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Sample records for stereotaxic standard space

  1. Pig brain stereotaxic standard space: Mapping of cerebral blood flow normative values and effect of MPTP-lesioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F.; Watanabe, H.; Bjarkam, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of physiological processes in brain by position emission tomography (PET) is facilitated when images are spatially normalized to a standard coordinate system. Thus, PET activation studies of human brain frequently employ the common stereotaxic coordinates of Talairach. We have...... developed an analogous stereotaxic coordinate system for the brain of the Gottingen miniature pig, based on automatic co-registration of magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in 22 male pigs. The origin of the pig brain stereotaxic space (0, 0, 0) was arbitrarily placed in the centroid of the pineal gland...... as identified on the average MRI template. The orthogonal planes were imposed using the line between stereotaxic zero and the optic chiasm. A series of mean MR images in the coronal, sagittal and horizontal planes were generated. To test the utility of the common coordinate system for functional imaging studies...

  2. Stereotaxic core needle biopsy of breast microcalcifications obtained using a standard mammography table with an add-on unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, S.E.; Taves, D.H.; McCurdy, L.I.

    2000-01-01

    To demonstrate the reliability of stereotaxic biopsy of indeterminate microcalcifications using a standard mammography table with an add-on unit. In 121 cases of indeterminate microcalcifications, core biopsy was performed using a standard mammography table with an add-on stereotaxic unit. Microcalcifications were identified on radiography of core specimens. Microcalcifications and a definitive histologic diagnosis were obtained in 112 core biopsies (92.6%), with no significant complications. In 23 lesions frank malignancy was diagnosed, and all of these diagnoses were confirmed on surgery. Pathologic examination suggested carcinoma in 4 lesions, and open biopsy confirmed malignancy in 3 of these cases. Four lesions showed atypical ductal hyperplasia. Benign disease was diagnosed in 81 lesions, of which 78 remained stable on mammographic follow-up (mean 16 months later) and 3 were subjected to surgical biopsy (of which 1 was malignant and 2 were benign). Nine cases were technically unsatisfactory because microcalcifications were not sampled. Stereotaxic core biopsy performed with an add-on unit is a safe and reliable technique for biopsy of indeterminate microcalcifications. For successful biopsy, microcalcifications must be harvested. Pathologic results should be correlated with mammographic findings. The accuracy rate compares favourably with results reported using prone biopsy tables. In an era of cost containment, this alternative to prone biopsy tables could result m significant savings in terms of capital investment and use of hospital rooms. In this study, surgical biopsy could have been avoided in 64.5% of cases. (author)

  3. Rat brain digital stereotaxic white matter atlas with fine tract delineation in Paxinos space and its automated applications in DTI data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shengxiang; Wu, Shang; Huang, Qi; Duan, Shaofeng; Liu, Hua; Li, Yuxiao; Zhao, Shujun; Nie, Binbin; Shan, Baoci

    2017-11-01

    To automatically analyze diffusion tensor images of the rat brain via both voxel-based and ROI-based approaches, we constructed a new white matter atlas of the rat brain with fine tracts delineation in the Paxinos and Watson space. Unlike in previous studies, we constructed a digital atlas image from the latest edition of the Paxinos and Watson. This atlas contains 111 carefully delineated white matter fibers. A white matter network of rat brain based on anatomy was constructed by locating the intersection of all these tracts and recording the nuclei on the pathway of each white matter tract. Moreover, a compatible rat brain template from DTI images was created and standardized into the atlas space. To evaluate the automated application of the atlas in DTI data analysis, a group of rats with right-side middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and those without were enrolled in this study. The voxel-based analysis result shows that the brain region showing significant declines in signal in the MCAO rats was consistent with the occlusion position. We constructed a stereotaxic white matter atlas of the rat brain with fine tract delineation and a compatible template for the data analysis of DTI images of the rat brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 21 CFR 882.4560 - Stereotaxic instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A stereotaxic instrument is a device consisting of a rigid frame with a calibrated guide mechanism for precisely positioning probes or other devices within a patient's brain, spinal cord, or other part of the nervous system. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ...

  5. Knowledge-based approach for functional MRI analysis by SOM neural network using prior labels from Talairach stereotaxic space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erberich, Stephan G.; Willmes, Klaus; Thron, Armin; Oberschelp, Walter; Huang, H. K.

    2002-04-01

    Among the methods proposed for the analysis of functional MR we have previously introduced a model-independent analysis based on the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network technique. The SOM neural network can be trained to identify the temporal patterns in voxel time-series of individual functional MRI (fMRI) experiments. The separated classes consist of activation, deactivation and baseline patterns corresponding to the task-paradigm. While the classification capability of the SOM is not only based on the distinctness of the patterns themselves but also on their frequency of occurrence in the training set, a weighting or selection of voxels of interest should be considered prior to the training of the neural network to improve pattern learning. Weighting of interesting voxels by means of autocorrelation or F-test significance levels has been used successfully, but still a large number of baseline voxels is included in the training. The purpose of this approach is to avoid the inclusion of these voxels by using three different levels of segmentation and mapping from Talairach space: (1) voxel partitions at the lobe level, (2) voxel partitions at the gyrus level and (3) voxel partitions at the cell level (Brodmann areas). The results of the SOM classification based on these mapping levels in comparison to training with all brain voxels are presented in this paper.

  6. Precise MRI-based stereotaxic surgery in large animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Bech, Johannes; Tvilling, Laura

    BACKGROUND: Stereotaxic neurosurgery in large animals is used widely in different sophisticated models, where precision is becoming more crucial as desired anatomical target regions are becoming smaller. Individually calculated coordinates are necessary in large animal models with cortical...... and subcortical anatomical differences. NEW METHOD: We present a convenient method to make an MRI-visible skull fiducial for 3D MRI-based stereotaxic procedures in larger experimental animals. Plastic screws were filled with either copper-sulphate solution or MRI-visible paste from a commercially available...... cranial head marker. The screw fiducials were inserted in the animal skulls and T1 weighted MRI was performed allowing identification of the inserted skull marker. RESULTS: Both types of fiducial markers were clearly visible on the MRÍs. This allows high precision in the stereotaxic space. COMPARISON...

  7. A frameless stereotaxic operating microscope for neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friets, E.M.; Strohbehn, J.W.; Hatch, J.F.; Roberts, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    A new system, which we call the frameless stereotaxic operating microscope, is discussed. Its purpose is to display CT or other image data in the operating microscope in the correct scale, orientation, and position without the use of a stereotaxic frame. A nonimaging ultrasonic rangefinder allows the position of the operating microscope and the position of the patient to be determined. Discrete fiducial points on the patient's external anatomy are located in both image space and operating room space, linking the image data and the operating room. Physician-selected image information, e.g., tumor contours or guidance to predetermined targets, is projected through the optics of the operating microscope using a miniature cathode ray tube and a beam splitter. Projected images superpose the surgical field, reconstructed from image data to match the focal plane of the operating microscope. The algorithms on which the system is based are described, and the sources and effects of errors are discussed. The system's performance is simulated, providing an estimate of accuracy. Two phantoms are used to measure accuracy experimentally. Clinical results and observations are given

  8. A frameless stereotaxic operating microscope for neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friets, E M; Strohbehn, J W; Hatch, J F; Roberts, D W

    1989-06-01

    A new system, which we call the frameless stereotaxic operating microscope, is discussed. Its purpose is to display CT or other image data in the operating microscope in the correct scale, orientation, and position without the use of a stereotaxic frame. A nonimaging ultrasonic rangefinder allows the position of the operating microscope and the position of the patient to be determined. Discrete fiducial points on the patient's external anatomy are located in both image space and operating room space, linking the image data and the operating room. Physician-selected image information, e.g., tumor contours or guidance to predetermined targets, is projected through the optics of the operating microscope using a miniature cathode ray tube and a beam splitter. Projected images superpose the surgical field, reconstructed from image data to match the focal plane of the operating microscope. The algorithms on which the system is based are described, and the sources and effects of errors are discussed. The system's performance is simulated, providing an estimate of accuracy. Two phantoms are used to measure accuracy experimentally. Clinical results and observations are given.

  9. Clinical implementation of stereotaxic brain implant optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenow, U.F.; Wojcicka, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    This optimization method for stereotaxic brain implants is based on seed/strand configurations of the basic type developed for the National Cancer Institute (NCI) atlas of regular brain implants. Irregular target volume shapes are determined from delineation in a stack of contrast enhanced computed tomography scans. The neurosurgeon may then select up to ten directions, or entry points, of surgical approach of which the program finds the optimal one under the criterion of smallest target volume diameter. Target volume cross sections are then reconstructed in 5-mm-spaced planes perpendicular to the implantation direction defined by the entry point and the target volume center. This information is used to define a closed line in an implant cross section along which peripheral seed strands are positioned and which has now an irregular shape. Optimization points are defined opposite peripheral seeds on the target volume surface to which the treatment dose rate is prescribed. Three different optimization algorithms are available: linear least-squares programming, quadratic programming with constraints, and a simplex method. The optimization routine is implemented into a commercial treatment planning system. It generates coordinate and source strength information of the optimized seed configurations for further dose rate distribution calculation with the treatment planning system, and also the coordinate settings for the stereotaxic Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) implantation device

  10. Extracranial radiotherapy in stereotaxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Georges; Moty-Monnereau, Celine; Meyer, Aurelia; David, Pauline; Pages, Frederique; Muller, Felix; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; David, Denis Jean

    2006-12-01

    This document reports a literature survey and the discussion of an expert group with the objective to assess the use of extracranial radiotherapy devices in stereotaxic conditions. After a brief overview of the technological context, the authors proposes a technical description of radiotherapy in stereotaxic conditions, of the CyberKnife, of others radiotherapy techniques in stereotaxic conditions for extracranial indications, and of alternate techniques. They give an overview of concerned pathologies: skeleton, hepatic, bronchopulmonary, pancreas, prostate, kidney, and paediatric tumours. They describe the present care condition in France in terms of classification of medial acts, and of patient homogeneous groups. They provide the identification of this practice in foreign nomenclature. In the next part, they report the assessment, first through a critical analysis of published data and information in terms of act feasibility, efficiency and safety, of act role in the therapeutic strategy, of conditions of execution, and of impact on public health, and secondly through a statement of opinion of the working group in terms of terminology, indications, safety, and conditions of execution

  11. Building an open-source robotic stereotaxic instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Kevin R; Barker, David J; Ma, Sisi; West, Mark O

    2013-10-29

    This protocol includes the designs and software necessary to upgrade an existing stereotaxic instrument to a robotic (CNC) stereotaxic instrument for around $1,000 (excluding a drill), using industry standard stepper motors and CNC controlling software. Each axis has variable speed control and may be operated simultaneously or independently. The robot's flexibility and open coding system (g-code) make it capable of performing custom tasks that are not supported by commercial systems. Its applications include, but are not limited to, drilling holes, sharp edge craniotomies, skull thinning, and lowering electrodes or cannula. In order to expedite the writing of g-coding for simple surgeries, we have developed custom scripts that allow individuals to design a surgery with no knowledge of programming. However, for users to get the most out of the motorized stereotax, it would be beneficial to be knowledgeable in mathematical programming and G-Coding (simple programming for CNC machining). The recommended drill speed is greater than 40,000 rpm. The stepper motor resolution is 1.8°/Step, geared to 0.346°/Step. A standard stereotax has a resolution of 2.88 μm/step. The maximum recommended cutting speed is 500 μm/sec. The maximum recommended jogging speed is 3,500 μm/sec. The maximum recommended drill bit size is HP 2.

  12. Stereotaxic percutaneous core biopsy versus surgical biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions using a standard mammographic table with an add-on device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.F.; Papoff, W.J.; Doan, L.; Eliasziw, M.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of using a regular mammographic table with an add-on device for biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions in women in a community hospital setting. During a 3-year period, 70 consenting women (39-80 years of age) with a nonpalpable mammographically suspicious lesion on routine screening mammography underwent 14-gauge automated percutaneous core biopsies, immediate needle localization and lumpectomy. The needle and surgical biopsy results were independently classified into 1 of 5 categories: cancer, fibroadenomal fibrocystic change, normal or other. The procedure was well tolerated, and all core specimens yielded adequate tissue for pathologic evaluation. There were 3 episodes of vasovagal reaction. There was complete agreement in histologic findings in 64 cases (91%), including 22 of 24 cancers (92%). The overall agreement for categorizing lesions was 91% (k 0.88), and there was 97% agreement (k = 0.94) for the classification of cancer versus benign lesion. The results are similar to those of studies performed with dedicated prone equipment. Stereotaxic core biopsies can be done safely and accurately in a community hospital setting with relatively inexpensive nondedicated mammographic equipment. (author)

  13. Stereotaxic percutaneous core biopsy versus surgical biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions using a standard mammographic table with an add-on device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, M.F.; Papoff, W.J.; Doan, L.; Eliasziw, M. [St. Thomas-Elgin General Hospital, St. Thomas, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-02-01

    To determine the accuracy of using a regular mammographic table with an add-on device for biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions in women in a community hospital setting. During a 3-year period, 70 consenting women (39-80 years of age) with a nonpalpable mammographically suspicious lesion on routine screening mammography underwent 14-gauge automated percutaneous core biopsies, immediate needle localization and lumpectomy. The needle and surgical biopsy results were independently classified into 1 of 5 categories: cancer, fibroadenomal fibrocystic change, normal or other. The procedure was well tolerated, and all core specimens yielded adequate tissue for pathologic evaluation. There were 3 episodes of vasovagal reaction. There was complete agreement in histologic findings in 64 cases (91%), including 22 of 24 cancers (92%). The overall agreement for categorizing lesions was 91% (k 0.88), and there was 97% agreement (k = 0.94) for the classification of cancer versus benign lesion. The results are similar to those of studies performed with dedicated prone equipment. Stereotaxic core biopsies can be done safely and accurately in a community hospital setting with relatively inexpensive nondedicated mammographic equipment. (author)

  14. Analysis of neural mechanisms underlying verbal fluency in cytoarchitectonically defined stereotaxic space--the roles of Brodmann areas 44 and 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amunts, Katrin; Weiss, Peter H; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Pieperhoff, Peter; Eickhoff, Simon; Gurd, Jennifer M; Marshall, John C; Shah, Nadim J; Fink, Gereon R; Zilles, Karl

    2004-05-01

    We investigated neural activations underlying a verbal fluency task and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of Broca's speech region (Brodmann's areas 44 and 45). To do so, we reanalyzed data from a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [Brain 125 (2002) 1024] and from a cytoarchitectonic study [J. Comp. Neurol. 412 (1999) 319] and developed a method to combine both data sets. In the fMRI experiment, verbal fluency was investigated in 11 healthy volunteers, who covertly produced words from predefined categories. A factorial design was used with factors verbal class (semantic vs. overlearned fluency) and switching between categories (no vs. yes). fMRI data analysis employed SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping). Cytoarchitectonic maps of areas 44 and 45 were derived from histologic sections of 10 postmortem brains. Both the in vivo fMRI and postmortem MR data were warped to a common reference brain using a new elastic warping tool. Cytoarchitectonic probability maps with stereotaxic information about intersubject variability were calculated for both areas and superimposed on the functional data, which showed the involvement of left hemisphere areas with verbal fluency relative to the baseline. Semantic relative to overlearned fluency showed greater involvement of left area 45 than of 44. Thus, although both areas participate in verbal fluency, they do so differentially. Left area 45 is more involved in semantic aspects of language processing, while area 44 is probably involved in high-level aspects of programming speech production per se. The combination of functional data analysis with a new elastic warping tool and cytoarchitectonic maps opens new perspectives for analyzing the cortical networks involved in language.

  15. Interactive stereotaxic teleassistance of remote experts during arthroscopic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Arne; Undt, Gerhard; Schicho, Kurt; Wanschitz, Felix; Watzinger, Franz; Murakami, Kenichiro; Czerny, Christian; Ewers, Rolf

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the technical setup for stereotaxic telesurgical assistance for arthroscopic procedures. It also outlines the current state, limitations, and feasibility of this technical development. Teleassistance or teleconsultation implemented in endoscopic or arthroscopic procedures have not yet been reported. In this study, 7 computer-assisted arthroscopies of the temporomandibular joint were supported by extramural experts via interactive stereotaxic teleconsultation from distant locations. The external experts were supplied with close to real-time video, audio, and stereotaxic navigation data directly from the operation site. This setup allows the surgeons and external experts to interactively determine portals, target structures, and instrument positions relative to the patient's anatomy and to discuss any step of the procedures. Optoelectronic tracking interfaced to computer- based navigation technology allowed precise positioning of instruments for single or multiple temporomandibular joint punctures. The average error of digitizing probe measurements was 1.3 mm (range, 0.0 to 2.5 mm) and the average standard deviation was 0.7 mm (range, 0.4 to 0.9 mm). Evaluation of the reliability and accuracy of this technique suggests that it is sufficient for controlled navigation, even inside the small temporomandibular joint, a fact that encourages further applications for arthroscopy in general. The minimum requirement for high-quality video transmission for teleassisted procedures are integrated services digital network (ISDN) connections. Conventional ISDN-based videoconferencing can be combined with computer-aided intraoperative navigation. Transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP)-based stereotaxic teleassistance data transmission via ATM or satellite seem to be promising techniques to considerably improve the field of arthroscopy.

  16. A fiducial skull marker for precise MRI-based stereotaxic surgery in large animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Bech, Johannes; Tvilling, Laura; Zaer, Hamed; Orlowski, Dariusz; Fitting, Lise Moberg; Ziedler, Dora; Geneser, Michael; Sangill, Ryan; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Bjarkam, Carsten Reidies; Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann

    2017-06-15

    Stereotaxic neurosurgery in large animals is used widely in different sophisticated models, where precision is becoming more crucial as desired anatomical target regions are becoming smaller. Individually calculated coordinates are necessary in large animal models with cortical and subcortical anatomical differences. We present a convenient method to make an MRI-visible skull fiducial for 3D MRI-based stereotaxic procedures in larger experimental animals. Plastic screws were filled with either copper-sulfate solution or MRI-visible paste from a commercially available cranial head marker. The screw fiducials were inserted in the animal skulls and T1 weighted MRI was performed allowing identification of the inserted skull marker. Both types of fiducial markers were clearly visible on the MRÍs. This allows high precision in the stereotaxic space. The use of skull bone based fiducial markers gives high precision for both targeting and evaluation of stereotaxic systems. There are no metal artifacts and the fiducial is easily removed after surgery. The fiducial marker can be used as a very precise reference point, either for direct targeting or in evaluation of other stereotaxic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Computation of a high-resolution MRI 3D stereotaxic atlas of the sheep brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ella, Arsène; Delgadillo, José A; Chemineau, Philippe; Keller, Matthieu

    2017-02-15

    The sheep model was first used in the fields of animal reproduction and veterinary sciences and then was utilized in fundamental and preclinical studies. For more than a decade, magnetic resonance (MR) studies performed on this model have been increasingly reported, especially in the field of neuroscience. To contribute to MR translational neuroscience research, a brain template and an atlas are necessary. We have recently generated the first complete T1-weighted (T1W) and T2W MR population average images (or templates) of in vivo sheep brains. In this study, we 1) defined a 3D stereotaxic coordinate system for previously established in vivo population average templates; 2) used deformation fields obtained during optimized nonlinear registrations to compute nonlinear tissues or prior probability maps (nlTPMs) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM) tissues; 3) delineated 25 external and 28 internal sheep brain structures by segmenting both templates and nlTPMs; and 4) annotated and labeled these structures using an existing histological atlas. We built a quality high-resolution 3D atlas of average in vivo sheep brains linked to a reference stereotaxic space. The atlas and nlTPMs, associated with previously computed T1W and T2W in vivo sheep brain templates and nlTPMs, provide a complete set of imaging space that are able to be imported into other imaging software programs and could be used as standardized tools for neuroimaging studies or other neuroscience methods, such as image registration, image segmentation, identification of brain structures, implementation of recording devices, or neuronavigation. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:676-692, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Rodent stereotaxic surgery and animal welfare outcome improvements for behavioral neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Raquel V; Wichmann, Romy; Atsak, Piray; Atucha, Erika; Barsegyan, Areg; Beldjoud, Hassiba; Messanvi, Fany; Thuring, Catriene M A; Roozendaal, Benno

    2012-01-30

    Stereotaxic surgery for the implantation of cannulae into specific brain regions has for many decades been a very successful experimental technique to investigate the effects of locally manipulated neurotransmitter and signaling pathways in awake, behaving animals. Moreover, the stereotaxic implantation of electrodes for electrophysiological stimulation and recording studies has been instrumental to our current understanding of neuroplasticity and brain networks in behaving animals. Ever-increasing knowledge about optimizing surgical techniques in rodents(1-4), public awareness concerning animal welfare issues and stringent legislation (e.g., the 2010 European Union Directive on the use of laboratory animals(5)) prompted us to refine these surgical procedures, particularly with respect to implementing new procedures for oxygen supplementation and the continuous monitoring of blood oxygenation and heart rate levels during the surgery as well as introducing a standardized protocol for post-surgical care. Our observations indicate that these modifications resulted in an increased survival rate and an improvement in the general condition of the animals after surgery (e.g. less weight loss and a more active animal). This video presentation will show the general procedures involved in this type of stereotaxic surgery with special attention to our several modifications. We will illustrate these surgical procedures in rats, but it is also possible to perform this type of surgery in mice or other small laboratory animals by using special adaptors for the stereotaxic apparatus(6).

  19. A comparison of publicly available linear MRI stereotaxic registration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadar, Mahsa; Fonov, Vladimir S; Collins, D Louis

    2018-07-01

    Linear registration to a standard space is one of the major steps in processing and analyzing magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the brain. Here we present an overview of linear stereotaxic MRI registration and compare the performance of 5 publicly available and extensively used linear registration techniques in medical image analysis. A set of 9693 T1-weighted MR images were obtained for testing from 4 datasets: ADNI, PREVENT-AD, PPMI, and HCP, two of which have multi-center and multi-scanner data and three of which have longitudinal data. Each individual native image was linearly registered to the MNI ICBM152 average template using five versions of MRITOTAL from MINC tools, FLIRT from FSL, two versions of Elastix, spm_affreg from SPM, and ANTs linear registration techniques. Quality control (QC) images were generated from the registered volumes and viewed by an expert rater to assess the quality of the registrations. The QC image contained 60 sub-images (20 of each of axial, sagittal, and coronal views at different levels throughout the brain) overlaid with contours of the ICBM152 template, enabling the expert rater to label the registration as acceptable or unacceptable. The performance of the registration techniques was then compared across different datasets. In addition, the effect of image noise, intensity non-uniformity, age, head size, and atrophy on the performance of the techniques was investigated by comparing differences between age, scaling factor, ventricle volume, brain volume, and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volumes between passed and failed cases for each method. The average registration failure rate among all datasets was 27.41%, 27.14%, 12.74%, 13.03%, 0.44% for the five versions of MRITOTAL techniques, 8.87% for ANTs, 11.11% for FSL, 12.35% for Elastix Affine, 24.40% for Elastix Similarity, and 30.66% for SPM. There were significant effects of signal to noise ratio, image intensity non-uniformity estimates, as well as age, head size, and

  20. Stereotaxic intracavitary irradiation for cystic craniopharyngiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, I.F.; Lunsford, L.D.; Slamovits, T.L.; Gumerman, L.W.; Levine, G.; Robinson, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Stereotaxic intracavitary irradiation with instillation of phosphorus-32 ( 32 P) colloidal chromic phosphate was performed in nine patients with cystic craniopharyngiomas. Serial neurological, ophthalmological, neuroendocrinological, and radiological examinations were performed before and after treatment. Dosimetry was determined based on a computerized tomography (CT) estimation of tumor volume, and was calculated to provide a tumoricidal dose (200 to 300 Gy) to the cyst wall. The follow-up period ranged from 14 to 45 months (mean 27 months). After treatment, all nine patients showed improvement of symptoms and radiological evidence of cyst regression. Because of an expanding solid component producing recurrent symptoms, one patient required a craniotomy 14 months after isotope instillation. Three of five patients with impaired visual acuity before surgery had significant improvement in acuity after treatment. Preoperative visual field defects in eight patients improved in four after 32 P therapy. Of seven patients with preoperative endocrine abnormalities, one individual showed almost complete normalization and another had improvement in endocrine function. Patients who exhibited residual neuroendocrine function before isotope instillation developed no significant deterioration in endocrine status during the follow-up period. The findings suggest that stereotaxic intracavitary irradiation is a safe and effective treatment which should be considered as the initial surgery for cystic craniopharyngiomas

  1. [The brain in stereotaxic coordinates (a textbook for colleges)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budantsev, A Iu; Kisliuk, O S; Shul'govskiĭ, V V; Rykunov, D S; Iarkov, A V

    1993-01-01

    The present textbook is directed forward students of universities and medical colleges, young scientists and practicing doctors dealing with stereotaxic method. The Paxinos and Watson stereotaxic rat brain atlas (1982) is the basis of the textbook. The atlas has been transformed into computer educational program and seven laboratory works: insertion of the electrode into brain, microelectrophoresis, microinjection of drugs into brain, electrolytic destruction in the brain structures, local brain superfusion. The laboratory works are compiled so that they allow not only to study practical use of the stereotaxic method but to model simple problems involving stereotaxic surgery in the deep structures of brain. The textbook is intended for carrying by IBM PC/AT computers. The volume of the textbook is 1.7 Mbytes.

  2. Lossless Coding Standards for Space Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.

    1996-01-01

    The International Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is preparing to issue its first recommendation for a digital data compression standard. Because the space data systems of primary interest are employed to support scientific investigations requiring accurate representation, this initial standard will be restricted to lossless compression.

  3. Modular Power Standard for Space Explorations Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space exploration will most likely be composed of assemblies of multiple modular spacecraft elements with interconnected electrical power systems. An electrical system composed of a standardized set modular building blocks provides significant development, integration, and operational cost advantages. The modular approach can also provide the flexibility to configure power systems to meet the mission needs. A primary goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project is to establish a Modular Power Standard that is needed to realize these benefits. This paper is intended to give the space exploration community a "first look" at the evolving Modular Power Standard and invite their comments and technical contributions.

  4. Rodent stereotaxic surgery and animal welfare outcome improvements for behavioral neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fornari, R.V.; Wichmann, R.; Atsak, P.; Atucha Trevino, E.; Barsegyan, A.; Beldjoud, H.; Messanvi, F.; Thuring, C.M.; Roozendaal, B.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotaxic surgery for the implantation of cannulae into specific brain regions has for many decades been a very successful experimental technique to investigate the effects of locally manipulated neurotransmitter and signaling pathways in awake, behaving animals. Moreover, the stereotaxic

  5. Standards for space automation and robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Jac B.; Loftin, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    The AIAA's Committee on Standards for Space Automation and Robotics (COS/SAR) is charged with the identification of key functions and critical technologies applicable to multiple missions that reflect fundamental consideration of environmental factors. COS/SAR's standards/practices/guidelines implementation methods will be based on reliability, performance, and operations, as well as economic viability and life-cycle costs, simplicity, and modularity.

  6. Space Weather Outreach: Connection to STEM Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.

    2008-12-01

    Many scientists are studying the Sun-Earth system and attempting to provide timely, accurate, and reliable space environment observations and forecasts. Research programs and missions serve as an ideal focal point for creating educational content, making this an ideal time to inform the public about the importance and value of space weather research. In order to take advantage of this opportunity, the Space Science Institute (SSI) is developing a comprehensive Space Weather Outreach program to reach students, educators, and other members of the public, and share with them the exciting discoveries from this important scientific discipline. The Space Weather Outreach program has the following five components: (1) the Space Weather Center Website that includes online educational games; (2) Small Exhibits for Libraries, Shopping Malls, and Science Centers; (3) After-School Programs; (4) Professional Development Workshops for Educators, and (5) an innovative Evaluation and Education Research project. Its overarching goal is to inspire, engage, and educate a broad spectrum of the public and make strategic and innovative connections between informal and K-12 education communities. An important factor in the success of this program will be its alignment with STEM standards especially those related to science and mathematics. This presentation will describe the Space Weather Outreach program and how standards are being used in the development of each of its components.

  7. Standardizing the European Education Policy Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Countries in Europe, through the European Union, are creating, as part of the market and its governance, a new policy space in education. It is being formed through law, regulation, networking and harmonization. The development of standards across the different fields of policy, statistical calculation and commerce underpins and extends the…

  8. Stereotaxic cytology of nonpalpable lesions detected at mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciatto, S.; Rosselli del Turco, M.; Bravetti, P.; Catarzi, S.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report on 791 consecutive cases undergoing stereotaxic cytology for non palpable lesions detected at mammography. Histologic diagnosis (malignant = 179, benign = 107) or mammographic folow-up after at least one year (benign = 275) was available in 561 cases. The overall inadequacy rate of stereotaxic cytology was 0.21, and dependent on lesion type (benign = 0.25, malignant = 0.13 p<0.001) and on sampling operator experience (range 0.17-0.31, p<0.001). Sensitivity (dubious+positive, after exclusion of inadequates) was 0.83 and dependent on histologic type (infiltrating = 0.87, intraductal = 0.68). Specificity (negative/benign, after exclusion of inadequates) was 0.96. Stereotaxic cytology helped in reducing the number of unnecessary beningn biopsies and the biopsy ratio was 0.6 benign to 1 malignant biopsy. In cases with moderate suspicion at mammography the radiologist felt reassured by negative cytology and advised mammographic control rather than surgical biopsy. Cytology was determinant in advising surgical biopsy in 9 cancer cases whereas the absence of cytologic positivity contributed to diagnostic delay in 2 cancer cases. Overall, stereotaxic cytology allowed a relevant reduction of unnecessary benign biopsies and should be routinely employed in the diagnostic work-up of nonpalpable lesions detected at mammography

  9. Stereotaxic Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytologic Evaluation of Non-palpable Breast Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Haghighi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although long-term mammography is the standard means of evaluation for the probably benign lesions of breast, some times we feel obliged to know about the benignity and the extent of lesions earlier. Therefore we evaluated the diagnostic value of stereotaxic fine-needle aspiration (SFNA in low suspicion breast lesions as an alternative to the routine modality. Methods: The study included 150 low-suspicion or probably benign breast lesions detected on mammography. All cases underwent SFNA and followed by exciosional biopsy or follow-up mammography based on SFNA findings. Results: Fibroadenoma and normal tissue lesions were diagnosed in 57% of patients, in whom no evidence of malignancy was found in the follow-up period. In 48 patients with cytologic findings suggestive of proliferative fibrocystic disease, three cases of malignancy were detected by excisional biopsy. Conclusion: A SFNA result suggesting benignity allows safe clinical follow-up, whereas a suspicious or equivocal diagnosis needs more invasive modalities for further investigations. Key words: Breast, Mammography, Stereotaxic, Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA

  10. In vivo study of rat cortical hemodynamics using a stereotaxic-apparatus-compatible photoacoustic microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Heng; Chen, Qian; Qi, Weizhi; Chen, Xingxing; Xi, Lei

    2018-04-19

    Brain imaging is an important technique in cognitive neuroscience. In this article, we designed a stereotaxic-apparatus-compatible photoacoustic microscope for the studies of rat cortical hemodynamics. Compared with existing optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (ORPAM) systems, the probe owns feature of fast, light and miniature. In this microscope, we integrated a miniaturized ultrasound transducer with a center frequency of 10 MHz to detect photoacoustic signals and a 2-dimensional (2D) microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scanner to achieve raster scanning of the optical focus. Based on phantom evaluation, this imaging probe has a high lateral resolution of 3.8 μm and an effective imaging domain of 2 × 2 mm 2 . Different from conventional ORPAMs, combining with standard stereotaxic apparatus enables broad studies of rodent brains without any motion artifact. To show its capability, we successfully captured red blood cell flow in the capillary, monitored the vascular changes during bleeding and blood infusion and visualized cortical hemodynamics induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Standard deviation of scatterometer measurements from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The standard deviation of scatterometer measurements has been derived under assumptions applicable to spaceborne scatterometers. Numerical results are presented which show that, with sufficiently long integration times, input signal-to-noise ratios below unity do not cause excessive degradation of measurement accuracy. The effects on measurement accuracy due to varying integration times and changing the ratio of signal bandwidth to IF filter-noise bandwidth are also plotted. The results of the analysis may resolve a controversy by showing that in fact statistically useful scatterometer measurements can be made from space using a 20-W transmitter, such as will be used on the S-193 experiment for Skylab-A.

  12. CT-guided stereotaxic evacuation of cerebellar hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizuma, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Taisuke; Ohyama, Hideki; Suzuki, Jiro

    1985-01-01

    Stereotaxic lateral approach for cerebellar hematoma is presented using Leksell's CT-stereotaxic system. All of the procedures are performed in the CT room. Patient's head is turned to contralateral side of the hematoma 30 to 40 0 with slight flexion of the neck. Stereotaxic apparatus is secured to the head under local anesthesia. Hematoma is confirmed by computerized tomograms. Three dimensional coordinates of the target point (center of the hematoma) are measured from the vertical and diagonal rods of Leksell's system. Linear skin incision 4 cm in length is made on retromastoid area. Burr-hole is put on just lateral position of the target point, usually 5 to 6 cm posterior and 1 cm above from the external auditory meatus. Transverse or sigmoid sinus does not appeared through the burr-hole by this approach. Specially made Dandy's cannula (3.0 mm in diameter, 220 mm in length) is inserted into the target point, and manual evacuation of the hematoma is performed carefully using a syringe. Then Dandy's cannula is replaced by silastic drainage tube (3.5 mm in diameter), and 6,000 Units of Urokinase solved in 2 ml of saline is administered to the hematoma cavity. Dissolved hematoma is aspirated every 24 hours until the most of the hematoma is evacuated. We operated three cases of cerebellar hematoma by this method with favorable results. Advantages of this method are as follows: Operative invasion is minimal; The surgeon can cbeck the residual hematoma and position of the tip of cannula even at operation, if necessary. (author)

  13. Three-dimensional digitizer (neuronavigator): new equipment for computed tomography-guided stereotaxic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, E; Watanabe, T; Manaka, S; Mayanagi, Y; Takakura, K

    1987-06-01

    A new device was invented as an adjunct for computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotaxic or open neurosurgery. It is composed of a multijoint three-dimensional digitizer (sensor arm) and a microcomputer, which indicates the place of the sensor arm tip on preoperative CT images. Computed tomography scan is performed preoperatively with three markers placed on the nasion and ears. At surgery, after fixing the patient's head and the sensor arm, sampling of the standard points was done to translate the position of the tip of the sensor arm onto the CT images displayed on a computer screen. In this way positional data from conventional preoperative CT scan can be directly transferred into the surgical field. This system has the unique feature of introducing CT-guided stereotaxis into conventional open neurosurgery.

  14. Focal lesions in the central nervous system: stereotaxic radioneurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.f.; Hosobuchi, Y.; Born, J.L.; Tobias, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The application of heavy-ion beams for fundamental and applied brain research has unusual potential. Methods are being developed in our laboratory for producing focal lesions in the central nervous system (e.g., the hypothalamus, thalamus, pituitary gland) to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating certain pathological disorders of the brain with stereotaxic Bragg peak heavy-ion radiosurgery. Studies in animals are demonstrating the value of this neuroscience tool for investigating mammalian brain response to induction of discrete focal lesions in the hypothalamus or in the cerebral cortex. These studies are also elucidating the neuroendocrinological response follwing ablation of various portions of the midbrain, without requiring complex neurosurgical preparations. Clinical studies are demonstrating the feasibility of stereotaxic neurological radiosurgery for treating certain inoperable vascular disorders of the brain [e.g., arteriovenous malformations (AVM), internal carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulas and other cerebrovascular disorders] in patients who are already demonstrating progressive neurological deficit. Further applications of focal lesion production with the Bragg ionization peak can be extended to include localized radiation to centers of the brain and spinal cord for treatment of such disorders as Parkinson's disease, pituitary microadenomas, acoustic neuromas, and the control of pain. The eventual application of radioactive beams will provide accurate localization of the stopping points of the beam, thereby making it feasible to stop the beam accurately at a defined depth within the central nervous system

  15. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  16. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eNitzsche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams were acquired on a 1.5T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight, age and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM and white (WM matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM. Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and body weight explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species.

  17. International Safety Regulation and Standards for Space Travel and Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, J. N.; Jakhu, R.

    The evolution of air travel has led to the adoption of the 1944 Chicago Convention that created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, Canada, and the propagation of aviation safety standards. Today, ICAO standardizes and harmonizes commercial air safety worldwide. Space travel and space safety are still at an early stage of development, and the adoption of international space safety standards and regulation still remains largely at the national level. This paper explores the international treaties and conventions that govern space travel, applications and exploration today and analyzes current efforts to create space safety standards and regulations at the national, regional and global level. Recent efforts to create a commercial space travel industry and to license commercial space ports are foreseen as means to hasten a space safety regulatory process.

