Sample records for stereotaxic standard space

  1. Pig brain stereotaxic standard space: mapping of cerebral blood flow normative values and effect of MPTP-lesioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Watanabe, Hideaki; Bjarkam, Carsten


    developed an analogous stereotaxic coordinate system for the brain of the Gottingen miniature pig, based on automatic co-registration of magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in 22 male pigs. The origin of the pig brain stereotaxic space (0, 0, 0) was arbitrarily placed in the centroid of the pineal gland...

  2. Rat brain digital stereotaxic white matter atlas with fine tract delineation in Paxinos space and its automated applications in DTI data analysis. (United States)

    Liang, Shengxiang; Wu, Shang; Huang, Qi; Duan, Shaofeng; Liu, Hua; Li, Yuxiao; Zhao, Shujun; Nie, Binbin; Shan, Baoci


    To automatically analyze diffusion tensor images of the rat brain via both voxel-based and ROI-based approaches, we constructed a new white matter atlas of the rat brain with fine tracts delineation in the Paxinos and Watson space. Unlike in previous studies, we constructed a digital atlas image from the latest edition of the Paxinos and Watson. This atlas contains 111 carefully delineated white matter fibers. A white matter network of rat brain based on anatomy was constructed by locating the intersection of all these tracts and recording the nuclei on the pathway of each white matter tract. Moreover, a compatible rat brain template from DTI images was created and standardized into the atlas space. To evaluate the automated application of the atlas in DTI data analysis, a group of rats with right-side middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and those without were enrolled in this study. The voxel-based analysis result shows that the brain region showing significant declines in signal in the MCAO rats was consistent with the occlusion position. We constructed a stereotaxic white matter atlas of the rat brain with fine tract delineation and a compatible template for the data analysis of DTI images of the rat brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A methoxyflurane delivery system for stereotaxic surgery. (United States)

    Lasiter, P S; Garcia, J


    Methoxyflurane (2,2-dichloro-1,1-difluro-ethyl methyl ether; Metofane) is a potent general inhalation anesthetic that is well-suited for small animal surgery. Methoxyflurane is particularly attractive as an anesthetic agent in neurological stereotaxic surgery, because methoxyflurane does not markedly attenuate the rate of anterograde or retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase, or reduce the consistency and/or extent of excitatory neurotoxin damage. Methoxyflurane also is non-flammable when mixed with O2 or air at anesthetic concentrations. The use of methoxyflurane anesthesia in stereotaxic surgery has been limited because methoxyflurane must be delivered via a vaporizer system that will easily interface with standard stereotaxic headholders. The present report describes a simple, reliable and inexpensive methoxyflurane delivery system for stereotaxic surgery.

  4. Precise MRI-based stereotaxic surgery in large animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, A N; Bech, J; Tvilling, L

    BACKGROUND: Stereotaxic neurosurgery in large animals is used widely in different sophisticated models, where precision is becoming more crucial as desired anatomical target regions are becoming smaller. Individually calculated coordinates are necessary in large animal models with cortical...... and subcortical anatomical differences. NEW METHOD: We present a convenient method to make an MRI-visible skull fiducial for 3D MRI-based stereotaxic procedures in larger experimental animals. Plastic screws were filled with either copper-sulphate solution or MRI-visible paste from a commercially available...... cranial head marker. The screw fiducials were inserted in the animal skulls and T1 weighted MRI was performed allowing identification of the inserted skull marker. RESULTS: Both types of fiducial markers were clearly visible on the MRÍs. This allows high precision in the stereotaxic space. COMPARISON...

  5. Building an open-source robotic stereotaxic instrument. (United States)

    Coffey, Kevin R; Barker, David J; Ma, Sisi; West, Mark O


    This protocol includes the designs and software necessary to upgrade an existing stereotaxic instrument to a robotic (CNC) stereotaxic instrument for around $1,000 (excluding a drill), using industry standard stepper motors and CNC controlling software. Each axis has variable speed control and may be operated simultaneously or independently. The robot's flexibility and open coding system (g-code) make it capable of performing custom tasks that are not supported by commercial systems. Its applications include, but are not limited to, drilling holes, sharp edge craniotomies, skull thinning, and lowering electrodes or cannula. In order to expedite the writing of g-coding for simple surgeries, we have developed custom scripts that allow individuals to design a surgery with no knowledge of programming. However, for users to get the most out of the motorized stereotax, it would be beneficial to be knowledgeable in mathematical programming and G-Coding (simple programming for CNC machining). The recommended drill speed is greater than 40,000 rpm. The stepper motor resolution is 1.8°/Step, geared to 0.346°/Step. A standard stereotax has a resolution of 2.88 μm/step. The maximum recommended cutting speed is 500 μm/sec. The maximum recommended jogging speed is 3,500 μm/sec. The maximum recommended drill bit size is HP 2.

  6. Standardization as Spaces of Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Marie Loconto


    Full Text Available Standards have become an important object of investigation in social science and STS scholars have called for a more systematic program of research to study standards or standardization (Busch 2011; Timmermans and Epstein 2010. In this considering concepts paper, we engage with their program for a sociology of standards and propose a new way to think about standards and standardization as “spaces of diversity” so as to push our thinking forward about how standards, standardization and innovation processes are linked. We consider standardization as the dynamic interaction in three spaces (standards in the making, standards in action, and standards in circulation where diversity reemerges only to be tentatively reduced or limited through new rounds of standard setting. We illustrate how diversity is an integral part of standardization with the example of the Rainforest Alliance standard for tea production as it circulated from Costa Rica to Kenya, where it was made and put into action and then circulated again to other African, Asian, and Latin American countries. We end with a proposition for future research on standards to address these other spaces of standards as loci of standardization and innovation.

  7. Fiducial marker for precise MRI-based stereotaxic surgery in large animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Bech, Johannes; Tvilling, Laura


    The authors present an easy technical method for verifying stereotaxic surgery technique in pigs, using a small cupper-sulphate(CuSO4) filled plastic screw. A great variance in pneumatic sinuses and skulls of pigs makes it necessary to MRI-scan each individual in order to plan intervention in cor...... in cortical or subcortical structures of the brain. A cupper-sulphate filled plastic screw inserted in a burr hole in the cortical bone, will easily be found on T1 weighted MRI, allowing the definition of the stereotaxic space....

  8. Computation of a high-resolution MRI 3D stereotaxic atlas of the sheep brain. (United States)

    Ella, Arsène; Delgadillo, José A; Chemineau, Philippe; Keller, Matthieu


    The sheep model was first used in the fields of animal reproduction and veterinary sciences and then was utilized in fundamental and preclinical studies. For more than a decade, magnetic resonance (MR) studies performed on this model have been increasingly reported, especially in the field of neuroscience. To contribute to MR translational neuroscience research, a brain template and an atlas are necessary. We have recently generated the first complete T1-weighted (T1W) and T2W MR population average images (or templates) of in vivo sheep brains. In this study, we 1) defined a 3D stereotaxic coordinate system for previously established in vivo population average templates; 2) used deformation fields obtained during optimized nonlinear registrations to compute nonlinear tissues or prior probability maps (nlTPMs) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM) tissues; 3) delineated 25 external and 28 internal sheep brain structures by segmenting both templates and nlTPMs; and 4) annotated and labeled these structures using an existing histological atlas. We built a quality high-resolution 3D atlas of average in vivo sheep brains linked to a reference stereotaxic space. The atlas and nlTPMs, associated with previously computed T1W and T2W in vivo sheep brain templates and nlTPMs, provide a complete set of imaging space that are able to be imported into other imaging software programs and could be used as standardized tools for neuroimaging studies or other neuroscience methods, such as image registration, image segmentation, identification of brain structures, implementation of recording devices, or neuronavigation. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:676-692, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [The brain in stereotaxic coordinates (a textbook for colleges)]. (United States)

    Budantsev, A Iu; Kisliuk, O S; Shul'govskiĭ, V V; Rykunov, D S; Iarkov, A V


    The present textbook is directed forward students of universities and medical colleges, young scientists and practicing doctors dealing with stereotaxic method. The Paxinos and Watson stereotaxic rat brain atlas (1982) is the basis of the textbook. The atlas has been transformed into computer educational program and seven laboratory works: insertion of the electrode into brain, microelectrophoresis, microinjection of drugs into brain, electrolytic destruction in the brain structures, local brain superfusion. The laboratory works are compiled so that they allow not only to study practical use of the stereotaxic method but to model simple problems involving stereotaxic surgery in the deep structures of brain. The textbook is intended for carrying by IBM PC/AT computers. The volume of the textbook is 1.7 Mbytes.

  10. NASA's SDR Standard: Space Telecommunications Radio System (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Johnson, Sandra K.


    A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG s SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA s current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

  11. New targeting device for stereotaxic procedures within the CT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huk, W.; Baer, U.


    A new targeting device is reported which makes it possible to perform stereotaxic procedures within CT scanners under tomographic control. The zero position of the biopsy neddle is the reference point for all measurements. The head of the anesthetized patient is immobilized with firm plastic cushions in a special head holder. This unit can be used for biopsies, preoperative marking of small lesions, therapeutic punctures, and placement of radioactive substances into inoperable brain tumors.

  12. Space Weather Outreach: Connection to STEM Standards (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.


    Many scientists are studying the Sun-Earth system and attempting to provide timely, accurate, and reliable space environment observations and forecasts. Research programs and missions serve as an ideal focal point for creating educational content, making this an ideal time to inform the public about the importance and value of space weather research. In order to take advantage of this opportunity, the Space Science Institute (SSI) is developing a comprehensive Space Weather Outreach program to reach students, educators, and other members of the public, and share with them the exciting discoveries from this important scientific discipline. The Space Weather Outreach program has the following five components: (1) the Space Weather Center Website that includes online educational games; (2) Small Exhibits for Libraries, Shopping Malls, and Science Centers; (3) After-School Programs; (4) Professional Development Workshops for Educators, and (5) an innovative Evaluation and Education Research project. Its overarching goal is to inspire, engage, and educate a broad spectrum of the public and make strategic and innovative connections between informal and K-12 education communities. An important factor in the success of this program will be its alignment with STEM standards especially those related to science and mathematics. This presentation will describe the Space Weather Outreach program and how standards are being used in the development of each of its components.

  13. Stereotaxic Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytologic Evaluation of Non-palpable Breast Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Haghighi


    Full Text Available Background: Although long-term mammography is the standard means of evaluation for the probably benign lesions of breast, some times we feel obliged to know about the benignity and the extent of lesions earlier. Therefore we evaluated the diagnostic value of stereotaxic fine-needle aspiration (SFNA in low suspicion breast lesions as an alternative to the routine modality. Methods: The study included 150 low-suspicion or probably benign breast lesions detected on mammography. All cases underwent SFNA and followed by exciosional biopsy or follow-up mammography based on SFNA findings. Results: Fibroadenoma and normal tissue lesions were diagnosed in 57% of patients, in whom no evidence of malignancy was found in the follow-up period. In 48 patients with cytologic findings suggestive of proliferative fibrocystic disease, three cases of malignancy were detected by excisional biopsy. Conclusion: A SFNA result suggesting benignity allows safe clinical follow-up, whereas a suspicious or equivocal diagnosis needs more invasive modalities for further investigations. Key words: Breast, Mammography, Stereotaxic, Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA

  14. Standardizing the European Education Policy Space (United States)

    Lawn, Martin


    Countries in Europe, through the European Union, are creating, as part of the market and its governance, a new policy space in education. It is being formed through law, regulation, networking and harmonization. The development of standards across the different fields of policy, statistical calculation and commerce underpins and extends the…

  15. Stereotaxic probabilistic maps of the magnocellular cell groups in human basal forebrain (United States)

    Zaborszky, L.; Hoemke, L.; Mohlberg, H.; Schleicher, A.; Amunts, K.; Zilles, K.


    The basal forebrain contains several interdigitating anatomical structures, including the diagonal band of Broca, the basal nucleus of Meynert, the ventral striatum, and also cell groups underneath the globus pallidus that bridge the centromedial amygdala to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Among the cell populations, the magnocellular, cholinergic corticopetal projection neurons have received particular attention due to their loss in Alzheimer’s disease. In MRI images, the precise delineation of these structures is difficult due to limited spatial resolution and contrast. Here, using microscopic delineations in ten human postmortem brains, we present stereotaxic probabilistic maps of the basal forebrain areas containing the magnocellular cell groups. Cytoarchitectonic mapping was performed in silver stained histological serial sections. The positions and the extent of the magnocellular cell groups within the septum (Ch1-2), the horizontal limb of the diagonal band (Ch3), and in the sublenticular part of the basal forebrain (Ch4) were traced in high-resolution digitized histological sections, 3D reconstructed, and warped to the reference space of the MNI single subject brain. The superposition of the cytoarchitectonic maps in the MNI brain shows the intersubject variability of the various Ch compartments and their stereotaxic position relative to other brain structures. Both the right and left Ch4 regions showed significantly smaller volumes when age was considered as a covariate. Probabilistic maps of compartments of the basal forebrain magnocellular system are now available as an open source reference for correlation with fMRI, PET, and structural MRI data of the living human brain. PMID:18585468

  16. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes (United States)

    Nitzsche, Björn; Frey, Stephen; Collins, Louis D.; Seeger, Johannes; Lobsien, Donald; Dreyer, Antje; Kirsten, Holger; Stoffel, Michael H.; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Boltze, Johannes


    Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs, and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM) that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams) were acquired on a 1.5 T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight (BW), age, and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM) and white (WM) matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and BW explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species. PMID:26089780

  17. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eNitzsche


    Full Text Available Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams were acquired on a 1.5T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight, age and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM and white (WM matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM. Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and body weight explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species.

  18. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.


    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  19. International Safety Regulation and Standards for Space Travel and Commerce (United States)

    Pelton, J. N.; Jakhu, R.

    The evolution of air travel has led to the adoption of the 1944 Chicago Convention that created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, Canada, and the propagation of aviation safety standards. Today, ICAO standardizes and harmonizes commercial air safety worldwide. Space travel and space safety are still at an early stage of development, and the adoption of international space safety standards and regulation still remains largely at the national level. This paper explores the international treaties and conventions that govern space travel, applications and exploration today and analyzes current efforts to create space safety standards and regulations at the national, regional and global level. Recent efforts to create a commercial space travel industry and to license commercial space ports are foreseen as means to hasten a space safety regulatory process.

  20. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Haniza


    Full Text Available Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious academic attention. Standards concerning residential development usually cover different aspects or stages of the development process. They can include planning standards, design standards, space standards and technical construction standards. The main concern of this paper is on space and design standards specifically. Space standard can be defined as a set of framework which dictates fixed internal space minimums. Meanwhile, design standard indicates design guidelines to ensure the functionality, comfortability and habitability of the house. This paper is concerned exclusively with indoor spaces of a house excluding external circulation spaces and service facilities (in case of strata housing. Its interest is in internal space as an aspect of housing quality. It can be concluded that one of the way forward will be to find the balance between providing adequate minimum spaces for resident satisfactions and having economic values for housing developers. This paper may be used as a valuable reference for authorities and policy makers to better address the best housing space design standards that would benefit not only the occupants, but also the local government and developers alike.

  1. Integral operators in non-standard function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kokilashvili, Vakhtang; Rafeiro, Humberto; Samko, Stefan


    This book, the result of the authors’ long and fruitful collaboration, focuses on integral operators in new, non-standard function spaces and presents a systematic study of the boundedness and compactness properties of basic, harmonic analysis integral operators in the following function spaces, among others: variable exponent Lebesgue and amalgam spaces, variable Hölder spaces, variable exponent Campanato, Morrey and Herz spaces, Iwaniec-Sbordone (grand Lebesgue) spaces, grand variable exponent Lebesgue spaces unifying the two spaces mentioned above, grand Morrey spaces, generalized grand Morrey spaces, and weighted analogues of some of them. The results obtained are widely applied to non-linear PDEs, singular integrals and PDO theory. One of the book’s most distinctive features is that the majority of the statements proved here are in the form of criteria. The book is intended for a broad audience, ranging from researchers in the area to experts in applied mathematics and prospective students.

  2. Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS): a modular open standards approach for high performance interconnects for space (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick


    The Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS) effort is a Government-Industry collaboration effort to define a set of standards for interconnects between space system components with the goal of cost effectively removing bandwidth as a constraint for future space systems. The NGSIS team has selected the ANSI/VITA 65 OpenVPXTM standard family for the physical baseline. The RapidIO protocol has been selected as the basis for the digital data transport. The NGSIS standards are developed to provide sufficient flexibility to enable users to implement a variety of system configurations, while meeting goals for interoperability and robustness for space. The NGSIS approach and effort represents a radical departure from past approaches to achieve a Modular Open System Architecture (MOSA) for space systems and serves as an exemplar for the civil, commercial, and military Space communities as well as a broader high reliability terrestrial market.

  3. Standard State Space Models of Unawareness (Extended Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fritz


    Full Text Available The impossibility theorem of Dekel, Lipman and Rustichini has been thought to demonstrate that standard state-space models cannot be used to represent unawareness. We first show that Dekel, Lipman and Rustichini do not establish this claim. We then distinguish three notions of awareness, and argue that although one of them may not be adequately modeled using standard state spaces, there is no reason to think that standard state spaces cannot provide models of the other two notions. In fact, standard space models of these forms of awareness are attractively simple. They allow us to prove completeness and decidability results with ease, to carry over standard techniques from decision theory, and to add propositional quantifiers straightforwardly.

  4. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  5. Direct gene transfer in the Gottingen minipig CNS using stereotaxic lentiviral microinjections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GLUD, AN; Hedegaard, Claus; nielsen, MS


    We aim to induce direct viral mediated gene transfer in the substantia nigra (SN) of the Gottingen minipig using MRI guided stereotaxic injections of lentiviral vectors encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Nine female Gottingen minipigs were injected unilaterally into the SN with 6...

  6. Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA) standard specification (United States)

    Wray, Richard B.; Stovall, John R.


    This standard establishes the Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA). The SGOAA includes a generic functional model, processing structural model, and an architecture interface model. This standard defines the requirements for applying these models to the development of spacecraft core avionics systems. The purpose of this standard is to provide an umbrella set of requirements for applying the generic architecture models to the design of a specific avionics hardware/software processing system. This standard defines a generic set of system interface points to facilitate identification of critical services and interfaces. It establishes the requirement for applying appropriate low level detailed implementation standards to those interfaces points. The generic core avionics functions and processing structural models provided herein are robustly tailorable to specific system applications and provide a platform upon which the interface model is to be applied.

  7. Courses and Resources to Teach Space Physics to Standards (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.


    We have created four courses for teachers, and inquiry-based materials to go with them, that embed space physics concepts while teaching Space Physics to National and State standards. The state of Texas recently adopted a "4x4" standard, which makes the "recommended" graduation requirement for high school students to include four science and four math courses. Space Physics is not specifically listed as a topic, but falls naturally as part of three of the Texas High School courses: "Physics", "Astronomy" and "Earth and Space Science", a new course whose syllabus is being decided now. The national standards which are most relevant at the high school level are "Change, Constancy and Measurement", "Motions and Forces", "Interactions of Energy and Matter" and "Natural and Human-induced hazards" [National Science Ed Standards, 1996]. The "Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills" includes circuits, electricity and magnetism, and waves in their Physics course syllabus, and include "describe the Sun's effects on the Earth" in the Astronomy class. In the new Earth and Space Science class we expect that additional heliospheric concepts will be included. At Rice we have four Astronomy courses (and four Earth Science courses) for teachers, two of which involve a substantial space physics content. By taking those eight courses, plus a research project and another content or education elective, the teachers can earn a "Masters of Science Teaching" degree. In "Teaching Earth and Space Science" (ASTR 402) we dedicate about 4 weeks on the Sun and the Earth and its environment. The "Physics of Ham Radio" course (PHYS 401) has an even more relevant focus. That class introduces electricity and magnetism, with hands-on activities on circuits and electromagnetic waves. The students earn their "Technician" class amateur license by making at least 75 per cent on the first quiz, which allows them VHF and UHF broadcast privileges. The second half of the course covers more space weather topics

  8. Standardized Modular Power Interfaces for Future Space Explorations Missions (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard


    Earlier studies show that future human explorations missions are composed of multi-vehicle assemblies with interconnected electric power systems. Some vehicles are often intended to serve as flexible multi-purpose or multi-mission platforms. This drives the need for power architectures that can be reconfigured to support this level of flexibility. Power system developmental costs can be reduced, program wide, by utilizing a common set of modular building blocks. Further, there are mission operational and logistics cost benefits of using a common set of modular spares. These benefits are the goals of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project. A common set of modular blocks requires a substantial level of standardization in terms of the Electrical, Data System, and Mechanical interfaces. The AMPS project is developing a set of proposed interface standards that will provide useful guidance for modular hardware developers but not needlessly constrain technology options, or limit future growth in capability. In 2015 the AMPS project focused on standardizing the interfaces between the elements of spacecraft power distribution and energy storage. The development of the modular power standard starts with establishing mission assumptions and ground rules to define design application space. The standards are defined in terms of AMPS objectives including Commonality, Reliability-Availability, Flexibility-Configurability and Supportability-Reusability. The proposed standards are aimed at assembly and sub-assembly level building blocks. AMPS plans to adopt existing standards for spacecraft command and data, software, network interfaces, and electrical power interfaces where applicable. Other standards including structural encapsulation, heat transfer, and fluid transfer, are governed by launch and spacecraft environments and bound by practical limitations of weight and volume. Developing these mechanical interface standards is more difficult but

  9. Mercury Atomic Frequency Standards for Space Based Navigation and Timekeeping (United States)

    Tjoelker, R. L.; Burt, E. A.; Chung, S.; Hamell, R. L.; Prestage, J. D.; Tucker, B.; Cash, P.; Lutwak, R.


    A low power Mercury Atomic Frequency Standard (MAFS) has been developed and demonstrated on the path towards future space clock applications. A self contained mercury ion breadboard clock: emulating flight clock interfaces, steering a USO local oscillator, and consuming approx 40 Watts has been operating at JPL for more than a year. This complete, modular ion clock instrument demonstrates that key GNSS size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements can be achieved while still maintaining short and long term performance demonstrated in previous ground ion clocks. The MAFS breadboard serves as a flexible platform for optimizing further space clock development and guides engineering model design trades towards fabrication of an ion clock for space flight.

  10. Standard payload computer for the international space station (United States)

    Knott, Karl; Taylor, Chris; Koenig, Horst; Schlosstein, Uwe


    This paper describes the development and application of a Standard PayLoad Computer (SPLC) which is being applied by the majority of ESA payloads accommodated on the International Space Station (ISS). The strategy of adopting of a standard computer leads to a radical rethink in the payload data handling procurement process. Traditionally, this has been based on a proprietary development with repeating costs for qualification, spares, expertise and maintenance for each new payload. Implementations have also tended to be unique with very little opportunity for reuse or utilisation of previous developments. While this may to some extent have been justified for short duration one-off missions, the availability of a standard, long term space infrastructure calls for a quite different approach. To support a large number of concurrent payloads, the ISS implementation relies heavily on standardisation, and this is particularly true in the area of payloads. Physical accommodation, data interfaces, protocols, component quality, operational requirements and maintenance including spares provisioning must all conform to a common set of standards. The data handling system and associated computer used by each payload must also comply with these common requirements, and thus it makes little sense to instigate multiple developments for the same task. The opportunity exists to provide a single computer suitable for all payloads, but with only a one-off development and qualification cost. If this is combined with the benefits of multiple procurement, centralised spares and maintenance, there is potential for great savings to be made by all those concerned in the payload development process. In response to the above drivers, the SPLC is based on the following concepts: • A one-off development and qualification process • A modular computer, configurable according to the payload developer's needs from a list of space-qualified items • An `open system' which may be added to by

  11. Relativistic tidal effects in non standard Kerr space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Maselli, Andrea; Laguna, Pablo


    Astrophysical phenomena involving massive black holes (BHs) in close binaries are expected to leave detectable signatures in the electromagnetic and gravitational-wave spectrum. Such imprints may provide precious information to probe the space-time around rotating BHs, and to reveal new insights on the nature of gravity in the strong-field regime. To support this observational window it is crucial to develop suitable tests to verify the predictions of General Relativity (GR). In this framework, the metric recently proposed by Johannsen and Psaltis parametrises strong field deviations from a Kerr space-time in a theory-independent way. In the following, we make use of this approach to describe the tidal field produced by spinning BHs. We compute the gravito-magnetic and gravito-electric tidal tensors for particles moving on equatorial circular geodesics, comparing our results with those obtained in the standard GR scenario. Our calculations show significant differences even for distances far form the last stab...

  12. Standardization Process for Space Radiation Models Used for Space System Design (United States)

    Barth, Janet; Daly, Eamonn; Brautigam, Donald


    The space system design community has three concerns related to models of the radiation belts and plasma: 1) AP-8 and AE-8 models are not adequate for modern applications; 2) Data that have become available since the creation of AP-8 and AE-8 are not being fully exploited for modeling purposes; 3) When new models are produced, there is no authorizing organization identified to evaluate the models or their datasets for accuracy and robustness. This viewgraph presentation provided an overview of the roadmap adopted by the Working Group Meeting on New Standard Radiation Belt and Space Plasma Models.

  13. Nonpalpable breast lesion. Stereotaxic core needle aspiration biopsy with a single pass. (United States)

    Vega, A; Arrizabalaga, R; Garijo, F; Guerra, I


    One hundred and fifty-six patients with suspect nonpalpable breast lesion underwent stereotaxic core needle aspiration biopsy (SCNAB) with a single pass in an upright "add-on" stereotaxic device using a manual 1.6-mm needle (16 G), to determine whether the results were comparable to results of SCNAB with a multiple-pass technique. Of the 69 carcinomas, 51 (74%) were correctly diagnosed and definitive surgical therapy, without surgical biopsy, was performed in 42 of the 50 invasive carcinomas (84%) and in 9 of the 19 noninvasive carcinomas (47%). Ten noninvasive carcinomas and 4 invasive carcinomas, discovered by microcalcifications or distortion on the mammograms, form 78% of the false-negative results. There were no false-positive results. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 11% of the procedures. Although the results were acceptable in patients with invasive carcinoma, more than one needle pass is necessary for greater diagnostic accuracy of SCNAB, especially in patients with only microcalcifications or distortion on the mammogram.

  14. CT-guided stereotaxic implantation of Ommaya reservoir for cystic brain tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasato, Nobukazu; Niizuma, Hiroshi; Johkura, Hidefumi; Katoh, Seiya; Otsuki, Taisuke; Katakura, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Jiro


    We report the use of CT-guided stereotaxic system to implant Ommaya reservoir in 26 patients with cystic brain tumors consisting of 16 gliomas, 3 craniopharyngiomas, 3 metastatic brain tumors and 5 other and unknown pathologies, on the way of their biopsy. The entire procedure was carried out in the CT room using Leksell's CT stereotaxic system. In 24 cases with supratentorial tumors, it was at the option of the operator to take any approach such as frontal, posterior temporal and parietal approaches. Especially in 3 cases of craniopharyngioma, we inserted the tube into their cyst directly so that the ventricle should not be open to the cyst. Also in cases of a pontine glioma and a C-P angle metastatic tumor, we used retromastoid approach to the posterior fossa by making patient's heads turned about 30 to 40 deg to contralateral side of the approach, with slight flexion of the neck. Minimal bleeding occurred during operation in one case, however, it showed no clinical symptoms. Advantages of this method are as follows: Operative invasion is minimal; The surgeon can check the course of the cannula and position of the tip of Ommaya tube even at operation, and can modify it, if necessary.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Dzitoev


    Full Text Available Thermal similarity of objects of various configuration is defined by equality of their stationary surface average temperatures in the Earth shadow that is equivalent to equality of their effective irradiance coefficients by own thermal radiation of the Earth. Cone, cylinder and sphere are chosen among standard configurations. Unlike two last figures, calculation of irradiance coefficient for conic object is the most difficult and contains a number of uncertainties. The method of calculation for integrated and effective irradiance coefficients of space object with a conic form is stated which is typical for fragments of spacecrafts. Integrated irradiance coefficients define the average thermal balance on a lateral surface of the cylinder and cone, and also full power balance on a sphere surface. Effective irradiance coefficients define a full falling specific stream of the Earth’s radiation on the whole surface of cylindrical or conic object taking into account their bases. By data about effective irradiance coefficients, the average stationary temperatures of space objects in the Earth shadow are defined, as well as on the trajectory part illuminated by the Sun taking into account two additional components of power balance – direct sunlight and reflected by the Earth. Researches were conducted in the height change range for an orbit from 200 to 40000 km depending on a tilt angle of the cylinder and cone axis relative to zenith-nadir line. Similarity conditions for the cylinder and cone are defined at equal ratio sizes of the figure height to base diameter.

  16. Hippocampal Neurogenesis and the Brain Repair Response to Brief Stereotaxic Insertion of a Microneedle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Song


    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that transient microinjury to the brain elicits cellular and humoral responses that stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Brief stereotaxic insertion and removal of a microneedle into the right hippocampus resulted in (a significantly increased expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, the chemokine MIP-1a, and the proinflammatory cytokine IL12p40; (b pronounced activation of microglia and astrocytes; and (c increase in hippocampal neurogenesis. This study describes immediate and early humoral and cellular mechanisms of the brain’s response to microinjury that will be useful for the investigation of potential neuroprotective and deleterious effects of deep brain stimulation in various neuropsychiatric disorders.

  17. Examination of the Benefits of Standardized Interfaces on Space Systems (United States)


    Telescope (from Encyclopedia Britannica Online 2015) a. Satellite Definition Satellites have been orbiting the earth since 1957 and have provided...III (from Lockheed Martin 2015c) ..........................................................11 Figure 8. Hubble Space Telescope (from Encyclopedia ... Britannica Online 2015) .........12 Figure 9. James Webb Space Telescope (from NASA 2008a) .......................................13 Figure 10

  18. Toward the Standardization of Bioreactors for Space Research (United States)

    Garcia, Michel; Nebuloni, Stefano; Dainesi, Paolo; Gass, Samuel

    Growing interest in long-term human space missions and exploration as well as future plans for extra-terrestrial human settlements, places increasing importance on understanding biological and chemical processes in space at cellular and molecular level. RUAG Space has been involved in the development of bioreactors for life-science experiments in space for the past 20 years. Throughout these developments, RUAG has acted as the link between scientists and the space industry, translating high-level scientific requirements into technical requirements, verifying their feasibility within the space context, and developing state-of-the-art experiment hardware which can interface with dedicated micro-gravity platform. Although this approach has brought forth promising developments in the field, it is associated to very long development phases as well as correspondingly high costs. Each new scientific experiment is often associated to an entirely new hardware development. This is, in large, due to the limited information available on the possibilities and constraints imposed by the particular context of space. Therefore, a considerable amount of time and development costs are invested in order to accommodate stringent scientific requirements and/or specific experiment design in space hardware. This does not only have an impact on funding opportunities for micro-gravity experiments in space, it also curbs the pace of scientific discoveries and limits the number of research opportunities. Therefore, in the following, we present an overview of already established possibilities for cellular research in space, with special emphasis on hardware developed by RUAG Space. This is intended to provide scientists with key technical information on already existing bioreactors, subsystems, and components, which may be used as a basis when designing scientific studies. By considering this information from the onset of the establishment of scientific requirements, technical solutions can

  19. NBS (National Bureau of Standards): Materials measurements. [space processing experiments (United States)

    Manning, J. R.


    Work directed toward the measurement of materials properties important to the design and interpretation of space processing experiments and determinations of how the space environment may offer a unique opportunity for performing improved measurements and producing materials with improved properties is reported. Surface tensions and their variations with temperature and impurities; convection during undirectional solidification; and measurement of the high temperature thermophysical properties of tungsten group liquids and solids are discussed and results are summarized.

  20. Standardization of XML Database Exchanges and the James Webb Space Telescope Experience (United States)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Detter, Ryan; Jones, Ron; Fatig, Curtis C.


    Personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project have been working with various standard communities such the Object Management Group (OMG) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) to assist in the definition of a common extensible Markup Language (XML) for database exchange format. The CCSDS and OMG standards are intended for the exchange of core command and telemetry information, not for all database information needed to exercise a NASA space mission. The mission-specific database, containing all the information needed for a space mission, is translated from/to the standard using a translator. The standard is meant to provide a system that encompasses 90% of the information needed for command and telemetry processing. This paper will discuss standardization of the XML database exchange format, tools used, and the JWST experience, as well as future work with XML standard groups both commercial and government.

  1. NASA Space Safety Standards and Procedures for Human Rating Requirements (United States)

    Shivers, C. Herbert


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America (NASA) has arguably led this planet in space exploration and certainly has been one of two major leaders in those endeavors. NASA governance is institutionalized and managed in a series documents arranged in a hierarchy and flowing down to the work levels. A document tree of NASA s documentation in its totality would likely overwhelm and not be very informative. Taken in segments related to the various business topics and focusing in those segments, however, provides a logical and understandable relationship and flow of requirements and processes. That is the nature of this chapter, a selection of NASA documentation pertaining to space exploration and a description of how those documents together form the plan by which NASA business for space exploration is conducted. Information presented herein is taken from NASA publications and is available publicly and no information herein is protected by copyright or security regulations. While NASA documents are the source of information presented herein, any and all views expressed herein and any misrepresentations of NASA data that may occur herein are those of the author and should not be considered NASA official positions or statements, nor should NASA endorsement of anything presented in this work be assumed.

