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Sample records for stereotaxic localizer box

  1. Rodent stereotaxic surgery and animal welfare outcome improvements for behavioral neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fornari, R.V.; Wichmann, R.; Atsak, P.; Atucha Trevino, E.; Barsegyan, A.; Beldjoud, H.; Messanvi, F.; Thuring, C.M.; Roozendaal, B.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotaxic surgery for the implantation of cannulae into specific brain regions has for many decades been a very successful experimental technique to investigate the effects of locally manipulated neurotransmitter and signaling pathways in awake, behaving animals. Moreover, the stereotaxic

  2. [The brain in stereotaxic coordinates (a textbook for colleges)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budantsev, A Iu; Kisliuk, O S; Shul'govskiĭ, V V; Rykunov, D S; Iarkov, A V

    1993-01-01

    The present textbook is directed forward students of universities and medical colleges, young scientists and practicing doctors dealing with stereotaxic method. The Paxinos and Watson stereotaxic rat brain atlas (1982) is the basis of the textbook. The atlas has been transformed into computer educational program and seven laboratory works: insertion of the electrode into brain, microelectrophoresis, microinjection of drugs into brain, electrolytic destruction in the brain structures, local brain superfusion. The laboratory works are compiled so that they allow not only to study practical use of the stereotaxic method but to model simple problems involving stereotaxic surgery in the deep structures of brain. The textbook is intended for carrying by IBM PC/AT computers. The volume of the textbook is 1.7 Mbytes.

  3. Non-local boxes and their implementation in Minecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simnacher, Timo Yannick

    PR-boxes are binary devices connecting two remote parties satisfying x AND y = a + b mod 2, where x and y denote the binary inputs and a and b are the respective outcomes without signaling. These devices are named after their inventors Sandu Popescu and Daniel Rohrlich and saturate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality. This Bell-like inequality bounds the correlation that can exist between two remote, non-signaling, classical systems described by local hidden variable theories. Experiments have now convincingly shown that quantum entanglement cannot be explained by local hidden variable theories. Furthermore, the CHSH inequality provides a method to distinguish quantum systems from super-quantum correlations. The correlation between the outputs of the PR-box goes beyond any quantum entanglement. Though PR-boxes would have impressive consequences, as far as we know they are not physically realizable. However, by introducing PR-boxes to Minecraft as part of the redstone system, which simulates the electrical components for binary computing, we can experience the consequences of super-quantum correlations. For instance, Wim van Dam proved that two parties can use a sufficient number of PR-boxes to compute any Boolean function f(x,y) with only one bit of communication.

  4. Extracranial radiotherapy in stereotaxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Georges; Moty-Monnereau, Celine; Meyer, Aurelia; David, Pauline; Pages, Frederique; Muller, Felix; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; David, Denis Jean

    2006-12-01

    This document reports a literature survey and the discussion of an expert group with the objective to assess the use of extracranial radiotherapy devices in stereotaxic conditions. After a brief overview of the technological context, the authors proposes a technical description of radiotherapy in stereotaxic conditions, of the CyberKnife, of others radiotherapy techniques in stereotaxic conditions for extracranial indications, and of alternate techniques. They give an overview of concerned pathologies: skeleton, hepatic, bronchopulmonary, pancreas, prostate, kidney, and paediatric tumours. They describe the present care condition in France in terms of classification of medial acts, and of patient homogeneous groups. They provide the identification of this practice in foreign nomenclature. In the next part, they report the assessment, first through a critical analysis of published data and information in terms of act feasibility, efficiency and safety, of act role in the therapeutic strategy, of conditions of execution, and of impact on public health, and secondly through a statement of opinion of the working group in terms of terminology, indications, safety, and conditions of execution

  5. Rodent Stereotaxic Surgery and Animal Welfare Outcome Improvements for Behavioral Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Fornari, Raquel V.; Wichmann, Romy; Atsak, Piray; Atucha, Erika; Barsegyan, Areg; Beldjoud, Hassiba; Messanvi, Fany; Thuring, Catriene M.A.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2012-01-01

    Stereotaxic surgery for the implantation of cannulae into specific brain regions has for many decades been a very successful experimental technique to investigate the effects of locally manipulated neurotransmitter and signaling pathways in awake, behaving animals. Moreover, the stereotaxic implantation of electrodes for electrophysiological stimulation and recording studies has been instrumental to our current understanding of neuroplasticity and brain networks in behaving animals. Ever-incr...

  6. Stereotaxic microsurgical procedures of cerebral intracranial tumors guided by image and attended by computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Flores, Gerardo; Guerra Figueredo, Eritk; Ochoa Zaldivar, Luis

    2000-01-01

    It is reported that spatial guidance during microsurgery is an essential element. This application of stereotaxic surgery is shown at the International Center of Neurological Restoration (Cirene) from May, 1994, to February, 1998, on describing the performance of 65 microsurgical procedures under stereotaxic conditions among 62 patients with cerebral intracranial tumors. The procedure was divided into 3 stages: image acquisition, Cat, surgical planning , with Stasis planning system, and microsurgical procedures that included the Leksell, Micromar and Esteroflex stereotaxic systems. 27 of the total of patients presented glial tumors; 33, non-glial; and only 2 non-neoplastic lesions of diverse localization and size. 30 total resections We're made. Surgical morbidity was minimum and there was no surgical mortality. The main advantages of this method are: exact localization of the craniotomy, easy spatial guidance, and the opportunity to distinguish the limits between the tumor and the sound tissue. The possibility to apply Esteroflex to cerebral microsurgery was demonstrated

  7. 21 CFR 882.4560 - Stereotaxic instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A stereotaxic instrument is a device consisting of a rigid frame with a calibrated guide mechanism for precisely positioning probes or other devices within a patient's brain, spinal cord, or other part of the nervous system. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ...