  18. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Haniza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious academic attention. Standards concerning residential development usually cover different aspects or stages of the development process. They can include planning standards, design standards, space standards and technical construction standards. The main concern of this paper is on space and design standards specifically. Space standard can be defined as a set of framework which dictates fixed internal space minimums. Meanwhile, design standard indicates design guidelines to ensure the functionality, comfortability and habitability of the house. This paper is concerned exclusively with indoor spaces of a house excluding external circulation spaces and service facilities (in case of strata housing. Its interest is in internal space as an aspect of housing quality. It can be concluded that one of the way forward will be to find the balance between providing adequate minimum spaces for resident satisfactions and having economic values for housing developers. This paper may be used as a valuable reference for authorities and policy makers to better address the best housing space design standards that would benefit not only the occupants, but also the local government and developers alike.

  19. Manin's quantum spaces and standard quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floratos, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    Manin's non-commutative coordinate algebra of quantum groups is shown to be identical, for unitary coordinates, with the conventional operator algebras of quantum mechanics. The deformation parameter q is a pure phase for unitary coordinates. When q is a root of unity. Manin's algebra becomes the matrix algebra of quantum mechanics for a discretized and finite phase space. Implications for quantum groups and the associated non-commutative differential calculus of Wess and Zumino are discussed. (orig.)

  20. A stereotaxic frame and computer software for use with CT body scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.; Roberts, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype stereotaxic frame for use in conjunction with CT body scanners has been developed and is illustrated. Such a frame may be rigidly attached to the patient's cranium prior to CT scanning and kept attached until completion of the stereotaxic procedure. The frame produces landmarks in each CT slice which allow the CT scanner computer to calculate the spatial orientation of the slice with respect to the frame. Thus the computer may transfer information from the CT slice coordinate system to the frame coordinate system. Using this type of stereotaxic frame it is possible to complete the stereotaxic procedure either in the CT scanner or in the neurosurgery operating suite. In a series of 20 experiments with a target phantom the tip of the probe was placed at a target point with a mean error of 2.0 millimeters. (Auth.)

  1. TDA Assessment of Recommendations for Space Data System Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, E. C.; Stevens, R.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is participating in the development of international standards for space data systems. Recommendations for standards thus far developed are assessed. The proposed standards for telemetry coding and packet telemetry provide worthwhile benefit to the DSN; their cost impact to the DSN should be small. Because of their advantage to the NASA space exploration program, their adoption should be supported by TDA, JPL, and OSTDS.

  2. Rodent Stereotaxic Surgery and Animal Welfare Outcome Improvements for Behavioral Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Fornari, Raquel V.; Wichmann, Romy; Atsak, Piray; Atucha, Erika; Barsegyan, Areg; Beldjoud, Hassiba; Messanvi, Fany; Thuring, Catriene M.A.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2012-01-01

    Stereotaxic surgery for the implantation of cannulae into specific brain regions has for many decades been a very successful experimental technique to investigate the effects of locally manipulated neurotransmitter and signaling pathways in awake, behaving animals. Moreover, the stereotaxic implantation of electrodes for electrophysiological stimulation and recording studies has been instrumental to our current understanding of neuroplasticity and brain networks in behaving animals. Ever-incr...

  3. Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS): a modular open standards approach for high performance interconnects for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS) effort is a Government-Industry collaboration effort to define a set of standards for interconnects between space system components with the goal of cost effectively removing bandwidth as a constraint for future space systems. The NGSIS team has selected the ANSI/VITA 65 OpenVPXTM standard family for the physical baseline. The RapidIO protocol has been selected as the basis for the digital data transport. The NGSIS standards are developed to provide sufficient flexibility to enable users to implement a variety of system configurations, while meeting goals for interoperability and robustness for space. The NGSIS approach and effort represents a radical departure from past approaches to achieve a Modular Open System Architecture (MOSA) for space systems and serves as an exemplar for the civil, commercial, and military Space communities as well as a broader high reliability terrestrial market.

  4. Wigner functions on non-standard symplectic vector spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Nuno Costa; Prata, João Nuno

    2018-01-01

    We consider the Weyl quantization on a flat non-standard symplectic vector space. We focus mainly on the properties of the Wigner functions defined therein. In particular we show that the sets of Wigner functions on distinct symplectic spaces are different but have non-empty intersections. This extends previous results to arbitrary dimension and arbitrary (constant) symplectic structure. As a by-product we introduce and prove several concepts and results on non-standard symplectic spaces which generalize those on the standard symplectic space, namely, the symplectic spectrum, Williamson's theorem, and Narcowich-Wigner spectra. We also show how Wigner functions on non-standard symplectic spaces behave under the action of an arbitrary linear coordinate transformation.

  5. Space Life Sciences at NASA: Spaceflight Health Policy and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; House, Nancy G.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2005, the President proposed a new initiative, the Vision for Space Exploration. To accomplish the goals within the vision for space exploration, physicians and researchers at Johnson Space Center are establishing spaceflight health standards. These standards include fitness for duty criteria (FFD), permissible exposure limits (PELs), and permissible outcome limits (POLs). POLs delineate an acceptable maximum decrement or change in a physiological or behavioral parameter, as the result of exposure to the space environment. For example cardiovascular fitness for duty standards might be a measurable clinical parameter minimum that allows successful performance of all required duties. An example of a permissible exposure limit for radiation might be the quantifiable limit of exposure over a given length of time (e.g. life time radiation exposure). An example of a permissible outcome limit might be the length of microgravity exposure that would minimize bone loss. The purpose of spaceflight health standards is to promote operational and vehicle design requirements, aid in medical decision making during space missions, and guide the development of countermeasures. Standards will be based on scientific and clinical evidence including research findings, lessons learned from previous space missions, studies conducted in space analog environments, current standards of medical practices, risk management data, and expert recommendations. To focus the research community on the needs for exploration missions, NASA has developed the Bioastronautics Roadmap. The Bioastronautics Roadmap, NASA's approach to identification of risks to human space flight, revised baseline was released in February 2005. This document was reviewed by the Institute of Medicine in November 2004 and the final report was received in October 2005. The roadmap defines the most important research and operational needs that will be used to set policy, standards (define acceptable risk), and

  6. Comparative study of standard space and real space analysis of quantitative MR brain data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribisala, Benjamin S; He, Jiabao; Blamire, Andrew M

    2011-06-01

    To compare the robustness of region of interest (ROI) analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain data in real space with analysis in standard space and to test the hypothesis that standard space image analysis introduces more partial volume effect errors compared to analysis of the same dataset in real space. Twenty healthy adults with no history or evidence of neurological diseases were recruited; high-resolution T(1)-weighted, quantitative T(1), and B(0) field-map measurements were collected. Algorithms were implemented to perform analysis in real and standard space and used to apply a simple standard ROI template to quantitative T(1) datasets. Regional relaxation values and histograms for both gray and white matter tissues classes were then extracted and compared. Regional mean T(1) values for both gray and white matter were significantly lower using real space compared to standard space analysis. Additionally, regional T(1) histograms were more compact in real space, with smaller right-sided tails indicating lower partial volume errors compared to standard space analysis. Standard space analysis of quantitative MRI brain data introduces more partial volume effect errors biasing the analysis of quantitative data compared to analysis of the same dataset in real space. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  8. Standardization by ISO to Ensure the Sustainability of Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, A.; Lazare, B.; Oltrogge, D.; Stokes, H.

    2013-08-01

    The ISO / Technical Committee 20 / Sub-committee 14 develops debris-related standards and technical reports to mitigate debris and help ensure mission and space sustainability. While UN Guidelines and the IADC Guidelines encourage national governments and agencies to promote debris mitigation design and operation, the ISO standards will help the global space industry promote and sustain its space-related business. In this paper the scope and status of each ISO standard is discussed within an overall framework. A comparison with international guidelines is also provided to demonstrate the level of consistency. Finally, as a case study, the ISO standards are applied to a CubeSat mission, thus demonstrating their usability on a relatively recent and popular class of satellite.

  9. Stereotaxic microsurgical procedures of cerebral intracranial tumors guided by image and attended by computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Flores, Gerardo; Guerra Figueredo, Eritk; Ochoa Zaldivar, Luis

    2000-01-01

    It is reported that spatial guidance during microsurgery is an essential element. This application of stereotaxic surgery is shown at the International Center of Neurological Restoration (Cirene) from May, 1994, to February, 1998, on describing the performance of 65 microsurgical procedures under stereotaxic conditions among 62 patients with cerebral intracranial tumors. The procedure was divided into 3 stages: image acquisition, Cat, surgical planning , with Stasis planning system, and microsurgical procedures that included the Leksell, Micromar and Esteroflex stereotaxic systems. 27 of the total of patients presented glial tumors; 33, non-glial; and only 2 non-neoplastic lesions of diverse localization and size. 30 total resections We're made. Surgical morbidity was minimum and there was no surgical mortality. The main advantages of this method are: exact localization of the craniotomy, easy spatial guidance, and the opportunity to distinguish the limits between the tumor and the sound tissue. The possibility to apply Esteroflex to cerebral microsurgery was demonstrated

  10. Stereo Navi 2.0: software for stereotaxic surgery of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuno, Hironobu; Tanaka, Ikuko; Umitsu, Yoshitomo; Nakamura, Yasuhisa

    2009-11-01

    Recently, we reported our web-accessible digital brain atlas of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) at http://marmoset-brain.org:2008. Using digital images obtained during construction of this website, we developed stand-alone software for navigation of electrodes or injection needles for stereotaxic electrophysiological or anatomical experiments in vivo. This software enables us to draw lines on exchangeable section images, measure the length and angle of lines, superimpose a stereotaxic reference grid on the image, and send the image to the system clipboard. The software, Stereo Navi 2.0, is freely available at our brain atlas website.

  11. The standard model on non-commutative space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, X.; Jurco, B.; Schupp, P.; Wohlgenannt, M.; Wess, J.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the standard model on a non-commutative space and expand the action in the non-commutativity parameter θ μν . No new particles are introduced; the structure group is SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). We derive the leading order action. At zeroth order the action coincides with the ordinary standard model. At leading order in θ μν we find new vertices which are absent in the standard model on commutative space-time. The most striking features are couplings between quarks, gluons and electroweak bosons and many new vertices in the charged and neutral currents. We find that parity is violated in non-commutative QCD. The Higgs mechanism can be applied. QED is not deformed in the minimal version of the NCSM to the order considered. (orig.)

  12. The standard model on non-commutative space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, X.; Jurco, B.; Schupp, P.; Wohlgenannt, M. [Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Wess, J. [Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2002-03-01

    We consider the standard model on a non-commutative space and expand the action in the non-commutativity parameter {theta}{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}}. No new particles are introduced; the structure group is SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). We derive the leading order action. At zeroth order the action coincides with the ordinary standard model. At leading order in {theta}{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}} we find new vertices which are absent in the standard model on commutative space-time. The most striking features are couplings between quarks, gluons and electroweak bosons and many new vertices in the charged and neutral currents. We find that parity is violated in non-commutative QCD. The Higgs mechanism can be applied. QED is not deformed in the minimal version of the NCSM to the order considered. (orig.)

  13. Mercury Atomic Frequency Standards for Space Based Navigation and Timekeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoelker, R. L.; Burt, E. A.; Chung, S.; Hamell, R. L.; Prestage, J. D.; Tucker, B.; Cash, P.; Lutwak, R.

    2012-01-01

    A low power Mercury Atomic Frequency Standard (MAFS) has been developed and demonstrated on the path towards future space clock applications. A self contained mercury ion breadboard clock: emulating flight clock interfaces, steering a USO local oscillator, and consuming approx 40 Watts has been operating at JPL for more than a year. This complete, modular ion clock instrument demonstrates that key GNSS size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements can be achieved while still maintaining short and long term performance demonstrated in previous ground ion clocks. The MAFS breadboard serves as a flexible platform for optimizing further space clock development and guides engineering model design trades towards fabrication of an ion clock for space flight.

  14. Radiation safety standards: space hazards vs. terrestrial hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1983-01-01

    Policies regarding the setting of standards for radiation exposure for astronauts and other workers in space are discussed. The first recommendations for dose limitation and the underlying philosophy of these recommendations, which were put out in 1970, are examined, and consequences for the standards if the same philosophy of allowing a doubling in overall cancer risk for males aged 30-35 over a 20-year period were applied to more recent risk estimates are calculated, leading to values about a factor of 4 below the 1970 recommendation. Standards set since 1930 for terrestrial occupational exposures, which lead to a maximum lifetime risk of about 2.3 percent, are then considered, and the space and terrestrial exposure risks for fatal cancers at maximum lifetime dose are compared with industrial accidental death rates. Attention is also given to the question of the potential effects of HZE particles in space and to the possibility that HZE particle effects, rather than radiation carcinogenesis, might be the limiting factor. 17 references

  15. An improved standard total dose test for CMOS space electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Riewe, L.C.; Pease, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The postirradiation response of hardened and commercial CMOS devices is investigated as a function of total dose, dose rate, and annealing time and temperature. Cobalt-60 irradiation at ≅ 200 rad(SiO 2 )/s followed by a 1-week 100 degrees C biased anneal and testing is shown to be an effective screen of hardened devices for space use. However, a similar screen and single-point test performed after Co-60 irradiation and elevated temperature anneal cannot be generally defined for commercial devices. In the absence of detailed knowledge about device and circuit radiation response, a two-point standard test is proposed to ensure space surviability of CMOS circuits: a Co-60 irradiation and test to screen against oxide-trapped charge related failures, and an additional rebound test to screen against interface-trap related failures. Testing implications for bipolar technologies are also discussed

  16. Coset Space Dimensional Reduction approach to the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farakos, K.; Kapetanakis, D.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Zoupanos, G.

    1988-01-01

    We present a unified theory in ten dimensions based on the gauge group E 8 , which is dimensionally reduced to the Standard Mode SU 3c xSU 2 -LxU 1 , which breaks further spontaneously to SU 3L xU 1em . The model gives similar predictions for sin 2 θ w and proton decay as the minimal SU 5 G.U.T., while a natural choice of the coset space radii predicts light Higgs masses a la Coleman-Weinberg

  17. Vertical displacement of the brain and the target area during open stereotaxic neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, K.; Kraekenes, J.

    2001-01-01

    During stereotaxic thalamotomies, we observed that the brain surface was sinking. The study was carried out to investigate to what extent the target area also was displaced and how this would affect the accuracy of the stereotaxic procedure. In 12 thalamotomies, with the patients operated on in the sitting position, we found that the cortical surface sank 0-9 (mean 5) mm during the operation. The vertical co-ordinate of the thalamic target was consequently adjusted per-operatively, and the electrodes were advanced on additional distance of 1-5.5 (mean 3.5) mm in an attempt to compensate for the assumed sinking of the target. This per-operative adjustment was based on the surgeon's experience and the results of macro-stimulation studies. The exact location of the thalamotomy lesion, and thereby the accuracy of the adjustment, was evaluated on 3 months postoperative CT scans. These showed that the intended target was hit with a sufficient degree of accuracy in all the patients, although the vertical co-ordinate had been slightly over-adjusted, as the center of the lesion on the average was located 1 mm below the intended location. Thus, if the vertical position had not been adjusted, the lesion would on the average have been located 2.5 mm too high compared with the intended target. Patients undergoing thalamotomy and other stereotaxic procedures, where a high degree of accuracy is needed, should be operated on in the sitting position. At the thalamic level, the vertical displacement of the target should be adjusted for by additional advancement of the stereotaxic probe. On average, this compensatory adjustment should be about half the per-operative sinking of the cortical surface. (author)

  18. Improved precision of interstitial brain tumor irradiation using the BRW CT stereotaxic guidance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapozink, M.D.; Moeller, J.M.; McDonald, P.N.; Heilbrun, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    A technique is described which enables precise temporary interstitial volume implantation of brain tumors using a CT stereotaxic guidance system. This technique has the advantages of designing irregular isodose distributions during the preplanning stage. Although the preplanning stage can be time-consuming, this is performed while the patient is in the hospital room and CT scanner time, anesthesia time, and operating room time is minimized for individual patients

  19. Stereotaxic approach to hypothalamic nuclei of the shiba goat with radiographic monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Shimada, M.; Hayashi, S.; Hoshino, K.

    1990-01-01

    Practical method was devised for precise approach to hypothalamic nuclei in the Shiba goat. A stereotaxic instrument and a brain atlas with stereotaxic coordinates were developed. For an accurate placement of probes into specific hypothalamic regions a radiographic method was employed in which radio-opaque material was injected into the lateral ventricle and the ventricular outline was depicted. A sagittal diagram showing the arrangement of hypothalamic nuclei in relation to the brain ventricular system was constructed from the transverse stereotaxic atlas. This diagram was revealed extremely useful in pinpointing the target on the radiographs of lateral view. Precision of this method was evaluated in female Shiba goats (n = 4) by comparing radiographically estimated positions of hypothalamic nuclei with those histologically determined. Despite of cranial variability among individual animals these two parameters matched well each other in all the nuclei examined. Furthermore, chronic cannulae were implanted into different hypothalamic structures of one goat and the accuracy of their placement was confirmed histologically. Thus, it was revealed that the stereotaxy by aid of radiography herein described was accurate enough to apply to various neuroendocrinological studies in the Shiba goat

  20. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Test Requirements for Launch, Upper-Stage and Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-05

    Aviation Blvd. El Segundo, CA 90245 4. This standard has been approved for use on all Space and Missile Systems Center/Air Force Program...140 Satellite Hardness and Survivability; Testing Rationale for Electronic Upset and Burnout Effects 30. JANNAF-GL-2012-01-RO Test and Evaluation...vehicle, subsystem, and unit lev- els . Acceptance testing shall be conducted on all subsequent flight items. The protoqualification strategy shall require

  1. THERMAL SIMILARITY OF SPACE OBJECTS OF STANDARD CONFIGURATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Dzitoev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal similarity of objects of various configuration is defined by equality of their stationary surface average temperatures in the Earth shadow that is equivalent to equality of their effective irradiance coefficients by own thermal radiation of the Earth. Cone, cylinder and sphere are chosen among standard configurations. Unlike two last figures, calculation of irradiance coefficient for conic object is the most difficult and contains a number of uncertainties. The method of calculation for integrated and effective irradiance coefficients of space object with a conic form is stated which is typical for fragments of spacecrafts. Integrated irradiance coefficients define the average thermal balance on a lateral surface of the cylinder and cone, and also full power balance on a sphere surface. Effective irradiance coefficients define a full falling specific stream of the Earth’s radiation on the whole surface of cylindrical or conic object taking into account their bases. By data about effective irradiance coefficients, the average stationary temperatures of space objects in the Earth shadow are defined, as well as on the trajectory part illuminated by the Sun taking into account two additional components of power balance – direct sunlight and reflected by the Earth. Researches were conducted in the height change range for an orbit from 200 to 40000 km depending on a tilt angle of the cylinder and cone axis relative to zenith-nadir line. Similarity conditions for the cylinder and cone are defined at equal ratio sizes of the figure height to base diameter.

  2. Direct gene transfer in the Gottingen minipig CNS using stereotaxic lentiviral microinjections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GLUD, AN; Hedegaard, Claus; Nielsen, Mette Slot

    2010-01-01

    We aim to induce direct viral mediated gene transfer in the substantia nigra (SN) of the Gottingen minipig using MRI guided stereotaxic injections of lentiviral vectors encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Nine female Gottingen minipigs were injected unilaterally into the SN with 6...... per 2.5 microliters lentivirus capable of transducing cells and mediating expression of recombinant EGFP. The animals were euthanized after four (n=3) or twenty weeks (n=6). Fresh brain tissue from three animals was used for PCR. The remaining six brains were cryo- or paraffin...

  3. Interactive, three dimensional, CT-based treatment planning of stereotaxic I-125 brain implants. 132

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulu, B.; Lewis, J.; Smith, V.; Stuart, A.

    1987-01-01

    Brain implants of I-125 seeds are done with the Brown-Roberts-Wells stereotaxic frame. The patient is CT scanned with the frame bolted to the skull. In the time between the scan and surgery, while the patient is under anesthesia, an interactive three dimensional CT-based treatment plan is performed on a VAX computer. The program is menu driven, easy to use, and easily modifiable. Device dependencies are limited to a small number of subroutines, and an array processor is used to speed dose calculations

  4. Doses to organs at cerebral risks: optimization by robotized stereotaxic radiotherapy and automatic segmentation atlas versus three dimensional conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondiau, P.Y.; Thariat, J.; Benezery, K.; Herault, J.; Dalmasso, C.; Marcie, S.; Malandain, G.

    2007-01-01

    The stereotaxic radiotherapy robotized by 'Cyberknife fourth generation' allows a dosimetric optimization with a high conformity index on the tumor and radiation doses limited on organs at risk. A cerebral automatic anatomic segmentation atlas of organs at risk are used in routine in three dimensions. This study evaluated the superiority of the stereotaxic radiotherapy in comparison with the three dimensional conformal radiotherapy on the preservation of organs at risk in regard of the delivered dose to tumors justifying an accelerated hypo fractionation and a dose escalation. This automatic segmentation atlas should allow to establish correlations between anatomy and cerebral dosimetry; This atlas allows to underline the dosimetry optimization by stereotaxic radiotherapy robotized for organs at risk. (N.C.)

  5. CT-guided stereotaxic implantation of Ommaya reservoir for cystic brain tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasato, Nobukazu; Niizuma, Hiroshi; Johkura, Hidefumi; Katoh, Seiya; Otsuki, Taisuke; Katakura, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Jiro

    1988-02-01

    We report the use of CT-guided stereotaxic system to implant Ommaya reservoir in 26 patients with cystic brain tumors consisting of 16 gliomas, 3 craniopharyngiomas, 3 metastatic brain tumors and 5 other and unknown pathologies, on the way of their biopsy. The entire procedure was carried out in the CT room using Leksell's CT stereotaxic system. In 24 cases with supratentorial tumors, it was at the option of the operator to take any approach such as frontal, posterior temporal and parietal approaches. Especially in 3 cases of craniopharyngioma, we inserted the tube into their cyst directly so that the ventricle should not be open to the cyst. Also in cases of a pontine glioma and a C-P angle metastatic tumor, we used retromastoid approach to the posterior fossa by making patient's heads turned about 30 to 40 deg to contralateral side of the approach, with slight flexion of the neck. Minimal bleeding occurred during operation in one case, however, it showed no clinical symptoms. Advantages of this method are as follows: Operative invasion is minimal; The surgeon can check the course of the cannula and position of the tip of Ommaya tube even at operation, and can modify it, if necessary.

  6. CT-guided stereotaxic implantation of Ommaya reservoir for cystic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasato, Nobukazu; Niizuma, Hiroshi; Johkura, Hidefumi; Katoh, Seiya; Otsuki, Taisuke; Katakura, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Jiro

    1988-01-01

    We report the use of CT-guided stereotaxic system to implant Ommaya reservoir in 26 patients with cystic brain tumors consisting of 16 gliomas, 3 craniopharyngiomas, 3 metastatic brain tumors and 5 other and unknown pathologies, on the way of their biopsy. The entire procedure was carried out in the CT room using Leksell's CT stereotaxic system. In 24 cases with supratentorial tumors, it was at the option of the operator to take any approach such as frontal, posterior temporal and parietal approaches. Especially in 3 cases of craniopharyngioma, we inserted the tube into their cyst directly so that the ventricle should not be open to the cyst. Also in cases of a pontine glioma and a C-P angle metastatic tumor, we used retromastoid approach to the posterior fossa by making patient's heads turned about 30 to 40 deg to contralateral side of the approach, with slight flexion of the neck. Minimal bleeding occurred during operation in one case, however, it showed no clinical symptoms. Advantages of this method are as follows: Operative invasion is minimal; The surgeon can check the course of the cannula and position of the tip of Ommaya tube even at operation, and can modify it, if necessary. (author)

  7. CT-guided stereotaxic biopsy in 104 cases of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizuma, Hiroshi; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Jokura, Hidehumi; Otsuki, Taisuke; Katakura, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Jiro

    1988-01-01

    Biopsy of suspected brain tumor was performed on 104 cases using Leksell's CT-guided stereotaxic system. The entire operation was performed in the CT room. A Backlund's spiral biopsy needle was advanced to the target point in a stepwise fashion and two to nine tissue samples were obtained from one to three biopsy tracks. Tissue sampling was impossible in two cases because the tumors were too hard for biopsy needle to advance. Also, sampling was sometimes difficult in the case of soft and necrotic tumor, cystic tumor, already treated (irradiated) tumor and the lesion including old blood clot. After the biopsy, minimal bleeding occurred in nine cases, however, stopped within 10 minutes by controlling the blood pressure. A minimum sized hematoma was visible on the postoperative CT in four cases. Postoperative neurological deterioration was seen in two cases. One case was transient and the other seemed to be in his natural course. Anyway, there were neither cases of operative mortality nor severely complicated cases in these series. Useful pathological diagnosis was possible in 83 cases (80 %). Accurate diagnosis was not possible in the remaining 21 cases, however, their histological datum such as necrosis, blood clot, and so on were very useful to estimate the lesions. In summary, accurate diagnosis rate of CT-guided stereotaxic needle biopsy was 80 %. However, it appeared to be a safe and useful procedure in the diagnosis of intracranial mass lesions. (author)

  8. Stereotaxic implantation of dispersed cell suspensions into brain. A systematic appraisal of cell placement and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plunkett, R.J.; Weber, R.J.; Oldfield, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The application of several recent advances in cell biology, brain implantation, and cell-mediated tumor immunotherapy requires successful and reproducible placement of viable cell suspensions into brain. Stereotaxic implantation is being used to inject cytotoxic lymphocytes into gliomas and to replace dopaminergic cells in parkinsonian models. Systematic assessment of the factors that influence success in implantation of cell suspensions into solid tissues is needed. A model was developed for investigation of stereotaxic implantation using radiolabeled rat lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. Anesthetized rats received microliter injections of cell suspension into the right caudate nucleus. The injection volume, cell concentration, infusion rate, and needle size were varied systematically. The animals were sacrificed 1 hour after injection; the brain was removed and sectioned, and the radioactivity was counted. Three aliquots of the suspension were injected into counting tubes for control analysis. Recovery of radioactivity was expressed as the percent of mean counts per minute (cpm) in the right frontal lobe/mean cpm in the three control tubes. To assess the viability of implanted cells, the right frontal region was mechanically dissociated in media and centrifuged, and the pellet and supernatant were counted. By using small needles and slow infusion of volumes of 10 microliters or less, 85% to 90% of the radioactivity was recovered in the caudate nucleus. At least half of the implanted cells were viable. Consistent, accurate implantation of dispersed cells into brain over a range of volumes, cell concentrations, infusion rates, and needle sizes was achieved

  9. 41 CFR 102-79.20 - What standard must Executive agencies promote when assigning space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What standard must Executive agencies promote when assigning space? 102-79.20 Section 102-79.20 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 79-ASSIGNMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SPACE Assignment and Utilization of Space Assignment of Space...

  10. Metric and topology on a non-standard real line and non-standard space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir Shah, K.

    1981-04-01

    We study metric and topological properties of extended real line R* and compare it with the non-standard model of real line *R. We show that some properties, like triangular inequality, cannot be carried over R* from R. This confirms F. Wattenberg's result for measure theory on Dedekind completion of *R. Based on conclusions from these results we propose a non-standard model of space-time. This space-time is without undefined objects like singularities. (author)

  11. Examination of the Benefits of Standardized Interfaces on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    them to enter the once impenetrable aerospace market: Elon Musk with Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), Richard Branson with Virgin Galactic, and...systems-engineering- guide/se-life cycle-building-blocks/concept-development/highlevel-conceptual- definition. Musk , Elon . 2009. Risky Business... Musk , 2009) Unknown effects of prolonged exposure to radiation Degraded system capability (JPL 2015) Replenishment of the system capability may

  12. Standardization of XML Database Exchanges and the James Webb Space Telescope Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Detter, Ryan; Jones, Ron; Fatig, Curtis C.

    2007-01-01

    Personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project have been working with various standard communities such the Object Management Group (OMG) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) to assist in the definition of a common extensible Markup Language (XML) for database exchange format. The CCSDS and OMG standards are intended for the exchange of core command and telemetry information, not for all database information needed to exercise a NASA space mission. The mission-specific database, containing all the information needed for a space mission, is translated from/to the standard using a translator. The standard is meant to provide a system that encompasses 90% of the information needed for command and telemetry processing. This paper will discuss standardization of the XML database exchange format, tools used, and the JWST experience, as well as future work with XML standard groups both commercial and government.

  13. Clinical evaluation of CT-guided stereotaxic evacuation of hypertensive intracerebral hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masato; Yoshinaga, Shiya; Nakayama, Yoshiya; Hirakawa, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Akira; Tomonaga, Masamichi

    1989-01-01

    The clinical results of CT-guided stereotaxic evacuation of hypertensive intracerebral hematomas which had been done in our department during the last 16 months were evaluated. They included 18 cases; 8 of thalamic, 9 of putaminal and one of cerebellar hematoma. The patients were 11 males and 7 females, with an average age of 57. The time interval from oneset to surgery was 1-21 days, 9.5 days on average. The hematoma volume estimated on a CT scan was 6-35 ml and the average rate of hematoma removal by surgery was 75%. Intraoperative monitoring with ultrasonography and postoperative infusion of Urokinase increased the removal rate. In 14 cases, the mental ability and motor function improved within days after surgery and rehabilitation was started within a short period. However, the recovery in aged people was generally poor. Rebleeding occurred postoperatively in one case, necessitating a subsequent craniotomy. (author)

  14. Hippocampal Neurogenesis and the Brain Repair Response to Brief Stereotaxic Insertion of a Microneedle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that transient microinjury to the brain elicits cellular and humoral responses that stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Brief stereotaxic insertion and removal of a microneedle into the right hippocampus resulted in (a significantly increased expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, the chemokine MIP-1a, and the proinflammatory cytokine IL12p40; (b pronounced activation of microglia and astrocytes; and (c increase in hippocampal neurogenesis. This study describes immediate and early humoral and cellular mechanisms of the brain’s response to microinjury that will be useful for the investigation of potential neuroprotective and deleterious effects of deep brain stimulation in various neuropsychiatric disorders.

  15. Standards guide for space and earth sciences computer software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, G.; Chapman, R.; Klinglesmith, D.; Linnekin, J.; Putney, W.; Shaffer, F.; Dapice, R.

    1972-01-01

    Guidelines for the preparation of systems analysis and programming work statements are presented. The data is geared toward the efficient administration of available monetary and equipment resources. Language standards and the application of good management techniques to software development are emphasized.

  16. Standard compliant channel selection scheme for TV white space networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available CHANNEL DECISION SCHEME The proposed channel selection model is performed based on the flowchart shown in Fig. 1. We assume that the TVWS- BS is authorised and registered with the national GSDB. The model starts when the TVWS-BS queries the GSDB after...-BS will query the GSDB after a predefined period of time until at least more than one channel is available to allow the channel allocation process to start. Fig. 1: Proposed channel selection scheme flowchart A. White Space Channel Attributes Collection Based...

  17. A three-dimensional stereotaxic atlas of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Piotr; Chlodzinska, Natalia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Banasik, Tomasz; Djavadian, Ruzanna L; Węglarz, Władysław P; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2018-05-01

    The gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) is a small marsupial gaining recognition as a laboratory animal in biomedical research. Despite numerous studies on opossum neuroanatomy, a consistent and comprehensive neuroanatomical reference for this species is still missing. Here we present the first three-dimensional, multimodal atlas of the Monodelphis opossum brain. It is based on four complementary imaging modalities: high resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance images, micro-computed tomography scans of the cranium, images of the face of the cutting block, and series of sections stained with the Nissl method and for myelinated fibers. Individual imaging modalities were reconstructed into a three-dimensional form and then registered to the MR image by means of affine and deformable registration routines. Based on a superimposition of the 3D images, 113 anatomical structures were demarcated and the volumes of individual regions were measured. The stereotaxic coordinate system was defined using a set of cranial landmarks: interaural line, bregma, and lambda, which allows for easy expression of any location within the brain with respect to the skull. The atlas is released under the Creative Commons license and available through various digital atlasing web services.

  18. Interstitial hyperthermia using 8 MHz radiofrequency and stereotaxic brachytherapy for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Satoshi

    1990-01-01

    As a preliminary study of the interstitial hyperthermia combined with interstitial irradiation (brachytherapy) for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, we performed an experiment of interstitial hyperthermia of brain tissue of dogs. Nine afterloading tubes, four for needle electrodes and five for thermisters, were inserted in the brain tissue of dogs. Rise and stability of temperature were ascertained, and clinical safety was confirmed. Thereafter this combined therapy was applied on seven cases, in which three were malignant gliomas and four were metastatic tumors. Through the guide tubes, 192 Ir thin wires were implanted stereotaxically, and interstitial irradiation was carried out. After removal of 192 Ir wires, needle electrodes were inserted through the same tubes, and also a thermister was guided at the center of electrodes. And interstitial hyperthermia using 8 MHz radiofrequency was carried out. The results of the treatment were evaluated with CT scan based on criteria of the Japan Neurological Society. In cases of malignant gliomas, 2 PRs (partial remission), and 1 NC (no change) were obtained. In cases of metastatic tumors, 1 CR (complete remission), 2 PRs, 1 NC were obtaind. In cases of NCs, progression of tumors have been suppressed for 10 and 17 months, and still alive. As complication, transient worsening of neurological symptoms were observed in four cases (increased paresis: two cases, nausea and vomiting: two cases). The author have had an impression that interstitial hyperthermia combined with interstitial irradiation might become an effective means of treatment of brain tumors. (author)

  19. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Systems Engineering Requirements and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER Air Force Space Command 483 N. Aviation Blvd. El Segundo, CA 90245 4. This standard has been approved for use on all Space...Any RF receiver with a burnout level of less than 30 dBm (1 mW). b. A summary of all significant areas are addressed in the EMC Control Plan...address 7. Date Submitted 8. Preparing Activity Space and Missile Systems Center AIR FORCE SPACE COMMAND 483 N. Aviation Blvd. El Segundo, CA 91245 Attention: SMC/EN February 2013

  20. Concept of Draft International Standard for a Unified Approach to Space Program Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryzhak, Y.; Vasilina, V.; Kurbatov, V.

    2002-01-01

    For want of the unified approach to guaranteed space project and product quality assurance, implementation of many international space programs has become a challenge. Globalization of aerospace industry and participation of various international ventures with diverse quality assurance requirements in big international space programs requires for urgent generation of unified international standards related to this field. To ensure successful fulfillment of space missions, aerospace companies should design and process reliable and safe products with properties complying or bettering User's (or Customer's) requirements. Quality of the products designed or processed by subcontractors (or other suppliers) should also be in compliance with the main user (customer)'s requirements. Implementation of this involved set of unified requirements will be made possible by creating and approving a system (series) of international standards under a generic title Space Product Quality Assurance based on a system consensus principle. Conceptual features of the baseline standard in this system (series) should comprise: - Procedures for ISO 9000, CEN and ECSS requirements adaptation and introduction into space product creation, design, manufacture, testing and operation; - Procedures for quality assurance at initial (design) phases of space programs, with a decision on the end product made based on the principle of independence; - Procedures to arrange incoming inspection of products delivered by subcontractors (including testing, audit of supplier's procedures, review of supplier's documentation), and space product certification; - Procedures to identify materials and primary products applied; - Procedures for quality system audit at the component part, primary product and materials supplier facilities; - Unified procedures to form a list of basic performances to be under configuration management; - Unified procedures to form a list of critical space product components, and unified

  1. Preliminary Data for Space Grade Spectralon® BRDF Targets & Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Durell, Chris; Wilks, Dylan; Kinkaid, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Spectralon is an extremely stable, near-perfect lambertian reflecting diffuser and calibration standard material that has been used by national labs, space, aerospace and commercial sectors for over two decades. New uncertainty targets of 2% on-orbit absolute validation in the Earth Observing Systems community have challenged the industry to improve is characterization and knowledge of almost every aspect of radiometric performance (space and ground). Assuming “near perfect” reflectance and...