  2. [The stereotaxic core breast biopsy using the Mammotome: an alternative to intraoperative examination]. (United States)

    Giardina, C; Guerrieri, A M; Ingravallo, G; Serio, G; Mastropasqua, M G; Lomele, M; Lattanzio, V


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of vacuum-assisted biopsy by comparing it with frozen biopsy. 141 stereotaxic biopsies were performed by Mammotome (Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Hamburg) from January 2000 to March 2001. Biopsies were performed for microcalcifications (n = 105, 74.5%), irregular opacities (n = 20, 14.2%), regular opacities (n = 6, 4.2%), stellate lesions (n = 10, 7.1%). Histological analysis showed 85 (60.3%) benign lesions, 46 (32.6%) malignant lesions including (21 cases of carcinoma in situ and 25 invasive carcinomas) and 10 (7.1%) atypical lesions. All malignant lesions were subjected to surgery. In three cases (1 in situ and 2 invasive), core biopsy was excisional and no residual lesion was observed. Two of the carcinomas in situ revealed invasive features on the surgical biopsy. One of the atypical lesions was underestimated and the final diagnosis was "well differentiated carcinoma in situ." Only three of benign lesions underwent surgery after Mammotome biopsy. Among the 55 frozen-section biopsies of mammographically detected breast lesions performed in the same period, were one false-positive and 3 false-negative cases, while in 4 cases the diagnosis was deferred after paraffin embedding. Our results confirmed Mammotome biopsy as an effective alternative and a more reliable method than frozen-section examination.

  3. Definition of spacecraft standard interfaces by the NASA Space Assembly and Servicing Working Group (SASWG) (United States)

    Radtke, Robert; Woolley, Charles; Arnold, Lana


    The purpose of the NASA Space Assembly and Servicing Working Group (SASWG) is to study enabling technologies for on-orbit spacecraft maintenance and servicing. One key technology required for effective space logistics activity is the development of standard spacecraft interfaces, including the 'Basic Set' defined by NASA, the U.S. Space Command, and industry panelists to be the following: (1) navigation aids; (2) grasping, berthing, and docking; and (3) utility connections for power, data, and fluids. Draft standards have been prepared and referred to professional standards organizations, including the AIAA, EIA, and SAE space standards committee. The objective of the SASWG is to support these committees with the technical expertise required to prepare standards, guidelines, and recommended practices which will be accepted by the ANSI and international standards organizations, including the ISO, IEC, and PASC.

  4. Opting Out: Parents Creating Contested Spaces to Challenge Standardized Tests (United States)

    Mitra, Dana; Mann, Bryan; Hlavacik, Mark


    We explore how the opt-out movement has responded to the combination of a stringent federal policy with weak and often variable implementation among the states. Gaps between federal expectations and states' understandings of just how to make NCLB's demands a reality have created policy ambiguity. Parents who oppose standardized testing have…

  5. Multigrid method based on a space-time approach with standard coarsening for parabolic problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Franco (Sebastião Romero); F.J. Gaspar Lorenz (Franscisco); M.A. Villela Pinto (Marcio Augusto); C. Rodrigo (Carmen)


    textabstractIn this work, a space-time multigrid method which uses standard coarsening in both temporal and spatial domains and combines the use of different smoothers is proposed for the solution of the heat equation in one and two space dimensions. In particular, an adaptive smoothing strategy,

  6. Fully automated quantification of regional cerebral blood flow with three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest template. Validation using magnetic resonance imaging. Technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Ryo; Katayama, Shigenori; Takeda, Naoya; Fujita, Katsuzo [Nishi-Kobe Medical Center (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Fukui Medical Univ., Matsuoka (Japan); Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine


    The previously reported three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest (ROI) template (3DSRT-t) for the analysis of anatomically standardized technetium-99m-L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images was modified for use in a fully automated regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) quantification software, 3DSRT, incorporating an anatomical standardization engine transplanted from statistical parametric mapping 99 and ROIs for quantification based on 3DSRT-t. Three-dimensional T{sub 2}-weighted magnetic resonance images of 10 patients with localized infarcted areas were compared with the ROI contour of 3DSRT, and the positions of the central sulcus in the primary sensorimotor area were also estimated. All positions of the 20 lesions were in strict accordance with the ROI delineation of 3DSRT. The central sulcus was identified on at least one side of 210 paired ROIs and in the middle of 192 (91.4%) of these 210 paired ROIs among the 273 paired ROIs of the primary sensorimotor area. The central sulcus was recognized in the middle of more than 71.4% of the ROIs in which the central sulcus was identifiable in the respective 28 slices of the primary sensorimotor area. Fully automated accurate ROI delineation on anatomically standardized images is possible with 3DSRT, which enables objective quantification of rCBF and vascular reserve in only a few minutes using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT images obtained by the resting and vascular reserve (RVR) method. (author)

  7. Concept of Draft International Standard for a Unified Approach to Space Program Quality Assurance (United States)

    Stryzhak, Y.; Vasilina, V.; Kurbatov, V.


    For want of the unified approach to guaranteed space project and product quality assurance, implementation of many international space programs has become a challenge. Globalization of aerospace industry and participation of various international ventures with diverse quality assurance requirements in big international space programs requires for urgent generation of unified international standards related to this field. To ensure successful fulfillment of space missions, aerospace companies should design and process reliable and safe products with properties complying or bettering User's (or Customer's) requirements. Quality of the products designed or processed by subcontractors (or other suppliers) should also be in compliance with the main user (customer)'s requirements. Implementation of this involved set of unified requirements will be made possible by creating and approving a system (series) of international standards under a generic title Space Product Quality Assurance based on a system consensus principle. Conceptual features of the baseline standard in this system (series) should comprise: - Procedures for ISO 9000, CEN and ECSS requirements adaptation and introduction into space product creation, design, manufacture, testing and operation; - Procedures for quality assurance at initial (design) phases of space programs, with a decision on the end product made based on the principle of independence; - Procedures to arrange incoming inspection of products delivered by subcontractors (including testing, audit of supplier's procedures, review of supplier's documentation), and space product certification; - Procedures to identify materials and primary products applied; - Procedures for quality system audit at the component part, primary product and materials supplier facilities; - Unified procedures to form a list of basic performances to be under configuration management; - Unified procedures to form a list of critical space product components, and unified

  8. Delimitação dos núcleos talâmicos pela eletrofisiologia estereotáxica Delimitation of the thalamic nuclei by stereotaxic electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Luís Latuf


    Full Text Available Os limites da área destruída durante a cirurgia estereotáxica são descritos levando em consideração as complicações decorrentes de lesões determinadas erroneamente. São comentados os métodos empregados com a finalidade de controlar a delimitação do alvo, sendo descrita a técnica usada em 23 talamotomias com derivação da atividade elétrica celular dos núcleos talâmicos atravessados e a pesquisa de potenciais evocados, graças à somatotopia da representação táctil no núcleo ventral posterior. Com este método reduz-se de mais ou menos 1 mm o erro radiológico, prescisando-se o alvo terapêutico talâmico nos três planos de espaço.The limits of the area to be destroyed during the stereotaxic surgery for the treatment of tremors are described taking into account the complications due to lesions erroneously performed. The method applied is commented in order to control the accuracy of the target delimitation, describing the technique employed in 23 thalamotomies, recording the electrical activity of the thalamic nuclei acrossed and researching evoked potentials thanks to the somatotopic tactil representation in the ventral posterior nuclei. The method permits to reduce radiologic errors giving more accuracy for the delimitation of thalamic target in the three planes of space.

  9. Future Standardization of Space Telecommunications Radio System with Core Flight System (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Hickey, Joseph P.; Roche, Rigoberto; Handler, Louis M.; Hall, Charles S.


    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is integrating the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Standard with the Core Flight System (cFS), an avionics software operating environment. The STRS standard provides a common, consistent framework to develop, qualify, operate and maintain complex, reconfigurable and reprogrammable radio systems. The cFS is a flexible, open architecture that features a plugand- play software executive called the Core Flight Executive (cFE), a reusable library of software components for flight and space missions and an integrated tool suite. Together, STRS and cFS create a development environment that allows for STRS compliant applications to reference the STRS application programmer interfaces (APIs) that use the cFS infrastructure. These APIs are used to standardize the communication protocols on NASAs space SDRs. The cFS-STRS Operating Environment (OE) is a portable cFS library, which adds the ability to run STRS applications on existing cFS platforms. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the cFS-STRS OE prototype, preliminary experimental results performed using the Advanced Space Radio Platform (ASRP), the GRC S- band Ground Station and the SCaN (Space Communication and Navigation) Testbed currently flying onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Additionally, this paper presents a demonstration of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Spacecraft Onboard Interface Services (SOIS) using electronic data sheets (EDS) inside cFE. This configuration allows for the data sheets to specify binary formats for data exchange between STRS applications. The integration of STRS with cFS leverages mission-proven platform functions and mitigates barriers to integration with future missions. This reduces flight software development time and the costs of software-defined radio (SDR) platforms. Furthermore, the combined benefits of STRS standardization with the flexibility of cFS provide an effective, reliable and

  10. Advantages of stereotaxic needle biopsy of brain tumor using interventional magnetic resonance imaging. Report of 12 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terao, Tohru; Hashimoto, Takuo; Koyama, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koichi; Harada, Junta [Jikei Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kashiwa Hospital; Abe, Toshiaki


    Interventional MRI, an advanced neuroimaging system, was used to perform stereotaxic needle biopsy of brain tissue (AIRIS, 0.3 Tesla, Hitachi) in 12 patients (9 males, 3 females) with intraparenchymal abnormal lesions. This system permits accurate and safe biopsy of brain tissue in real time. Patient ages ranged from 31 to 79 years (mean 61.5 years). We evaluated the abnormal lesion and dominant hemisphere of these patients preoperatively by using CT, MRI and cerebral angiography. Lesions were located in the left frontal lobe in 3 cases, the right frontal lobe in 1 case, the left temporal lobe in 1 case, the right temporal lobe in 1 case, the left parietal lobe in 2 cases, the right parietal lobe in 1 case, the left occipital lobe in 1 case, the bilateral basal ganglia in 1 case and the corpus callosum in 1 case. The sampling points were in the dominant hemisphere in 7 cases and in the non-dominant hemisphere in 5 cases. The diagnosis based on stereotaxic needle biopsy using this system were 4 gliomas, 1 brain abscess, 1 metastatic brain tumor, 1 granuloma, 2 cerebral infarctions, 2 malignant lymphomas and 1 normal brain tissue. Success rate of biopsy for our 12 cases using this system was 91.7%. Brain hemorrhage was a complication in 1 case but there was no case of meningitis or convulsion. This method is useful in patients with inoperable lesions, including deep lesion or lesions in the brainstem diencephalon or dominant hemisphere, in patients with serious complications, and in geriatric patients. In the future, this MRI system may be applied to minimally invasive therapies such as tumor ablation, cryosurgery, chemoablation, and ventrolateral thalamotomy for parkinsonism. (author)

  11. Implications of the Next Generation Science Standards for Earth and Space Sciences (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Colson, M.; Duschl, R. A.; Huff, K.; Lopez, R. E.; Messina, P.; Speranza, P.; Matthews, T.; Childress, J.


    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), due to be released in 2013, set a new direction for K-12 science education in America. These standards will put forth significant changes for Earth and space sciences. The NGSS are based upon the recommendations of the National Research Council's 2011 report "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas." The standards are being written by a large group of authors who represent many different constituencies, including 26 participating states, in a process led by Achieve, Inc. The standards encourage innovative ways to teach science at the K-12 level, including enhanced integration between the content, practices, and crosscutting ideas of science and greater assimilation among the sciences and engineering, and among the sciences, mathematics, and English language arts. The NGSS presents a greater emphasis on Earth and space sciences than in previous standards, recommending a year at both the middle and high school levels. The new standards also present a greater emphasis on areas of direct impact between humans and the Earth system, including climate change, natural hazards, resource management, and sustainability.

  12. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard. Release 1.02.1 (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Handler, Louis M.; Hall, C. Steve; Mortensen, Dale J.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Briones, Janette C.; Nappier, Jennifer M.; Downey, Joseph A.; Lux, James P.


    This document contains the NASA architecture standard for software defined radios used in space- and ground-based platforms to enable commonality among radio developments to enhance capability and services while reducing mission and programmatic risk. Transceivers (or transponders) with functionality primarily defined in software (e.g., firmware) have the ability to change their functional behavior through software alone. This radio architecture standard offers value by employing common waveform software interfaces, method of instantiation, operation, and testing among different compliant hardware and software products. These common interfaces within the architecture abstract application software from the underlying hardware to enable technology insertion independently at either the software or hardware layer.

  13. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis


    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  14. A perturbative approach to the redshift space correlation function: beyond the Standard Model (United States)

    Bose, Benjamin; Koyama, Kazuya


    We extend our previous redshift space power spectrum code to the redshift space correlation function. Here we focus on the Gaussian Streaming Model (GSM). Again, the code accommodates a wide range of modified gravity and dark energy models. For the non-linear real space correlation function used in the GSM we use the Fourier transform of the RegPT 1-loop matter power spectrum. We compare predictions of the GSM for a Vainshtein screened and Chameleon screened model as well as GR. These predictions are compared to the Fourier transform of the Taruya, Nishimichi and Saito (TNS) redshift space power spectrum model which is fit to N-body data. We find very good agreement between the Fourier transform of the TNS model and the GSM predictions, with <= 6% deviations in the first two correlation function multipoles for all models for redshift space separations in 50Mpch <= s <= 180Mpc/h. Excellent agreement is found in the differences between the modified gravity and GR multipole predictions for both approaches to the redshift space correlation function, highlighting their matched ability in picking up deviations from GR. We elucidate the timeliness of such non-standard templates at the dawn of stage-IV surveys and discuss necessary preparations and extensions needed for upcoming high quality data.

  15. Open Architecture Standard for NASA's Software-Defined Space Telecommunications Radio Systems (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Hall, Charles S.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John


    NASA is developing an architecture standard for software-defined radios used in space- and ground-based platforms to enable commonality among radio developments to enhance capability and services while reducing mission and programmatic risk. Transceivers (or transponders) with functionality primarily defined in software (e.g., firmware) have the ability to change their functional behavior through software alone. This radio architecture standard offers value by employing common waveform software interfaces, method of instantiation, operation, and testing among different compliant hardware and software products. These common interfaces within the architecture abstract application software from the underlying hardware to enable technology insertion independently at either the software or hardware layer. This paper presents the initial Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture for NASA missions to provide the desired software abstraction and flexibility while minimizing the resources necessary to support the architecture.

  16. Process for automatic location of interest points during mammography stereotaxic examination; Procede de reperage automatique de points d`interet lors d`un examen de stereotaxie en mammographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, S.


    This patent describes a process for automatic location of interest points met during a mammography stereotaxic examination and is made up of an image acquisition numerical system associated with algorithms for images processing. (A.B.). 4 refs., 14 figs.

  17. Meeting Classroom Needs: Designing Space Physics Educational Outreach for Science Education Standards (United States)

    Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M.


    As with all NASA missions, the Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) is required to have an education and public outreach program (E/PO). Through our partnership between the University of Texas at Dallas William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences and Department of Science/Mathematics Education, the decision was made early on to design our educational outreach around the needs of teachers. In the era of high-stakes testing and No Child Left Behind, materials that do not meet the content and process standards teachers must teach cannot be expected to be integrated into classroom instruction. Science standards, both state and National, were the fundamental drivers behind the designs of our curricular materials, professional development opportunities for teachers, our target grade levels, and even our popular informal educational resource, the "Cindi in Space" comic book. The National Science Education Standards include much more than content standards, and our E/PO program was designed with this knowledge in mind as well. In our presentation we will describe how we came to our approach for CINDI E/PO, and how we have been successful in our efforts to have CINDI materials and key concepts make the transition into middle school classrooms. We will also present on our newest materials and high school physics students and professional development for their teachers.

  18. Standardization of Experimental Design for Crop Cultivation in Life Support Systems for Space Exploration (United States)

    Wolff, Silje Aase; Coelho, Liz Helena; Karoliussen, Irene; Kittang Jost, Ann-Iren

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, fresh air, and clean water for humans. The extensive work performed have shown that higher plants are able to adapt to space conditions in low Earth orbit, at least from one generation from seed to seed. Since the hardware has turned out to be of great importance for the results in microgravity research, full environmental monitoring and control must be the standard for future experiments. Selecting a few model plants, including crop plants for life support, would further increase the comparability between studies. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plants, with continuous recycling of resources. In the present study, recommended standardization of the experimental design for future scientific work assessing the effects of graded gravity on plant metabolism will be presented. This includes the environmental conditions required for cultivation of the selected MEliSSA species (wheat, bread wheat, soybean and potato), as well as guidelines for sowing, plant handling and analysis. Keywords: microgravity; magnetic field; radiation; MELiSSA; Moon; Mars.

  19. An adaptive software defined radio design based on a standard space telecommunication radio system API (United States)

    Xiong, Wenhao; Tian, Xin; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik


    Software defined radio (SDR) has become a popular tool for the implementation and testing for communications performance. The advantage of the SDR approach includes: a re-configurable design, adaptive response to changing conditions, efficient development, and highly versatile implementation. In order to understand the benefits of SDR, the space telecommunication radio system (STRS) was proposed by NASA Glenn research center (GRC) along with the standard application program interface (API) structure. Each component of the system uses a well-defined API to communicate with other components. The benefit of standard API is to relax the platform limitation of each component for addition options. For example, the waveform generating process can support a field programmable gate array (FPGA), personal computer (PC), or an embedded system. As long as the API defines the requirements, the generated waveform selection will work with the complete system. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and development of adaptive SDR following the STRS and standard API protocol. We introduce step by step the SDR testbed system including the controlling graphic user interface (GUI), database, GNU radio hardware control, and universal software radio peripheral (USRP) tranceiving front end. In addition, a performance evaluation in shown on the effectiveness of the SDR approach for space telecommunication.

  20. Population Pressure, Global Living Standards, and the Promise of Space Solar Power (United States)

    Strickland, John K., Jr.


    What many sincere environmentalists advocate: (severe restrictions on energy use, to reduce global warming), may actually end up being very harmful to the environment. Since 85 percent of the global energy use is derived from carbon based fossil fuels, this may seem to be a reasonable position. However, the proponents of energy use restrictions are ignoring some very important relationships. The greatest damage to the environment, in terms of species loss, is loss and/or human modification of habitat. The two greatest threats to habitat seem to be (1) population pressure and (2) logging. Logging does not necessarily permanently occupy the land, while either default squatter occupation or "colonization by policy" is often permanent. Increased population degrades the land by causing over- farming, and also creates an ever greater demand for raw materials and food resources. Poor people have no time nor money to think about or help save the environment. Therefore the greatest threat to species survival is human population growth and its frequent companion: poverty. There is an existing way to reduce population growth, and thus to reduce pressure on habitats, called "raising the standard of living". Wherever it succeeds, population growth slows rapidly. In many European countries, there would be a negative population growth if not for immigration. Personal energy use is closely correlated with living standards, and it is impossible to have a higher living standard without a higher degree of personal energy use. It would seem, however, that extending high living standards to the developing world would create an even greater demand for the use of fossil fuels. The solution to this dilemma can only be found in the use of very high capacity sources of non- fossil energy that do not significantly damage the environment. Are there sources of clean, economical energy with a large enough combined capacity to provide high living standards for the whole world, including those

  1. The standard electroweak model in the noncommutative DFR space-time (United States)

    Neves, Mario J.; Abreu, Everton M. C.


    The noncommutative (NC) framework elaborated by Doplicher, Fredenhagen and Roberts (DFR) has a Lorentz invariant space-time structure in order to be considered as a candidate to understand the physics of the early Universe. In DFR formalism, the NC parameter (𝜃μν) is a coordinate operator in an extended Hilbert space and it has a conjugate momentum. Since x and 𝜃μν are independent coordinates, the Moyal-Weyl (MW) product can be used in this framework. With these elements, in this work, we have constructed the standard electroweak model. To accomplish this task, we have begun with the MW-product basis group of symmetry. After that we have introduced the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the hypercharge in DFR framework. The electroweak symmetry breaking was analyzed and the masses of the new bosons were computed. Finally, the gauge symmetry and gauge transformations were discussed.

  2. Earth & Space Science in the Next Generation Science Standards: Promise, Challenge, and Future Actions. (Invited) (United States)

    Pyle, E. J.


    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are a step forward in ensuring that future generations of students become scientifically literate. The NGSS document builds from the National Science Education Standards (1996) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science framework of 2005. Design teams for the Curriculum Framework for K-12 Science Education were to outline the essential content necessary for students' science literacy, considering the foundational knowledge and the structure of each discipline in the context of learning progressions. Once draft standards were developed, two issues emerged from their review: (a) the continual need to prune 'cherished ideas' within the content, such that only essential ideas were represented, and (b) the potential for prior conceptions of Science & Engineering Practices (SEP) and cross-cutting concepts (CCC) to limit overly constrain performance expectations. With the release of the NGSS, several challenges are emerging for geoscience education. First, the traditional emphasis of Earth science in middle school has been augmented by new standards for high school that require major syntheses of concepts. Second, the integration of SEPs into performance expectations places an increased burden on teachers and curriculum developers to organize instruction around the nature of inquiry in the geosciences. Third, work is needed to define CCCs in Earth contexts, such that the unique structure of the geosciences is best represented. To ensure that the Earth & Space Science standards are implemented through grade 12, two supporting structures must be developed. In the past, many curricular materials claimed that they adhered to the NSES, but in some cases this match was a simple word match or checklist that bore only superficial resemblance to the standards. The structure of the performance expectations is of sufficient sophistication to ensure that adherence to the standards more than a casual exercise. Claims

  3. The Next Generation Science Standards: An Historic Opportunity for K-12 Earth and Space Science Education (United States)

    Johnson, R. M.; Passow, M. J.; Holzer, M. A.; Moore, J.


    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) provide an historic opportunity to significantly improve Earth and space science (ESS) education nationally at the K-12 level. The increased emphasis on ESS related topics in the NGSS relative to previous standards provides a real opportunity for ensuring all K-12 students in adopting states learn about the ESS - allowing us to reach many more students than are currently are exposed to our discipline. The new standards are also exciting in that they explicitly couple science and engineering practice, cross-cutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas in such a way that student must actively demonstrate their understanding through actions rather than through mere regurgitation of memorized responses. Achieving mastery of NGSS Performance Expectations will require practice with higher-order learning skills - with students engaging in the practices of scientists and engineers. Preparing students for this mastery will be a challenging task for teachers, since in many states professional development support is limited at best for the current curriculum - let alone the curricula that will be developed to address the NGSS. As adoption of the NGSS expands across the country, states will be at various levels of implementation of the new standards over the next several years - and there is real concern that teachers must have sufficient professional development to be able to be successful in preparing their students - particularly in view of likely coupled assessments and teacher evaluations. NESTA strongly supports implementation of the NGSS, and the rigorous and compelling ESS education it will engender, when coupled with a strong emphasis nationwide on teacher professional development. For the past two years, the National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA) has continued our leadership in K-12 ESS education through workshops, web seminars, events and publications that emphasize implementation of the NGSS in ESS

  4. Developing a Standard Method for Link-Layer Security of CCSDS Space Communications (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Craig


    Communications security for space systems has been a specialized field generally far removed from considerations of mission interoperability and cross-support in fact, these considerations often have been viewed as intrinsically opposed to security objectives. The space communications protocols defined by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) have a twenty-five year history of successful use in over 400 missions. While the CCSDS Telemetry, Telecommand, and Advancing Orbiting Systems protocols for use at OSI Layer 2 are operationally mature, there has been no direct support within these protocols for communications security techniques. Link-layer communications security has been successfully implemented in the past using mission-unique methods, but never before with an objective of facilitating cross-support and interoperability. This paper discusses the design of a standard method for cryptographic authentication, encryption, and replay protection at the data link layer that can be integrated into existing CCSDS protocols without disruption to legacy communications services. Integrating cryptographic operations into existing data structures and processing sequences requires a careful assessment of the potential impediments within spacecraft, ground stations, and operations centers. The objective of this work is to provide a sound method for cryptographic encapsulation of frame data that also facilitates Layer 2 virtual channel switching, such that a mission may procure data transport services as needed without involving third parties in the cryptographic processing, or split independent data streams for separate cryptographic processing.

  5. Space Telecommunications Radio Systems (STRS) Hardware Architecture Standard: Release 1.0 Hardware Section (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John; Hill, Gary; Mortensen, Dale J.; Andro, Monty; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Farrington, Allen


    This report defines a hardware architecture approach for software-defined radios to enable commonality among NASA space missions. The architecture accommodates a range of reconfigurable processing technologies including general-purpose processors, digital signal processors, field programmable gate arrays, and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in addition to flexible and tunable radiofrequency front ends to satisfy varying mission requirements. The hardware architecture consists of modules, radio functions, and interfaces. The modules are a logical division of common radio functions that compose a typical communication radio. This report describes the architecture details, the module definitions, the typical functions on each module, and the module interfaces. Tradeoffs between component-based, custom architecture and a functional-based, open architecture are described. The architecture does not specify a physical implementation internally on each module, nor does the architecture mandate the standards or ratings of the hardware used to construct the radios.

  6. Working with Open BIM Standards to Source Legal Spaces for a 3D Cadastre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Oldfield


    Full Text Available Much work has already been done on how a 3D Cadastre should best be developed. An inclusive information model, the Land Administration Model (LADM ISO 19152 has been developed to provide an international framework for how this can best be done. This conceptual model does not prescribe the technical data format. One existing source from which data could be obtained is 3D Building Information Models (BIMs, or, more specifically in this context, BIMs in the form of one of buildingSMART’s open standards: the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC. The research followed a standard BIM methodology of first defining the requirements through the use of the Information Delivery Manual (IDM ISO29481 and then translating the process described in the IDM into technical requirements using a Model View Definition (MVD, a practice to coordinate upfront the multidisciplinary stakeholders of a construction project. The proposed process model illustrated how the time it takes to register 3D spatial units in a Land Registry could substantially be reduced compared to the first 3D registration in the Netherlands. The modelling of an MVD or a subset of the IFC data model helped enable the creation and exchange of boundary representations of topological objects capable of being combined into a 3D legal space overview map.

  7. Doses to organs at cerebral risks: optimization by robotized stereotaxic radiotherapy and automatic segmentation atlas versus three dimensional conformal radiotherapy; Doses aux organes a risque cerebraux: optimisation par radiotherapie stereotaxique robotisee et atlas de segmentation automatique versus radiotherapie conformationnelle tridimensionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondiau, P.Y.; Thariat, J.; Benezery, K.; Herault, J.; Dalmasso, C.; Marcie, S. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Malandain, G. [Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique (INRIA), Sophia-Antipolis, 06 - Nice (France)


    The stereotaxic radiotherapy robotized by 'Cyberknife fourth generation' allows a dosimetric optimization with a high conformity index on the tumor and radiation doses limited on organs at risk. A cerebral automatic anatomic segmentation atlas of organs at risk are used in routine in three dimensions. This study evaluated the superiority of the stereotaxic radiotherapy in comparison with the three dimensional conformal radiotherapy on the preservation of organs at risk in regard of the delivered dose to tumors justifying an accelerated hypo fractionation and a dose escalation. This automatic segmentation atlas should allow to establish correlations between anatomy and cerebral dosimetry; This atlas allows to underline the dosimetry optimization by stereotaxic radiotherapy robotized for organs at risk. (N.C.)

  8. Ultrassom focalizado: nova arma terapêutica na cirurgia estereotáxica Focused ultrasound: a new weapon for stereotaxic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Marino Jr.


    Full Text Available O autor faz um apanhado das teorias fundamentais do ultrassom focalizado e seu uso em cirurgia estereotáxica cerebral. É feita análise comparativa entre as vantagens do ultrassom frente às demais técnicas de lesão estereotáxica e são considerados os dados de importância quanto ao tipo de apralehagem empregada e o modo de sua utilização. Como ilustração de suas possibilidades práticas, são referidas as aplicações deste tipo de irradiação no tratamento do parkinsonismo, de hipercinesias, da neuralgia do trigêmeo, de neuromas de amputação e da síndrome de Menière, na prática de comissurotomias e de lobotomias pré-frontais, na obtenção de lesões em trabalhos experimentais.A brief analysis of the theories and applications of focused ultrasound in stereotaxic surgery is presented. A comparative analysis is made regarding the advantages of the use of focused ultrasound in relation to other stereotaxic techniques. Equipment and its utilization is also considered. The possibilities for the use of this type of irradiation in the treatment of hyperkinesias, commissurotomies, neuromas, lobotomies, tic douloureux, Menière's syndrome and in laboratory experiments are also mentioned.

  9. High Level Architecture Distributed Space System Simulation for Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization Simulation Smackdown (United States)

    Li, Zuqun


    Modeling and Simulation plays a very important role in mission design. It not only reduces design cost, but also prepares astronauts for their mission tasks. The SISO Smackdown is a simulation event that facilitates modeling and simulation in academia. The scenario of this year s Smackdown was to simulate a lunar base supply mission. The mission objective was to transfer Earth supply cargo to a lunar base supply depot and retrieve He-3 to take back to Earth. Federates for this scenario include the environment federate, Earth-Moon transfer vehicle, lunar shuttle, lunar rover, supply depot, mobile ISRU plant, exploratory hopper, and communication satellite. These federates were built by teams from all around the world, including teams from MIT, JSC, University of Alabama in Huntsville, University of Bordeaux from France, and University of Genoa from Italy. This paper focuses on the lunar shuttle federate, which was programmed by the USRP intern team from NASA JSC. The shuttle was responsible for provide transportation between lunar orbit and the lunar surface. The lunar shuttle federate was built using the NASA standard simulation package called Trick, and it was extended with HLA functions using TrickHLA. HLA functions of the lunar shuttle federate include sending and receiving interaction, publishing and subscribing attributes, and packing and unpacking fixed record data. The dynamics model of the lunar shuttle was modeled with three degrees of freedom, and the state propagation was obeying the law of two body dynamics. The descending trajectory of the lunar shuttle was designed by first defining a unique descending orbit in 2D space, and then defining a unique orbit in 3D space with the assumption of a non-rotating moon. Finally this assumption was taken away to define the initial position of the lunar shuttle so that it will start descending a second after it joins the execution. VPN software from SonicWall was used to connect federates with RTI during testing


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zalatoi


    Full Text Available In article problems of comparison of space pictures with a standard of a digital district map for tasks of updating of cartographical information and monitoring of the territories are considered. The purpose is development of a technique of automated detection of cumulative changes in space pictures concerning a standard of a digital district map in optionally the set analysis window. Researches and development of a technique were made by mathematical simulation of the task in the environment of MATLAB. The last results of researches in the form of the developed technique of detection of cumulative changes of object composition in the orthotransformed and geobound space pictures of the Earth’s surface concerning a standard of a vectorial digital district map are given in article. The main results of comparison of space pictures to a digital district map received in case of tests of the developed technique are shown. Application of this technique allows to automate process already now and to reduce time of the subject analysis of the space information obtained by Earth remote-sensing instruments for topographical mapping.

  11. Social housing in Portugal and in the municipality of São Paulo : Comparison of space standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; Boueri, J.J.


    This paper compares the space standards for social housing in Portugal and in São Paulo, and seeks explanations for differences in the socio-economic context of both territories. The Controlled Cost Housing (CCH) in Portugal and the housing built within the program My Home My Life (MHML) in São

  12. Evaluation of NASA Foodbars as a Standard Diet for Use in Short-Term Rodent Space Flight Studies (United States)

    Tou, Janet; Grindeland, Richard; Barrett, Joyce; Dalton, Bonnie; Mandel, Adrian; Wade, Charles


    A standard rodent diet for space flight must meet the unique conditions imposed by the space environment and must be nutritionally adequate since diet can influence the outcome of experiments. This paper evaluates the use of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed Foodbars as a standard space flight diet for rats. The Foodbar's semi-purified formulation permits criteria such as nutrient consistency, high nutrient bioavailability and flexibility of formulation to be met. Extrusion of the semi-purified diet produces Foodbars with the proper texture and a non-crumbing solid form for use in space. Treatment of Foodbar with 0.1% potassium sorbate prevents mold growth. Irradiation (15-25 kGy) prevents bacterial growth and in combination with sorbate-treatment provides added protection against mold for shelf-stability. However, during the development process, nutrient analyses indicated that extrusion and irradiation produced nutrient losses. Nutrients were adjusted accordingly to compensate for processing losses. Nutrient analysis of Foodbars continues to be performed routinely to monitor nutrient levels. It is important that the standard rodent diet provide nutrients that will prevent deficiency but also avoid excess that may mask physiological changes produced by space flight. All vitamins levels in the Foodbars, except for vitamin K conformed to or exceeded the current NRC (1995) recommendations. All indispensable amino acids in Foodbar conformed to or exceeded the NRC nutrient recommendation for mice growth and rat maintenance. However, some indispensable amino acids were slightly below recommendations for rat reproduction/growth. Short-term (18-20 d) animal feeding studies indicated that Foodbars were palatable, supported growth and maintained health in rats. Results indicated that NASA rodent Foodbars meet both the physical and nutritional criteria required to support rodents in the space environment and thus, may be used successfully as a

  13. Trans-cranial opening of the blood-brain barrier in targeted regions using a stereotaxic brain atlas and focused ultrasound energy. (United States)

    Bing, Chenchen; Ladouceur-Wodzak, Michelle; Wanner, Clinton R; Shelton, John M; Richardson, James A; Chopra, Rajiv


    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain by preventing the entry of large molecules; this poses a major obstacle for the delivery of drugs to the brain. A novel technique using focused ultrasound (FUS) energy combined with microbubble contrast agents has been widely used for non-invasive trans-cranial BBB opening. Traditionally, FUS research is conducted with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance, which is expensive and poses physical limitations due to the magnetic field. A system that could allow researchers to test brain therapies without MR intervention could facilitate and accelerate translational research. In this study, we present a novel FUS system that uses a custom-built FUS generator mounted on a motorized stereotaxic apparatus with embedded brain atlas to locally open the BBB in rodents. The system was initially characterized using a tissue-mimicking phantom. Rodent studies were also performed to evaluate whether non-invasive, localized BBB opening could be achieved using brain atlas-based targeting. Brains were exposed to pulsed focused ultrasound energy at 1.06 MHz in rats and 3.23 MHz in mice, with the focal pressure estimated to be 0.5-0.6 MPa through the skull. BBB opening was confirmed in gross tissue sections by the presence of Evans blue leakage in the exposed region of the brain and by histological assessment. The targeting accuracy of the stereotaxic system was better than 0.5 mm in the tissue-mimicking phantom. Reproducible localized BBB opening was verified with Evans blue dye leakage in 32/33 rats and had a targeting accuracy of ±0.3 mm. The use of higher frequency exposures in mice enabled a similar precision of localized BBB opening as was observed with the low frequency in the rat model. With this dedicated small-animal motorized stereotaxic-FUS system, we achieved accurate targeting of focused ultrasound exposures in the brain for non-invasive opening of the BBB. This system can be used as an alternative to MR

  14. Standard Spacecraft Procurement Analysis: A Case Study in NASA-DOD coordination in Space Programs (United States)


    orbited the earth in his Vostok space capsule weighing over 5 tons. This feat focused immediate attention on American manned space efforts. and co-production by France and England, the Apollo- Soyuz rendezvous project between the USSR and the United States, and the European

  15. Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems recommendation for space data system standards: Telecommand. Part 2.1: Command operation procedures (United States)


    This recommendation contains the detailed specification of the logic required to carry out the Command Operations Procedures of the Transfer Layer. The Recommendation for Telecommand--Part 2, Data Routing Service contains the standard data structures and data communication procedures used by the intermediate telecommand system layers (the Transfer and Segmentation Layers). In particular, it contains a brief description of the Command Operations Procedures (COP) within the Transfer Layer. This recommendation contains the detailed definition of the COP's in the form of state tables, along with definitions of the terms used. It is assumed that the reader of this document is familiar with the data structures and terminology of part 2. In case of conflict between the description of the COP's in part 2 and in this recommendation, the definition in this recommendation will take precedence. In particular, this document supersedes section through of part 2.