  8. CT-guided stereotaxic evacuation of cerebellar hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizuma, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Taisuke; Ohyama, Hideki; Suzuki, Jiro

    1985-01-01

    Stereotaxic lateral approach for cerebellar hematoma is presented using Leksell's CT-stereotaxic system. All of the procedures are performed in the CT room. Patient's head is turned to contralateral side of the hematoma 30 to 40 0 with slight flexion of the neck. Stereotaxic apparatus is secured to the head under local anesthesia. Hematoma is confirmed by computerized tomograms. Three dimensional coordinates of the target point (center of the hematoma) are measured from the vertical and diagonal rods of Leksell's system. Linear skin incision 4 cm in length is made on retromastoid area. Burr-hole is put on just lateral position of the target point, usually 5 to 6 cm posterior and 1 cm above from the external auditory meatus. Transverse or sigmoid sinus does not appeared through the burr-hole by this approach. Specially made Dandy's cannula (3.0 mm in diameter, 220 mm in length) is inserted into the target point, and manual evacuation of the hematoma is performed carefully using a syringe. Then Dandy's cannula is replaced by silastic drainage tube (3.5 mm in diameter), and 6,000 Units of Urokinase solved in 2 ml of saline is administered to the hematoma cavity. Dissolved hematoma is aspirated every 24 hours until the most of the hematoma is evacuated. We operated three cases of cerebellar hematoma by this method with favorable results. Advantages of this method are as follows: Operative invasion is minimal; The surgeon can cbeck the residual hematoma and position of the tip of cannula even at operation, if necessary. (author)

  9. Focal lesions in the central nervous system: stereotaxic radioneurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.f.; Hosobuchi, Y.; Born, J.L.; Tobias, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The application of heavy-ion beams for fundamental and applied brain research has unusual potential. Methods are being developed in our laboratory for producing focal lesions in the central nervous system (e.g., the hypothalamus, thalamus, pituitary gland) to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating certain pathological disorders of the brain with stereotaxic Bragg peak heavy-ion radiosurgery. Studies in animals are demonstrating the value of this neuroscience tool for investigating mammalian brain response to induction of discrete focal lesions in the hypothalamus or in the cerebral cortex. These studies are also elucidating the neuroendocrinological response follwing ablation of various portions of the midbrain, without requiring complex neurosurgical preparations. Clinical studies are demonstrating the feasibility of stereotaxic neurological radiosurgery for treating certain inoperable vascular disorders of the brain [e.g., arteriovenous malformations (AVM), internal carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulas and other cerebrovascular disorders] in patients who are already demonstrating progressive neurological deficit. Further applications of focal lesion production with the Bragg ionization peak can be extended to include localized radiation to centers of the brain and spinal cord for treatment of such disorders as Parkinson's disease, pituitary microadenomas, acoustic neuromas, and the control of pain. The eventual application of radioactive beams will provide accurate localization of the stopping points of the beam, thereby making it feasible to stop the beam accurately at a defined depth within the central nervous system

  10. Local box-counting dimensions of discrete quantum eigenvalue spectra: Analytical connection to quantum spectral statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhr, Jamal; Nieminen, John M.

    2018-03-01

    Two decades ago, Wang and Ong, [Phys. Rev. A 55, 1522 (1997)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.55.1522 hypothesized that the local box-counting dimension of a discrete quantum spectrum should depend exclusively on the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution (NNSD) of the spectrum. In this Rapid Communication, we validate their hypothesis by deriving an explicit formula for the local box-counting dimension of a countably-infinite discrete quantum spectrum. This formula expresses the local box-counting dimension of a spectrum in terms of single and double integrals of the NNSD of the spectrum. As applications, we derive an analytical formula for Poisson spectra and closed-form approximations to the local box-counting dimension for spectra having Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE), Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE), and Gaussian symplectic ensemble (GSE) spacing statistics. In the Poisson and GOE cases, we compare our theoretical formulas with the published numerical data of Wang and Ong and observe excellent agreement between their data and our theory. We also study numerically the local box-counting dimensions of the Riemann zeta function zeros and the alternate levels of GOE spectra, which are often used as numerical models of spectra possessing GUE and GSE spacing statistics, respectively. In each case, the corresponding theoretical formula is found to accurately describe the numerically computed local box-counting dimension.

  11. Dosimetric evaluation of tomography and four-box field conformal radiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Mina; Lee, Hyo Chun; Chung, Mi Joo; Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jong Hoon; Jang, Hong Seok; Jeon, Dong Min; Cheon, Geum Seong

    2013-01-01

    To report the results of dosimetric comparison between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using Tomotherapy and four-box field conformal radiotherapy (CRT) for pelvic irradiation of locally advanced rectal cancer. Twelve patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received a short course preoperative chemoradiotherapy (25 Gy in 5 fractions) on the pelvis using Tomotherapy, between July 2010 and December 2010, were selected. Using their simulation computed tomography scans, Tomotherapy and four-box field CRT plans with the same dose schedule were evaluated, and dosimetric parameters of the two plans were compared. For the comparison of target coverage, we analyzed the mean dose, Vn Gy, Dmin, Dmax, radical dose homogeneity index (rDHI), and radiation conformity index (RCI). For the comparison of organs at risk (OAR), we analyzed the mean dose. Tomotherapy showed a significantly higher mean target dose than four-box field CRT (p 0.001). But, V26.25 Gy and V27.5 Gywere not significantly different between the two modalities. Tomotherapy showed higher Dmax and lower Dmin. The Tomotherapy plan had a lower rDHI than four-box field CRT (p = 0.000). Tomotherapy showed better RCI than four-box field CRT (p = 0.007). For OAR, the mean irradiated dose was significantly lower in Tomotherapy than four-box field CRT. In locally advanced rectal cancer, Tomotherapy delivers a higher conformal radiation dose to the target and reduces the irradiated dose to OAR than four-box field CRT.

