milieu in hormonal contraceptive users has predominately been shown to have no effect on muscle strength and whilst maximal oxygen uptake is sometimes reduced, this does not translate into measures of performance. The majority of previous research has used cross-sectional designs and/or grouped together different types and brands of hormonal contraceptives and little research has been conducted on progestin-only contraceptives in athletes. Future research should use prospective, randomised-controlled designs to assess the effects of all types of hormonal contraceptives on athletic performance in females.

  2. Anabolic Steroids (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter Search Term(s): Teens / Drug Facts / Anabolic Steroids Anabolic Steroids Street names: Gym Candy, Juice, Roids Print Expand All Revised March 2017 What are anabolic steroids? ©Shutterstock/ Dizain Also known as: Anabolic-androgenic Steroids, ...

  3. Radioisotope studies of steroid hormone levels of plasma in indigenous subjects living at high altitude and submitted to a low calorie diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, I.

    1975-08-01

    Radioimmunological techniques were applied to the evaluation of TSH and ACTH in the four groups of Ecuadorian subjects under investigation at Tocachi, Malchingui, Quito and Portoviejo, the first three populations living at a high altitude and the fourth at sea-level. This evaluation was of interest since previous studies had indicated that there were thyroid and adrenal hormone deficiency levels in individuals from Tocachi and Malchingui or, in other words, in populations from a high-altitude region, and also endemic goitre and caloric-protein malnutrition. Furthermore, the Tocachi group was composed of subjects suffering from chronic ''stress''. Parallel to the analysis of TSH and pituitary ACTH levels, the circadian rhythm in the production of these hormones in these subjects was studied. The basal values of TSH and ACHT for the studied groups were found to lie within the normal range. 131 I-TSH and 125 I-ACTH were used. As far as the nycthemeral TSH rhythm is concerned, the values tended to be lowest for the high-altitude populations, while for the groups living at sea-level, where there is also circadian variation, the higher values are found in the morning. Similarly, the circadian rhythm for ACTH was established, with a predominance of diurnal values at Tocachi, Malchingui and Portoviejo

  4. Adrenal steroid, cortisol, adrenocorticotropin, and beta-endorphin responses to human corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test in normal children and children with premature pubarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghizzoni, L; Virdis, R; Ziveri, M; Lamborghini, A; Alberini, A; Volta, C; Bernasconi, S

    1989-10-01

    To determine whether CRH affects adrenal androgen, beta-endorphin (B-E), and ACTH secretion in normal children during sexual maturation, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), androstenedione (D4-A), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DS), cortisol, B-E, and ACTH were measured after an iv injection of 1 microgram/kg human CRH. Children with premature pubarche were similarly analyzed to establish whether this condition is accompanied by altered hormonal responses to CRH. CRH produced consistent increases in ACTH, B-EP, and cortisol blood levels, which were comparable at all age intervals in all groups. 17-OHP increased after CRH injection, but its response linearly with age. D4-A levels were not influenced, while DHEA and DS levels were only partially influenced by CRH. The stimulated D4-A to 17-OHP ratio increased with sexual maturation, whereas ratios of cortisol to 17-OHP and D4-A to DHEA remained constant. Children with premature pubarche had hormonal responses similar in magnitude to those of prepubertal children of comparable age. In conclusion, an increase in 17,20-desmolase efficiency occurs with postnatal maturation after CRH challenge. Moreover, CRH does not appear to play an important role in premature pubarche.

  5. Effects on circulating steroid hormones and gene expression along the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis in adult Japanese quail exposed to 17β-trenbolone across multiple generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula F.; Maddox, Catherine M.; Sprague, Dan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17β-trenbolone (17βTB) on adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) exposed across three generations. The F0 generation was exposed after sexual maturity to 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm through feed. The F1 generation was exposed in ovo by maternal transfer and through feed at the same doses as their parents. The F2 generation was exposed in ovo only. Levels of plasma sex steroids, gonadal Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA and select brain neuroendocrine peptide mRNAs were measured. In males, testosterone levels did not differ in any generation from those in controls. Estradiol was significantly elevated in 17βTB treated F0 and F1 males. In F0 and F1 females, testosterone was suppressed by 17βTB, whereas estradiol was significantly higher at 40 ppm in F0 and at 10 ppm in F1 females. CYP19A1 expression in F1 males and females increased suggesting a compensatory response to the androgenic effects of 17βTB. Few significant effects were observed in the F2 birds indicating that in ovo exposure had limited effects on the monitored endpoints. Overall, our results confirmed endocrine disrupting effects of dietary 17βTB in Japanese quail but the response was dependent on sex, developmental stage at initiation of exposure, and dose.

  6. Age dependent differences in the regulation of hippocampal steroid hormones and receptor genes: relations to motivation and cognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K; Korz, V

    2013-02-01

    Estrogen and estrogenic functions are age-dependently involved in the modulation of learning, memory and mood in female humans and animals. However, the investigation of estrogenic effects in males has been largely neglected. Therefore, we investigated the hippocampal gene expression of estrogen receptors α and β (ERα, β) in 8-week-old, 12-week-old and 24-week-old male rats. To control for possible interactions between the expression of the estrogen receptor genes and other learning-related steroid receptors, androgen receptors (AR), corticosterone-binding glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) were also measured. Furthermore, the concentrations of the ligands 17β-estradiol, testosterone and corticosterone were measured. The spatial training was conducted in a hole-board. The 8-week-old rats exhibited higher levels of general activity and exploration during the training and performed best with respect to spatial learning and memory, whereas no difference was found between the 12-week-old and 24-week-old rats. The trained 8-week-old rats exhibited increased gene expression of ERα compared with the untrained rats in this age group as well as the trained 12-week-old and 24-week-old rats. The concentrations of estradiol and testosterone, however, were generally higher in the 24-week-old rats than in the 8-week-old and 12-week-old rats. The ERα mRNA concentrations correlated positively with behavior that indicate general learning motivation. These results suggest a specific role of ERα in the age-related differences in motivation and subsequent success in the task. Thus, estrogen and estrogenic functions may play a more prominent role in young male behavior and development than has been previously assumed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hormonal Aspects of Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Page B.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis The interactions between hormones, epilepsy, and the medications used to treat epilepsy are complex, with tridirectional interactions which affect both men and women in various ways. Abnormalities of baseline endocrine status occur more commonly in people with epilepsy, and are most often described for the sex steroid hormone axis. Common symptoms include sexual dysfunction, decreased fertility, premature menopause, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Antiepileptic drugs and hormones have a bidirectional interaction, with a decrease in the efficacy of hormonal contraceptive agents with some AEDs and a decrease in the concentration and efficacy of other AEDs with hormonal contraceptives. Endogenous hormones can influence seizure severity and frequency, resulting in catamenial patterns of epilepsy. However, this knowledge can be used to develop hormonal strategies to improve seizure control in people with epilepsy. PMID:19853217

  8. Shaped and Balanced by Hormones : cortisol, testosterone and the psychoneuroendocrinology of human socio-emotional behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormones testosterone and cortisol can be considered hormones for environmental challenges; they are involved in adaptive neural and behavioral responses towards emotional stimuli. A key challenge of human psychoneuroendocrinology is to unravel the neural mechanisms by which testosterone and cortisol act on the brain to give rise to their effects on socio-emotional behaviors. Therefore, one of the main goals of the research reported in this thesis is to investigate neural mechanis...

  9. Steroid hormones and peptide hormones in atopic eczema. Radioimmunological determination of diurnal plasma level variations of testosterone, cortisol, prolactin and human growth factor in healthy volunteers and patients showing atopic eczemae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, B.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of hormone measurements in sera from healthy volunteers and patients that was carried out on the basis of different criteria yielded the following results: 1) The testosterone levels determined in the patients sera were significantly lower than those of the healthy individuals and the daily rhythmic variations seen here did not attain statistical significance. 2) There were no statistically relevant differences in the serum concentrations of cortisol between healthy individuals and patients, nor was the amplitude of the daily variations observed to be changed in a consistent way. 3) In the patients, as compared to the healthy individuals, the prolactin level was considerably increased, as was the amplitude of the daily rhythmic variations. 4) The values determined for the human growth hormone (HCG) varied considerably between the individuals of either group. Since this held true for both the fluctuations with time and the height of the serum concentrations, a statistical analysis of the results appeared pointless. The results confirm that central and autonomous components have an important role in ectopic eczemae. (TRV) [de

  10. Circadian Clock genes Per2 and clock regulate steroid production, cell proliferation, and luteinizing hormone receptor transcription in ovarian granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takashi, E-mail: shimizut@obihiro.ac.jp [Graduate School of Animal and Food Hygiene, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan); Hirai, Yuko; Murayama, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Akio [Graduate School of Animal and Food Hygiene, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan); Miyazaki, Hitoshi [Gene Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Miyazaki, Koyomi [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Central 6, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression. {yields}Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom. {yields} Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. {yields}Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. {yields} The expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. -- Abstract: Circadian Clock genes are associated with the estrous cycle in female animals. Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression in follicle-stimulating hormone FSH-treated granulosa cells. Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom, whereas Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. Similarly, expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. Our data provide a new insight that Per2 and Clock have different action on ovarian granulosa cell functions.

  11. Aspectos reprodutivos e perfil hormonal dos esteróides sexuais do pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (SCHINZ,1822, em condições de cativeiro Reproductive aspects and sexual steroids hormonal profiles of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (SCHINZ,1822, in captivity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bruno Barbosa Monteiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo caracterizar a reprodução e o perfil hormonal dos esteróides sexuais do pirarucu, Arapaima gigas, além de validar um aspecto do dimorfismo sexual secundário. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Santo Antônio II, em Presidente Figueredo-AM, no período de fevereiro de 2004 a fevereiro de 2005. Foram selecionados 24 exemplares e divididos em três grupos de oito peixes (grupo "A", "B" e "C" com pirarucus de mais de quatro anos de idade, com três anos e dois anos, respectivamente. Os pirarucus foram estocados em três tanques de 400m², um para cada grupo. Aspectos comportamentais, como o interesse por alimento, brigas, formação de casais e presença de ninhos, foram observados ao longo de todo o experimento. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas mensalmente, de todos os peixes, observou-se a presença de uma mancha alaranjada no macho como uma característica sexual secundária. Foram mensurados os níveis de testosterona (T, 17beta-estradiol (E2 e 17alfa-hidroxi-progesterona (17aOHP através de radioimunoensaio (RIA de fase sólida. Todos os machos dos grupos "A" e "B" puderam ser identificados pela mancha alaranjada na região inferior da cabeça, corroborada pela concentração de testosterona, comprovando o conhecimento empírico dos ribeirinhos. Os níveis de T e E2 nos peixes do grupo "A" e "B" tiveram maiores picos no início do período de chuva, enquanto que o 17aOHP teve oscilações constantes e pequenos picos no final do período chuvoso, os peixes do grupo "C" acompanharam essa tendência em concentrações menores.The purpose of this study was to characterize the growth, reproduction and hormonal profile of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas, and validate one sexual dimorphism characteristic. The experiment was carried in the fish farm Santo Antonio II, Presidente Figueredo city in the state of Amazonas Brazil, from February 2004 to February 2005. In the experiment, 24 fishes were selected and divided