  16. Non-State Global Standard Setting and the WTO: Legitimacy and the Need for Regulatory Space


    Steven Bernstein; Erin Hannah


    The proliferation of transnational social and environmental standards developed by non-state governance systems potentially poses a challenge to international trade law and the legitimacy of the World Trade Organization (WTO). These systems in areas including forestry, apparel, tourism, labour practices, agriculture, fisheries, and food operate largely independently of states as well as of traditional standard setting bodies such as the International Organization for Standardization. In lieu ...

  17. [The principles of constructing a data bank applicable to the problem of physiological standards in space medicine]. (United States)

    Grigor'ev, A I; Baevskiĭ, R M; Ovchinnikov, V V; Svetaĭlo, E N; Semenova, T D


    The norm is a more complex problem in physiology and in space medicine in particular. Definition of norm and health concepts is analyzed. Classification of functional states based on the adaptation and homeostasis concepts is proposed. Various approaches to determination of a norm are described. Three types of the norms which are of significance for space medicine, namely rest norm, reaction norm, adaptive norm are identified. The structure of data bank containing information on the standards is described. The central data bank structure is considered.

  18. Standards and Specifications for Ground Processing of Space Vehicles: From an Aviation-Based Shuttle Project to Global Application (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Cipolletti, John


    Proprietary or unique designs and operations are expected early in any industry's development, and often provide a competitive early market advantage. However, there comes a time when a product or industry requires standardization for the whole industry to advance...or survive. For the space industry, that time has come. Here, we will focus on standardization of ground processing for space vehicles and their ground systems. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, and emergence of a new global space race, affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. The growing commercialization of the space industry and current global economic environment are driving greater need for efficiencies to save time and money. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability not achievable with traditional ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More crew/passenger vehicles are also being developed. All of this calls for more attention needed for ground processing-repeatedly before launch and after landing/recovery. RLV's should provide more efficiencies than ELV's, as long as MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) is well-planned-even for the unplanned problems. NASA's Space Shuttle is a primary example of an RLV which was supposed to thrive on reusability savings with efficient ground operations, but lessons learned show that costs were (and still are) much greater than expected. International standards and specifications can provide the commonality needed to simplify design and manufacturing as well as to improve safety, quality, maintenance, and operability. There are standards organizations engaged in the space industry, but ground processing is one of the areas least addressed. Challenges are encountered due to various factors often not considered during development. Multiple vehicle elements, sites, customers, and contractors pose various functional and integration difficulties. Resulting technical publication structures

  19. A Mercury Frequency Standard Engineering Prototype for the NASA Deep Space Network (United States)

    Tjoelker, R. L.; Bricker, C.; Diener, W.; Hamell, R. L.; Kirk, A.; Kuhnle, P.; Maleki, L.; Prestage, J. D.; Santiago, D.; Seidel, D.; hide


    An engineering prototype linear ion trap frequency standar (LITS-4) using (sup 199)Hg+ is operational and currently under test for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). The DSN requires high stability and reliability with continuous operation.

  20. The "Next Generation Science Standards" and the Earth and Space Sciences (United States)

    Wysession, Michael E.


    The "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"), due to be released this spring, represents a revolutionary step toward establishing modern, national K-12 science education standards. Based on the recommendations of the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting…

  1. Questioning the Fidelity of the "Next Generation Science Standards" for Astronomy and Space Sciences Education (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.


    Although the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are not federally mandated national standards or performance expectations for K-12 schools in the United States, they stand poised to become a de facto national science and education policy, as state governments, publishers of curriculum materials, and assessment providers across the country…

  2. Chest Fat Quantification via CT Based on Standardized Anatomy Space in Adult Lung Transplant Candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubing Tong

    Full Text Available Overweight and underweight conditions are considered relative contraindications to lung transplantation due to their association with excess mortality. Yet, recent work suggests that body mass index (BMI does not accurately reflect adipose tissue mass in adults with advanced lung diseases. Alternative and more accurate measures of adiposity are needed. Chest fat estimation by routine computed tomography (CT imaging may therefore be important for identifying high-risk lung transplant candidates. In this paper, an approach to chest fat quantification and quality assessment based on a recently formulated concept of standardized anatomic space (SAS is presented. The goal of the paper is to seek answers to several key questions related to chest fat quantity and quality assessment based on a single slice CT (whether in the chest, abdomen, or thigh versus a volumetric CT, which have not been addressed in the literature.Unenhanced chest CT image data sets from 40 adult lung transplant candidates (age 58 ± 12 yrs and BMI 26.4 ± 4.3 kg/m2, 16 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 16 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, and the remainder with other conditions were analyzed together with a single slice acquired for each patient at the L5 vertebral level and mid-thigh level. The thoracic body region and the interface between subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT in the chest were consistently defined in all patients and delineated using Live Wire tools. The SAT and VAT components of chest were then segmented guided by this interface. The SAS approach was used to identify the corresponding anatomic slices in each chest CT study, and SAT and VAT areas in each slice as well as their whole volumes were quantified. Similarly, the SAT and VAT components were segmented in the abdomen and thigh slices. Key parameters of the attenuation (Hounsfield unit (HU distributions were determined from each chest slice and from the

  3. A Code of Ethics and Standards for Outer-Space Commerce (United States)

    Livingston, David M.


    Now is the time to put forth an effective code of ethics for businesses in outer space. A successful code would be voluntary and would actually promote the growth of individual companies, not hinder their efforts to provide products and services. A properly designed code of ethics would ensure the development of space commerce unfettered by government-created barriers. Indeed, if the commercial space industry does not develop its own professional code of ethics, government- imposed regulations would probably be instituted. Should this occur, there is a risk that the development of off-Earth commerce would become more restricted. The code presented in this paper seeks to avoid the imposition of new barriers to space commerce as well as make new commercial space ventures easier to develop. The proposed code consists of a preamble, which underscores basic values, followed by a number of specific principles. For the most part, these principles set forth broad commitments to fairness and integrity with respect to employees, consumers, business transactions, political contributions, natural resources, off-Earth development, designated environmental protection zones, as well as relevant national and international laws. As acceptance of this code of ethics grows within the industry, general modifications will be necessary to accommodate the different types of businesses entering space commerce. This uniform applicability will help to assure that the code will not be perceived as foreign in nature, potentially restrictive, or threatening. Companies adopting this code of ethics will find less resistance to their space development plans, not only in the United States but also from nonspacefaring nations. Commercial space companies accepting and refining this code would demonstrate industry leadership and an understanding that will serve future generations living, working, and playing in space. Implementation of the code would also provide an off-Earth precedent for a modified

  4. Arianespace Launch Service Operator Policy for Space Safety (Regulations and Standards for Safety) (United States)

    Jourdainne, Laurent


    Since December 10, 2010, the French Space Act has entered into force. This French Law, referenced as LOS N°2008-518 ("Loi relative aux Opérations Spatiales"), is compliant with international rules. This French Space Act (LOS) is now applicable for any French private company whose business is dealing with rocket launch or in orbit satellites operations. Under CNES leadership, Arianespace contributed to the consolidation of technical regulation applicable to launch service operators.Now for each launch operation, the operator Arianespace has to apply for an authorization to proceed to the French ministry in charge of space activities. In the files issued for this purpose, the operator is able to justify a high level of warranties in the management of risks through robust processes in relation with the qualification maintenance, the configuration management, the treatment of technical facts and relevant conclusions and risks reduction implementation when needed.Thanks to the historic success of Ariane launch systems through its more than 30 years of exploitation experience (54 successes in a row for latest Ariane 5 launches), Arianespace as well as European public and industrial partners developed key experiences and knowledge as well as competences in space security and safety. Soyuz-ST and Vega launch systems are now in operation from Guiana Space Center with identical and proved risks management processes. Already existing processes have been slightly adapted to cope with the new roles and responsibilities of each actor contributing to the launch preparation and additional requirements like potential collision avoidance with inhabited space objects.Up to now, more than 12 Ariane 5 launches and 4 Soyuz-ST launches have been authorized under the French Space Act regulations. Ariane 5 and Soyuz- ST generic demonstration of conformity have been issued, including exhaustive danger and impact studies for each launch system.This article will detail how Arianespace

  5. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Test Requirements for Ground Systems (United States)


    test levels used in this standard, which should be translated and tailored for the levels and terms of a specific program. The test requirements...should not be confused with the analysis method described here. Bug (software): Common and traditional slang for a defect in software syntax or logic

  6. 45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities. (United States)


    ... through visits, reports, controls and other necessary methods; (3) Methods for enforcement when necessary... effectively meet program and staff needs. Under this requirement, offices must be well marked and clearly... centers through: (1) Making information about the standards available to State and local staff and other...

  7. Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS). Volume 2; Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Factors" and Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH) (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fitts, David J.


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.

  8. The effect of temperature on generic stable periodic structures in the parameter space of dissipative relativistic standard map (United States)

    Horstmann, Ana C. C.; Albuquerque, Holokx A.; Manchein, Cesar


    In this work, we have characterized changes in the dynamics of a two-dimensional relativistic standard map in the presence of dissipation and specially when it is submitted to thermal effects modeled by a Gaussian noise reservoir. By the addition of thermal noise in the dissipative relativistic standard map (DRSM) it is possible to suppress typical stable periodic structures (SPSs) embedded in the chaotic domains of parameter space for large enough temperature strengths. Smaller SPSs are first affected by thermal effects, starting from their borders, as a function of temperature. To estimate the necessary temperature strength capable to destroy those SPSs we use the largest Lyapunov exponent to obtain the critical temperature (TC) diagrams. For critical temperatures the chaotic behavior takes place with the suppression of periodic motion, although the temperature strengths considered in this work are not so large to convert the deterministic features of the underlying system into a stochastic ones.

  9. Developing an Efficient Planetary Space Weather Alert Service using Virtual Observatory Standards (United States)

    Cecconi, B.; Benson, K.; Le Sidaner, P.; André, N.


    The objective of this project is to identify user requirements, develop the way to implement event alerts, and chain those to the 1) planetary event and 2) planetary space weather predictions. The expected service of alerts will be developed with the objective to facilitate discovery or prediction announcements within the PSWD user community in order to watch or warn against specific events. The ultimate objective is to set up dedicated amateur and/or professional observation campaigns, diffuse contextual information for science data analysis, and enable safety operations of planet-orbiting spacecraft against the risks of impacts from meteors or solar wind disturbances. OBSPARIS and UCL will study and adapt VOEvent to those purposes. CNRS-IRAP and SRC will study the way to implement VOEvent as a service for the PSWD tools.

  10. History of the development of radiation protection standards for space activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, W.K.


    Initial recommendations for limitations on radiation exposures in space were made in 1970 by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the Committee on Space Medicine, National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC). Using a risk-based approach and taking into consideration a range of factors, the Panel recommended an overall career limit of 4 Sv. Because it was assumed that only small numbers of people would be involved, most of whom would be in excess of 30 y of age, the question of genetic effects did not appear to be of concern. On the basis of subsequent epidemiological findings, the values of the risk coefficients were increased. As a result of this and other considerations, NASA in the early 1980s asked the NCRP to re-examine both the risks and the philosophy for protecting astronauts. In undertaking this task, the NCRP decided to treat the radiation exposures of crew members and payload specialists as an occupational hazard and to evaluate their risks in terms of those to radiation workers and to workers in other industries. Noting that in the less safe but not the most hazardous occupations, workers had an average lifetime risk of mortality of about three percent, the NCRP concluded that a reasonable career limit for astronauts should be based on a lifetime absolute excess risk of mortality of three percent. Using this as a base, the NCRP recommended a career limit for 25 y olds of 1 Sv for females and 1.5 Sv for males. Since the risk decreases the older the age at which the exposures begin, the limits culminated with a career limit of 3 Sv for females and 4 Sv for males whose initial exposure occurred at age 55. These recommendations were based on an assumed nominal value of a lifetime risk of fatal cancers for all ages of about 2 {times} 10{sup -2} Sv{sup -1}.

  11. Challenges of Incorporating Earth and Space Sciences into Curricula Aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.


    The Next Generation Science Standards present a great opportunity for the increased exposure of contemporary geosciences into the K-12 curricula of most of the countries school. However, the manner by which the NGSS are being adopted by different schools and districts poses several challenges. So far, 13 states and Washington, D.C., have adopted the NGSS in full, accounting for about 30% of the nation's students. In addition, four states (Massachusetts, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and West Virginia), accounting for another 5% of U.S. students, have adopted new state science standards that are adapted from the NGSS, each in different ways. For West Virginia, language concerning climate change has been tempered. For Oklahoma and South Dakota, language concerning climate change has been nearly entirely removed. In addition, there are a large number of independent school districts, accounting for at least and additional 35% of the nation's students, that are in the process of designing curriculum aligned to some degree with the NGSS. These are in states that have either not yet adopted the NGSS or likely will never adopt the NGSS (at a state-wide level). This presents a challenge to the geosciences, because the level of geoscience content will greatly vary, state-to-state and district-to-district. The NGSS present the geosciences with a heavy emphasis on Earth Systems Science, particular as it relates to climate systems and human impacts on systems, but most K-12 teachers have not had exposure to the geosciences in these contexts, and will require significant professional development. In addition, the inclusion of a full year of geoscience content in high school (in addition to a year for middle school), presents another curricular challenge, as most schools have never taught this amount of geoscience to all of its students (the NGSS are designed to have all of its standards taught to all students). The NGSS also emphasizes learning through a set of 8 different practices

  12. The bijection from data to parameter space with the standard DEB model quantifies the supply–demand spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lika, Konstadia; Augustine, Starrlight; Pecquerie, Laure


    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that food is converted to reserve and a fraction κ of mobilised reserve of an individual is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reprod......The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that food is converted to reserve and a fraction κ of mobilised reserve of an individual is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles...... maintenance and costs for structure, allocation fraction of mobilised reserve to soma, energy conductance, and ageing acceleration. We provide an efficient algorithm for mapping between data and parameter space in both directions and found expressions for the boundaries of the parameter and data spaces. One...... applications in parameter estimation and in the analysis of evolutionary constraints on parameter values; the relationship between DEB parameters and data has similarities to that between genotype and phenotype...

  13. The effects of tramadol on norepinephrine and MHPG releasing in locus coeruleus in formalin test in rats: a brain stereotaxic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Mobasher


    Full Text Available Objective(s:The relationship between tramadol, as an antinociceptive drug, and locus coeruleus (LC, the main noradrenergic nucleus of the brain that affects regulation and modulation of pain through descending noradrenergic pathways was investigated. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups of 10 rats. The rats were fixed in stereotaxic instrument and then a probe was inserted into LC. Pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of 50 μl of 2.5% formalin 40 minutes after initiation of microdialysisin right hind paw, and nociceptivepain scores were calculated every 5 minutes. Subsequently noradrenaline (NA and its metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG, were collected and measured by microdialysis of locus coeruleus in freely moving rats every 15 minutes during formalin injection. Results: Nociceptive pain scores observed in formalin test had the highest nociceptive sensation 5 minutes after injection. Significant rises in concentrations of NA and MHPG, in samples taken between 30 and 45 min after initiation of the locus coeruleusmicrodialysis, coincided with the peak of the pain after injection of formalin. Conclusion: According toconcurrency of the highest nociceptive sensation and peak of NE and MHPG concentrations, tramadol can indirectly affect the LC by blocking the pain signals from different parts of the brain such as periaqueductal gray mater, central nucleus of amygdale or the spinal cord.

  14. Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in the Model of Parkinson’s Disease Induced by Unilateral Stereotaxic Injection of 6-Ohda in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Pessoa de Araújo


    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate behavioral and neurochemical effects of α-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg alone or associated with L-DOPA using an animal model of Parkinson’s disease induced by stereotaxic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA in rat striatum. Motor behavior was assessed by monitoring body rotations induced by apomorphine, open field test and cylinder test. Oxidative stress was accessed by determination of lipid peroxidation using the TBARS method, concentration of nitrite and evaluation of catalase activity. α-Lipoic acid decreased body rotations induced by apomorphine, as well as caused an improvement in motor performance by increasing locomotor activity in the open field test and use of contralateral paw (in the opposite side of the lesion produced by 6-OHDA at cylinder test. α-lipoic acid showed antioxidant effects, decreasing lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels and interacting with antioxidant system by decreasing of endogenous catalase activity. Therefore, α-lipoic acid prevented the damage induced by 6-OHDA or by chronic use of L-DOPA in dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that α-lipoic could be a new therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease prevention and treatment.

  15. Standard anatomical and visual space for the mouse retina: computational reconstruction and transformation of flattened retinae with the Retistruct package.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Sterratt

    Full Text Available The concept of topographic mapping is central to the understanding of the visual system at many levels, from the developmental to the computational. It is important to be able to relate different coordinate systems, e.g. maps of the visual field and maps of the retina. Retinal maps are frequently based on flat-mount preparations. These use dissection and relaxing cuts to render the quasi-spherical retina into a 2D preparation. The variable nature of relaxing cuts and associated tears limits quantitative cross-animal comparisons. We present an algorithm, "Retistruct," that reconstructs retinal flat-mounts by mapping them into a standard, spherical retinal space. This is achieved by: stitching the marked-up cuts of the flat-mount outline; dividing the stitched outline into a mesh whose vertices then are mapped onto a curtailed sphere; and finally moving the vertices so as to minimise a physically-inspired deformation energy function. Our validation studies indicate that the algorithm can estimate the position of a point on the intact adult retina to within 8° of arc (3.6% of nasotemporal axis. The coordinates in reconstructed retinae can be transformed to visuotopic coordinates. Retistruct is used to investigate the organisation of the adult mouse visual system. We orient the retina relative to the nictitating membrane and compare this to eye muscle insertions. To align the retinotopic and visuotopic coordinate systems in the mouse, we utilised the geometry of binocular vision. In standard retinal space, the composite decussation line for the uncrossed retinal projection is located 64° away from the retinal pole. Projecting anatomically defined uncrossed retinal projections into visual space gives binocular congruence if the optical axis of the mouse eye is oriented at 64° azimuth and 22° elevation, in concordance with previous results. Moreover, using these coordinates, the dorsoventral boundary for S-opsin expressing cones closely matches

  16. Designing a Distributed Space Systems Simulation in Accordance with the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) (United States)

    Cowen, Benjamin


    Simulations are essential for engineering design. These virtual realities provide characteristic data to scientists and engineers in order to understand the details and complications of the desired mission. A standard development simulation package known as Trick is used in developing a source code to model a component (federate in HLA terms). The runtime executive is integrated into an HLA based distributed simulation. TrickHLA is used to extend a Trick simulation for a federation execution, develop a source code for communication between federates, as well as foster data input and output. The project incorporates international cooperation along with team collaboration. Interactions among federates occur throughout the simulation, thereby relying on simulation interoperability. Communication through the semester went on between participants to figure out how to create this data exchange. The NASA intern team is designing a Lunar Rover federate and a Lunar Shuttle federate. The Lunar Rover federate supports transportation across the lunar surface and is essential for fostering interactions with other federates on the lunar surface (Lunar Shuttle, Lunar Base Supply Depot and Mobile ISRU Plant) as well as transporting materials to the desired locations. The Lunar Shuttle federate transports materials to and from lunar orbit. Materials that it takes to the supply depot include fuel and cargo necessary to continue moon-base operations. This project analyzes modeling and simulation technologies as well as simulation interoperability. Each team from participating universities will work on and engineer their own federate(s) to participate in the SISO Spring 2011 Workshop SIW Smackdown in Boston, Massachusetts. This paper will focus on the Lunar Rover federate.

  17. Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Nekovee


    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is being intensively researched as the enabling technology for license-exempt access to the so-called TV White Spaces (TVWS, large portions of spectrum in the UHF/VHF bands which become available on a geographical basis after digital switchover. Both in the US, and more recently, in the UK the regulators have given conditional endorsement to this new mode of access. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in technology, regulation, and standardisation of cognitive access to TVWS. It examines the spectrum opportunity and commercial use cases associated with this form of secondary access.

  18. Design Of And Image Editing With A Space-Filling Three-Dimensional Display Based On A Standard Raster Graphics System (United States)

    Fuchs, Henry; Pizer, Stephen M.; Heinz, E. Ralph; Bloomberg, Sandra H.; Tsai, Li-Ching; Strickland, Dorothy C.


    We are developing graphics systems, image preprocessing methods, and interactive manipulation techniques for a space-filling 3D display using a varifocal mirror principle. Our driving problem is a medical imaging need for presentation of three-dimensional intensity information. The major goal of both the image preprocessing and the interactive manipulation has been to overcome obscuration, which we feel is coming to be recognized as the central problem in any space-filling display. In our system, the preprocessing step highlights important image features such as surfaces. At display time, the object can be dynamically edited and rotated for convenient viewing from various directions. Our particular hardware design allows the 3D display to be constructed as an inexpensive add-on to a standard video graphics system. The interactive rotation and other manipulations are achieved by the standard built-in graphics processor.


    Etienne, Anne-Laure; Delguste, Catherine; Busoni, Valeria


    The standard technique for placing a needle into the canine lumbar subarachnoid space is primarily based on palpation of anatomic landmarks and use of probing movements of the needle, however, this technique can be challenging for novice operators. The aim of the current observational, prospective, ex vivo, feasibility study was to compare ultrasound-guided vs. standard anatomic landmark approaches for novices performing needle placement into the lumbar subarachnoid space using dog cadavers. Eight experienced operators validated the canine cadaver model as usable for training landmark and ultrasound-guided needle placement into the lumbar subarachnoid space based on realistic anatomy and tissue consistency. With informed consent, 67 final year veterinary students were prospectively enrolled in the study. Students had no prior experience in needle placement into the lumbar subarachnoid space or use of ultrasound. Each student received a short theoretical training about each technique before the trial and then attempted blind landmark-guided and ultrasound-guided techniques on randomized canine cadavers. After having performed both procedures, the operators completed a self-evaluation questionnaire about their performance and self-confidence. Total success rates for students were 48% and 77% for the landmark- and ultrasound-guided techniques, respectively. Ultrasound guidance significantly increased total success rate when compared to the landmark-guided technique and significantly reduced the number of attempts. With ultrasound guidance self-confidence was improved, without bringing any significant change in duration of the needle placement procedure. Findings indicated that use of ultrasound guidance and cadavers are feasible methods for training novice operators in needle placement into the canine lumbar subarachnoid space. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  20. The bijection from data to parameter space with the standard deb model quantifies the supply-demand spectrum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lika, K.; Augustine, S.; Pecquerie, L; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.


    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that food is converted to reserve and a fraction κ of mobilised reserve of an individual is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or

  1. Color/magnitude calibration for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) standard Fixed-Head Star Trackers (FHST) (United States)

    Landis, J.; Leid, Terry; Garber, A.; Lee, M.


    This paper characterizes and analyzes the spectral response of Ball Aerospace fixed-head star trackers, (FHST's) currently in use on some three-axis stabilized spacecraft. The FHST output is a function of the frequency and intensity of the incident light and the position of the star image in the field of view. The FHST's on board the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) have had occasional problems identifying stars with a high B-V value. These problems are characterized by inaccurate intensity counts observed by the tracker. The inaccuracies are due to errors in the observed star magnitude values. These errors are unique to each individual FHST. For this reason, data were also collected and analyzed from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). As a consequence of this work, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) hopes to improve the attitude accuracy on these missions and to adopt better star selection procedures for catalogs.

  2. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera


    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  3. DSS-13 - Using an OSI process control standard for monitor and control. [Deep Space Network experimental station applying Open System interconnection (United States)

    Heuser, W. R.; Chen, Richard L.; Stockett, Michael H.


    The flexibility and robustness of a monitor and control (M&C) system are a direct result of the underlying inter-processor communications architecture. A new architecture for M&C at the Deep Space Communications Complexes has been developed based on the manufacturing message specification (MMS) process control standard of the open system interconnection (OSI) suite of protocols. This architecture has been tested both in a laboratory environment and under operational conditions at the Deep Space Network experimental station (DSS-13). The DSS-13 experience in the application of OSI standards to support M&C has been extremely successful. MMS meets the functional needs of the station and provides a level of flexibility and responsiveness previously unknown in that environment. The architecture is robust enough to meet current operational needs and flexible enough to provide a migration path for new subsystems. This paper describes the architecture of the DSS-13 M&C system, discuss how MMS was used and the requirements this imposed on other parts of the system, and provides results from systems and operational testing at DSS-13.

  4. Quantitative measurement of the chemical composition of geological standards with a miniature laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer designed for in situ application in space research (United States)

    Neuland, M. B.; Grimaudo, V.; Mezger, K.; Moreno-García, P.; Riedo, A.; Tulej, M.; Wurz, P.


    A key interest of planetary space missions is the quantitative determination of the chemical composition of the planetary surface material. The chemical composition of surface material (minerals, rocks, soils) yields fundamental information that can be used to answer key scientific questions about the formation and evolution of the planetary body in particular and the Solar System in general. We present a miniature time-of-flight type laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer (LMS) and demonstrate its capability in measuring the elemental and mineralogical composition of planetary surface samples quantitatively by using a femtosecond laser for ablation/ionization. The small size and weight of the LMS make it a remarkable tool for in situ chemical composition measurements in space research, convenient for operation on a lander or rover exploring a planetary surface. In the laboratory, we measured the chemical composition of four geological standard reference samples USGS AGV-2 Andesite, USGS SCo-l Cody Shale, NIST 97b Flint Clay and USGS QLO-1 Quartz Latite with LMS. These standard samples are used to determine the sensitivity factors of the instrument. One important result is that all sensitivity factors are close to 1. Additionally, it is observed that the sensitivity factor of an element depends on its electron configuration, hence on the electron work function and the elemental group in agreement with existing theory. Furthermore, the conformity of the sensitivity factors is supported by mineralogical analyses of the USGS SCo-l and the NIST 97b samples. With the four different reference samples, the consistency of the calibration factors can be demonstrated, which constitutes the fundamental basis for a standard-less measurement-technique for in situ quantitative chemical composition measurements on planetary surface.

  5. Science with the space-based interferometer eLISA. III: probing the expansion of the universe using gravitational wave standard sirens (United States)

    Tamanini, Nicola; Caprini, Chiara; Barausse, Enrico; Sesana, Alberto; Klein, Antoine; Petiteau, Antoine


    We investigate the capability of various configurations of the space interferometer eLISA to probe the late-time background expansion of the universe using gravitational wave standard sirens. We simulate catalogues of standard sirens composed by massive black hole binaries whose gravitational radiation is detectable by eLISA, and which are likely to produce an electromagnetic counterpart observable by future surveys. The main issue for the identification of a counterpart resides in the capability of obtaining an accurate enough sky localisation with eLISA. This seriously challenges the capability of four-link (2 arm) configurations to successfully constrain the cosmological parameters. Conversely, six-link (3 arm) configurations have the potential to provide a test of the expansion of the universe up to z ~ 8 which is complementary to other cosmological probes based on electromagnetic observations only. In particular, in the most favourable scenarios, they can provide a significant constraint on H0 at the level of 0.5%. Furthermore, (ΩM, ΩΛ) can be constrained to a level competitive with present SNIa results. On the other hand, the lack of massive black hole binary standard sirens at low redshift allows to constrain dark energy only at the level of few percent.

  6. Science with the space-based interferometer eLISA. III: probing the expansion of the universe using gravitational wave standard sirens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamanini, Nicola; Caprini, Chiara [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA-Saclay, CNRS UMR 3681, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Barausse, Enrico [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 6, UMR 7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis Bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Sesana, Alberto [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Klein, Antoine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (United States); Petiteau, Antoine, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [APC, Université Paris Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)


    We investigate the capability of various configurations of the space interferometer eLISA to probe the late-time background expansion of the universe using gravitational wave standard sirens. We simulate catalogues of standard sirens composed by massive black hole binaries whose gravitational radiation is detectable by eLISA, and which are likely to produce an electromagnetic counterpart observable by future surveys. The main issue for the identification of a counterpart resides in the capability of obtaining an accurate enough sky localisation with eLISA. This seriously challenges the capability of four-link (2 arm) configurations to successfully constrain the cosmological parameters. Conversely, six-link (3 arm) configurations have the potential to provide a test of the expansion of the universe up to z ∼ 8 which is complementary to other cosmological probes based on electromagnetic observations only. In particular, in the most favourable scenarios, they can provide a significant constraint on H{sub 0} at the level of 0.5%. Furthermore, (Ω{sub M}, Ω{sub Λ}) can be constrained to a level competitive with present SNIa results. On the other hand, the lack of massive black hole binary standard sirens at low redshift allows to constrain dark energy only at the level of few percent.

  7. Phase space and power spectral approaches for EEG-based automatic sleep-wake classification in humans: a comparative study using short and standard epoch lengths. (United States)

    Brignol, Arnaud; Al-Ani, Tarik; Drouot, Xavier


    Sleep disorders in humans have become a public health issue in recent years. Sleep can be analysed by studying the electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded during a night's sleep. Alternating between sleep-wake stages gives information related to the sleep quality and quantity since this alternating pattern is highly affected during sleep disorders. Spectral composition of EEG signals varies according to sleep stages, alternating phases of high energy associated to low frequency (deep sleep) with periods of low energy associated to high frequency (wake and light sleep). The analysis of sleep in humans is usually made on periods (epochs) of 30-s length according to the original Rechtschaffen and Kales sleep scoring manual. In this work, we propose a new phase space-based (mainly based on Poincaré plot) algorithm for automatic classification of sleep-wake states in humans using EEG data gathered over relatively short-time periods. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated through a series of experiments involving EEG data from seven healthy adult female subjects and was tested on epoch lengths ranging from 3-s to 30-s. The performance of our phase space approach was compared to a 2-dimensional state space approach using the power spectral (PS) in two selected human-specific frequency bands. These powers were calculated by dividing integrated spectral amplitudes at selected human-specific frequency bands. The comparison demonstrated that the phase space approach gives better performance in the case of short as well as standard 30-s epoch lengths. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. T1-weighted brain imaging with a 32-channel coil at 3T using TurboFLASH BLADE compared with standard cartesian k-space sampling. (United States)

    Attenberger, Ulrike I; Runge, Val M; Williams, Kenneth D; Stemmer, Alto; Michaely, Henrik J; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Reiser, Maximilian F; Wintersperger, Bernd J


    Motion artifacts often markedly degrade image quality in clinical scans. The BLADE technique offers an alternative k-space sampling scheme reducing the effect of patient related motion on image quality. The purpose of this study is the comparison of imaging artifacts, signal-to-noise (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of a new turboFLASH BLADE k-space trajectory with the standard Cartesian k-space sampling for brain imaging, using a 32-channel coil at 3T. The results from 32 patients included after informed consent are reported. This study was performed with a 32-channel head coil on a 3T scanner. Sagittal and axial T1-weighted FLASH sequences (TR/TE 250/2.46 milliseconds, flip angle 70-degree), acquired with Cartesian k-space sampling and T1-weighted turboFLASH sequences (TR/TE/TIsag/TIax 3200/2.77/1144/1056 milliseconds, flip angle 20-degree), using PROPELLER (BLADE) k-space trajectory, were compared. SNR and CNR were evaluated using a paired student t test. The frequency of motion artifacts was assessed in a blinded read. To analyze the differences between both techniques a McNemar test was performed. A P value FLASH for both sagittal (P axial (P FLASH sequences than for BLADE sequences on both axial (47%, P axial plane) of in-patient data sets and in 68% (sagittal plane) and 73% (axial plane) of out-patient data sets.The BLADE T1 scan did have lower SNRmean (BLADEax 179 +/- 98, Cartesianax 475 +/- 145, BLADEsag 171 +/- 51, and Cartesiansag 697 +/- 129) with P values indicating accordingly a statistically significant difference (Pax FLASH vs. turboFLASH). Differences for CNR were also statistically significant, independent of imaging plane (Pax = 0.001, Psag = 0.02). Results demonstrate that turboFLASH BLADE is applicable at 3T with a 32-channel head coil for T1-weighted imaging, with reduced ghost artifacts. This approach offers the first truly clinically applicable T1-weighted BLADE technique for brain imaging at 3T, with consistent excellent image

  9. Borel Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, S K


    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  10. A Hubble Space Telescope survey for novae in M87 - III. Are novae good standard candles 15 d after maximum brightness? (United States)

    Shara, Michael M.; Doyle, Trisha F.; Pagnotta, Ashley; Garland, James T.; Lauer, Tod R.; Zurek, David; Baltz, Edward A.; Goerl, Ariel; Kovetz, Attay; Machac, Tamara; Madrid, Juan P.; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Neill, J. D.; Prialnik, Dina; Welch, D. L.; Yaron, Ofer


    Ten weeks of daily imaging of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has yielded 41 nova light curves of unprecedented quality for extragalactic cataclysmic variables. We have recently used these light curves to demonstrate that the observational scatter in the so-called maximum-magnitude rate of decline (MMRD) relation for classical novae is so large as to render the nova-MMRD useless as a standard candle. Here, we demonstrate that a modified Buscombe-de Vaucouleurs hypothesis, namely that novae with decline times t2 > 10 d converge to nearly the same absolute magnitude about two weeks after maximum light in a giant elliptical galaxy, is supported by our M87 nova data. For 13 novae with daily sampled light curves, well determined times of maximum light in both the F606W and F814W filters, and decline times t2 > 10 d we find that M87 novae display M606W,15 = -6.37 ± 0.46 and M814W,15 = -6.11 ± 0.43. If very fast novae with decline times t2 < 10 d are excluded, the distances to novae in elliptical galaxies with stellar binary populations similar to those of M87 should be determinable with 1σ accuracies of ± 20 per cent with the above calibrations.