  12. Dosimetric evaluation of tomography and four-box field conformal radiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mina; Lee, Hyo Chun; Chung, Mi Joo; Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jong Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hong Seok; Jeon, Dong Min; Cheon, Geum Seong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    To report the results of dosimetric comparison between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using Tomotherapy and four-box field conformal radiotherapy (CRT) for pelvic irradiation of locally advanced rectal cancer. Twelve patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received a short course preoperative chemoradiotherapy (25 Gy in 5 fractions) on the pelvis using Tomotherapy, between July 2010 and December 2010, were selected. Using their simulation computed tomography scans, Tomotherapy and four-box field CRT plans with the same dose schedule were evaluated, and dosimetric parameters of the two plans were compared. For the comparison of target coverage, we analyzed the mean dose, Vn Gy, Dmin, Dmax, radical dose homogeneity index (rDHI), and radiation conformity index (RCI). For the comparison of organs at risk (OAR), we analyzed the mean dose. Tomotherapy showed a significantly higher mean target dose than four-box field CRT (p 0.001). But, V26.25 Gy and V27.5 Gywere not significantly different between the two modalities. Tomotherapy showed higher Dmax and lower Dmin. The Tomotherapy plan had a lower rDHI than four-box field CRT (p = 0.000). Tomotherapy showed better RCI than four-box field CRT (p = 0.007). For OAR, the mean irradiated dose was significantly lower in Tomotherapy than four-box field CRT. In locally advanced rectal cancer, Tomotherapy delivers a higher conformal radiation dose to the target and reduces the irradiated dose to OAR than four-box field CRT.

  13. Rodent stereotaxic surgery and animal welfare outcome improvements for behavioral neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Raquel V; Wichmann, Romy; Atsak, Piray; Atucha, Erika; Barsegyan, Areg; Beldjoud, Hassiba; Messanvi, Fany; Thuring, Catriene M A; Roozendaal, Benno

    2012-01-30

    Stereotaxic surgery for the implantation of cannulae into specific brain regions has for many decades been a very successful experimental technique to investigate the effects of locally manipulated neurotransmitter and signaling pathways in awake, behaving animals. Moreover, the stereotaxic implantation of electrodes for electrophysiological stimulation and recording studies has been instrumental to our current understanding of neuroplasticity and brain networks in behaving animals. Ever-increasing knowledge about optimizing surgical techniques in rodents(1-4), public awareness concerning animal welfare issues and stringent legislation (e.g., the 2010 European Union Directive on the use of laboratory animals(5)) prompted us to refine these surgical procedures, particularly with respect to implementing new procedures for oxygen supplementation and the continuous monitoring of blood oxygenation and heart rate levels during the surgery as well as introducing a standardized protocol for post-surgical care. Our observations indicate that these modifications resulted in an increased survival rate and an improvement in the general condition of the animals after surgery (e.g. less weight loss and a more active animal). This video presentation will show the general procedures involved in this type of stereotaxic surgery with special attention to our several modifications. We will illustrate these surgical procedures in rats, but it is also possible to perform this type of surgery in mice or other small laboratory animals by using special adaptors for the stereotaxic apparatus(6).

  14. Clinical implementation of stereotaxic brain implant optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenow, U.F.; Wojcicka, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    This optimization method for stereotaxic brain implants is based on seed/strand configurations of the basic type developed for the National Cancer Institute (NCI) atlas of regular brain implants. Irregular target volume shapes are determined from delineation in a stack of contrast enhanced computed tomography scans. The neurosurgeon may then select up to ten directions, or entry points, of surgical approach of which the program finds the optimal one under the criterion of smallest target volume diameter. Target volume cross sections are then reconstructed in 5-mm-spaced planes perpendicular to the implantation direction defined by the entry point and the target volume center. This information is used to define a closed line in an implant cross section along which peripheral seed strands are positioned and which has now an irregular shape. Optimization points are defined opposite peripheral seeds on the target volume surface to which the treatment dose rate is prescribed. Three different optimization algorithms are available: linear least-squares programming, quadratic programming with constraints, and a simplex method. The optimization routine is implemented into a commercial treatment planning system. It generates coordinate and source strength information of the optimized seed configurations for further dose rate distribution calculation with the treatment planning system, and also the coordinate settings for the stereotaxic Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) implantation device