  2. Future Standardization of Space Telecommunications Radio System with Core Flight System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Hickey, Joseph P.; Roche, Rigoberto; Handler, Louis M.; Hall, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is integrating the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Standard with the Core Flight System (cFS), an avionics software operating environment. The STRS standard provides a common, consistent framework to develop, qualify, operate and maintain complex, reconfigurable and reprogrammable radio systems. The cFS is a flexible, open architecture that features a plugand- play software executive called the Core Flight Executive (cFE), a reusable library of software components for flight and space missions and an integrated tool suite. Together, STRS and cFS create a development environment that allows for STRS compliant applications to reference the STRS application programmer interfaces (APIs) that use the cFS infrastructure. These APIs are used to standardize the communication protocols on NASAs space SDRs. The cFS-STRS Operating Environment (OE) is a portable cFS library, which adds the ability to run STRS applications on existing cFS platforms. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the cFS-STRS OE prototype, preliminary experimental results performed using the Advanced Space Radio Platform (ASRP), the GRC S- band Ground Station and the SCaN (Space Communication and Navigation) Testbed currently flying onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Additionally, this paper presents a demonstration of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Spacecraft Onboard Interface Services (SOIS) using electronic data sheets (EDS) inside cFE. This configuration allows for the data sheets to specify binary formats for data exchange between STRS applications. The integration of STRS with cFS leverages mission-proven platform functions and mitigates barriers to integration with future missions. This reduces flight software development time and the costs of software-defined radio (SDR) platforms. Furthermore, the combined benefits of STRS standardization with the flexibility of cFS provide an effective, reliable and

  3. Analysis of 62 cases with stereotaxic breast biopsy with a prone table system: emphasis on lesions with microcalcificatios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Il Gyu; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Han, Boo Kyung; Byun, Hong Sik; Choo, In Wook

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of stereotaxic breast core biopsy using a prone table system, and the effects of operator experience, lesion characteristics and number of samples on biopsy results in cases involving nonpalpable breast lesions. We performed stereotaxic core biopsies of 62 nonpalpable mammographic lesions in 61 patients. Subsequent surgical excision was performed in 11 cases with microcalcifications and one case with a mass. We equally divided patients with microcalcifications into two groups (early and late periods) and analyzed the mammographic findings. Correlation of the pathologic results of core biopsy with those of surgical excision were investigated. In two patients, stereotaxic biopsy was impossible due to poor visibility of microcalcifications and thinness of the compressed breast. In 59 patients, core biopsy was successfully performed and specimens were adequate for pathologic examination. The average number of microcalcifications seen on specimen mammography in the two groups was 1.8(range : 0x8) and 2.5(range : 0x4) respectively. In patients from whom less than five and five or more samples were taken, the average number of microcalcifications seen on specimen mammography was 1.5(range : 0x6) and 2.6(range : 0x8), respectively, throughout the whole period. The pathologic findings were fibrocystic change in 50 cases, fibroadenoma in four, ductal carcinoma in situ in four, invasive ductal carcinoma in one, and atypical ductal hyperplasia in one. The agreement rate of pathologic results between core biopsy and surgical excision was 83%(10/12) for malignancy and 75% for histology. In three cases with disagreement between core and surgical pathologic results, the sampling number was small (3x 4 times) and in two of the three cases, microcalcifications were not visible on mammography operator experience and sampling numbers larger than five results in an increased number of microcalcifications in specimens and more reliable core biopsy

  4. Analysis of 62 cases with stereotaxic breast biopsy with a prone table system: emphasis on lesions with microcalcificatios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Il Gyu; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Han, Boo Kyung; Byun, Hong Sik; Choo, In Wook [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of stereotaxic breast core biopsy using a prone table system, and the effects of operator experience, lesion characteristics and number of samples on biopsy results in cases involving nonpalpable breast lesions. We performed stereotaxic core biopsies of 62 nonpalpable mammographic lesions in 61 patients. Subsequent surgical excision was performed in 11 cases with microcalcifications and one case with a mass. We equally divided patients with microcalcifications into two groups (early and late periods) and analyzed the mammographic findings. Correlation of the pathologic results of core biopsy with those of surgical excision were investigated. In two patients, stereotaxic biopsy was impossible due to poor visibility of microcalcifications and thinness of the compressed breast. In 59 patients, core biopsy was successfully performed and specimens were adequate for pathologic examination. The average number of microcalcifications seen on specimen mammography in the two groups was 1.8(range : 0x8) and 2.5(range : 0x4) respectively. In patients from whom less than five and five or more samples were taken, the average number of microcalcifications seen on specimen mammography was 1.5(range : 0x6) and 2.6(range : 0x8), respectively, throughout the whole period. The pathologic findings were fibrocystic change in 50 cases, fibroadenoma in four, ductal carcinoma in situ in four, invasive ductal carcinoma in one, and atypical ductal hyperplasia in one. The agreement rate of pathologic results between core biopsy and surgical excision was 83%(10/12) for malignancy and 75% for histology. In three cases with disagreement between core and surgical pathologic results, the sampling number was small (3x 4 times) and in two of the three cases, microcalcifications were not visible on mammography operator experience and sampling numbers larger than five results in an increased number of microcalcifications in specimens and more reliable core biopsy.

  5. Standards for the user interface - Developing a user consensus. [for Space Station Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Karen L.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Szczur, Martha R.

    1987-01-01

    The user support environment (USE) which is a set of software tools for a flexible standard interactive user interface to the Space Station systems, platforms, and payloads is described in detail. Included in the USE concept are a user interface language, a run time environment and user interface management system, support tools, and standards for human interaction methods. The goals and challenges of the USE are discussed as well as a methodology based on prototype demonstrations for involving users in the process of validating the USE concepts. By prototyping the key concepts and salient features of the proposed user interface standards, the user's ability to respond is greatly enhanced.

  6. Nanosatellite standardization and modularization as an asset to space weather measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, D.; Carssow, D.; Fritz, T. A.; Voss, H. D.

    2009-12-01

    The continuity of measurements from satellites in the Magnetosphere and Ionosphere is essential for the space weather community as pointed out by the US National Space Weather Program. Challenges to space budgets and the growing dependence upon space weather prediction have opened the door for extremely small satellites to play a large role in making these measurements. Standardization allows for modularity and the ability to lower satellite cost by reusing instrumentation and satellite systems without redesigning interfaces. Use of nanosatellites gives a designer the freedom to depart from the customary larger satellite design by deploying standardized interfaces throughout the spacecraft bus. Examples from the Boston University Student Satellite for Application and Training (BUSAT), the Thunderstorms and Effects Scientific and Technology nanosatellite (TEST), and the Loss Cone Imaging Instrument (LCI) will be provided. BUSAT is a five instrument nanosatellite with a nine pixel Imaging Electron Spectrometer, a Magnetometer, an Auroral Imager, a Very Low Frequency receiver, and a Langmuir Plasma Probe. Its purpose is to further the understanding of the coupling between energetic particles originating in the magnetosphere and their subsequent effects on the Ionosphere. In addition to their space weather science objective, BUSAT’s subsystems are based on the Cubesat concept and have been standardized, enabling them to be stacked in any orientation. Subsystems are not limited in size to the basic 1U cube, but are able to be any multiple of that size in any direction.

  7. Standard symmetric operators in Pontryagin spaces : a generalized von Neumann formula and minimality of boundary coefficients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azizov, Tomas; Ćurgus, Branko; Dijksma, Aad

    2003-01-01

    Certain meromorphic matrix valued functions on C\\R, the so-called boundary coefficients, are characterized in terms of a standard symmetric operator S in a Pontryagin space with finite (not necessarily equal) defect numbers, a meromorphic mapping into the defect subspaces of S, and a boundary

  8. Fully automated quantification of regional cerebral blood flow with three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest template. Validation using magnetic resonance imaging. Technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Ryo; Katayama, Shigenori; Takeda, Naoya; Fujita, Katsuzo [Nishi-Kobe Medical Center (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Fukui Medical Univ., Matsuoka (Japan); Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2003-03-01

    The previously reported three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest (ROI) template (3DSRT-t) for the analysis of anatomically standardized technetium-99m-L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images was modified for use in a fully automated regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) quantification software, 3DSRT, incorporating an anatomical standardization engine transplanted from statistical parametric mapping 99 and ROIs for quantification based on 3DSRT-t. Three-dimensional T{sub 2}-weighted magnetic resonance images of 10 patients with localized infarcted areas were compared with the ROI contour of 3DSRT, and the positions of the central sulcus in the primary sensorimotor area were also estimated. All positions of the 20 lesions were in strict accordance with the ROI delineation of 3DSRT. The central sulcus was identified on at least one side of 210 paired ROIs and in the middle of 192 (91.4%) of these 210 paired ROIs among the 273 paired ROIs of the primary sensorimotor area. The central sulcus was recognized in the middle of more than 71.4% of the ROIs in which the central sulcus was identifiable in the respective 28 slices of the primary sensorimotor area. Fully automated accurate ROI delineation on anatomically standardized images is possible with 3DSRT, which enables objective quantification of rCBF and vascular reserve in only a few minutes using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT images obtained by the resting and vascular reserve (RVR) method. (author)

  9. Fully automated quantification of regional cerebral blood flow with three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest template. Validation using magnetic resonance imaging. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Ryo; Katayama, Shigenori; Takeda, Naoya; Fujita, Katsuzo; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Konishi, Junji

    2003-01-01

    The previously reported three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest (ROI) template (3DSRT-t) for the analysis of anatomically standardized technetium-99m-L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images was modified for use in a fully automated regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) quantification software, 3DSRT, incorporating an anatomical standardization engine transplanted from statistical parametric mapping 99 and ROIs for quantification based on 3DSRT-t. Three-dimensional T 2 -weighted magnetic resonance images of 10 patients with localized infarcted areas were compared with the ROI contour of 3DSRT, and the positions of the central sulcus in the primary sensorimotor area were also estimated. All positions of the 20 lesions were in strict accordance with the ROI delineation of 3DSRT. The central sulcus was identified on at least one side of 210 paired ROIs and in the middle of 192 (91.4%) of these 210 paired ROIs among the 273 paired ROIs of the primary sensorimotor area. The central sulcus was recognized in the middle of more than 71.4% of the ROIs in which the central sulcus was identifiable in the respective 28 slices of the primary sensorimotor area. Fully automated accurate ROI delineation on anatomically standardized images is possible with 3DSRT, which enables objective quantification of rCBF and vascular reserve in only a few minutes using 99m Tc-ECD SPECT images obtained by the resting and vascular reserve (RVR) method. (author)

  10. Implications of the Next Generation Science Standards for Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Colson, M.; Duschl, R. A.; Huff, K.; Lopez, R. E.; Messina, P.; Speranza, P.; Matthews, T.; Childress, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), due to be released in 2013, set a new direction for K-12 science education in America. These standards will put forth significant changes for Earth and space sciences. The NGSS are based upon the recommendations of the National Research Council's 2011 report "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas." The standards are being written by a large group of authors who represent many different constituencies, including 26 participating states, in a process led by Achieve, Inc. The standards encourage innovative ways to teach science at the K-12 level, including enhanced integration between the content, practices, and crosscutting ideas of science and greater assimilation among the sciences and engineering, and among the sciences, mathematics, and English language arts. The NGSS presents a greater emphasis on Earth and space sciences than in previous standards, recommending a year at both the middle and high school levels. The new standards also present a greater emphasis on areas of direct impact between humans and the Earth system, including climate change, natural hazards, resource management, and sustainability.

  11. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  12. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard. Release 1.02.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Handler, Louis M.; Hall, C. Steve; Mortensen, Dale J.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Briones, Janette C.; Nappier, Jennifer M.; Downey, Joseph A.; Lux, James P.

    2012-01-01

    This document contains the NASA architecture standard for software defined radios used in space- and ground-based platforms to enable commonality among radio developments to enhance capability and services while reducing mission and programmatic risk. Transceivers (or transponders) with functionality primarily defined in software (e.g., firmware) have the ability to change their functional behavior through software alone. This radio architecture standard offers value by employing common waveform software interfaces, method of instantiation, operation, and testing among different compliant hardware and software products. These common interfaces within the architecture abstract application software from the underlying hardware to enable technology insertion independently at either the software or hardware layer.

  13. A perturbative approach to the redshift space correlation function: beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Benjamin; Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: benjamin.bose@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-01

    We extend our previous redshift space power spectrum code to the redshift space correlation function. Here we focus on the Gaussian Streaming Model (GSM). Again, the code accommodates a wide range of modified gravity and dark energy models. For the non-linear real space correlation function used in the GSM we use the Fourier transform of the RegPT 1-loop matter power spectrum. We compare predictions of the GSM for a Vainshtein screened and Chameleon screened model as well as GR. These predictions are compared to the Fourier transform of the Taruya, Nishimichi and Saito (TNS) redshift space power spectrum model which is fit to N-body data. We find very good agreement between the Fourier transform of the TNS model and the GSM predictions, with ≤ 6% deviations in the first two correlation function multipoles for all models for redshift space separations in 50Mpc h ≤ s ≤ 180Mpc/ h . Excellent agreement is found in the differences between the modified gravity and GR multipole predictions for both approaches to the redshift space correlation function, highlighting their matched ability in picking up deviations from GR. We elucidate the timeliness of such non-standard templates at the dawn of stage-IV surveys and discuss necessary preparations and extensions needed for upcoming high quality data.

  14. A perturbative approach to the redshift space correlation function: beyond the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Benjamin; Koyama, Kazuya

    2017-08-01

    We extend our previous redshift space power spectrum code to the redshift space correlation function. Here we focus on the Gaussian Streaming Model (GSM). Again, the code accommodates a wide range of modified gravity and dark energy models. For the non-linear real space correlation function used in the GSM we use the Fourier transform of the RegPT 1-loop matter power spectrum. We compare predictions of the GSM for a Vainshtein screened and Chameleon screened model as well as GR. These predictions are compared to the Fourier transform of the Taruya, Nishimichi and Saito (TNS) redshift space power spectrum model which is fit to N-body data. We find very good agreement between the Fourier transform of the TNS model and the GSM predictions, with <= 6% deviations in the first two correlation function multipoles for all models for redshift space separations in 50Mpch <= s <= 180Mpc/h. Excellent agreement is found in the differences between the modified gravity and GR multipole predictions for both approaches to the redshift space correlation function, highlighting their matched ability in picking up deviations from GR. We elucidate the timeliness of such non-standard templates at the dawn of stage-IV surveys and discuss necessary preparations and extensions needed for upcoming high quality data.

  15. Delimitação dos núcleos talâmicos pela eletrofisiologia estereotáxica Delimitation of the thalamic nuclei by stereotaxic electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Luís Latuf

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Os limites da área destruída durante a cirurgia estereotáxica são descritos levando em consideração as complicações decorrentes de lesões determinadas erroneamente. São comentados os métodos empregados com a finalidade de controlar a delimitação do alvo, sendo descrita a técnica usada em 23 talamotomias com derivação da atividade elétrica celular dos núcleos talâmicos atravessados e a pesquisa de potenciais evocados, graças à somatotopia da representação táctil no núcleo ventral posterior. Com este método reduz-se de mais ou menos 1 mm o erro radiológico, prescisando-se o alvo terapêutico talâmico nos três planos de espaço.The limits of the area to be destroyed during the stereotaxic surgery for the treatment of tremors are described taking into account the complications due to lesions erroneously performed. The method applied is commented in order to control the accuracy of the target delimitation, describing the technique employed in 23 thalamotomies, recording the electrical activity of the thalamic nuclei acrossed and researching evoked potentials thanks to the somatotopic tactil representation in the ventral posterior nuclei. The method permits to reduce radiologic errors giving more accuracy for the delimitation of thalamic target in the three planes of space.

  16. Fractionated stereotaxic radiotherapy in the treatment of the retinoblastoma: preliminary results; Radiotherapie stereotaxique fractionnee dans le traitement du retinoblastome: resultats preliminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pica, A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Service de Radiotherapie, Lausanne (Switzerland); Moeckli, R.; Do, H. [Institut de Radiophysique Appliquee, Lausanne (Switzerland); Balmer, A.; Munier, F. [Hopital ophtalmique Jules-Gonin, Lausanne (Switzerland); Chollet Rivier, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Service d' Anesthesie, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2006-11-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact in term of morbidity at short and long term and the response to the fractionated stereotaxic radiotherapy with a micro multi slides collimator in the treatment of the retinoblastoma. (N.C.)

  17. Meeting Classroom Needs: Designing Space Physics Educational Outreach for Science Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M.

    2008-12-01

    As with all NASA missions, the Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) is required to have an education and public outreach program (E/PO). Through our partnership between the University of Texas at Dallas William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences and Department of Science/Mathematics Education, the decision was made early on to design our educational outreach around the needs of teachers. In the era of high-stakes testing and No Child Left Behind, materials that do not meet the content and process standards teachers must teach cannot be expected to be integrated into classroom instruction. Science standards, both state and National, were the fundamental drivers behind the designs of our curricular materials, professional development opportunities for teachers, our target grade levels, and even our popular informal educational resource, the "Cindi in Space" comic book. The National Science Education Standards include much more than content standards, and our E/PO program was designed with this knowledge in mind as well. In our presentation we will describe how we came to our approach for CINDI E/PO, and how we have been successful in our efforts to have CINDI materials and key concepts make the transition into middle school classrooms. We will also present on our newest materials and high school physics students and professional development for their teachers.

  18. Toward a standardized structural-functional group connectome in MNI space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Andreas; Blankenburg, Felix

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the structural architecture of the human brain in terms of connectivity between its subregions has provided profound insights into its underlying functional organization and has coined the concept of the "connectome", a structural description of the elements forming the human brain and the connections among them. Here, as a proof of concept, we introduce a novel group connectome in standard space based on a large sample of 169 subjects from the Enhanced Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample (eNKI-RS). Whole brain structural connectomes of each subject were estimated with a global tracking approach, and the resulting fiber tracts were warped into standard stereotactic (MNI) space using DARTEL. Employing this group connectome, the results of published tracking studies (i.e., the JHU white matter and Oxford thalamic connectivity atlas) could be largely reproduced directly within MNI space. In a second analysis, a study that examined structural connectivity between regions of a functional network, namely the default mode network, was reproduced. Voxel-wise structural centrality was then calculated and compared to others' findings. Furthermore, including additional resting-state fMRI data from the same subjects, structural and functional connectivity matrices between approximately forty thousand nodes of the brain were calculated. This was done to estimate structure-function agreement indices of voxel-wise whole brain connectivity. Taken together, the combination of a novel whole brain fiber tracking approach and an advanced normalization method led to a group connectome that allowed (at least heuristically) performing fiber tracking directly within MNI space. Such an approach may be used for various purposes like the analysis of structural connectivity and modeling experiments that aim at studying the structure-function relationship of the human connectome. Moreover, it may even represent a first step toward a standard DTI template of the human brain

  19. ESCC standards, evaluation and qualification of optical fiber connectors for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taugwalder, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    Optical fiber connectors have been used for the past fifteen years in space application. Reviewing the heritage left from past and current mission, the status of ESCC standards for these components and assemblies will help future use of fiber in space applications. In the frame of the ESA ECI program, Diamond has evaluated and is currently qualifying according to ESCC standards the AVIM and Mini-AVIM connectors. The configuration retained to qualify the connector sets is using a polarization maintaining fiber at 1550nm with a loose tube in PEEK as cable structure. The evaluation has been used to step-stress specific characteristics of the optical fiber connectors with a particular aim at possible failure modes to establish a safety factor for the qualification. The evaluation results presented can be used on a case by case to evaluate special applications that would require to extend the specification. The qualification components can be extended further and a structure for assemblies is proposed in order to simplify fiber optics implementation in space projects.

  20. On generalized Yang-Mills theories and extensions of the standard model in Clifford (tensorial) spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    We construct the Clifford-space tensorial-gauge fields generalizations of Yang-Mills theories and the Standard Model that allows to predict the existence of new particles (bosons, fermions) and tensor-gauge fields of higher-spins in the 10 Tev regime. We proceed with a detailed discussion of the unique D 4 - D 5 - E 6 - E 7 - E 8 model of Smith based on the underlying Clifford algebraic structures in D = 8, and which furnishes all the properties of the Standard Model and Gravity in four-dimensions, at low energies. A generalization and extension of Smith's model to the full Clifford-space is presented when we write explicitly all the terms of the extended Clifford-space Lagrangian. We conclude by explaining the relevance of multiple-foldings of D = 8 dimensions related to the modulo 8 periodicity of the real Cliford algebras and display the interplay among Clifford, Division, Jordan, and Exceptional algebras, within the context of D = 26, 27, 28 dimensions, corresponding to bosonic string, M and F theory, respectively, advanced earlier by Smith. To finalize we describe explicitly how the E 8 x E 8 Yang-Mills theory can be obtained from a Gauge Theory based on the Clifford (16) group

  1. An adaptive software defined radio design based on a standard space telecommunication radio system API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenhao; Tian, Xin; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2017-05-01

    Software defined radio (SDR) has become a popular tool for the implementation and testing for communications performance. The advantage of the SDR approach includes: a re-configurable design, adaptive response to changing conditions, efficient development, and highly versatile implementation. In order to understand the benefits of SDR, the space telecommunication radio system (STRS) was proposed by NASA Glenn research center (GRC) along with the standard application program interface (API) structure. Each component of the system uses a well-defined API to communicate with other components. The benefit of standard API is to relax the platform limitation of each component for addition options. For example, the waveform generating process can support a field programmable gate array (FPGA), personal computer (PC), or an embedded system. As long as the API defines the requirements, the generated waveform selection will work with the complete system. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and development of adaptive SDR following the STRS and standard API protocol. We introduce step by step the SDR testbed system including the controlling graphic user interface (GUI), database, GNU radio hardware control, and universal software radio peripheral (USRP) tranceiving front end. In addition, a performance evaluation in shown on the effectiveness of the SDR approach for space telecommunication.

  2. Advantages of stereotaxic needle biopsy of brain tumor using interventional magnetic resonance imaging. Report of 12 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terao, Tohru; Hashimoto, Takuo; Koyama, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koichi; Harada, Junta; Abe, Toshiaki

    1998-01-01

    Interventional MRI, an advanced neuroimaging system, was used to perform stereotaxic needle biopsy of brain tissue (AIRIS, 0.3 Tesla, Hitachi) in 12 patients (9 males, 3 females) with intraparenchymal abnormal lesions. This system permits accurate and safe biopsy of brain tissue in real time. Patient ages ranged from 31 to 79 years (mean 61.5 years). We evaluated the abnormal lesion and dominant hemisphere of these patients preoperatively by using CT, MRI and cerebral angiography. Lesions were located in the left frontal lobe in 3 cases, the right frontal lobe in 1 case, the left temporal lobe in 1 case, the right temporal lobe in 1 case, the left parietal lobe in 2 cases, the right parietal lobe in 1 case, the left occipital lobe in 1 case, the bilateral basal ganglia in 1 case and the corpus callosum in 1 case. The sampling points were in the dominant hemisphere in 7 cases and in the non-dominant hemisphere in 5 cases. The diagnosis based on stereotaxic needle biopsy using this system were 4 gliomas, 1 brain abscess, 1 metastatic brain tumor, 1 granuloma, 2 cerebral infarctions, 2 malignant lymphomas and 1 normal brain tissue. Success rate of biopsy for our 12 cases using this system was 91.7%. Brain hemorrhage was a complication in 1 case but there was no case of meningitis or convulsion. This method is useful in patients with inoperable lesions, including deep lesion or lesions in the brainstem diencephalon or dominant hemisphere, in patients with serious complications, and in geriatric patients. In the future, this MRI system may be applied to minimally invasive therapies such as tumor ablation, cryosurgery, chemoablation, and ventrolateral thalamotomy for parkinsonism. (author)

  3. Population Pressure, Global Living Standards, and the Promise of Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, John K., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    What many sincere environmentalists advocate: (severe restrictions on energy use, to reduce global warming), may actually end up being very harmful to the environment. Since 85 percent of the global energy use is derived from carbon based fossil fuels, this may seem to be a reasonable position. However, the proponents of energy use restrictions are ignoring some very important relationships. The greatest damage to the environment, in terms of species loss, is loss and/or human modification of habitat. The two greatest threats to habitat seem to be (1) population pressure and (2) logging. Logging does not necessarily permanently occupy the land, while either default squatter occupation or "colonization by policy" is often permanent. Increased population degrades the land by causing over- farming, and also creates an ever greater demand for raw materials and food resources. Poor people have no time nor money to think about or help save the environment. Therefore the greatest threat to species survival is human population growth and its frequent companion: poverty. There is an existing way to reduce population growth, and thus to reduce pressure on habitats, called "raising the standard of living". Wherever it succeeds, population growth slows rapidly. In many European countries, there would be a negative population growth if not for immigration. Personal energy use is closely correlated with living standards, and it is impossible to have a higher living standard without a higher degree of personal energy use. It would seem, however, that extending high living standards to the developing world would create an even greater demand for the use of fossil fuels. The solution to this dilemma can only be found in the use of very high capacity sources of non- fossil energy that do not significantly damage the environment. Are there sources of clean, economical energy with a large enough combined capacity to provide high living standards for the whole world, including those

  4. A perturbative approach to the redshift space power spectrum: beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Benjamin; Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: benjamin.bose@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    We develop a code to produce the power spectrum in redshift space based on standard perturbation theory (SPT) at 1-loop order. The code can be applied to a wide range of modified gravity and dark energy models using a recently proposed numerical method by A.Taruya to find the SPT kernels. This includes Horndeski's theory with a general potential, which accommodates both chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms and provides a non-linear extension of the effective theory of dark energy up to the third order. Focus is on a recent non-linear model of the redshift space power spectrum which has been shown to model the anisotropy very well at relevant scales for the SPT framework, as well as capturing relevant non-linear effects typical of modified gravity theories. We provide consistency checks of the code against established results and elucidate its application within the light of upcoming high precision RSD data.

  5. Massive bosons interacting with gravity: No standard solutions in Robertson-Walker space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecca, A.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the interaction of boson and gravitational field is formulated in the Robertson-Walker space-time. It consist the simultaneous solution of the boson and of the Einstein field equation whose source is the energy momentum tensor of the boson field. By direct verification it is shown that the problem does not admit solutions in the class of massive standard solutions, previously determined, of the boson field equation. Also there cannot be solutions, in case of massive interacting boson, that are superpositions of standard solutions. The case of massless boson field is left open. The result is essentially due to the very special form of the Einstein tensor in Robertson-Walker metric.

  6. Earth & Space Science in the Next Generation Science Standards: Promise, Challenge, and Future Actions. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are a step forward in ensuring that future generations of students become scientifically literate. The NGSS document builds from the National Science Education Standards (1996) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science framework of 2005. Design teams for the Curriculum Framework for K-12 Science Education were to outline the essential content necessary for students' science literacy, considering the foundational knowledge and the structure of each discipline in the context of learning progressions. Once draft standards were developed, two issues emerged from their review: (a) the continual need to prune 'cherished ideas' within the content, such that only essential ideas were represented, and (b) the potential for prior conceptions of Science & Engineering Practices (SEP) and cross-cutting concepts (CCC) to limit overly constrain performance expectations. With the release of the NGSS, several challenges are emerging for geoscience education. First, the traditional emphasis of Earth science in middle school has been augmented by new standards for high school that require major syntheses of concepts. Second, the integration of SEPs into performance expectations places an increased burden on teachers and curriculum developers to organize instruction around the nature of inquiry in the geosciences. Third, work is needed to define CCCs in Earth contexts, such that the unique structure of the geosciences is best represented. To ensure that the Earth & Space Science standards are implemented through grade 12, two supporting structures must be developed. In the past, many curricular materials claimed that they adhered to the NSES, but in some cases this match was a simple word match or checklist that bore only superficial resemblance to the standards. The structure of the performance expectations is of sufficient sophistication to ensure that adherence to the standards more than a casual exercise. Claims

  7. A space standards application to university-class microsatellites: The UNISAT experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Filippo; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Santoni, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    Hands-on education is recognized as an invaluable tool to improve students' skills, to stimulate their enthusiasm and to educate them to teamwork. University class satellite programs should be developed keeping in mind that education is the main goal and that university satellites are a unique opportunity to make involved students familiar with all the phases of space missions. Moreover university budgets for education programs are much lower than for industrial satellites programs. Therefore two main constraints must be respected: a time schedule fitting with the student course duration and a low economic budget. These have an impact on the standard which can be followed in university class satellite programs. In this paper university-class satellite standardization is discussed on the basis of UNISAT program experience, reporting successful project achievements and lessons learned through unsuccessful experiences. The UNISAT program was established at the Scuola di Ingegneria Aerospaziale by the Group of Astrodynamics of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" (GAUSS) as a research and education program in which Ph.D. and graduate students have the opportunity to gain hands-on experience on small space missions. Four university satellites (UNISAT, UNISAT-2, UNISAT-3, UNISAT-4), weighing about 10 kg, have been designed, manufactured, tested and launched every two years since 2000 in the framework of this program In the paper, after a brief overview of new GAUSS programs, an analysis of the UNISAT satellites ground test campaign is carried out, identifying the most critical procedures and requirements to be fulfilled. Moreover a device for low earth orbit low-cost satellite end-of-life disposal is presented; this system (SIRDARIA) complies with the international guidelines on space debris.

  8. Working with Open BIM Standards to Source Legal Spaces for a 3D Cadastre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Oldfield

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Much work has already been done on how a 3D Cadastre should best be developed. An inclusive information model, the Land Administration Model (LADM ISO 19152 has been developed to provide an international framework for how this can best be done. This conceptual model does not prescribe the technical data format. One existing source from which data could be obtained is 3D Building Information Models (BIMs, or, more specifically in this context, BIMs in the form of one of buildingSMART’s open standards: the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC. The research followed a standard BIM methodology of first defining the requirements through the use of the Information Delivery Manual (IDM ISO29481 and then translating the process described in the IDM into technical requirements using a Model View Definition (MVD, a practice to coordinate upfront the multidisciplinary stakeholders of a construction project. The proposed process model illustrated how the time it takes to register 3D spatial units in a Land Registry could substantially be reduced compared to the first 3D registration in the Netherlands. The modelling of an MVD or a subset of the IFC data model helped enable the creation and exchange of boundary representations of topological objects capable of being combined into a 3D legal space overview map.

  9. NASA/NBS (National Aeronautics and Space Administration/National Bureau of Standards) standard reference model for telerobot control system architecture (NASREM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, James S.; Mccain, Harry G.; Lumia, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    The document describes the NASA Standard Reference Model (NASREM) Architecture for the Space Station Telerobot Control System. It defines the functional requirements and high level specifications of the control system for the NASA space Station document for the functional specification, and a guideline for the development of the control system architecture, of the 10C Flight Telerobot Servicer. The NASREM telerobot control system architecture defines a set of standard modules and interfaces which facilitates software design, development, validation, and test, and make possible the integration of telerobotics software from a wide variety of sources. Standard interfaces also provide the software hooks necessary to incrementally upgrade future Flight Telerobot Systems as new capabilities develop in computer science, robotics, and autonomous system control.

  10. Zebrafish brain mapping--standardized spaces, length scales, and the power of N and n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Paul R; Hendry, Aenea C; Lowe, Andrew S

    2015-06-01

    Mapping anatomical and functional parameters of the zebrafish brain is moving apace. Research communities undertaking such studies are becoming ever larger and more diverse. The unique features, tools, and technologies associated with zebrafish are propelling them as the 21st century model organism for brain mapping. Uniquely positioned as a vertebrate model system, the zebrafish enables imaging of anatomy and function at different length scales from intraneuronal compartments to sparsely distributed whole brain patterns. With a variety of diverse and established statistical modeling and analytic methods available from the wider brain mapping communities, the richness of zebrafish neuroimaging data is being realized. The statistical power of population observations (N) within and across many samples (n) projected onto a standardized space will provide vast databases for data-driven biological approaches. This article reviews key brain mapping initiatives at different levels of scale that highlight the potential of zebrafish brain mapping. By way of introduction to the next wave of brain mappers, an accessible introduction to the key concepts and caveats associated with neuroimaging are outlined and discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Technical Requirements for Electronic Parts, Materials, and Processes used in Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    glass or oxide passivation over junctions . 4.3 Screening (100 percent). Screening (100 percent) shall be in accordance with section 1400 for the JAN...75 VCE = 75 IC = 75 VCE = 75 IC = 75 Hetero - junction Bipolar Transistor Gallium Arsenide 3/ 105 125 N/A N/A 75 75 Current...HDBK-339 Custom Large Scale Integrated Circuit Development and Acquisition for Space Vehicles MIL-STD-403C Preparation for and Installation of

  12. High Level Architecture Distributed Space System Simulation for Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization Simulation Smackdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuqun

    2011-01-01

    Modeling and Simulation plays a very important role in mission design. It not only reduces design cost, but also prepares astronauts for their mission tasks. The SISO Smackdown is a simulation event that facilitates modeling and simulation in academia. The scenario of this year s Smackdown was to simulate a lunar base supply mission. The mission objective was to transfer Earth supply cargo to a lunar base supply depot and retrieve He-3 to take back to Earth. Federates for this scenario include the environment federate, Earth-Moon transfer vehicle, lunar shuttle, lunar rover, supply depot, mobile ISRU plant, exploratory hopper, and communication satellite. These federates were built by teams from all around the world, including teams from MIT, JSC, University of Alabama in Huntsville, University of Bordeaux from France, and University of Genoa from Italy. This paper focuses on the lunar shuttle federate, which was programmed by the USRP intern team from NASA JSC. The shuttle was responsible for provide transportation between lunar orbit and the lunar surface. The lunar shuttle federate was built using the NASA standard simulation package called Trick, and it was extended with HLA functions using TrickHLA. HLA functions of the lunar shuttle federate include sending and receiving interaction, publishing and subscribing attributes, and packing and unpacking fixed record data. The dynamics model of the lunar shuttle was modeled with three degrees of freedom, and the state propagation was obeying the law of two body dynamics. The descending trajectory of the lunar shuttle was designed by first defining a unique descending orbit in 2D space, and then defining a unique orbit in 3D space with the assumption of a non-rotating moon. Finally this assumption was taken away to define the initial position of the lunar shuttle so that it will start descending a second after it joins the execution. VPN software from SonicWall was used to connect federates with RTI during testing

  13. Social housing in Portugal and in the municipality of São Paulo : Comparison of space standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; Boueri, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares the space standards for social housing in Portugal and in São Paulo, and seeks explanations for differences in the socio-economic context of both territories. The Controlled Cost Housing (CCH) in Portugal and the housing built within the program My Home My Life (MHML) in São

  14. Evaluation of NASA Foodbars as a Standard Diet for Use in Short-Term Rodent Space Flight Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet; Grindeland, Richard; Barrett, Joyce; Dalton, Bonnie; Mandel, Adrian; Wade, Charles

    2003-01-01

    A standard rodent diet for space flight must meet the unique conditions imposed by the space environment and must be nutritionally adequate since diet can influence the outcome of experiments. This paper evaluates the use of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed Foodbars as a standard space flight diet for rats. The Foodbar's semi-purified formulation permits criteria such as nutrient consistency, high nutrient bioavailability and flexibility of formulation to be met. Extrusion of the semi-purified diet produces Foodbars with the proper texture and a non-crumbing solid form for use in space. Treatment of Foodbar with 0.1% potassium sorbate prevents mold growth. Irradiation (15-25 kGy) prevents bacterial growth and in combination with sorbate-treatment provides added protection against mold for shelf-stability. However, during the development process, nutrient analyses indicated that extrusion and irradiation produced nutrient losses. Nutrients were adjusted accordingly to compensate for processing losses. Nutrient analysis of Foodbars continues to be performed routinely to monitor nutrient levels. It is important that the standard rodent diet provide nutrients that will prevent deficiency but also avoid excess that may mask physiological changes produced by space flight. All vitamins levels in the Foodbars, except for vitamin K conformed to or exceeded the current NRC (1995) recommendations. All indispensable amino acids in Foodbar conformed to or exceeded the NRC nutrient recommendation for mice growth and rat maintenance. However, some indispensable amino acids were slightly below recommendations for rat reproduction/growth. Short-term (18-20 d) animal feeding studies indicated that Foodbars were palatable, supported growth and maintained health in rats. Results indicated that NASA rodent Foodbars meet both the physical and nutritional criteria required to support rodents in the space environment and thus, may be used successfully as a

  15. Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems recommendation for space data system standards: Telecommand. Part 2.1: Command operation procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This recommendation contains the detailed specification of the logic required to carry out the Command Operations Procedures of the Transfer Layer. The Recommendation for Telecommand--Part 2, Data Routing Service contains the standard data structures and data communication procedures used by the intermediate telecommand system layers (the Transfer and Segmentation Layers). In particular, it contains a brief description of the Command Operations Procedures (COP) within the Transfer Layer. This recommendation contains the detailed definition of the COP's in the form of state tables, along with definitions of the terms used. It is assumed that the reader of this document is familiar with the data structures and terminology of part 2. In case of conflict between the description of the COP's in part 2 and in this recommendation, the definition in this recommendation will take precedence. In particular, this document supersedes section 4.3.3.1 through 4.3.3.4 of part 2.