  11. Agent Standards Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  12. The accident of stereotaxic radiosurgery at the University hospital center of Toulouse. Expert report n.2. Dosimetric and clinical evaluation. Risk analysis; L'accident de radiochirurgie stereotaxique au centre hospitalier universitaire de Toulouse. Rapport d'expertise n.2. Evaluation dosimetrique et clinique. Analyse de risque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The regional center of stereotaxic radiosurgery (C.R.R.S.) of the University hospital center (C.H.U.) of Toulouse is equipped since april 2006 with a Novalis accelerator (Brainlab) devoted to radiosurgery and intra skull stereotaxic radiotherapy.In april 2007, during an intercomparison of dosimetry files coming from various sites, the Brainlab society detects an anomaly. The analysis made by the society concludes to the use of an unsuited detector for the measurement of a dosimetry parameter during the accelerator initial calibration. Following this error, 145 patients (on 172 patients treated since the center opening) suffer of an overdose whom importance is variable. On the 26. june 2007 the Authority of nuclear safety (Asn) requires an expertise on the following points: checking of the experimental protocols of micro-beams calibration before and after correction of the dysfunction; analysis at the theoretical level of the neurological complications risk at long term for the exposed patients. The second point of this request is the subject of this report. It gives the synthesis of the whole of information, at the clinical and dosimetric level and outlines successively: the expertise methodology; the cohort of patients treated at the C.R.R.S.; the parameters of the risk analysis of neurological complications; the different risk analysis according the pathologies treated at the C.R.R.S.; the recommendations. (N.C.)

  13. Compendium of Single Event Effects Test Results for Commercial Off-The-Shelf and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon D.; Bailey, Charles R.; Nguyen, Kyson V.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; Wheeler, Scott; Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore; Patel, Chirag; Beach, Elden R.; hide


    We present the results of Single Event Effects (SEE) testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions for electrical components considered for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and for deep space applications.

  14. Compendium of Single Event Effects (SEE) Test Results for COTS and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon; Bailey, Chuck; Nguyen, Kyson; O'Neill, Patrick; Gaza, Razvan; Patel, Chirag; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore


    We present the results of SEE testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions. This paper summarizes test results for components considered for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space applications.

  15. Tests and prospects of new physics at very high energy. Beyond the standard basic principles, and beyond conventional matter and space-time. On the possible origin of Quantum Mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis


    Full Text Available Recent results and announcements by Planck and BICEP2 have led to important controversies in the fields of Cosmology and Particle Physics. As new ideas and alternative approaches can since then more easily emerge, the link between the Mathematical Physics aspects of theories and the interpretation of experimental results becomes more direct. This evolution is also relevant for Particle Physics experiments at very high energy, where the interpretation of data on the highest-energy cosmic rays remains a major theoretical and phenomenological challenge. Alternative particle physics and cosmology can raise fundamental questions such as that of the structure of vacuum and space-time. In particular, the simplified description of the physical vacuum contained in standard quantum field theory does not necessarily correspond to reality at a deeper level, and similarly for the relativistic space-time based on four real variables. In a more general approach, the definition itself of vacuum can be a difficult task. The spinorial space-time (SST we suggested in 1996-97 automatically incorporates a local privileged space direction (PSD for each comoving observer, possibly leading to a locally anisotropic vacuum structure. As the existence of the PSD may have been confirmed by Planck, and a possible discovery of primordial B-modes in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB may turn out to contain new evidence for the SST, we explore other possible implications of this approach to space-time. The SST structure can naturally be at the origin of Quantum Mechanics at distance scales larger than the fundamental one if standard particles are dealt with as vacuum excitations. We also discuss possible implications of our lack of knowledge of the structure of vacuum, as well as related theoretical, phenomenological and cosmological uncertainties. Pre-Big Bang scenarios and new ultimate constituents of matter (including superbradyons are

  16. ECLIPSE, an Emerging Standardized Modular, Secure and Affordable Software Toolset in Support of Product Assurance, Quality Assurance and Project Management for the Entire European Space Industry (from Innovative SMEs to Primes and Institutions) (United States)

    Bennetti, Andrea; Ansari, Salim; Dewhirst, Tori; Catanese, Giuseppe


    The development of satellites and ground systems (and the technologies that support them) is complex and demands a great deal of rigor in the management of both the information it relies upon and the information it generates via the performance of well established processes. To this extent for the past fifteen years Sapienza Consulting has been supporting the European Space Agency (ESA) in the management of this information and provided ESA with ECSS (European Cooperation for Space Standardization) Standards based Project Management (PM), Product Assurance (PA) and Quality Assurance (QA) software applications. In 2009 Sapienza recognised the need to modernize, standardizing and integrate its core ECSS-based software tools into a single yet modularised suite of applications named ECLIPSE aimed at: • Fulfilling a wider range of historical and emerging requirements, • Providing a better experience for users, • Increasing the value of the information it collects and manages • Lowering the cost of ownership and operation • Increasing collaboration within and between space sector organizations • Aiding in the performance of several PM, PA, QA, and configuration management tasks in adherence to ECSS standards. In this paper, Sapienza will first present the toolset, and a rationale for its development, describing and justifying its architecture, and basic modules composition. Having defined the toolset architecture, this paper will address the current status of the individual applications. A compliance assessment will be presented for each module in the toolset with respect to the ECSS standard it addresses. Lastly experience from early industry and Institutional users will be presented.

  17. Does obesity preclude lumbar puncture with a standard spinal needle? The use of computed tomography to measure the skin to lumbar subarachnoid space distance in the general hospital population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, Darragh


    OBJECTIVES: Failed lumbar puncture (LP) is a common indication for referral for radiologically guided LP. This study aims to evaluate what percentage of the hospital population would fail an LP using a standard 9-cm needle because of obesity and a skin to subarachnoid space distance greater than 9 cm. METHODS: Images of 402 consecutive patients undergoing computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis were reviewed. Skin to subarachnoid space distance was calculated using sagittal images. A survey was conducted among junior hospital doctors to assess their experience of performing lumbar puncture in obese patients. RESULTS: Four hundred patients were included. Fifty-five patients (13.8 %) had a skin to subarachnoid space distance greater than 9 cm. Intra-abdominal fat, subcutaneous fat and abdominal girth correlated with distance between the skin and subarachnoid space. Among junior doctors, 68.3 % (n = 41) reported LP failure on an obese patient; 78.4 % (n = 47) were unaware of the existence of a longer needle and 13.3 % (n = 8) had experience using a longer needle. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of the hospital population will fail LP with a standard length spinal needle. Selecting a longer needle may be sufficient to successfully complete LP in obese patients. KEY POINTS : • Lumbar puncture failure commonly leads to referral for an image-guided procedure • Standard lumbar puncture may fail in 13.8 % of patients due to obesity • 78.4 % of trainee doctors are unaware of the existence of longer spinal-needles • Using longer spinal needles may allow successful LP in obese patients.

  18. Standards not that standard. (United States)

    Vilanova, Cristina; Tanner, Kristie; Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Villaescusa, Paula; Chugani, Divya; Frías, Alba; Segredo, Ernesto; Molero, Xavier; Fritschi, Marco; Morales, Lucas; Ramón, Daniel; Peña, Carlos; Peretó, Juli; Porcar, Manuel


    There is a general assent on the key role of standards in Synthetic Biology. In two consecutive letters to this journal, suggestions on the assembly methods for the Registry of standard biological parts have been described. We fully agree with those authors on the need of a more flexible building strategy and we highlight in the present work two major functional challenges standardization efforts have to deal with: the need of both universal and orthogonal behaviors. We provide experimental data that clearly indicate that such engineering requirements should not be taken for granted in Synthetic Biology.

  19. Creating Next Generation Teacher Preparation Programs to Support Implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards and Common Core State Standards in K-12 Schools: An Opportunity for the Earth and Space Sciences (United States)

    Geary, E. E.; Egger, A. E.; Julin, S.; Ronca, R.; Vokos, S.; Ebert, E.; Clark-Blickenstaff, J.; Nollmeyer, G.


    A consortium of two and four year Washington State Colleges and Universities in partnership with Washington's Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), the Teachers of Teachers of Science, and Teachers of Teachers of Mathematics, and other key stakeholders, is currently working to improve science and mathematics learning for all Washington State students by creating a new vision for STEM teacher preparation in Washington State aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in Mathematics and Language Arts. Specific objectives include: (1) strengthening elementary and secondary STEM Teacher Preparation courses and curricula, (2) alignment of STEM teacher preparation programs across Washington State with the NGSS and CCSS, (3) development of action plans to support implementation of STEM Teacher Preparation program improvement at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) across the state, (4) stronger collaborations between HEIs, K-12 schools, government agencies, Non-Governmental Organizations, and STEM businesses, involved in the preparation of preservice STEM teachers, (5) new teacher endorsements in Computer Science and Engineering, and (6) development of a proto-type model for rapid, adaptable, and continuous improvement of STEM teacher preparation programs. A 2015 NGSS gap analysis of teacher preparation programs across Washington State indicates relatively good alignment of courses and curricula with NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas and Scientific practices, but minimal alignment with NGSS Engineering practices and Cross Cutting Concepts. Likewise, Computer Science and Sustainability ideas and practices are not well represented in current courses and curricula. During the coming year teams of STEM faculty, education faculty and administrators will work collaboratively to develop unique action plans for aligning and improving STEM teacher preparation courses and curricula at their institutions.

  20. Statistical probabilistic mapping in the individual brain space: decreased metabolism in epilepsy with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jung Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In the statistical probabilistic mapping, commonly, differences between two or more groups of subjects are statistically analyzed following spatial normalization. However, to our best knowledge, there is few study which performed the statistical mapping in the individual brain space rather than in the stereotaxic brain space, i.e., template space. Therefore, in the current study, a new method for mapping the statistical results in the template space onto individual brain space has been developed. Four young subjects with epilepsy and their age-matched thirty normal healthy subjects were recruited. Both FDG PET and T1 structural MRI was scanned in these groups. Statistical analysis on the decreased FDG metabolism in epilepsy was performed on the SPM with two sample t-test (p < 0.001, intensity threshold 100). To map the statistical results onto individual space, inverse deformation was performed as follows. With SPM deformation toolbox, DCT (discrete cosine transform) basis-encoded deformation fields between individual T1 images and T1 MNI template were obtained. Afterward, inverse of those fields, i.e., inverse deformation fields were obtained. Since both PET and T1 images have been already normalized in the same MNI space, inversely deformed results in PET is on the individual brain MRI space. By applying inverse deformation field on the statistical results of the PET, the statistical map of decreased metabolism in individual spaces were obtained. With statistical results in the template space, localization of decreased metabolism was in the inferior temporal lobe, which was slightly inferior to the hippocampus. The statistical results in the individual space were commonly located in the hippocampus, where the activation should be decreased according to a priori knowledge of neuroscience. With our newly developed statistical mapping on the individual spaces, the localization of the brain functional mapping became more appropriate in the sense of neuroscience.

  1. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center presents Enhancing Standards Based Science Curriculum through NASA Content Relevancy: A Model for Sustainable Teaching-Research Integration Dr. Robert Gabrys, Raquel Marshall, Dr. Evelina Felicite-Maurice, Erin McKinley (United States)

    Marshall, R. H.; Gabrys, R.


    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a systemic educator professional development model for the integration of NASA climate change resources into the K-12 classroom. The desired outcome of this model is to prepare teachers in STEM disciplines to be globally engaged and knowledgeable of current climate change research and its potential for content relevancy alignment to standard-based curriculum. The application and mapping of the model is based on the state education needs assessment, alignment to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), and implementation framework developed by the consortium of district superintendents and their science supervisors. In this presentation, we will demonstrate best practices for extending the concept of inquiry-based and project-based learning through the integration of current NASA climate change research into curriculum unit lessons. This model includes a significant teacher development component focused on capacity development for teacher instruction and pedagogy aimed at aligning NASA climate change research to related NGSS student performance expectations and subsequent Crosscutting Concepts, Science and Engineering Practices, and Disciplinary Core Ideas, a need that was presented by the district steering committee as critical for ensuring sustainability and high-impact in the classroom. This model offers a collaborative and inclusive learning community that connects classroom teachers to NASA climate change researchers via an ongoing consultant/mentoring approach. As a result of the first year of implementation of this model, Maryland teachers are implementing NGSS unit lessons that guide students in open-ended research based on current NASA climate change research.

  2. Hilbert Spaces from Path Integrals


    Dowker, Fay; Johnston, Steven; Sorkin, Rafael D.


    It is shown that a Hilbert space can be constructed for a quantum system starting from a framework in which histories are fundamental. The Decoherence Functional provides the inner product on this "History Hilbert space". It is also shown that the History Hilbert space is the standard Hilbert space in the case of non-relativistic quantum mechanics.

  3. Wireless Communications in Space (United States)


    In 1992, NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense jointly commissioned the research and development of a technology solution to address the challenges and requirements of communicating with their spacecraft. The project yielded an international consortium composed of representatives from the space science community, industry, and academia. This group of experts developed a broad suite of protocols specifically designed for space-based communications, known today as Space Communications Protocol Standards (SCPS). Having been internationally standardized by the Consultative Committee on Space Data Systems and the International Standards Organization, SCPS is distributed as open source technology by NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The protocols are used for every national space mission that takes place today.

  4. Causal symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Olafsson, Gestur; Helgason, Sigurdur


    This book is intended to introduce researchers and graduate students to the concepts of causal symmetric spaces. To date, results of recent studies considered standard by specialists have not been widely published. This book seeks to bring this information to students and researchers in geometry and analysis on causal symmetric spaces.Includes the newest results in harmonic analysis including Spherical functions on ordered symmetric space and the holmorphic discrete series and Hardy spaces on compactly casual symmetric spacesDeals with the infinitesimal situation, coverings of symmetric spaces, classification of causal symmetric pairs and invariant cone fieldsPresents basic geometric properties of semi-simple symmetric spacesIncludes appendices on Lie algebras and Lie groups, Bounded symmetric domains (Cayley transforms), Antiholomorphic Involutions on Bounded Domains and Para-Hermitian Symmetric Spaces

  5. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.


    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  6. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Space Flight Pressurized Systems (United States)


    4.2.5 Stress Analysis ................................................................................................. 11 4.2.6 Fatigue Analysis...13 4.3.3 Polymeric Materials ......................................................................................... 14 4.4...performing its intended function, or that reduces the probability of successful completion of the mission. Fatigue : The process of progressive

  7. A Hubble Space Telescope Survey for Novae in M87. II. Snuffing out the Maximum Magnitude-Rate of Decline Relation for Novae as a Non-standard Candle, and a Prediction of the Existence of Ultrafast Novae (United States)

    Shara, Michael M.; Doyle, Trisha; Lauer, Tod R.; Zurek, David; Baltz, Edward A.; Kovetz, Attay; Madrid, Juan P.; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Neill, J. D.; Prialnik, Dina; Welch, D. L.; Yaron, Ofer


    The extensive grid of numerical simulations of nova eruptions from the work of Yaron et al. first predicted that some classical novae might significantly deviate from the Maximum Magnitude-Rate of Decline (MMRD) relation, which purports to characterize novae as standard candles. Kasliwal et al. have announced the observational detection of a new class of faint, fast classical novae in the Andromeda galaxy. These objects deviate strongly from the MMRD relationship, as predicted by Yaron et al. Recently, Shara et al. reported the first detections of faint, fast novae in M87. These previously overlooked objects are as common in the giant elliptical galaxy M87 as they are in the giant spiral M31; they comprise about 40% of all classical nova eruptions and greatly increase the observational scatter in the MMRD relation. We use the extensive grid of the nova simulations of Yaron et al. to identify the underlying causes of the existence of faint, fast novae. These are systems that have accreted, and can thus eject, only very low-mass envelopes, of the order of 10-7-10-8 M ⊙, on massive white dwarfs. Such binaries include, but are not limited to, the recurrent novae. These same models predict the existence of ultrafast novae that display decline times, t 2, to be as short as five hours. We outline a strategy for their future detection. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under the NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  8. Accessibility Standards, Illustrated. (United States)

    Jones, Michael A.

    The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

  9. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.


    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  10. Consistency Across Standards or Standards in a New Business Model (United States)

    Russo, Dane M.


    Presentation topics include: standards in a changing business model, the new National Space Policy is driving change, a new paradigm for human spaceflight, consistency across standards, the purpose of standards, danger of over-prescriptive standards, a balance is needed (between prescriptive and general standards), enabling versus inhibiting, characteristics of success-oriented standards, characteristics of success-oriented standards, and conclusions. Additional slides include NASA Procedural Requirements 8705.2B identifies human rating standards and requirements, draft health and medical standards for human rating, what's been done, government oversight models, examples of consistency from anthropometry, examples of inconsistency from air quality and appendices of government and non-governmental human factors standards.

  11. Strategy and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker


    The article is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation over time. The focus is to identify, how different space strategies have been implemented...... in different periods and how these strategies can be related to the general conditions of the corporation. The strategic uncertainty of the corporation is investigated as a main determining factor for changes in space strategy based on theories of the relations between strategy and place. These theories...... include that corporations follows one of the three generic space strategies: Incrementalism, standardization, and value-based strategy. Among the conclusion are, that the space strategies mostly changes between incremental and value-based strategies, but one period of standardization was identified...

  12. Microsystems for Space Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Palán


    Full Text Available Recent progress in microsystems technologies make them suitable for the space research and development due to their low volume, low mass, low power consumption, leading to reduced mission cost. The most interesting approach is using standard technologies with additional post-processing steps to realize sensors and actuators together with signal processing circuits. This paper summarises some aspects and difficulties of the space environment. The radiation effects in space are described and damage on CMOS structures are explained. Design methodologies for hardening microsystems and MOS based circuits against these effects are presented. Some examples of microsystems examples for space applications fabricated by researches world-wide are given.

  13. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V


    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  14. Space Separatism: Degree of Differentiation (United States)


    standardized and interoperable procedures, and clearly defined command relationships.” Flexibility “The ability to improvise and adapt logistic...focus on its core mission of space capabilities in accor- dance with DOD space policy. Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 13-6, Space Policy, states that

  15. Constructions of complete metric spaces and compact Hausdorff spaces which are not Baire spaces


    Tsukada, Nobutaka


    The standard proofs of the Baire category theorem for complete metric spaces (for compact Hausdorff spaces) use the Principle of Dependent Choice. Goldblatt [1] showed the Baire Category Theorem for complete metric spaces is equivalent to the Principle of Dependent Choice. ...

  16. (Terminology standardization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehlow, R.A.


    Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

  17. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz


    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  18. Sacred Space. (United States)

    Adelstein, Pamela


    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  19. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan


    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  20. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan


    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  1. PKI standards


    Mitchell, Chris J


    This paper provides a review of the current state of the art in standards for Public Key Infrastructures. The main focus of the paper is the recent work by the Internet Engineering Task Force, ITU-T, and ISO/IEC.

  2. Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts Management and Control Requirements for Space Flight Hardware and Critical Ground Support Equipment...aka... The NASA EEE Parts Standard, NASA-STD 8739.10 (United States)

    Majewicz, Peter; Sampson, Michael


    Describes development and content of a new NASA Standard for Electrical Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) parts. This Standard reflects current practices, instead of changing them. Most NASA Centers utilize local documents, but there is minimal consistency across the Agency. A gap analysis clearly shows the differences that exist among the different centers and with respect to the NASA Parts Policy. Once approved, the new standard can be referenced in contracts and agreements with organizations outside of NASA.

  3. Space Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Peskine, Christian; Sernesi, Edoardo


    The main topics of the conference on "Curves in Projective Space" were good and bad families of projective curves, postulation of projective space curves and classical problems in enumerative geometry.

  4. Space Microbiology


    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L


    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotic...

  5. Koszul spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Alexander


    We prove that a nilpotent space is both formal and coformal if and only if it is rationally homotopy equivalent to the derived spatial realization of a graded commutative Koszul algebra. We call such spaces Koszul spaces and show that the rational homotopy groups and the rational homology of iter...

  6. Space administration


    Worthington, Scott; Worthington, Scott


    My dissertation consists of two parts. The larger portion is an hour-long piece for double bass, electronics, and projected text called Space Administration. The second portion, this essay, discusses my musical background leading up to Space Administration, details of the composition itself, and what new directions I see in my work that in part stem from creating the piece Space Administration

  7. Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab


    'BSM physics' is a phrase used in several ways. It can refer to physical phenomena established experimentally but not accommodated by the Standard Model, in particular dark matter and neutrino oscillations (technically also anything that has to do with gravity, since gravity is not part of the Standard Model). 'Beyond the Standard Model' can also refer to possible deeper explanations of phenomena that are accommodated by the Standard Model but only with ad hoc parameterizations, such as Yukawa couplings and the strong CP angle. More generally, BSM can be taken to refer to any possible extension of the Standard Model, whether or not the extension solves any particular set of puzzles left unresolved in the SM. In this general sense one sees reference to the BSM 'theory space' of all possible SM extensions, this being a parameter space of coupling constants for new interactions, new charges or other quantum numbers, and parameters describing possible new degrees of freedom or new symmetries. Despite decades of model-building it seems unlikely that we have mapped out most of, or even the most interesting parts of, this theory space. Indeed we do not even know what is the dimensionality of this parameter space, or what fraction of it is already ruled out by experiment. Since Nature is only implementing at most one point in this BSM theory space (at least in our neighborhood of space and time), it might seem an impossible task to map back from a finite number of experimental discoveries and measurements to a unique BSM explanation. Fortunately for theorists the inevitable limitations of experiments themselves, in terms of resolutions, rates, and energy scales, means that in practice there are only a finite number of BSM model 'equivalence classes' competing at any given time to explain any given set of results. BSM phenomenology is a two-way street: not only do experimental results test or constrain BSM models, they also suggest

  8. Ramsey Theory on Generalized Baire Space


    Hathaway, Dan


    We show that although the Galvin-Prikry Theorem does not hold on generalized Baire space with the standard topology, there are similar theorems which do hold on generalized Baire space with certain coarser topologies.

  9. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  10. Standard user data services for spacecraft applications (United States)

    Smith, J. F.; Hwang, C.; Fowell, S.; Plummer, C.


    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems is an international organization of national space agencies that is branching out to provide new standards to enhanced reuse of spacecraft equiptment and software. These Spacecraft Onboard Interface (SOIF) standards will be based on the well-known Internet protocols. this paper will review the SOIF standards by looking at the services that are being proposed for SOIF.

  11. [Image-guided stereotaxic biopsy of central nervous system lesions]. (United States)

    Nasser, J A; Confort, C I; Ferraz, A; Esperança, J C; Duarte, F


    In a series of 44 image guided stereotactic biopsy from August 1995 until March 1997, findings were as follows (frequency order). Tumors, glioblastoma was the most frequent. Primary lymphoma and other conditions associated to AIDS. Metastasis, three cases, Vasculites, two cases, Arachnoid cyst, Creutzfeldt-Jakob, cortical degeneration, inespecific calcification (one case each). The age varied from 1 to 83 years. Forty one lesions were supratentorial, two infratentorial, and one was outside the brain (dura and skull) and we used stereotaxy to localize it. There was no mortality and morbidity was 2.3%. The literature is reviewed. We conclude that this procedure is safe and highly diagnostic.

  12. [Stereotaxic brain biopsy in AIDS patients with neurological manifestations]. (United States)

    Nasser, J A; Confort, C I; Ferraz, A; Esperança, J C; Duarte, F


    Prospective series showing the importance of computerized stereotactic brain biopsy in the management of AIDS patients neurologically symptomatic and confirmed by images. Patients undergone an algorithm step by step done by their own doctors and referred to us for stereotactic biopsy. Our protocol was opened in August 1995 and closed in December 1996. Twenty patients were biopsied. This protocol is similar to the Levy's one (Chicago IL, USA). We have got diagnosis in all cases. Lymphoma was predominant and followed by toxoplasmosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and HIV encephalopathy. We included one patient with diploic giant cells lymphoma. Our mortality and morbidity was zero. By these results we conclude that stereotactic biopsy in AIDS patients is safe and effective.

  13. Standard deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Gary


    Did you know that having a messy room will make you racist? Or that human beings possess the ability to postpone death until after important ceremonial occasions? Or that people live three to five years longer if they have positive initials, like ACE? All of these ‘facts' have been argued with a straight face by researchers and backed up with reams of data and convincing statistics.As Nobel Prize-winning economist Ronald Coase once cynically observed, ‘If you torture data long enough, it will confess.' Lying with statistics is a time-honoured con. In Standard Deviations, ec

  14. Mobius invariant QK spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wulan, Hasi


    This monograph summarizes the recent major achievements in Möbius invariant QK spaces. First introduced by Hasi Wulan and his collaborators, the theory of QK spaces has developed immensely in the last two decades, and the topics covered in this book will be helpful to graduate students and new researchers interested in the field. Featuring a wide range of subjects, including an overview of QK spaces, QK-Teichmüller spaces, K-Carleson measures and analysis of weight functions, this book serves as an important resource for analysts interested in this area of complex analysis. Notes, numerous exercises, and a comprehensive up-to-date bibliography provide an accessible entry to anyone with a standard graduate background in real and complex analysis.

  15. Non-standard antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Le Chevalier, Francois; Staraj, Robert


    This book aims at describing the wide variety of new technologies and concepts of non-standard antenna systems - reconfigurable, integrated, terahertz, deformable, ultra-wideband, using metamaterials, or MEMS,  etc, and how they open the way to a wide range of applications, from personal security and communications to multifunction radars and towed sonars, or satellite navigation systems, with space-time diversity on transmit and receive. A reference book for designers  in this lively scientific community linking antenna experts and signal processing engineers.

  16. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......: in these nations state bodies certify halal products as well as spaces (shops, factories, and restaurants) and work processes, and so consumers can find state halal-certified products from Malaysia and Singapore in shops around the world. Building on ethnographic material from Malaysia, Singapore, and Europe......, activism, companies, shops and restaurants, this book will be an essential resource to scholars and students of social science interested in the global interface zones between religion, standards, and technoscience....

  17. Space suit (United States)

    Shepard, L. F.; Durney, G. P.; Case, M. C.; Kenneway, A. J., III; Wise, R. C.; Rinehart, D.; Bessette, R. J.; Pulling, R. C. (Inventor)


    A pressure suit for high altitude flights, particularly space missions is reported. The suit is designed for astronauts in the Apollo space program and may be worn both inside and outside a space vehicle, as well as on the lunar surface. It comprises an integrated assembly of inner comfort liner, intermediate pressure garment, and outer thermal protective garment with removable helmet, and gloves. The pressure garment comprises an inner convoluted sealing bladder and outer fabric restraint to which are attached a plurality of cable restraint assemblies. It provides versitility in combination with improved sealing and increased mobility for internal pressures suitable for life support in the near vacuum of outer space.

  18. Morrey spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, David R


    In this set of lecture notes, the author includes some of the latest research on the theory of Morrey Spaces associated with Harmonic Analysis. There are three main claims concerning these spaces that are covered: determining the integrability classes of the trace of Riesz potentials of an arbitrary Morrey function; determining the dimensions of singular sets of weak solutions of PDE (e.g. The Meyers-Elcart System); and determining whether there are any “full” interpolation results for linear operators between Morrey spaces. This book will serve as a useful reference to graduate students and researchers interested in Potential Theory, Harmonic Analysis, PDE, and/or Morrey Space Theory. .

  19. Space colonization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anita Gale; Narayanan Ramachandran


      Progress toward future space settlement is measured in small ways, mostly as incremental changes in perception and advances in targeted applied engineering that supports infrastructure development...

  20. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude


    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  1. Technical Data Interoperability (TDI) Pathfinder Via Emerging Standards (United States)

    Conroy, Mike; Gill, Paul; Hill, Bradley; Ibach, Brandon; Jones, Corey; Ungar, David; Barch, Jeffrey; Ingalls, John; Jacoby, Joseph; Manning, Josh; hide


    The TDI project (TDI) investigates trending technical data standards for applicability to NASA vehicles, space stations, payloads, facilities, and equipment. TDI tested COTS software compatible with a certain suite of related industry standards for capabilities of individual benefits and interoperability. These standards not only esnable Information Technology (IT) efficiencies, but also address efficient structures and standard content for business processes. We used source data from generic industry samples as well as NASA and European Space Agency (ESA) data from space systems.

  2. Standardization work (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier


    For several years now, the main civil aircraft manufacturers (Airbus and its partners, Boeing, Fokker, McDonnell Douglas) have been working jointly on the writing of technical recommendations and the drawing up of an international standard. This work concerns the evaluation of the processes and products used to strip aeronautical paint systems. This procedure was initiated on request from the main airlines. In effect, the airlines are faced with situations in which the financial and operational objectives are becoming increasingly important. The need was felt to rationalize and, if possible, harmonize the criteria and technical requirements of the various civil aircraft manufacturers in order to facilitate in-service maintenance of the fleets of airlines operating Airbus, Boeing, Douglas aircraft, etc.

  3. Space psychology (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.


    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  4. Space Telescope. (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  5. Space microbiology. (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M; Mancinelli, Rocco L


    The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis.

  6. Problems in Epistemic Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Jens Christian Krarup


    be done for modal claims involving epistemic possibility. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the prospects of constructing a space of worlds—epistemic space—that allows us to model what is epistemically possible for ordinary, non-ideally rational agents like you and me. I will argue...... that the prospects look dim for successfully constructing such a space. In turn, this will make a case for the claim that we cannot use the standard possible worlds framework to model what is epistemically possible for ordinary agents....

  7. Space Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ellery


    Full Text Available In this second of three short papers, I introduce some of the basic concepts of space robotics with an emphasis on some specific challenging areas of research that are peculiar to the application of robotics to space infrastructure development. The style of these short papers is pedagogical and the concepts in this paper are developed from fundamental manipulator robotics. This second paper considers the application of space manipulators to on-orbit servicing (OOS, an application which has considerable commercial application. I provide some background to the notion of robotic on-orbit servicing and explore how manipulator control algorithms may be modified to accommodate space manipulators which operate in the micro-gravity of space.

  8. Standardizing Navigation Data: A Status Update (United States)

    VanEepoel, John M.; Berry, David S.; Pallaschke, Siegmar; Foliard, Jacques; Kiehling, Reinhard; Ogawa, Mina; Showell, Avanaugh; Fertig, Juergen; Castronuovo, Marco


    This paper presents the work of the Navigation Working Group of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) on development of standards addressing the transfer of orbit, attitude and tracking data for space objects. Much progress has been made since the initial presentation of the standards in 2004, including the progression of the orbit data standard to an accepted standard, and the near completion of the attitude and tracking data standards. The orbit, attitude and tracking standards attempt to address predominant parameterizations for their respective data, and create a message format that enables communication of the data across space agencies and other entities. The messages detailed in each standard are built upon a keyword = value paradigm, where a fixed list of keywords is provided in the standard where users specify information about their data, and also use keywords to encapsulate their data. The paper presents a primer on the CCSDS standardization process to put in context the state of the message standards, and the parameterizations supported in each standard, then shows examples of these standards for orbit, attitude and tracking data. Finalization of the standards is expected by the end of calendar year 2007.

  9. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul


    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  10. Space Bugz!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars


    This paper presents Space Bugz! - a novel crowd game for large venues or cinemas that utilises the audience's smartphones as controllers for the game. This paper explains what crowd gaming is and describes how the approach used in Space Bugz! enables more advanced gameplay concepts and individual...... player control than current technologies allow. The gameplay of Space Bugz! is then explained along with the technical architecture of the game. After this, the iterative design process used to create the game is described together with future perspectives. The article concludes with links to a video...

  11. Space colonization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ram Ramachandran; Anita Gale


    .... government trying to reinvent the human space program priorities and approaches. Russia, ESA, Japan, China, and India all have proposed ambitious missions, including manned missions, to the Moon and planets...

  12. Space exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chris Moore


      Here, Moore presents a year in review on space exploration programs. This 2012 NASA's strategy of stimulating the development of commercial capabilities to launch crew and cargo to the ISS began to pay off...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Katyane dos Santos Silva


    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of spatiality in the book Os guarda-chuvas cintilantes (Shimmering Umbrellas, 1984, written by the Portuguese writer Teolinda Gersão. The book makes us question the journal genre. However, the text itself questions the traditional notions of narrative, which are particular to the journal genre. In Os guarda-chuvas cintilantes there is the attempt to destroy linear temporality and create a new temporal measure, based on ludic themes, is also important in the book. The configuration of spatiality crosses time, becoming, therefore, mobile and unstable. There are in the book multiples spaces: a dream space, a material space and a symbolic space.