  15. Stereotaxic intracavitary irradiation for cystic craniopharyngiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, I.F.; Lunsford, L.D.; Slamovits, T.L.; Gumerman, L.W.; Levine, G.; Robinson, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Stereotaxic intracavitary irradiation with instillation of phosphorus-32 ( 32 P) colloidal chromic phosphate was performed in nine patients with cystic craniopharyngiomas. Serial neurological, ophthalmological, neuroendocrinological, and radiological examinations were performed before and after treatment. Dosimetry was determined based on a computerized tomography (CT) estimation of tumor volume, and was calculated to provide a tumoricidal dose (200 to 300 Gy) to the cyst wall. The follow-up period ranged from 14 to 45 months (mean 27 months). After treatment, all nine patients showed improvement of symptoms and radiological evidence of cyst regression. Because of an expanding solid component producing recurrent symptoms, one patient required a craniotomy 14 months after isotope instillation. Three of five patients with impaired visual acuity before surgery had significant improvement in acuity after treatment. Preoperative visual field defects in eight patients improved in four after 32 P therapy. Of seven patients with preoperative endocrine abnormalities, one individual showed almost complete normalization and another had improvement in endocrine function. Patients who exhibited residual neuroendocrine function before isotope instillation developed no significant deterioration in endocrine status during the follow-up period. The findings suggest that stereotaxic intracavitary irradiation is a safe and effective treatment which should be considered as the initial surgery for cystic craniopharyngiomas

  16. A frameless stereotaxic operating microscope for neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friets, E.M.; Strohbehn, J.W.; Hatch, J.F.; Roberts, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    A new system, which we call the frameless stereotaxic operating microscope, is discussed. Its purpose is to display CT or other image data in the operating microscope in the correct scale, orientation, and position without the use of a stereotaxic frame. A nonimaging ultrasonic rangefinder allows the position of the operating microscope and the position of the patient to be determined. Discrete fiducial points on the patient's external anatomy are located in both image space and operating room space, linking the image data and the operating room. Physician-selected image information, e.g., tumor contours or guidance to predetermined targets, is projected through the optics of the operating microscope using a miniature cathode ray tube and a beam splitter. Projected images superpose the surgical field, reconstructed from image data to match the focal plane of the operating microscope. The algorithms on which the system is based are described, and the sources and effects of errors are discussed. The system's performance is simulated, providing an estimate of accuracy. Two phantoms are used to measure accuracy experimentally. Clinical results and observations are given

  17. A frameless stereotaxic operating microscope for neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friets, E M; Strohbehn, J W; Hatch, J F; Roberts, D W

    1989-06-01

    A new system, which we call the frameless stereotaxic operating microscope, is discussed. Its purpose is to display CT or other image data in the operating microscope in the correct scale, orientation, and position without the use of a stereotaxic frame. A nonimaging ultrasonic rangefinder allows the position of the operating microscope and the position of the patient to be determined. Discrete fiducial points on the patient's external anatomy are located in both image space and operating room space, linking the image data and the operating room. Physician-selected image information, e.g., tumor contours or guidance to predetermined targets, is projected through the optics of the operating microscope using a miniature cathode ray tube and a beam splitter. Projected images superpose the surgical field, reconstructed from image data to match the focal plane of the operating microscope. The algorithms on which the system is based are described, and the sources and effects of errors are discussed. The system's performance is simulated, providing an estimate of accuracy. Two phantoms are used to measure accuracy experimentally. Clinical results and observations are given.

  18. Role of the Box C/D Motif in Localization of Small Nucleolar RNAs to Coiled Bodies and Nucleoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Aarthi; Speckmann, Wayne; Terns, Rebecca; Terns, Michael P.

    1999-01-01

    Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are a large family of eukaryotic RNAs that function within the nucleolus in the biogenesis of ribosomes. One major class of snoRNAs is the box C/D snoRNAs named for their conserved box C and box D sequence elements. We have investigated the involvement of cis-acting sequences and intranuclear structures in the localization of box C/D snoRNAs to the nucleolus by assaying the intranuclear distribution of fluorescently labeled U3, U8, and U14 snoRNAs injected into Xenopus oocyte nuclei. Analysis of an extensive panel of U3 RNA variants showed that the box C/D motif, comprised of box C′, box D, and the 3′ terminal stem of U3, is necessary and sufficient for the nucleolar localization of U3 snoRNA. Disruption of the elements of the box C/D motif of U8 and U14 snoRNAs also prevented nucleolar localization, indicating that all box C/D snoRNAs use a common nucleolar-targeting mechanism. Finally, we found that wild-type box C/D snoRNAs transiently associate with coiled bodies before they localize to nucleoli and that variant RNAs that lack an intact box C/D motif are detained within coiled bodies. These results suggest that coiled bodies play a role in the biogenesis and/or intranuclear transport of box C/D snoRNAs. PMID:10397754

  19. Precise MRI-based stereotaxic surgery in large animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Bech, Johannes; Tvilling, Laura

    BACKGROUND: Stereotaxic neurosurgery in large animals is used widely in different sophisticated models, where precision is becoming more crucial as desired anatomical target regions are becoming smaller. Individually calculated coordinates are necessary in large animal models with cortical...... and subcortical anatomical differences. NEW METHOD: We present a convenient method to make an MRI-visible skull fiducial for 3D MRI-based stereotaxic procedures in larger experimental animals. Plastic screws were filled with either copper-sulphate solution or MRI-visible paste from a commercially available...... cranial head marker. The screw fiducials were inserted in the animal skulls and T1 weighted MRI was performed allowing identification of the inserted skull marker. RESULTS: Both types of fiducial markers were clearly visible on the MRÍs. This allows high precision in the stereotaxic space. COMPARISON...