  16. Usefulness of a three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template on anatomically standardised {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Ryo [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Nishi-Kobe Medical Center, Kobe (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui Medical University, Fukui (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, National Center Hospital for Mental, Tokyo (Japan); Konishi, Junji [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    We have constructed a three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template (3DSRT) on anatomically standardised cerebral blood flow (CBF) single-photon emission tomography (SPET) images to objectively estimate regional CBF (rCBF). The 3DSRT is composed of 259 regions of interest (ROIs) in 11 segments (1, superior frontal; 2, middle and inferior frontal; 3, primary sensorimotor; 4, parietal; 5, angular; 6, temporal; 7, occipital; 8, pericallosal; 9, lenticular nucleus; 10, thalamus; 11, hippocampus) on each side. We measured the rCBF values of the 518 ROIs and calculated the area-weighted average (segmental CBF; sCBF) of the 22 segments based on the rCBF in each ROI. We compared vascular reserve before and after revascularisation surgery using sCBF on anatomically standardised resting and acetazolamide (Acz)-challenged CBF SPET images, which were obtained using an equal-volume-split dual-injection single-day protocol [resting and vascular reserve (RVR) method] in 13 patients who had not suffered any major stroke but did have significant cerebrovascular stenosis. Prior to the evaluation, we examined the sCBF values of 16 subjects with various cerebrovascular conditions (8, normal; 3, lacunar infarction; 2, chronic infarction; 2, meningioma; 1, aneurysm) using physiological saline instead of Acz (placebo study) in order to confirm the reproducibility of the RVR method. In the placebo study we observed excellent linearity (y=1.444+0.964x) between the 352 pairs of baseline (x) and post-placebo (y) sCBF values in the 16 subjects, irrespective of the segment location. In all of the 13 patients, estimation of sCBF demonstrated impaired vascular reserve pre-operatively and improved vascular reserve postoperatively. We conclude that the 3DSRT, which could be identically set on the anatomically standardised images obtained at baseline and after Acz injection, allowed objective assessment of the pre- and postoperative vascular reserve, which was not easy with conventional ROI settings

  17. Standards and Specifications for Ground Processing of Space Vehicles: From an Aviation-Based Shuttle Project to Global Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Cipolletti, John

    2011-01-01

    Proprietary or unique designs and operations are expected early in any industry's development, and often provide a competitive early market advantage. However, there comes a time when a product or industry requires standardization for the whole industry to advance...or survive. For the space industry, that time has come. Here, we will focus on standardization of ground processing for space vehicles and their ground systems. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, and emergence of a new global space race, affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. The growing commercialization of the space industry and current global economic environment are driving greater need for efficiencies to save time and money. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability not achievable with traditional ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More crew/passenger vehicles are also being developed. All of this calls for more attention needed for ground processing-repeatedly before launch and after landing/recovery. RLV's should provide more efficiencies than ELV's, as long as MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) is well-planned-even for the unplanned problems. NASA's Space Shuttle is a primary example of an RLV which was supposed to thrive on reusability savings with efficient ground operations, but lessons learned show that costs were (and still are) much greater than expected. International standards and specifications can provide the commonality needed to simplify design and manufacturing as well as to improve safety, quality, maintenance, and operability. There are standards organizations engaged in the space industry, but ground processing is one of the areas least addressed. Challenges are encountered due to various factors often not considered during development. Multiple vehicle elements, sites, customers, and contractors pose various functional and integration difficulties. Resulting technical publication structures

  18. The accident of stereotaxic radiosurgery at the University hospital center of Toulouse. Expert report n.2. Dosimetric and clinical evaluation. Risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The regional center of stereotaxic radiosurgery (C.R.R.S.) of the University hospital center (C.H.U.) of Toulouse is equipped since april 2006 with a Novalis accelerator (Brainlab) devoted to radiosurgery and intra skull stereotaxic radiotherapy.In april 2007, during an intercomparison of dosimetry files coming from various sites, the Brainlab society detects an anomaly. The analysis made by the society concludes to the use of an unsuited detector for the measurement of a dosimetry parameter during the accelerator initial calibration. Following this error, 145 patients (on 172 patients treated since the center opening) suffer of an overdose whom importance is variable. On the 26. june 2007 the Authority of nuclear safety (Asn) requires an expertise on the following points: checking of the experimental protocols of micro-beams calibration before and after correction of the dysfunction; analysis at the theoretical level of the neurological complications risk at long term for the exposed patients. The second point of this request is the subject of this report. It gives the synthesis of the whole of information, at the clinical and dosimetric level and outlines successively: the expertise methodology; the cohort of patients treated at the C.R.R.S.; the parameters of the risk analysis of neurological complications; the different risk analysis according the pathologies treated at the C.R.R.S.; the recommendations. (N.C.)

  19. Questioning the Fidelity of the "Next Generation Science Standards" for Astronomy and Space Sciences Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Although the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are not federally mandated national standards or performance expectations for K-12 schools in the United States, they stand poised to become a de facto national science and education policy, as state governments, publishers of curriculum materials, and assessment providers across the country…

  20. The "Next Generation Science Standards" and the Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"), due to be released this spring, represents a revolutionary step toward establishing modern, national K-12 science education standards. Based on the recommendations of the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting…

  1. The "Next Generation Science Standards" and the Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Michael E. Wysession comments on the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS), which are based on the recommendations of the National Research Council and represent a revolutionary step toward establishing modern, national K-12 science education standards. The NGSS involves significant changes from traditional…

  2. Microbleed detection using automated segmentation (MIDAS): a new method applicable to standard clinical MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Kolanko, Magdalena A; Leff, Alexander P; Jäger, Hans R; Gregoire, Simone M; Werring, David J

    2011-03-23

    Cerebral microbleeds, visible on gradient-recalled echo (GRE) T2* MRI, have generated increasing interest as an imaging marker of small vessel diseases, with relevance for intracerebral bleeding risk or brain dysfunction. Manual rating methods have limited reliability and are time-consuming. We developed a new method for microbleed detection using automated segmentation (MIDAS) and compared it with a validated visual rating system. In thirty consecutive stroke service patients, standard GRE T2* images were acquired and manually rated for microbleeds by a trained observer. After spatially normalizing each patient's GRE T2* images into a standard stereotaxic space, the automated microbleed detection algorithm (MIDAS) identified cerebral microbleeds by explicitly incorporating an "extra" tissue class for abnormal voxels within a unified segmentation-normalization model. The agreement between manual and automated methods was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Kappa statistic. We found that MIDAS had generally moderate to good agreement with the manual reference method for the presence of lobar microbleeds (Kappa = 0.43, improved to 0.65 after manual exclusion of obvious artefacts). Agreement for the number of microbleeds was very good for lobar regions: (ICC = 0.71, improved to ICC = 0.87). MIDAS successfully detected all patients with multiple (≥2) lobar microbleeds. MIDAS can identify microbleeds on standard MR datasets, and with an additional rapid editing step shows good agreement with a validated visual rating system. MIDAS may be useful in screening for multiple lobar microbleeds.

  3. Chest Fat Quantification via CT Based on Standardized Anatomy Space in Adult Lung Transplant Candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubing Tong

    Full Text Available Overweight and underweight conditions are considered relative contraindications to lung transplantation due to their association with excess mortality. Yet, recent work suggests that body mass index (BMI does not accurately reflect adipose tissue mass in adults with advanced lung diseases. Alternative and more accurate measures of adiposity are needed. Chest fat estimation by routine computed tomography (CT imaging may therefore be important for identifying high-risk lung transplant candidates. In this paper, an approach to chest fat quantification and quality assessment based on a recently formulated concept of standardized anatomic space (SAS is presented. The goal of the paper is to seek answers to several key questions related to chest fat quantity and quality assessment based on a single slice CT (whether in the chest, abdomen, or thigh versus a volumetric CT, which have not been addressed in the literature.Unenhanced chest CT image data sets from 40 adult lung transplant candidates (age 58 ± 12 yrs and BMI 26.4 ± 4.3 kg/m2, 16 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 16 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, and the remainder with other conditions were analyzed together with a single slice acquired for each patient at the L5 vertebral level and mid-thigh level. The thoracic body region and the interface between subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT in the chest were consistently defined in all patients and delineated using Live Wire tools. The SAT and VAT components of chest were then segmented guided by this interface. The SAS approach was used to identify the corresponding anatomic slices in each chest CT study, and SAT and VAT areas in each slice as well as their whole volumes were quantified. Similarly, the SAT and VAT components were segmented in the abdomen and thigh slices. Key parameters of the attenuation (Hounsfield unit (HU distributions were determined from each chest slice and from the

  4. A Code of Ethics and Standards for Outer-Space Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Now is the time to put forth an effective code of ethics for businesses in outer space. A successful code would be voluntary and would actually promote the growth of individual companies, not hinder their efforts to provide products and services. A properly designed code of ethics would ensure the development of space commerce unfettered by government-created barriers. Indeed, if the commercial space industry does not develop its own professional code of ethics, government- imposed regulations would probably be instituted. Should this occur, there is a risk that the development of off-Earth commerce would become more restricted. The code presented in this paper seeks to avoid the imposition of new barriers to space commerce as well as make new commercial space ventures easier to develop. The proposed code consists of a preamble, which underscores basic values, followed by a number of specific principles. For the most part, these principles set forth broad commitments to fairness and integrity with respect to employees, consumers, business transactions, political contributions, natural resources, off-Earth development, designated environmental protection zones, as well as relevant national and international laws. As acceptance of this code of ethics grows within the industry, general modifications will be necessary to accommodate the different types of businesses entering space commerce. This uniform applicability will help to assure that the code will not be perceived as foreign in nature, potentially restrictive, or threatening. Companies adopting this code of ethics will find less resistance to their space development plans, not only in the United States but also from nonspacefaring nations. Commercial space companies accepting and refining this code would demonstrate industry leadership and an understanding that will serve future generations living, working, and playing in space. Implementation of the code would also provide an off-Earth precedent for a modified

  5. Arianespace Launch Service Operator Policy for Space Safety (Regulations and Standards for Safety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdainne, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    Since December 10, 2010, the French Space Act has entered into force. This French Law, referenced as LOS N°2008-518 ("Loi relative aux Opérations Spatiales"), is compliant with international rules. This French Space Act (LOS) is now applicable for any French private company whose business is dealing with rocket launch or in orbit satellites operations. Under CNES leadership, Arianespace contributed to the consolidation of technical regulation applicable to launch service operators.Now for each launch operation, the operator Arianespace has to apply for an authorization to proceed to the French ministry in charge of space activities. In the files issued for this purpose, the operator is able to justify a high level of warranties in the management of risks through robust processes in relation with the qualification maintenance, the configuration management, the treatment of technical facts and relevant conclusions and risks reduction implementation when needed.Thanks to the historic success of Ariane launch systems through its more than 30 years of exploitation experience (54 successes in a row for latest Ariane 5 launches), Arianespace as well as European public and industrial partners developed key experiences and knowledge as well as competences in space security and safety. Soyuz-ST and Vega launch systems are now in operation from Guiana Space Center with identical and proved risks management processes. Already existing processes have been slightly adapted to cope with the new roles and responsibilities of each actor contributing to the launch preparation and additional requirements like potential collision avoidance with inhabited space objects.Up to now, more than 12 Ariane 5 launches and 4 Soyuz-ST launches have been authorized under the French Space Act regulations. Ariane 5 and Soyuz- ST generic demonstration of conformity have been issued, including exhaustive danger and impact studies for each launch system.This article will detail how Arianespace

  6. A study of ultra-stable optical clocks, frequency sources and standards for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, H.A.; Knight, D.J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Optical or laser-based communication systems are expected to supplement microwave based systems for satellite-to-satellite and spacecraft-to-satellite communications early in the next millennium. Optical systems can carry far more traffic than microwave and address the need to increase communication bandwidths to meet the demands of commerce and the entertainment industry. There is already significant research and commercial interest in this area (now driven particularly by the multi-media and Internet services delivery sector) and there is a strong need to establish which are the best choices of optical sources to develop for space based optical communications. In addition to communication requirements there are strong arguments for developing ultra-stable optical frequency sources and detectors in space for at least two other purposes. At present the microwave radiation that is used for communications is also used for other purposes, for example navigation or tracking, and 'space science' experiments. With the switch from the microwave to the optical for communications it may well be convenient to switch to the optical for these and other functions. This study has examined the potential stable laser requirements for a range of space applications. An interim report was presented in the form of a conference paper summarising our initial findings (see Appendix 5). This final report gives our conclusions in more detail and recommends areas for further study

  7. The Astronomy and Space Science Concept Inventory: Assessment Instruments Aligned with the K-12 National Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on those K-12 national standards which involve astronomy and space science. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we have constructed 211 unique items that measure the degree to which students abandon such ideas for accepted scientific views. Piloted nationally with 7599 students and their 88 teachers spanning grades 5-12, the items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC Standards and AAAS Benchmarks. Teachers generally perform well on items covering the standards of the grade level at which they teach, exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. Teachers dramatically overestimate their students’ performance, perhaps because they are unaware of their students’ misconceptions. Examples are given showing how the developed instruments can be used to assess the effectiveness of instruction and to evaluate the impact of professional development activities for teachers.

  8. Historical Review of Atomic Frequency Standards Used in Space Systems - 10 Year Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    section on 2006 predictions. The authors would like to thank Peter Cash, Bernardo Jaduszliwer, Bob Kern, Robert Lutwak , John Prestage, Bill Riley, and...258- 262. [17] R. Lutwak , D. Emmons, R. M. Garvey, and P. Vlitas, 2003, “Optically pumped cesium-beam frequency standard for GPS-III,” in

  9. Standard high-reliability integrated circuit logic packaging. [for deep space tracking stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    A family of standard, high-reliability hardware used for packaging digital integrated circuits is described. The design transition from early prototypes to production hardware is covered and future plans are discussed. Interconnections techniques are described as well as connectors and related hardware available at both the microcircuit packaging and main-frame level. General applications information is also provided.

  10. Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS). Volume 2; Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Factors" and Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fitts, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.

  11. 3rd International Conference on Particle Physics Beyond the Standard Model : Accelerator, Non-Accelerator and Space Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Beyond The Desert 2002

    2003-01-01

    The third conference on particle physics beyond the Standard Model (BEYOND THE DESERT'02 - Accelerator, Non-accelerator and Space Approaches) was held during 2--7 June, 2002 at the Finish town of Oulu, almost at the northern Arctic Circle. It was the first of the BEYOND conference series held outside Germany (CERN Courier March 2003, pp. 29-30). Traditionally the Scientific Programme of BEYOND conferences, brought into life in 1997 (see CERN Courier, November 1997, pp.16-18), covers almost all topics of modern particle physics (see contents).

  12. History of the development of radiation protection standards for space activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1997-01-01

    Initial recommendations for limitations on radiation exposures in space were made in 1970 by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the Committee on Space Medicine, National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC). Using a risk-based approach and taking into consideration a range of factors, the Panel recommended an overall career limit of 4 Sv. Because it was assumed that only small numbers of people would be involved, most of whom would be in excess of 30 y of age, the question of genetic effects did not appear to be of concern. On the basis of subsequent epidemiological findings, the values of the risk coefficients were increased. As a result of this and other considerations, NASA in the early 1980s asked the NCRP to re-examine both the risks and the philosophy for protecting astronauts. In undertaking this task, the NCRP decided to treat the radiation exposures of crew members and payload specialists as an occupational hazard and to evaluate their risks in terms of those to radiation workers and to workers in other industries. Noting that in the less safe but not the most hazardous occupations, workers had an average lifetime risk of mortality of about three percent, the NCRP concluded that a reasonable career limit for astronauts should be based on a lifetime absolute excess risk of mortality of three percent. Using this as a base, the NCRP recommended a career limit for 25 y olds of 1 Sv for females and 1.5 Sv for males. Since the risk decreases the older the age at which the exposures begin, the limits culminated with a career limit of 3 Sv for females and 4 Sv for males whose initial exposure occurred at age 55. These recommendations were based on an assumed nominal value of a lifetime risk of fatal cancers for all ages of about 2 x 10 -2 Sv -1

  13. Standard anatomical and visual space for the mouse retina: computational reconstruction and transformation of flattened retinae with the Retistruct package.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Sterratt

    Full Text Available The concept of topographic mapping is central to the understanding of the visual system at many levels, from the developmental to the computational. It is important to be able to relate different coordinate systems, e.g. maps of the visual field and maps of the retina. Retinal maps are frequently based on flat-mount preparations. These use dissection and relaxing cuts to render the quasi-spherical retina into a 2D preparation. The variable nature of relaxing cuts and associated tears limits quantitative cross-animal comparisons. We present an algorithm, "Retistruct," that reconstructs retinal flat-mounts by mapping them into a standard, spherical retinal space. This is achieved by: stitching the marked-up cuts of the flat-mount outline; dividing the stitched outline into a mesh whose vertices then are mapped onto a curtailed sphere; and finally moving the vertices so as to minimise a physically-inspired deformation energy function. Our validation studies indicate that the algorithm can estimate the position of a point on the intact adult retina to within 8° of arc (3.6% of nasotemporal axis. The coordinates in reconstructed retinae can be transformed to visuotopic coordinates. Retistruct is used to investigate the organisation of the adult mouse visual system. We orient the retina relative to the nictitating membrane and compare this to eye muscle insertions. To align the retinotopic and visuotopic coordinate systems in the mouse, we utilised the geometry of binocular vision. In standard retinal space, the composite decussation line for the uncrossed retinal projection is located 64° away from the retinal pole. Projecting anatomically defined uncrossed retinal projections into visual space gives binocular congruence if the optical axis of the mouse eye is oriented at 64° azimuth and 22° elevation, in concordance with previous results. Moreover, using these coordinates, the dorsoventral boundary for S-opsin expressing cones closely matches

  14. Designing a Distributed Space Systems Simulation in Accordance with the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Simulations are essential for engineering design. These virtual realities provide characteristic data to scientists and engineers in order to understand the details and complications of the desired mission. A standard development simulation package known as Trick is used in developing a source code to model a component (federate in HLA terms). The runtime executive is integrated into an HLA based distributed simulation. TrickHLA is used to extend a Trick simulation for a federation execution, develop a source code for communication between federates, as well as foster data input and output. The project incorporates international cooperation along with team collaboration. Interactions among federates occur throughout the simulation, thereby relying on simulation interoperability. Communication through the semester went on between participants to figure out how to create this data exchange. The NASA intern team is designing a Lunar Rover federate and a Lunar Shuttle federate. The Lunar Rover federate supports transportation across the lunar surface and is essential for fostering interactions with other federates on the lunar surface (Lunar Shuttle, Lunar Base Supply Depot and Mobile ISRU Plant) as well as transporting materials to the desired locations. The Lunar Shuttle federate transports materials to and from lunar orbit. Materials that it takes to the supply depot include fuel and cargo necessary to continue moon-base operations. This project analyzes modeling and simulation technologies as well as simulation interoperability. Each team from participating universities will work on and engineer their own federate(s) to participate in the SISO Spring 2011 Workshop SIW Smackdown in Boston, Massachusetts. This paper will focus on the Lunar Rover federate.

  15. Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in the Model of Parkinson’s Disease Induced by Unilateral Stereotaxic Injection of 6-Ohda in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Pessoa de Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate behavioral and neurochemical effects of α-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg alone or associated with L-DOPA using an animal model of Parkinson’s disease induced by stereotaxic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA in rat striatum. Motor behavior was assessed by monitoring body rotations induced by apomorphine, open field test and cylinder test. Oxidative stress was accessed by determination of lipid peroxidation using the TBARS method, concentration of nitrite and evaluation of catalase activity. α-Lipoic acid decreased body rotations induced by apomorphine, as well as caused an improvement in motor performance by increasing locomotor activity in the open field test and use of contralateral paw (in the opposite side of the lesion produced by 6-OHDA at cylinder test. α-lipoic acid showed antioxidant effects, decreasing lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels and interacting with antioxidant system by decreasing of endogenous catalase activity. Therefore, α-lipoic acid prevented the damage induced by 6-OHDA or by chronic use of L-DOPA in dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that α-lipoic could be a new therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease prevention and treatment.

  16. Optimization of abdominal fat quantification on CT imaging through use of standardized anatomic space: A novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K., E-mail: jay@mail.med.upenn.edu [Department of Radiology, Medical Image Processing Group, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6021 (United States); Torigian, Drew A. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6021 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The quantification of body fat plays an important role in the study of numerous diseases. It is common current practice to use the fat area at a single abdominal computed tomography (CT) slice as a marker of the body fat content in studying various disease processes. This paper sets out to answer three questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. At what single anatomic slice location do the areas of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) estimated from the slice correlate maximally with the corresponding fat volume measures? How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? Are there combinations of multiple slices (not necessarily contiguous) whose area sum correlates better with volume than does single slice area with volume? Methods: The authors propose a novel strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. The authors then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. To address the third issue, the authors carry out similar correlation studies by utilizing two and three slices for calculating area sum. Results: Based on 50 abdominal CT data sets, the proposed mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized currently for single slice area estimation as a marker. Conclusions: The maximum area-to-volume correlation achieved is quite high, suggesting that it may be reasonable to estimate body fat by measuring the area of fat from a single anatomic slice at the site of maximum correlation and use this as a marker. The site of maximum correlation is not at L4-L5 as commonly assumed

  17. Performance demonstration of a single-frequency optically-pumped cesium beam frequency standard for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, S.; Haldimann, M.; Ruffieux, R.; Thomann, P.; Berthoud, P.

    2017-11-01

    Observatoire de Neuchâtel (ON) is developing a compact optically-pumped cesium beam frequency standard in the frame of an ESA-ARTES 5 project. The simplest optical scheme, which is based on a single optical frequency for both preparation and detection processes of atoms, has been chosen to fulfill reliability constraints of space applications. With our laboratory demonstrator operated at 852 nm (D2 line), we have measured a frequency stability of σy=2.74x10-12 τ -1/2, which is compliant with the Galileo requirement. The atomic resonator is fully compliant to be operated with a single diode laser at 894 nm (D1 line). Sensitivity measurements of the clock signal to the microwave power and to the optical pumping power are also presented. Present performance limitations are discussed and further improvements are proposed in order to reach our ultimate frequency stability goal of σy=1x10-12 τ -1/2. The clock driving software is also briefly described.

  18. Present condition and theme of the planning standards of parks and open space planning. Koen ryokuchi keikaku gijutsu hyojun no genjo to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanashi, M. (Kanagawa Prefectural Government, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1992-08-06

    With the dramatic progress of urbanization, the rapid decrease of the green area and the open space, which is basis for ensuring the safety and the comfort of city life and formation of a good city environment, lead to the worsen of city environment. For the basic purpose of achieving the harmony between development and environment by considering the preservation of the green area and the open space, the green master plan is a representative example, and was made as the constitution of from a ground plan to the various plans such as region, city and nation based on the space unit of developing the human action. One of the important planning approach for the green area plan from conception to implementation is the planning standards of park and open space planning. This paper introduced the change of the system about the planning standards of park and open space planning, and explained necessarily the present state of greens master plan about preservation of the national environment and adjustment the park and open space. 1tab.

  19. Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyborn, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as climate change, hazard prediction and sustainable development resources require a cross disciplinary approach, data from various domains will need to be integrated from globally distributed sources also via machine to machine formats. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the existing standards can be very domain specific and most existing data transfer formats require human intervention. Where groups from different communities do try combine data across the domain/discipline boundaries much time is spent reformatting and reorganizing the data and it is conservatively estimated that this can take 80% of a project's time and resources. Four different types of standards are required for machine to machine interaction: systems, syntactic, schematic and semantic. Standards at the systems (WMS, WFS, etc) and at the syntactic level (GML, Observation and Measurement, SensorML) are being developed through international standards bodies such as ISO, OGC, W3C, IEEE etc. In contrast standards at the schematic level (e.g., GeoSciML, LandslidesML, WaterML, QuakeML) and at the semantic level (ie ontologies and vocabularies) are currently developing rapidly, in a very uncoordinated way and with little governance. As the size of the community that can machine read each others data depends on the size of the community that has developed the schematic or semantic standards, it is essential that to achieve global integration of earth and space science data, the required standards need to be developed through international collaboration using accepted standard proceedures. Once developed the

  20. Mammographic scar for stereotaxic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Tattis; Hincapie U, Ana Lucia; Patino P, Jairo Hernando

    1997-01-01

    It is reported the case of 56 years old woman who underwent a stereotactic biopsy because of having a circumscribed breast nodule. The histologic diagnosis was benign. After six months, during the mammographic control, it was noticed that the nodule showed irregular contours, because of that a surgical biopsy was performed. The histopathology was reported as benign. it is considered then, that the mammographic changes observed in the mammographic control are due to scar phenomenon after stereotactic biopsy. This findings has not been reported previously

  1. The bijection from data to parameter space with the standard deb model quantifies the supply-demand spectrum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lika, K.; Augustine, S.; Pecquerie, L; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that food is converted to reserve and a fraction κ of mobilised reserve of an individual is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or

  2. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  3. Quantitative measurement of the chemical composition of geological standards with a miniature laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer designed for in situ application in space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuland, M B; Riedo, A; Tulej, M; Wurz, P; Grimaudo, V; Moreno-García, P; Mezger, K

    2016-01-01

    A key interest of planetary space missions is the quantitative determination of the chemical composition of the planetary surface material. The chemical composition of surface material (minerals, rocks, soils) yields fundamental information that can be used to answer key scientific questions about the formation and evolution of the planetary body in particular and the Solar System in general. We present a miniature time-of-flight type laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer (LMS) and demonstrate its capability in measuring the elemental and mineralogical composition of planetary surface samples quantitatively by using a femtosecond laser for ablation/ionization. The small size and weight of the LMS make it a remarkable tool for in situ chemical composition measurements in space research, convenient for operation on a lander or rover exploring a planetary surface. In the laboratory, we measured the chemical composition of four geological standard reference samples USGS AGV-2 Andesite, USGS SCo-l Cody Shale, NIST 97b Flint Clay and USGS QLO-1 Quartz Latite with LMS. These standard samples are used to determine the sensitivity factors of the instrument. One important result is that all sensitivity factors are close to 1. Additionally, it is observed that the sensitivity factor of an element depends on its electron configuration, hence on the electron work function and the elemental group in agreement with existing theory. Furthermore, the conformity of the sensitivity factors is supported by mineralogical analyses of the USGS SCo-l and the NIST 97b samples. With the four different reference samples, the consistency of the calibration factors can be demonstrated, which constitutes the fundamental basis for a standard-less measurement-technique for in situ quantitative chemical composition measurements on planetary surface. (paper)

  4. Science with the space-based interferometer eLISA. III: probing the expansion of the universe using gravitational wave standard sirens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamanini, Nicola; Caprini, Chiara [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA-Saclay, CNRS UMR 3681, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Barausse, Enrico [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 6, UMR 7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis Bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Sesana, Alberto [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Klein, Antoine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (United States); Petiteau, Antoine, E-mail: nicola.tamanini@cea.fr, E-mail: chiara.caprini@cea.fr, E-mail: barausse@iap.fr, E-mail: asesana@star.sr.bham.ac.uk, E-mail: aklein@physics.montana.edu, E-mail: antoine.petiteau@apc.univ-paris7.fr [APC, Université Paris Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the capability of various configurations of the space interferometer eLISA to probe the late-time background expansion of the universe using gravitational wave standard sirens. We simulate catalogues of standard sirens composed by massive black hole binaries whose gravitational radiation is detectable by eLISA, and which are likely to produce an electromagnetic counterpart observable by future surveys. The main issue for the identification of a counterpart resides in the capability of obtaining an accurate enough sky localisation with eLISA. This seriously challenges the capability of four-link (2 arm) configurations to successfully constrain the cosmological parameters. Conversely, six-link (3 arm) configurations have the potential to provide a test of the expansion of the universe up to z ∼ 8 which is complementary to other cosmological probes based on electromagnetic observations only. In particular, in the most favourable scenarios, they can provide a significant constraint on H{sub 0} at the level of 0.5%. Furthermore, (Ω{sub M}, Ω{sub Λ}) can be constrained to a level competitive with present SNIa results. On the other hand, the lack of massive black hole binary standard sirens at low redshift allows to constrain dark energy only at the level of few percent.

  5. Borel Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, S K

    2002-01-01

    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  6. Standard(-like) Model from an SO(12) Grand Unified Theory in six-dimensions with S2 extra-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Takaaki; Sato, Joe

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a gauge-Higgs unification model which is based on a gauge theory defined on a six-dimensional spacetime with an S 2 extra-space. We impose a symmetry condition for a gauge field and non-trivial boundary conditions of the S 2 . We provide the scheme for constructing a four-dimensional theory from the six-dimensional gauge theory under these conditions. We then construct a concrete model based on an SO(12) gauge theory with fermions which lie in a 32 representation of SO(12), under the scheme. This model leads to a Standard Model(-like) gauge theory which has gauge symmetry SU(3)xSU(2) L xU(1) Y (xU(1) 2 ) and one generation of SM fermions, in four-dimensions. The Higgs sector of the model is also analyzed, and it is shown that the electroweak symmetry breaking and the prediction of W-boson and Higgs-boson masses are obtained

  7. [Comparison of the psychological effects of standard exercises with those of space exercises in autogenic training: from the perspective of passive concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Ikuyo; Koshikawa, Fusako

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the psychological effects of the heaviness and the warmth Standard Exercises (SE) with those of the first Space Exercises (SP) in Autogenic Training (AT) on college students. This study was conducted by the repeated practice of two experimental groups (SE, SP) and one control group (CT). The participants in the experimental groups practiced once a week, for three weeks. All the participants were assessed with State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Anxiety (STAI-T), Autogenic Training Clinical Effectiveness Scale (ATCES), and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The results showed that the SE group showed more decreases in STAI-T and more increases in ATCES than the SP group, while the more neurotic, showed more increases in self-esteem in both the SE and SP groups. It is possible that non-clinical adults with high neuroticism might be able to enhance their STAI-T and ATCES in the SE group than in the SP group if their SE trainers respected their bodily abilities in readily responding to changes in sensations.

  8. A Hubble Space Telescope survey for novae in M87 - III. Are novae good standard candles 15 d after maximum brightness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shara, Michael M.; Doyle, Trisha F.; Pagnotta, Ashley; Garland, James T.; Lauer, Tod R.; Zurek, David; Baltz, Edward A.; Goerl, Ariel; Kovetz, Attay; Machac, Tamara; Madrid, Juan P.; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Neill, J. D.; Prialnik, Dina; Welch, D. L.; Yaron, Ofer

    2018-02-01

    Ten weeks of daily imaging of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has yielded 41 nova light curves of unprecedented quality for extragalactic cataclysmic variables. We have recently used these light curves to demonstrate that the observational scatter in the so-called maximum-magnitude rate of decline (MMRD) relation for classical novae is so large as to render the nova-MMRD useless as a standard candle. Here, we demonstrate that a modified Buscombe-de Vaucouleurs hypothesis, namely that novae with decline times t2 > 10 d converge to nearly the same absolute magnitude about two weeks after maximum light in a giant elliptical galaxy, is supported by our M87 nova data. For 13 novae with daily sampled light curves, well determined times of maximum light in both the F606W and F814W filters, and decline times t2 > 10 d we find that M87 novae display M606W,15 = -6.37 ± 0.46 and M814W,15 = -6.11 ± 0.43. If very fast novae with decline times t2 < 10 d are excluded, the distances to novae in elliptical galaxies with stellar binary populations similar to those of M87 should be determinable with 1σ accuracies of ± 20 per cent with the above calibrations.

  9. Effectiveness of a Rapid Lumbar Spine MRI Protocol Using 3D T2-Weighted SPACE Imaging Versus a Standard Protocol for Evaluation of Degenerative Changes of the Lumbar Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Anousheh; Jay, Ann K; Toaff, Jacob S; Makariou, Erini V; Berkowitz, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Reducing lumbar spine MRI scanning time while retaining diagnostic accuracy can benefit patients and reduce health care costs. This study compares the effectiveness of a rapid lumbar MRI protocol using 3D T2-weighted sampling perfection with application-optimized contrast with different flip-angle evolutions (SPACE) sequences with a standard MRI protocol for evaluation of lumbar spondylosis. Two hundred fifty consecutive unenhanced lumbar MRI examinations performed at 1.5 T were retrospectively reviewed. Full, rapid, and complete versions of each examination were interpreted for spondylotic changes at each lumbar level, including herniations and neural compromise. The full examination consisted of sagittal T1-weighted, T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE), and STIR sequences; and axial T1- and T2-weighted TSE sequences (time, 18 minutes 40 seconds). The rapid examination consisted of sagittal T1- and T2-weighted SPACE sequences, with axial SPACE reformations (time, 8 minutes 46 seconds). The complete examination consisted of the full examination plus the T2-weighted SPACE sequence. Sensitivities and specificities of the full and rapid examinations were calculated using the complete study as the reference standard. The rapid and full studies had sensitivities of 76.0% and 69.3%, with specificities of 97.2% and 97.9%, respectively, for all degenerative processes. Rapid and full sensitivities were 68.7% and 66.3% for disk herniation, 85.2% and 81.5% for canal compromise, 82.9% and 69.1% for lateral recess compromise, and 76.9% and 69.7% for foraminal compromise, respectively. Isotropic SPACE T2-weighted imaging provides high-quality imaging of lumbar spondylosis, with multiplanar reformatting capability. Our SPACE-based rapid protocol had sensitivities and specificities for herniations and neural compromise comparable to those of the protocol without SPACE. This protocol fits within a 15-minute slot, potentially reducing costs and discomfort for a large subgroup of

  10. Compendium of Single Event Effects Test Results for Commercial Off-The-Shelf and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon D.; Bailey, Charles R.; Nguyen, Kyson V.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; Wheeler, Scott; Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore; Patel, Chirag; Beach, Elden R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of Single Event Effects (SEE) testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions for electrical components considered for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and for deep space applications.

  11. Compendium of Single Event Effects (SEE) Test Results for COTS and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon; Bailey, Chuck; Nguyen, Kyson; O'Neill, Patrick; Gaza, Razvan; Patel, Chirag; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of SEE testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions. This paper summarizes test results for components considered for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space applications.

  12. Tests and prospects of new physics at very high energy. Beyond the standard basic principles, and beyond conventional matter and space-time. On the possible origin of Quantum Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2015-05-01

    Recent results and announcements by Planck and BICEP2 have led to important controversies in the fields of Cosmology and Particle Physics. As new ideas and alternative approaches can since then more easily emerge, the link between the Mathematical Physics aspects of theories and the interpretation of experimental results becomes more direct. This evolution is also relevant for Particle Physics experiments at very high energy, where the interpretation of data on the highest-energy cosmic rays remains a major theoretical and phenomenological challenge. Alternative particle physics and cosmology can raise fundamental questions such as that of the structure of vacuum and space-time. In particular, the simplified description of the physical vacuum contained in standard quantum field theory does not necessarily correspond to reality at a deeper level, and similarly for the relativistic space-time based on four real variables. In a more general approach, the definition itself of vacuum can be a difficult task. The spinorial space-time (SST) we suggested in 1996-97 automatically incorporates a local privileged space direction (PSD) for each comoving observer, possibly leading to a locally anisotropic vacuum structure. As the existence of the PSD may have been confirmed by Planck, and a possible discovery of primordial B-modes in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) may turn out to contain new evidence for the SST, we explore other possible implications of this approach to space-time. The SST structure can naturally be at the origin of Quantum Mechanics at distance scales larger than the fundamental one if standard particles are dealt with as vacuum excitations. We also discuss possible implications of our lack of knowledge of the structure of vacuum, as well as related theoretical, phenomenological and cosmological uncertainties. Pre-Big Bang scenarios and new ultimate constituents of matter (including superbradyons) are crucial open subjects

  13. Tests and prospects of new physics at very high energy. Beyond the standard basic principles, and beyond conventional matter and space-time. On the possible origin of Quantum Mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results and announcements by Planck and BICEP2 have led to important controversies in the fields of Cosmology and Particle Physics. As new ideas and alternative approaches can since then more easily emerge, the link between the Mathematical Physics aspects of theories and the interpretation of experimental results becomes more direct. This evolution is also relevant for Particle Physics experiments at very high energy, where the interpretation of data on the highest-energy cosmic rays remains a major theoretical and phenomenological challenge. Alternative particle physics and cosmology can raise fundamental questions such as that of the structure of vacuum and space-time. In particular, the simplified description of the physical vacuum contained in standard quantum field theory does not necessarily correspond to reality at a deeper level, and similarly for the relativistic space-time based on four real variables. In a more general approach, the definition itself of vacuum can be a difficult task. The spinorial space-time (SST we suggested in 1996-97 automatically incorporates a local privileged space direction (PSD for each comoving observer, possibly leading to a locally anisotropic vacuum structure. As the existence of the PSD may have been confirmed by Planck, and a possible discovery of primordial B-modes in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB may turn out to contain new evidence for the SST, we explore other possible implications of this approach to space-time. The SST structure can naturally be at the origin of Quantum Mechanics at distance scales larger than the fundamental one if standard particles are dealt with as vacuum excitations. We also discuss possible implications of our lack of knowledge of the structure of vacuum, as well as related theoretical, phenomenological and cosmological uncertainties. Pre-Big Bang scenarios and new ultimate constituents of matter (including superbradyons are

  14. ECLIPSE, an Emerging Standardized Modular, Secure and Affordable Software Toolset in Support of Product Assurance, Quality Assurance and Project Management for the Entire European Space Industry (from Innovative SMEs to Primes and Institutions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetti, Andrea; Ansari, Salim; Dewhirst, Tori; Catanese, Giuseppe

    2010-08-01

    The development of satellites and ground systems (and the technologies that support them) is complex and demands a great deal of rigor in the management of both the information it relies upon and the information it generates via the performance of well established processes. To this extent for the past fifteen years Sapienza Consulting has been supporting the European Space Agency (ESA) in the management of this information and provided ESA with ECSS (European Cooperation for Space Standardization) Standards based Project Management (PM), Product Assurance (PA) and Quality Assurance (QA) software applications. In 2009 Sapienza recognised the need to modernize, standardizing and integrate its core ECSS-based software tools into a single yet modularised suite of applications named ECLIPSE aimed at: • Fulfilling a wider range of historical and emerging requirements, • Providing a better experience for users, • Increasing the value of the information it collects and manages • Lowering the cost of ownership and operation • Increasing collaboration within and between space sector organizations • Aiding in the performance of several PM, PA, QA, and configuration management tasks in adherence to ECSS standards. In this paper, Sapienza will first present the toolset, and a rationale for its development, describing and justifying its architecture, and basic modules composition. Having defined the toolset architecture, this paper will address the current status of the individual applications. A compliance assessment will be presented for each module in the toolset with respect to the ECSS standard it addresses. Lastly experience from early industry and Institutional users will be presented.