  12. Steroids, stress and the gut microbiome-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetel, M J; de Vries, G J; Melcangi, R C; Panzica, G; O'Mahony, S M

    2018-02-01

    It is becoming well established that the gut microbiome has a profound impact on human health and disease. In this review, we explore how steroids can influence the gut microbiota and, in turn, how the gut microbiota can influence hormone levels. Within the context of the gut microbiome-brain axis, we discuss how perturbations in the gut microbiota can alter the stress axis and behaviour. In addition, human studies on the possible role of gut microbiota in depression and anxiety are examined. Finally, we present some of the challenges and important questions that need to be addressed by future research in this exciting new area at the intersection of steroids, stress, gut-brain axis and human health. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  13. Excreted steroids in vertebrate social communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Wayne I; Meeks, Julian P

    2018-03-08

    Steroids play vital roles in animal physiology across species, and the production of specific steroids is associated with particular internal biological functions. The internal functions of steroids are, in most cases, quite clear. However, an important feature of many steroids -- their chemical stability -- allows these molecules to play secondary, external roles as chemical messengers after their excretion via urine, feces, or other shed substances. The presence of steroids in animal excretions has long been appreciated, but their capacity to serve as chemosignals has not received as much attention. In theory, the blend of steroids excreted by an animal contains a readout of its own biological state. Initial mechanistic evidence for external steroid chemosensation arose from studies of many species of fish. In sea lampreys and ray-finned fishes bile salts were identified as potent olfactory cues and later found to serve as pheromones. Recently, we and others have discovered that neurons in amphibian and mammalian olfactory systems are also highly sensitive to excreted glucocorticoids, sex steroids, and bile acids, and some of these molecules have been confirmed as mammalian pheromones. Steroid chemosensation in olfactory systems, unlike steroid detection in most tissues, is performed by plasma membrane receptors, but the details remain largely unclear. In this review, we present a broad view of steroid detection by vertebrate olfactory systems, focusing on recent research in fishes, amphibians, and mammals. We review confirmed and hypothesized mechanisms of steroid chemosensation in each group and discuss potential impacts on vertebrate social communication. Copyright © 2018 the authors.

  14. Comparative study of some hormones during rutting season in dromedary camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlaa S. Ibrahim et al

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the effect of age on steroids, cortisol and thyroids hormones during rutting seasons in camels. Blood serum were taken from 103 healthy camels from Al-Najaf province slaughterhouse, samples were divided according to age into two categories: pre-pubertal animals 1-4 years and mature 5-8 years. The estrogen, progesterone, cortisol, T3 and T4 hormones were tests by using Gamma counter. The recent results indicated that the age had an effect on estrogen, progesterone, cortisol, T3 and T4 and there were a significant differences (P<0.01 between mature and pre-pubertal ages. There were also increases in those hormones during rutting season in both age groups. We conclude that the age and rutting season had an effect on steroids, cortisol and thyroid hormones levels in dromedary male camels.

  15. Investigations on hormone dependency of human mammary carcinomas transplanted into nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1981-01-01

    Since human mammary cancer can be transplanted into nude mice, this makes possible the in vivo study of relations between hormone dependency and the steroid hormone receptor content of the tumors. The macroscopic growth curve of the transplanted tumors during endocrine therapy will reflect...... the hormone dependency. The results can be compared with successive steroid hormone receptor determinations in the tumor tissue....

  16. Transcutaneous monitoring of steroid-induced osteoporosis with Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.; Inzana, Jason; Takahata, Masahiko; Awad, Hani A.; Berger, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Although glucocorticoids are among the most frequently prescribed anti-inflammatory agents used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, extended exposure to this steroid hormone is the leading cause of iatrogenic osteoporosis. Recently, Raman spectroscopy has been utilized to exploit biochemical differences between osteoporotic and normal bones in order to predict fracture risk. In this presentation, we report the results of ongoing research in our laboratory towards the clinical translation of this technique. We will discuss strategies for the transcutaneous acquisition of spectra from the tibiae of mice that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk.

  17. Promising Tools in Prostate Cancer Research: Selective Non-Steroidal Cytochrome P450 17A1 Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, Silvia; Hansen, Cecilie H.; Petrunak, Elyse M.; Scott, Emily E.; Styrishave, Bjarne; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Olsen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is an important target in the treatment of prostate cancer because it produces androgens required for tumour growth. The FDA has approved only one CYP17A1 inhibitor, abiraterone, which contains a steroidal scaffold similar to the endogenous CYP17A1 substrates. Abiraterone is structurally similar to the substrates of other cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, and interference can pose a liability in terms of side effects. Using non-steroidal scaffolds is expected to enable the design of compounds that interact more selectively with CYP17A1. Therefore, we combined a structure-based virtual screening approach with density functional theory (DFT) calculations to suggest non-steroidal compounds selective for CYP17A1. In vitro assays demonstrated that two such compounds selectively inhibited CYP17A1 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities with IC50 values in the nanomolar range, without affinity for the major drug-metabolizing CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes and CYP21A2, with the latter result confirmed in human H295R cells.

  18. Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on biomarkers of GH action in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsson, Gudmundur; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Biller, Beverly M K; Boguszewski, Margaret; Casanueva, Felipe F; Chanson, Philippe; Clayton, Peter E; Choong, Catherine S; Clemmons, David; Dattani, Mehul; Frystyk, Jan; Ho, Ken; Hoffman, Andrew R; Horikawa, Reiko; Juul, Anders; Kopchick, John J; Luo, Xiaoping; Neggers, Sebastian; Netchine, Irene; Olsson, Daniel S; Radovick, Sally; Rosenfeld, Ron; Ross, Richard J; Schilbach, Katharina; Solberg, Paulo; Strasburger, Christian; Trainer, Peter; Yuen, Kevin C J; Wickstrom, Kerstin; Jorgensen, Jens O L

    2018-03-01

    The Growth Hormone Research Society (GRS) convened a Workshop in 2017 to evaluate clinical endpoints, surrogate endpoints and biomarkers during GH treatment of children and adults and in patients with acromegaly. GRS invited 34 international experts including clinicians, basic scientists, a regulatory scientist and physicians from the pharmaceutical industry. Current literature was reviewed and expert opinion was utilized to establish the state of the art and identify current gaps and unmet needs. Following plenary presentations, breakout groups discussed questions framed by the planning committee. The attendees re-convened after each breakout session to share the group reports. A writing team compiled the breakout session reports into a document that was subsequently discussed and revised by participants. This was edited further and circulated for final review after the meeting. Participants from pharmaceutical companies were not part of the writing process. The clinical endpoint in paediatric GH treatment is adult height with height velocity as a surrogate endpoint. Increased life expectancy is the ideal but unfeasible clinical endpoint of GH treatment in adult GH-deficient patients (GHDA) and in patients with acromegaly. The pragmatic clinical endpoints in GHDA include normalization of body composition and quality of life, whereas symptom relief and reversal of comorbidities are used in acromegaly. Serum IGF-I is widely used as a biomarker, even though it correlates weakly with clinical endpoints in GH treatment, whereas in acromegaly, normalization of IGF-I may be related to improvement in mortality. There is an unmet need for novel biomarkers that capture the pleiotropic actions of GH in relation to GH treatment and in patients with acromegaly. © 2018 Growth Hormone Research Society.

  19. Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvar Theodorsson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.

  20. Hubungan Penggunaan Kontrasepsi Hormonal dengan Usia Menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Kudadiri, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Kontrasepsi hormonal merupakan suatu metode untuk mencegah kehamilan dengan cara pemberian hormon steroid. Menopause merupakan suatu fase dalam kehidupan wanita dimana masa kesuburan sudah berakhir yang ditandai dengan berhentinya siklus haid sekurang-kurangnya selama 1 tahun. Penggunaan kontrasepsi hormonal dapat menyebabkan pergeseran usia menopause menjadi lebih tua. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptif korelasi yang bertujuan mengidentifikasi hubungan pengg...

  1. NHRC (Naval Health Research Center) Report 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    to blood for measuring steroid hormones. Total plasma and salivary concentrations of cortisol and testos- terone were compared in samples taken twice...distinction was not possible in the pre- *: sent study, but should be an important focus for further research on salivary steroids . 82-6 BECK, D & WM Pugh...station * gyms placed in the Camp Nimitz barracks. This afforded recruits greater access to the machines and eliminated lengthy transit periods to and from

  2. Increased Postprandial GIP and Glucagon Responses, But Unaltered GLP-1 Response after Intervention with Steroid Hormone, Relative Physical Inactivity, And High-Calorie Diet in Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina; Bagger, Jonatan I

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Increased postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon responses and reduced postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses have been observed in some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The causality of these pathophysiological traits...... postprandial GLP-1 responses as observed in some individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus....... is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of insulin resistance and reduced glucose tolerance on postprandial GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon responses in healthy subjects. Research Design and Methods:A 4-h 2200 KJ-liquid meal test was performed in 10 healthy Caucasian males without family history of diabetes...

  3. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  4. Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma: results from the EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn; Biessy, Carine

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC).......Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC)....

  5. Translational research of novel hormones: lessons from animal models and rare human diseases for common human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Kazuwa; Yasoda, Akihiro; Ebihara, Ken; Hosoda, Kiminori; Mukoyama, Masashi

    2009-10-01

    Since the 1980s, a number of bioactive molecules, now known as cardiovascular hormones, have been isolated from the heart and blood vessels, particularly from the subset of vascular endothelial cells. The natriuretic peptide family is the prototype of the cardiovascular hormones. Over the following decade, a variety of hormones and cytokines, now known as adipokines or adipocytokines, have also been isolated from adipose tissue. Leptin is the only adipokine demonstrated to cause an obese phenotype in both animals and humans upon deletion. Thus, the past two decades have seen the identification of two important classes of bioactive molecules secreted by newly recognized endocrine cells, both of which differentiate from mesenchymal stem cells. To assess the physiological and clinical implications of these novel hormones, we have investigated their functions using animal models. We have also developed and analyzed mice overexpressing transgenic forms of these proteins and knockout mice deficient in these and related genes. Here, we demonstrate the current state of the translational research of these novel hormones, the natriuretic peptide family and leptin, and discuss how lessons learned from excellent animal models and rare human diseases can provide a better understanding of common human diseases.

  6. Steroid-Functionalized Titanocenes: Docking Studies with Estrogen Receptor Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα is a transcription factor that is activated by hormones, with 17β-estradiol being its most active agonist endogenous ligand. ERα is also activated or inactivated by exogenous ligands. ER is overexpressed in hormone-dependent breast cancer, and one of the treatments for this type of cancer is the use of an ER antagonist to halt cell proliferation. We have previously reported four steroid-functionalized titanocenes: pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, trans-androsterone, and androsterone. These steroids have hormonal activity as well as moderate antiproliferative activity, thus these steroids could act as vectors for the titanocene dichloride to target hormone-dependent cancers. Also, these steroids could increase the antiproliferative activity of the resulting titanocenes based on synergism. In order to elucidate which factors contribute to the enhanced antiproliferative activity of these steroid-functionalized titanocenes, we performed docking studies between ERα and the titanocenes and the steroids. The binding affinities and type of bonding interactions of the steroid-functionalized titanocenes with ERα are herein discussed.