  20. Stereotaxic cytology of nonpalpable lesions detected at mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciatto, S.; Rosselli del Turco, M.; Bravetti, P.; Catarzi, S.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report on 791 consecutive cases undergoing stereotaxic cytology for non palpable lesions detected at mammography. Histologic diagnosis (malignant = 179, benign = 107) or mammographic folow-up after at least one year (benign = 275) was available in 561 cases. The overall inadequacy rate of stereotaxic cytology was 0.21, and dependent on lesion type (benign = 0.25, malignant = 0.13 p<0.001) and on sampling operator experience (range 0.17-0.31, p<0.001). Sensitivity (dubious+positive, after exclusion of inadequates) was 0.83 and dependent on histologic type (infiltrating = 0.87, intraductal = 0.68). Specificity (negative/benign, after exclusion of inadequates) was 0.96. Stereotaxic cytology helped in reducing the number of unnecessary beningn biopsies and the biopsy ratio was 0.6 benign to 1 malignant biopsy. In cases with moderate suspicion at mammography the radiologist felt reassured by negative cytology and advised mammographic control rather than surgical biopsy. Cytology was determinant in advising surgical biopsy in 9 cancer cases whereas the absence of cytologic positivity contributed to diagnostic delay in 2 cancer cases. Overall, stereotaxic cytology allowed a relevant reduction of unnecessary benign biopsies and should be routinely employed in the diagnostic work-up of nonpalpable lesions detected at mammography

  1. Building an open-source robotic stereotaxic instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Kevin R; Barker, David J; Ma, Sisi; West, Mark O

    2013-10-29

    This protocol includes the designs and software necessary to upgrade an existing stereotaxic instrument to a robotic (CNC) stereotaxic instrument for around $1,000 (excluding a drill), using industry standard stepper motors and CNC controlling software. Each axis has variable speed control and may be operated simultaneously or independently. The robot's flexibility and open coding system (g-code) make it capable of performing custom tasks that are not supported by commercial systems. Its applications include, but are not limited to, drilling holes, sharp edge craniotomies, skull thinning, and lowering electrodes or cannula. In order to expedite the writing of g-coding for simple surgeries, we have developed custom scripts that allow individuals to design a surgery with no knowledge of programming. However, for users to get the most out of the motorized stereotax, it would be beneficial to be knowledgeable in mathematical programming and G-Coding (simple programming for CNC machining). The recommended drill speed is greater than 40,000 rpm. The stepper motor resolution is 1.8°/Step, geared to 0.346°/Step. A standard stereotax has a resolution of 2.88 μm/step. The maximum recommended cutting speed is 500 μm/sec. The maximum recommended jogging speed is 3,500 μm/sec. The maximum recommended drill bit size is HP 2.

  2. Interactive stereotaxic teleassistance of remote experts during arthroscopic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Arne; Undt, Gerhard; Schicho, Kurt; Wanschitz, Felix; Watzinger, Franz; Murakami, Kenichiro; Czerny, Christian; Ewers, Rolf

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the technical setup for stereotaxic telesurgical assistance for arthroscopic procedures. It also outlines the current state, limitations, and feasibility of this technical development. Teleassistance or teleconsultation implemented in endoscopic or arthroscopic procedures have not yet been reported. In this study, 7 computer-assisted arthroscopies of the temporomandibular joint were supported by extramural experts via interactive stereotaxic teleconsultation from distant locations. The external experts were supplied with close to real-time video, audio, and stereotaxic navigation data directly from the operation site. This setup allows the surgeons and external experts to interactively determine portals, target structures, and instrument positions relative to the patient's anatomy and to discuss any step of the procedures. Optoelectronic tracking interfaced to computer- based navigation technology allowed precise positioning of instruments for single or multiple temporomandibular joint punctures. The average error of digitizing probe measurements was 1.3 mm (range, 0.0 to 2.5 mm) and the average standard deviation was 0.7 mm (range, 0.4 to 0.9 mm). Evaluation of the reliability and accuracy of this technique suggests that it is sufficient for controlled navigation, even inside the small temporomandibular joint, a fact that encourages further applications for arthroscopy in general. The minimum requirement for high-quality video transmission for teleassisted procedures are integrated services digital network (ISDN) connections. Conventional ISDN-based videoconferencing can be combined with computer-aided intraoperative navigation. Transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP)-based stereotaxic teleassistance data transmission via ATM or satellite seem to be promising techniques to considerably improve the field of arthroscopy.

  3. Winning strategies for pseudo-telepathy games using single non-local box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkri, S.; Kar, G.; Ghosh, S.; Roy, A.

    2006-12-01

    Using a single NL-box, a winning strategy is given for the impossible colouring pseudo-telepathy game for the set of vectors having Kochen-Specker property in four dimension. A sufficient condition given regarding the structure of the impossible colouring pseudo-telepathy game for general d-dimension. A winning strategy for this game is then described with single use of NL-box. (author)

  4. A local leaky-box model for the local stellar surface density-gas surface density-gas phase metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangtun Ben; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Yan, Renbin; Brinkmann, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    We revisit the relation between the stellar surface density, the gas surface density and the gas-phase metallicity of typical disc galaxies in the local Universe with the SDSS-IV/MaNGA survey, using the star formation rate surface density as an indicator for the gas surface density. We show that these three local parameters form a tight relationship, confirming previous works (e.g. by the PINGS and CALIFA surveys), but with a larger sample. We present a new local leaky-box model, assuming star-formation history and chemical evolution is localized except for outflowing materials. We derive closed-form solutions for the evolution of stellar surface density, gas surface density and gas-phase metallicity, and show that these parameters form a tight relation independent of initial gas density and time. We show that, with canonical values of model parameters, this predicted relation match the observed one well. In addition, we briefly describe a pathway to improving the current semi-analytic models of galaxy formation by incorporating the local leaky-box model in the cosmological context, which can potentially explain simultaneously multiple properties of Milky Way-type disc galaxies, such as the size growth and the global stellar mass-gas metallicity relation.