  15. Does obesity preclude lumbar puncture with a standard spinal needle? The use of computed tomography to measure the skin to lumbar subarachnoid space distance in the general hospital population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, Darragh

    2013-06-05

    OBJECTIVES: Failed lumbar puncture (LP) is a common indication for referral for radiologically guided LP. This study aims to evaluate what percentage of the hospital population would fail an LP using a standard 9-cm needle because of obesity and a skin to subarachnoid space distance greater than 9 cm. METHODS: Images of 402 consecutive patients undergoing computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis were reviewed. Skin to subarachnoid space distance was calculated using sagittal images. A survey was conducted among junior hospital doctors to assess their experience of performing lumbar puncture in obese patients. RESULTS: Four hundred patients were included. Fifty-five patients (13.8 %) had a skin to subarachnoid space distance greater than 9 cm. Intra-abdominal fat, subcutaneous fat and abdominal girth correlated with distance between the skin and subarachnoid space. Among junior doctors, 68.3 % (n = 41) reported LP failure on an obese patient; 78.4 % (n = 47) were unaware of the existence of a longer needle and 13.3 % (n = 8) had experience using a longer needle. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of the hospital population will fail LP with a standard length spinal needle. Selecting a longer needle may be sufficient to successfully complete LP in obese patients. KEY POINTS : • Lumbar puncture failure commonly leads to referral for an image-guided procedure • Standard lumbar puncture may fail in 13.8 % of patients due to obesity • 78.4 % of trainee doctors are unaware of the existence of longer spinal-needles • Using longer spinal needles may allow successful LP in obese patients.

  16. The Distance Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...

  17. Stereotaxic external irradiation for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.H.; Fayos, J.V.; Houdek, P.V.; Landy, H.; Van Buren, J.

    1987-01-01

    A system has been developed to deliver precision radiation therapy to a limited volume of brain tissue. A CT-compatible nonmetallic headband, or ''halo,'' is secured to the skull with screw pins. A metal frame attached to the CT couch and the patient's head is secured to the couch by temporarily affixing the halo to the frame. A CT scan is obtained to determine the x,y,z coordinates of the brain lesion. The same halo, frame, and coordinates are used in daily treatment with 10-MVX accelerator and a coplanar arc rotation technique. Field size is determined to cover the target volume with the 90% isodose line. Verification films are obtained twice a week. On completion of treatment, the halo is removed. From December 1982 to January 1986, 14 patients were treated with this system. Six had pituitary tumors, two had craniopharyngiomas, and six had astrocytomas. The dose delivered ranged from 3,600 rad in 12 fractions to 6,250 rad in 25 fractions at a rate of one fraction per day, 5 days a week. Judging from the verification films, daily administration of intended radiation was extremely good. Superficial infection of the screw-pin sites healed without sequelae. All patients were alive at the last follow-up. This system is relatively simple yet able to deliver precision irradiation without any remarkable complications

  18. Creating Next Generation Teacher Preparation Programs to Support Implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards and Common Core State Standards in K-12 Schools: An Opportunity for the Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, E. E.; Egger, A. E.; Julin, S.; Ronca, R.; Vokos, S.; Ebert, E.; Clark-Blickenstaff, J.; Nollmeyer, G.

    2015-12-01

    A consortium of two and four year Washington State Colleges and Universities in partnership with Washington's Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), the Teachers of Teachers of Science, and Teachers of Teachers of Mathematics, and other key stakeholders, is currently working to improve science and mathematics learning for all Washington State students by creating a new vision for STEM teacher preparation in Washington State aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in Mathematics and Language Arts. Specific objectives include: (1) strengthening elementary and secondary STEM Teacher Preparation courses and curricula, (2) alignment of STEM teacher preparation programs across Washington State with the NGSS and CCSS, (3) development of action plans to support implementation of STEM Teacher Preparation program improvement at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) across the state, (4) stronger collaborations between HEIs, K-12 schools, government agencies, Non-Governmental Organizations, and STEM businesses, involved in the preparation of preservice STEM teachers, (5) new teacher endorsements in Computer Science and Engineering, and (6) development of a proto-type model for rapid, adaptable, and continuous improvement of STEM teacher preparation programs. A 2015 NGSS gap analysis of teacher preparation programs across Washington State indicates relatively good alignment of courses and curricula with NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas and Scientific practices, but minimal alignment with NGSS Engineering practices and Cross Cutting Concepts. Likewise, Computer Science and Sustainability ideas and practices are not well represented in current courses and curricula. During the coming year teams of STEM faculty, education faculty and administrators will work collaboratively to develop unique action plans for aligning and improving STEM teacher preparation courses and curricula at their institutions.

  19. A guide to space HVAC systems. Fundamentals of thermodynamics, system components, standards and regulations; Leitfaden fuer Lueftungs- und Klimaanlagen. Grundlagen der Thermodynamik, Komponenten einer Vollklimaanlage, Normen und Vorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, L.

    2005-07-01

    The book addresses engineers and technicians in sales and marketing, purchasing, service and assembly, projecting and maintenance of air conditioning systems. It intends to help select the appropriate components for any given case of application, taking into account aspects of investment cost, economic efficiency, ease of maintenance, life and functionality. The book is based on the relevant technical rules, DIN standards, and VDI guidelines. Ventilation systems are constructed in accordance with the RAL quality and test specifications in order to meet all current pertinent quality and safety requirements. (orig.)

  20. Statistical probabilistic mapping in the individual brain space: decreased metabolism in epilepsy with FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jung Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo

    2005-01-01

    In the statistical probabilistic mapping, commonly, differences between two or more groups of subjects are statistically analyzed following spatial normalization. However, to our best knowledge, there is few study which performed the statistical mapping in the individual brain space rather than in the stereotaxic brain space, i.e., template space. Therefore, in the current study, a new method for mapping the statistical results in the template space onto individual brain space has been developed. Four young subjects with epilepsy and their age-matched thirty normal healthy subjects were recruited. Both FDG PET and T1 structural MRI was scanned in these groups. Statistical analysis on the decreased FDG metabolism in epilepsy was performed on the SPM with two sample t-test (p < 0.001, intensity threshold 100). To map the statistical results onto individual space, inverse deformation was performed as follows. With SPM deformation toolbox, DCT (discrete cosine transform) basis-encoded deformation fields between individual T1 images and T1 MNI template were obtained. Afterward, inverse of those fields, i.e., inverse deformation fields were obtained. Since both PET and T1 images have been already normalized in the same MNI space, inversely deformed results in PET is on the individual brain MRI space. By applying inverse deformation field on the statistical results of the PET, the statistical map of decreased metabolism in individual spaces were obtained. With statistical results in the template space, localization of decreased metabolism was in the inferior temporal lobe, which was slightly inferior to the hippocampus. The statistical results in the individual space were commonly located in the hippocampus, where the activation should be decreased according to a priori knowledge of neuroscience. With our newly developed statistical mapping on the individual spaces, the localization of the brain functional mapping became more appropriate in the sense of neuroscience

  1. Statistical probabilistic mapping in the individual brain space: decreased metabolism in epilepsy with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jung Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In the statistical probabilistic mapping, commonly, differences between two or more groups of subjects are statistically analyzed following spatial normalization. However, to our best knowledge, there is few study which performed the statistical mapping in the individual brain space rather than in the stereotaxic brain space, i.e., template space. Therefore, in the current study, a new method for mapping the statistical results in the template space onto individual brain space has been developed. Four young subjects with epilepsy and their age-matched thirty normal healthy subjects were recruited. Both FDG PET and T1 structural MRI was scanned in these groups. Statistical analysis on the decreased FDG metabolism in epilepsy was performed on the SPM with two sample t-test (p < 0.001, intensity threshold 100). To map the statistical results onto individual space, inverse deformation was performed as follows. With SPM deformation toolbox, DCT (discrete cosine transform) basis-encoded deformation fields between individual T1 images and T1 MNI template were obtained. Afterward, inverse of those fields, i.e., inverse deformation fields were obtained. Since both PET and T1 images have been already normalized in the same MNI space, inversely deformed results in PET is on the individual brain MRI space. By applying inverse deformation field on the statistical results of the PET, the statistical map of decreased metabolism in individual spaces were obtained. With statistical results in the template space, localization of decreased metabolism was in the inferior temporal lobe, which was slightly inferior to the hippocampus. The statistical results in the individual space were commonly located in the hippocampus, where the activation should be decreased according to a priori knowledge of neuroscience. With our newly developed statistical mapping on the individual spaces, the localization of the brain functional mapping became more appropriate in the sense of neuroscience.

  2. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center presents Enhancing Standards Based Science Curriculum through NASA Content Relevancy: A Model for Sustainable Teaching-Research Integration Dr. Robert Gabrys, Raquel Marshall, Dr. Evelina Felicite-Maurice, Erin McKinley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, R. H.; Gabrys, R.

    2016-12-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a systemic educator professional development model for the integration of NASA climate change resources into the K-12 classroom. The desired outcome of this model is to prepare teachers in STEM disciplines to be globally engaged and knowledgeable of current climate change research and its potential for content relevancy alignment to standard-based curriculum. The application and mapping of the model is based on the state education needs assessment, alignment to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), and implementation framework developed by the consortium of district superintendents and their science supervisors. In this presentation, we will demonstrate best practices for extending the concept of inquiry-based and project-based learning through the integration of current NASA climate change research into curriculum unit lessons. This model includes a significant teacher development component focused on capacity development for teacher instruction and pedagogy aimed at aligning NASA climate change research to related NGSS student performance expectations and subsequent Crosscutting Concepts, Science and Engineering Practices, and Disciplinary Core Ideas, a need that was presented by the district steering committee as critical for ensuring sustainability and high-impact in the classroom. This model offers a collaborative and inclusive learning community that connects classroom teachers to NASA climate change researchers via an ongoing consultant/mentoring approach. As a result of the first year of implementation of this model, Maryland teachers are implementing NGSS unit lessons that guide students in open-ended research based on current NASA climate change research.

  3. Causal symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Olafsson, Gestur; Helgason, Sigurdur

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended to introduce researchers and graduate students to the concepts of causal symmetric spaces. To date, results of recent studies considered standard by specialists have not been widely published. This book seeks to bring this information to students and researchers in geometry and analysis on causal symmetric spaces.Includes the newest results in harmonic analysis including Spherical functions on ordered symmetric space and the holmorphic discrete series and Hardy spaces on compactly casual symmetric spacesDeals with the infinitesimal situation, coverings of symmetric spaces, classification of causal symmetric pairs and invariant cone fieldsPresents basic geometric properties of semi-simple symmetric spacesIncludes appendices on Lie algebras and Lie groups, Bounded symmetric domains (Cayley transforms), Antiholomorphic Involutions on Bounded Domains and Para-Hermitian Symmetric Spaces

  4. Mass Properties for Space Systems Standards Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Current Verbiage in S-120 Applies to Dry Mass. Mass Margin is difference between Required Mass and Predicted Mass. Performance Margin is difference between Predicted Performance and Required Performance. Performance estimates and corresponding margin should be based on Predicted Mass (and other inputs). Contractor Mass Margin reserved from Performance Margin. Remaining performance margin allocated according to mass partials. Compliance can be evaluated effectively by comparison of three areas (preferably on a single sheet). Basic and Predicted Mass (including historical trend). Aggregate potential changes (threats and opportunities) which gives Mass Forecast. Mass Maturity by category (Estimated/Calculated/Actual).

  5. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Space Flight Pressurized Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-28

    as an adhesive , as dictated by the application. [4.3.3.1-2] The effects of fabrication process, temperature/humidity, load spectra, and other...5.2.1-1] System connections for incompatible propellants shall be keyed, sized, or located so that it is physically impossible to interconnect them

  6. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  7. Decommissioning standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofford, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  8. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  9. Standardization Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Specifications and Standards; Guide Specifications; CIDs; and NGSs . Learn. Perform. Succeed. STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENTS Federal Specifications Commercial...national or international standardization document developed by a private sector association, organization, or technical society that plans ...Maintain lessons learned • Examples: Guidance for application of a technology; Lists of options Learn. Perform. Succeed. DEFENSE HANDBOOK

  10. Strategy and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    in different periods and how these strategies can be related to the general conditions of the corporation. The strategic uncertainty of the corporation is investigated as a main determining factor for changes in space strategy based on theories of the relations between strategy and place. These theories......The article is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation over time. The focus is to identify, how different space strategies have been implemented...... include that corporations follows one of the three generic space strategies: Incrementalism, standardization, and value-based strategy. Among the conclusion are, that the space strategies mostly changes between incremental and value-based strategies, but one period of standardization was identified...

  11. Consistency Across Standards or Standards in a New Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2010-01-01

    Presentation topics include: standards in a changing business model, the new National Space Policy is driving change, a new paradigm for human spaceflight, consistency across standards, the purpose of standards, danger of over-prescriptive standards, a balance is needed (between prescriptive and general standards), enabling versus inhibiting, characteristics of success-oriented standards, characteristics of success-oriented standards, and conclusions. Additional slides include NASA Procedural Requirements 8705.2B identifies human rating standards and requirements, draft health and medical standards for human rating, what's been done, government oversight models, examples of consistency from anthropometry, examples of inconsistency from air quality and appendices of government and non-governmental human factors standards.

  12. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  13. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  14. Space tourism risks: A space insurance perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensoussan, Denis

    2010-06-01

    Space transportation is inherently risky to humans, whether they are trained astronauts or paying tourists, given that spaceflight is still in its relative infancy. However, this is easy to forget when subjected to the hype often associated with space tourism and the ventures seeking to enter that market. The development of commercial spaceflight constitutes a challenge as much as a great opportunity to the insurance industry as new risks emerge and standards, policies and procedures to minimise/mitigate and cover them still to be engineered. Therefore the creation of a viable and affordable insurance regime for future space tourists is a critical step in the development of a real space tourism market to address burning risk management issues that may otherwise ultimately hamper this nascent industry before it has a chance to prove itself.

  15. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of dynamic thermal environments used to create comfortable living spaces; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kaitekina seikatsu kukan no sozo no tame no doteki onnetsu kankyo no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As a technology to evaluate comfort/discomfort of spaces where the thermal environment is non-uniform and unsteady, simulation by a human thermal system, evaluation technology using thermal mannequins substituting for humans, was developed. For the purpose of working out the evaluation standards using it, an experimental study was conducted, and the FY 1999 results were outlined. In the development of evaluation technology using the human thermal system, it was confirmed that the overall trend accorded with the experimental results, as a result of the improvement so made that the contact thermal environment can be simulated. In the development of evaluation technology of the thermal mannequin, a small thermal mannequin was fabricated. As a result of the evaluation of the non-uniform thermal environment, validity of the equivalent temperature was demonstrated. The results of the use of the small mannequin made the design/fabrication of an adult use mannequin possible. In the study to elucidate thermal susceptibility of each part of the human body, an experiment was carried out using an examinee in the uniform and steady environment, and the results were studied of the experiment using the aged examinee on validity of PMV by ISO7730. (NEDO)

  16. Effluent standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, G C [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting was organized to discuss the proposed ANS standard on research reactor effluents (15.9). This was held on Tuesday evening, was attended by members of the ANS-15 committee who were present at the conference, participants in the panel discussion on the subject, and others interested. Out of this meeting came a number of excellent suggestions for changes which will increase the utility of the standard, and a strong recommendation that the effluent standard (15.9) be combined with the effluent monitoring standard. It is expected that these suggestions and recommendations will be incorporated and a revised draft issued for comment early this summer. (author)

  17. Nuclear standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, N.; Becker, K.; Bashir, M.

    1981-01-01

    This compilation of all nuclear standards available to the authors by mid 1980 represents the third, carefully revised edition of a catalogue which was first published in 1975 as EUR 5362. In this third edition several changes have been made. The title has been condensed. The information has again been carefully up-dated, covering all changes regarding status, withdrawal of old standards, new projects, amendments, revisions, splitting of standards into several parts, combination of several standards into one, etc., as available to the authors by mid 1980. The speed with which information travels varies and requires in many cases rather tedious and cumbersome inquiries. Also, the classification scheme has been revised with the goal of better adjustment to changing situations and priorities. Whenever it turned out to be difficult to attribute a standard to a single subject category, multiple listings in all relevant categories have been made. As in previous editions, within the subcategories the standards are arranged by organization (in Categorie 2.1 by country) alphabetically and in ascending numerical order. It covers all relevant areas of power reactors, the fuel cycle, radiation protection, etc., from the basic laws and governmental regulations, regulatory guides, etc., all the way to voluntary industrial standards and codes of pratice. (orig./HP)

  18. Neighborhood spaces

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min

    2002-01-01

    Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...

  19. MATE standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R. E.

    1982-11-01

    The MATE (Modular Automatic Test Equipment) program was developed to combat the proliferation of unique, expensive ATE within the Air Force. MATE incorporates a standard management approach and a standard architecture designed to implement a cradle-to-grave approach to the acquisition of ATE and to significantly reduce the life cycle cost of weapons systems support. These standards are detailed in the MATE Guides. The MATE Guides assist both the Air Force and Industry in implementing the MATE concept, and provide the necessary tools and guidance required for successful acquisition of ATE. The guides also provide the necessary specifications for industry to build MATE-qualifiable equipment. The MATE architecture provides standards for all key interfaces of an ATE system. The MATE approach to the acquisition and management of ATE has been jointly endorsed by the commanders of Air Force Systems Command and Air Force Logistics Command as the way of doing business in the future.

  20. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17, Chapter 4, Pulse Code Modulation Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    A-4 Appendix 4-B. Citations ...investigation can be found in a paper by J. L. Maury, Jr. and J. Styles , “Development of Optimum Frame Synchronization Codes for Goddard Space Flight Center...Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 4, July 2017 B-1 APPENDIX 4-B Citations Aeronautical Radio, Inc. Mark 33 Digital Information Transfer

  1. Sacred Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  2. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  3. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  4. Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts Management and Control Requirements for Space Flight Hardware and Critical Ground Support Equipment...aka... The NASA EEE Parts Standard, NASA-STD 8739.10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewicz, Peter; Sampson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Describes development and content of a new NASA Standard for Electrical Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) parts. This Standard reflects current practices, instead of changing them. Most NASA Centers utilize local documents, but there is minimal consistency across the Agency. A gap analysis clearly shows the differences that exist among the different centers and with respect to the NASA Parts Policy. Once approved, the new standard can be referenced in contracts and agreements with organizations outside of NASA.

  5. The Outer Space Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Negotiated at the United Nations and in force since 1967, the Outer Space Treaty has been ratified by over 100 countries and is the most important and foundational source of space law. The treaty, whose full title is "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies," governs all of humankind's activities in outer space, including activities on other celestial bodies and many activities on Earth related to outer space. All space exploration and human spaceflight, planetary sciences, and commercial uses of space—such as the global telecommunications industry and the use of space technologies such as position, navigation, and timing (PNT), take place against the backdrop of the general regulatory framework established in the Outer Space Treaty. A treaty is an international legal instrument which balances rights and obligations between states, and exists as a kind of mutual contract of shared understandings, rights, and responsibilities between them. Negotiated and drafted during the Cold War era of heightened political tensions, the Outer Space Treaty is largely the product of efforts by the United States and the USSR to agree on certain minimum standards and obligations to govern their competition in "conquering" space. Additionally, the Outer Space Treaty is similar to other treaties, including treaties governing the high seas, international airspace, and the Antarctic, all of which govern the behavior of states outside of their national borders. The treaty is brief in nature and only contains 17 articles, and is not comprehensive in addressing and regulating every possible scenario. The negotiating states knew that the Outer Space Treaty could only establish certain foundational concepts such as freedom of access, state responsibility and liability, non-weaponization of space, the treatment of astronauts in distress, and the prohibition of non-appropriation of

  6. Relevant Standards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .86: Ethernet over LAPS. Standard in China and India. G.7041: Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). Supports Ethernet as well as other data formats (e.g., Fibre Channel); Protocol of ... IEEE 802.3x for flow control of incoming Ethernet data ...

  7. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  8. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  9. Standard Fortran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    Because of its vast software investment in Fortran programs, the nuclear community has an inherent interest in the evolution of Fortran. This paper reviews the impact of the new Fortran 77 standard and discusses the projected changes which can be expected in the future

  10. 14 CFR 77.3 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards. 77.3 Section 77.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE OBJECTS... section 16 of the Federal Airport Act; (3) Developing technical standards and guidance in the design and...

  11. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  12. Beyond the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykken, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    'BSM physics' is a phrase used in several ways. It can refer to physical phenomena established experimentally but not accommodated by the Standard Model, in particular dark matter and neutrino oscillations (technically also anything that has to do with gravity, since gravity is not part of the Standard Model). 'Beyond the Standard Model' can also refer to possible deeper explanations of phenomena that are accommodated by the Standard Model but only with ad hoc parameterizations, such as Yukawa couplings and the strong CP angle. More generally, BSM can be taken to refer to any possible extension of the Standard Model, whether or not the extension solves any particular set of puzzles left unresolved in the SM. In this general sense one sees reference to the BSM 'theory space' of all possible SM extensions, this being a parameter space of coupling constants for new interactions, new charges or other quantum numbers, and parameters describing possible new degrees of freedom or new symmetries. Despite decades of model-building it seems unlikely that we have mapped out most of, or even the most interesting parts of, this theory space. Indeed we do not even know what is the dimensionality of this parameter space, or what fraction of it is already ruled out by experiment. Since Nature is only implementing at most one point in this BSM theory space (at least in our neighborhood of space and time), it might seem an impossible task to map back from a finite number of experimental discoveries and measurements to a unique BSM explanation. Fortunately for theorists the inevitable limitations of experiments themselves, in terms of resolutions, rates, and energy scales, means that in practice there are only a finite number of BSM model 'equivalence classes' competing at any given time to explain any given set of results. BSM phenomenology is a two-way street: not only do experimental results test or constrain BSM models, they also suggest - to those who get close enough to listen

  13. Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    'BSM physics' is a phrase used in several ways. It can refer to physical phenomena established experimentally but not accommodated by the Standard Model, in particular dark matter and neutrino oscillations (technically also anything that has to do with gravity, since gravity is not part of the Standard Model). 'Beyond the Standard Model' can also refer to possible deeper explanations of phenomena that are accommodated by the Standard Model but only with ad hoc parameterizations, such as Yukawa couplings and the strong CP angle. More generally, BSM can be taken to refer to any possible extension of the Standard Model, whether or not the extension solves any particular set of puzzles left unresolved in the SM. In this general sense one sees reference to the BSM 'theory space' of all possible SM extensions, this being a parameter space of coupling constants for new interactions, new charges or other quantum numbers, and parameters describing possible new degrees of freedom or new symmetries. Despite decades of model-building it seems unlikely that we have mapped out most of, or even the most interesting parts of, this theory space. Indeed we do not even know what is the dimensionality of this parameter space, or what fraction of it is already ruled out by experiment. Since Nature is only implementing at most one point in this BSM theory space (at least in our neighborhood of space and time), it might seem an impossible task to map back from a finite number of experimental discoveries and measurements to a unique BSM explanation. Fortunately for theorists the inevitable limitations of experiments themselves, in terms of resolutions, rates, and energy scales, means that in practice there are only a finite number of BSM model 'equivalence classes' competing at any given time to explain any given set of results. BSM phenomenology is a two-way street: not only do experimental results test or constrain BSM models, they also suggest

  14. Space Network Devices Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center through a contract with Spectrum Astro, Inc., has been developing space network hardware as an enabling technology using open systems interconnect (OSI) standards for space-based communications applications. The OSI standard is a well-recognized layered reference model that specifies how data should be sent node to node in a communications network. Because of this research and technology development, a space-qualifiable Ethernet-based network interface card (similar to the type found in a networked personal computer) and the associated four-port hub were designed and developed to flight specifications. During this research and development, there also have been many lessons learned for determining approaches for migrating existing spacecraft architectures to an OSI-network-based platform. Industry has recognized the benefits of targeting hardware developed around OSI standards such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) or similar protocols for use in future generations of space communication systems. Some of these tangible benefits include overall reductions in mission schedule and cost and in system complexity. This development also brings us a step closer to the realization of a principal investigator on a terrestrial Internet site being able to interact with space platform assets in near real time. To develop this hardware, Spectrum Astro first conducted a technology analysis of alternatives study. For this analysis, they looked at the features of three protocol specifications: Ethernet (IEEE 802.3), Firewire (IEEE 1394), and Spacewire (IEEE 1355). A thorough analysis was performed on the basis of criteria such as current protocol performance and suitability for future space applications. Spectrum Astro also projected future influences such as cost, hardware and software availability, throughput performance, and integration procedures for current and transitive space architectures. After a thorough analysis

  15. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  16. Mobius invariant QK spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wulan, Hasi

    2017-01-01

    This monograph summarizes the recent major achievements in Möbius invariant QK spaces. First introduced by Hasi Wulan and his collaborators, the theory of QK spaces has developed immensely in the last two decades, and the topics covered in this book will be helpful to graduate students and new researchers interested in the field. Featuring a wide range of subjects, including an overview of QK spaces, QK-Teichmüller spaces, K-Carleson measures and analysis of weight functions, this book serves as an important resource for analysts interested in this area of complex analysis. Notes, numerous exercises, and a comprehensive up-to-date bibliography provide an accessible entry to anyone with a standard graduate background in real and complex analysis.

  17. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  18. Non-standard antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Le Chevalier, Francois; Staraj, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This book aims at describing the wide variety of new technologies and concepts of non-standard antenna systems - reconfigurable, integrated, terahertz, deformable, ultra-wideband, using metamaterials, or MEMS,  etc, and how they open the way to a wide range of applications, from personal security and communications to multifunction radars and towed sonars, or satellite navigation systems, with space-time diversity on transmit and receive. A reference book for designers  in this lively scientific community linking antenna experts and signal processing engineers.

  19. Space Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  20. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  1. Space engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  2. Problems in Epistemic Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Jens Christian Krarup

    2014-01-01

    be done for modal claims involving epistemic possibility. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the prospects of constructing a space of worlds—epistemic space—that allows us to model what is epistemically possible for ordinary, non-ideally rational agents like you and me. I will argue...... that the prospects look dim for successfully constructing such a space. In turn, this will make a case for the claim that we cannot use the standard possible worlds framework to model what is epistemically possible for ordinary agents....

  3. Technical Data Interoperability (TDI) Pathfinder Via Emerging Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Mike; Gill, Paul; Hill, Bradley; Ibach, Brandon; Jones, Corey; Ungar, David; Barch, Jeffrey; Ingalls, John; Jacoby, Joseph; Manning, Josh; hide

    2014-01-01

    The TDI project (TDI) investigates trending technical data standards for applicability to NASA vehicles, space stations, payloads, facilities, and equipment. TDI tested COTS software compatible with a certain suite of related industry standards for capabilities of individual benefits and interoperability. These standards not only esnable Information Technology (IT) efficiencies, but also address efficient structures and standard content for business processes. We used source data from generic industry samples as well as NASA and European Space Agency (ESA) data from space systems.

  4. Space polypropulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  5. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  6. Space Bugz!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Space Bugz! - a novel crowd game for large venues or cinemas that utilises the audience's smartphones as controllers for the game. This paper explains what crowd gaming is and describes how the approach used in Space Bugz! enables more advanced gameplay concepts and individual...... player control than current technologies allow. The gameplay of Space Bugz! is then explained along with the technical architecture of the game. After this, the iterative design process used to create the game is described together with future perspectives. The article concludes with links to a video...

  7. Hazy spaces, tangent spaces, manifolds and groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, C.T.J.

    1977-03-01

    The results on hazy spaces and the developments leading to hazy manifolds and groups are summarized. Proofs have appeared elsewhere so here examples are considered and some motivation for definitions and constructions in the theorems is analyzed. It is shown that quite simple ideas, intuitively acceptable, lead to remarkable similarity with the theory of differentiable manifolds. Hazy n manifolds have tangent bundles that are hazy 2n manifolds and there are hazy manifold structures for groups. Products and submanifolds are easily constructed and in particular the hazy n-sphere manifolds as submanifolds of the standard hazy manifold Zsup(n+1)

  8. Space dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical methods for Space Dynamics of fission reactors, are presented. It is shown how a few sample problems in space dynamics can be solved, within the one and two group diffusion model, by purely analytical tools, essentially based on Laplace transform and complex Green function techniques. A quite suggestive generalization of this approach, applicable to the fluid core reactors, whose fuel is undergoing a violent mixing, is reported and briefly discussed. (author)

  9. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  10. Space Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  11. Space Shuttle and Space Station Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Sham, Catherine C.; Kroll, Quin D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the modeling techniques and important parameters to define a rigorous but practical procedure that can verify the compliance of RF exposure to the NASA standards for astronauts and electronic equipment. The electromagnetic modeling techniques are applied to analyze RF exposure in Space Shuttle and Space Station environments with reasonable computing time and resources. The modeling techniques are capable of taking into account the field interactions with Space Shuttle and Space Station structures. The obtained results illustrate the multipath effects due to the presence of the space vehicle structures. It's necessary to include the field interactions with the space vehicle in the analysis for an accurate assessment of the RF exposure. Based on the obtained results, the RF keep out zones are identified for appropriate operational scenarios, flight rules and necessary RF transmitter constraints to ensure a safe operating environment and mission success.

  12. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  13. Matter fields in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viet, Nguyen Ai; Wali, Kameshwar C.

    2000-01-01

    We study the geometry of a two-sheeted space-time within the framework of non-commutative geometry. As a prelude to the Standard Model in curved space-time, we present a model of a left- and a right- chiral field living on the two sheeted-space time and construct the action functionals that describe their interactions

  14. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of thermal environment for creating comfortable living space; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kaitekina seikatsu kukan no sozo no tame no onnetsu kankyo no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of proposing to ISO a thermal environment evaluation method, development has been performed on an evaluation technology to evaluate comfort and discomfort in non-constant and non-uniform thermal environment, and research has been carried out on structuring an evaluation standard. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In developing the evaluation technology by using a 'human body thermal model' it was verified that the 'human body thermal model' being the achievement of the project to develop the human sensitivity measurement applied technology is effective as a method to evaluate non-uniform thermal environment, as a result of the experimental verification of the human testees. With regard to the effects on human body of thermal transient based on the testee experiment, such basic findings were derived that the thermal transient affects the psychological reaction even after movement, and that thermal sensitivity of aged persons of both sexes, and young generation shows greater positional difference in peripheral sections than in the trunk sections. The major standard being the object of this research is ISO 7730, for which discussions were given on the revision draft for the floor heating standard and the transient standard, the evaluation method using a human body model, and the evaluation method using a thermal mannequin as the new standards. (NEDO)

  15. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  16. Tsirelson's space

    CERN Document Server

    Casazza, Peter G

    1989-01-01

    This monograph provides a structure theory for the increasingly important Banach space discovered by B.S. Tsirelson. The basic construction should be accessible to graduate students of functional analysis with a knowledge of the theory of Schauder bases, while topics of a more advanced nature are presented for the specialist. Bounded linear operators are studied through the use of finite-dimensional decompositions, and complemented subspaces are studied at length. A myriad of variant constructions are presented and explored, while open questions are broached in almost every chapter. Two appendices are attached: one dealing with a computer program which computes norms of finitely-supported vectors, while the other surveys recent work on weak Hilbert spaces (where a Tsirelson-type space provides an example).

  17. Cryogenic Insulation Standard Data and Methodologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Extending some recent developments in the area of technical consensus standards for cryogenic thermal insulation systems, a preliminary Inter-Laboratory Study of...

  18. Space doubt

    OpenAIRE

    Rega, Joseph Mark

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inglês e Literatura Correspondente. The recent surge in cyberspace science fiction follows previous trends within the genre, i.e. those connected with future city-space and outer space, and is an inevitable result of economic forces. There has always been a close relationship between capitalism and spatial expansion, compelled by technological innovations that ha...

  19. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  20. Dose-volume considerations in stereotaxic brain radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdek, P.V.; Schwade, J.G.; Pisciotta, V.J.; Medina, A.J.; Lewin, A.A.; Abitbol, A.A.; Serago, C.F.

    1988-01-01

    Although brain radiation therapy experience suggests that a gain in the therapeutic ratio may be achieved by optimizing the dose-volume relationship, no practical system for quantitative assessment of dose-volume data has been developed. This presentation describes the rationale for using the integral dose function for this purpose and demonstrates that with the use of a conventional treatment planning computer and a series of computed tomographic scans, first-order optimization of the dose-volume function can be accomplished in two steps: first, high-dose volume is minimized by selecting an appropriate treatment technique and tumor margin, and then dosage is maximized by calculating the brain tolerance dose as a function of the irradiated volume

  1. Stereotaxic radiosurgery for therapy of arterivenous malformation of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraha, J.; Feriancic, C.V.; Scaff, L.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Since march 1983 we are attempting for the first time in Brazil to develop improvements on stereotactic radiosurgery techniques. We have been using the multifocal irradiation method attaching to this purpose the Barcia IV stereotactic frame to a 4 MV linear accelerator. We show details about the centralization technique and the security patterns in our system. From October 1983 to November 1986, 25 patients with arteriovenous malformations of the brain were submitted to a radiosurgery treatment in our service. Good results obtained on the follow-up from one to three years are analysed. (author)

  2. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following a comp...

  3. Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China plans to launch an unmanned space module,Tiangong 1,in 2011,said Qi Faren,the chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft,at the sidelines of the annual plenary session of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC),the country's top political advisory body,on March 3.

  4. Training Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Creating a balanced learning space for employees is about more than trying different types of seating. It is a challenge that an affect how well employees absorb the lessons and whether they will be able to product better results for the company. The possible solutions are as diverse as the learners. This article describes how three companies…

  5. Space Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J. (Editor); Economos, A. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Presentations are given which address the effects of space flght on the older person, the parallels between the physiological responses to weightlessness and the aging process, and experimental possibilities afforded by the weightless environment to fundamental research in gerontology and geriatrics.

  6. Trading Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  7. Space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempelmayer, A.

    2000-01-01

    Space research in Austria began since 1969 and has its roots in Graz. An overview of the projects performed by Austrian organizations such as local network interconnection via satellites systems, MIGMAS (Microanalysis station), ALP-SAT (Autonomous Libration Point-Satellite), MIDAS (Micro-imaging dust analysis system), among others are described. (nevyjel)

  8. Space Conquest

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    An old water tank from the time of the ISR is being converted into a temporary store for ATLAS muon chambers. This is the last chapter in the big programme by the PH Department to make better use of space at CERN.

  9. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology

  10. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-09-15

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology.

  11. Mass meta-analysis in Talairach space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2004-01-01

    We provide a method for mass meta-analysis in a neuroinformatics database containing stereotaxic Talairach coordinates from neuroimaging experiments. Database labels are used to group the individual experiments, e.g., according to cognitive function, and the consistent pattern of the experiments...... of experiments, and the distances to the null hypotheses are used to sort the voxels across groups of experiments. This allows for mass meta-analysis, with the construction of a list with the most prominent associations between brain areas and group labels. Furthermore, the method can be used for functional...

  12. Cost Modeling for Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are an important tool for planning missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper presents on-going efforts to develop single variable and multi-variable cost models for space telescope optical telescope assembly (OTA). These models are based on data collected from historical space telescope missions. Standard statistical methods are used to derive CERs for OTA cost versus aperture diameter and mass. The results are compared with previously published models.

  13. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  14. The de Finetti theorem for test spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Jonathan; Leifer, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    We prove a de Finetti theorem for exchangeable sequences of states on test spaces, where a test space is a generalization of the sample space of classical probability theory and the Hilbert space of quantum theory. The standard classical and quantum de Finetti theorems are obtained as special cases. By working in a test space framework, the common features that are responsible for the existence of these theorems are elucidated. In addition, the test space framework is general enough to imply a de Finetti theorem for classical processes. We conclude by discussing the ways in which our assumptions may fail, leading to probabilistic models that do not have a de Finetti theorem.