  7. Simultaneous analysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and estrogenic hormones in water and wastewater samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with electron capture detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migowska, Natalia; Caban, Magda; Stepnowski, Piotr; Kumirska, Jolanta, E-mail: kumirska@chem.univ.gda.pl

    2012-12-15

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the group of pharmaceuticals that is most often found in the environment, whereas estrogenic hormones are considered to be potent endocrine disruptors. However, the fate and persistence of these compounds in the environment are still unclear. In this study we propose two approaches for determining these compounds in environmental water samples: GC-MS using time windows and operating in selected ion-monitoring mode (SIM) and, for the first time, gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The identification criteria of both methods fulfilled the requirements of Directive 2002/657/EC. The use of time windows improved the sensitivity of GC-MS measurements. In GC-MS analysis the pharmaceuticals were determined as trimethylsilyl, in GC-ECD as pentafluoropropionyl derivatives. The influence of such parameters as the type of reagent, type of solvent, reaction time, reaction temperature and microwave irradiation in a household microwave oven on the efficacy of silylation was investigated. Derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) in pyridine (1:1, v/v) for 30 min in 60 Degree-Sign C was found to be optimal. Optimization of the solid phase extraction procedure (SPE) confirmed that the application of Oasis HLB cartridges, the acidification of loading samples to pH 2 and the use of methanol as eluent gave the best absolute recoveries (ARs) of the target compounds. The following ARs of all the compounds were achieved: 58.2-106.8% in influent wastewater, 77.8-103.4% in effluent wastewater and 81.2-101.9% in surface water samples. Validation of the SPE-GC-MS method enables 13 pharmaceuticals to be determined with MDLs between 3.3 and 343.6 ng/L, depending on the analytes and matrices. GC-ECD analysis enables the determination of 6 pharmaceuticals in surface water samples with MDLs between 0.7 and 5.4 ng/L. The proposed methods were successfully used for

  8. Steroid hormones in murine schistosomiasis mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, K.C.; Cardoso, R.; Dos Santos, A.C.; Alves, H.; Richter, J.; Botelho, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease, endemic in 76 countries, that afflicts more than 240 million people. The impact of schistosomiasis on infertility may be underestimated according to recent literature. Extracts of Schistosoma (S.) haematobium include estrogen-like metabolites termed catechol-estrogens that down regulate estrogen receptors alpha and beta in estrogen responsive cells. In addition, schistosome derived catechol-estrogens induce genotoxicity that result in estrogen-...

  9. Interactions between inflammation, sex steroids, and Alzheimer’s disease risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchoa, Mariana F.; Moser, V. Alexandra; Pike, Christian J.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder for which there are no effective strategies to prevent or slow its progression. Because AD is multifactorial, recent research has focused on understanding interactions among the numerous risk factors and mechanisms underlying the disease. One mechanism through which several risk factors may be acting is inflammation. AD is characterized by chronic inflammation that is observed before clinical onset of dementia. Several genetic and environmental risk factors for AD increase inflammation, including apolipoprotein E4, obesity, and air pollution. Additionally, sex steroid hormones appear to contribute to AD risk, with age-related losses of estrogens in women and androgens in men associated with increased risk. Importantly, sex steroid hormones have anti-inflammatory actions and can interact with several other AD risk factors. This review examines the individual and interactive roles of inflammation and sex steroid hormones in AD, as well as their relationships with the AD risk factors apolipoprotein E4, obesity, and air pollution. PMID:27651175

  10. Anabolic steroids for rehabilitation after hip fracture in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Vaqas; Berg, Maayken E L van den; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Hip fracture occurs predominantly in older people, many of whom are frail and undernourished. After hip fracture surgery and rehabilitation, most patients experience a decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. They may have similar effects in older people who are recovering from hip fracture. To examine the effects (primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events) of anabolic steroids after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register (10 September 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2013 Issue 8), MEDLINE (1946 to August Week 4 2013), EMBASE (1974 to 2013 Week 36), trial registers, conference proceedings, and reference lists of relevant articles. The search was run in September 2013.Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials of anabolic steroids given after hip fracture surgery, in inpatient or outpatient settings, to improve physical functioning in older patients with hip fracture.Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently selected trials (based on predefined inclusion criteria), extracted data and assessed each study's risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements. Only very limited pooling of data was possible. The primary outcomes were function (for example, independence in mobility and activities of daily living) and adverse events, including mortality. We screened 1290 records and found only three trials involving 154 female participants, all of whom were aged above 65 years and had had hip fracture surgery. All studies had methodological shortcomings that placed them at high or unclear risk of bias. Because of this high risk of bias, imprecise results and likelihood of publication bias

  11. Paradigm Shift in Thyroid Hormone Mechanism of Action | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is one of the primary endocrine regulators of human metabolism and homeostasis. Acting through three forms of the thyroid hormone receptor (THR; alpha-1, beta-1, and beta-2), TH regulates target gene expression in nearly every cell in the body, modulating fundamental processes, such as basal metabolic rate, long bone growth, and neural maturation. TH is also essential for proper development and differentiation of all cells of the human body.

  12. Are Steroids Worth the Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by passing laws controlling steroid distribution. How Do Anabolic Steroids Work? Anabolic steroids stimulate muscle tissue to grow and "bulk up" ... effect of naturally produced testosterone on the body. Anabolic steroids can remain in the body anywhere from a ...

  13. Research resource: novel structural insights bridge gaps in glycoprotein hormone receptor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuchwig, Annika; Kleinau, Gunnar; Krause, Gerd

    2013-08-01

    The first version of a glycoprotein hormone receptor (GPHR) information resource was designed to link functional with structural GPHR information, in order to support sequence-structure-function analysis of the LH, FSH, and TSH receptors (http://ssfa-gphr.de). However, structural information on a binding- and signaling-sensitive extracellular fragment (∼100 residues), the hinge region, had been lacking. A new FSHR crystal structure of the hormone-bound extracellular domain has recently been solved. The structure comprises the leucine-rich repeat domain and most parts of the hinge region. We have not only integrated the new FSHR/FSH structure and the derived homology models of TSHR/TSH, LHCGR/CG, and LHCGR/LH into our web-based information resource, but have additionally provided novel tools to analyze the advanced structural features, with the common characteristics and distinctions between GPHRs, in a more precise manner. The hinge region with its second hormone-binding site allows us to assign functional data to the new structural features between hormone and receptor, such as binding details of a sulfated tyrosine (conserved throughout the GPHRs) extending into a pocket of the hormone. We have also implemented a protein interface analysis tool that enables the identification and visualization of extracellular contact points between interaction partners. This provides a starting point for comparing the binding patterns of GPHRs. Together with the mutagenesis data stored in the database, this will help to decipher the essential residues for ligand recognition and the molecular mechanisms of signal transduction, extending from the extracellular hormone-binding site toward the intracellular G protein-binding sites.

  14. Hormonal Control of Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    青野, 敏博; Toshihiro, AONO; 徳島大学; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tokushima, School of Medicine

    1990-01-01

    We studied the mechanism of normal lactation, especially the roles of prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OXT) in the initiation of lactation, the lactation in the women complicated with endocrinological disorders, and medical therapies for stimulation and suppression of lactation. The level of serum PRL increases as pregnancy progresses, and reachs to a peak on the day of delivery. Despite high PRL level, milk secretion does not appear during pregnancy, because the sex steroid hormones suppress bi...

  15. Elevated plasma corticosterone decreases yolk testosterone and progesterone in chickens: linking maternal stress and hormone-mediated maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Henriksen

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress reproduction by downregulating gonadal hormones. Using the chicken as a model species, we therefore tested whether elevated levels of plasma corticosterone in female birds influence the production of gonadal steroids by the ovarian follicles and thus the amount of reproductive hormones in the egg yolk. Adult laying hens of two different strains (ISA brown and white Leghorn were implanted subcutaneously with corticosterone pellets that elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations over a period of nine days. Steroid hormones were subsequently quantified in plasma and yolk. Corticosterone-implanted hens of both strains had lower plasma progesterone and testosterone levels and their yolks contained less progesterone and testosterone. The treatment also reduced egg and yolk mass. Plasma estrogen concentrations decreased in white Leghorns only whereas in both strains yolk estrogens were unaffected. Our results demonstrate for the first time that maternal plasma corticosterone levels influence reproductive hormone concentrations in the yolk. Maternal corticosterone could therefore mediate environmentally induced changes in yolk gonadal hormone concentrations. In addition, stressful situations experienced by the bird mother might affect the offspring via reduced amounts of reproductive hormones present in the egg as well as available nutrients for the embryo.

  16. Hormones in infant rhesus monkeys' (Macaca mulatta) hair at birth provide a window into the fetal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Lubach, Gabriele; Hedman, Curtis; Ziegler, Toni E; Coe, Christopher L

    2014-04-01

    It is established that maternal parity can affect infant growth and risk for several disorders, but the prenatal endocrine milieu that contributes to these outcomes is still largely unknown. Recently, it has been shown that hormones deposited in hair can provide a retrospective reflection of hormone levels while the hair was growing. Taking advantage of this finding, our study utilized hair at birth to investigate if maternal parity affected fetal hormone exposure during late gestation. Hair was collected from primiparous and multiparous mother and infant monkeys at birth and used to determine steroid hormones embedded in hair while the infant was in utero. A high-pressure liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry technique was refined, which enabled the simultaneous measurement of eight hormones. Hormone concentrations were dramatically higher in neonatal compared to maternal hair, reflecting extended fetal exposure as the first hair was growing. Further, hair cortisone was higher in primiparous mothers and infants when compared to the multiparous dyads. This research demonstrates that infant hair can be used to track fetal hormone exposure and a panel of steroid hormones can be quantified from hair specimens. Given the utility in nonhuman primates, this approach can be translated to a clinical setting with human infants.

  17. Plant-microbe interactions: Plant hormone production by phylloplane fungi. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, T.; Ilvesoksa, J.; Rosenqvist, H.

    1993-06-23

    The molds Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides and the yeast Aureobasidium pullulans, isolated from the leaves of three short-rotation Salix clones, were found to produce indole-3-acetic acid (a growth promoter of plants). Abscisic acid (a growth inhibitor of plants) production was detected in B. cinerea. The contents of indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in the leaves of the Salix clones and the amounts of fungal propagules in these leaves were also measured, in order to evaluate whether the amounts of plant growth regulators produced by the fungi would make a significant contribution to the hormonal quantities of the leaves. The content of abscisic acid, and to a lesser degree that of indole-3-acetic acid, showed a positive correlation with the frequency of infection by the hormone producing organisms. The amounts of hormone producing fungi on leaves that bore visible colonies were, however, not sufficiently high to support the argument that neither the fungal production of abscisic nor indole-3-acetic acid would to a significant degree contribute to the hormonal contents of the leaves of the Salix clones.