  5. Molecular cloning, identification, and chromosomal localization of two MADS box genes in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Xu, Yong; Ma, Rongcai

    2008-06-01

    MADS box proteins play an important role in floral development. To find genes involved in the floral transition of Prunus species, cDNAs for two MADS box genes, PpMADS1 and PpMADS10, were cloned using degenerate primers and 5'- and 3'-RACE based on the sequence database of P. persica and P. dulcis. The full length of PpMADS1 cDNA is 1,071 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 717 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 238 amino acid residues. The full length of PpMADS10 cDNA is 937 bp containing an ORF of 633 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 210 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PpMADS1 and PpMADS10 were highly homologous to genes AP1 and PI in Arabidopsis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PpMADS1 belongs to the euAP1 clade of class A, and PpMADS10 is a member of GLO/PI clade of class B. RT-PCR analysis showed that PpMADS1 was expressed in sepal, petal, carpel, and fruit, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1; PpMADS10 was expressed in petal and stamen, which shared the same expression pattern as PI. Using selective mapping strategy, PpMADS1 was assigned onto the Bin1:50 on the G1 linkage group between the markers MCO44 and TSA2, and PpMADS10 onto the Bin1:73 on the same linkage group between the markers Lap-1 and FGA8. Our results provided the basis for further dissection of the two MADS box gene function.

  6. The impact of big-boxes on local retail : What happens when IKEA comes to town?

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The development of large discount retailers, or big-boxes as they are sometimes referred to, are often subject to heated debate and their entry on a market is greeted with either great enthusiasm or dread. For instance, the world’s largest retailer Wal-Mart (Forbes 2014) has a number of anti- and pro-groups dedicated to its being and the event of a Wal-Mart entry tends to be met with protests and campaigns (Decamme 2013) but also welcomed by, for instance, consumers (Davis & DeBonis 2013)...

  7. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eNitzsche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams were acquired on a 1.5T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight, age and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM and white (WM matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM. Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and body weight explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species.

  8. Plk2 regulated centriole duplication is dependent on its localization to the centrioles and a functional polo-box domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmecioglu, Onur; Warnke, Silke; Arnold, Marc; Duensing, Stefan; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2008-11-15

    In mammalian cells, the centrosome consists of a pair of centrioles and amorphous pericentriolar material. The centrosome duplicates once per cell cycle. Polo like kinases (Plks) perform crucial functions in cell cycle progression and during mitosis. The polo-like kinase-2, Plk2, is activated near the G(1)/S phase transition, and plays an important role in the reproduction of centrosomes. In this study, we show that the polo-box of Plk2 is required both for association to the centrosome and centriole duplication. Mutation of critical sites in the Plk2 polo-box prevents centrosomal localization and impairs centriole duplication. Plk2 is localized to centrosomes during early G(1) phase where it only associates to the mother centriole and then distributes equally to both mother and daughter centrioles at the onset of S phase. Furthermore, our results imply that Plk2 mediated centriole duplication is dependent on Plk4 function. In addition, we find that siRNA-mediated downregulation of Plk2 leads to the formation of abnormal mitotic spindles confirming that Plk2 may have a function in the reproduction of centrioles.

  9. Identification and characterization of a nuclear localization signal of TRIM28 that overlaps with the HP1 box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Tetsuji; Sangel, Percival; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Obuse, Chikashi; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Oka, Masahiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28) is a transcription regulator, which forms a repressor complex containing heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). Here, we report identification of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within the 462-494 amino acid region of TRIM28 that overlaps with its HP1 binding site, HP1 box. GST-pulldown experiments revealed the interaction of the arginine-rich TRIM28 NLS with various importin α subtypes (α1, α2 and α4). In vitro transport assay demonstrated that nuclear localization of GFP-TRIM28 NLS is mediated by importin αs, in conjunction with importin β1 and Ran. Further, we demonstrated that HP1 and importin αs compete for binding to TRIM28. Together, our findings suggest that importin α has an essential role in the nuclear delivery and preferential HP1 interaction of TRIM28. - Highlights: • TRIM28 contains an NLS within the 462-494 amino acid region. • The nuclear import of TRIM28 is mediated by importin α/importin β1. • TRIM28 NLS overlaps with HP1 Box. • HP1 and importin α compete for binding to TRIM28

  10. Identification and characterization of a nuclear localization signal of TRIM28 that overlaps with the HP1 box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Tetsuji; Sangel, Percival [Laboratory of Nuclear Transport Dynamics, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroki [School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Obuse, Chikashi [Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Miyamoto, Yoichi [Laboratory of Nuclear Transport Dynamics, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Oka, Masahiro, E-mail: moka@nibiohn.go.jp [Laboratory of Nuclear Transport Dynamics, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Laboratory of Biomedical Innovation, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoneda, Yoshihiro, E-mail: y-yoneda@nibiohn.go.jp [National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Laboratory of Biomedical Innovation, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-03

    Tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28) is a transcription regulator, which forms a repressor complex containing heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). Here, we report identification of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within the 462-494 amino acid region of TRIM28 that overlaps with its HP1 binding site, HP1 box. GST-pulldown experiments revealed the interaction of the arginine-rich TRIM28 NLS with various importin α subtypes (α1, α2 and α4). In vitro transport assay demonstrated that nuclear localization of GFP-TRIM28 NLS is mediated by importin αs, in conjunction with importin β1 and Ran. Further, we demonstrated that HP1 and importin αs compete for binding to TRIM28. Together, our findings suggest that importin α has an essential role in the nuclear delivery and preferential HP1 interaction of TRIM28. - Highlights: • TRIM28 contains an NLS within the 462-494 amino acid region. • The nuclear import of TRIM28 is mediated by importin α/importin β1. • TRIM28 NLS overlaps with HP1 Box. • HP1 and importin α compete for binding to TRIM28.