  14. Making space

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Karen Kershaw

    Making space an enquiry into women's participation in local politics in Rajasthan. Alice Albin Morris, Geeta Sharma and Arun Kumar. UNNATI Organisation for Development Education. India. Parallel Sessions II - Session B ...

  15. Standards, options and recommendations (SOR) for the place of radiotherapy in treatment of renal cancer patients; Standards, options et recommandations pour la radiotherapie du cancer du rein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckendorf, V. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Bladou, F. [Hopital Salvador, 13 - Marseille (France); Farsi, F.; Kaemmerlen, P.; Negrier, S.; Philip, T. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France); Terrier-Lacombe, M.J. [Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)


    The 'Standards, Options and Recommendations' (SOR), initiated in 1993, is a collaborative project between the Federation of the French Cancer Centres (FNCLCC), the 20 French Cancer Centres and specialists from French Public Universities, General Hospitals and Private Clinics. The main objective is the development of clinical practice guidelines to improve the quality of health care and outcome for cancer patients. The methodology is based on literature review and critical appraisal by a multidisciplinary expert group, with feedback from specialists in cancer care delivery. To develop clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis, management and treatment of patients with renal cancer. This review is part of previously published complete guidelines and focuses on the place of radiotherapy inthis disease. The data was identified by literature search using Medline (up to June 1999) and personal reference lists. The main endpoints considered were survival, risk factors for late effects of radiotherapy, safety and quality of life. The key recommendations are: in localised renal cancer, adjuvant radiotherapy has a limited role: it is not indicated for T1 and T2 tumours and there is no proof of a survival benefit for T3 N1-N2 tumours. Postoperative radiotherapy can be considered in young patients without risk factors for the development of post-radiotherapy complications and without loco-regional invasion (renal capsule, renal pelvis, vena cava, regional lymph nodes); for metastatic tumours, the multidisciplinary team must decide whether palliative radiotherapy is appropriate after consideration of the prognostic factors. An isolated metastasis can be treated by radiosurgery and stereotaxic radiosurgery may be of benefit in the case of one or two cerebral metastasis. The optimal dose for palliative treatment is not known. Radiotherapy followed by immunotherapy can also be considered if the patient has no contraindication to such treatments. (authors)

  16. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products: in these n......Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......: in these nations state bodies certify halal products as well as spaces (shops, factories, and restaurants) and work processes, and so consumers can find state halal-certified products from Malaysia and Singapore in shops around the world. Building on ethnographic material from Malaysia, Singapore, and Europe......" that frames everyday halal consumption, Fischer provides a multisited ethnography of the overlapping technologies and techniques of production, trade, and standards that together warrant a product as "halal," and thereby help to format the market. Exploring global halal in networks, training, laboratories...

  17. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products: in these n......Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......: in these nations state bodies certify halal products as well as spaces (shops, factories, and restaurants) and work processes, and so consumers can find state halal-certified products from Malaysia and Singapore in shops around the world. Building on ethnographic material from Malaysia, Singapore, and Europe......, this book provides an exploration of the role of halal production, trade, and standards. Fischer explains how the global markets for halal comprise divergent zones in which Islam, markets, regulatory institutions, and technoscience interact and diverge. Focusing on the "bigger institutional picture...

  18. Riesz spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Zaanen, A C


    While Volume I (by W.A.J. Luxemburg and A.C. Zaanen, NHML Volume 1, 1971) is devoted to the algebraic aspects of the theory, this volume emphasizes the analytical theory of Riesz spaces and operators between these spaces. Though the numbering of chapters continues on from the first volume, this does not imply that everything covered in Volume I is required for this volume, however the two volumes are to some extent complementary.

  19. Grounding of space structures (United States)

    Bosela, P. A.; Fertis, D. G.; Shaker, F. J.


    Space structures, such as the Space Station solar arrays, must be extremely light-weight, flexible structures. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes is essential for determining the structural adequacy of components, and designing a controls system. The tension pre-load in the 'blanket' of photovoltaic solar collectors, and the free/free boundary conditions of a structure in space, causes serious reservations on the use of standard finite element techniques of solution. In particular, a phenomenon known as 'grounding', or false stiffening, of the stiffness matrix occurs during rigid body rotation. This paper examines the grounding phenomenon in detail. Numerous stiffness matrices developed by others are examined for rigid body rotation capability, and found lacking. A force imbalance inherent in the formulations examined is the likely cause of the grounding problem, suggesting the need for a directed force formulation.

  20. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David


    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following a comp...

  1. Space Rescue (United States)

    Muratore, John F.


    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  2. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva


    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  3. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan


    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  4. Metric spaces with unique pretangent spaces


    Dovgoshey, Oleksiy; Abdullayev, Fahreddin; Kuchukaslan, Mehmet


    We find necessary and sufficient conditions under which an arbitrary metric space $X$ has a unique pretangent space at the marked point $a\\in X$. Key words: Metric spaces; Tangent spaces to metric spaces; Uniqueness of tangent metric spaces; Tangent space to the Cantor set.

  5. Space Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ellery


    Full Text Available In this first of three short papers, I introduce some of the basic concepts of space engineering with an emphasis on some specific challenging areas of research that are peculiar to the application of robotics to space development and exploration. The style of these short papers is pedagogical and this paper stresses the unique constraints that space application imposes. This first paper is thus a general introduction to the nature of spacecraft engineering and its application to robotic spacecraft. I consider the constraints and metrics used by spacecraft engineers in the design of spacecraft and how these constraints impose challenges to the roboticist. The following two papers consider specific robotics issues in more detail.

  6. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  7. Tsirelson's space

    CERN Document Server

    Casazza, Peter G


    This monograph provides a structure theory for the increasingly important Banach space discovered by B.S. Tsirelson. The basic construction should be accessible to graduate students of functional analysis with a knowledge of the theory of Schauder bases, while topics of a more advanced nature are presented for the specialist. Bounded linear operators are studied through the use of finite-dimensional decompositions, and complemented subspaces are studied at length. A myriad of variant constructions are presented and explored, while open questions are broached in almost every chapter. Two appendices are attached: one dealing with a computer program which computes norms of finitely-supported vectors, while the other surveys recent work on weak Hilbert spaces (where a Tsirelson-type space provides an example).

  8. Space Telescopes (United States)

    Rigby, Jane R.


    The science of astronomy depends on modern-day temples called telescopes. Astronomers make pilgrimages to remote mountaintops where these large, intricate, precise machines gather light that rains down from the Universe. Bit, since Earth is a bright, turbulent planet, our finest telescopes are those that have been launched into the dark stillness of space. These space telescopes, named after heroes of astronomy (Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, Herschel), are some of the best ideas our species has ever had. They show us, over 13 billion years of cosmic history, how galaxies and quasars evolve. They study planets orbiting other stars. They've helped us determine that 95% of the Universe is of unknown composition. In short, they tell us about our place in the Universe. The next step in this journey is the James Webb Space Telescope, being built by NASA, Europe, and Canada for a 2018 launch; Webb will reveal the first galaxies that ever formed.

  9. Einstein spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Aleksej Z


    Einstein Spaces presents the mathematical basis of the theory of gravitation and discusses the various spaces that form the basis of the theory of relativity. This book examines the contemporary development of the theory of relativity, leading to the study of such problems as gravitational radiation, the interaction of fields, and the behavior of elementary particles in a gravitational field. Organized into nine chapters, this book starts with an overview of the principles of the special theory of relativity, with emphasis on the mathematical aspects. This text then discusses the need for a ge

  10. Performative Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svaneklink, Annette


    that can be related to traditional architectural concepts in terms of dealing with space, body, time and movement. The paper considers this performativity and dual spatiality as being a processual architecture, constantly reconfiguring new hybrids between space, image and user. This dual spatiality raises......Performative aspects of architecture seem to be constituted as a series of actions between place and non-place as well as between place and user. The performative action raises a dual spatiality that relates physical, extended spatiality to temporality. The paper argues that this is a topic...

  11. Game Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik


    or she suddenly finds himself in another world, where artefacts are given new meaning and where other rules apply. This makes sense, but also demands that play and non-play can be easily separated. Even so, the concept of the magic circle has never been analysed with respect to the spatial configuration......, called “pervasive games.” These are games that are based on computer technology, but use a physical space as the game space as opposed to video games. Coupling spatial configuration with performance theory of rituals as liminal phenomena, I put forward a model and a new understanding of the magic circle...

  12. Entering Space (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert

    The authors is giving a classification of civilisations depending on the degree of colonisation of the Earth, Solar System and Our Galaxy. The problems of: History of geographic discoveries (The great geographical discoveries during the Middle Age, the concurence of Chinnese and Europeans in this Area); The Astrophysics, such as: Asteroids, Water and Atmosphere on outer planets, Planet Mars Planet, Agriculture on outer planets, Minerals on outer planets; Cosmic flights: Fuels, Robotics, Moon (as an intermediary basis for interplanetary flights), Mars colonisation; Interstellar flights, Space research costs, strategy and tactics of the space colonisation; Policy: War and Peace, International Collaboration are discussed.

  13. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie


    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  14. Propagation of signals in spaces with affine connections and metrics as models of space-time


    Manoff, Sawa


    The propagation of signals in space-time is considered on the basis of the notion of null (isotropic) vector field in spaces with affine connections and metrics as models of space or of space-time. The Doppler effect is generalized for these types of spaces. The notions of aberration, standard (longitudinal) Doppler effect, and transversal Doppler effect are considered. On their grounds, the Hubble effect appears as Doppler effect with explicit forms of the centrifugal (centripetal) and Corio...

  15. Mass meta-analysis in Talairach space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup


    We provide a method for mass meta-analysis in a neuroinformatics database containing stereotaxic Talairach coordinates from neuroimaging experiments. Database labels are used to group the individual experiments, e.g., according to cognitive function, and the consistent pattern of the experiments...... of experiments, and the distances to the null hypotheses are used to sort the voxels across groups of experiments. This allows for mass meta-analysis, with the construction of a list with the most prominent associations between brain areas and group labels. Furthermore, the method can be used for functional...

  16. National Aeronautics and Space Administration FY 2001 Accountability Report (United States)


    Standardization ( ISO ) cer- tification to the ISO 9001 standard for quality manage- ment systems. In 2001, the ISO standard was updated, space tourism , space business parks and space solar power remain closed due to the high cost and low reliability of current systems. NASA is...Page 88 and three Centers have obtained certification to the new and improved standard. The establishment of ISO quality management systems continues to

  17. Frequency Standards and Metrology (United States)

    Maleki, Lute


    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  18. Trading Spaces (United States)

    Cort, Cliff


    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  19. Space Conquest

    CERN Multimedia


    An old water tank from the time of the ISR is being converted into a temporary store for ATLAS muon chambers. This is the last chapter in the big programme by the PH Department to make better use of space at CERN.

  20. Research team for Space Debris comprehensive measures


    Ohnishi, Mitsuru; 大西, 充


    The increasing number of pieces of space junk, that is "space debris", is supposed to be a serious threat on humankind's use of outer space in the future. JAXA has organized the research team for space debris comprehensive measures, which consists of following 4 key sub-themes, (1) Formulating International Standards and Guidelines, (2) Researching technologies for debris Mitigation, (3)Researching technologies for the low-cost Active Debris Removal, (4)Researching technologies for debris Sit...

  1. Management of space networks (United States)

    Markley, R. W.; Williams, B. F.


    NASA has proposed missions to the Moon and Mars that reflect three areas of emphasis: human presence, exploration, and space resource development for the benefit of Earth. A major requirement for such missions is a robust and reliable communications architecture. Network management--the ability to maintain some degree of human and automatic control over the span of the network from the space elements to the end users on Earth--is required to realize such robust and reliable communications. This article addresses several of the architectural issues associated with space network management. Round-trip delays, such as the 5- to 40-min delays in the Mars case, introduce a host of problems that must be solved by delegating significant control authority to remote nodes. Therefore, management hierarchy is one of the important architectural issues. The following article addresses these concerns, and proposes a network management approach based on emerging standards that covers the needs for fault, configuration, and performance management, delegated control authority, and hierarchical reporting of events. A relatively simple approach based on standards was demonstrated in the DSN 2000 Information Systems Laboratory, and the results are described.

  2. Rough Standard Neutrosophic Sets: An Application on Standard Neutrosophic Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Xuan Thao


    Full Text Available A rough fuzzy set is the result of the approximation of a fuzzy set with respect to a crisp approximation space. It is a mathematical tool for the knowledge discovery in the fuzzy information systems. In this paper, we introduce the concepts of rough standard neutrosophic sets and standard neutrosophic information system, and give some results of the knowledge discovery on standard neutrosophic information system based on rough standard neutrosophic sets.

  3. Confined Space Evaluation Student Manual, #19613

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, David Ezekiel [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Many workplaces contain spaces that are considered to be “confined” because their configuration hinders the activities of employees who must enter into, work in, and exit from them. In general, the permit-required confined spaces (PRCSs) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard requires that Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) evaluate the workplace to determine if any spaces are PRCSs. The standard specifies strict procedures for the evaluation and atmospheric testing of a space before and during an entry by workers. The OSHA PRCS standard provides for alternative (less stringent than full-permit) entry procedures in cases where the only hazard in a space is atmospheric and the hazard can be controlled by forced air. At LANL, all confined spaces or potential confined spaces on LANL-owned or -operated property must be identified and evaluated by a confined space evaluator accompanied by a knowledgeable person. This course provides the information needed by confined space evaluators to make judgements about whether a space is a confined space, and if so, whether the space will require a permit for entry.

  4. A Hubble Space Telescope Survey for Novae in M87. II. Snuffing out the Maximum Magnitude–Rate of Decline Relation for Novae as a Non-standard Candle, and a Prediction of the Existence of Ultrafast Novae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shara, Michael M.; Doyle, Trisha; Zurek, David [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West and 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Lauer, Tod R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Baltz, Edward A. [KIPAC, SLAC, 2575 Sand Hill Road, M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kovetz, Attay [School of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Madrid, Juan P. [CSIRO, Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Mikołajewska, Joanna [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, PL 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Neill, J. D. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 278-17, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States); Prialnik, Dina [Department of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Welch, D. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4M1, Ontario (Canada); Yaron, Ofer [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)


    The extensive grid of numerical simulations of nova eruptions from the work of Yaron et al. first predicted that some classical novae might significantly deviate from the Maximum Magnitude–Rate of Decline (MMRD) relation, which purports to characterize novae as standard candles. Kasliwal et al. have announced the observational detection of a new class of faint, fast classical novae in the Andromeda galaxy. These objects deviate strongly from the MMRD relationship, as predicted by Yaron et al. Recently, Shara et al. reported the first detections of faint, fast novae in M87. These previously overlooked objects are as common in the giant elliptical galaxy M87 as they are in the giant spiral M31; they comprise about 40% of all classical nova eruptions and greatly increase the observational scatter in the MMRD relation. We use the extensive grid of the nova simulations of Yaron et al. to identify the underlying causes of the existence of faint, fast novae. These are systems that have accreted, and can thus eject, only very low-mass envelopes, of the order of 10{sup −7}–10{sup −8} M {sub ⊙}, on massive white dwarfs. Such binaries include, but are not limited to, the recurrent novae. These same models predict the existence of ultrafast novae that display decline times, t {sub 2,} to be as short as five hours. We outline a strategy for their future detection.

  5. Space Toxicology (United States)

    James, John T.


    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  6. Communication spaces. (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico


    Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.

  7. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.


    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  8. Space Nutrition (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.


    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  9. Homogeneous Spaces and Equivariant Embeddings

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, DA


    Homogeneous spaces of linear algebraic groups lie at the crossroads of algebraic geometry, theory of algebraic groups, classical projective and enumerative geometry, harmonic analysis, and representation theory. By standard reasons of algebraic geometry, in order to solve various problems on a homogeneous space it is natural and helpful to compactify it keeping track of the group action, i.e. to consider equivariant completions or, more generally, open embeddings of a given homogeneous space. Such equivariant embeddings are the subject of this book. We focus on classification of equivariant em

  10. Space mining and its regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakhu, Ram S; Nyampong, Yaw Otu Mankata


    This book addresses the complex technical challenges presented by remote space mining in terms of robotics, remote power systems, space transport, IT and communications systems, and more. It also addresses the difficult oversight and regulatory issues that face states and non-state enterprises that would take on the perilous task of obtaining natural resources from the Moon and asteroids. An increasing number of countries are becoming involved in space-related activities that were previously carried out primarily by the United States and the USSR (now the Russian Federation). How these regulatory endeavors might be handled in international treaties, standards, codes of conduct or other means have become a truly international political issue. And there is yet another issue. In the past, space activities traditionally fell under the exclusive domain of government. But the last few years have seen the emergence of the private sector of "space entrepreneurs." This poses many challenges for the pre-existing govern...

  11. Standardization in digital pathology: Supplement 145 of the DICOM standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Singh


    Full Text Available As digital slides need a lot of storage space, lack of a singular method to acquire and store these large, two-dimensional images has been a major stumbling block in the universal acceptance of this technology. The DICOMS Standard Committee Working Group 26 has put in a tremendous effort to standardize storage methods so that they are more in line with currently available PACS in most hospitals for storage of radiology images. A recent press release (Supplement 145 of these standards was hailed by one and all involved in the field of digital pathology as it will make it easier for hospitals to integrate digital pathology into their already established systems without adding too much overhead costs. Besides, it will enable different vendors developing the scanners to upgrade their products to storage systems that are common across all systems.

  12. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.


    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  13. Neuroprotective Properties of a Standardized Extract from Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All. (Aroeira-Do-Sertão, as Evaluated by a Parkinson’s Disease Model in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Calou


    Full Text Available Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All. (Anacardiaceae is a Brazilian medicinal species, which is common to the Northeastern Brazilian semiarid region, whose stem-bark is widely used in folk medicine. It is an endangered species, presenting as main bioactive components tannins and chalcones. In this work, we studied the neuroprotective effects of a standardized extract from cultivated M. urundeuva (SEMU, in a model of Parkinson’s disease. Thus, a unilateral injection of 6-OHDA was done into the rat right stratum. The animals were submitted to stereotaxic surgery, then treated with SEMU (5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg, p.o. for 2 weeks, subjected to behavioral tests, and euthanized for striata dissections and neurochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses. We showed, for the first time, that SEMU reverted behavioral alterations seen in the 6-OHDA-lesioned group and partially blocked the decrease in DA and DOPAC contents. The numbers of viable neurons and TH immunopositive cells were increased by SEMU. In addition, the SEMU-treated 6-OHDA groups showed lower numbers of GFAP and OX-42 immunopositive cells. The neuroprotective action of SEMU is possibly related to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of M. urundeuva, pointing out to its potential use in the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson’s disease.

  14. Use of IPsec by Manned Space Missions (United States)

    Pajevski, Michael J.


    NASA's Constellation Program is developing its next generation manned space systems for missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon. The Program is embarking on a path towards standards based Internet Protocol (IP) networking for space systems communication. The IP based communications will be paired with industry standard security mechanisms such as Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) to ensure the integrity of information exchanges and prevent unauthorized release of sensitive information in-transit. IPsec has been tested in simulations on the ground and on at least one Earth orbiting satellite, but the technology is still unproven in manned space mission situations and significant obstacles remain.

  15. Space Age Training (United States)


    Teledyne Brown developed a computer-based interactive multimedia training system for use with the Crystal Growth Furnace in the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-2 mission on the Space Shuttle. Teledyne Brown commercialized the system and customized it for PPG Industries Aircraft Products. The system challenges learners with role-playing scenarios and software-driven simulations engaging all the senses using text, video, animation, voice, sounds and music. The transfer of this technology to commercial industrial process training has resulted in significant improvements in effectiveness, standardization, and quality control, as well as cost reductions over the usual classroom and on-the- job training approaches.

  16. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients (United States)

    Menard, Scott


    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  17. Space Detectives (United States)

    Tyszka, Steph; Saraiva, Jose; Doran, Rosa


    NUCLIO is a Portuguese non-profit organization with a strong record of investing in science education and outreach. We have developed and implemented many activities mostly directed to a young audience, in a bid to awaken and reinforce the interest that young people devote to Astronomy and all things spatial. In this framework, we have created a week-long program called Space Detectives, supported by the Municipality of Cascais, based on a story-line that provided a number of challenges and opportunities for learning matters as diverse as the electro-magnetic spectrum, means of communication, space travel, the martian environment, coding and robotics. We report on the first session that took place in December 2016. We had as participants several kids aged 9 to 12, with a mixed background in terms of interest in the sciences. Their response varied from enthusiastic to somewhat less interested, depending on the nature of the subject and the way it was presented - a reaction not necessarily related to its complexity. This week was taken as something of a trial run, in preparation for the European Commission- funded project "Stories of Tomorrow", to be implemented in schools. The individual activities and the way they were related to the story-line, as well as the smooth transition from one to the next, were subject to an analysis that will allow for improvements in the next installments of this program. We believe this is an excellent approach to the goals of using Space and Astronomy as an anchor for generating and keeping interest in the scientific areas, and of finding new and richer ways of learning.

  18. Space Pharmacology

    CERN Document Server

    Wotring, Virginia E


    Space Pharmacology” is a review of the current knowledge regarding the use of pharmaceuticals during spaceflights. It is a comprehensive review of the literature, addressing each area of pharmacokinetics and each major physiological system in turn. Every section begins with a topic overview, and is followed by a discussion of published data from spaceflight, and from ground experiments meant to model the spaceflight situation. Includes a discussion looking forward to the new medical challenges we are likely to face on longer duration exploration missions. This book is a snapshot of our current knowledge that also highlights areas of unknown.

  19. Unliveable Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    The thesis is concerned with spatial practices of resistance employed in Palestinian struggles against Israel’s violent dispossession of Palestinian land through half a century of occupation. In the political configuration of the built space of the West Bank, architecture appears as a tactically......, fundamentally, who has the right to a future in this land. By viewing architecture in its dual dimension of praxis and object, built structures are investigated as agents that induce and manifest territorial struggles. The spatial instrumentalisation of architecture is effected by Israel through commonplace...

  20. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server


    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  1. Space Food (United States)


    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  2. Standards 101: The ASA Standards program (United States)

    Schomer, Paul


    ASA serves as a standards developer under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The Standards Program is organized through four technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) development of national standards (ANSI Standards), (2) national adoption of international standards (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of international standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are staffed by hundreds of volunteers, mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Physiological and Psychological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the society except meetings. It is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large sectors of society. It is a main way the ASA diffuses the knowledge of acoustics and its practical application, perhaps the main way.

  3. Standards 101; the ASA standards program (United States)

    Schomer, Paul D.


    ASA supports the development of standards by serving as the secretariat for standards committees of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The program is organized through four ANSI technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics, and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) the development of National Standards (ANSI Standards), (2) the national adoption of an international standard (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of International Standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are ''staffed'' by hundreds of volunteers--mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Psychological and Physiological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the Society except meetings and it is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large segments of the population, the business and industrial community, and government at all levels.

  4. Space charge

    CERN Document Server

    Schindl, Karlheinz


    The Coulomb forces between the charged particles of a high-intensity beam in an accelerator create a self-field which acts on the particles inside the beam like a distributed lens, defocusing in both transverse planes. A beam moving with speed n is accompanied by a magnetic field which partially cancels the electrostatic defocusing effect, with complete cancellation at c, the speed of light. The effect of this 'direct space charge' is evaluated for transport lines and synchrotrons where the number of betatron oscillations per machine turn, Q, is reduced by DQ. In a real accelerator, the beam is also influenced by the environment (beam pipe, magnets, etc.) which generates 'indirect' space charge effects. For a smooth and perfectly conducting wall, they can easily be evaluated by introducing image charges and currents. These 'image effects' do not cancel when n approaches c, thus they become dominant for high-energy synchrotrons. Each particle in the beam has its particular incoherent tune Q and incoherent tune...

  5. Nonlinear field space cosmology (United States)

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Trześniewski, Tomasz


    We consider the FRW cosmological model in which the matter content of the Universe (playing the role of an inflaton or quintessence) is given by a novel generalization of the massive scalar field. The latter is a scalar version of the recently introduced nonlinear field space theory, where the physical phase space of a given field is assumed to be compactified at large energies. For our analysis, we choose the simple case of a field with the spherical phase space and endow it with the generalized Hamiltonian analogous to the XXZ Heisenberg model, normally describing a system of spins in condensed matter physics. Subsequently, we study both the homogenous cosmological sector and linear perturbations of such a test field. In the homogenous sector, we find that nonlinearity of the field phase space is becoming relevant for large volumes of the Universe and can lead to a recollapse, and possibly also at very high energies, leading to the phase of a bounce. Quantization of the field is performed in the limit where the nontrivial nature of its phase space can be neglected, while there is a nonvanishing contribution from the Lorentz symmetry breaking term of the Hamiltonian. As a result, in the leading order of the XXZ anisotropy parameter, we find that the inflationary spectral index remains unmodified with respect to the standard case but the total amplitude of perturbations is subject to a correction. The Bunch-Davies vacuum state also becomes appropriately corrected. The proposed new approach is bringing cosmology and condensed matter physics closer together, which may turn out to be beneficial for both disciplines.

  6. The Standard Joint Unit. (United States)

    Casajuana Kögel, Cristina; Balcells-Olivero, María Mercedes; López-Pelayo, Hugo; Miquel, Laia; Teixidó, Lídia; Colom, Joan; Nutt, David John; Rehm, Jürgen; Gual, Antoni


    Reliable data on cannabis quantities is required to improve assessment of cannabis consumption for epidemiological analysis and clinical assessment, consequently a Standard Joint Unit (SJU) based on quantity of 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC) has been established. Naturalistic study of a convenience sample recruited from February 2015-June 2016 in universities, leisure spaces, mental health services and cannabis clubs in Barcelona. Adults, reporting cannabis use in the last 60 days, without cognitive impairment or language barriers, answered a questionnaire on cannabis use and were asked to donate a joint to further determine their 9-THC and Cannabidiol (CBD) content. 492 participants donated 315 valid joints. Donators were on average 29 years old, mostly men (77%), single (75%), with at least secondary studies (73%) and in active employment (63%). Marijuana joints (N=232) contained a median of 6.56mg of 9-THC (Interquartile range-IQR=10,22) and 0.02mg of CBD (IQR=0.02); hashish joints (N=83) a median of 7.94mg of 9-THC (IQR=10,61) and 3.24mg of CBD (IQR=3.21). Participants rolled 4 joints per gram of cannabis and paid 5€ per gram (median values). Consistent 9-THC-content in joints lead to a SJU of 7mg of 9-THC, the integer number closest to the median values shared by both cannabis types. Independently if marijuana or hashish, 1 SJU = 1 joint = 0.25 g of cannabis = 7 mg of 9-THC. For CBD, only hashish SJU contained relevant levels. Similarly to the Standard Drink Unit for alcohol, the SJU is useful for clinical, epidemiological and research purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 14 CFR 29.969 - Fuel tank expansion space. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 29.969 Section 29.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.969 Fuel tank expansion space...

  8. 14 CFR 27.969 - Fuel tank expansion space. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 27.969 Section 27.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.969 Fuel tank expansion space...

  9. 14 CFR 25.969 - Fuel tank expansion space. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 25.969 Section 25.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.969 Fuel tank expansion space...

  10. Drug Information in Space Medicine (United States)

    Bayuse, Tina M.


    Published drug information is widely available for terrestrial conditions. However, information on dosing, administration, drug interactions, stability, and side effects is scant as it relates to use in Space Medicine. Multinational crews on board the International Space Station present additional challenges for drug information because medication nomenclature, information available for the drug as well as the intended use for the drug is not standard across countries. This presentation will look at unique needs for drug information and how the information is managed in Space Medicine. A review was conducted of the drug information requests submitted to the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy by Space Medicine practitioners, astronaut crewmembers and researchers. The information requested was defined and cataloged. A list of references used was maintained. The wide range of information was identified. Due to the information needs for the medications in the on-board medical kits, the Drug Monograph Project was created. A standard method for answering specific drug information questions was generated and maintained by the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy. The Drug Monograph Project will be presented. Topic-centered requests, including multinational drug information, drug-induced adverse reactions, and medication events due to the environment will be highlighted. Information management of the drug information will be explained. Future considerations for drug information needs will be outlined.

  11. Metastring theory and modular space-time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G; Minic, Djordje


    String theory is canonically accompanied with a space-time interpretation which determines S-matrix-like observables, and connects to the standard physics at low energies in the guise of local effective field theory...

  12. Space platforms (United States)


    The expanded scientific capabilities available by interfacing an orbital, free-flying experiments platform with Shuttle tending are outlined. The platform would be lifted to orbit by the Shuttle, and modularly increased in size on subsequent flights. Science packages could be left on the 26,000 lb space platform for up to six months. Component sections would include electrical and thermal control systems, berthing ports for payloads and an Orbiter, and an attitude control, communications, and data handling subsection. A 12 kW solar array would furnish power, and interconnect with Spacelab would further enhance the operations range. All berthed science packages would have individual pointing ability and grapples for the Orbiter RMS. Eventual evolution to include facilities for a human crew and a 25 kW solar array is projected.

  13. Space Internet-Embedded Web Technologies Demonstration (United States)

    Foltz, David A.


    The NASA Glenn Research Center recently demonstrated the ability to securely command and control space-based assets by using the Internet and standard Internet Protocols (IP). This is a significant accomplishment because future NASA missions will benefit by using Internet standards-based protocols. The benefits include reduced mission costs and increased mission efficiency. The Internet-Based Space Command and Control System Architecture demonstrated at the NASA Inspection 2000 event proved that this communications architecture is viable for future NASA missions.

  14. Standard Reference Tables - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  15. Space hardware microbial contamination (United States)

    Baker, A.; Kern, R.; Mancinelli, R.; Venkateswaren, K.; Wainwright, N.

    Planetary Protection (PP) requirements imposed on unmanned planetary missions require that the spacecraft undergo rigorous bioload reduction prior to launch. The ability to quantitate bioburden on such spacecraft is dependent on developing new analytical methodologies that can be used to identify and trace biological contamination on flight hardware. The focus of new method development is to move forward and to augment the current spore analysis method which was first used on Viking. The ultimate goal of the new techniques is not to increase the cleanliness requirement currently levied on various missions, b ut instead to better understand the nature of the bioburden through the use of well-characterized standard methods. Subsequently an array of standard techniques is needed to provide various analytical methodologies that can be used to access bioburden, depending upon mission specifications. This poster will provide information on two workshops that have been held to review the status of the development of new quantitative techniques for determining the bioload on spacecraft at the time of launch. The purpose of the workshops was to review and revise NASA Standard Operation Procedure NPG:5340.1C "Microbiological Examination of Space Hardware and Associated Environments" to incorporate improvements in the procedure and to reflect current field practices. I addition the paneln reviewed the status of new analytical methods currently under study for planetary protection applications, defining expected research that would bring the individual methods to a point where they can be drafted for submittal to the NASA standard procedure process. The poster will highlight changes to current standard procedures as well as review the status of new methods currently being studied. Methods included Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Epifluorescence Techniques, Live/Dead Cell Analysis, Capillary Electrophoresis of Amino Acids and Ionic Contaminants, High Sensitivity Assay for

  16. Constructing Common Space From Fiction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Haeren, Kristen Danielle

    The spaces we inhabit are in essence a construct; each one is a fabricated environment that obtains its significance through cultural, corporeal and experiential understandings that are various, dynamic and ever-changing. Such characteristics make it utterly impossible to depict space through...... and categorization of space result in an assemblage of trivial contents that informs us of nothing other than characteristics of physicality. This fixation with calculation and universal language silences that which surfaces from human experiences and lived-in perception; the interweaving of culture and nature......, of concrete and ephemeral, of self and the world, resulting in a depiction that is abstract and alienating. Modes of representing space must go beyond a standardized language of forms in order to allow it to become the constructed common ground that one orients, identifies and dwells within. The proposal here...

  17. Empty Spaces. (United States)

    Hulkower, Adira


    "I'm Jewish, you know, and my mother said, 'Always trust the rabbis.'" I never heard Mr. Weisman's refrain from his own lips. I never heard him say any words all. By the time I met him he was in a vegetative state, a man on the precipice of invisibility-white hair, thin pale limbs, melting into sheets of the same color. When I think about Mr. Weisman, I see empty spaces-the absence of his voice, the too-large bed for his shrinking frame, the always-empty chair by his bedside, and most of all, the myriad gaps in his life story. He was what in hospitals is often called a "patient alone": someone who lacks decisional capacity and has no surrogate to make medical decisions for him. Mr. Weisman's aloneness prompted his primary team to consult our bioethics service in order to formulate goals of care for him, including the possibility of hospice care. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  18. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.


    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  19. Antenna standards and laboratories in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemanczyk, Jerzy


    The goal of this paper is to present an overview on antenna standards and laboratories within Europe. In this context, Europe will be limited geographically to the member nations of the European Union (EU), formerly the European Community, and the European Space Agency (ESA). In addition to these......The goal of this paper is to present an overview on antenna standards and laboratories within Europe. In this context, Europe will be limited geographically to the member nations of the European Union (EU), formerly the European Community, and the European Space Agency (ESA). In addition...

  20. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Refereeing standards (United States)

    Bender, C.; Scriven, N.