  15. Space Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  16. Spacing Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang Våland, Marianne; Georg, Susse

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how architectural design, and the spatial and material changes this involves, contributes to the continuous shaping of identities in an organization. Based upon a case study of organizational and architectural change in a municipal administration at a time of major public...... sector reforms, we examine how design interventions were used to (re)form work and professional relationships. The paper examines how engagements with spatial arrangements and material artifacts affected people’s sense of both occupational and organizational identity. Taking a relational approach...... to sociomateriality, the paper contributes to the further theorizing of space in organization studies by proposing the concept of spacing identity to capture the fluidity of identity performance....

  17. Confined Space Evaluation Student Manual, #19613

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, David Ezekiel [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-08-29

    Many workplaces contain spaces that are considered to be “confined” because their configuration hinders the activities of employees who must enter into, work in, and exit from them. In general, the permit-required confined spaces (PRCSs) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard requires that Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) evaluate the workplace to determine if any spaces are PRCSs. The standard specifies strict procedures for the evaluation and atmospheric testing of a space before and during an entry by workers. The OSHA PRCS standard provides for alternative (less stringent than full-permit) entry procedures in cases where the only hazard in a space is atmospheric and the hazard can be controlled by forced air. At LANL, all confined spaces or potential confined spaces on LANL-owned or -operated property must be identified and evaluated by a confined space evaluator accompanied by a knowledgeable person. This course provides the information needed by confined space evaluators to make judgements about whether a space is a confined space, and if so, whether the space will require a permit for entry.

  18. Communication spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.

  19. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  20. Space Handbook,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    thle early life * of" the system. Figure 4-2 shows the variation in power output for polonium - 210 (Po- 210 ) with a 138-day half-life, curium-242 (Cm...miles above the earth’s surface. Above this altitude they must take everything they need with them. The environment will supply them with neither food ...can move large payloads through space. The radioisotope heat cycle engines use high-energy particle sources such as plutonium and polonium . The walls

  1. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  2. Game Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    , called “pervasive games.” These are games that are based on computer technology, but use a physical space as the game space as opposed to video games. Coupling spatial configuration with performance theory of rituals as liminal phenomena, I put forward a model and a new understanding of the magic circle......When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... hide-and-seek, but even these games are still spatially configured. The border (visible or not) both seem to separate and uphold the game that it is meant for. This chapter sets out to analyse the possible border that separates a game from the surrounding world. Johan Huizinga noted this “separateness...

  3. FINDING STANDARD DEVIATION OF A FUZZY NUMBER

    OpenAIRE

    Fokrul Alom Mazarbhuiya

    2017-01-01

    Two probability laws can be root of a possibility law. Considering two probability densities over two disjoint ranges, we can define the fuzzy standard deviation of a fuzzy variable with the help of the standard deviation two random variables in two disjoint spaces.

  4. A Hubble Space Telescope Survey for Novae in M87. II. Snuffing out the Maximum Magnitude–Rate of Decline Relation for Novae as a Non-standard Candle, and a Prediction of the Existence of Ultrafast Novae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shara, Michael M.; Doyle, Trisha; Zurek, David [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West and 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Lauer, Tod R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Baltz, Edward A. [KIPAC, SLAC, 2575 Sand Hill Road, M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kovetz, Attay [School of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Madrid, Juan P. [CSIRO, Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Mikołajewska, Joanna [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, PL 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Neill, J. D. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 278-17, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States); Prialnik, Dina [Department of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Welch, D. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4M1, Ontario (Canada); Yaron, Ofer [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)

    2017-04-20

    The extensive grid of numerical simulations of nova eruptions from the work of Yaron et al. first predicted that some classical novae might significantly deviate from the Maximum Magnitude–Rate of Decline (MMRD) relation, which purports to characterize novae as standard candles. Kasliwal et al. have announced the observational detection of a new class of faint, fast classical novae in the Andromeda galaxy. These objects deviate strongly from the MMRD relationship, as predicted by Yaron et al. Recently, Shara et al. reported the first detections of faint, fast novae in M87. These previously overlooked objects are as common in the giant elliptical galaxy M87 as they are in the giant spiral M31; they comprise about 40% of all classical nova eruptions and greatly increase the observational scatter in the MMRD relation. We use the extensive grid of the nova simulations of Yaron et al. to identify the underlying causes of the existence of faint, fast novae. These are systems that have accreted, and can thus eject, only very low-mass envelopes, of the order of 10{sup −7}–10{sup −8} M {sub ⊙}, on massive white dwarfs. Such binaries include, but are not limited to, the recurrent novae. These same models predict the existence of ultrafast novae that display decline times, t {sub 2,} to be as short as five hours. We outline a strategy for their future detection.

  5. Homogeneous Spaces and Equivariant Embeddings

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, DA

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneous spaces of linear algebraic groups lie at the crossroads of algebraic geometry, theory of algebraic groups, classical projective and enumerative geometry, harmonic analysis, and representation theory. By standard reasons of algebraic geometry, in order to solve various problems on a homogeneous space it is natural and helpful to compactify it keeping track of the group action, i.e. to consider equivariant completions or, more generally, open embeddings of a given homogeneous space. Such equivariant embeddings are the subject of this book. We focus on classification of equivariant em

  6. Commercial microwave space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siambis, J.; Gregorwich, W.; Walmsley, S.; Shockey, K.; Chang, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on central commercial space power, generating power via large scale solar arrays, and distributing power to satellites via docking, tethering or beamed power such as microwave or laser beams, that is being investigated as a potentially advantageous alternative to present day technology where each satellite carries its own power generating capability. The cost, size and weight for electrical power service, together with overall mission requirements and flexibility are the principal selection criteria, with the case of standard solar array panels based on the satellite, as the reference point. This paper presents and investigates a current technology design point for beamed microwave commercial space power. The design point requires that 25 kW be delivered to the user load with 30% overall system efficiency. The key elements of the design point are: An efficient rectenna at the user end; a high gain, low beam width, efficient antenna at the central space power station end, a reliable and efficient cw microwave tube. Design trades to optimize the proposed near term design point and to explore characteristics of future systems were performed. Future development for making the beamed microwave space power approach more competitive against docking and tethering are discussed

  7. Space Elevators Preliminary Architectural View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullum, L.; Swan, P. A.

    Space Systems Architecture has been expanded into a process by the US Department of Defense for their large scale systems of systems development programs. This paper uses the steps in the process to establishes a framework for Space Elevator systems to be developed and provides a methodology to manage complexity. This new approach to developing a family of systems is based upon three architectural views: Operational View OV), Systems View (SV), and Technical Standards View (TV). The top level view of the process establishes the stages for the development of the first Space Elevator and is called Architectural View - 1, Overview and Summary. This paper will show the guidelines and steps of the process while focusing upon components of the Space Elevator Preliminary Architecture View. This Preliminary Architecture View is presented as a draft starting point for the Space Elevator Project.

  8. Accelerated testing of space mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. Frank; Heshmat, Hooshang

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of various existing life prediction techniques used for a wide range of space mechanisms. Life prediction techniques utilized in other non-space fields such as turbine engine design are also reviewed for applicability to many space mechanism issues. The development of new concepts on how various tribological processes are involved in the life of the complex mechanisms used for space applications are examined. A 'roadmap' for the complete implementation of a tribological prediction approach for complex mechanical systems including standard procedures for test planning, analytical models for life prediction and experimental verification of the life prediction and accelerated testing techniques are discussed. A plan is presented to demonstrate a method for predicting the life and/or performance of a selected space mechanism mechanical component.

  9. Space mining and its regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakhu, Ram S; Nyampong, Yaw Otu Mankata

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the complex technical challenges presented by remote space mining in terms of robotics, remote power systems, space transport, IT and communications systems, and more. It also addresses the difficult oversight and regulatory issues that face states and non-state enterprises that would take on the perilous task of obtaining natural resources from the Moon and asteroids. An increasing number of countries are becoming involved in space-related activities that were previously carried out primarily by the United States and the USSR (now the Russian Federation). How these regulatory endeavors might be handled in international treaties, standards, codes of conduct or other means have become a truly international political issue. And there is yet another issue. In the past, space activities traditionally fell under the exclusive domain of government. But the last few years have seen the emergence of the private sector of "space entrepreneurs." This poses many challenges for the pre-existing govern...

  10. The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis, Isam

    2005-01-01

    Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.

  11. Rough Standard Neutrosophic Sets: An Application on Standard Neutrosophic Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Xuan Thao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A rough fuzzy set is the result of the approximation of a fuzzy set with respect to a crisp approximation space. It is a mathematical tool for the knowledge discovery in the fuzzy information systems. In this paper, we introduce the concepts of rough standard neutrosophic sets and standard neutrosophic information system, and give some results of the knowledge discovery on standard neutrosophic information system based on rough standard neutrosophic sets.

  12. Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Michel; de Donder, Erwin; Messios, Neophytos; Hetey, Laszlo; Calders, Stijn; Evans, Hugh; Daly, Eamonn

    SPENVIS is an ESA operational software developed and maintained at BIRA-IASB since 1996. It provides standardized access to most of the recent models of the hazardous space environment, through a user-friendly Web interface (http://www.spenvis.oma.be/). The system allows spacecraft engineers to perform a rapid analysis of environmental problems related to natural radiation belts, solar energetic particles, cosmic rays, plasmas, gases, magnetic fields and micro-particles. Various reporting and graphical utilities and extensive help facilities are included to allow engineers with relatively little familiarity to produce reliable results. SPENVIS also contains an active, integrated version of the ECSS Space Environment Standard and access to in-flight data on the space environment. Although SPENVIS in the first place is designed to help spacecraft designers, it is also used by technical universities in their educational programs. In the framework of the ESA Space Situational Awareness Preparatory Programme, SPENVIS will be part of the initial set of precursor services of the Space Weather segment. SPENVIS includes several engineering models to assess to effects of the space environment on spacecrafts such as surface and internal charging, energy deposition, solar cell damage and SEU rates. The presentation will review how such models could be connected to in situ measurements or forecasting models of the space environment in order to produce post event analysis or in orbit effects alert. The last developments and models implemented in SPENVIS will also be presented.

  13. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  14. Status of Photovoltaic Calibration and Measurement Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraona, Cosmo; Bailey, Sheila; Curtis, Henry; Brinker, David; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, David

    2001-01-01

    The 7th International Workshop on Space Solar Cell Calibration and Measurement was held on September 25-27, 2000 in Girdwood, Alaska. Representatives from eight countries discussed international standards for single and multijunction solar cell measurement and calibration methods, round robin intercomparisons, and irradiation test methods for space solar cells. Progress toward adoption of an ISO standard on single junction cells was made. Agreement was reached to begin work on new standards for multijunction cells and irradiation testing. Progress on present single junction round robin measurements was discussed and future multijunction round robins were planned. The next workshop will be held in Germany in October 2001.

  15. 14 CFR 399.31 - Standard industry fare level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard industry fare level. 399.31... Standard industry fare level. (a) Generally. Except as set forth in paragraph (d) of this section, the standard industry fare level (“SIFL”) for coach/standard service in a market is equal to the predominant...

  16. Space Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Steph; Saraiva, Jose; Doran, Rosa

    2017-04-01

    NUCLIO is a Portuguese non-profit organization with a strong record of investing in science education and outreach. We have developed and implemented many activities mostly directed to a young audience, in a bid to awaken and reinforce the interest that young people devote to Astronomy and all things spatial. In this framework, we have created a week-long program called Space Detectives, supported by the Municipality of Cascais, based on a story-line that provided a number of challenges and opportunities for learning matters as diverse as the electro-magnetic spectrum, means of communication, space travel, the martian environment, coding and robotics. We report on the first session that took place in December 2016. We had as participants several kids aged 9 to 12, with a mixed background in terms of interest in the sciences. Their response varied from enthusiastic to somewhat less interested, depending on the nature of the subject and the way it was presented - a reaction not necessarily related to its complexity. This week was taken as something of a trial run, in preparation for the European Commission- funded project "Stories of Tomorrow", to be implemented in schools. The individual activities and the way they were related to the story-line, as well as the smooth transition from one to the next, were subject to an analysis that will allow for improvements in the next installments of this program. We believe this is an excellent approach to the goals of using Space and Astronomy as an anchor for generating and keeping interest in the scientific areas, and of finding new and richer ways of learning.

  17. SpaceExplorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard

    2007-01-01

    Web pages are designed to be displayed on a single screen, but as more and more screens are being introduced in our surroundings a burning question becomes how to design, interact, and display web pages on multiple devices and displays. In this paper I present the SpaceExplorer prototype, which...... is able to display standard HTML web pages on multiple displays with only a minor modification to the language. Based on the prototype a number of different examples are presented and discussed and some preliminary findings are presented....

  18. Space Age Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Teledyne Brown developed a computer-based interactive multimedia training system for use with the Crystal Growth Furnace in the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-2 mission on the Space Shuttle. Teledyne Brown commercialized the system and customized it for PPG Industries Aircraft Products. The system challenges learners with role-playing scenarios and software-driven simulations engaging all the senses using text, video, animation, voice, sounds and music. The transfer of this technology to commercial industrial process training has resulted in significant improvements in effectiveness, standardization, and quality control, as well as cost reductions over the usual classroom and on-the- job training approaches.

  19. Small satellites and space debris issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, M.; Kulik, S.; Agapov, V.

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this report is the analysis of the tendencies in designing of small satellites (SS) and the effect of small satellites on space debris population. It is shown that SS to include nano- and pico-satellites should be considered as a particularly dangerous source of space debris when elaborating international standards and legal documents concerning the space debris problem, in particular "International Space Debris Mitigation Standard". These issues are in accordance with the IADC goals in its main activity areas and should be carefully considered within the IADC framework.

  20. Space polypropulsion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kellett, BJ

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available understandably, fallen by the wayside. NASAs putative atom bomb propelled mission, coincidently also baptized ORION, was also curtailed. And last of all, the use of lasers for propulsion remains firmly “stuck in the doldrums.” This mode of access to space...) Except for LOX, very polluting. V. high ζ Launch costs: $20,000/kg. Gas guns. 1 1-4 km/s Most of the system mass stays on the ground. Recoil problems. Large NASA gas gun project abandoned. (too many “g’s”) E-M guns: rail/coil. 1.5 1-10 km...

  1. Space Technospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, A. F.; Primak, N. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two main tendencies of making the Solar System habitable are regarding nowadays: (1) making objects of the Solar System habitable; and (2) making the space of the Solar System habitable. We think that it's better to combine them. We should dezine and build settlements ('technospheres') on such objects as asteroids and comets, using their resources. That is, it is necessary to create 'space technospheres' - a long-termed human settlements in the space. To save energy resources it is necessary to use Near-Earth asteroids enriched with water ice (i. e. extinguished comets) with Near-Earth orbits. To realize listed conceptions it is necessary to decrease (up to 100 times) the cost price of the long-termed settlements. That's why even average UN country will be able to create it's own space house - artificial planet ('technosphere') and maintain life activities there. About 50-100 such artificial planets will represent the future civilization of our Solar System. At the same time Earth will stay basic, maternal planet. There is an interesting problem of correcting orbits of that objects. Orbits can be changed into circular or elongated to make them comfortable for living activities of 5000-10000 settlers, and to maintain connection with maternal planet. Technospheres with the elongated orbits are more advantageous to assimilate the Solar System. While technospheres with circular orbits suit to the industrial cycle with certain specialization. The specialization of the technosphere will depend on mine-workings and/or chosen high-technology industrial process. Because it is profitable to convert raw materials at the technosphere and then to transport finished products to the maternal planet. It worth to be mentioned that because of the low gravitation and changed life cycle technosphere settlers, new 'Columb' of the Solar System will transform into new mankind. It will happen though it is difficult to imaging this. Because long ago, when fish left the ocean, they didn

  2. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  3. Space Pharmacology

    CERN Document Server

    Wotring, Virginia E

    2012-01-01

    Space Pharmacology” is a review of the current knowledge regarding the use of pharmaceuticals during spaceflights. It is a comprehensive review of the literature, addressing each area of pharmacokinetics and each major physiological system in turn. Every section begins with a topic overview, and is followed by a discussion of published data from spaceflight, and from ground experiments meant to model the spaceflight situation. Includes a discussion looking forward to the new medical challenges we are likely to face on longer duration exploration missions. This book is a snapshot of our current knowledge that also highlights areas of unknown.

  4. Neuroprotective Properties of a Standardized Extract from Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All. (Aroeira-Do-Sertão, as Evaluated by a Parkinson’s Disease Model in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Calou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All. (Anacardiaceae is a Brazilian medicinal species, which is common to the Northeastern Brazilian semiarid region, whose stem-bark is widely used in folk medicine. It is an endangered species, presenting as main bioactive components tannins and chalcones. In this work, we studied the neuroprotective effects of a standardized extract from cultivated M. urundeuva (SEMU, in a model of Parkinson’s disease. Thus, a unilateral injection of 6-OHDA was done into the rat right stratum. The animals were submitted to stereotaxic surgery, then treated with SEMU (5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg, p.o. for 2 weeks, subjected to behavioral tests, and euthanized for striata dissections and neurochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses. We showed, for the first time, that SEMU reverted behavioral alterations seen in the 6-OHDA-lesioned group and partially blocked the decrease in DA and DOPAC contents. The numbers of viable neurons and TH immunopositive cells were increased by SEMU. In addition, the SEMU-treated 6-OHDA groups showed lower numbers of GFAP and OX-42 immunopositive cells. The neuroprotective action of SEMU is possibly related to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of M. urundeuva, pointing out to its potential use in the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson’s disease.

  5. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  6. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert; Kulcsor, Istvan Zsolt; Roes, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the

  7. 14 CFR 27.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 27.969 Section 27.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.969 Fuel tank expansion space...

  8. 14 CFR 25.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 25.969 Section 25.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.969 Fuel tank expansion space...

  9. 14 CFR 29.969 - Fuel tank expansion space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank expansion space. 29.969 Section 29.969 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.969 Fuel tank expansion space...

  10. Trace spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Goubault, Eric; Haucourt, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    in the interleaving semantics of a concurrent program, but rather some equivalence classes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a new algorithm to compute such equivalence classes, and a representative per class, which is based on ideas originating in algebraic topology. We introduce a geometric semantics...... of concurrent languages, where programs are interpreted as directed topological spaces, and study its properties in order to devise an algorithm for computing dihomotopy classes of execution paths. In particular, our algorithm is able to compute a control-flow graph for concurrent programs, possibly containing...... loops, which is “as reduced as possible” in the sense that it generates traces modulo equivalence. A preliminary implementation was achieved, showing promising results towards efficient methods to analyze concurrent programs, with very promising results compared to partial-order reduction techniques....

  11. Drug Information in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, Tina M.

    2009-01-01

    Published drug information is widely available for terrestrial conditions. However, information on dosing, administration, drug interactions, stability, and side effects is scant as it relates to use in Space Medicine. Multinational crews on board the International Space Station present additional challenges for drug information because medication nomenclature, information available for the drug as well as the intended use for the drug is not standard across countries. This presentation will look at unique needs for drug information and how the information is managed in Space Medicine. A review was conducted of the drug information requests submitted to the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy by Space Medicine practitioners, astronaut crewmembers and researchers. The information requested was defined and cataloged. A list of references used was maintained. The wide range of information was identified. Due to the information needs for the medications in the on-board medical kits, the Drug Monograph Project was created. A standard method for answering specific drug information questions was generated and maintained by the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy. The Drug Monograph Project will be presented. Topic-centered requests, including multinational drug information, drug-induced adverse reactions, and medication events due to the environment will be highlighted. Information management of the drug information will be explained. Future considerations for drug information needs will be outlined.

  12. Space weather and space anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particular, very intense fluxes (>1000 pfu at energy >10 MeV of solar protons are linked to anomalies registered by satellites in high-altitude (>15000 km, near-polar (inclination >55° orbits typical for navigation satellites, such as those used in the GPS network, NAVSTAR, etc. (the rate of anomalies increases by a factor ~20, and to a much smaller extent to anomalies in geostationary orbits, (they increase by a factor ~4. Direct and indirect connections between anomaly occurrence and geomagnetic perturbations are also discussed.

  13. 46 CFR 153.312 - Ventilation system standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation system standards. 153.312 Section 153.312... Handling Space Ventilation § 153.312 Ventilation system standards. A cargo handling space ventilation system must meet the following: (a) A ventilation system exhaust duct must discharge no less than 10 m...

  14. Malaysian NDT standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazali Mohd Zin

    2001-01-01

    In order to become a developed country, Malaysia needs to develop her own national standards. It has been projected that by the year 2020, Malaysia requires about 8,000 standards (Department of Standard Malaysia). Currently more than 2,000 Malaysian Standards have been gazette by the government which considerably too low before tire year 2020. NDT standards have been identified by the standard working group as one of the areas to promote our national standards. In this paper the author describes the steps taken to establish the Malaysian very own NDT standards. The project starts with the establishment of radiographic standards. (Author)

  15. Moessbauer spectroscopy in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingelhoefer, G [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Held, P [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Teucher, R [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Schlichting, F [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Foh, J [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Kankeleit, E [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1995-03-01

    Nearly 40 years after the discovery of the Moessbauer effect for the first time a Moessbauer spectrometer will leave our planet to explore in situ the surface of another solar system body: the red planet Mars [1]. We are currently developing a miniaturized Moessbauer spectrometer (MIMOS) which is part of the scientific payload of the Russian Mars96 mission, to be launched within the next 2-4 years [2,3]. To fulfill the requirements for a space mission to the planet Mars, all parts of the spectrometer had to be extremely miniaturized and ruggedized to withstand the space flight and Mars environmental conditions. The relevant parts (e.g. drive, detector system, electronics etc.) will be described in more detail and its characteristics compared to standard systems. Because of this new development there now is a growing interest to include a Moessbauer (MB) instrument in future space missions to other solar system bodies as for instance Venus, the terrestrial Moon, and a comet nucleus. Because of extremely different environmental conditions (e.g. nearly zero gravity on the surface of a comet nucleus, high pressure and temperature on the surface of Venus, etc.) different instrument designs and concepts are required for different missions. We will present some ideas for various types of missions, as well as the motivation for using Moessbauer spectroscopy in these cases. (orig.)

  16. The medical implications of space tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzwell, R

    2000-06-01

    Commercial space travel may soon be a reality. If so, microgravity, high acceleration, and radiation exposure, all known hazards, will be accessible to the general public. Therefore, space tourism has medical implications. Even though the first flights will feature space exposure times of only a few minutes, the potential may someday exist for exposure times long enough to warrant careful consideration of the potential hazards to the space-faring public. The effects of acceleration and microgravity exposure are well known on the corps of astronauts and cosmonauts. The effects of space radiation are partially known on astronauts, but much remains to be discovered. However, there are problems using astronaut data to make inferences about the general public. Astronauts are not necessarily representative of the general public, since they are highly fit, highly screened individuals. Astronaut data can tell us very little about the potential hazards of microgravity in pediatric, obstetric and geriatric populations, all of whom are potential space tourists. Key issues in standard setting will be determining acceptable limits of pre-existing disease and inferring medical standards from mission profiles. It will not be a trivial task drafting minimal medical standards for commercial space travel. It will require the collaboration of space medicine physicians, making the best guesses possible, based on limited amounts of data, with limited applicability. A helpful departure point may be the USAF Class 3 medical standard, applicable to NASA payload specialists. It is time to begin preliminary discussions toward defining those standards. acceleration, aerospace medicine, medical standards, microgravity, radiation, space, space tourism, environmental hazards, environmental medicine.

  17. Space Internet-Embedded Web Technologies Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center recently demonstrated the ability to securely command and control space-based assets by using the Internet and standard Internet Protocols (IP). This is a significant accomplishment because future NASA missions will benefit by using Internet standards-based protocols. The benefits include reduced mission costs and increased mission efficiency. The Internet-Based Space Command and Control System Architecture demonstrated at the NASA Inspection 2000 event proved that this communications architecture is viable for future NASA missions.

  18. Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    New range Passage Tomb may be the first structure with known astronomical significance. It was built around 3,200 B.C. in Ireland. It's central passage allows light end-to-end for about 2 weeks around winter solstice. The Sun, Moon, Planets, and Stars held significance in early times due to the seasons, significance for food crops, and mythology. Citation: Corel Photography and Windows to the Universe The Greek may be among the first to pursue analytical interpretations of what they saw in the sky. In about 280 B.C. Aristarchus suggested Earth revolves around the Sun and estimated the distance between. Around 130 B.C. Hipparchus developed the first accurate star map. Today still seek to understand how the universe formed and how we came to be and are we alone. Understanding the causes and consequences of climate change using advanced space missions with major Earth science and applications research. center dotFire the public imagination and inspire students to pursue STEM fields. Train college and graduate students to create a U.S. technical workforce with employees that embody the values of competence, innovation, and service. center dotDrive the technical innovations that enable exploration and become the engine of National economic growth. center dotPartner domestically and internationally to leverage resources to extend the reach of research.

  19. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  20. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  1. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  2. Standard Industry Fare Level

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Standard Industry Fare Level was establish after airline deregulation to serve as the standard against which a statutory zone of operating expense reasonableness was...

  3. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  4. NASA's current activities in free space optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bernard L.

    2017-11-01

    NASA and other space agencies around the world are currently developing free space optical communication systems for both space-to-ground links and space-to-space links. This paper provides an overview of NASA's current activities in free space optical communications with a focus on Near Earth applications. Activities to be discussed include the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration, the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration, and the commercialization of the underlying technology. The paper will also briefly discuss ongoing efforts and studies for Deep Space optical communications. Finally the paper will discuss the development of international optical communication standards within the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems.

  5. Realizing spaces as path-component spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Banakh, Taras; Brazas, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    The path component space of a topological space $X$ is the quotient space $\\pi_0(X)$ whose points are the path components of $X$. We show that every Tychonoff space $X$ is the path-component space of a Tychonoff space $Y$ of weight $w(Y)=w(X)$ such that the natural quotient map $Y\\to \\pi_0(Y)=X$ is a perfect map. Hence, many topological properties of $X$ transfer to $Y$. We apply this result to construct a compact space $X\\subset \\mathbb{R}^3$ for which the fundamental group $\\pi_1(X,x_0)$ is...

  6. Space debris mitigation - engineering strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E.; Hammond, M.

    The problem of space debris pollution is acknowledged to be of growing concern by space agencies, leading to recent activities in the field of space debris mitigation. A review of the current (and near-future) mitigation guidelines, handbooks, standards and licensing procedures has identified a number of areas where further work is required. In order for space debris mitigation to be implemented in spacecraft manufacture and operation, the authors suggest that debris-related criteria need to become design parameters (following the same process as applied to reliability and radiation). To meet these parameters, spacecraft manufacturers and operators will need processes (supported by design tools and databases and implementation standards). A particular aspect of debris mitigation, as compared with conventional requirements (e.g. radiation and reliability) is the current and near-future national and international regulatory framework and associated liability aspects. A framework for these implementation standards is presented, in addition to results of in-house research and development on design tools and databases (including collision avoidance in GTO and SSTO and evaluation of failure criteria on composite and aluminium structures).

  7. Space standard of formal employment in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Cericatto da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the spatial profile of the location of formal employment in the Paraná State in Brazil, between 2002 and 2011. For the analysis we used the measures of location for analysis of economic sectors between the regions and among them was elected Location Quotient and redistribution coefficient, using data from the Annual Report of Social Information (RAIS Ministry of Labor and Employment (MTE. The results showed that agriculture presents greater dispersion of formal employment in almost all regions of Paraná State, with the exception of the middle region of Curitiba´s city. Thus, agriculture accounts for a major source of employment and income in the state of Paraná. For the industrial sector, it is observed that the Traditional Industry presents greater dispersion between the Paraná regions, while the Non-Traditional Industry and Industry dynamics are more concentrated.

  8. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-16

    waterfall development lifecycle models . Source: Adapted from (IEEE 610.12) See (IEEE 1074) for more information. Software ...spiral, and waterfall lifecycle models .) 2. The developer shall record the selected software development lifecycle model (s) in the Software ...through i.e., waterfall , lifecycle model , the following requirements apply with the interpretation that the software is developed as a single build.

  9. Curved twistor spaces and H-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tod, K.P.

    1980-01-01

    The curved twistor space construction of Penrose for anti-self-dual solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations is described. Curved twistor spaces are defined and it is shown with the aid of an example how to obtain them by deforming the complex structure of regions of flat twistor space. The connection of this procedure with Newman's H-space construction via asymptotic twistor space is outlined. (Auth.)

  10. Preparing future space leaders - International Space University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Van Reeth, George P.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) concept of developing a cadre of space professionals that will lead the universities and industries into space is discussed. ISU is an innovative, permanent worldwide organization for training and academic instruction in all aspects of space studies. ISU's major goal is to provide the young professional academic instruction in technical and nontechnical areas of modern space exploration and research, and a forum to exchange ideas and develop both personal and professional ties at an international level.

  11. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Refereeing standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, C.; Scriven, N.

    2004-08-01

    On 1 January 2004 I will be assuming the position of Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General (J. Phys. A). I am flattered at the confidence expressed in my ability to carry out this challenging job and I will try hard to justify this confidence. The previous Editor-in-Chief, Ed Corrigan, has worked tirelessly for the last five years and has done an excellent job for the journal. Everyone at the journal is profoundly grateful for his leadership and for his achievements. Before accepting the position of Editor-in-Chief, I visited the office of J. Phys. A to examine the organization and to assess its strengths and weaknesses. This office is located at the Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP) headquarters in Bristol. J. Phys. A has been expanding rapidly and now publishes at the rate of nearly 1000 articles (or about 14,000 pages) per year. The entire operation of the journal is conducted in a very small space---about 15 square metres! Working in this space are six highly intelligent, talented, hard working, and dedicated people: Neil Scriven, Publisher; Mike Williams, Publishing Editor; Rose Gray and Sarah Nadin, Publishing Administrators; Laura Smith and Steve Richards, Production Editors. In this small space every day about eight submitted manuscripts are downloaded from the computer or received in the post. These papers are then processed and catalogued, referees are selected, and the papers are sent out for evaluation. In this small space the referees' reports are received, publication decisions are made, and accepted articles are then published quickly by IOPP. The whole operation is amazingly efficient. Indeed, one of the great strengths of J. Phys. A is the speed at which papers are processed. The average time between the receipt of a manuscript and an editorial decision is under sixty days. (Many distinguished journals take three to five times this amount of time.) This speed of publication is an extremely strong enticement for

  12. Standards for holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal

  13. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...

  14. On RC-spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bielas, Wojciech; Plewik, Szymon

    2018-01-01

    Following Frink's characterization of completely regular spaces, we say that a regular T_1-space is an RC-space whenever the family of all regular open sets constitutes a regular normal base. Normal spaces are RC-spaces and there exist completely regular spaces which are not RC-spaces. So the question arises, which of the known examples of completely regular and not normal spaces are RC-spaces. We show that the Niemytzki plane and the Sorgenfrey plane are RC-spaces.

  15. The Space Puppets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, M. Miguel; Esteban Berea, J.; Miñambres Fernández, M.; Rufino, M.

    2002-01-01

    travels in Space driving the dance artist on its tail. On the journey, they discover the alphabet letters, letters that make words, words which are concepts of physics, physics which is on the stage this stage being space. The teacher before, during and after the performance, will analyse, review and discuss through this simple tool "an alphabet", space vocabulary and also the meaning of communication and teaching. They will relate to the present situation of physics and science education in general and Space in particular and how to address this problem through our language. Instructions Name of Conference to which this abstract is53rd IAC submitted FirstFirst Submission Subrnission/Update/Correction/Withdrawal Title of Contribution in plain ASCII.The Space Puppets Author(s): a) Last Name, Initial(s) - b) LastMIGUEL LAGO., M. Name, lnitial(s) - c) etc. Number and Title or Abbreviation of SessionP. Space and Education Symposium to which this abstract is submitted.P.3. Educational and Outreach Name of Chairs of that SessionFrank Friedlaender and Dennis Stone Indicate any equipment you need in addition to the standard equipment: One overhead projector and screen will be available in ail IAC sessions. A limited number of LCD and 35mm slide projectors will be provided in sessions based on advance notice of need and availability of projectors. All presenters should bring copies of their computer presentations in overhead format in case LCD projection is not available for a specific session. Type of abstract file added/attached/sentWord file sent by e-mail separately Address of Main Author:Miguel Lago NameMónica. First Name Dept. Company/University: PO Box/Street:P.O. Box ZIP Code:D-22415 City: Country: Telephone: E-mail:+31 71 565 36 84 E-mail:+31 71 565 55 90 Have you obtained or will you obtain approval to attend the Congress? Yes Are you willing to present this paper at the IAC Public Outreach Program: Yes

  16. Collaboration Between Multistakeholder Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Maclean, Camilla

    Public interest in corporate social responsibility (CSR) has resulted in a wide variety of multistakeholder CSR standards in which companies can choose to participate. While such standards reflect collaborative governance arrangements between public and private actors, the market for corporate...... responsibility is unlikely to support a great variety of partly competing and overlapping standards. Increased collaboration between these standards would enhance both their impact and their adoption by firms. This report examines the nature, benefits, and shortcomings of existing multistakeholder standards...

  17. The eigenvalue problem in phase space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Leon

    2018-06-30

    We formulate the standard quantum mechanical eigenvalue problem in quantum phase space. The equation obtained involves the c-function that corresponds to the quantum operator. We use the Wigner distribution for the phase space function. We argue that the phase space eigenvalue equation obtained has, in addition to the proper solutions, improper solutions. That is, solutions for which no wave function exists which could generate the distribution. We discuss the conditions for ascertaining whether a position momentum function is a proper phase space distribution. We call these conditions psi-representability conditions, and show that if these conditions are imposed, one extracts the correct phase space eigenfunctions. We also derive the phase space eigenvalue equation for arbitrary phase space distributions functions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director, Airports, Service, or the Regional Director concerned may, on individual...

  19. 14 CFR 1274.919 - Cost principles and accounting standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost principles and accounting standards... principles and accounting standards. Cost Principles and Accounting Standards July 2002 The expenditure of... Recipient (See clause entitled “Resource Sharing Requirements”) shall be governed by the FAR cost principles...

  20. 14 CFR 398.9 - Load factor standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Load factor standards. 398.9 Section 398.9... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.9 Load factor standards. The load factor standards used in this part may be raised for individual eligible places under...

  1. Tunneling time in space fractional quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-02-01

    We calculate the time taken by a wave packet to travel through a classically forbidden region of space in space fractional quantum mechanics. We obtain the close form expression of tunneling time from a rectangular barrier by stationary phase method. We show that tunneling time depends upon the width b of the barrier for b → ∞ and therefore Hartman effect doesn't exist in space fractional quantum mechanics. Interestingly we found that the tunneling time monotonically reduces with increasing b. The tunneling time is smaller in space fractional quantum mechanics as compared to the case of standard quantum mechanics. We recover the Hartman effect of standard quantum mechanics as a special case of space fractional quantum mechanics.

  2. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

    1999-01-01

    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space

  3. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

    1999-05-17

    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space.

  4. Standardisation in standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    The following observations are offered by one who has served on national and international standards-writing committees and standards review committees. Service on working groups consists of either updating previous standards or developing new standards. The process of writing either type of document proceeds along similar lines. The first order of business is to recognise the need for developing or updating a standard and to identify the potential user community. It is also necessary to ensure that there is a required number of members willing to do the writing. A justification is required as to why a new standard should be developed, and this is written as a new work item proposal or a project initiation notification system form. This document must be filed officially and approved, and a search is then undertaken to ensure that the proposed new standard will not duplicate a standard that has already been published or is underway in another standards organisation. (author)

  5. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  6. Nuclear standardization development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jianjun

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

  7. Spaces on sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triebel, Hans

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with spaces B s pq and F s pq of positive smoothness s>0, based on L p -spaces with 0< p≤∞ and reproducing formulae for smooth functions. These spaces are compared with other B-spaces and F-spaces obtained by different means

  8. Space Shuttle - A personal view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, H.

    1977-01-01

    A typical flight profile for the Space Shuttle is reviewed, and the operation of the Spacelab, as well as deployment of a satellite from the Shuttle, is considered. Selection of crews for a Space Shuttle mission, which may include as many as four payload specialists, is also discussed. Since medical requirements and flight training standards need not be as high for payload specialists as for the three members of the flight crew, the Shuttle may provide an opportunity for many scientists to perform experiments in space. Investigations of the critical opalescence of fluids and laser holography are proposed for Shuttle missions; X-ray astronomy is another likely candidate for inclusion in the program.