  18. Gonadal Hormones and Retinal Disorders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Nuzzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AimGonadal hormones are essential for reproductive function, but can act on neural and other organ systems, and are probably the cause of the large majority of known sex differences in function and disease. The aim of this review is to provide evidence for this hypothesis in relation to eye disorders and to retinopathies in particular.MethodsEpidemiological studies and research articles were reviewed.ResultsAnalysis of the biological basis for a relationship between eye diseases and hormones showed that estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors are present throughout the eye and that these steroids are locally produced in ocular tissues. Sex hormones can have a neuroprotective action on the retina and modulate ocular blood flow. There are differences between the male and the female retina; moreover, sex hormones can influence the development (or not of certain disorders. For example, exposure to endogenous estrogens, depending on age at menarche and menopause and number of pregnancies, and exposure to exogenous estrogens, as in hormone replacement therapy and use of oral contraceptives, appear to protect against age-related macular degeneration (both drusenoid and neurovascular types, whereas exogenous testosterone therapy is a risk factor for central serous chorioretinopathy. Macular hole is more common among women than men, particularly in postmenopausal women probably owing to the sudden drop in estrogen production in later middle age. Progestin therapy appears to ameliorate the course of retinitis pigmentosa. Diabetic retinopathy, a complication of diabetes, may be more common among men than women.ConclusionWe observed a correlation between many retinopathies and sex, probably as a result of the protective effect some gonadal hormones may exert against the development of certain disorders. This may have ramifications for the use of hormone therapy in the treatment of eye disease and of retinal disorders in particular.

  19. Testicular fine-needle aspiration for the assessment of intratesticular hormone concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada P Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of intratesticular sex steroid concentrations in men informs both the development of male hormonal contraceptives and the understanding of male infertility. Given the challenges of using invasive techniques to measure testicular hormone physiology, our group has used a minimally-invasive fine-needle aspiration technique to measure intratesticular hormones in normal healthy men. Herein, we present a post-hoc analysis of the safety and efficacy of testicular fine-needle aspiration (FNA completed as part of six clinical trials. From 2001 through 2011, a total of 404 procedures were conducted among 163 research volunteers, 85.9% of which were successful in obtaining sufficient fluid for the measurement of intratesticular steroid concentrations. Pain was the most common side effect, with 36.8% of procedures associated with moderate procedural pain and 4.7% with severe procedural pain. Postprocedural pain was uncommon and abated within a few days. Mild local bruising occurred with 14.9% of procedures. Two serious adverse events (0.5% required surgical intervention. The risk of an adverse event was not associated with age, body mass index, testicular size, or the volume of fluid aspirated. Testicular FNA to obtain fluid for measurement of intratesticular steroid concentrations frequently causes mild to moderate procedural pain, but serious adverse events occur rarely. Testicular FNA has been instrumental for defining human intratesticular hormone physiology and is a minimally-invasive, safe, effective method for obtaining fluid for research on testicular physiology and pathology.

  20. Race differences in obesity and its relationship to the sex hormone milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Arlette C; Martin, Lorena

    2014-09-01

    A sexual dimorphism exists in which increased abdominal and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) - found in women and marked by low sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and high bioavailable testosterone (BT) - is related to the metabolic risk profile. In men, increased BT is related to decreased abdominal obesity and a decrease in the metabolic risk profile. In women, race differences have been found in androgenic sex steroids including SHBG and BT as well as central fat distribution, creating inherently greater metabolic risk for certain populations. Estrogen and estrogen receptor isoforms play a role in fat deposition and distribution and may influence the changes that occur during the menopausal transition. Androgenic sex steroids serve a mediating role, influencing VAT accumulation and its associated metabolic risk factors while VAT also serves a mediating role influencing the androgenic sex steroid-metabolic risk relationship in women. Furthermore, androgenic sex steroids and VAT may independently contribute to the variance in several metabolic variables associated with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and their antecedent conditions such as the metabolic syndrome. Race has been shown to modify the relationship between androgenic sex steroids and metabolic variables associated with risk for diabetes in Black and White women. Further research is warranted to examine the mechanisms involved in race differences. Total adiposity and central fat distribution in accordance with changes in the hormone and metabolic milieu influence breast cancer risk, which varies by race and menopausal status. These findings have broader implications for the study of health promotion/disease prevention in women.

  1. Implications of prenatal steroid perturbations for neurodevelopment, behavior, and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Andrea C; Martien, Katherine M; Gagnidze, Khatuna; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-12-01

    The prenatal brain develops under the influence of an ever-changing hormonal milieu that includes endogenous fetal gonadal and adrenal hormones, placental and maternal hormones, and exogenous substances with hormonal activity that can cross the placental barrier. This review discusses the influences of endogenous fetal and maternal hormones on normal brain development and potential consequences of pathophysiological hormonal perturbations to the developing brain, with particular reference to autism. We also consider the effects of hormonal pharmaceuticals used for assisted reproduction, the maintenance of pregnancy, the prevention of congenital adrenal hypertrophy, and hormonal contraceptives continued into an unanticipated pregnancy, among others. These treatments, although in some instances life-saving, may have unintended consequences on the developing fetuses. Additional concern is raised by fetal exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals encountered universally by pregnant women from food/water containers, contaminated food, household chemicals, and other sources. What are the potential outcomes of prenatal steroid perturbations on neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders, including autism-spectrum disorders? Our purposes here are 1) to summarize some consequences of steroid exposures during pregnancy for the development of brain and behavior in the offspring; 2) to summarize what is known about the relationships between exposures and behavior, including autism spectrum disorders; 3) to discuss the molecular underpinnings of such effects, especially molecular epigenetic mechanisms of prenatal steroid manipulations, a field that may explain effects of direct exposures, and even transgenerational effects; and 4) for all of these, to add cautionary notes about their interpretation in the name of scientific rigor.

  2. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hormones, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Keira A; Uldall, Maria; Botfield, Hannah; Cato, Liam D; Miah, Mohammed A L; Hassan-Smith, Ghaniah; Jensen, Rigmor H; Gonzalez, Ana M; Sinclair, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) results in raised intracranial pressure (ICP) leading to papilledema, visual dysfunction, and headaches. Obese females of reproductive age are predominantly affected, but the underlying pathological mechanisms behind IIH remain unknown. This review provides an overview of pathogenic factors that could result in IIH with particular focus on hormones and the impact of obesity, including its role in neuroendocrine signaling and driving inflammation. Despite occurring almost exclusively in obese women, there have been a few studies evaluating the mechanisms by which hormones and adipokines exert their effects on ICP regulation in IIH. Research involving 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, a modulator of glucocorticoids, suggests a potential role in IIH. Improved understanding of the complex interplay between adipose signaling factors such as adipokines, steroid hormones, and ICP regulation may be key to the understanding and future management of IIH. PMID:27186074

  3. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  4. Stable isotope labeling – Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of androgenic and progestagenic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Ning; Liu, Ping; Ding, Jun; Zheng, Shu-Jian; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones play important roles in mammal at very low concentrations and are associated with numerous endocrinology and oncology diseases. Therefore, quantitative analysis of steroid hormones can provide crucial information for uncovering underlying mechanisms of steroid hormones related diseases. In the current study, we developed a sensitive method for the detection of steroid hormones (progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, pregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone) in body fluids by stable isotope labeling coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. In this respect, a pair of isotopes labeling reagents, Girard reagent P (GP) and d 5 -Girard reagent P (d 5 -GP), were synthesized and utilized to label steroid hormones in follicular fluid samples and steroid hormone standards, respectively. The heavy labeled standards were used as internal standards for quantification to minimize quantitation deviation in MS analysis due to the matrix and ion suppression effects. The ionization efficiencies of steroid hormones were greatly improved by 4–504 folds through the introduction of a permanent charged moiety of quaternary ammonium from GP. Using the developed method, we successfully quantified steroid hormones in human follicular fluid. We found that the contents of testosterone and androstenedione exhibited significant increase while the content of pregnenolone had significant decrease in follicular fluid of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients compared with healthy controls, indicating that these steroid hormones with significant change may contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Taken together, the developed stable isotope labeling coupled LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis demonstrated to be a promising method for the sensitive and accurate determination of steroid hormones, which may facilitate the in-depth investigation of steroid hormones related

  5. Stable isotope labeling – Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of androgenic and progestagenic steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ning; Liu, Ping; Ding, Jun; Zheng, Shu-Jian; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi, E-mail: yqfeng@whu.edu.cn

    2016-01-28

    Steroid hormones play important roles in mammal at very low concentrations and are associated with numerous endocrinology and oncology diseases. Therefore, quantitative analysis of steroid hormones can provide crucial information for uncovering underlying mechanisms of steroid hormones related diseases. In the current study, we developed a sensitive method for the detection of steroid hormones (progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, pregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone) in body fluids by stable isotope labeling coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. In this respect, a pair of isotopes labeling reagents, Girard reagent P (GP) and d{sub 5}-Girard reagent P (d{sub 5}-GP), were synthesized and utilized to label steroid hormones in follicular fluid samples and steroid hormone standards, respectively. The heavy labeled standards were used as internal standards for quantification to minimize quantitation deviation in MS analysis due to the matrix and ion suppression effects. The ionization efficiencies of steroid hormones were greatly improved by 4–504 folds through the introduction of a permanent charged moiety of quaternary ammonium from GP. Using the developed method, we successfully quantified steroid hormones in human follicular fluid. We found that the contents of testosterone and androstenedione exhibited significant increase while the content of pregnenolone had significant decrease in follicular fluid of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients compared with healthy controls, indicating that these steroid hormones with significant change may contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Taken together, the developed stable isotope labeling coupled LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis demonstrated to be a promising method for the sensitive and accurate determination of steroid hormones, which may facilitate the in-depth investigation of steroid hormones

  6. Nuclear hormone receptor architecture - form and dynamics: The 2009 FASEB Summer Conference on Dynamic Structure of the Nuclear Hormone Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Iain J; Nardulli, Ann M

    2009-12-31

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) represent a large and diverse family of ligand-activated transcription factors involved in regulating development, metabolic homeostasis, salt balance and reproductive health. The ligands for these receptors are typically small hydrophobic molecules such as steroid hormones, thyroid hormone, vitamin D3 and fatty acid derivatives. The first NHR structural information appeared approximately 20 years ago with the solution and crystal structures of the DNA binding domains and was followed by the structure of the agonist and antagonist bound ligand binding domains of different NHR members. Interestingly, in addition to these defined structural features, it has become clear that NHRs also possess significant structural plasticity. Thus, the dynamic structure of the NHRs was the topic of a recent stimulating and informative FASEB Summer Research Conference held in Vermont.

  7. Truncated Hormone Inhibits Breast Tumor Blood Vessel Formation, Not Tumor Growth | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hormone prolactin (PRL) plays a critical role in normal breast development by stimulating the proliferation of mammary cells, the production of milk proteins, and the formation of new mammary blood vessels. Unfortunately, the same cell and vessel growth pathways controlled by PRL in normal cells also operate in breast cancer cells, and elevated plasma PRL is a risk factor for breast cancer, especially in post-menopausal women.