  11. A stereotaxic frame and computer software for use with CT body scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.; Roberts, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype stereotaxic frame for use in conjunction with CT body scanners has been developed and is illustrated. Such a frame may be rigidly attached to the patient's cranium prior to CT scanning and kept attached until completion of the stereotaxic procedure. The frame produces landmarks in each CT slice which allow the CT scanner computer to calculate the spatial orientation of the slice with respect to the frame. Thus the computer may transfer information from the CT slice coordinate system to the frame coordinate system. Using this type of stereotaxic frame it is possible to complete the stereotaxic procedure either in the CT scanner or in the neurosurgery operating suite. In a series of 20 experiments with a target phantom the tip of the probe was placed at a target point with a mean error of 2.0 millimeters. (Auth.)

  12. Opening the Black Box: Exploring the Effect of Transformation on Online Service Delivery in Local Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenstra, Anne Fleur; Zuurmond, Arre

    To enhance the quality of their online service delivery, many government organizations seek to transform their organization beyond merely setting up a front office. This transformation includes elements such as the formation of service delivery chains, the adoption of a management strategy supporting process orientation and the implementation of enterprise architecture. This paper explores whether undertaking this transformation has a positive effect on the quality of online service delivery, using data gathered from seventy local governments. We found that having an externally oriented management strategy in place, adopting enterprise architecture, aligning information systems to business and sharing activities between processes and departments are positively related to the quality of online service delivery. We recommend that further research should be carried out to find out whether dimensions of organizational development too have an effect on online service delivery in the long term.

  13. SCF Ubiquitin Ligase F-box Protein Fbx15 Controls Nuclear Co-repressor Localization, Stress Response and Virulence of the Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Jöhnk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available F-box proteins share the F-box domain to connect substrates of E3 SCF ubiquitin RING ligases through the adaptor Skp1/A to Cul1/A scaffolds. F-box protein Fbx15 is part of the general stress response of the human pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. Oxidative stress induces a transient peak of fbx15 expression, resulting in 3x elevated Fbx15 protein levels. During non-stress conditions Fbx15 is phosphorylated and F-box mediated interaction with SkpA preferentially happens in smaller subpopulations in the cytoplasm. The F-box of Fbx15 is required for an appropriate oxidative stress response, which results in rapid dephosphorylation of Fbx15 and a shift of the cellular interaction with SkpA to the nucleus. Fbx15 binds SsnF/Ssn6 as part of the RcoA/Tup1-SsnF/Ssn6 co-repressor and is required for its correct nuclear localization. Dephosphorylated Fbx15 prevents SsnF/Ssn6 nuclear localization and results in the derepression of gliotoxin gene expression. fbx15 deletion mutants are unable to infect immunocompromised mice in a model for invasive aspergillosis. Fbx15 has a novel dual molecular function by controlling transcriptional repression and being part of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases, which is essential for stress response, gliotoxin production and virulence in the opportunistic human pathogen A. fumigatus.

  14. A fiducial skull marker for precise MRI-based stereotaxic surgery in large animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Bech, Johannes; Tvilling, Laura; Zaer, Hamed; Orlowski, Dariusz; Fitting, Lise Moberg; Ziedler, Dora; Geneser, Michael; Sangill, Ryan; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Bjarkam, Carsten Reidies; Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann

    2017-06-15

    Stereotaxic neurosurgery in large animals is used widely in different sophisticated models, where precision is becoming more crucial as desired anatomical target regions are becoming smaller. Individually calculated coordinates are necessary in large animal models with cortical and subcortical anatomical differences. We present a convenient method to make an MRI-visible skull fiducial for 3D MRI-based stereotaxic procedures in larger experimental animals. Plastic screws were filled with either copper-sulfate solution or MRI-visible paste from a commercially available cranial head marker. The screw fiducials were inserted in the animal skulls and T1 weighted MRI was performed allowing identification of the inserted skull marker. Both types of fiducial markers were clearly visible on the MRÍs. This allows high precision in the stereotaxic space. The use of skull bone based fiducial markers gives high precision for both targeting and evaluation of stereotaxic systems. There are no metal artifacts and the fiducial is easily removed after surgery. The fiducial marker can be used as a very precise reference point, either for direct targeting or in evaluation of other stereotaxic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stereo Navi 2.0: software for stereotaxic surgery of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuno, Hironobu; Tanaka, Ikuko; Umitsu, Yoshitomo; Nakamura, Yasuhisa

    2009-11-01

    Recently, we reported our web-accessible digital brain atlas of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) at http://marmoset-brain.org:2008. Using digital images obtained during construction of this website, we developed stand-alone software for navigation of electrodes or injection needles for stereotaxic electrophysiological or anatomical experiments in vivo. This software enables us to draw lines on exchangeable section images, measure the length and angle of lines, superimpose a stereotaxic reference grid on the image, and send the image to the system clipboard. The software, Stereo Navi 2.0, is freely available at our brain atlas website.