    On 1 January 2004 I will be assuming the position of Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General (J. Phys. A). I am flattered at the confidence expressed in my ability to carry out this challenging job and I will try hard to justify this confidence. The previous Editor-in-Chief, Ed Corrigan, has worked tirelessly for the last five years and has done an excellent job for the journal. Everyone at the journal is profoundly grateful for his leadership and for his achievements. Before accepting the position of Editor-in-Chief, I visited the office of J. Phys. A to examine the organization and to assess its strengths and weaknesses. This office is located at the Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP) headquarters in Bristol. J. Phys. A has been expanding rapidly and now publishes at the rate of nearly 1000 articles (or about 14,000 pages) per year. The entire operation of the journal is conducted in a very small space---about 15 square metres! Working in this space are six highly intelligent, talented, hard working, and dedicated people: Neil Scriven, Publisher; Mike Williams, Publishing Editor; Rose Gray and Sarah Nadin, Publishing Administrators; Laura Smith and Steve Richards, Production Editors. In this small space every day about eight submitted manuscripts are downloaded from the computer or received in the post. These papers are then processed and catalogued, referees are selected, and the papers are sent out for evaluation. In this small space the referees' reports are received, publication decisions are made, and accepted articles are then published quickly by IOPP. The whole operation is amazingly efficient. Indeed, one of the great strengths of J. Phys. A is the speed at which papers are processed. The average time between the receipt of a manuscript and an editorial decision is under sixty days. (Many distinguished journals take three to five times this amount of time.) This speed of publication is an extremely strong enticement for

  1. Calibrated permeation standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dameron, Arrelaine A.; Reese, Matthew O.; Kempe, Michael D.


    A permeation standard is provided. The permeation standard may include a substrate that is impermeable to an analyte, an orifice disposed in the substrate, and a permeable material filling the orifice. The orifice and the permeable material are configured to provide a predetermined transmission rate of the analyte through the permeation standard. Also provided herein are methods for forming the permeation standard.

  2. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...

  3. Prototype Selection for Classification in Standard and Generalized Dissimilarity Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plasencia Calaña, Y.


    Automatic pattern classification for a given problem domain aims at assigning a class or category membership to a new unseen object from the same domain. This is performed in three main stages: data preprocessing, representation and classification. The data preprocessing highly depends on the data

  4. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Software Development (United States)


    biological break, water pipe break, exercise, evacuation (e.g., fire alarm, drill, tornado , hurricane, earthquake). Test procedure. The collection of... categorized for severity: (1) All severity 1 and 2 problems have been resolved, (2) Retests have been successfully executed, (3) The results have

  5. Space and Missile Systems Center Compliance Specifications and Standards (United States)


    Title Pub Date Change Justification Change Code 59 EWR 127-1 Eastern and Western Range Range Safety Requirements 1997 AFSPCMAN 91-710...4.7 Engineering Specialties; System Safety EWR 127-1 Eastern and Western Range Range Safety Requirements 1997 Use on legacy systems initially...Tailoring Instructions for AIAA-S-120- 2006 x x 59 4.7 Engineering Specialties; System Safety EWR 127-1 Eastern and Western Range Range

  6. Standard compliant channel selection scheme for TV white space networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT


    Full Text Available ) and the upper channel (channel 48 at 694 MHz) which exhibits different interference relationships among the WSDs. There are several applications operating on the TV band such as Programme Making and Special Event (PMSE) services which are characterised by narrow...-bands (in the range of 200 kHz) as compared to the 6 or 8 MHz wideband TV channel. PMSE devices may include hand-held devices which may use a combination of broadcasting (e.g. TV reception) and broadband such as an Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystem (IMS...

  7. Stereo images from space (United States)

    Sabbatini, Massimo; Collon, Maximilien J.; Visentin, Gianfranco


    The Erasmus Recording Binocular (ERB1) was the first fully digital stereo camera used on the International Space Station. One year after its first utilisation, the results and feedback collected with various audiences have convinced us to continue exploiting the outreach potential of such media, with its unique capability to bring space down to earth, to share the feeling of weightlessness and confinement with the viewers on earth. The production of stereo is progressing quickly but it still poses problems for the distribution of the media. The Erasmus Centre of the European Space Agency has experienced how difficult it is to master the full production and distribution chain of a stereo system. Efforts are also on the way to standardize the satellite broadcasting part of the distribution. A new stereo camera is being built, ERB2, to be launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in September 2008: it shall have 720p resolution, it shall be able to transmit its images to the ground in real-time allowing the production of live programs and it could possibly be used also outside the ISS, in support of Extra Vehicular Activities of the astronauts. These new features are quite challenging to achieve in the reduced power and mass budget available to space projects and we hope to inspire more designers to come up with ingenious ideas to built cameras capable to operate in the hash Low Earth Orbit environment: radiations, temperature, power consumption and thermal design are the challenges to be met. The intent of this paper is to share with the readers the experience collected so far in all aspects of the 3D video production chain and to increase awareness on the unique content that we are collecting: nice stereo images from space can be used by all actors in the stereo arena to gain consensus on this powerful media. With respect to last year we shall present the progress made in the following areas: a) the satellite broadcasting live of stereo content to D

  8. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape]. (United States)


    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  9. Space teleoperations technology for Space Station evolution (United States)

    Reuter, Gerald J.


    Viewgraphs on space teleoperations technology for space station evolution are presented. Topics covered include: shuttle remote manipulator system; mobile servicing center functions; mobile servicing center technology; flight telerobotic servicer-telerobot; flight telerobotic servicer technology; technologies required for space station assembly; teleoperation applications; and technology needs for space station evolution.

  10. 14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director, Airports, Service, or the Regional Director concerned may, on individual...

  11. 14 CFR 151.87 - Lighting and electrical work: Standards. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lighting and electrical work: Standards... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.87 Lighting and electrical work: Standards. (a)-(b) (c) The number of runways that are eligible for lighting is the same as...

  12. 14 CFR 1274.919 - Cost principles and accounting standards. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost principles and accounting standards... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.919 Cost principles and accounting standards. Cost Principles and Accounting Standards July 2002 The expenditure of...

  13. 14 CFR 152.313 - Property management standards. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property management standards. 152.313... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.313 Property management standards. (a) The sponsor shall establish and maintain property management standards in accordance with...

  14. A standard satellite control reference model (United States)

    Golden, Constance


    This paper describes a Satellite Control Reference Model that provides the basis for an approach to identify where standards would be beneficial in supporting space operations functions. The background and context for the development of the model and the approach are described. A process for using this reference model to trace top level interoperability directives to specific sets of engineering interface standards that must be implemented to meet these directives is discussed. Issues in developing a 'universal' reference model are also identified.

  15. ISET ORS Bus Standards and Prototype


    Sandhoo, Gurpartap; Johnson, Mark; Raynor, William; Hurley, Michael; Stadter, Patrick; Marley, Michael; Apland, Clint; Lee, Robert; Bruzzi, Jonathan; Williams, Bruce; SCHAEFER, EDWARD, JAY; Vernon, Steven; Schwartz, Paul; Moretti, George; Doyne, Thomas


    Advancing sound and accepted spacecraft bus standards is the objective of the Office of the Secretary of Defense’s (OSD) Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Bus Standards Initiative. This effort involves multiple government, industry, and academia participants assembled into an Integrated System Engineering Team (ISET). The core ISET industry team members include AeroAstro, Boeing, Design Net Engineering, General Dynamics Spectrum Astro, Loral, Microcosm, MicroSat, Orbital, Raytheon, and Swa...

  16. Preparing future space leaders - International Space University (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Van Reeth, George P.


    The International Space University (ISU) concept of developing a cadre of space professionals that will lead the universities and industries into space is discussed. ISU is an innovative, permanent worldwide organization for training and academic instruction in all aspects of space studies. ISU's major goal is to provide the young professional academic instruction in technical and nontechnical areas of modern space exploration and research, and a forum to exchange ideas and develop both personal and professional ties at an international level.

  17. Differential geometry and symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Helgason, Sigurdur


    Sigurdur Helgason's Differential Geometry and Symmetric Spaces was quickly recognized as a remarkable and important book. For many years, it was the standard text both for Riemannian geometry and for the analysis and geometry of symmetric spaces. Several generations of mathematicians relied on it for its clarity and careful attention to detail. Although much has happened in the field since the publication of this book, as demonstrated by Helgason's own three-volume expansion of the original work, this single volume is still an excellent overview of the subjects. For instance, even though there

  18. Space Biosciences, Space-X, and the International Space Station (United States)

    Wigley, Cecilia


    Space Biosciences Research on the International Space Station uses living organisms to study a variety of research questions. To enhance our understanding of fundamental biological processes. To develop the fundations for a safe, productive human exploration of space. To improve the quality of life on earth.

  19. The Space Puppets (United States)

    Lago, M. Miguel; Esteban Berea, J.; Miñambres Fernández, M.; Rufino, M.


    travels in Space driving the dance artist on its tail. On the journey, they discover the alphabet letters, letters that make words, words which are concepts of physics, physics which is on the stage this stage being space. The teacher before, during and after the performance, will analyse, review and discuss through this simple tool "an alphabet", space vocabulary and also the meaning of communication and teaching. They will relate to the present situation of physics and science education in general and Space in particular and how to address this problem through our language. Instructions Name of Conference to which this abstract is53rd IAC submitted FirstFirst Submission Subrnission/Update/Correction/Withdrawal Title of Contribution in plain ASCII.The Space Puppets Author(s): a) Last Name, Initial(s) - b) LastMIGUEL LAGO., M. Name, lnitial(s) - c) etc. Number and Title or Abbreviation of SessionP. Space and Education Symposium to which this abstract is submitted.P.3. Educational and Outreach Name of Chairs of that SessionFrank Friedlaender and Dennis Stone Indicate any equipment you need in addition to the standard equipment: One overhead projector and screen will be available in ail IAC sessions. A limited number of LCD and 35mm slide projectors will be provided in sessions based on advance notice of need and availability of projectors. All presenters should bring copies of their computer presentations in overhead format in case LCD projection is not available for a specific session. Type of abstract file added/attached/sentWord file sent by e-mail separately Address of Main Author:Miguel Lago NameMónica. First Name Dept. Company/University: PO Box/Street:P.O. Box ZIP Code:D-22415 City: Country: Telephone: E-mail:+31 71 565 36 84 E-mail:+31 71 565 55 90 Have you obtained or will you obtain approval to attend the Congress? Yes Are you willing to present this paper at the IAC Public Outreach Program: Yes

  20. Variable Lebesgue spaces and hyperbolic systems

    CERN Document Server


    This book targets graduate students and researchers who want to learn about Lebesgue spaces and solutions to hyperbolic equations. It is divided into two parts. Part 1 provides an introduction to the theory of variable Lebesgue spaces: Banach function spaces like the classical Lebesgue spaces but with the constant exponent replaced by an exponent function. These spaces arise naturally from the study of partial differential equations and variational integrals with non-standard growth conditions. They have applications to electrorheological fluids in physics and to image reconstruction. After an introduction that sketches history and motivation, the authors develop the function space properties of variable Lebesgue spaces; proofs are modeled on the classical theory. Subsequently, the Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator is discussed. In the last chapter, other operators from harmonic analysis are considered, such as convolution operators and singular integrals. The text is mostly self-contained, with only some mor...

  1. The eigenvalue problem in phase space. (United States)

    Cohen, Leon


    We formulate the standard quantum mechanical eigenvalue problem in quantum phase space. The equation obtained involves the c-function that corresponds to the quantum operator. We use the Wigner distribution for the phase space function. We argue that the phase space eigenvalue equation obtained has, in addition to the proper solutions, improper solutions. That is, solutions for which no wave function exists which could generate the distribution. We discuss the conditions for ascertaining whether a position momentum function is a proper phase space distribution. We call these conditions psi-representability conditions, and show that if these conditions are imposed, one extracts the correct phase space eigenfunctions. We also derive the phase space eigenvalue equation for arbitrary phase space distributions functions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Standards, Standards, Standards: The Unintended Consequences of Widening Participation? (United States)

    Stuart, Mary


    Debate over widening access to higher education is narrowing to a focus on preservation of standards. Examination of the discourses of school policy, classroom environment, and peer culture shows how these competing cultures can work against efforts to increase participation. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)

  3. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.


    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space.

  4. Tunneling time in space fractional quantum mechanics (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad


    We calculate the time taken by a wave packet to travel through a classically forbidden region of space in space fractional quantum mechanics. We obtain the close form expression of tunneling time from a rectangular barrier by stationary phase method. We show that tunneling time depends upon the width b of the barrier for b → ∞ and therefore Hartman effect doesn't exist in space fractional quantum mechanics. Interestingly we found that the tunneling time monotonically reduces with increasing b. The tunneling time is smaller in space fractional quantum mechanics as compared to the case of standard quantum mechanics. We recover the Hartman effect of standard quantum mechanics as a special case of space fractional quantum mechanics.

  5. Model space of economic events (United States)

    Romanovsky, M. Yu.

    A method for constructing the model or virtual space of economic events when economic objects can be considered as material ones is suggested. We describe change of share rates in time at stock markets as the potential difference of attracted bodies in time in this virtual space. Each share of each enterprise is displayed by a single particle with a unit “charge”. It is shown that the random value of potential difference at the origin of coordinates measured at a definite time interval has the probability density coinciding with the known distribution of “Levy flights” or “Levy walks”. A distribution of alteration in time of the “Standard and Poor” index value obtained by Mantegna and Stanley (they shown that it is the “Levy walks” distribution too) (Mantegna and Stanley, Nature 376 (1995) 46) is used for determination of the introduced potential dependence on coordinates in the model space. A simple phenomenological model of interaction potential is introduced. The potential law of each particle turns out to be closed to r-2.14 in the minimum possible three-dimensional model space. This model permits calculation of time of random potential correlations at a certain point of the model space. These correlations could characterize the time period of making a decision by an investor at stock exchange. It is shown that this time is notably shorter in unstable periods (1987). A “microscopical” model of interaction in the virtual space is also discussed.

  6. Enabling Exploration Through Docking Standards (United States)

    Hatfield, Caris A.


    Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will likely require international cooperation in order to leverage limited resources. International standards can help enable cooperative missions by providing well understood, predefined interfaces allowing compatibility between unique spacecraft and systems. The International Space Station (ISS) partnership has developed a publicly available International Docking System Standard (IDSS) that provides a solution to one of these key interfaces by defining a common docking interface. The docking interface provides a way for even dissimilar spacecraft to dock for exchange of crew and cargo, as well as enabling the assembly of large space systems. This paper provides an overview of the key attributes of the IDSS, an overview of the NASA Docking System (NDS), and the plans for updating the ISS with IDSS compatible interfaces. The NDS provides a state of the art, low impact docking system that will initially be made available to commercial crew and cargo providers. The ISS will be used to demonstrate the operational utility of the IDSS interface as a foundational technology for cooperative exploration.

  7. Federal Standardization Manual (United States)


    syllabication , etc. b. Abbreviations. The applicable standard abbreviations listed in FPDs and military specifications and standards are used, except...regulations that automatically apply to everyone need not be referenced. c. Non-Government documents! Reference may be made to specifications, standards

  8. Collaboration Between Multistakeholder Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Maclean, Camilla

    responsibility is unlikely to support a great variety of partly competing and overlapping standards. Increased collaboration between these standards would enhance both their impact and their adoption by firms. This report examines the nature, benefits, and shortcomings of existing multistakeholder standards...

  9. Automotive Technology Skill Standards (United States)

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James


    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  10. [Ophthalmology and standardization]. (United States)

    Heitz, R


    The standards are the references for quality and safety of materials, instruments and devices in ophtalmological use. The French standardisation association, "Association Française de Normalisation" (AFNOR), drafts his standards in connection with the concerned professionals. The ophthalmologists are concerned by standards of diagnostic and therapeutic instruments, intraocular and orbital implants, contact lenses, spectacle frames and glasses, and ocular protectors.

  11. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  12. Beyond Space For Spatial Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Expert, Paul; Blondel, Vincent D; Lambiotte, Renaud


    Many complex systems are organized in the form of a network embedded in space. Important examples include the physical Internet infrastucture, road networks, flight connections, brain functional networks and social networks. The effect of space on network topology has recently come under the spotlight because of the emergence of pervasive technologies based on geo-localization, which constantly fill databases with people's movements and thus reveal their trajectories and spatial behaviour. Extracting patterns and regularities from the resulting massive amount of human mobility data requires the development of appropriate tools for uncovering information in spatially-embedded networks. In contrast with most works that tend to apply standard network metrics to any type of network, we argue in this paper for a careful treatment of the constraints imposed by space on network topology. In particular, we focus on the problem of community detection and propose a modularity function adapted to spatial networks. We sh...

  13. Some nonlinear space decomposition algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai, Xue-Cheng; Espedal, M. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway)


    Convergence of a space decomposition method is proved for a general convex programming problem. The space decomposition refers to methods that decompose a space into sums of subspaces, which could be a domain decomposition or a multigrid method for partial differential equations. Two algorithms are proposed. Both can be used for linear as well as nonlinear elliptic problems and they reduce to the standard additive and multiplicative Schwarz methods for linear elliptic problems. Two {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} algorithms are also presented. They converge faster than the additive one and have better parallelism than the multiplicative method. Numerical tests with a two level domain decomposition for linear, nonlinear and interface elliptic problems are presented for the proposed algorithms.

  14. Space Discovery: Teaching with Space. Evaluation: Summer, Fall 1998 Programs (United States)

    Ewell, Bob


    This is the final report of the 1998 NASA-sponsored evaluation of the effectiveness of the United States Space Foundation's five-day Space Discovery Standard Graduate Course (Living and Working in Space), the five-day Space Discovery Advanced Graduate Course (Advanced Technology and Biomedical Research), the five-day introductory course Aviation and Space Basics all conducted during the summer of 1998, and the Teaching with Space two-day Inservice program. The purpose of the program is to motivate and equip K- 12 teachers to use proven student-attracting space and technology concepts to support standard curriculum. These programs support the America 2000 National Educational Goals, encouraging more students to stay in school, increase in competence, and have a better opportunity to be attracted to math and science. The 1998 research program continues the comprehensive evaluation begun in 1992, this year studying five summer five-day sessions and five Inservice programs offered during the Fall of 1998 in California, Colorado, New York, and Virginia. A comprehensive research design by Dr. Robert Ewell of Creative Solutions and Dr. Darwyn Linder of Arizona State University evaluated the effectiveness of various areas of the program and its applicability on diverse groups. Preliminary research methodology was a set of survey instruments administered after the courses, and another to be sent in April-4-5 months following the last inservice involved in this study. This year, we have departed from this evaluation design in two ways. First, the five-day programs used NASA's new EDCATS on-line system and associated survey rather than the Linder/Ewell instruments. The Inservice programs were evaluated using the previously developed survey adapted for Inservice programs. Second, we did not do a follow-on survey of the teachers after they had been in the field as we have done in the past. Therefore, this evaluation captures only the reactions of the teachers to the programs

  15. Continuum of haptic space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, A.M.L.; Koenderink, J.J.


    The structure of haptic space has first received serious attention in 1937 by Blumenfeld. Haptic space, as used in this chapter and indeed also by Blumenfeld, involves the space around us which we can reach by touch from a fixed position. How this space is related to the space through which we

  16. Space history, space policy, and executive leadership (United States)

    Kraemer, Sylvia K.


    A lecture that attempts to establish the role of space historians in formulating space policy is presented. The discussion focusses on two adages and their relevance to space policy. The adages are as follows: 'write about what you know;' and 'good managers do things right; good executives do the right things.'

  17. Exchange of Standardized Flight Dynamics Data (United States)

    Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Berry, David; Flores-Amaya, Felipe; Folliard, J.; Kiehling, R.; Ogawa, M.; Pallaschke, S.


    Spacecraft operations require the knowledge of the vehicle trajectory and attitude and also that of other spacecraft or natural bodies. This knowledge is normally provided by the Flight Dynamics teams of the different space organizations and, as very often spacecraft operations involve more than one organization, this information needs to be exchanged between Agencies. This is why the Navigation Working Group within the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems), has been instituted with the task of establishing standards for the exchange of Flight Dynamics data. This exchange encompasses trajectory data, attitude data, and tracking data. The Navigation Working Group includes regular members and observers representing the participating Space Agencies. Currently the group includes representatives from CNES, DLR, ESA, NASA and JAXA. This Working Group meets twice per year in order to devise standardized language, methods, and formats for the description and exchange of Navigation data. Early versions of some of these standards have been used to support mutual tracking of ESA and NASA interplanetary spacecraft, especially during the arrival of the 2003 missions to Mars. This paper provides a summary of the activities carried out by the group, briefly outlines the current and envisioned standards, describes the tests and operational activities that have been performed using the standards, and lists and discusses the lessons learned from these activities.

  18. Ethernet for Space Flight Applications (United States)

    Webb, Evan; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)


    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is adapting current data networking technologies to fly on future spaceflight missions. The benefits of using commercially based networking standards and protocols have been widely discussed and are expected to include reduction in overall mission cost, shortened integration and test (I&T) schedules, increased operations flexibility, and hardware and software upgradeability/scalability with developments ongoing in the commercial world. The networking effort is a comprehensive one encompassing missions ranging from small University Explorer (UNEX) class spacecraft to large observatories such as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Mission aspects such as flight hardware and software, ground station hardware and software, operations, RF communications, and security (physical and electronic) are all being addressed to ensure a complete end-to-end system solution. One of the current networking development efforts at GSFC is the SpaceLAN (Spacecraft Local Area Network) project, development of a space-qualifiable Ethernet network. To this end we have purchased an IEEE 802.3-compatible 10/100/1000 Media Access Control (MAC) layer Intellectual Property (IP) core and are designing a network node interface (NNI) and associated network components such as a switch. These systems will ultimately allow the replacement of the typical MIL-STD-1553/1773 and custom interfaces that inhabit most spacecraft. In this paper we will describe our current Ethernet NNI development along with a novel new space qualified physical layer that will be used in place of the standard interfaces. We will outline our plans for development of space qualified network components that will allow future spacecraft to operate in significant radiation environments while using a single onboard network for reliable commanding and data transfer. There will be a brief discussion of some issues surrounding system implications of a flight Ethernet. Finally, we will


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark Williamson


      Five years ago, when the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) retired the space shuttle fleet and shipped the orbiters to museums across the nation, it seemed that the Kennedy Space Center (KSC...

  20. Fuzzy Hypervector Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ameri


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the generalization of the notion of fuzzy vector spaces to fuzzy hypervector spaces. In this regard, by considering the notion of fuzzy hypervector spaces, we characterized a fuzzy hypervector space based on its level sub-hyperspace. The algebraic nature of fuzzy hypervector space under transformations is studied. Certain conditions are obtained under which a given fuzzy hypervector space can or cannot be realized as a union of two fuzzy hypervector spaces such that none is contained in the other. The construction of a fuzzy hypervector space generated by a given fuzzy subset of a hypervector space is given. The set of all fuzzy cosets of a fuzzy hypervector space is shown to be a hypervector space. Finally, a fuzzy quotient hypervector space is defined and an analogue of a consequence of the “fundamental theorem of homomorphisms” is obtained.

  1. Space Probe Launch (United States)


    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug was a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug was capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept depicts the Tug's propulsion module launching a space probe into lunar orbit.

  2. Just in Time in Space or Space Based JIT (United States)

    VanOrsdel, Kathleen G.


    Our satellite systems are mega-buck items. In today's cost conscious world, we need to reduce the overall costs of satellites if our space program is to survive. One way to accomplish this would be through on-orbit maintenance of parts on the orbiting craft. In order to accomplish maintenance at a low cost I advance the hypothesis of having parts and pieces (spares) waiting. Waiting in the sense of having something when you need it, or just-in-time. The JIT concept can actually be applied to space processes. Its definition has to be changed just enough to encompass the needs of space. Our space engineers tell us which parts and pieces the satellite systems might be needing once in orbit. These items are stored in space for the time of need and can be ready when they are needed -- or Space Based JIT. When a system has a problem, the repair facility is near by and through human or robotics intervention, it can be brought back into service. Through a JIT process, overall system costs could be reduced as standardization of parts is built into satellite systems to facilitate reduced numbers of parts being stored. Launch costs will be contained as fewer spare pieces need to be included in the launch vehicle and the space program will continue to thrive even in this era of reduced budgets. The concept of using an orbiting parts servicer and human or robotics maintenance/repair capabilities would extend satellite life-cycle and reduce system replacement launches. Reductions of this nature throughout the satellite program result in cost savings.

  3. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development (United States)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki


    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  4. Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP): 1990 Standard Extract Files (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 1990 Standard Extract Files portion of the Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP) contains population and housing data derived from the U.S. Census Bureau's...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The eight color asteroid survey provides reflection spectra for minor planets using eight filter passbands. A system of standard stars was established to aid in the...

  6. ABoVE: Study Domain and Standard Reference Grids (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Arctic - Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) has developed two standardized spatial data products to expedite coordination of research activities and to...

  7. PV standards overview (United States)

    DeBlasio, Richard


    A brief historical perspective and current status of the on going evolution of photovoltaic standards development and the use of these standards in promulgating accepted practices used in producing, measuring, and deploying Photovoltaic (PV) components and systems in the field. After nearly 20 years of experience in developing and writing domestic and international consensus PV standards the need and importance of standard methods and practices continues, as in the past, to be essential for a maturing PV industry. Part of this maturity has been in establishing and maintaining a common ground through the development of consensus standards and furthering the use of standards for PV commercialization in support of test facility accreditation, product certification, systems deployment, and safety code development to assure PV quality, performance, reliability, and safety.

  8. How many standards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maegaard, Marie


    Discussions of standardisation and standard languages has a long history in linguistics. Tore Kristiansen has contributed to these discussions in various ways, and in this chapter I will focus on his claim that young Danes operate with two standards, one for the media and one for the school. This....... This ‘double standard model’ is disussed and developed in an analysis of results from a verbal guise experiment among Copenhagen adolescents....

  9. Standard Model processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, M.L.; Aguilar Saavedra, J.A.; Alekhin, S.; Badger, S.; Bauer, C.W.; Becher, T.; Bertone, V.; Bonvini, M.; Boselli, S.; Bothmann, E.; Boughezal, R.; Cacciari, M.; Carloni Calame, C.M.; Caola, F.; Campbell, J.M.; Carrazza, S.; Chiesa, M.; Cieri, L.; Cimaglia, F.; Febres Cordero, F.; Ferrarese, P.; D'Enterria, D.; Ferrera, G.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Garzelli, M.V.; Germann, E.; Hirschi, V.; Han, T.; Ita, H.; Jäger, B.; Kallweit, S.; Karlberg, A.; Kuttimalai, S.; Krauss, F.; Larkoski, A.J.; Lindert, J.; Luisoni, G.; Maierhöfer, P.; Mattelaer, O.; Martinez, H.; Moch, S.; Montagna, G.; Moretti, M.; Nason, P.; Nicrosini, O.; Oleari, C.; Pagani, D.; Papaefstathiou, A.; Petriello, F.; Piccinini, F.; Pierini, M.; Pierog, T.; Pozzorini, S.; Re, E.; Robens, T.; Rojo, J.; Ruiz, R.; Sakurai, K.; Salam, G.P.; Salfelder, L.; Schönherr, M.; Schulze, M.; Schumann, S.; Selvaggi, M.; Shivaji, A.; Siodmok, A.; Skands, P.; Torrielli, P.; Tramontano, F.; Tsinikos, I.; Tweedie, B.; Vicini, A.; Westhoff, S.; Zaro, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.

  10. Airborne Network Camera Standard (United States)


    Optical Systems Group Document 466-15 AIRBORNE NETWORK CAMERA STANDARD DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...Airborne Network Camera Standard 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...without the focus of standardization for interoperable command and control, storage, and data streaming has been the airborne network camera systems used

  11. Standard NIM Instrumentation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costrell, Louis [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Lenkszus, Frank R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rudnick, Stanley J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Davey, Eric [Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL), Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Gould, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rankowitz, Seymour [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sims, William P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Whitney, R. Roy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States). Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF); Dobinson, Robert W. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Verweij, Henk [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Latner, Norman [Environmental Measurements Lab., New York, NY (United States); Negro, Vincent C. [Environmental Measurements Lab., New York, NY (United States); Barsotti, Edward J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Droege, Thomas E. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kerns, Cordon [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Turner, Kathleen J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Downing, Robert W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Kirsten, Frederick A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsh, A. E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Loken, Stewart C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mack, Dick A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wagner, Lee J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lucena, Robert C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); O' Brien, Dennis W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gjovig, Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naivar, Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nelson, Ronald O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); White, D. Hywell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akerlof, Carl [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Stilwell, Donald E. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Trainor, James H. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Gobbi, Bruno [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Biggerstaff, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hill, Nat W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schulze, Gerald K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gustavson, David B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Horelick, Dale [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kunz, Paul F. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Paffrath, Leo [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Walz, Helmut V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dawson, W. Kenneth [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Cresswell, John [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Dhawan, Satish [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Gingell, Charles E. L. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)


    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  12. E-learning standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available E-learning standards refer to a system of common rules for content, authoring software and Learning Management Systems (LMSs - rules that specify how courses can be created and delivered over multiple platforms so that they all operate seamlessly together. Accredited standards ensure that the investment in time and intellectual capital could move from one system to the next. Currently, e-learning standards are being developed by four main organizations: AICC, IEEE, IMS, and ADL. The article presents some aspects of these standards.

  13. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    CERN Document Server


    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID- 20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  14. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben


    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance...

  15. Flight Standards Automation System - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — FAVSIS supports Flight Standards Service (AFS) by maintaining their information on entities such as air carriers, air agencies, designated airmen, and check airmen....

  16. The Standard Model course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA


    Suggested Readings: Aspects of Quantum Chromodynamics/A Pich, arXiv:hep-ph/0001118. - The Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions/A Pich, arXiv:hep-ph/0502010. - The Standard Model of Particle Physics/A Pich The Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics will be described. A detailed discussion of the particle content, structure and symmetries of the theory will be given, together with an overview of the most important experimental facts which have established this theoretical framework as the Standard Theory of particle interactions.

  17. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Test Requirements for Launch, Upper-Stage and Space Vehicles (United States)


    certain items the specified acceptance test environments could result in physical deterioration of materials or other damage. In those cases, mounting, board sizes and thickness, number of layers , thermal coefficients of expansion, or installation method, development tests should be...salt fog, and explosive atmosphere. Tests shall conform to the methods given in Reference 1 when applicable. Degradation due to fungus, ozone , and

  18. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Parts, Materials, and Processes Control Program for Space Vehicles (United States)


    SULPHURIC ACID ) MIL-A-8625 Type II Class 1 SEE NOTES 2 and 3. ANODIZE, HARD MIL-A-8625 Type III Class 1 NOT RECOMMENDED FOR USE ON 2XXX SERIES OR CASTING...Parts 5.2.1 Capacitors MIL-PRF-123 Capacitor, Fixed, Ceramic Dielectric , Temperature Stable and General Purpose, High Reliability S-311-P-829...inspection. MIL-PRF-23269 Capacitor, Fixed, Glass Dielectric , Established Reliability, Styles CYR 10, 15, 20 and 30, failure rate “S” minimum MIL-PRF

  19. Air Force Space Command. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard. Configuration Management (United States)


    loae.ll-· ~ WIUAC~ Cl’IM-noo. 1fAUQi’IIOI DfYll.~tll IDf’I.O¥\\«Nf ·~ BASEU NE(S) NORMALlY IN EFFECT ,,~ llCIOIOIL Putenoo.u • uoc ~ , uoc ...AUCitAlD_,.,.. MO.CC.0110r AUOCo&’ltOI MQ0ue1 IASlLtiC ~1- UOC TASK 101 Spec:ific:alion Revision Level ~OUIRED REQUIRED REOUIAEO REOUIREO

  20. Reliability Program for Space Systems (Space and Missile Systems Center Standard) (United States)


    Requirements List CI Configuration Item CIL Critical Item List CLSI Custom Large Scale Integration CSCI Computer Software Configuration Item...Circuits (VLSIC), Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC), Custom Large Scale Integration ( CLSI ), and Hybrid Semiconductor Devices shall be analyzed

  1. Space Debris Modeling at NASA (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.


    Since the Second European Conference on Space Debris in 1997, the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center has undertaken a major effort to update and improve the principal software tools employed to model the space debris environment and to evaluate mission risks. NASA's orbital debris engineering model, ORDEM, represents the current and near-term Earth orbital debris population from the largest spacecraft to the smallest debris in a manner which permits spacecraft engineers and experimenters to estimate the frequency and velocity with which a satellite may be struck by debris of different sizes. Using expanded databases and a new program design, ORDEM2000 provides a more accurate environment definition combined with a much broader array of output products in comparison with its predecessor, ORDEM96. Studies of the potential long-term space debris environment are now conducted with EVOLVE 4.0, which incorporates significant advances in debris characterization and breakup modeling. An adjunct to EVOLVE 4.0, GEO EVOLVE has been created to examine debris issues near the geosynchronous orbital regime. In support of NASA Safety Standard 1740.14, which establishes debris mitigation guidelines for all NASA space programs, a set of evaluation tools called the Debris Assessment Software (DAS) is specifically designed for program offices to determine whether they are in compliance with NASA debris mitigation guidelines. DAS 1.5 has recently been released with improved WINDOWS compatibility and graphics functions. DAS 2.0 will incorporate guideline changes in a forthcoming revision to NASA Safety Standard 1740.14. Whereas DAS contains a simplified model to calculate possible risks associated with satellite reentries, NASA's higher fidelity Object Reentry Survival Analysis Tool (ORSAT) has been upgraded to Version 5.0. With the growing awareness of the potential risks posed by uncontrolled satellite reentries to people and property on Earth, the

  2. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing


    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  3. Space weather: European Space Agency perspectives (United States)

    Daly, E. J.; Hilgers, A.

    Spacecraft and payloads have become steadily more sophisticated and therefore more susceptible to space weather effects. ESA has long been active in applying models and tools to the problems associated with such effects on its spacecraft. In parallel, ESA and European agencies have built a highly successful solar-terrestrial physics capability. ESA is now investigating the marriage of these technological and scientific capabilities to address perceived user needs for space weather products and services. Two major ESA-sponsored studies are laying the groundwork for a possible operational European space weather service. The wide-ranging activities of ESA in the Space Weather/Space Environment domain are summarized and recent important examples of space weather concerns given.

  4. The French Space Operation Act: Technical Regulations (United States)

    Trinchero, J. P.; Lazare, B.


    The French Space Operation Act(FSOA) stipulates that a prime objective of the National technical regulations is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these technical regulations is mandatory as of 10 December 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations from French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by the applicant, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting technical regulations are as follows: requirements must as far as possible establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being the state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. Technical regulations are divided into three sections covering common requirements for the launch, control and return of a space object. A dedicated section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the technical regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth’s environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection.