  8. Hormone treatment of depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Russell T.

    2011-01-01

    There is a well-established relationship between alterations of various hormonal systems and psychiatric disorders, both in endocrine and psychiatric patients. This has led to clinical and research studies examining the efficacy of the different hormones for treatment of depression. These data will be reviewed with particular regard to the thyroid, gonadal, pineal, and adrenal cortex hormones. The data generally provide limited, but varying evidence for the antidepressant efficacy of these hormones. PMID:21485752

  9. Steroids in childhood epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandrannair Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of epileptic encephalopathies can be very challenging as most anticonvulsant drugs fail to achieve good seizure control. Steroids are disease modifying as well as anticonvulsant in these conditions. Though steroids are accepted as the first-line treatment for infantile spasms, there are many unanswered questions with regard to the preparation, dose and duration of treatment. In this review a re-exploration of the literature is attempted. Putative mechanism of action of steroids in infantile spasms is also discussed. As steroids are being increasingly used in other epileptic encephalopathies and Rasmussen′s encephalitis, a brief discussion on the role of steroids in these conditions is attempted. The review ends with the discussion on newer neuroactive steroids in the management of epilepsy.

  10. Physicochemical and biological properties of new steroid metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, R.

    1980-04-01

    The aim of this investigation was to prepare stable steroid metal chelates by chemical conversion of the natural steroid hormones testerone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) and estradiol and to characterize these by means of their spectroscopic and other physico-chemical properties. In addition, various measuring techniques for the qualitative and quantitative study of complex stabilities and hydrolytic properties were employed. The distribution of some tritiated steroid metal complexes in the tissues of rats was tested using whole animal autoradiography, mainly with a view to identifying whether selective concentration occurs in certain organs. (orig.) [de

  11. Neurosteroids and sex steroids in the central nervous system | Neuroesteroides y esteroides sexuales en el sistema nervioso central

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Sergio; García-Segura, Luis M.; Azcoitia, I.

    2005-01-01

    The nervous system is both a target for the steroid hormones and a steroidogenic tissue, able to synthesize steroids that act on neurons and glia in a paracrine and autocrine way. The term >neurosteroids> was coined to distinguish the steroids that are locally synthesized in the nervous system from those of peripheral origin. In this review, we analyse the capacity of neurons and glia to synthesize steroids, and the role of some key-molecules in this process, as the steroidogenic acute regula...

  12. Shaped and Balanced by Hormones : cortisol, testosterone and the psychoneuroendocrinology of human socio-emotional behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormones testosterone and cortisol can be considered hormones for environmental challenges; they are involved in adaptive neural and behavioral responses towards emotional stimuli. A key challenge of human psychoneuroendocrinology is to unravel the neural mechanisms by which testosterone

  13. HPG-axis hormones during puberty : A study on the association with hypothalamic and pituitary volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peper, Jiska S.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Schnack, Hugo G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kahn, Rene S.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff

    Objective: During puberty, the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is activated, leading to increases in luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol) levels. We aimed to study the association between hypothalamic and pituitary

  14. Enhanced methods for conditioning, storage, and extraction of liquid and solid samples of manure for determination of steroid hormones by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combalbert, Sarah; Pype, Marie-Laure; Bernet, Nicolas; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina

    2010-09-01

    Hormones are among the highest-impact endocrine disrupters affecting living organisms in aquatic environments. These molecules have been measured in both wastewater and sewage sludge. Analytical techniques for such matrices are well described in the literature. In contrast, there is little information about the analysis of hormones in animal waste. The objectives of this study were, first, to propose a method for conditioning swine manure samples (addition of formaldehyde, separation of the solid and liquid phases, and duration of storage) in order to determine hormones in the liquid fraction of manure by solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our results showed that analysis of hormones was affected by matrix changes which occurred during freezing and thawing and after addition of formaldehyde, an additive frequently used to preserve environmental samples. Thus, our results argue for the conditioning of samples without formaldehyde and for separating the solid and liquid fractions of manure before freezing. Second, this study reports on the use of a liquid extraction method coupled with SPE and GC-MS analysis for determination of hormones in the solid fraction of manure. Under the conditions selected, hormone recoveries were between 80 and 100%. Finally, the optimized method was used to quantify hormones in both liquid and solid fractions of swine manure from different breeding units. High levels of estrone and α-estradiol were found in samples whereas β-estradiol was detected in smaller amounts. Estriol and progesterone were mainly found in manure from the gestating sow building whereas testosterone was detected in manure from male breeding buildings.

  15. Comparative study of some hormones during rutting season in dromedary camel

    OpenAIRE

    Najlaa S. Ibrahim et al

    2017-01-01

    This research was aimed to study the effect of age on steroids, cortisol and thyroids hormones during rutting seasons in camels. Blood serum were taken from 103 healthy camels from Al-Najaf province slaughterhouse, samples were divided according to age into two categories: pre-pubertal animals 1-4 years and mature 5-8 years. The estrogen, progesterone, cortisol, T3 and T4 hormones were tests by using Gamma counter. The recent results indicated that the age had an effect on estrogen, progester...

  16. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide and Series / Anabolic Steroids Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download ... to build muscle faster. The Brain's Response to Anabolic Steroids Hi, my name's Sara Bellum. Welcome to my ...

  17. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hormones, and 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markey KA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keira A Markey,1 Maria Uldall,2 Hannah Botfield,1 Liam D Cato,1 Mohammed A L Miah,1 Ghaniah Hassan-Smith,1 Rigmor H Jensen,2 Ana M Gonzalez,1 Alexandra J Sinclair1 1Neurometabolism, Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; 2Danish Headache Center, Clinic of Neurology, Rigshospitalet-Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Denmark Abstract: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH results in raised intracranial pressure (ICP leading to papilledema, visual dysfunction, and headaches. Obese females of reproductive age are predominantly affected, but the underlying pathological mechanisms behind IIH remain unknown. This review provides an overview of pathogenic factors that could result in IIH with particular focus on hormones and the impact of obesity, including its role in neuroendocrine signaling and driving inflammation. Despite occurring almost exclusively in obese women, there have been a few studies evaluating the mechanisms by which hormones and adipokines exert their effects on ICP regulation in IIH. Research involving 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, a modulator of glucocorticoids, suggests a potential role in IIH. Improved understanding of the complex interplay between adipose signaling factors such as adipokines, steroid hormones, and ICP regulation may be key to the understanding and future management of IIH. Keywords: 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, steroid and adipokines, obesity, leptin

  18. Steroids in neuroinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Abraham

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of inflammatory response are primarily responsible for morbimortality in bacterial meningitis. Early use of steroids in these cases can reduce mortality and hearing loss and improve functional outcome without causing significant side effects. The formal recommendation towards pneumoccocal meningitis is being extended to other forms of Bacterial Meningitis. The same thought can be applied to tuberculous meningitis. In neurocysticercosis and neuroschistosomiasis steroids are more useful than parasiticides in most cases. Despite the evidence favoring the use of steroids in herpes simplex encephalitis, it is not sufficient to definitely support such indication. Among the opportunistic infections that affect AIDS patients, neurotoxoplasmosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopaty are those most often considered for the use of steroids; steroids are safe to use, but no definite benefit could be demonstrated in both conditions.

  19. Assessment of letrozole and tamoxifen alone and in sequence for postmenopausal women with steroid hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: the BIG 1-98 randomised clinical trial at 8·1 years median follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regan, Meredith M; Neven, Patrick; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer have persistent, long-term risk of breast-cancer recurrence and death. Therefore, trials assessing endocrine therapies for this patient population need extended follow-up. We present an update of efficacy outcomes in the Brea...

  20. Circulating steroids negatively correlate with tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrbolka, Pavel; Palúch, Zoltán; Hill, Martin; Alušík, Štefan

    2017-07-01

    While not a disease entity in itself; symptoms of tinnitus (from Latin tinnio - clink) accompany a number of diseases. Tinnitus prevalence increases with age, deteriorates one's quality of life, and may even result in suicidal behavior. Tinnitus develops in response to a variety of risk factors, otoxic substances, noise exposure, hearing disorders, and psychological alterations. Tinnitus is closely related to mood, depression, and psychological state. In the present study, we focused on alterations of the steroid metabolome and particularly neuroactive, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory steroids in patients with tinnitus. The study group consisted of 28 patients without evidence of an organic cause of tinnitus as well as without associated diseases or the effect of ototoxic medications. All patients underwent a complete audiological assessment and laboratory tests including routine biochemical markers and quantification of circulating steroids using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassays. To rule out a pathology in the cerebellopontine angle area, CT scan or MRI were performed. To diagnose stem lesions, evoked potentials were also measured. Pearson's correlations and multivariate regression were used to assess any links between tinnitus intensity and frequency on the one hand, and steroid levels on the other. Results indicated a significant and consistent negative correlation between tinnitus indices and intensity of adrenal steroidogenesis. The circulating steroid metabolome including hormones and neuroactive, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory steroids negatively correlates with the degree of tinnitus due to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis malfunction. Our results may help explain the pathophysiology of tinnitus and improve its diagnosis. However, further studies are needed to verify our postulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicman, A T

    2008-06-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic-androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided.

  2. Dietary fibre, transit-time, faecal bacteria, steroids, and colon cancer in two Scandinavian populations. Report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer Intestinal Microecology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, R; Jensen, O M

    1977-07-30

    A comparison of dietary intake and faecal characteristics in population samples from two areas of Denmark and Finland with 4-fold variation in colon-cancer incidence suggests that the aetiology of colon cancer may be multifactorial and is not associated in a simple manner with dietary fat, neutral steroids, acid steroids, or their bacterial metabolites. However, meat consumption was greater in the high-incidence areas. Higher intakes of dietary fibre and milk in the low-incidence area suggest a possible protective effect, unrelated to mouth-anus transit-time. Further careful dietary and metabolic studies are needed to clarify the relationships between possible carcinogenic and protective effects of diet.

  3. Transcriptional control of steroid biosynthesis genes in the Drosophila prothoracic gland by Ventral veins lacking and Knirps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Thomas; Møller, Morten Erik; Dorry, Elad

    2014-01-01

    Specialized endocrine cells produce and release steroid hormones that govern development, metabolism and reproduction. In order to synthesize steroids, all the genes in the biosynthetic pathway must be coordinately turned on in steroidogenic cells. In Drosophila, the steroid producing endocrine c...