  9. Some nonlinear space decomposition algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai, Xue-Cheng; Espedal, M. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    Convergence of a space decomposition method is proved for a general convex programming problem. The space decomposition refers to methods that decompose a space into sums of subspaces, which could be a domain decomposition or a multigrid method for partial differential equations. Two algorithms are proposed. Both can be used for linear as well as nonlinear elliptic problems and they reduce to the standard additive and multiplicative Schwarz methods for linear elliptic problems. Two {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} algorithms are also presented. They converge faster than the additive one and have better parallelism than the multiplicative method. Numerical tests with a two level domain decomposition for linear, nonlinear and interface elliptic problems are presented for the proposed algorithms.

  10. Space Discovery: Teaching with Space. Evaluation: Summer, Fall 1998 Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewell, Bob

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of the 1998 NASA-sponsored evaluation of the effectiveness of the United States Space Foundation's five-day Space Discovery Standard Graduate Course (Living and Working in Space), the five-day Space Discovery Advanced Graduate Course (Advanced Technology and Biomedical Research), the five-day introductory course Aviation and Space Basics all conducted during the summer of 1998, and the Teaching with Space two-day Inservice program. The purpose of the program is to motivate and equip K- 12 teachers to use proven student-attracting space and technology concepts to support standard curriculum. These programs support the America 2000 National Educational Goals, encouraging more students to stay in school, increase in competence, and have a better opportunity to be attracted to math and science. The 1998 research program continues the comprehensive evaluation begun in 1992, this year studying five summer five-day sessions and five Inservice programs offered during the Fall of 1998 in California, Colorado, New York, and Virginia. A comprehensive research design by Dr. Robert Ewell of Creative Solutions and Dr. Darwyn Linder of Arizona State University evaluated the effectiveness of various areas of the program and its applicability on diverse groups. Preliminary research methodology was a set of survey instruments administered after the courses, and another to be sent in April-4-5 months following the last inservice involved in this study. This year, we have departed from this evaluation design in two ways. First, the five-day programs used NASA's new EDCATS on-line system and associated survey rather than the Linder/Ewell instruments. The Inservice programs were evaluated using the previously developed survey adapted for Inservice programs. Second, we did not do a follow-on survey of the teachers after they had been in the field as we have done in the past. Therefore, this evaluation captures only the reactions of the teachers to the programs

  11. Ethernet for Space Flight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Evan; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is adapting current data networking technologies to fly on future spaceflight missions. The benefits of using commercially based networking standards and protocols have been widely discussed and are expected to include reduction in overall mission cost, shortened integration and test (I&T) schedules, increased operations flexibility, and hardware and software upgradeability/scalability with developments ongoing in the commercial world. The networking effort is a comprehensive one encompassing missions ranging from small University Explorer (UNEX) class spacecraft to large observatories such as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Mission aspects such as flight hardware and software, ground station hardware and software, operations, RF communications, and security (physical and electronic) are all being addressed to ensure a complete end-to-end system solution. One of the current networking development efforts at GSFC is the SpaceLAN (Spacecraft Local Area Network) project, development of a space-qualifiable Ethernet network. To this end we have purchased an IEEE 802.3-compatible 10/100/1000 Media Access Control (MAC) layer Intellectual Property (IP) core and are designing a network node interface (NNI) and associated network components such as a switch. These systems will ultimately allow the replacement of the typical MIL-STD-1553/1773 and custom interfaces that inhabit most spacecraft. In this paper we will describe our current Ethernet NNI development along with a novel new space qualified physical layer that will be used in place of the standard interfaces. We will outline our plans for development of space qualified network components that will allow future spacecraft to operate in significant radiation environments while using a single onboard network for reliable commanding and data transfer. There will be a brief discussion of some issues surrounding system implications of a flight Ethernet. Finally, we will

  12. Some considerations about standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewez, Ph L; Fanjas, Y R [C.E.R.C.A., Romans (France)

    1985-07-01

    Complete standardization of research reactor fuel is not possible. However the transition from HEU to LEU should be an opportunity for a double effort towards standardization and optimization in order to reduce cost. (author)

  13. BTS statistical standards manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), like other federal statistical agencies, establishes professional standards to guide the methods and procedures for the collection, processing, storage, and presentation of statistical data. Standards an...

  14. Dental Assisting Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the dental assisting program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program…

  15. Some considerations about standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewez, Ph.L.; Fanjas, Y.R.

    1985-01-01

    Complete standardization of research reactor fuel is not possible. However the transition from HEU to LEU should be an opportunity for a double effort towards standardization and optimization in order to reduce cost. (author)

  16. Extended standard vector analysis for plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmel, H.K.

    1982-02-01

    Standard vector analysis in 3-dimensional space, as found in most tables and textbooks, is complemented by a number of basic formulas that seem to be largely unknown, but are important in themselves and for some plasma physics applications, as is shown by several examples. (orig.)

  17. Design Standards for School Art Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Art Education Association, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Design Standards for School Art Facilities" is an invaluable resource for any school or school district looking to build new facilities for the visual arts or renovate existing ones. Discover detailed information about spaces for the breadth of media used in the visual arts. Photographs illustrate all types of features including…

  18. Making standards work

    OpenAIRE

    Stigzelius, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Social and environmental standards can function as tools for companies that want to improve their conduct in social and environmental areas in the supply chain. However, relatively little attention has been given to how the adoption of social and environmental standards may influence the actual business practices in the supply chain. The overall aim of this thesis is to examine the institutional context surrounding the adoption of social and environmental standards and how these standards inf...

  19. Standards, the users perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nason, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    The term standard has little meaning until put into the proper context. What is being standardized? What are the standard conditions to be applied? The list of questions that arise goes on and on. In this presentation, answers to these questions are considered in the interest of providing a basic understanding of what might be useful to the electrical power industry in the way of standards and what the limitations on application of them would be as well. 16 figs

  20. The Second Space Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper compares and contrasts the characteristics of the first space race, which ran from the late 1950s to the late 1990s, and the second space race that began with the successful space flight of SpaceShipOne in 2004. The first space race was between superpowers seeking to establish geo-political dominance in the Cold War. The second space race will be between competing companies seeking to establish low cost access to space for ordinary people. The first space race achieved its geo- political objectives but did not open up low cost access to space but rather restricted access to a select few, highly trained astronauts and cosmonauts. The second space race, driven by the size and growth of the travel and tourism industry, promises to open up access to space to millions of space tourists.

  1. Space radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiqing; Yan Heping

    1995-01-01

    The authors briefly discusses the radiation environment in near-earth space and it's influences on material, and electronic devices using in space airship, also, the research developments in space radiation effects are introduced

  2. Quasi-uniform Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.

  3. Quasi-uniform Space

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-01-01

    In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.

  4. Space Weather in Operation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Space Weather in Operations” effort will provide on-demand and near-real time space weather event information to the Data Access Toolkit (DAT), which is the...

  5. On birecurrent spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.

    1991-10-01

    A birecurrent space is defined with its classification and studied with involvement of Einstein, conformally flat, conformally symmetric and conformally recurrent spaces. A necessary and sufficient condition that a birecurrent space be recurrent is found. (author). 6 refs

  6. Radiological Control Technician: Standardized technician Qualification Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The Qualification Standard states and defines the knowledge and skill requirements necessary for successful completion of the Radiological Control Technician Training Program. The standard is divided into three phases: Phase I concerns RCT Academic training. There are 13 lessons associated with the core academics program and 19 lessons associated with the site academics program. The staff member should sign the appropriate blocks upon successful completion of the examination for that lesson or group of lessons. In addition, facility specific lesson plans may be added to meet the knowledge requirements in the Job Performance Measures (JPM) of the practical program. Phase II concerns RCT core/site practical (JPMs) training. There are thirteen generic tasks associated with the core practical program. Both the trainer/evaluator and student should sign the appropriate block upon successful completion of the JPM. In addition, facility specific tasks may be added or generic tasks deleted based on the results of the facility job evaluation. Phase III concerns the oral examination board successful completion of the oral examination board is documented by the signature of the chairperson of the board. Upon completion of all of the standardized technician qualification requirements, final qualification is verified by the student and the manager of the Radiological Control Department and acknowledged by signatures on the qualification standard. The completed Qualification Standard shall be maintained as an official training record

  7. Quality of semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert

    2012-01-01

    Little scientific literature addresses the issue of quality of semantic standards, albeit a problem with high economic and social impact. Our problem survey, including 34 semantic Standard Setting Organizations (SSOs), gives evidence that quality of standards can be improved, but for improvement a

  8. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  9. Conformal Einstein spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozameh, C.N.; Newman, E.T.; Tod, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    Conformal transformations in four-dimensional. In particular, a new set of two necessary and sufficient conditions for a space to be conformal to an Einstein space is presented. The first condition defines the class of spaces conformal to C spaces, whereas the last one (the vanishing of the Bach tensor) gives the particular subclass of C spaces which are conformally related to Einstein spaces. (author)

  10. Just in Time in Space or Space Based JIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanOrsdel, Kathleen G.

    1995-01-01

    Our satellite systems are mega-buck items. In today's cost conscious world, we need to reduce the overall costs of satellites if our space program is to survive. One way to accomplish this would be through on-orbit maintenance of parts on the orbiting craft. In order to accomplish maintenance at a low cost I advance the hypothesis of having parts and pieces (spares) waiting. Waiting in the sense of having something when you need it, or just-in-time. The JIT concept can actually be applied to space processes. Its definition has to be changed just enough to encompass the needs of space. Our space engineers tell us which parts and pieces the satellite systems might be needing once in orbit. These items are stored in space for the time of need and can be ready when they are needed -- or Space Based JIT. When a system has a problem, the repair facility is near by and through human or robotics intervention, it can be brought back into service. Through a JIT process, overall system costs could be reduced as standardization of parts is built into satellite systems to facilitate reduced numbers of parts being stored. Launch costs will be contained as fewer spare pieces need to be included in the launch vehicle and the space program will continue to thrive even in this era of reduced budgets. The concept of using an orbiting parts servicer and human or robotics maintenance/repair capabilities would extend satellite life-cycle and reduce system replacement launches. Reductions of this nature throughout the satellite program result in cost savings.

  11. Compliant Space Mechanisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OBJECTIVES The proposed research will combine the areas of compliant mechanisms and space technology. Compliant mechanisms perform their function through the elastic...

  12. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  13. Calibration of Flick standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalmann, Ruedi; Spiller, Jürg; Küng, Alain; Jusko, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Flick standards or magnification standards are widely used for an efficient and functional calibration of the sensitivity of form measuring instruments. The results of a recent measurement comparison have shown to be partially unsatisfactory and revealed problems related to the calibration of these standards. In this paper the influence factors for the calibration of Flick standards using roundness measurement instruments are discussed in detail, in particular the bandwidth of the measurement chain, residual form errors of the device under test, profile distortions due to the diameter of the probing element and questions related to the definition of the measurand. The different contributions are estimated using simulations and are experimentally verified. Also alternative methods to calibrate Flick standards are investigated. Finally the practical limitations of Flick standard calibration are shown and the usability of Flick standards both to calibrate the sensitivity of roundness instruments and to check the filter function of such instruments is analysed. (paper)

  14. Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valish, Dana J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 and early 2010, a test was performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design meets the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future space suits. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis and a variance in torque values for some of the tested joints was apparent. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and re-testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate these variables. The results of the retest will be used to determine if further testing and modification is necessary before the method can be validated.

  15. Metric modular spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chistyakov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric  and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...

  16. Requirements of quality standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture traces the development of nuclear standards, codes, and Federal regulations on quality assurance (QA) for nuclear power plants and associated facilities. The technical evolution of the last twelve years, especially in the area of nuclear technology, led to different activities and regulatory initiatives, and the present result is: several nations have their own homemade standards. The lecture discusses the former and especially current activities in standard development, and gives a description of the requirements of QA-standards used in USA and Europe, especially Western Germany. Furthermore the lecture attempts to give a comparison and an evaluation of the international quality standards from the author's viewpoint. Finally the lecture presents an outlook for the future international implications of QA-standards. There is an urgent need within the nuclear industry for simplification and standardization of QA-standards. The relationship between the various standards, and the applicability of the standards need clarification and a better transparancy. To point out these problems is the purpose of the lecture. (orig.) [de

  17. KOMPEKS standard provides an extended use of the CAMAC datanay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiladze, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    A new KOMPEKS standard design developed on the base of extended use of CAMAC dataway is described. The time diagram of the KOMPEKS standard cycle is given. Methods of addressing, control and status signals as well as procedure of processing inquiries for servicing are considered. The new standard is concluded to eliminating such shortcomings of the CAMAC standard as small address space, synchronism of the dataway cycle, limited number of inquiry sources. Use of this standard in automation systems for scientific research is of greatest interest because it is similar to the CAMAC standard in design, structure of dataway and permits to use the whole accumulated family of the CAMAC modules

  18. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  19. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Parts, Materials, and Processes Control Program for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    preparation , implementation, and operation of a Parts, Materials, and Processes (PMP) control program for use during the design, development...Processes List CDR Critical Design Review CDRL Contract Data Requirements List CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor CONOPS Concept of Operations...Failure Review Board GFE Government Furnished Equipment GIDEP Government Industry Data Exchange Program HBT Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor IPT

  20. Air Force Space Command. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard. Configuration Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-13

    Engineering Drawing Practices IEEE STD 610.12 Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology, September 28,1990 ISO /IEC 12207 Software Life...item, regardless of media, formally designated and fixed at a specific time during the configuration item’s life cycle. (Source: ISO /IEC 12207

  1. 77 FR 56741 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; NAICS and Size Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... available for use in Federal contracting until the Small Business Administration (SBA) publishes... contracting until the Small Business Administration publishes corresponding industry size standards (see 19... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE...

  2. Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP): 1990 Standard Extract Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 1990 Standard Extract Files portion of the Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP) contains population and housing data derived from the U.S. Census Bureau's...

  3. Organic chemistry in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  4. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  5. Space Guidelines for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Coordinating Committee for Higher Education, Madison.

    The following guidelines are recommended: stack space--for each 10 volumes, one square foot of space; reading room--25 square feet per station x 20% of the total undergraduate population; carrel space--25% of the graduate enrollment x 45 square feet; office and auxilliary space--135 square feet x full time equivalent staff. (NI)

  6. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  7. The French Space Operation Act: Technical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchero, J. P.; Lazare, B.

    2010-09-01

    The French Space Operation Act(FSOA) stipulates that a prime objective of the National technical regulations is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these technical regulations is mandatory as of 10 December 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations from French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by the applicant, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting technical regulations are as follows: requirements must as far as possible establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being the state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. Technical regulations are divided into three sections covering common requirements for the launch, control and return of a space object. A dedicated section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the technical regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth’s environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection.

  8. Theory of function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Triebel, Hans

    1983-01-01

    The book deals with the two scales Bsp,q and Fsp,q of spaces of distributions, where -8spaces, such as Hölder spaces, Zygmund classes, Sobolev spaces, Besov spaces, Bessel-potential spaces, Hardy spaces and spaces of BMO-type. It is the main aim of this book to give a unified treatment of the corresponding spaces on the Euclidean n-space Rn in the framework of Fourier analysis, which is based on the technique of maximal functions, Fourier multipliers and interpolation assertions. These topics are treated in Chapter 2, which is the heart

  9. Space Synthetic Biology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  10. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1993-01-01

    The standard model of particle physics is highly successful, although it is obviously not a complete or final theory. In this presentation the author argues that the structure of the standard model gives some quite concrete, compelling hints regarding what lies beyond. Essentially, this presentation is a record of the author's own judgement of what the central clues for physics beyond the standard model are, and also it is an attempt at some pedagogy. 14 refs., 6 figs

  11. Standard Model processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, M.L.; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alekhin, S.; Badger, S.; Bauer, C.W.; Becher, T.; Bertone, V.; Bonvini, M.; Boselli, S.; Bothmann, E.; Boughezal, R.; Cacciari, M.; Carloni Calame, C.M.; Caola, F.; Campbell, J.M.; Carrazza, S.; Chiesa, M.; Cieri, L.; Cimaglia, F.; Febres Cordero, F.; Ferrarese, P.; D'Enterria, D.; Ferrera, G.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Garzelli, M.V.; Germann, E.; Hirschi, V.; Han, T.; Ita, H.; Jäger, B.; Kallweit, S.; Karlberg, A.; Kuttimalai, S.; Krauss, F.; Larkoski, A.J.; Lindert, J.; Luisoni, G.; Maierhöfer, P.; Mattelaer, O.; Martinez, H.; Moch, S.; Montagna, G.; Moretti, M.; Nason, P.; Nicrosini, O.; Oleari, C.; Pagani, D.; Papaefstathiou, A.; Petriello, F.; Piccinini, F.; Pierini, M.; Pierog, T.; Pozzorini, S.; Re, E.; Robens, T.; Rojo, J.; Ruiz, R.; Sakurai, K.; Salam, G.P.; Salfelder, L.; Schönherr, M.; Schulze, M.; Schumann, S.; Selvaggi, M.; Shivaji, A.; Siodmok, A.; Skands, P.; Torrielli, P.; Tramontano, F.; Tsinikos, I.; Tweedie, B.; Vicini, A.; Westhoff, S.; Zaro, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-06-22

    This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.

  12. International Construction Measurement Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The International Construction Measurement Standard Coalition (the Coalition) was formed on 17 June 2015 after meeting at the International Monetary Fund in Washington DC, USA. The Coalition, comprising the organisations listed below at the date of publication, aims to bring about consistency in construction cost reporting standards internationally. This is achieved by the creation and adoption of this ICMS, an agreed international standard for the structuring and presentation of cost reports...

  13. National Space Agencies vs. Commercial Space: Towards Improved Space Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, J.

    2013-09-01

    Traditional space policies as developed at the national level includes many elements but they are most typically driven by economic and political objectives. Legislatively administered programs apportion limited public funds to achieve "gains" that can involve employment, stimulus to the economy, national defense or other advancements. Yet political advantage is seldom far from the picture.Within the context of traditional space policies, safety issues cannot truly be described as "afterthoughts", but they are usually, at best, a secondary or even tertiary consideration. "Space safety" is often simply assumed to be "in there" somewhere. The current key question is can "safety and risk minimization", within new commercial space programs actually be elevated in importance and effectively be "designed in" at the outset. This has long been the case with commercial aviation and there is at least reasonable hope that this could also be the case for the commercial space industry in coming years. The cooperative role that the insurance industry has now played for centuries in the shipping industry and for decades in aviation can perhaps now play a constructive role in risk minimization in the commercial space domain as well. This paper begins by examining two historical case studies in the context of traditional national space policy development to see how major space policy decisions involving "manned space programs" have given undue primacy to "political considerations" over "safety" and other factors. The specific case histories examined here include first the decision to undertake the Space Shuttle Program (i.e. 1970-1972) and the second is the International Space Station. In both cases the key and overarching decisions were driven by political, schedule and cost considerations, and safety seems absence as a prime consideration. In publicly funded space programs—whether in the United States, Europe, Russia, Japan, China, India or elsewhere—it seems realistic to

  14. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice

  15. Towards common technical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat, H.; Suardi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, PETRONAS launched its Total Quality Management (TQM) program. In the same year the decision was taken by the PETRONAS Management to introduce common technical standards group wide. These standards apply to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of all PETRONAS installations in the upstream, downstream and petrochemical sectors. The introduction of common company standards is seen as part of an overall technical management system, which is an integral part of Total Quality Management. The Engineering and Safety Unit in the PETRONAS Central Office in Kuala Lumpur has been charged with the task of putting in place a set of technical standards throughout PETRONAS and its operating units

  16. The Standard Model course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Suggested Readings: Aspects of Quantum Chromodynamics/A Pich, arXiv:hep-ph/0001118. - The Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions/A Pich, arXiv:hep-ph/0502010. - The Standard Model of Particle Physics/A Pich The Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics will be described. A detailed discussion of the particle content, structure and symmetries of the theory will be given, together with an overview of the most important experimental facts which have established this theoretical framework as the Standard Theory of particle interactions.

  17. Flight Standards Automation System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — FAVSIS supports Flight Standards Service (AFS) by maintaining their information on entities such as air carriers, air agencies, designated airmen, and check airmen....

  18. Space Sciences Focus Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    To advance our understanding of the space environment (from the Sun to the Earth and beyond) and to advance our ability to operate systems in space that protect life and society. Space Science is distinct from other field, such as astrophysics or cosmology, in that Space Science utilizes in-situ measurements from high altitude rockets, balloons and spacecraft or ground-based measurements of objects and conditions in space.

  19. The Austrian Space Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseiner, K.; Balogh, W.

    2002-01-01

    After several years of preparation and discussion among the involved players, the Austrian Space Plan was approved for implementation in November 2001. Based on careful benchmarking and analysis of the capabilities of the Austrian space sector it aims to create excellent conditions for the sector's further development. The new space strategy embraces Austria's participation in the mandatory and optional programmes of the European Space Agency and establishes a National Space Programme supported by separate funding opportunities. A set of clearly-defined indicators ensures that the progress in implementing the Space Plan can be objectively judged through independent, annual reviews. The National Space Programme promotes international cooperation in space research and space activities with the aim to strengthen the role of space science and to better prepare Austrian space industry for the commercial space market. In the framework of the Space Plan the Austrian Space Agency has been tasked with integrating the industry's growing involvement in aeronautics activities to better utilize synergies with the space sector. This paper reviews the various steps leading to the approval of the new space strategy and discusses the hurdles mastered in this process. It reports on the Space Plan's first results, specifically taking into account projects involving international cooperation. For the first the Austria aerospace-sector can rely on an integrated strategy for aeronautics- and space activities which is firmly rooted in the efforts to enhance the country's R&D activities. It may also act as a useful example for other small space- using countries planning to enhance their involvement in space activities.

  20. Space Charge Mitigation With Longitudinally Hollow Bunches

    CERN Multimedia

    Oeftiger, Adrian; Rumolo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Hollow longitudinal phase space distributions have a flat profile and hence reduce the impact of transverse space charge. Dipolar parametric excitation with the phase loop feedback systems provides such hollow distributions under reproducible conditions. We present a procedure to create hollow bunches during the acceleration ramp of CERN’s PS Booster machine with minimal changes to the operational cycle. The improvements during the injection plateau of the downstream Proton Synchrotron are assessed in comparison to standard parabolic bunches.

  1. Managing green spaces of the deceased

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Christian Philip

    2012-01-01

    Cemeteries in Denmark are managed by the national church; they are green spaces of high standard, with an important role as burial places for members of the society. Previous studies elsewhere indicate that cemetery management operates with special approaches on the fringe of other public service...... the dissimilarity of cemetery administration from other public administrations and green space management in particular. Further research however is required....

  2. Learning from Space Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, William

    2008-01-01

    The early days of rocketry and space exploration in the United States were marked by incredibly rapid progress: a seemingly endless parade of firsts. Not coincidentally, this period also saw more than its fair share of failure, especially in the infamous "kaputnik" days prior to the successful launch of Explorer. Without a standard canon of known quantities to turn to, the early pioneers of rocketry and space flight were forced to dream up new ideas that ranged from the elegant to the bizarre and to accept the fact that the price of radical progress is occasional failure. Nowadays, rapid prototyping and testing have slowed, as we rely more and more on the extensive knowledge pined by our predecessors and on the embarrassment of riches modern engineers get from computational modeling and computer assisted design. In many cases, this leads to much improved or phenomenally more efficient designs. It also, however, fosters a culture so terrified of failure that we over-engineer and overanalyze everything, often tweaking designs for decades before a new system takes flight. (This is not a problem unique to rockets; the same phenomenon seems to have occurred in high-performance jets.) This is one reason why it was possible for President Kennedy to dream of the completion of the Mercury and Gemini missions and a successful landing on the moon in under a decade, while returning to the moon may take nearly twice as long. Lacking access to the tremendous computational resources of the national space program-and, just as importantly, removed from the harsh judgment of public shareholders or congressional appropriations committees-the hungry entrepreneurs who compete for our prizes tend not to display such fear of failure. Instead, most of them follow a rapid "build, test, fly" program. They are willing to throw a handful of concepts against the wall and see what sticks. They often go from drawing on the back of a napkin to firing engines or even flying vehicles in a matter of

  3. The European standard on planetary protection requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, André

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of solar system exploration, numerous spacecrafts have been sent towards others worlds, and one of the main goals of such missions is the search for extraterrestrial forms of life. It is known that, under certain conditions, some terrestrial entities are able to survive during cruises in space and that they may contaminate other planets (forward contamination). At another level, possible extraterrestrial life forms are unknown and their ability to contaminate the Earth's biosphere (back contamination) in the frame of sample return missions cannot be excluded. Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty (London/Washington, January 27, 1967) requires the preservation of planets and the Earth from contamination. All nations taking part in this Treaty must prevent forward and back contamination during missions exploring our solar system. Consequently, the United Nations (UN-COPUOS) has delegated COSPAR (Committee of Space Research) to take charge of planetary protection and, at present, all space-faring nations must comply with COSPAR policy and consequently with COSPAR planetary protection recommendations. Starting from these recommendations and the "CNES Planetary Protection Standard" document, a working group has been set up in the framework of the "European Cooperation for Space Standardization" (ECSS) to establish the main specifications for preventing cross-contamination between target bodies within the solar system and the Earth-moon system.

  4. Position paper on standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The ''NPOC Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Plants'' creates a framework within which new standardized nuclear plants may be built. The Strategic Plan is an expression of the nuclear energy industry's serious intent to create the necessary conditions for new plant construction and operation. One of the key elements of the Strategic Plan is a comprehensive industry commitment to standardization: through design certification, combined license, first-of-a-kind engineering, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. The NPOC plan proposes four stages of standardization in advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The first stage is established by the ALWR Utility Requirements Document which specifies owner/operator requirements at a functional level covering all elements of plant design and construction, and many aspects of operations and maintenance. The second stage of standardization is that achieved in the NRC design certification. This certification level includes requirements, design criteria and bases, functional descriptions and performance requirements for systems to assure plant safety. The third stage of standardization, commercial standardization, carries the design to a level of completion beyond that required for design certification to enable the industry to achieve potential increases in efficiency and economy. The final stage of standardization is enhanced standardization beyond design. A standardized approach is being developed in construction practices, operating, maintenance training, and procurement practices. This comprehensive standardization program enables the NRC to proceed with design certification with the confidence that standardization beyond the regulations will be achieved. This confidence should answer the question of design detail required for design certification, and demonstrate that the NRC should require no further regulatory review beyond that required by 10 CFR Part 52

  5. Cross support overview and operations concept for future space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William; Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    Ground networks must respond to the requirements of future missions, which include smaller sizes, tighter budgets, increased numbers, and shorter development schedules. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is meeting these challenges by developing a general cross support concept, reference model, and service specifications for Space Link Extension services for space missions involving cross support among Space Agencies. This paper identifies and bounds the problem, describes the need to extend Space Link services, gives an overview of the operations concept, and introduces complimentary CCSDS work on standardizing Space Link Extension services.

  6. Esrange Space Center, a Gate to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widell, Ola

    Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) is operating the Esrange Space Center in northern Sweden. Space operations have been performed for more than 40 years. We have a unique combination of maintaining balloon and rocket launch operations, and building payloads, providing space vehicles and service systems. Sub-orbital rocket flights with land recovery and short to long duration balloon flights up to weeks are offered. The geographical location, land recovery area and the long term experience makes Swedish Space Corporation and Esrange to an ideal gate for space activities. Stratospheric balloons are primarily used in supporting atmospheric research, validation of satellites and testing of space systems. Balloon operations have been carried out at Esrange since 1974. A large number of balloon flights are yearly launched in cooperation with CNES, France. Since 2005 NASA/CSBF and Esrange provide long duration balloon flights to North America. Flight durations up to 5 days with giant balloons (1.2 Million cubic metres) carrying heavy payload (up to 2500kg) with astronomical instruments has been performed. Balloons are also used as a crane for lifting space vehicles or parachute systems to be dropped and tested from high altitude. Many scientific groups both in US, Europe and Japan have indicated a great need of long duration balloon flights. Esrange will perform a technical polar circum balloon flight during the summer 2008 testing balloon systems and flight technique. We are also working on a permission giving us the opportunity on a circular stratospheric balloon flight around the North Pole.

  7. SpaceTech—Postgraduate space education

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Ferdi J.; Ashford, Edward W.; Larson, Wiley J.

    2008-07-01

    SpaceTech is a postgraduate program geared primarily for mid-career space professionals seeking to gain or improve their expertise in space systems engineering and in business engineering. SpaceTech provides a lifelong impact on its participants by broadening their capabilities, encouraging systematic "end-to-end" thinking and preparing them for any technical or business-related engineering challenges they may encounter. This flexible 1-year program offers high competency gain and increased business skills. It is held in attractive locations in a flexible, multi-cultural environment. SpaceTech is a highly effective master's program certified by the esteemed Technical University of Delft (TUD), Netherlands. SpaceTech provides expert instructors who place no barriers between themselves and participants. The program combines innovative and flexible new approaches with time-tested methods to give participants the skills required for future missions and new business, while allowing participants to meet their work commitments at the same time as they study for their master's degree. The SpaceTech program is conducted in separate sessions, generally each of 2-week duration, separated by periods of some 6-8 weeks, during which time participants may return to their normal jobs. It also includes introductory online course material that the participants can study at their leisure. The first session is held at the TUD, with subsequent sessions held at strategic space agency locations. By participating at two or more of these sessions, attendees can earn certificates of satisfactory completion from TU Delft. By participating in all of the sessions, as well as taking part in the companion Central Case Project (CCP), participants earn an accredited and highly respected master's degree in Space Systems Engineering from the TUD. Seven distinct SpaceTech modules are provided during these sessions: Space Mission Analysis and Design, Systems Engineering, Business Engineering

  8. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... rule that revised Cost Accounting Standard (CAS) 412, ``Composition and Measurement of Pension Cost... Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board, Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Office of...

  9. State Skill Standards: Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…

  10. State Skill Standards: Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  11. How many standards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maegaard, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of standardisation and standard languages has a long history in linguistics. Tore Kristiansen has contributed to these discussions in various ways, and in this chapter I will focus on his claim that young Danes operate with two standards, one for the media and one for the school...

  12. Environmental radiation standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    This document contains an outline of an oral presentation on environmental radiation standards presented to the American Nuclear Societies' Topical Conference on Population Exposure from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The paper contains several definitions, a summary of current radiation exposure limits; and numerous proposed changes to current standards. 7 figs

  13. The Genomic Standards Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, Dawn; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Cochrane, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Standards Consortium (GSC), an open-membership organization that drives community-based standardization activities, Here we provide a short history of the GSC, provide an overview of its range of current activities, and make a call for the scientific community to join forces to improve the quality...

  14. Weston Standard battery

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a Weston AOIP standard battery with its calibration certificate (1956). Inside, the glassware forms an "H". Its name comes from the British physicist Edward Weston. A standard is the materialization of a given quantity whose value is known with great accuracy.

  15. Surface soil contamination standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define surface soil contamination limits for radioactive materials below which posting, restrictions and environmental controls are not necessary in order to protect personnel and the environment. The standards can also be used to determine if solid waste or other material is contaminated relative to disposal requirements. The derivation of the standards is given

  16. Standard classification: Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This is a draft standard classification of physics. The conception is based on the physics part of the systematic catalogue of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek and on the classification given in standard textbooks. The ICSU-AB classification now used worldwide by physics information services was not taken into account. (BJ) [de

  17. Governing through standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja

    This abstract adresses the ways in which new education standards have become integral to new modes of education governance. The paper explores the role of standards for accelerating the shift from national to transnational governance in higher education. Drawing on the case of higher education...

  18. Environmental radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richings, L.D.G.; Morley, F.; Kelley, G.N.

    1978-04-01

    The principles involved in the setting of radiological protection standards are reviewed, and the differences in procedures used by various countries in implementing them are outlined. Standards are taken here to mean the specific numerical limits relating to radiation doses to people or to amounts of radioactive material released into the environment. (author)

  19. Standards and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengler, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the professional development that has taken place in conjunction with Ohio adopting the College and Career Readiness (CCR) Standards. The professional development (PD) has changed over time to include not only training on the new standards and lesson plans but training on the concepts defined in the…

  20. Will this open space work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vischer, J

    1999-01-01

    Northern Oil is moving offices, and CEO Fritz Schumacher wants to make the most of the move in this fictional case study. He believes that adopting an open-plan work space will reinvent how the company works, not to mention cut costs. Facilities manager Sasha Pasternak also supports the open plan. Her job would be easier, and her budget would stretch further, if Northern had standardized workstations and used partitions, not walls. And she likes the way the new design flattens the organization: everyone has the same amount of space and the same ergonomically sound furniture. The new building would have more conference rooms and just-in-time work spaces for employees who worked mostly off-site. And although she knew that initial meetings between the architects and Northern employees hadn't yielded much support for open space--people were attached to their private offices--she expected that people would warm to the idea. But when the new design was unveiled, employees were less than enthusiastic. They hurled questions like, How will workers concentrate if they can't shut their office doors? How will people have confidential meetings with their boss? And why would people stay at Northern when the competition offers them private offices? There was even talk of circulating a petition refusing to move to the new space. A week later, the architect presented revised plans to the project group. The new options would add costs and reduce the amount of space savings, but offering a choice to employees might make them feel less threatened. What should the project team do? Five commentators offer advice.

  1. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  2. Standard guide for sampling radioactive tank waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide addresses techniques used to obtain grab samples from tanks containing high-level radioactive waste created during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. Guidance on selecting appropriate sampling devices for waste covered by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is also provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1). Vapor sampling of the head-space is not included in this guide because it does not significantly affect slurry retrieval, pipeline transport, plugging, or mixing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Hyperbolic statics in space-time

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov, Dmitry; Kokarev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Based on the concept of material event as an elementary material source that is concentrated on metric sphere of zero radius --- light-cone of Minkowski space-time, we deduce the analog of Coulomb's law for hyperbolic space-time field universally acting between the events of space-time. Collective field that enables interaction of world lines of a pair of particles at rest contains a standard 3-dimensional Coulomb's part and logarithmic addendum. We've found that the Coulomb's part depends on...

  4. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model and Aggregated Flux Data in Standard Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides standardized output variables for gross primary productivity (GPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), leaf area index (LAI), ecosystem respiration...

  5. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model and Aggregated Flux Data in Standard Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides standardized output variables for gross primary productivity (GPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), leaf area index (LAI), ecosystem...

  6. A Foothold in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO BIN

    2011-01-01

    With the successful launch of Tiangong-I (Heavenly Palace -I)unmanned module on September 29,China took a significant step forward in realizing its ambitions in space.China's manned space program consists of three steps.The first step,to send an astronaut into space,was achieved in 2003.The second step,to realize multi-person space flight for extended periods of time,has been fulfilled twice.During China's third manned space flight in 2008,Chinese astronauts walked in space.

  7. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  8. Free topological vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriyelyan, Saak S.; Morris, Sidney A.

    2016-01-01

    We define and study the free topological vector space $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ over a Tychonoff space $X$. We prove that $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is a $k_\\omega$-space if and only if $X$ is a $k_\\omega$-space. If $X$ is infinite, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ contains a closed vector subspace which is topologically isomorphic to $\\mathbb{V}(\\mathbb{N})$. It is proved that if $X$ is a $k$-space, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is locally convex if and only if $X$ is discrete and countable. If $X$ is a metrizable space it is shown ...

  9. NASA Space Science Resource Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teays, T.

    2000-05-01

    The NASA Office of Space Science Resource Catalog provides a convenient online interface for finding space science products for use in classrooms, science museums, planetariums, and many other venues. Goals in developing this catalog are: (1) create a cataloging system for all NASA OSS education products, (2) develop a system for characterizing education products which is meaningful to a large clientele, (3) develop a mechanism for evaluating products, (4) provide a user-friendly interface to search and access the data, and (5) provide standardized metadata and interfaces to other cataloging and library systems. The first version of the catalog is being tested at the spring 2000 conventions of the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and will be released in summer 2000. The catalog may be viewed at the Origins Education Forum booth.

  10. Chapter 12. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  11. Multiparametric quantum symplectic phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parashar, P.; Soni, S.K.