  5. 14 CFR 16.227 - Standard of proof. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard of proof. 16.227 Section 16.227 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF... in the record and is in accordance with law. ...

  6. Fake weighted projective spaces


    Buczynska, Weronika


    We define fake weighted projective spaces as a generalisation of weighted projective spaces. We introduce the notions of fundamental group in codimension 1 and of universal covering in codimension 1. We prove that for every fake weighted projective space its universal cover in codimension 1 is a weighted projective space.

  7. Organic chemistry in space (United States)

    Johnson, R. D.


    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  8. Space Guidelines for Libraries. (United States)

    Wisconsin Coordinating Committee for Higher Education, Madison.

    The following guidelines are recommended: stack space--for each 10 volumes, one square foot of space; reading room--25 square feet per station x 20% of the total undergraduate population; carrel space--25% of the graduate enrollment x 45 square feet; office and auxilliary space--135 square feet x full time equivalent staff. (NI)

  9. Neutrosophic triplet normed space (United States)

    Şahin, Mehmet; Kargın, Abdullah


    In this paper; new properties for neutrosophic triplet groups are introduced. A notion of neutrosophic triplet metric space is given and properties of neutrosophic triplet metric spaces are studied. Neutrosophic triplet vector space and neutrosophic triplet normed space are also studied and some of their properties are given. Furthermore, we also show that these neutrosophic triplet notionsare different from the classical notions.

  10. Budgeting Academic Space (United States)

    Harris, Watson


    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  11. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.


    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  12. Exploring the New Standards (United States)

    Willard, Ted; Pratt, Harold; Workosky, Cindy


    This is an exciting time to be in science education. New science standards are being developed by a group of science educators from across the country, working with 26 states in a process managed by Achieve, Inc., a non-profit education reform organization. The development of the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) promises to be the most…

  13. Weston Standard battery

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a Weston AOIP standard battery with its calibration certificate (1956). Inside, the glassware forms an "H". Its name comes from the British physicist Edward Weston. A standard is the materialization of a given quantity whose value is known with great accuracy.

  14. Workflow automation architecture standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)


    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  15. Minnesota Academic Standards: Kindergarten (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Education, 2017


    This document contains all of the Minnesota kindergarten academic standards in the content areas of Arts, English Language Arts, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies. For each content area there is a short overview followed by a coding diagram of how the standards are organized and displayed. This document is adapted from the official versions…

  16. Standards and Professional Development (United States)

    Zengler, Cynthia J.


    The purpose of this paper is to describe the professional development that has taken place in conjunction with Ohio adopting the College and Career Readiness (CCR) Standards. The professional development (PD) has changed over time to include not only training on the new standards and lesson plans but training on the concepts defined in the…

  17. Governing through standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja

    This abstract adresses the ways in which new education standards have become integral to new modes of education governance. The paper explores the role of standards for accelerating the shift from national to transnational governance in higher education. Drawing on the case of higher education...

  18. Revisiting Professional Teacher Standards (United States)

    Watson, Amanda


    The Australian Society for Music Education's (ASME) involvement in the development of professional standards for music educators was a significant and active research time in the history of the Society. As ASME celebrates its golden jubilee, it is appropriate to revisit that history and consider the future prospects of subject-specific standards.…

  19. Standardizing visual display quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besuijen, J.; Spenkelink, G.P.J.


    The current ISO 9241–3 standard for visual display quality and the proposed user performance tests are reviewed. The standard is found to be more engineering than ergonomic and problems with system configuration, software applications, display settings, user behaviour, wear and physical environment

  20. The Genomic Standards Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, Dawn; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Cochrane, Guy


    Standards Consortium (GSC), an open-membership organization that drives community-based standardization activities, Here we provide a short history of the GSC, provide an overview of its range of current activities, and make a call for the scientific community to join forces to improve the quality...

  1. Space Synthetic Biology Project (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)


    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  2. Workstation Designs for a Cis-Lunar Deep Space Habitat (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott


    Using the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) system, a suite of workstations required for deep space missions have been proposed to fill out habitation functions in an International Space Station (ISS) derived Cis-lunar Deep Space Habitat. This paper introduces the functional layout of the Cis-lunar habitat design, and describes conceptual designs for modular deployable work surfaces, General Maintenance Workstation (GMWS), In-Space Manufacturing Workstation (ISMW), Intra-Vehicular Activity Telerobotics Work Station (IVA-TRWS), and Galley / Wardroom.

  3. Space Charge Mitigation With Longitudinally Hollow Bunches

    CERN Multimedia

    Oeftiger, Adrian; Rumolo, Giovanni


    Hollow longitudinal phase space distributions have a flat profile and hence reduce the impact of transverse space charge. Dipolar parametric excitation with the phase loop feedback systems provides such hollow distributions under reproducible conditions. We present a procedure to create hollow bunches during the acceleration ramp of CERN’s PS Booster machine with minimal changes to the operational cycle. The improvements during the injection plateau of the downstream Proton Synchrotron are assessed in comparison to standard parabolic bunches.

  4. Space charge mitigation with longitudinally hollow bunches

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2088716; Hancock, Steven; Rumolo, Giovanni; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    Suitably, hollow longitudinal phase space distributions have a flat profile and hence reduce the impact of transverse space charge. Dipolar parametric excitation with the phase loop feedback systems provides such hollow distributions under reproducible conditions. We present a procedure to create hollow bunches during the acceleration ramp of CERN’s PS Booster machine with minimal changes to the operational cycle. The improvements during the injection plateau of the downstream Proton Synchrotron are assessed in comparison to standard parabolic bunches.

  5. Noether symmetries in the phase space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogar Díaz


    Full Text Available The constants of motion of a mechanical system with a finite number of degrees of freedom are related to the variational symmetries of a Lagrangian constructed from the Hamiltonian of the original system. The configuration space for this Lagrangian is the phase space of the original system. The symmetries considered in this manner include transformations of the time and may not be canonical in the standard sense.

  6. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  7. Theory of function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Triebel, Hans


    The book deals with the two scales Bsp,q and Fsp,q of spaces of distributions, where -8spaces, such as Hölder spaces, Zygmund classes, Sobolev spaces, Besov spaces, Bessel-potential spaces, Hardy spaces and spaces of BMO-type. It is the main aim of this book to give a unified treatment of the corresponding spaces on the Euclidean n-space Rn in the framework of Fourier analysis, which is based on the technique of maximal functions, Fourier multipliers and interpolation assertions. These topics are treated in Chapter 2, which is the heart

  8. Standard guide for sampling radioactive tank waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This guide addresses techniques used to obtain grab samples from tanks containing high-level radioactive waste created during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. Guidance on selecting appropriate sampling devices for waste covered by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is also provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1). Vapor sampling of the head-space is not included in this guide because it does not significantly affect slurry retrieval, pipeline transport, plugging, or mixing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. National Space Agencies vs. Commercial Space: Towards Improved Space Safety (United States)

    Pelton, J.


    Traditional space policies as developed at the national level includes many elements but they are most typically driven by economic and political objectives. Legislatively administered programs apportion limited public funds to achieve "gains" that can involve employment, stimulus to the economy, national defense or other advancements. Yet political advantage is seldom far from the picture.Within the context of traditional space policies, safety issues cannot truly be described as "afterthoughts", but they are usually, at best, a secondary or even tertiary consideration. "Space safety" is often simply assumed to be "in there" somewhere. The current key question is can "safety and risk minimization", within new commercial space programs actually be elevated in importance and effectively be "designed in" at the outset. This has long been the case with commercial aviation and there is at least reasonable hope that this could also be the case for the commercial space industry in coming years. The cooperative role that the insurance industry has now played for centuries in the shipping industry and for decades in aviation can perhaps now play a constructive role in risk minimization in the commercial space domain as well. This paper begins by examining two historical case studies in the context of traditional national space policy development to see how major space policy decisions involving "manned space programs" have given undue primacy to "political considerations" over "safety" and other factors. The specific case histories examined here include first the decision to undertake the Space Shuttle Program (i.e. 1970-1972) and the second is the International Space Station. In both cases the key and overarching decisions were driven by political, schedule and cost considerations, and safety seems absence as a prime consideration. In publicly funded space programs—whether in the United States, Europe, Russia, Japan, China, India or elsewhere—it seems realistic to

  10. Learning from Space Entrepreneurs (United States)

    Pomerantz, William


    The early days of rocketry and space exploration in the United States were marked by incredibly rapid progress: a seemingly endless parade of firsts. Not coincidentally, this period also saw more than its fair share of failure, especially in the infamous "kaputnik" days prior to the successful launch of Explorer. Without a standard canon of known quantities to turn to, the early pioneers of rocketry and space flight were forced to dream up new ideas that ranged from the elegant to the bizarre and to accept the fact that the price of radical progress is occasional failure. Nowadays, rapid prototyping and testing have slowed, as we rely more and more on the extensive knowledge pined by our predecessors and on the embarrassment of riches modern engineers get from computational modeling and computer assisted design. In many cases, this leads to much improved or phenomenally more efficient designs. It also, however, fosters a culture so terrified of failure that we over-engineer and overanalyze everything, often tweaking designs for decades before a new system takes flight. (This is not a problem unique to rockets; the same phenomenon seems to have occurred in high-performance jets.) This is one reason why it was possible for President Kennedy to dream of the completion of the Mercury and Gemini missions and a successful landing on the moon in under a decade, while returning to the moon may take nearly twice as long. Lacking access to the tremendous computational resources of the national space program-and, just as importantly, removed from the harsh judgment of public shareholders or congressional appropriations committees-the hungry entrepreneurs who compete for our prizes tend not to display such fear of failure. Instead, most of them follow a rapid "build, test, fly" program. They are willing to throw a handful of concepts against the wall and see what sticks. They often go from drawing on the back of a napkin to firing engines or even flying vehicles in a matter of

  11. Space Sciences Focus Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    To advance our understanding of the space environment (from the Sun to the Earth and beyond) and to advance our ability to operate systems in space that protect life and society. Space Science is distinct from other field, such as astrophysics or cosmology, in that Space Science utilizes in-situ measurements from high altitude rockets, balloons and spacecraft or ground-based measurements of objects and conditions in space.

  12. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model and Aggregated Flux Data in Standard Format (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides standardized output variables for gross primary productivity (GPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), leaf area index (LAI), ecosystem respiration...

  13. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model and Aggregated Flux Data in Standard Format (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides standardized output variables for gross primary productivity (GPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), leaf area index (LAI), ecosystem...

  14. Hubble Space Telescope-Space Shuttle interface dynamic verification test (United States)

    Blair, Mark A.; Vadlamudi, Nagarjuna


    A test program has been developed for the interface between the Space Shuttle Orbiter and the Hubble Space Telescope which couples a standard modal test for a simple suspended structure with a novel, 'interface verification' test. While the free-free modal test is used to verify the high loads generating structural modes due to the interaction of internal components of the structure with the rest of the structure, the interface verification test verifies the character of the high-loading generating modes in which the structure reacts against the booster interface. The novel method excites the structure at a single payload-booster interface DOF, while all other interfaces are left free to move.

  15. Military Housing: Status of the Services' Implementation of the Current Barracks Design Standard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... In November 1995, DOD adopted a new barracks construction standard, referred to as the 1+1 design standard, that called for more space and increased privacy in new barracks for service members permanently assigned to an installation...

  16. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 8-day standard physical retrieval (AIRS-only) V005 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  17. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Monthly Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month. The...

  18. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Monthly Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month....

  19. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month. The...

  20. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Daily Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours for...

  1. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Daily standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours for...

  2. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Daily standard physical retrieval (AIRS-only) V005 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours...

  3. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 8-day standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  4. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Daily Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours...

  5. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly standard physical retrieval (AIRS-only) V005 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month....

  6. Aqua AIRS Level 3 8-day Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  7. Aqua AIRS Level 3 8-day Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  8. Standard dilution analysis. (United States)

    Jones, Willis B; Donati, George L; Calloway, Clifton P; Jones, Bradley T


    Standard dilution analysis (SDA) is a novel calibration method that may be applied to most instrumental techniques that will accept liquid samples and are capable of monitoring two wavelengths simultaneously. It combines the traditional methods of standard additions and internal standards. Therefore, it simultaneously corrects for matrix effects and for fluctuations due to changes in sample size, orientation, or instrumental parameters. SDA requires only 200 s per sample with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Neither the preparation of a series of standard solutions nor the construction of a universal calibration graph is required. The analysis is performed by combining two solutions in a single container: the first containing 50% sample and 50% standard mixture; the second containing 50% sample and 50% solvent. Data are collected in real time as the first solution is diluted by the second one. The results are used to prepare a plot of the analyte-to-internal standard signal ratio on the y-axis versus the inverse of the internal standard concentration on the x-axis. The analyte concentration in the sample is determined from the ratio of the slope and intercept of that plot. The method has been applied to the determination of FD&C dye Blue No. 1 in mouthwash by molecular absorption spectrometry and to the determination of eight metals in mouthwash, wine, cola, nitric acid, and water by ICP OES. Both the accuracy and precision for SDA are better than those observed for the external calibration, standard additions, and internal standard methods using ICP OES.

  9. 14 CFR 1273.20 - Standards for financial management systems. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for financial management systems... Requirements Financial Administration § 1273.20 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must... prohibitions of applicable statutes. (b) The financial management systems of other grantees and subgrantees...

  10. 14 CFR 1260.121 - Standards for financial management systems. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for financial management systems... Requirements § 1260.121 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Recipients shall relate financial data...) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following. (1) Accurate, current and complete...

  11. 14 CFR 13.223 - Standard of proof. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard of proof. 13.223 Section 13.223... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.223 Standard of proof. The administrative law judge shall issue an initial decision or shall rule in a party's favor...

  12. 14 CFR 406.151 - Standard of proof. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard of proof. 406.151 Section 406.151... Transportation Adjudications § 406.151 Standard of proof. The administrative law judge must issue an initial..., the party with the burden of proof must prove the party's case or defense by a preponderance of...

  13. 9 CFR 88.3 - Standards for conveyances. (United States)


    ... TRANSPORTATION OF EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.3 Standards for conveyances. (a) The animal cargo space of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for conveyances. 88.3 Section 88.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. SpaceTech—Postgraduate space education (United States)

    de Bruijn, Ferdi J.; Ashford, Edward W.; Larson, Wiley J.


    SpaceTech is a postgraduate program geared primarily for mid-career space professionals seeking to gain or improve their expertise in space systems engineering and in business engineering. SpaceTech provides a lifelong impact on its participants by broadening their capabilities, encouraging systematic "end-to-end" thinking and preparing them for any technical or business-related engineering challenges they may encounter. This flexible 1-year program offers high competency gain and increased business skills. It is held in attractive locations in a flexible, multi-cultural environment. SpaceTech is a highly effective master's program certified by the esteemed Technical University of Delft (TUD), Netherlands. SpaceTech provides expert instructors who place no barriers between themselves and participants. The program combines innovative and flexible new approaches with time-tested methods to give participants the skills required for future missions and new business, while allowing participants to meet their work commitments at the same time as they study for their master's degree. The SpaceTech program is conducted in separate sessions, generally each of 2-week duration, separated by periods of some 6-8 weeks, during which time participants may return to their normal jobs. It also includes introductory online course material that the participants can study at their leisure. The first session is held at the TUD, with subsequent sessions held at strategic space agency locations. By participating at two or more of these sessions, attendees can earn certificates of satisfactory completion from TU Delft. By participating in all of the sessions, as well as taking part in the companion Central Case Project (CCP), participants earn an accredited and highly respected master's degree in Space Systems Engineering from the TUD. Seven distinct SpaceTech modules are provided during these sessions: Space Mission Analysis and Design, Systems Engineering, Business Engineering

  15. VAlidation STandard antennas: Past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drioli, Luca Salghetti; Ostergaard, A; Paquay, M


    designed for validation campaigns of antenna measurement ranges. The driving requirements of VAST antennas are their mechanical stability over a given operational temperature range and with respect to any orientation of the gravity field. The mechanical design shall ensure extremely stable electrical....../V-band of telecom satellites. The paper will address requirements for future VASTs and possible architecture for multi-frequency Validation Standard antennas........ In the beginning, ad-hoc available antennas were shipped around the various ranges. Soon it became clear that the comparisons were restricted by the properties of the antenna. The European Space Agency (ESA) stimulated and supported the development of a dedicated VAlidation STandard (VAST) antenna, specifically...

  16. Products of straight spaces with compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuo Nishijima


    Full Text Available A metric space X is called straight if any continuous real-valued function which is uniformly continuous on each set of a finite cover of X by closed sets, is itself uniformly continuous. Let C be the convergent sequence {1/n : n ϵ N} with its limit 0 in the real line with the usual metric. In this paper, we show that for a straight space X, X × C is straight if and only if X × K is straight for any compact metric space K. Furthermore, we show that for a straight space X, if X × C is straight, then X is precompact. Note that the notion of straightness depends on the metric on X. Indeed, since the real line R with the usual metric is not precompact, R×C is not straight. On the other hand, we show that the product space of an open interval and C is straight.

  17. Section 2: The Space of Media Space (United States)

    Harrison, Steve

    We began our study of media space with the social aspects of mediated communication because many in the computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) realm are familiar with models, theories, frameworks, issues, and design approaches related to sociality. But the first media space research came from another set of traditions — the ordering of space and the making of place. Formally, these are the professional and intellectual provinces of architecture, which are probably remote from the disciplinary backgrounds of most readers. However, remoteness in terms of rhetoric and training does not prevent proximity to everyday human experience. The meaning of media space with respect to human experience is the focus of the articles in this section. The spaces are designed to have meaning, and the meaning of the design derives from spatial experience.

  18. Legal Challenges Relating to the Commercial use of Outer Space, with Specific Reference to Space Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anél Ferreira-Snyman


    Full Text Available Since the launch of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1 in 1957, the outer space arena has evolved to include non-state entities, which are becoming serious participants in outer space activities themselves, including venturing into the space tourism market. Although space tourism is still in its infancy, it is estimated that the number of space tourists will substantially increase within the next few years. As space tourist activities increase, accidents will inevitably occur, which will give rise to legal questions relating to the duty of states to rescue space tourists in distress, and the liability for damages. This contribution points out that the current outer space treaty regime, which focuses on the use of outer space by states, is to a large extent outdated and that it cannot adequately deal with the unique legal challenges presented by the rapidly developing space tourism industry. This situation is exacerbated by the fact that the outer space legal framework is very fragmented – consisting of treaties, UN principles and guidelines, regional regulations and intergovernmental agreements, as well as national guidelines and legislation. In order to ensure that space tourism is indeed to the benefit of all mankind, it is imperative that clear international legal rules relating to space tourism be formulated, where standards are set for the authorisation and supervision of commercial space activities and the interests of states, passengers and private actors are balanced as far as possible. In view of the urgent need to address these legal questions and the consequent lack of time to negotiate a binding legal instrument, it is submitted that, as an interim measure, soft law guidelines should be developed in relation to space tourism in order to provide a framework for the eventual creation of a consolidated and binding legal instrument on all aspects relating to the use and exploration of outer space.

  19. Experiments Program for NASA's Space Communications Testbed (United States)

    Chelmins, David; Reinhart, Richard


    NASA developed a testbed for communications and navigation that was launched to the International Space Station in 2012. The testbed promotes new software defined radio (SDR) technologies and addresses associated operational concepts for space-based SDRs, enabled by this first flight of NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standard. The experiments program consists of a mix of in-house and external experiments from partners in industry, academia, and government. The experiments will investigate key challenges in communications, networking, and global positioning system navigation both on the ground and on orbit. This presentation will discuss some of the key opportunities and challenges for the testbed experiments program.

  20. Function valued metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Mirzavaziri


    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notion of an ℱ-metric, as a function valued distance mapping, on a set X and we investigate the theory of ℱ-metrics paces. We show that every metric space may be viewed as an F-metric space and every ℱ-metric space (X,δ can be regarded as a topological space (X,τδ. In addition, we prove that the category of the so-called extended F-metric spaces properly contains the category of metric spaces. We also introduce the concept of an `ℱ-metric space as a completion of an ℱ-metric space and, as an application to topology, we prove that each normal topological space is `ℱ-metrizable.

  1. Atomic clock ensemble in space (United States)

    Cacciapuoti, L.; Salomon, C.


    Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) is a mission using high-performance clocks and links to test fundamental laws of physics in space. Operated in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station, the ACES clocks, PHARAO and SHM, will generate a frequency reference reaching instability and inaccuracy at the 1 · 10-16 level. A link in the microwave domain (MWL) and an optical link (ELT) will make the ACES clock signal available to ground laboratories equipped with atomic clocks. Space-to-ground and ground-to-ground comparisons of atomic frequency standards will be used to test Einstein's theory of general relativity including a precision measurement of the gravitational red-shift, a search for time variations of fundamental constants, and Lorentz Invariance tests. Applications in geodesy, optical time transfer, and ranging will also be supported. ACES has now reached an advanced technology maturity, with engineering models completed and successfully tested and flight hardware under development. This paper presents the ACES mission concept and the status of its main instruments.

  2. SCHOTT optical glass in space (United States)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Petzold, Uwe


    Optical systems in space environment have to withstand harsh radiation. Radiation in space usually comes from three main sources: the Van Allen radiation belts (mainly electrons and protons); solar proton events and solar energetic particles (heavier ions); and galactic cosmic rays (gamma- or x-rays). Other heavy environmental effects include short wavelength radiation (UV) and extreme temperatures (cold and hot). Radiation can damage optical glasses and effect their optical properties. The most common effect is solarization, the decrease in transmittance by radiation. This effect can be observed for UV radiation and for gamma or electron radiation. Optical glasses can be stabilized against many radiation effects. SCHOTT offers radiation resistant glasses that do not show solarization effects for gamma or electron radiation. A review of SCHOTT optical glasses in space missions shows, that not only radiation resistant glasses are used in the optical designs, but also standard optical glasses. This publication finishes with a selection of space missions using SCHOTT optical glass over the last decades.

  3. Challenges of Space Mission Interoperability (United States)

    Martin, Warren L.; Hooke, Adrian J.


    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the international challenges to space mission interoperability. Interoperability is the technical capability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged. One of the challenges that is addressed is the problem of spectrum bandwidth, and interference. The key to interoperability is the standardization of space communications services and protocols. Various levels of international cross support are reviewed: harmony, cooperation cross support and confederation cross support. The various international bodies charged with implementing cross support are reviewed. The goal of the Interagency Operations Advisory Group (IOAG) is to achieve plug-and-play operations where all that is required is for each of the systems to use an agreed communications medium, after which the systems configure each other for the purpose of exchanging information and subsequently effect such exchange automatically.

  4. Chapter 12. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.


    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  5. FDA Recognized Consensus Standards (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database consists of those national and international standards recognized by FDA which manufacturers can declare conformity to and is part of the information...

  6. Crew Transportation Operations Standards (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)


    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  7. Standardization of hormone determinations. (United States)

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan


    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spectral transmittance reference standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruglyakova, M.A.; Belyaeva, O.N.; Nikitin, M.V.


    This paper presents spectral transmittance reference standards for UV and IR spectrophotometers, developed, studied, and certified by a precision spectrophotometry laboratory (the RSP Complex). 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  10. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  11. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H


    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  12. State Air Quality Standards. (United States)

    Pollution Engineering, 1978


    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  13. Standards for new approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.H.J.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Van der Molen, P.


    Th e new Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) has evolved as an ISO-recognised standard to provide a formal language for describing traditional land administration methods, spot the similarities and diff erences, and provide a way forward.

  14. AKRO: Standard Prices (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard prices are generated for cost recovery programs in the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) halibut and sablefish, BSAI Rationalized crab, and Central Gulf of...

  15. [Standardization of hospital feeding]. (United States)

    Caracuel García, Ángel Manuel


    Normalization can be understood as the establishing measures against repetitive situations through the development, dissemination, and application of technical design documents called standards. In Andalusia there are 45 public hospitals with 14,606 beds, and in which 11,700 full pensions / day are served. The Working Group on Hospital Food Standardization of the Andalusian Society for Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, started in 2010, working on the certification of suppliers, product specifications, and meals technical card. - Develop a specific tool to help improving food safety through the certification of their suppliers. - Develop a standardized technical specifications of foodstuffs necessary for the development of menus established codes diets Andalusian hospitals document. - Develop a catalog of data sheets plates of hospital meals, to homogenize menus, respecting local and unifying criteria for qualitative and quantitative ingredients. - Providing documentation and studying of several public hospitals in Andalusia: • Product specifications and certification of suppliers. • International standards certification and distribution companies. • Legislation. • Data sheets for the menu items. • Specifications of different product procurement procedures. - Development of the draft standard HOSPIFOOD®, and approval of the version “0.0”. - Training course for auditors to this standard. - Development of a raw materials catalog as technical cards. - Meals Technical cards review and election of the ones which will be part of the document. After nearly three years of work, we have achieved the following products: - Standardized database of technical specifications for the production of food dietary codes for: fish, seafood, meat and meat products, meats and pates, ready meals, bread and pastries, preserves, milk and dairy products, oils, cereals, legumes , vegetables, fruits, fresh and frozen vegetables, condiments and spices. - Standardized database of

  16. OneSpace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledo, David; Aseniero, Bon Adriel; Greenberg, Saul


    Video conferencing commonly employs a video portal metaphor to connect individuals from remote spaces. In this work, we explore an alternate metaphor, a shared depth-mirror, where video images of two spaces are fused into a single shared, depth-corrected video space. We realize this metaphor in One......Space, where the space respects virtual spatial relationships between people and objects as if all parties were looking at a mirror together. We report preliminary observations of OneSpace's use, noting that it encourages cross-site, full-body interactions, and that participants employed the depth cues...

  17. Free topological vector spaces


    Gabriyelyan, Saak S.; Morris, Sidney A.


    We define and study the free topological vector space $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ over a Tychonoff space $X$. We prove that $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is a $k_\\omega$-space if and only if $X$ is a $k_\\omega$-space. If $X$ is infinite, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ contains a closed vector subspace which is topologically isomorphic to $\\mathbb{V}(\\mathbb{N})$. It is proved that if $X$ is a $k$-space, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is locally convex if and only if $X$ is discrete and countable. If $X$ is a metrizable space it is shown ...

  18. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N


    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  19. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin


    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  20. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators


    Birčiaková Naďa; Stávková Jana; Antošová Veronika


    This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determin...

  1. [Reflections on physical spaces and mental spaces]. (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Yi


    This article analyzes certain reciprocal impacts from physical spaces to mental spaces. If the epistemological construction and the spatial imagination from the subject of cogito or the social collectivities are able to influence the construction and creation of the physical spaces of that subject, then the context of that physical space may also affect the cognitive or social subject's mental cognition. This article applies the methodology of iconology from art history (E. Panofsky) and sociology (P. Bourdieu) to explore correlations between the creation of imaginative and physical spaces from the collective consciousness and mental cognition. The author uses Gilles Deleuses's opinion regarding the 17th-century Baroque style and contemporary social collective symptoms as an explanation. From these theoretical studies, the author analyzes the differences of spatial epistemology generated by Taiwan's special geological text. Finally, the author applies Michel Foucault's studies on spatial context to assess the possible application of this thesis of reciprocal impacts from mental spaces to physical spaces in a nursing context.

  2. Isometries on Banach spaces function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, Richard J


    Fundamental to the study of any mathematical structure is an understanding of its symmetries. In the class of Banach spaces, this leads naturally to a study of isometries-the linear transformations that preserve distances. In his foundational treatise, Banach showed that every linear isometry on the space of continuous functions on a compact metric space must transform a continuous function x into a continuous function y satisfying y(t) = h(t)x(p(t)), where p is a homeomorphism and |h| is identically one.Isometries on Banach Spaces: Function Spaces is the first of two planned volumes that survey investigations of Banach-space isometries. This volume emphasizes the characterization of isometries and focuses on establishing the type of explicit, canonical form given above in a variety of settings. After an introductory discussion of isometries in general, four chapters are devoted to describing the isometries on classical function spaces. The final chapter explores isometries on Banach algebras.This treatment p...

  3. Revision of ISO 15859 Aerospace Fluid Standards (United States)

    Greene, Benjamin; McClure, Mark B.


    A detailed review of ISO 15859 "Space Systems - Fluid Characteristics, Sampling and Test Methods" was performed An approach to revising Parts 1-9 and 11-13 was developed and concurred by the NASA Technical Standards Program Office. The approach was to align them with the highest level source documents, and not to program-specific requirements. The updated documents were prepared and presented.

  4. DOE technical standards list. Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listing of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  5. Standardization activity for the spacecraft onboard interfaces (United States)

    Smith, J. F.; Plummer, C.; Plancke, P.


    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is an international organization of national space agencies that is organized to promote theinterchange of space related information. CCSDS is branching out to provide new standards to enhanced reuse of spacecraft equipment and software onboard of a spacecraft. This effort is know as Spacecraft Onboard Interface (SOIF). SOIF expects that these standards will be well used within the space community, and that they will be based on the well-known Internet protocols. This paper will provide a description of the SOIF work by reviewing this work with three orthogonal views. The Services View describes the data communications services that are provided to the users. The Interoperability view provides a description to users on how to use SOIF to interchange between different spacecraft data busses. And finally, the Protocol view, describes the protocols and services that are to be implemented in order to provide the users with the advantages of the SOIF architecture. This paper will give the reader an excellent introduction to the work of the international SOIF team.

  6. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  7. 2001 Industry Studies: Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Argodale, John


    The U.S. space industry faces significant challenges in the 21st century. Although the U.S. dominates space in terms of investment and capabilities, commercial competition from Europe is formidable and growing...

  8. Beyond the Space Cadre

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Bradley W


    The Marine Corps must develop an expeditionary trained and equipped core of space professionals who can provide the commander with integrated space analysis, products, and expertise during the Marine...

  9. Probabilistic metric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schweizer, B


    Topics include special classes of probabilistic metric spaces, topologies, and several related structures, such as probabilistic normed and inner-product spaces. 1983 edition, updated with 3 new appendixes. Includes 17 illustrations.

  10. Occupational Space Medicine (United States)

    Tarver, William J.


    Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

  11. The space gravity environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beysens, D.A.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Beysens, D.A.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.


    It is generally thought that gravity is zero on an object travelling at constant velocity in space. This is not exactly so. We detail in the following those causes that make space gravity not strictly zero.

  12. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarov, S S


    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  13. Stereotype locally convex spaces (United States)

    Akbarov, S. S.


    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  14. Space Physics Data Facility (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SPDF is a project of the Heliospheric Science Division (HSD) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. SPDF consists of web-based services for survey and high...

  15. Space Environment Modeling (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  16. Space, time, matter

    CERN Document Server

    Weyl, Hermann


    Excellent introduction probes deeply into Euclidean space, Riemann's space, Einstein's general relativity, gravitational waves and energy, and laws of conservation. "A classic of physics." - British Journal for Philosophy and Science.

  17. Space Power Facility (SPF) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Power Facility (SPF) houses the world's largest space environment simulation chamber, measuring 100 ft. in diameter by 122 ft. high. In this chamber, large...

  18. Inform@ed space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter; Olsen, Kasper Nefer


    Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001.......Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001....

  19. NASA Space Sounds API (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  20. The French Space Operations Act: Technical Regulations (United States)

    Lazare, B.


    The French Space Operations Act (FSOA) [1] stipulates that one of the National Technical Regulations' prime objectives is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these Technical Regulations has been mandatory since 10 December, 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations conducted on French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by applicant space operators, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting the Technical Regulations are as follows: requirements must, as far as possible, establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. The Technical Regulations are divided into three sections covering requirements common to the launch, control and return of a space object. A special section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the Technical Regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth's environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection. The first version of the Technical Regulations [2], issued in March 2011, is dedicated to unmanned space systems.

  1. Man's future in space (United States)

    Freitag, R. F.


    Studies evaluating potential operational and commercial uses of space are being conducted, taking into account astronomy, astrophysics, manned bases and laboratories in earth orbit, space colonization, terrestrial communications, space processing and manufacturing, interstellar probes, planetary exploration, and the use of space for terrestrial energy supply. The present status in the exploration of the solar system is examined, giving attention to Jupiter, Venus, Mars, and Mercury. A brief outline of the development of human colonies on Mars is presented.

  2. Clinical Space Medicine Panel (United States)

    Baisden, Denise L.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)


    The practice of space medicine is diverse. It includes routine preventive medical care of astronauts and pilots, the development of inflight medical capability and training of flight crews as well as the preflight, inflight, and postflight medical assessment and monitoring. The Johnson Space Center Medical Operations Branch is a leader in the practice of space medicine. The papers presented in this panel will demonstrate some of the unique aspects of space medicine.

  3. Metric 1-spaces


    Weiss, Ittay


    A generalization of metric space is presented which is shown to admit a theory strongly related to that of ordinary metric spaces. To avoid the topological effects related to dropping any of the axioms of metric space, first a new, and equivalent, axiomatization of metric space is given which is then generalized from a fresh point of view. Naturally arising examples from metric geometry are presented.

  4. A Conceptual Space Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer


    Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....

  5. Beyond spaces of counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Mads; Nissen, Morten


    The article articulates experiments with spatial constructions in two Danish social work agencies, basing on (a) a sketchy genealogical reconstruction of conceptualisations and uses of space in social work and counselling, (b) a search for theoretical resources to articulate new spaces, and (c...... spaces are forms of spatialisations which might be taken as prototypical in attempts to develop social work and counselling...

  6. Function spaces, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Pick, Luboš; John, Oldrich; Fucík, Svatopluk


    This is the first part of the second revised and extended edition of a well established monograph. It is an introduction to function spaces defined in terms of differentiability and integrability classes. It provides a catalogue of various spaces and benefits as a handbook for those who use function spaces to study other topics such as partial differential equations. Volum

  7. Symmetric Spaces in Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio


    We exploit the relation among irreducible Riemannian globally symmetric spaces (IRGS) and supergravity theories in 3, 4 and 5 space-time dimensions. IRGS appear as scalar manifolds of the theories, as well as moduli spaces of the various classes of solutions to the classical extremal black hole Attractor Equations. Relations with Jordan algebras of degree three and four are also outlined.