  4. Project Right Way: An Anabolic Steroid Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June

    There is increasing concern by medical experts in this country about the use of anabolic steroids by teenagers. Over one million Americans are believed to be currently using or have used the synthetic hormones in the past. While drug testing and a reduction in the supply of the drugs appear to be reducing the number of adult users, use by…

  5. Adjunctive steroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshin, André; Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Meyer, Christian N

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate local guidelines regarding early steroid treatment in adult community acquired bacterial meningitis, and assess the actual treatment given and its correlation to clinical outcome. Patient outcome was obtained retrospectively from the medical records of 210 adults...... with petechial skin lesions, these were caused by pneumococci (15), meningococci (15), Staphylococcus aureus (1) and enterococci (1), and thus the presence of such lesions should not make the clinician abstain from early steroid treatment of bacterial meningitis. In conclusion, concordance with the new consensus...... of early steroid treatment was poor on a national basis, and better (41%) when adequate local guidelines were available. Early steroid treatment was associated with favourable outcome, and improved implementation of adequate guidelines may contribute to better patient outcome in bacterial meningitis....

  6. Hormone treatment of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Joffe, Russell T.

    2011-01-01

    There is a well-established relationship between alterations of various hormonal systems and psychiatric disorders, both in endocrine and psychiatric patients. This has led to clinical and research studies examining the efficacy of the different hormones for treatment of depression. These data will be reviewed with particular regard to the thyroid, gonadal, pineal, and adrenal cortex hormones. The data generally provide limited, but varying evidence for the antidepressant efficacy of these ho...

  7. Inter- and Transdisciplinary Work: Connecting Research on Hormones with Problems of Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Gabrielle; Watamura, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    More than ever before, leaders within the field of education are looking to research on basic processes to inform and improve educational practices. Success requires building a reciprocal relationship between the field of education and research on learning and development, similar to what exists between biology and medicine. Key to this effort is…

  8. Use of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate associated to strength training in Wistar rats - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i2.15513

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Marta Franzói de Moraes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic steroids have been constantly used among athletes and physically active individuals. Adverse effects of such use are reported in the literature. However, little is known about the effects of anabolic steroid use associated with strength training. Thus, this research aimed to identify possible morphophysiological alterations in Wistar rats treated with the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate and submitted to strength training. Twenty Wistar rats were divided in four groups: sedentary control (SC, sedentary hormone (SH, trained control (TC and trained hormone (TH. After the experimental protocol period, animals were killed and body weight, adiposity, renal and hepatic injury markers, plasmatic lipid profile, glycemia, and insulinemia were determined. The experimental conditions strength training and nandrolone decanoate (isolated or associated were positively correlated to a reduction on visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The association of strength training with nandrolone decanoate was the most effective condition to increase muscle mass. Heart and kidneys weights, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and high density lipoprotein (HDL concentration were also negatively modified. The data demonstrated effects of anabolic steroids in body composition, with better results when associated with strength training, but collateral effects were observed.

  9. How Does Energy Intake Influence the Levels of Certain Steroids?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Rácz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of steroid hormones on food intake is well described. However, there are only a few studies on the effect of food intake on steroid levels. The study involved eight non-smoker women (average age 29.48 ± 2.99 years; average BMI 21.3 ± 1.3 kg/m2; they did not use any kind of medication affecting steroidogenesis. We analysed the influence of four various stimuli on the levels of steroid hormones and melatonin. During their follicular phase of menstrual cycle, each woman had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT, a standard breakfast and psyllium (a non-caloric fibre. Cortisol declined during each test, which is a physiological decline in the morning hours. In all tests (except of the application of the non-caloric fibre, psyllium, however, this decline was modified. After the standard breakfast there was an increase in cortisol at 40th minute. The OGTT and IVGTT tests led to a plateau in cortisol levels. Testosterone levels and those of other steroid hormones showed no relationships to tested stimulations. Oral and intravenous glucose have influenced physiological decline of melatonin levels. During the IVGTT test, melatonin levels started to increase at 20th minute, reaching a maximum at 40th minute. The OGTT test led to a delayed increase in melatonin levels, compared to IVGTT. Despite the fact that we performed the tests in the morning hours, when steroid hormone levels physiologically start to change due to their diurnal rhythm, we still found that food intake influences some of the hormone levels.

  10. Biosynthesis and metabolism of steroids in molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Denise; Loi, Barbara; Porte, Cinta

    2011-11-01

    Molluscs are the second most diverse animal group, they are ecologically important and they are considered excellent indicators of ecosystem health. Some species have been widely used in pollution biomonitoring programs; however, their endocrinology is still poorly known. Despite some studies reporting the presence of (vertebrate-type) steroids in molluscs, information regarding enzymatic pathways involved in steroid synthesis and further catabolism of those steroids is still fragmentary. Regarding steroidogenesis, a number of excellent studies were performed in the 70s using different radio-labelled steroid precursors and detecting the formation of different metabolites. But, since then a long gap of research exist until the late 90s when the 'endocrine disruption' issue raised the need of a better knowledge of mollusc (and invertebrate) endocrinology in order to assess alterations caused by pollutants. Here we summarize past and recent studies dealing with steroid biosynthesis and metabolism in different mollusc species. Most of these studies suggest the involvement of steroids in mollusc reproduction. However, the knowledge is still fragmentary and many questions remain to be answered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  12. Growth and Production of Steroid Saponin in Solanum aculeatissimum During One Vegetation Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, T; Kikuta, S; Itimura, K; Nakashima, K; Matsubara, T

    1988-04-01

    SOLANUM ACULEATISSIMUM (Solanaceae) plants, which were cultivated in the open field, were harvested once a month from June 1985 to January 1986. The growth matter and content of steroid saponins, aculeatiside A and B which are precursors of steroid hormones in root, were then measured in order to examine their seasonal variations during one vegetation period. The aerial parts of the plants died of chill and frost in January. In November the dry weight of root reached the maximum, and the content of steroid saponins was more than 10% and showed a maximum. The yield of steroid saponins per plant was greatest in November. These results suggest that November is the appropriate time for harvest, and that S. ACULEATISSIMUM can be more useful than the DIOSCOREA species which is now used as a source plant of steroid hormones.

  13. A review on distribution and monitoring of hormones in the environment and their removal in wastewater treatment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rahele Kafaei; Sina Dobaradaran

    2014-01-01

    Steroid hormones of the Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) are steroid hormones, which cause negative effects on human health, animals and ecosystems balance, have become a major concern in modern societies. In recent years numerous studies have performed on hormone distribution in the environment, especially in aquatic environments and the ways that they have been removed. Hormones entrance into the environment primarily is through wastewater, municipal wastewater treatment sludge, hospita...

  14. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Knowledge about, Attitude toward, and Extent of Use by High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, R. J.; And Others

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) are pharmacologic derivatives of the hormone testosterone. They have therapeutic merit when used under a physician's prescription to treat certain hormonal imbalances and some forms of anemia; however, when taken in high doses they have a number of virilizing, feminizing, toxic, and psychological effects. This…

  15. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicman, A T

    2008-01-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic–androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided. PMID:18500378

  16. Chromatin Configuration Determines Cell Responses to Hormone Stimuli | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ever since selective gene expression was established as the central driver of cell behavior, researchers have been working to understand the forces that control gene transcription. Aberrant gene expression can cause or promote many diseases, including cancer, and alterations in gene expression are the goal of many therapeutic agents. Recent work has focused on the potential role of chromatin structure as a contributor to gene regulation. Chromatin can exist in a tightly packed/inaccessible or loose/accessible configuration depending on the interactions between DNA and its associated proteins. Patterns of chromatin structure can differ between cell types and can also change within cells in response to certain signals. Cancer researchers are particularly interested in the role of chromatin in gene regulation because many of the genomic regions found to be associated with cancer risk are in open chromatin structures.

  17. Metabolic effects of contraceptive steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Nath, Anita

    2011-06-01

    Estrogen and progestins have been used by millions of women as effective combined contraceptives. The safety of hormonal contraceptives has been documented by years of follow-up and serious adverse events that may be related to their use are rare in the young population exposed to these agents. The balance between the benefits and the risks of contraceptive steroids is generally positive in particular when comparing to the risks of pregnancy and especially in women with risk factors. The metabolic changes induced by the synthetic steroids used in contraception, such as lipoprotein changes, insulin response to glucose, and coagulation factors have been considered as potential markers of cardiovascular and venous risk. Observations of these effects have led to modifications of the composition of hormonal contraceptive in order to minimize these changes and hence potentially decrease the risks. The synthetic estrogen Ethinyl-Estradiol (EE) exerts a stronger effect that natural estradiol (E2) on hepatic metabolism including estrogen-dependent markers such as liver proteins. This stronger hepatic impact of EE has been related to its 17α-ethinyl group which prevents the inactivation of the molecule and results in a more pronounced hepatic effect of EE as compared to estradiol. Due to its strong activity, administering EE via a non-oral route does not prevent its impact on liver proteins. In order to circumvent the metabolic changes induced by EE, newer products using more natural compounds such as estradiol (E2) and estradiol valerate (E2V) have been introduced. The synthetic progestins used for contraception are structurally related either to testosterone (T) (estranes and gonanes) or to progesterone (pregnanes and 19-norpregnanes). Several new progestins have been designed to bind more specifically to the progesterone receptor and to minimize side-effects related to androgenic, estrogenic or glucocorticoid receptor interactions. Dienogest (DNG), and drospirenone (DRSP

  18. Growth hormone secretion during space flight and evaluation of the physiological responses of animals held in the research animal holding facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Thomas N.; Grindeland, Richard; Mehler, William; Oyama, Jiro

    1987-01-01

    The spaceflight of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) on the Space Laboratory 3 (SL 3) provided the opportunity to evaluate the suitability of the RAHF for housing and maintaining experimental animals during spaceflight, and to determine changes in the secretion of growth hormone during spaceflight. Using ground-based studies the following were investigated: the optimum conditions for creating gravitational force on space flight animals; neural pathways that may play a role in the space flight syndrome; and the time course of muscle atrophy due to hypodynamia and hypokenesia in hindlimb-suspended animals and the role of growth hormone in these processes.