    1992-07-01

    We formulate a consistent multiparametric differential calculus on the quadratic coordinate algebra of the quantum vector space and use this as a tool to obtain a deformation of the associated symplectic phase space involving n(n-1)/2+1 deformation parameters. A consistent calculus on the relation subspace is also constructed. This is achieved with the help of a restricted ansatz and solving the consistency conditions to directly arrive at the main commutation structures without any reference to the R-matrix. However, the non-standard R-matrices for GL r,qij (n) and Sp r,qij (2n) can be easily read off from the commutation relations involving coordinates and derivatives. (author). 9 refs

  12. The space of ultrametric phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavryushkin, Alex; Drummond, Alexei J

    2016-08-21

    The reliability of a phylogenetic inference method from genomic sequence data is ensured by its statistical consistency. Bayesian inference methods produce a sample of phylogenetic trees from the posterior distribution given sequence data. Hence the question of statistical consistency of such methods is equivalent to the consistency of the summary of the sample. More generally, statistical consistency is ensured by the tree space used to analyse the sample. In this paper, we consider two standard parameterisations of phylogenetic time-trees used in evolutionary models: inter-coalescent interval lengths and absolute times of divergence events. For each of these parameterisations we introduce a natural metric space on ultrametric phylogenetic trees. We compare the introduced spaces with existing models of tree space and formulate several formal requirements that a metric space on phylogenetic trees must possess in order to be a satisfactory space for statistical analysis, and justify them. We show that only a few known constructions of the space of phylogenetic trees satisfy these requirements. However, our results suggest that these basic requirements are not enough to distinguish between the two metric spaces we introduce and that the choice between metric spaces requires additional properties to be considered. Particularly, that the summary tree minimising the square distance to the trees from the sample might be different for different parameterisations. This suggests that further fundamental insight is needed into the problem of statistical consistency of phylogenetic inference methods. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Isometries on Banach spaces function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, Richard J

    2002-01-01

    Fundamental to the study of any mathematical structure is an understanding of its symmetries. In the class of Banach spaces, this leads naturally to a study of isometries-the linear transformations that preserve distances. In his foundational treatise, Banach showed that every linear isometry on the space of continuous functions on a compact metric space must transform a continuous function x into a continuous function y satisfying y(t) = h(t)x(p(t)), where p is a homeomorphism and |h| is identically one.Isometries on Banach Spaces: Function Spaces is the first of two planned volumes that survey investigations of Banach-space isometries. This volume emphasizes the characterization of isometries and focuses on establishing the type of explicit, canonical form given above in a variety of settings. After an introductory discussion of isometries in general, four chapters are devoted to describing the isometries on classical function spaces. The final chapter explores isometries on Banach algebras.This treatment p...

  14. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Daily standard physical retrieval (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours...

  15. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly standard physical retrieval (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month....

  16. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Daily standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours for...

  17. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Daily Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours for...

  18. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month. The...

  19. Aqua AIRS Level 3 8-day Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  20. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Monthly Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month....

  1. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 8-day standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  2. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 8-day standard physical retrieval (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  3. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Monthly Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month. The...

  4. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Daily Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours...

  5. Aqua AIRS Level 3 8-day Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  6. Military Housing: Status of the Services' Implementation of the Current Barracks Design Standard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... In November 1995, DOD adopted a new barracks construction standard, referred to as the 1+1 design standard, that called for more space and increased privacy in new barracks for service members permanently assigned to an installation...

  7. 14 CFR 1260.121 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for financial management systems... Requirements § 1260.121 Standards for financial management systems. (a) Recipients shall relate financial data...) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following. (1) Accurate, current and complete...

  8. Noncommutative geometry and the standard model vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, John W.; Dawe Martins, Rachel A.

    2006-01-01

    The space of Dirac operators for the Connes-Chamseddine spectral action for the standard model of particle physics coupled to gravity is studied. The model is extended by including right-handed neutrino states, and the S 0 -reality axiom is not assumed. The possibility of allowing more general fluctuations than the inner fluctuations of the vacuum is proposed. The maximal case of all possible fluctuations is studied by considering the equations of motion for the vacuum. While there are interesting nontrivial vacua with Majorana-type mass terms for the leptons, the conclusion is that the equations are too restrictive to allow solutions with the standard model mass matrix

  9. Multi-domain comparison of safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baufreton, Ph.; Derrien, J.C.; Ricque, B.; Blanquart, J.P.; Boulanger, J.L.; Delseny, H.; Gassino, J.; Ladier, G.; Ledinot, E.; Leeman, M.; Quere, Ph.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of safety standards and their implementation in certification strategies from different domains such as aeronautics, automation, automotive, nuclear, railway and space. This work, performed in the context of the CG2E ('Club des Grandes Entreprises de l'Embarque'), aims at identifying the main similarities and dissimilarities, for potential cross-domain harmonization. We strive to find the most comprehensive 'trans-sectorial' approach, within a large number of industrial domains. Exhibiting the 'true goals' of their numerous applicable standards, related to the safety of system and software, is a first important step towards harmonization, sharing common approaches, methods and tools whenever possible. (authors)

  10. A case of standardization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Morten Hulvej; Høybye, Mette Terp

    2016-01-01

    the ones envisioned by the makers of standards. In 2012, the Danish National Health Authorities introduced a set of health promotion guidelines that were meant to guide the decision making and priority setting of Denmark's 98 local governments. The guidelines provided recommendations for health promotion...... and standardization. It remains an open question whether or not the guidelines lead to more standardized policies and interventions, but we suggest that the guidelines promote a risk factor-oriented approach as the dominant frame for knowledge, reasoning, decision making and priority setting in health promotion. We...

  11. The Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Christine

    1994-01-01

    The initial evidence from Fermilab for the long awaited sixth ('top') quark puts another rivet in the already firm structure of today's Standard Model of physics. Analysis of the Fermilab CDF data gives a top mass of 174 GeV with an error of ten per cent either way. This falls within the mass band predicted by the sum total of world Standard Model data and underlines our understanding of physics in terms of six quarks and six leptons. In this specially commissioned overview, physics writer Christine Sutton explains the Standard Model

  12. Wireless installation standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hwang Bin

    2007-12-01

    This is divided six parts which are radio regulation law on securing of radio resource, use of radio resource, protection of radio resource, radio regulation enforcement ordinance with securing, distribution and assignment of radio regulation, radio regulation enforcement regulation on utility of radio resource and technical qualification examination, a wireless installation regulation of technique standard and safety facility standard, radio regulation such as certification regulation of information communicative machines and regulation of radio station on compliance of signal security, radio equipment in radio station, standard frequency station and emergency communication.

  13. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes

  14. International radiofrequency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lincoln, J.

    2001-01-01

    Of the various radiofrequency standards in use around the world, many are based on or similar to the Guidelines published by ICNIRP (The International Commission on Non-ionising Radiation Protection). This organisation is a working group operating in co-operation with the Environmental Health division of the World Health Organisation (WHO). This paper presents a very brief overview of current international standards, beginning with a summary of the salient points of the ICNIRP Guidelines. It should be remembered that these are guidelines only and do not exist as a separate standard. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  15. Structure of Hilbert space operators

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Chunlan

    2006-01-01

    This book exposes the internal structure of non-self-adjoint operators acting on complex separable infinite dimensional Hilbert space, by analyzing and studying the commutant of operators. A unique presentation of the theorem of Cowen-Douglas operators is given. The authors take the strongly irreducible operator as a basic model, and find complete similarity invariants of Cowen-Douglas operators by using K -theory, complex geometry and operator algebra tools. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Background (153 KB). Contents: Jordan Standard Theorem and K 0 -Group; Approximate Jordan Theorem of Opera

  16. Centrioles in Symmetric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Quast, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We describe all centrioles in irreducible simply connected pointed symmetric spaces of compact type in terms of the root system of the ambient space, and we study some geometric properties of centrioles.

  17. Deep Space Habitat Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Habitat was closed out at the end of Fiscal Year 2013 (September 30, 2013). Results and select content have been incorporated into the new Exploration...

  18. Probabilistic metric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schweizer, B

    2005-01-01

    Topics include special classes of probabilistic metric spaces, topologies, and several related structures, such as probabilistic normed and inner-product spaces. 1983 edition, updated with 3 new appendixes. Includes 17 illustrations.

  19. Inform@ed space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter; Olsen, Kasper Nefer

    2001-01-01

    Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001.......Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001....

  20. Space Robotics Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Robotics Challenge seeks to infuse robot autonomy from the best and brightest research groups in the robotics community into NASA robots for future...

  1. Occupational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

  2. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbarov, S S

    2000-01-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis

  3. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarov, S S

    2000-08-31

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  4. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarov, S. S.

    2000-08-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  5. Flexible Composites for Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload mass reduction and packaging efficiency in launch vehicles are essential for deep space exploration.  Inflatable softgoods have been identified as attractive...

  6. Space Radiation Risk Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Project A: Integration and Review: A review of current knowledge from space radiation physics was accepted for publication in Reviews of Modern Physics (Durante and...

  7. Space Power Facility (SPF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Power Facility (SPF) houses the world's largest space environment simulation chamber, measuring 100 ft. in diameter by 122 ft. high. In this chamber, large...

  8. Space, time, matter

    CERN Document Server

    Weyl, Hermann

    1922-01-01

    Excellent introduction probes deeply into Euclidean space, Riemann's space, Einstein's general relativity, gravitational waves and energy, and laws of conservation. "A classic of physics." - British Journal for Philosophy and Science.

  9. Space Environment Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  10. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  11. A Conceptual Space Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    1999-01-01

    Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....

  12. Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke. Primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  13. MDP: Reliable File Transfer for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, James; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith; Parise, Ron; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC by the Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project to demonstrate the application of the Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP) to space missions to reliably transfer files. This work builds on previous work by the OMNI project to apply Internet communication technologies to space communication. The goal of this effort is to provide an inexpensive, reliable, standard, and interoperable mechanism for transferring files in the space communication environment. Limited bandwidth, noise, delay, intermittent connectivity, link asymmetry, and one-way links are all possible issues for space missions. Although these are link-layer issues, they can have a profound effect on the performance of transport and application level protocols. MDP, a UDP-based reliable file transfer protocol, was designed for multicast environments which have to address these same issues, and it has done so successfully. Developed by the Naval Research Lab in the mid 1990's, MDP is now in daily use by both the US Post Office and the DoD. This paper describes the use of MDP to provide automated end-to-end data flow for space missions. It examines the results of a parametric study of MDP in a simulated space link environment and discusses the results in terms of their implications for space missions. Lessons learned are addressed, which suggest minor enhancements to the MDP user interface to add specific features for space mission requirements, such as dynamic control of data rate, and a checkpoint/resume capability. These are features that are provided for in the protocol, but are not implemented in the sample MDP application that was provided. A brief look is also taken at the status of standardization. A version of MDP known as NORM (Neck Oriented Reliable Multicast) is in the process of becoming an IETF standard.

  14. On Space Warfare: A Space Power Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lupton, David

    1998-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, the speech was promptly dubbed "Star Wars" because the space environment seems to be the most likely place to deploy a ballistic missile defense system, and several administration...

  15. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1990-04-01

    The unresolved issues of the standard model are reviewed, with emphasis on the gauge hierarchy problem. A possible mechanism for generating a hierarchy in the context of superstring theory is described. 24 refs

  16. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  17. FDA Recognized Consensus Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database consists of those national and international standards recognized by FDA which manufacturers can declare conformity to and is part of the information...

  18. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  19. 3G Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saugstrup, Dan; Henten, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to analyze which standard/technology will win the 3G mobile markets. In addition, two sub topics are examined. First, which kind of victory will it be – will one technological solution be all-dominating or is co-existence more likely? Second, which....... Originality/value – The paper is based on the understanding that a vast array of different factors in a complex dynamic environment goes into the determination of the outcome of such standardization games. However, the battle between 3G standards has already reached a level, where relatively certain...... predictions can be made. And, the paper contributes with a methodologically based discussion concerning the outcome of the battle between 3G standards....

  20. State Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  1. SOFG: Standards requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerganov, T.; Grigorov, S.; Kozhukharov, V.; Brashkova, N.

    2005-01-01

    It is well-known that Solid Oxide Fuel Cells will have industrial application in the nearest future. In this context, the problem of SOFC materials and SOFC systems standardization is of high level of priority. In the present study the attention is focused on the methods for physical and chemical characterization of the materials for SOFC components fabrication and about requirements on single SOFC cells tests. The status of the CEN, ISO, ASTM (ANSI, ASSN) and JIS class of standards has been verified. Standards regarding the test methods for physical-chemical characterization of vitreous materials (as sealing SOFC component), ceramic materials (as electrodes and electrolyte components, including alternative materials used) and metallic materials (interconnect components) are subject of overview. It is established that electrical, mechanical, surface and interfacial phenomena, chemical durability and thermal corrosion behaviour are the key areas for standardization of the materials for SOFC components

  2. AKRO: Standard Prices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard prices are generated for cost recovery programs in the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) halibut and sablefish, BSAI Rationalized crab, and Central Gulf of...

  3. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  4. Nuclear radiation gauge standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    A hydrophobic standard for calibrating nuclear radiation moisture gauges is described, comprising a body of superposed interleaved thin layers of a moderating material containing hydrogen in the molecular structure thereof and of a substantially non-moderating material

  5. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  6. Function spaces, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Pick, Luboš; John, Oldrich; Fucík, Svatopluk

    2012-01-01

    This is the first part of the second revised and extended edition of a well established monograph. It is an introduction to function spaces defined in terms of differentiability and integrability classes. It provides a catalogue of various spaces and benefits as a handbook for those who use function spaces to study other topics such as partial differential equations. Volum

  7. A Foothold in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the successful launch of Tiangong-1 (Heavenly Palace-1) unmanned module on September 29,China took a significant step forward in realizing its ambitions in space.China’s manned space program consists of three steps.The first step,to send an astronaut into space,was achieved in 2003.The

  8. Venturing Further Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China launches a prototype space module as a precursor to a manned space station China’s first unmanned space module Tiangong-1,or Heavenly Palace-1,successfully lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China’s Gansu Province on September 29. "The successful launch of the 8.5-ton

  9. Beyond spaces of counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Mads; Nissen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The article articulates experiments with spatial constructions in two Danish social work agencies, basing on (a) a sketchy genealogical reconstruction of conceptualisations and uses of space in social work and counselling, (b) a search for theoretical resources to articulate new spaces, and (c...... spaces are forms of spatialisations which might be taken as prototypical in attempts to develop social work and counselling...

  10. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  11. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  12. Pappus in optical space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.; van Doorn, Andrea J.; Kappers, Astrid M L; Todd, James T.

    Optical space differs from physical space. The structure of optical space has generally been assumed to be metrical. In contradistinction, we do not assume any metric, but only incidence relations (i.e., we assume that optical points and lines exist and that two points define a unique line, and two

  13. Pappus in optical space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.J.; Doorn, A.J. van; Kappers, A.M.L.; Todd, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Optical space differs from physical space. The structure of optical space has generallybeen assumed to be metrical. In contradistinction,we do not assume anymetric, but only incidence relations (i.e., we assume that optical points and lines exist and that two points define a unique line, and two

  14. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  15. Learning Space Service Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same…

  16. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleitez, V.

    1994-01-01

    The search for physics laws beyond the standard model is discussed in a general way, and also some topics on supersymmetry theories. An approach is made on recent possibilities rise in the leptonic sector. Finally, models with SU(3) c X SU(2) L X U(1) Y symmetry are considered as alternatives for the extensions of the elementary particles standard model. 36 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  17. Testing the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.; Marciano, W.; Williams, H.H.

    1982-01-01

    We summarize here the results of the standard model group which has studied the ways in which different facilities may be used to test in detail what we now call the standard model, that is SU/sub c/(3) x SU(2) x U(1). The topics considered are: W +- , Z 0 mass, width; sin 2 theta/sub W/ and neutral current couplings; W + W - , Wγ; Higgs; QCD; toponium and naked quarks; glueballs; mixing angles; and heavy ions

  18. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  19. Food Safety & Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ An increasing number of people have realized that food safety is an important issue for public health. It not only concerns public health and safety, but also has direct influence on national economic progress and social development. The development and implementation of food safety standards play a vital role in protecting public health, as well as in standardizing and facilitating the sound development of food production and business.

  20. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......, this book provides an exploration of the role of halal production, trade, and standards. Fischer explains how the global markets for halal comprise divergent zones in which Islam, markets, regulatory institutions, and technoscience interact and diverge. Focusing on the "bigger institutional picture...

  1. Standard software for CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.

    1978-01-01

    The NIM Committee (National Instrumentation Methods Committee) of the U.S. Department of Energy and the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories have jointly specified standard software for use with CAMAC. Three general approaches were followed: the definition of a language called IML for use in CAMAC systems, the definition of a standard set of subroutine calls, and real-time extensions to the BASIC language. This paper summarizes the results of these efforts. 1 table

  2. Standards update -- 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    What a year this has been! Not since 1986, when SGML was being finished, has there been so much activity in the SGML world. In ISO, there are new standards being completed and old ones (some of which are not really all that old) being revised. As you`ll be hearing, there is lots of SGML activity in the applications world--particularly on the Internet--and that`s causing other kinds of standards activity. WG8 divides its work into five ``Rapporteur Groups`` (or ``RGs``) for DSSSL, Font Description and Interchange, SGML, SPDL, and Hypermedia Languages. Since interest is in DSSSL, SGML, and Hypermedia Languages, the author only mentions that the other groups have been active, too. The Fronts group has been doing amendments to its standards, ISO/IEC 9541 and ISO/IEC 10036. The Fronts groups has been active in providing support for ISO/IEC 10646, the massive character coding standard that has drawn a lot of attention in the SGML world. The SPDL group has at long last finished its standard, the Standard Page Description Language (ISO/IEC 10180) and is about to publish it. More detailed discussions are given for activity in SGML, DSSSL, and Hypermedia Languages.

  3. ISO radiation sterilization standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Byron J.; Hansen, Joyce M.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, 'Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification' 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization - Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches' 3. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch' 4. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits'

  4. Revision of ISO 15859 Aerospace Fluid Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Benjamin; McClure, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed review of ISO 15859 "Space Systems - Fluid Characteristics, Sampling and Test Methods" was performed An approach to revising Parts 1-9 and 11-13 was developed and concurred by the NASA Technical Standards Program Office. The approach was to align them with the highest level source documents, and not to program-specific requirements. The updated documents were prepared and presented.

  5. Technical standards in nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimberg, M.

    1978-01-01

    The technical standardization in nuclear area is discussed. Also, the competence of CNEN in standardization pursuit is analysed. Moreover, the process of working up of technical standards is explained; in addition, some kinds of technical standards are discussed. (author) [pt

  6. Early space symmetry restoration and neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, G.G.; Liparteliani, A.G.; Monich, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of early space symmetry restoration on the left-right symmetry models and the models with the extended (due to mirror quarks and leptons) fermion sector is being discussed. The experiments in which the derivations from the standard model of electroweak interactions should be studied are presented

  7. Local and nonlocal space-time singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, M.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity to subdivide the singularities into two classes: local and nonlocal, each of them to be defined independently, is proved. Both classes of the singularities are defined, and the relation between the definitions introduced and the standard definition of singularities, based on space-time, incompleteness, is established. The relation between definitions introduced and theorems on the singularity existence is also established

  8. DOE technical standards list. Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listing of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  9. Statistical characterization of the standard map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Guiomar; Tirnakli, Ugur; Borges, Ernesto P.; Tsallis, Constantino

    2017-06-01

    The standard map, paradigmatic conservative system in the (x, p) phase space, has been recently shown (Tirnakli and Borges (2016 Sci. Rep. 6 23644)) to exhibit interesting statistical behaviors directly related to the value of the standard map external parameter K. A comprehensive statistical numerical description is achieved in the present paper. More precisely, for large values of K (e.g. K  =  10) where the Lyapunov exponents are neatly positive over virtually the entire phase space consistently with Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) statistics, we verify that the q-generalized indices related to the entropy production q{ent} , the sensitivity to initial conditions q{sen} , the distribution of a time-averaged (over successive iterations) phase-space coordinate q{stat} , and the relaxation to the equilibrium final state q{rel} , collapse onto a fixed point, i.e. q{ent}=q{sen}=q{stat}=q{rel}=1 . In remarkable contrast, for small values of K (e.g. K  =  0.2) where the Lyapunov exponents are virtually zero over the entire phase space, we verify q{ent}=q{sen}=0 , q{stat} ≃ 1.935 , and q{rel} ≃1.4 . The situation corresponding to intermediate values of K, where both stable orbits and a chaotic sea are present, is discussed as well. The present results transparently illustrate when BG behavior and/or q-statistical behavior are observed.

  10. Building Standards based Science Information Systems: A Survey of ISO and other standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Todd; Walker, Raymond

    Science Information systems began with individual researchers maintaining personal collec-tions of data and managing them by using ad hoc, specialized approaches. Today information systems are an enterprise consisting of federated systems that manage and distribute both historical and contemporary data from distributed sources. Information systems have many components. Among these are metadata models, metadata registries, controlled vocabularies and ontologies which are used to describe entities and resources. Other components include services to exchange information and data; tools to populate the system and tools to utilize available resources. When constructing information systems today a variety of standards can be useful. The benefit of adopting standards is clear; it can shorten the design cycle, enhance software reuse and enable interoperability. We look at standards from the International Stan-dards Organization (ISO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), American National Standards Institute (ANSI) which have influenced the develop-ment of information systems in the Heliophysics and Planetary sciences. No standard can solve the needs of every community. Individual disciplines often must fill the gap between general purpose standards and the unique needs of the discipline. To this end individual science dis-ciplines are developing standards, Examples include the International Virtual Observatory Al-liance (IVOA), Planetary Data System (PDS)/ International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), Dublin-Core Science, and the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) consortium. This broad survey of ISO and other standards provides some guidance for the development information systems. The development of the SPASE data model is reviewed and provides some insights into the value of applying appropriate standards and is used to illustrate

  11. Venturing Further Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2011-01-01

    China's first unmanNed space module Tiangong-Ⅰ,or Heavenly Palace-Ⅰ,successfully lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China's Gansu Province on September 29."The successful launch of the 8.5-ton prototype space laboratory has opened the gates for China's deep space exploration program," said Qi Faren,former chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft.“It is a decisive leap forward for the Chinese space industry and will bring about the rapid development of space science and related techologies."

  12. At Home in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Pumin

    2011-01-01

    CHINA'S first unmanned space module Tiangong-1,or Heavenly Palace-1,successfully lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China's Gansu Province on September 29."The successfullaunch of the 8.5-ton prototype space laboratory has opened the gates for China's deep space exploration program," said Qi Faren,former chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft."It is a decisive leap forward for the Chinese space industry and will bring about the rapid development of space science and related technologies."

  13. Space Station Habitability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  14. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.; Ahrendt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  15. Space vehicle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven; Kestell, Gayle

    2017-07-18

    A modular space vehicle chassis may facilitate convenient access to internal components of the space vehicle. Each module may be removable from the others such that each module may be worked on individually. Multiple panels of at least one of the modules may swing open or otherwise be removable, exposing large portions of the internal components of the space vehicle. Such chassis architectures may reduce the time required for and difficulty of performing maintenance or modifications, may allow multiple space vehicles to take advantage of a common chassis design, and may further allow for highly customizable space vehicles.

  16. κ-Rindler space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we construct, and investigate some thermal properties of, the noncommutative counterpart of Rindler space, which we call κ-Rindler space. This space is obtained by changing variables in the defining commutators of κ-Minkowski space. We then rederive the commutator structure of κ-Rindler space with the help of an appropriate star product, obtained from the κ-Minkowski one. Using this star product, following the idea of Padmanabhan, we find the leading order, 1/κ correction to the Hawking thermal spectrum.

  17. Art and Architectural Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    art and architectural space museums and other exhibition spaces or how artists learn to love architects Over the last two decades, innumerable new museums, art galleries and other exhibition spaces have been built and opened all over the globe. The most extreme growth happened in China, where...... purpose of ´uniqueness´ often fail to be a ´home´, a large scale ´picture frame´ or a productive space for communicating art and even do not fulfil basic technical aspects in terms of a consistent indoor climate, optimized lighting or safety. The lecture will focus on inspiring examples of spaces for art...

  18. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  19. Concept of adaptability in space modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M

    1990-10-01

    The space program is aiming towards the permanent use of space; to build and establish an orbital space station, a Moon base and depart to Mars and beyond. We must look after the total independency from the Earth's natural resources and work in the design of a modular space base in which each module is capable of duplicating one natural process, and that all these modules in combination take us to conceive a space base capable of sustaining life. Every area of human knowledge must be involved. This modular concept will let us see other space goals as extensions of the primary project. The basic technology has to be defined, then relatively minor adjustments will let us reach new objectives such as a first approach for a lunar base and for a Mars manned mission. This concept aims towards an open technology in which standards and recommendations will be created to assemble huge space bases and spaceships from specific modules that perform certain functions, that in combination will let us reach the status of permanent use and exploration of space.

  20. Difference between standard and quasi-conformal BFKL kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadin, V.S.; Fiore, R.; Papa, A.

    2012-01-01

    As it was recently shown, the colour singlet BFKL kernel, taken in Möbius representation in the space of impact parameters, can be written in quasi-conformal shape, which is unbelievably simple compared with the conventional form of the BFKL kernel in momentum space. It was also proved that the total kernel is completely defined by its Möbius representation. In this paper we calculated the difference between standard and quasi-conformal BFKL kernels in momentum space and discovered that it is rather simple. Therefore we come to the conclusion that the simplicity of the quasi-conformal kernel is caused mainly by using the impact parameter space.

  1. Overview of Additive Manufacturing Initiatives at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    NASA's In Space Manufacturing Initiative (ISM) includes: The case for ISM - why; ISM path to exploration - results from the 3D Printing In Zero-G Technology Demonstration - ISM challenges; In space Robotic Manufacturing and Assembly (IRMA); Additive construction. Additively Manufacturing (AM) development for liquid rocket engine space flight hardware. MSFC standard and specification for additively manufactured space flight hardware. Summary.

  2. GISB: Efficiency through standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.

    1995-01-01

    For those who participated in the numerous day-long development sessions held in the dim, stale basement auditorium of the Department of Energy, the ida that the Gas Industry standards Board (GISB) would be producing standards anytime soon seemed a distant dream. However, the hazy vision of just over a year ago has now become a reality. As summer turns to fall and young gas schedulers throughout this country dream of the gridiron, GISB will have already issued a model electronic-trading partner agreement and 12 standards for capacity-release transactions, as well as three standards for nomination-related transactions. Under the steady hand of Executive directors Rae McQuade and a board of director that looks like a Who's Who of the gas industry, GISB has developed into a organization that will directly influence how gas is purchased, transported, and accounted and paid for in the 21st century. The paper describes the background of the organization, standards that have been released, and issues still to be addressed

  3. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  4. IAEA Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    The IAEA Safety Standards Series comprises publications of a regulatory nature covering nuclear safety, radiation protection, radioactive waste management, the transport of radioactive material, the safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and management systems. These publications are issued under the terms of Article III of the IAEA’s Statute, which authorizes the IAEA to establish “standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property”. Safety standards are categorized into: • Safety Fundamentals, stating the basic objective, concepts and principles of safety; • Safety Requirements, establishing the requirements that must be fulfilled to ensure safety; and • Safety Guides, recommending measures for complying with these requirements for safety. For numbering purposes, the IAEA Safety Standards Series is subdivided into General Safety Requirements and General Safety Guides (GSR and GSG), which are applicable to all types of facilities and activities, and Specific Safety Requirements and Specific Safety Guides (SSR and SSG), which are for application in particular thematic areas. This booklet lists all current IAEA Safety Standards, including those forthcoming

  5. Code, standard and specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography also same as the other technique, it need standard. This standard was used widely and method of used it also regular. With that, radiography testing only practical based on regulations as mentioned and documented. These regulation or guideline documented in code, standard and specifications. In Malaysia, level one and basic radiographer can do radiography work based on instruction give by level two or three radiographer. This instruction was produced based on guideline that mention in document. Level two must follow the specifications mentioned in standard when write the instruction. From this scenario, it makes clearly that this radiography work is a type of work that everything must follow the rule. For the code, the radiography follow the code of American Society for Mechanical Engineer (ASME) and the only code that have in Malaysia for this time is rule that published by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) known as Practical code for radiation Protection in Industrial radiography. With the existence of this code, all the radiography must follow the rule or standard regulated automatically.

  6. A reference model for space data system interconnection services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, John; Theis, Gerhard

    1993-01-01

    The widespread adoption of standard packet-based data communication protocols and services for spaceflight missions provides the foundation for other standard space data handling services. These space data handling services can be defined as increasingly sophisticated processing of data or information received from lower-level services, using a layering approach made famous in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Open System Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). The Space Data System Interconnection Reference Model (SDSI-RM) incorporates the conventions of the OSIRM to provide a framework within which a complete set of space data handling services can be defined. The use of the SDSI-RM is illustrated through its application to data handling services and protocols that have been defined by, or are under consideration by, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS).

  7. Standardization of depression measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... of 33,844 adults were used for secondary analysis including routine assessments of 23,817 in- and outpatients with mental and/or medical conditions (46% with depressive disorders) and a general population sample of 10,027 randomly selected participants from three representative German household surveys....... RESULTS: A standardized metric for depression severity was defined by 143 items, and scores were normed to a general population mean of 50 (standard deviation = 10) for easy interpretability. It covers the entire range of depression severity assessed by established instruments. The metric allows...

  8. Standards and quality

    CERN Document Server

    El-Tawil, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together a number of subjects of prime importance for any practicing engineer and, students of engineering. The book explains the concepts and functions of voluntary standards, mandatory technical regulations, conformity assessment (testing and measurement of products), certification, quality and quality management systems as well as other management systems such as environmental, social responsibility and food safety management systems.The book also gives a comprehensive description of the role of metrology systems that underpin conformity assessment. A description is given of typical national systems of standards, quality and metrology and how they relate directly or through regional structures to international systems. The book also covers the relation between standards and trade and explains the context and stipulations of the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

  9. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  10. Space Mapping With Adaptive Response Correction for Microwave Design Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, S.; Bandler, J.W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    at which the term was calculated, as in the surrogate model optimization process. In this paper, an adaptive response correction scheme is presented to work in conjunction with space-mapping optimization algorithms. This technique is designed to alleviate the difficulties of the standard output space......Output space mapping is a technique introduced to enhance the robustness of the space-mapping optimization process in case the space-mapped coarse model cannot provide sufficient matching with the fine model. The technique often works very well; however, in some cases it fails. Especially...

  11. Beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.

    1987-01-01

    The standard model of particle interactions is a complete and relatively simple theoretical framework which describes all the observed fundamental forces. It consists of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and of the electro-weak theory of Glashow, Salam and Weinberg. The former is the theory of colored quarks and gluons, which underlies the observed phenomena of strong interactions, the latter leads to a unified description of electromagnetism and of weak interactions. The inclusion of the classical Einstein theory of gravity completes the set of established basic knowledge. The standard model is in agreement with essentially all of the experimental information which is very rich by now. The recent discovery of the charged and neutral intermediate vector bosons of weak interactions at the expected masses has closed a really important chapter of particle physics. Never before the prediction of new particles was so neat and quantitatively precise. Yet the experimental proof of the standard model is not completed. For example, the hints of experimental evidence for the top quark at a mass ∼ 40 GeV have not yet been firmly established. The Higgs sector of the theory has not been tested at all. Beyond the realm of pure QED, even remaining within the electro-weak sector, the level of quantitative precision in testing the standard model does not exceed 5% or so. Furthermore, the standard model does not look as the ultimate theory. To a closer inspection a large class of fundamental questions emerges and one finds that a host of crucial problems are left open by the standard model

  12. INFORMATION SPACE– EDUCATIONAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica LIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has set the objective of researching how education is influenced by the information society. The first step was to define more precisely the information space. The second step was to identify how information space intersects with the family space and institutional space educational levels represented by pre-school / school and pre-university (kindergarten, at elementary / middle school / high school. Interrelationship between the above mentioned areas was another objective of the research. All these elements have been investigated through the original intention to identify how the information space can become an educational tool to support the family space, education and institutional space. Also, the aim of this research is to offer some solutions in this regard. Often the educational efforts appear to be blocked by the existence of this space. But this paper demonstrates that Informational space can be an enemy of the educational system or can support systems if we knew the internal structure and mechanisms. We can make the Informational Space to work in order to accomplish the educational scope.

  13. Kinematic space and wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian-dong [TianQin Research Center for Gravitational Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082, Guangdong (China); Chen, Bin [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-01-23

    The kinematic space could play a key role in constructing the bulk geometry from dual CFT. In this paper, we study the kinematic space from geometric points of view, without resorting to differential entropy. We find that the kinematic space could be intrinsically defined in the embedding space. For each oriented geodesic in the Poincaré disk, there is a corresponding point in the kinematic space. This point is the tip of the causal diamond of the disk whose intersection with the Poincaré disk determines the geodesic. In this geometric construction, the causal structure in the kinematic space can be seen clearly. Moreover, we find that every transformation in the SL(2,ℝ) leads to a geodesic in the kinematic space. In particular, for a hyperbolic transformation defining a BTZ black hole, it is a timelike geodesic in the kinematic space. We show that the horizon length of the static BTZ black hole could be computed by the geodesic length of corresponding points in the kinematic space. Furthermore, we discuss the fundamental regions in the kinematic space for the BTZ blackhole and multi-boundary wormholes.

  14. Conference: STANDARD MODEL @ LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    HCØ institute Universitetsparken 5 DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø Denmark Room: Auditorium 2 STANDARD MODEL @ LHC Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center 10-13 April 2012 This four day meeting will bring together both experimental and theoretical aspects of Standard Model phenomenology at the LHC. The very latest results from the LHC experiments will be under discussion. Topics covered will be split into the following categories:     * QCD (Hard,Soft & PDFs)     * Vector Boson production     * Higgs searches     * Top Quark Physics     * Flavour physics

  15. The Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Cliff; Moore, Guy

    2012-04-01

    List of illustrations; List of tables; Preface; Acknowledgments; Part I. Theoretical Framework: 1. Field theory review; 2. The standard model: general features; 3. Cross sections and lifetimes; Part II. Applications: Leptons: 4. Elementary boson decays; 5. Leptonic weak interactions: decays; 6. Leptonic weak interactions: collisions; 7. Effective Lagrangians; Part III. Applications: Hadrons: 8. Hadrons and QCD; 9. Hadronic interactions; Part IV. Beyond the Standard Model: 10. Neutrino masses; 11. Open questions, proposed solutions; Appendix A. Experimental values for the parameters; Appendix B. Symmetries and group theory review; Appendix C. Lorentz group and the Dirac algebra; Appendix D. ξ-gauge Feynman rules; Appendix E. Metric convention conversion table; Select bibliography; Index.

  16. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes

  17. Computational Modeling of Space Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Griffin, Devon W.

    2016-01-01

    The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP), within NASAs Human Research Program, develops and implements computational modeling for use in the mitigation of human health and performance risks associated with long duration spaceflight. Over the past decade, DAP developed models to provide insights into space flight related changes to the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and the musculoskeletal system. Examples of the models and their applications include biomechanical models applied to advanced exercise device development, bone fracture risk quantification for mission planning, accident investigation, bone health standards development, and occupant protection. The International Space Station (ISS), in its role as a testing ground for long duration spaceflight, has been an important platform for obtaining human spaceflight data. DAP has used preflight, in-flight and post-flight data from short and long duration astronauts for computational model development and validation. Examples include preflight and post-flight bone mineral density data, muscle cross-sectional area, and muscle strength measurements. Results from computational modeling supplement space physiology research by informing experimental design. Using these computational models, DAP personnel can easily identify both important factors associated with a phenomenon and areas where data are lacking. This presentation will provide examples of DAP computational models, the data used in model development and validation, and applications of the model.

  18. Optimal Fungal Space Searching Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenova, Elitsa; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Fu, Eileen; Nicolau, Dan V; Nicolau, Dan V

    2016-10-01

    Previous experiments have shown that fungi use an efficient natural algorithm for searching the space available for their growth in micro-confined networks, e.g., mazes. This natural "master" algorithm, which comprises two "slave" sub-algorithms, i.e., collision-induced branching and directional memory, has been shown to be more efficient than alternatives, with one, or the other, or both sub-algorithms turned off. In contrast, the present contribution compares the performance of the fungal natural algorithm against several standard artificial homologues. It was found that the space-searching fungal algorithm consistently outperforms uninformed algorithms, such as Depth-First-Search (DFS). Furthermore, while the natural algorithm is inferior to informed ones, such as A*, this under-performance does not importantly increase with the increase of the size of the maze. These findings suggest that a systematic effort of harvesting the natural space searching algorithms used by microorganisms is warranted and possibly overdue. These natural algorithms, if efficient, can be reverse-engineered for graph and tree search strategies.

  19. Flat slices in Minkowski space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchadha, Niall Ó.; Xie, Naqing

    2015-03-01

    Minkowski space, flat spacetime, with a distance measure in natural units of d{{s}2}=-d{{t}2}+d{{x}2}+d{{y}2}+d{{z}2}, or equivalently, with spacetime metric diag(-1, +1, +1, +1), is recognized as a fundamental arena for physics. The Poincaré group, the set of all rigid spacetime rotations and translations, is the symmetry group of Minkowski space. The action of this group preserves the form of the spacetime metric. Each t = constant slice of each preferred coordinate system is flat. We show that there are also nontrivial non-singular representations of Minkowski space with complete flat slices. If the embedding of the flat slices decays appropriately at infinity, the only flat slices are the standard ones. However, if we remove the decay condition, we find non-trivial flat slices with non-vanishing extrinsic curvature. We write out explicitly the coordinate transformation to a frame with such slices.

  20. Dual spaces of local Morrey-type spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gogatishvili, A. (Amiran); Mustafayev, R. (Rza)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that associated spaces and dual spaces of the local Morrey-type spaces are so called complementary local Morrey-type spaces. Our method is based on an application of multidimensional reverse Hardy inequalities.