  8. Economical space power systems (United States)

    Burkholder, J. H.


    A commercial approach to design and fabrication of an economical space power system is investigated. Cost projections are based on a 2 kW space power system conceptual design taking into consideration the capability for serviceability, constraints of operation in space, and commercial production engineering approaches. A breakdown of the system design, documentation, fabrication, and reliability and quality assurance estimated costs are detailed.

  9. My Place, My Space (United States)

    Kostal, Heather


    Five- and six-year-olds know a lot about their own homes. Besides school, home is probably where they spend most of their time. But have they ever really thought about their space? Using students' knowledge of their current space will help them design new spaces and think about all the areas that surround them. In this project, students design…

  10. Radiation effects in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.


    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Pappus in optical space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.; van Doorn, Andrea J.; Kappers, Astrid M L; Todd, James T.

    Optical space differs from physical space. The structure of optical space has generally been assumed to be metrical. In contradistinction, we do not assume any metric, but only incidence relations (i.e., we assume that optical points and lines exist and that two points define a unique line, and two

  12. Finding industrial space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riesto, Svava


    Spaces marked by industrial rationalities are easily overseen or rejected without further consideration during urban redevelopment processes. This is striking in an era where urban space is often seen as a cornerstone for the future city. This article investigates different concepts of open space...

  13. Learning Space Service Design (United States)

    Felix, Elliot


    Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same…

  14. Deep Space Telecommunications (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.


    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  15. Sports eyewear protective standards. (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J


    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  16. On Space Warfare: A Space Power Doctrine (United States)


    First of all, barring the invention of an antigravity machine, a bulk payload carrier will be a very large vehicle . For instance, even the most...shuttle, a civilian vehicle , along with the political structure that allowed its development, contributes to US space power. A definition that includes...Most current military space vehicles fall into the support category and can also be used in peaceful activities. For instance, military communication

  17. The Kepler problem in the Snyder space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper the Kepler problem in the non-commutative Snyder scenario was stud- ied. The deformations were characterized in the Poisson bracket algebra under a mimic procedure from quantum standard formulations by taking into account a general recipe to build the non- commutative phase space ...

  18. Teachers' Perceived Professional Space and their Agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oolbekkink-Marchand, H.W.; Hadar, L.L.; Smith, K.; Ulvik, M.; Helleve, I.


    In order to increase student performance, governments stress the importance of standardization for teaching which is seen as a threat to teachers' professionalism. In this small-scale study we investigated the way teachers use their professional space in these changing circumstances. We studied

  19. 9 CFR 3.128 - Space requirements. (United States)


    ..., poor condition, debility, stress, or abnormal behavior patterns. Animal Health and Husbandry Standards ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Space requirements. 3.128 Section 3.128 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......, this book provides an exploration of the role of halal production, trade, and standards. Fischer explains how the global markets for halal comprise divergent zones in which Islam, markets, regulatory institutions, and technoscience interact and diverge. Focusing on the "bigger institutional picture......" that frames everyday halal consumption, Fischer provides a multisited ethnography of the overlapping technologies and techniques of production, trade, and standards that together warrant a product as "halal," and thereby help to format the market. Exploring global halal in networks, training, laboratories...

  1. Standardization of depression measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob


    OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... of 33,844 adults were used for secondary analysis including routine assessments of 23,817 in- and outpatients with mental and/or medical conditions (46% with depressive disorders) and a general population sample of 10,027 randomly selected participants from three representative German household surveys....... RESULTS: A standardized metric for depression severity was defined by 143 items, and scores were normed to a general population mean of 50 (standard deviation = 10) for easy interpretability. It covers the entire range of depression severity assessed by established instruments. The metric allows...

  2. Standards and quality

    CERN Document Server

    El-Tawil, Anwar


    The book brings together a number of subjects of prime importance for any practicing engineer and, students of engineering. The book explains the concepts and functions of voluntary standards, mandatory technical regulations, conformity assessment (testing and measurement of products), certification, quality and quality management systems as well as other management systems such as environmental, social responsibility and food safety management systems.The book also gives a comprehensive description of the role of metrology systems that underpin conformity assessment. A description is given of typical national systems of standards, quality and metrology and how they relate directly or through regional structures to international systems. The book also covers the relation between standards and trade and explains the context and stipulations of the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

  3. Ethics, standards, and TQM. (United States)

    Botticelli, M G


    The most important ethical issue for our profession is the responsibility to assure the care delivered by our colleagues and ourselves meets a self-imposed standard of excellence. There is anecdotal and experimental evidence that we have not fulfilled this obligation. Peer review has proven, for a number of reasons, to be ineffective; however, improvements in the epidemiologic sciences should provide better standards and total quality management (TQM) might prove to be of value in monitoring, comparing and improving the decisions made by physicians. Its promise lies in its emphasis on statistical analysis, its focus on systematic rather than human error, and its use of outcomes as standards. These methods, however, should not diminish our other professional responsibilities: Altruism, peer review, and in Hippocrates' words "to prescribe regimens for the good of our patients-and never do harm to anyone."

  4. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    , this book provides an exploration of the role of halal production, trade, and standards. Fischer explains how the global markets for halal comprise divergent zones in which Islam, markets, regulatory institutions, and technoscience interact and diverge. Focusing on the "bigger institutional picture......Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......" that frames everyday halal consumption, Fischer provides a multisited ethnography of the overlapping technologies and techniques of production, trade, and standards that together warrant a product as "halal," and thereby help to format the market. Exploring global halal in networks, training, laboratories...

  5. Conference: STANDARD MODEL @ LHC

    CERN Multimedia


    HCØ institute Universitetsparken 5 DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø Denmark Room: Auditorium 2 STANDARD MODEL @ LHC Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center 10-13 April 2012 This four day meeting will bring together both experimental and theoretical aspects of Standard Model phenomenology at the LHC. The very latest results from the LHC experiments will be under discussion. Topics covered will be split into the following categories:     * QCD (Hard,Soft & PDFs)     * Vector Boson production     * Higgs searches     * Top Quark Physics     * Flavour physics

  6. Educational Standards: To Standardize or to Customize Learning? (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.


    Standards can be used as tools for standardization or customization. To accelerate learning for all students, standards must reject the dominant standardization (sorting) approach to education. Standards should represent attainment levels, be divorced from timetables and age levels, apply also to nonacademic areas, allow choice within limits, and…

  7. Analysis in Banach Spaces


    Procházka, Antonín


    The thesis consists of two papers and one preprint. The two papers are de- voted to the approximation properties of Lipschitz-free spaces. In the first pa- per we prove that the Lipschitz-free space over a doubling metric space has the bounded approximation property. In particular, the Lipschitz-free space over a closed subset of Rn has the bounded approximation property. We also show that the Lipschitz-free spaces over ℓ1 and over ℓn 1 admit a monotone finite-dimensional Schauder decompositi...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope (United States)


    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  10. Space vehicle chassis (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven; Kestell, Gayle


    A modular space vehicle chassis may facilitate convenient access to internal components of the space vehicle. Each module may be removable from the others such that each module may be worked on individually. Multiple panels of at least one of the modules may swing open or otherwise be removable, exposing large portions of the internal components of the space vehicle. Such chassis architectures may reduce the time required for and difficulty of performing maintenance or modifications, may allow multiple space vehicles to take advantage of a common chassis design, and may further allow for highly customizable space vehicles.

  11. Deep Space CubeSat Prototype Platform Design and Testing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and test a proof of concept prototype for a standard CubeSat form factor platform, designed for missions to deep space targets, as opposed to...

  12. Space physics exhibits underway (United States)

    DeVito, M. Catherine

    AGU is planning a new space science exhibit for the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington that will help visitors come to an understanding of space science as a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and exciting field. The title of the exhibit is “Electric Space: Our Earth-Sun Environment.” The exhibit's five modules will include demonstrations of the effects of particle and field radiation on humans and satellites in space and on human technology on the ground. The project also includes a larger traveling version that will visit science and technology centers throughout the United States. The first exhibit is planned to open at the Air and Space Museum in late summer or early fall 1992, in time for International Space Year activities; the traveling exhibit will begin touring in early 1993.

  13. A reference model for space data system interconnection services (United States)

    Pietras, John; Theis, Gerhard


    The widespread adoption of standard packet-based data communication protocols and services for spaceflight missions provides the foundation for other standard space data handling services. These space data handling services can be defined as increasingly sophisticated processing of data or information received from lower-level services, using a layering approach made famous in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Open System Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). The Space Data System Interconnection Reference Model (SDSI-RM) incorporates the conventions of the OSIRM to provide a framework within which a complete set of space data handling services can be defined. The use of the SDSI-RM is illustrated through its application to data handling services and protocols that have been defined by, or are under consideration by, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS).

  14. Configuration spaces of $\\mathbb{C} \\setminus k$


    Schiessl, Christoph


    In this note, we collect mostly known formulas and methods to compute the standard and virtual Poincar\\'e polynomials of the configuration spaces of the plane $\\mathbb{C} \\setminus k$ with $k$ deleted points and compare the answers.

  15. Herbal reference standards. (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig


    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  16. Standardized Curriculum for Cosmetology. (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: cosmetology I and II. The 18 units in cosmetology I are as follows: introduction to cosmetology; Vocational Industrial Clubs of America; the look you like; bacteriology; sterilization and sanitation; hair and disorders; draping,…

  17. 3G Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saugstrup, Dan; Henten, Anders


    Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to analyze which standard/technology will win the 3G mobile markets. In addition, two sub topics are examined. First, which kind of victory will it be – will one technological solution be all-dominating or is co-existence more likely? Second, which are ...

  18. Beyond Standard Model Higgs

    CERN Document Server



    Recent LHC highlights of searches for Higgs bosons beyond the Standard Model are presented. The results by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations are based on 2011 and 2012 proton-proton collision data at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. They test a wide range of theoretical models.

  19. Low Impact Development Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, Samuel R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The goal of the LID Standards is to provide guidance on the planning, design, construction and maintenance of green infrastructure (GI) features at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The success of LID at LANL is dependent on maintaining a consistent approach to achieve effective application, operation, and maintenance of these storm water control features.

  20. Standard Weights and Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    essary to introduce more global standards. In addition, with the rise of rationalism and modern science in 17th century Europe, the limitations of such arbitrary defini- .... manufacturers out of business. Despite this success, quartz crystal clocks ultimately rely on a mechanical vibration whose frequency depends critically on ...

  1. Beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Csáki, Csaba


    We introduce aspects of physics beyond the Standard Model focusing on supersymmetry, extra dimensions, and a composite Higgs as solutions to the Hierarchy problem. Lectures given at the 2013 European School of High Energy Physics, Parádfürdo, Hungary, 5-18 June 2013.

  2. Standards for School Networking. (United States)

    Carlitz, Robert D.; And Others


    Discusses standards for the design and implementation of the electronic data networks developed for, and adopted by, the Pittsburgh Public Schools as district policy. Describes the layered approach which includes the physical layer, the protocol layer, and the application layer, and recommends hardware. A sidebar features court television in high…

  3. Standardization of Sign Languages (United States)

    Adam, Robert


    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  4. One Burn, One Standard (United States)


    law , no person shall be...Johannes Kepler University Linz Software GmbH Research Department Medical Informatics Hagenberg, Austria Herbert L. Haller, MD Trauma Hospital Linz of...0000000000000004 Address correspondence to M. Giretzlehner, PhD, Johannes Kepler University Linz, RISC Software GmbH, Research Department Medical Informatics, Softwarepark 35, 4232 Hagenberg, Austria. One Burn, One Standard LETTER TO THE EDITOR

  5. Standard hakkab tootma Mercedesele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    AS Standard sõlmis ühe maailma suurema autotootjaga DaimlerChrysler AG koostöölepingu, mille kohaselt hakkab ettevõte tootma ning müüma kontori- ja teenindussaalide mööblit kontserni kuuluva Mercedes-Benzi Euroopa diileritele

  6. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam


    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...

  7. Beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The necessity for new physics beyond the Standard Model will be motivated. Theoretical problems will be exposed and possible solutions will be described. The goal is to present the exciting new physics ideas that will be tested in the near future. Supersymmetry, grand unification, extra dimensions and string theory will be presented.

  8. Telemetry Standards, Part 1 (United States)


    specific meaning to anyone else. Telemetry assignments are made for testing3 manned and unmanned aircraft, for missiles, space, land, and sea test...changes shall occur only on minor frame boundaries. Bit synchronization shall be maintained and fill bits used instead of intentional dead essentially a line graph that plots values vs. time along a scrolling “paper” grid. A stripchart can be vertical or horizontal, and can scroll

  9. International Docking Standardization NASA (United States)

    Donahoe, Stanley; Lewis, J.; Carroll, M.; Le, T.


    This slide presentation reviews the different types of docking types. The objective is the pressurized vehicle connection and crew transfer. Androgynous Docking is defined as the joining or coming together of two free flying space vehicles with alike interfaces. Androgynous mating allows for collaboration between any two vehicles. The subsytems of an androgynous mating system are reviewed, including: Hard docking subsystems: latch system, tunnel housing, alignment system and seal.

  10. Space Debris and Space Safety - Looking Forward (United States)

    Ailor, W.; Krag, H.

    Man's activities in space are creating a shell of space debris around planet Earth which provides a growing risk of collision with operating satellites and manned systems. Including both the larger tracked objects and the small, untracked debris, more than 98% of the estimated 600,000 objects larger than 1 cm currently in orbit are “space junk”--dead satellites, expended rocket stages, debris from normal operations, fragments from explosions and collisions, and other material. Recognizing the problem, space faring nations have joined together to develop three basic principles for minimizing the growth of the debris population: prevent on-orbit breakups, remove spacecraft and orbital stages that have reached the end of their mission operations from the useful densely populated orbit regions, and limit the objects released during normal operations. This paper provides an overview of what is being done to support these three principles and describes proposals that an active space traffic control service to warn satellite operators of pending collisions with large objects combined with a program to actively remove large objects may reduce the rate of future collisions. The paper notes that cost and cost effectiveness are important considerations that will affect the evolution of such systems.

  11. DOE standard: Radiological control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  12. Department of Energy Standards Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This TSL, intended for use in selecting and using DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards, provides listing of current and inactive DOE technical standards, non-Government standards adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards.

  13. White space communication advances, developments and engineering challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, David


    This monograph presents a collection of major developments leading toward the implementation of white space technology - an emerging wireless standard for using wireless spectrum in locations where it is unused by licensed users. Some of the key research areas in the field are covered. These include emerging standards, technical insights from early pilots and simulations, software defined radio platforms, geo-location spectrum databases and current white space spectrum usage in India and South Africa.

  14. Computational Modeling of Space Physiology (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Griffin, Devon W.


    The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP), within NASAs Human Research Program, develops and implements computational modeling for use in the mitigation of human health and performance risks associated with long duration spaceflight. Over the past decade, DAP developed models to provide insights into space flight related changes to the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and the musculoskeletal system. Examples of the models and their applications include biomechanical models applied to advanced exercise device development, bone fracture risk quantification for mission planning, accident investigation, bone health standards development, and occupant protection. The International Space Station (ISS), in its role as a testing ground for long duration spaceflight, has been an important platform for obtaining human spaceflight data. DAP has used preflight, in-flight and post-flight data from short and long duration astronauts for computational model development and validation. Examples include preflight and post-flight bone mineral density data, muscle cross-sectional area, and muscle strength measurements. Results from computational modeling supplement space physiology research by informing experimental design. Using these computational models, DAP personnel can easily identify both important factors associated with a phenomenon and areas where data are lacking. This presentation will provide examples of DAP computational models, the data used in model development and validation, and applications of the model.

  15. Space Technology Research Grants Program (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Technology Research Grants Program will accelerate the development of "push" technologies to support the future space science and exploration...

  16. Space Qualified Heterogeneous Processing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to develop a radiation hardened, monolithic, heterogeneous processor for space imaging and radar systems. High performance processors are needed...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica LIA


    Full Text Available This paper has set the objective of researching how education is influenced by the information society. The first step was to define more precisely the information space. The second step was to identify how information space intersects with the family space and institutional space educational levels represented by pre-school / school and pre-university (kindergarten, at elementary / middle school / high school. Interrelationship between the above mentioned areas was another objective of the research. All these elements have been investigated through the original intention to identify how the information space can become an educational tool to support the family space, education and institutional space. Also, the aim of this research is to offer some solutions in this regard. Often the educational efforts appear to be blocked by the existence of this space. But this paper demonstrates that Informational space can be an enemy of the educational system or can support systems if we knew the internal structure and mechanisms. We can make the Informational Space to work in order to accomplish the educational scope.

  18. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This technical standards list (TSL) was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of US DOE technical standards and other government and non-government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards. Standards are indexed by type in the appendices to this document. Definitions of and general guidance for the use of standards are also provided.

  19. Space Power Theory: Controlling the Medium Without Weapons in Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Don L


    .... strategic space assets and the ability to negate enemy space systems is essential to U.S. space strategy in controlling the geographical environment of space, predominately in the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO...

  20. Ultrametricity and metric betweenness in tangent spaces to metric spaces


    Dovgoshey, O.; Dordovskyi, D.


    The paper deals with pretangent spaces to general metric spaces. An ltrametricity criterion for pretangent spaces is found and it is closely related to the metric betweenness in the pretangent spaces.

  1. Space Resources Roundtable 2 (United States)

    Ignatiev, A.


    Contents include following: Developing Technologies for Space Resource Utilization - Concept for a Planetary Engineering Research Institute. Results of a Conceptual Systems Analysis of Systems for 200 m Deep Sampling of the Martian Subsurface. The Role of Near-Earth Asteroids in Long-Term Platinum Supply. Core Drilling for Extra-Terrestrial Mining. Recommendations by the "LSP and Manufacturing" Group to the NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems. Plasma Processing of Lunar and Planetary Materials. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost. Summary of the Issues Regarding the Martian Subsurface Explorer. A Costing Strategy for Manufacturing in Orbit Using Extraterrestrial Resources. Mine Planning for Asteroid Orebodies. Organic-based Dissolution of Silicates: A New Approach to Element Extraction from LunarRegohth. Historic Frontier Processes Active in Future Space-based Mineral Extraction. The Near-Earth Space Surveillance (NIESS) Mission: Discovery, Tracking, and Characterization of Asteroids, Comets, and Artificial Satellites with a microsatellite. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership. The Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon Using In-Situ Resources. A New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploratiori/Commercialization Technology Initiative. Space Resources for Space Tourism. Recovery of Volatiles from the Moon and Associated Issues. Preliminary Analysis of a Small Robot for Martian Regolith Excavation. The Registration of Space-based Property. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective. LORPEX for Power Surges: Drilling, Rock Crushing. An End-To-End Near-Earth Asteroid Resource Exploitation Plan. An Engineering and Cost Model for Human Space Settlement Architectures: Focus on Space Hotels and Moon/Mars Exploration. The Development and Realization of a Silicon-60-based

  2. Digital forensic standards: international progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM


    Full Text Available been developed. This article provides a brief overview of the current international standards in the digital forensics domain. It describes the necessity of international standards and briefly explains the international standard structure. This article...

  3. Indoor Abstract Spaces : Linking IndoorGML and LADM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanova, S.; Li, Ki Joune; Lemmen, Christiaan; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; van Oosterom, Peter; Dimopoulou, Efi; Fendel, Elfriede M.


    In this paper we investigate the possible synergy between two different but related standards: OGC’s IndoorGML and ISO TC211’s LADM. Both (can) deal with 3D spaces with properties, constraints and associations attached and both can operate with abstract notations of space. But there are also

  4. Dry Lubricant Smooths the Way for Space Travel, Industry (United States)


    Reviving industry standards for coating parts in tungsten disulfide, a dry lubricant developed for the Mariner space probes managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the 1960s and '70s, Applied Tungstenite, a relatively new Temecula, California-based company, has found a client base in the mushrooming commercial space industry, as well as other manufacturers.

  5. Interoperability: voice and audio Standars for Space mission


    Peinado, Osvaldo Luis


    This paper describes the setup of voice communication in a space mission context, points out special requirements and operational approaches, and defines the transmission, coding, interface, and quality parameters needed for space mission support. It provides system designers with a subset of the larger industry set of standards from which to choose, depending on the application and purpose of the voice system.

  6. The International Space University (United States)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.


    The International Space University (ISU) was founded on the premise that any major space program in the future would require international cooperation as a necessary first step toward its successful completion. ISU is devoted to being a leading center for educating future authorities in the world space industry. ISU's background, goals, current form, and future plans are described. The results and benefits of the type of education and experience gained from ISU include technical reports describing the design projects undertaken by the students, an exposure to the many different disciplines which are a part of a large space project, an awareness of the existing activities from around the world in the space community, and an international professional network which spans all aspects of space activities and covers the globe.

  7. Constructing Healthcare Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harty, Chris; Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Tryggestad, Kjell


    The aim of this paper is to inquire into the role of project visualisations in shaping healthcare spaces and practices. The study draws upon an ethnographic field study from a large on-going hospital construction project in Denmark, and focuses on the early phases of on-boarding the design team...... into the project organisation. The theoretical contribution concerns the ways in which project visualisations plays an active role in developing novel conceptions of space and how these are mobilized in the process of on-boarding, in terms of 1. Design space (especially the engagement of users in the design...... process), 2.Organisational space (work processes and their spatial-temporal dimension) and; 3. Economic space (cost estimations and budgets). In practice, our findings show that the visualisations of different yet connected project spaces and the development of future clinical practices is related...

  8. A Space Apart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lynch


    Full Text Available This article examines how the preschool child is enabled to withdraw from the peer group and create a private, individual space within the institutional collective. The question under consideration is, “What factors are necessary to enable a child to create and maintain a withdrawal space in the preschool?” Data were collected through ethnographic fieldwork at two Montessori schools in the south of Sweden. Analysis of the results reveals that a child is enabled through a combination of two elements: a level of opportunity to create a space and a level of defense of a created space. These two factors are dependent on the teachers’ ability to correctly identify space creation, alongside their desire for the child’s space creation effort to be successful.

  9. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC


    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  10. Cyber space bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Ćitić Branislava


    Full Text Available Cyber space bullying is a relatively new phenomenon that has received increased attention by scientists, researchers and practitioners in recent years. It is usually defined as an intentionally and repeatedly expression of aggression towards other people through information and communication technologies. Cyber space bullying is characterized by all the primary characteristics of traditional bullying and some specifics ones that clearly differ it from other forms of bullying. In addition to the analysis of characteristics and specifics of cyber space bullying, the paper describes the basic forms of cyber space bullying (flaming, harassment, denigration, impersonation, outing, trickery, exclusion, stalking and happy slapping, as well as, the types of cyber space bullies (vengeful angel, power-hungry, revenge of the nerd, mean girls and inadvertent. The main goal of this paper is to provide initial theoretical guidelines for designing future empirical research on the complex phenomenon of cyber space bullying.

  11. Space biology research development (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.


    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  12. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......Non-Standard elements in architecture bear the promise of a better more specific performance (Oosterhuis 2003). A new understanding of design evolves, which is focusing on open ended approaches, able to negotiate between shifting requirements and to integrate knowledge on process and material......- and machine industry we fabricated a 1:1 demonstrator show casing the potential for performance due to digital fabrication in this sustainable material. The production of a custom made design tool helped not only to explore design variations while keeping up the link to digital production machinery...

  13. Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.


    These lectures constitute a short course in ``Beyond the Standard Model`` for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders.

  14. Standard interface file handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States))


    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  15. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  16. Standard Model physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Altarelli, Guido


    Introduction structure of gauge theories. The QEDand QCD examples. Chiral theories. The electroweak theory. Spontaneous symmetry breaking. The Higgs mechanism Gauge boson and fermion masses. Yukawa coupling. Charges current couplings. The Cabibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and CP violation. Neutral current couplings. The Glasow-Iliopoulos-Maiani mechanism. Gauge boson and Higgs coupling. Radiative corrections and loops. Cancellation of the chiral anomaly. Limits on the Higgs comparaison. Problems of the Standard Model. Outlook.

  17. Micro Ion Frequency Standard (United States)


    Figure 6. (a) Fabricated VCSEL . (b) Emission spectrum of VCSEL at 1 mA drive current . As expected, our initial VCSEL wafers produced much less...light source at 369 nm. (a) (b) Figure 7. (a) 740-nm VCSEL output power and voltage versus current . (b) Periodically poled KTP crystal with...micro ion frequency standard and relevant current results. INTRODUCTION Vapor cell atomic clocks have seen extreme miniaturization within the past


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Leckey


    Full Text Available In a world of changing climate, political uncertainty, and ever-changing budgets, the benefit of measurements traceable to SI standards increases by the day. To truly resolve climate change trends on a decadal time scale, on-orbit measurements need to be referenced to something that is both absolute and unchanging. One such mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to definitively quantify climate change. In the CLARREO mission, we will utilize phase change cells in which a material is melted to calibrate the temperature of a blackbody that can then be observed by a spectrometer. A material’s melting point is an unchanging physical constant that, through a series of transfers, can ultimately calibrate a spectrometer on an absolute scale. CLARREO consists of two primary instruments: an infrared (IR spectrometer and a reflected solar (RS spectrometer. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy to calibrate other space-based instrumentation and thus transferring the absolute traceability. The status of various mission options will be presented.

  19. Aging and space travel (United States)

    Mohler, S. R.


    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  20. Discourses of space

    CERN Document Server

    Ajtony, Zsuzsanna


    Ever since the emergence of the spatial turn in several scientific discourses, special attention has been paid to the surrounding space conceived as a construct created by the dynamics of human activity. The notion of space assists us in describing the most varied spheres of human existence. We can speak of various physical, metaphysical, social and cultural, and communicative spaces, as structuring components providing access to various literary, linguistic, social and cultural phenomena, th...

  1. Space Station galley design (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.


    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  2. Progress on GPS standardization (United States)

    Thomas, C.


    It has been clear for some time that a desirable and necessary step for improvement of the accuracy of GPS time comparisons is to establish GPS standards which may be adopted by receiver designers and users. For this reason, a formal body, the CCDS Group on GPS Time Transfer Standards (CGGTTS), was created in 1991. It operates under the auspices of the permanent CCDS Working Group on TAI, with the objective of recommending procedures and models for operational time transfer by the GPS common-view method. It works in close cooperation with the Subcommittee on Time of the Civil GPS Service Interface Committee. The members of the CGGTTS have met in December 1991 and in June 1992. Following these two formal meetings, a number of decisions were taken for unifying the treatment of GPS short-term data and for standardizing the format of GPS data files. A formal CGGTTS Recommendation is now being written concerning these points. This paper relates on the work carried out by the CGGTTS.

  3. Standard biological parts knowledgebase. (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H


    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology ( The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts ( SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  4. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki


    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology ( The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts ( SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  5. Rigged Hilbert spaces and contractive families of Hilbert spaces


    Bellomonte, Giorgia; Trapani, Camillo


    The existence of a rigged Hilbert space whose extreme spaces are, respectively, the projective and the inductive limit of a directed contractive family of Hilbert spaces is investigated. It is proved that, when it exists, this rigged Hilbert space is the same as the canonical rigged Hilbert space associated to a family of closable operators in the central Hilbert space.

  6. Free viewpoint TV and its international standardization (United States)

    Tanimoto, Masayuki


    We have developed a new type of television named FTV (Free-viewpoint TV). FTV is an innovative visual media that enables us to view a 3D scene by freely changing our viewpoints. We proposed the concept of FTV and constructed the world's first real-time system including the complete chain of operation from image capture to display. We also realized FTV on a single PC and FTV with free listening-point audio. FTV is based on the ray-space method that represents one ray in real space with one point in the ray-space. We have also developed new type of ray capture and display technologies such as a 360-degree mirror-scan ray capturing system and a 360 degree ray-reproducing display. MPEG regarded FTV as the most challenging 3D media and started the international standardization activities of FTV. The first phase of FTV is MVC (Multi-view Video Coding) and the second phase is 3DV (3D Video). MVC was completed in March 2009. 3DV is a standard that targets serving a variety of 3D displays. It will be completed within the next two years.

  7. ISO 50001 Energy Management Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This powerful standard from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) provides an internationally recognized framework for organizations to voluntarily implement an energy management system.

  8. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry


    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  9. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry


    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and the by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Scoring Committee...

  10. Beyond the Standard Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio


    We present new results from our ongoing study of the SU(3) sextet model with two flavors in the two-index symmetric representation of the gauge group. In the simulations use unimproved Wilson fermions to investigate the infrared properties of the model. We have previously presented results...... for the spectrum of the model in the weak coupling regime. Here, to better understand the overall behavior of the lattice model, we map its non-trivial phase structure in the space of bare parameters. At strong coupling, we observe a first order phase transition when decreasing the bare quark mass. This first...



  12. Intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Han E-mail:


    Using the idea of intuitionistic fuzzy set due to Atanassov [Intuitionistic fuzzy sets. in: V. Sgurev (Ed.), VII ITKR's Session, Sofia June, 1983; Fuzzy Sets Syst. 20 (1986) 87], we define the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces as a natural generalization of fuzzy metric spaces due to George and Veeramani [Fuzzy Sets Syst. 64 (1994) 395] and prove some known results of metric spaces including Baire's theorem and the Uniform limit theorem for intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces.

  13. Space Weather Analysis (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Space Weather Analysis archives are model output of ionospheric, thermospheric and magnetospheric particle populations, energies and electrodynamics

  14. Space Weather Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  15. Space and astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkland, Kyle


    Some daring explorers like to study distant frontiers by venturing out into them, but others prefer to study them by bringing them, or representative samples, a little closer to the lab. Both options are pursued in the fields of space and astronomy. Space exploration and astronomy are intricately linked and are examined in-depth in this guide. Dedicated to the scientists who explore the frontiers of space and astronomy-and the results of their unfamiliar findings-each chapter in Space and Astronomy explores one of the frontiers of this science. The development of technology, such as rocket pro

  16. $\\mathfrak P_0$-spaces


    Banakh, Taras


    A regular topological space $X$ is defined to be a $\\mathfrak P_0$-space if it has countable Pytkeev network. A network $\\mathcal N$ for $X$ is called a Pytkeev network if for any point $x\\in X$, neighborhood $O_x\\subset X$ of $x$ and subset $A\\subset X$ accumulating at a $x$ there is a set $N\\in\\mathcal N$ such that $N\\subset O_x$ and $N\\cap A$ is infinite. The class of $\\mathfrak P_0$-spaces contains all metrizable separable spaces and is (properly) contained in the Michael's class of $\\ale...

  17. Our Future in Space (United States)

    Impey, Chris David


    The Space Age is half a century old. Its early successes were driven by a fierce superpower rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States, which tended to obscure the fact that exploration and risk-taking is built into human DNA. Decades after we last set foot on the Moon, and years after the Space Shuttle was retired, the space activity is finally leaving the doldrums. A vibrant private sector led by SpaceX, Blue Origins, and Virgin Galactic plans to launch supplies cheaply into Earth orbit and give anyone the chance of a sub-orbital joy ride. New materials are being developed that could lead to space elevators and transform the economics of space travel. Fighting gravity will always be difficult but engineers are rethinking rockets and developing new propulsion technologies. Permanent bases on the Moon and Mars are now within reach, and a new Space Race is brewing, with China ascendant. Medical advances might even allow us to reach for the stars. The talk will review the history and landmarks of the international space program, give a snapshot of the current dynamic situation, and plot the trajectory of the future of space travel. The time has come to envision our future off-Earth.

  18. Space as interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas


    , social and cultural aspects towards space. As these dimensions are tied to the humans who experience the space, the designer can not directly influence and form the creation of place. This division puts attention to two gaps necessary to bridge. The first is the gap between physical and digital space...... multiple projects spanning over fields such as tangible user interfaces, augmented reality, and mobile computing, a conceptual framework characterizing camera-based mixed interaction spaces is developed. To show the applicability of the framework, it is deployed on one of the presented cases and discussed...

  19. Kennedy Space Center (United States)

    Griffin, Amanda


    Among 2011's many accomplishments, we safely retired the Space Shuttle Program after 30 incredible years; completed the International Space Station and are taking steps to enable it to reach its full potential as a multi-purpose laboratory; and helped to expand scientific knowledge with missions like Aquarius, GRAIL, and the Mars Science Laboratory. Responding to national budget challenges, we are prioritizing critical capabilities and divesting ourselves of assets no longer needed for NASA's future exploration programs. Since these facilities do not have to be maintained or demolished, the government saves money. At the same time, our commercial partners save money because they do not have to build new facilities. It is a win-win for everyone. Moving forward, 2012 will be even more historically significant as we celebrate the 50th Anniversary of Kennedy Space Center. In the coming year, KSC will facilitate commercial transportation to low-Earth orbit and support the evolution of the Space Launch System and Orion crew vehicle as they ready for exploration missions, which will shape how human beings view the universe. While NASA's Vision is to lead scientific and technological advances in aeronautics and space for a Nation on the frontier of discovery KSC's vision is to be the world's preeminent launch complex for government and commercial space access, enabling the world to explore and work in space. KSC's Mission is to safely manage, develop, integrate, and sustain space systems through partnerships that enable innovative, diverse access to space and inspires the Nation's future explorers.

  20. Sweeping the State Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    The thesis describes the sweep-line method, a newly developed reduction method for alleviating the state explosion problem inherent in explicit-state state space exploration. The basic idea underlying the sweep-line method is, when calculating the state space, to recognise and delete states...... that are not reachable from the currently unprocessed states. Intuitively we drag a sweep-line through the state space with the invariant that all states behind the sweep-line have been processed and are unreachable from the states in front of the sweep-line. When calculating the state space of a system we iteratively...