  19. EFEKTIVITAS DAN EFEK TOKSIK EKSTRAK STEROID TERIPANG DAN 17α METILTESTOSTERON PADA MANIPULASI KELAMIN UDANG GALAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apri Arisandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosteron selain dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai obat, juga dimanfaatkan untuk sex reversal pada udang galah (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.  Hormon yang umum dipakai untuk sex reversal jantan adalah 17α metiltestosteron, merupakan hormon sintetis.  Bioassay pada ayam, diketahui bahwa hormon sintetis memberikan efek samping toksik pada hati, limpa dan bursa fabricius.  Agar tidak memberikan efek toksik, salah satu cara dengan menggunakan sumber hormon testosteron alami dari teripang.  Pemberian hormon menggunakan metode dipping, lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan.  Dosis ekstrak steroid teripang 1, 2 dan 3mg/l, serta 17α metiltestosteron 2mg/l dapat menghasilkan populasi jantan lebih tinggi dari kontrol negatif (tanpa hormon, yaitu 44,15%, 49,65%, 49,72% dan 50,45%.   Kata kunci: ekstrak steroid teripang, 17α metiltestosteron, udang galah

  20. Steroids and endocrine disruptors--History, recent state of art and open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Richard; Kubátová, Jana; Stárka, Luboslav

    2016-01-01

    This introductory chapter provides an overview of the levels and sites at which endocrine disruptors (EDs) affect steroid actions. In contrast to the special issue of Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology published three years ago and devoted to EDs as such, this paper focuses on steroids. We tried to point to more recent findings and opened questions. EDs interfere with steroid biosynthesis and metabolism either as inhibitors of relevant enzymes, or at the level of their expression. Particular attention was paid to enzymes metabolizing steroid hormones to biologically active products in target cells, such as aromatase, 5α-reductase and 3β-, 11β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. An important target for EDs is also steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR), responsible for steroid precursor trafficking to mitochondria. EDs influence receptor-mediated steroid actions at both genomic and non-genomic levels. The remarkable differences in response to various steroid-receptor ligands led to a more detailed investigation of events following steroid/disruptor binding to the receptors and to the mapping of the signaling cascades and nuclear factors involved. A virtual screening of a large array of EDs with steroid receptors, known as in silico methods (≡computer simulation), is another promising approach for studying quantitative structure activity relationships and docking. New data may be expected on the effect of EDs on steroid hormone binding to selective plasma transport proteins, namely transcortin and sex hormone-binding globulin. Little information is available so far on the effects of EDs on the major hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal axes, of which the kisspeptin/GPR54 system is of particular importance. Kisspeptins act as stimulators for hormone-induced gonadotropin secretion and their expression is regulated by sex steroids via a feed-back mechanism. Kisspeptin is now believed to be one of the key factors triggering puberty in

  1. Radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampl, R.; Stranska, I.; Starka, L.; Picha, J.; Chundela, B.

    1978-01-01

    Alternative antisera against 17 α-methyltestosterone and 19-nortestosterone were raised and used for radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids. Tritiated compounds were used as radioligands. The RIA method suitable for doping control is proposed for 17 α-alkylated anabolic steroids in both plasma and urine, using qoat antiserum against methyltestosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-BSA. Sensitivity of the method was expressed as least amount of nonradioactive methandienone which, when added to normal urine or plasma, caused statistically significant decrease of measured supernatant radioactivity at 99% level. The amounts from 50 to 500 pg were tested, each in eight parallel determinations. The amounts of 100 pg for plasma and 200 pg for urine met these criteria. The respective coefficients of variation did not depend on the amount of steroid added in this range. They averaged 4.60% for plasma and 4.95% for urine, respectively. (T.I.)

  2. Azido analogs of neuroactive steroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vidrna, Lukáš; Černý, Ivan; Pouzar, Vladimír; Borovská, Jiřina; Vyklický, Vojtěch; Vyklický ml., Ladislav; Chodounská, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, 10/11 (2011), s. 1043-1050 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1498; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0271 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neuroactive steroids * synthesis * azides * NMDA receptor Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.829, year: 2011

  3. Prolactin Alters the Mammary Epithelial Hierarchy, Increasing Progenitors and Facilitating Ovarian Steroid Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. O'Leary

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hormones drive mammary development and function and play critical roles in breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies link prolactin (PRL to increased risk for aggressive cancers that express estrogen receptor α (ERα. However, in contrast to ovarian steroids, PRL actions on the mammary gland outside of pregnancy are poorly understood. We employed the transgenic NRL-PRL model to examine the effects of PRL alone and with defined estrogen/progesterone exposure on stem/progenitor activity and regulatory networks that drive epithelial differentiation. PRL increased progenitors and modulated transcriptional programs, even without ovarian steroids, and with steroids further raised stem cell activity associated with elevated canonical Wnt signaling. However, despite facilitating some steroid actions, PRL opposed steroid-driven luminal maturation and increased CD61+ luminal cells. Our findings demonstrate that PRL can powerfully influence the epithelial hierarchy alone and temper the actions of ovarian steroids, which may underlie its role in the development of breast cancer.

  4. Steroid sulfatase and sulfuryl transferase activities in human brain tumors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, L.; Bičíková, M.; Mohapl, M.; Hill, M.; Černý, Ivan; Hampl, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 1 (2008), s. 31-39 ISSN 0960-0760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : dehydroepiandrosterone * steroid sulfatase * steroid sulfuryl transferase * brain Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.827, year: 2008

  5. The novel non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator S-101479 has additive effects with bisphosphonate, selective estrogen receptor modulator, and parathyroid hormone on the bones of osteoporotic female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Noriko; Ohyabu, Yuki; Makino, Akito; Morikyu, Teruyuki; Ishige, Hirohide; Kuzutani, Kazuya; Endo, Yasuhisa

    2012-01-01

    We have studied non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) to develop anti-osteoporosis drugs for males and females. Many SARMs have been studied for their anabolic effects on bone or muscle with reduced virilizing effects in male animals. However, the tissue selectivities of these agents in female animals have not been fully evaluated. We evaluated the novel SARM S-101479 from tetrahydroquinoline libraries in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. S-101479 preferentially bound to the androgen receptor with nanomolar affinity among nuclear receptors. It increased the bone mineral density (BMD) of femurs and diminished the effects on the uterus and clitoral gland in OVX rats. We then compared the effect of S-101479 on bone with those of commercial anti-osteoporosis drugs such as alendronate, raloxifene, and teriparatide. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of combination treatments with these agents in OVX rats. After 16-week treatment, all agents significantly increased BMD, but the magnitude of bone mineral content (BMC) and/or bone size (projected bone area) were different. Alendronate, raloxifene, and teriparatide maintained BMC and bone size in this experimental dose. Only S-101479 increased BMC with bone size on single treatments. In combination treatment, S-101479 significantly increased BMC and bone size compared with single treatments of other agents. S-101479, like natural androgen, may have showed periosteal bone formation of the cortical area and indicated additive effects with commercial anti-osteoporosis drugs. These results indicate that S-101479 may be a useful anti-osteoporosis drug, particularly for patients with established severe osteoporosis.

  6. Relationship between sex hormone levels, bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Gonadal steroid hormones play a crucial role during skeletal growth and maturation in both men and women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship of sex hormone levels, bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover in healthy Moroccan men. Methods: 142 Moroccan men who ...

  7. Review of hormonal treatment of breast cancer | Abdulkareem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This critical review focuses on the role of steroid hormones and their receptors in the development and treatment of breast cancer, with special reference to estrogen receptors, as well as mechanisms of receptor.ligand interactions, response or resistance to hormonal therapy against breast cancer, in conjunction with other ...

  8. Anabolic Steroid Use: Federal Efforts to Prevent and Reduce Anabolic Steroid Abuse among Teenagers. Report to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-08-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Government Accountability Office, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The abuse of anabolic steroids by teenagers--that is, their use without a prescription--is a health concern. Anabolic steroids are synthetic forms of the hormone testosterone that can be taken orally, injected, or rubbed on the skin. Although a 2006 survey funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) found that less than 3 percent of 12th…

  9. Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007678.htm Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A steroid injection is a shot of medicine used to ...

  10. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Robert M; Rajanahally, Saneal; Kovac, Jason R; Smith, Ryan P; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-12-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids has not been traditionally discussed in mainstream medicine. With the increased diagnosis of hypogonadism a heterogeneous population of men is now being evaluated. In this larger patient population the existence of anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism, whether transient or permanent, should now be considered. We performed an initial retrospective database analysis of all 6,033 patients who sought treatment for hypogonadism from 2005 to 2010. An anonymous survey was subsequently distributed in 2012 to established patients undergoing testosterone replacement therapy. Profound hypogonadism, defined as testosterone 50 ng/dl or less, was identified in 97 men (1.6%) in the large retrospective cohort initially reviewed. The most common etiology was prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure, which was identified in 42 men (43%). Because of this surprising data, we performed an anonymous followup survey of our current hypogonadal population of 382 men with a mean±SD age of 49.2±13.0 years. This identified 80 patients (20.9%) with a mean age of 40.4±8.4 years who had prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure. Hypogonadal men younger than 50 years were greater than 10 times more likely to have prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure than men older than 50 years (OR 10.16, 95% CI 4.90-21.08). Prior anabolic androgenic steroid use significantly correlated negatively with education level (ρ=-0.160, p=0.002) and number of children (ρ=-0.281, phypogonadism and anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism is the most common etiology of profound hypogonadism. These findings suggest that it is necessary to refocus the approach to evaluation and treatment paradigms in young hypogonadal men. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of olefin metathesis in the synthesis of steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzycki, Jacek W

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, ruthenium-mediated metathesis transformations, including cross-metathesis, ring-closing metathesis, enyne metathesis, ring-opening metathesis polymerization, and also tandem processes, belong to the most intensively studied reactions. Many applications of olefin metathesis in the synthesis of natural products have been recently described. Also in the field of steroid chemistry new methods of total synthesis and hemisynthesis based on metathesis reactions have been elaborated. Various biologically active compounds, e.g. vitamin D and hormone analogues, steroid dimers and macrocycles, etc. have been prepared using a variety of olefin-metathesis protocols. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Steroids and genes related to steroid biosynthesis in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongbuakaew, Tipsuda; Siangcham, Tanapan; Suwansa-ard, Saowaros; Elizur, Abigail; Cummins, Scott F; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2016-03-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is important to many Asian countries due to its high economic value as an aquaculture product. With demand increasing, there is requirement for a better understanding of the biosynthetic components that regulate its growth and reproduction, including steroids, in order to help increase production. Vertebrate-type steroids and their receptors were identified in crustaceans and implicated in reproduction. In this study, we presented the sex steroids estradiol and progesterone by LC-MS/MS in female M. rosenbergii, and reveal steroidogenic-related genes by in silico analysis of de novo assembled transcriptomes. Comparative analysis with other species was performed to confirm their putative role, as well as tissue-specific and quantitative gene expression. We reveal 29 transcripts that encode for steroidogenic-related proteins, including steroidogenic enzymes, a nuclear steroid hormone receptors, and a steroidogenic factor. Moreover, we identified for the first time the presence of steroidogenic factor 1, StAR-related lipid transfer protein, estradiol receptor- and progesterone-like protein in M. rosenbergii. Those targeted for gene expression analysis (3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, estrogen sulfotransferase and progesterone receptor-like) showed widespread expression within many tissues, and at relatively high levels in the central nervous system (CNS) during ovarian maturation. In summary, we provide further evidence for the existence of steroidogenic pathways in crustaceans, which may be useful for advancing prawn aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of reference intervals for urinary steroid profiling using a newly validated GC-MS/MS method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Wilhelmina H. A.; Buitenwerf, Edward; Pranger, Alle T.; Riphagen, Ineke J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Kema, Ido P.

    Background: Urinary steroid profiling (USP) is a powerful diagnostic tool to asses disorders of steroidogenesis. Preanalytical factors such as age, sex and use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) may affect steroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. In general, USP reference intervals are not adjusted

  14. Pathological changes in anabolic androgenic steroid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusetti, Monia; Licata, Manuela; Silingardi, Enrico; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Palmiere, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Several classes of recreational and prescription drugs have additional effects on the heart and vasculature, which may significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in chronic users. The study presented herein focuses on pathological changes involving the heart possibly due to anabolic androgenic steroid use. The role these hormones may play in their occurrence of sudden cardiac death is also investigated. 98 medico-legal cases including 6 anabolic androgenic steroid users were retrospectively reviewed. Autopsies, histology, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry and toxicology were performed in all cases. Pathological changes consisted of various degrees of interstitial and perivascular fibrosis as well as fibroadipous metaplasia and perineural fibrosis within the myocardium of the left ventricle. Within the limits of the small number of investigated cases, our results appear to confirm former observations on this topic and suggest anabolic androgenic steroid's potential causative role in the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac deaths in chronic users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Selective amine catalysed steroidal dimerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    steroid dimers in which carbon atoms comprise a ben- zene nucleus.6 A standard colour test for the presence of cholesterol is the formation of a green colour in concentrated sulphuric acid, and this was shown to be due to a polyenyl steroidal dimer carbocation.7–9 Many dimeric and oligomeric steroids exhibit interesting.

  16. Selective amine catalysed steroidal dimerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of cholesterol is the formation of a green colour in concentrated sulphuric acid, and this was shown to be due to a polyenyl steroidal dimer carbocation.7–9 Many dimeric and oligomeric steroids exhibit interesting micellular, detergent and liquid crystal behaviour.10,11. Most of the steroidal dimmers are also well-known.

  17. Comparação dos padrões de atratividade de Hermetia illucens (Diptera, Stratiomyidae associada a carcaças de Rattus norvergicus enterradas e tratadas com hormônios esteróides Comparison of attraction patterns of Hermetia illucens (Diptera, Stratiomyidae associated to buried Rattus norvergicus carcasses with steroid hormones treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Ferrari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hermetia illucens (L. (Diptera, Stratiomyidae é uma espécie abundante em todo o continente americano. No entanto, ainda há poucos estudos no Brasil abordando aspectos em relação a sua biologia e ecologia, em particular associados a estudos forenses. Neste trabalho, nós observamos os efeitos de hormônios esteróides na decomposição corporal de Rattus norvergicus, variedade Wistar enterrados na atração de H. illucens. Além da presença de diversas espécies de larvas e adultos de insetos freqüentemente encontrados em carcaças nessas condições, observou-se uma grande quantidade de imaturos de H. illucens. Essa espécie representou aproximadamente 22% de todos os espécimes coletados, tendo aparecido somente nos animais que receberam tratamento com esteróides sexuais dos tipos testosterona, progesterona e estradiol. Dentre esses, a maior abundância foi verificada nos que haviam recebido testosterona (68%. A presença de imaturos de H. illucens, apenas nos animais que receberam o tratamento com esteróides, em experimentos realizados em dois anos consecutivos revela uma possível atração/seleção dessa espécie por corpos com quantidades aumentadas de hormônios sexuais. Esse comportamento pode ser particularmente útil para a entomologia forense no que diz respeito à estimativa do intervalo pós-morte (IPM, particularmente quando tem como base informações sobre o ciclo de vida e ecologia de insetos necrófagos.Hermetia illucens (L. (Diptera, Stratiomyidae is an abundant species in the entire American continent. Nevertheless, there are few studies in Brazil dealing with aspects of its biology and ecology, particularly associated with forensic studies. In this study we intended to observe the effects of steroids hormones in the corporal decomposition of buried Rattus norvergicus from the Wistar variety in the attraction of H. illucens. Besides the presence of several insect species commonly found in carcasses, a great amount of

  18. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  19. Steroids: A Timeless Fascination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 2. Steroids: A Timeless Fascination - Cholesterol and its Bio-products. S Hari Prasad. General Article Volume 9 Issue 2 February 2004 pp 80-84. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Self-Reported Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids by Elite Power Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesalis III, Charles E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-three percent of a sample of 45 power lifters surveyed by questionnaire admitted to using steroids, while 55 percent of 20 lifters surveyed by phone admitted steroid use. The researchers suggest that there was significant underreporting by these athletes, who consider steroids primarily as a means to improve athletic performance. (IAH)

  1. Analysis of sex hormones in groundwater using electron impact ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonschorowski, Graciele Pereira da Cruz, E-mail: graci_ju@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil); Gonschorowski, Juliano dos Santos, E-mail: jgsantosbr@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal Tecnologica do Parana (UTFPR), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil); Shihomatsu, Helena M.; Bustillos, Jose Oscar Vega, E-mail: hmatsu@ipen.br, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Limeira, Larissa, E-mail: larissa.limeira07@gmail.com [Centro Universitario FIEO (UNIFIEO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A wide range of estrogenic contaminants has been detected in the aquatic environment, both in natural and synthetic forms. Steroid hormones are endocrine-disrupting compounds, which affect the endocrine system at very low concentrations. This work presents the development of an analytical procedure for the determination of five sexual steroid hormones, 17β-estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and the synthetics contraceptives, 17α-ethynylestradiol and norgestrel in groundwater from Sao Paulo University campus, specifically at Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN). The analytical procedure starting with the sample pre-treatment, where the samples were first filtered and then extracted through solid-phase extraction, using Strata-X cartridges, and ending with detection. The separation method used was gas chromatography (GC), and the detection method was mass spectrometry (MS). The ion source used was electron impact ionization which produced an electron beam generated by an incandescent tungsten/thorium filament, which collide with molecules of gas sample. This interaction between the electrons and molecules, produce ions of the sample. The detection limits 0.06μg.L{sup -1} for estrone, 0.13 μg. L{sup -1} for 17β-estradiol, 0.13 μg.L{sup -1} for 17α-ethynylestradiol, 0.49 μg.L{sup -1} for norgestrel and 0.02 μg.L{sup -1} for progesterone were detected in assays matrix. Validating tests were also used in this work. (author)

  2. Analysis of sex hormones in groundwater using electron impact ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonschorowski, Graciele Pereira da Cruz; Gonschorowski, Juliano dos Santos; Shihomatsu, Helena M.; Bustillos, Jose Oscar Vega; Limeira, Larissa

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of estrogenic contaminants has been detected in the aquatic environment, both in natural and synthetic forms. Steroid hormones are endocrine-disrupting compounds, which affect the endocrine system at very low concentrations. This work presents the development of an analytical procedure for the determination of five sexual steroid hormones, 17β-estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and the synthetics contraceptives, 17α-ethynylestradiol and norgestrel in groundwater from Sao Paulo University campus, specifically at Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN). The analytical procedure starting with the sample pre-treatment, where the samples were first filtered and then extracted through solid-phase extraction, using Strata-X cartridges, and ending with detection. The separation method used was gas chromatography (GC), and the detection method was mass spectrometry (MS). The ion source used was electron impact ionization which produced an electron beam generated by an incandescent tungsten/thorium filament, which collide with molecules of gas sample. This interaction between the electrons and molecules, produce ions of the sample. The detection limits 0.06μg.L -1 for estrone, 0.13 μg. L -1 for 17β-estradiol, 0.13 μg.L -1 for 17α-ethynylestradiol, 0.49 μg.L -1 for norgestrel and 0.02 μg.L -1 for progesterone were detected in assays matrix. Validating tests were also used in this work. (author)

  3. Effect of chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cGnRH-II) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally the third experiment was carried out to compare the effectiveness of cGnRH-II against leutinising hormone releasing-hormone analogue (LHRHa) and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (sGnRHa) in inducing maturation and ovulation. Plasma steroid levels (17ß-estradiol (E2) and testosterone) were ...

  4. Hormonal contraception and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Katharine B; Edelman, Alison B

    2016-11-01

    The rising rate of overweight and obesity is a public health crisis in the United States and increasingly around the globe. Rates of contraceptive use are similar among women of all weights, but because contraceptive development studies historically excluded women over 130% of ideal body weight, patients and providers have a gap in understanding of contraceptive efficacy for obese and overweight women. Because of a range of drug metabolism alterations in obesity, there is biologic plausibility for changes in hormonal contraception effectiveness in obese women. However, these pharmacokinetic changes are not linearly related to body mass index or weight, and it is unknown what degree of obesity begins to affect pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamics processes. Overall, most studies of higher quality do not demonstrate a difference in oral contraceptive pill effectiveness in obese compared with non-obese women. However, data are scant for women in the highest categories of obesity, and differences by progestin type are incompletely understood. Effectiveness of most non-oral contraceptives does not seem to be compromised in obesity. Exceptions to this include the combined hormonal patch and oral levonorgestrel emergency contraception, which may have lower rates of effectiveness in obese women. The purpose of this review is to summarize evidence on contraceptive use in women with obesity, including differences in steroid hormone metabolism, contraceptive effectiveness, and safety, compared with women of normal weight or body mass index using the same methods. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Beyond the HPA axis: progesterone-derived neuroactive steroids in human stress and emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eWirth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress and social isolation are well-known risk factors for psychopathology. However, more research is needed as to the physiological mechanisms by which social support buffers the impacts of stress. Research in animal models suggests important roles for progesterone (P and its product, the neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone (ALLO, in stress and psychopathology. These hormones are produced in brain and periphery during stress in rodents, and down-regulate anxiety behavior and HPA axis activity. Human clinical populations, including depressed patients, have alterations in ALLO levels, but it is unclear whether these basal hormone level differences have clinical import. To begin to address this question, this review examines the role of P and ALLO in stress physiology, and the impact of these hormones on mood, in healthy humans. Evidence largely supports that P and ALLO increase during stress in humans. However, P/ALLO administration appears to cause only mild effects on mood and subjective anxiety, while exerting effects consistent with GABA receptor modulation. Additionally, P is linked to motivation for affiliation / social contact; P (and ALLO release may be especially responsive to social rejection. These observations lead to the novel hypothesis that stress-related P/ALLO production functions not only to down-regulate stress and anxiety, but also to promote social contact as a long-term coping strategy. Malfunctioning of the P/ALLO system could therefore underlie depression partly by decreasing propensity to affiliate with others.

  6. Hormones in Dairy Foods and Their Impact on Public Health - A Narrative Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    MALEKINEJAD, Hassan; REZABAKHSH, Aysa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The presence of hormones in milk and dairy foods was discussed decades ago but rather more concerns attended to that with respect to finding hormones as biomarkers in milk for diseases and pregnancy diagnosis. Moreover, considerable amount of studies demonstrated that existing of hormones in humans and animals milk are essential for infants growing and immunity. During the last couple of years, increasing body of evidence are indicating another property of hormones in dairy products as possible impact on human health including the role of some estrogens and insulin-like growth factor-1 in initiation and provoking of breast, prostate and endometrial tumours. Methods: Data was gathered from the published articles in database such as MEDLINE, science direct, Google scholar and web of science. We put no limitation on date of published date. Moreover, our own published and conducted methods and results also are presented. In this review we concentrated on several aspects of presence of hormones in dairy foods with especial emphasize on cow’s milk as a major source of consuming milk for humans especially for children. Results: The collected data from other researchers and our own data are indicating that the presence of steroid hormones in dairy products could be counted as an important risk factor for various cancers in humans. Conclusion: Our gathered data in this review paper may suggest more sophisticate analytical detection methods for oestrogens determination and also could be considered as a remarkable concern for consumers, producers and public health authorities. PMID:26258087