  16. A comparison of publicly available linear MRI stereotaxic registration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadar, Mahsa; Fonov, Vladimir S; Collins, D Louis

    2018-07-01

    Linear registration to a standard space is one of the major steps in processing and analyzing magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the brain. Here we present an overview of linear stereotaxic MRI registration and compare the performance of 5 publicly available and extensively used linear registration techniques in medical image analysis. A set of 9693 T1-weighted MR images were obtained for testing from 4 datasets: ADNI, PREVENT-AD, PPMI, and HCP, two of which have multi-center and multi-scanner data and three of which have longitudinal data. Each individual native image was linearly registered to the MNI ICBM152 average template using five versions of MRITOTAL from MINC tools, FLIRT from FSL, two versions of Elastix, spm_affreg from SPM, and ANTs linear registration techniques. Quality control (QC) images were generated from the registered volumes and viewed by an expert rater to assess the quality of the registrations. The QC image contained 60 sub-images (20 of each of axial, sagittal, and coronal views at different levels throughout the brain) overlaid with contours of the ICBM152 template, enabling the expert rater to label the registration as acceptable or unacceptable. The performance of the registration techniques was then compared across different datasets. In addition, the effect of image noise, intensity non-uniformity, age, head size, and atrophy on the performance of the techniques was investigated by comparing differences between age, scaling factor, ventricle volume, brain volume, and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volumes between passed and failed cases for each method. The average registration failure rate among all datasets was 27.41%, 27.14%, 12.74%, 13.03%, 0.44% for the five versions of MRITOTAL techniques, 8.87% for ANTs, 11.11% for FSL, 12.35% for Elastix Affine, 24.40% for Elastix Similarity, and 30.66% for SPM. There were significant effects of signal to noise ratio, image intensity non-uniformity estimates, as well as age, head size, and

  17. Virtual Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Hilary; Skov, Mikael B.; Stougaard, Malthe

    2007-01-01

    . This paper reports on the design, implementation and initial evaluation of Virtual Box. Virtual Box attempts to create a physical and engaging context in order to support reciprocal interactions with expressive content. An implemented version of Virtual Box is evaluated in a location-aware environment...

  18. Pig brain stereotaxic standard space: Mapping of cerebral blood flow normative values and effect of MPTP-lesioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F.; Watanabe, H.; Bjarkam, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of physiological processes in brain by position emission tomography (PET) is facilitated when images are spatially normalized to a standard coordinate system. Thus, PET activation studies of human brain frequently employ the common stereotaxic coordinates of Talairach. We have...... developed an analogous stereotaxic coordinate system for the brain of the Gottingen miniature pig, based on automatic co-registration of magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in 22 male pigs. The origin of the pig brain stereotaxic space (0, 0, 0) was arbitrarily placed in the centroid of the pineal gland...... as identified on the average MRI template. The orthogonal planes were imposed using the line between stereotaxic zero and the optic chiasm. A series of mean MR images in the coronal, sagittal and horizontal planes were generated. To test the utility of the common coordinate system for functional imaging studies...

  19. Bento Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  20. Vertical displacement of the brain and the target area during open stereotaxic neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, K.; Kraekenes, J.

    2001-01-01

    During stereotaxic thalamotomies, we observed that the brain surface was sinking. The study was carried out to investigate to what extent the target area also was displaced and how this would affect the accuracy of the stereotaxic procedure. In 12 thalamotomies, with the patients operated on in the sitting position, we found that the cortical surface sank 0-9 (mean 5) mm during the operation. The vertical co-ordinate of the thalamic target was consequently adjusted per-operatively, and the electrodes were advanced on additional distance of 1-5.5 (mean 3.5) mm in an attempt to compensate for the assumed sinking of the target. This per-operative adjustment was based on the surgeon's experience and the results of macro-stimulation studies. The exact location of the thalamotomy lesion, and thereby the accuracy of the adjustment, was evaluated on 3 months postoperative CT scans. These showed that the intended target was hit with a sufficient degree of accuracy in all the patients, although the vertical co-ordinate had been slightly over-adjusted, as the center of the lesion on the average was located 1 mm below the intended location. Thus, if the vertical position had not been adjusted, the lesion would on the average have been located 2.5 mm too high compared with the intended target. Patients undergoing thalamotomy and other stereotaxic procedures, where a high degree of accuracy is needed, should be operated on in the sitting position. At the thalamic level, the vertical displacement of the target should be adjusted for by additional advancement of the stereotaxic probe. On average, this compensatory adjustment should be about half the per-operative sinking of the cortical surface. (author)

  1. Improved precision of interstitial brain tumor irradiation using the BRW CT stereotaxic guidance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapozink, M.D.; Moeller, J.M.; McDonald, P.N.; Heilbrun, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    A technique is described which enables precise temporary interstitial volume implantation of brain tumors using a CT stereotaxic guidance system. This technique has the advantages of designing irregular isodose distributions during the preplanning stage. Although the preplanning stage can be time-consuming, this is performed while the patient is in the hospital room and CT scanner time, anesthesia time, and operating room time is minimized for individual patients

  2. Stereotaxic approach to hypothalamic nuclei of the shiba goat with radiographic monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Shimada, M.; Hayashi, S.; Hoshino, K.

    1990-01-01

    Practical method was devised for precise approach to hypothalamic nuclei in the Shiba goat. A stereotaxic instrument and a brain atlas with stereotaxic coordinates were developed. For an accurate placement of probes into specific hypothalamic regions a radiographic method was employed in which radio-opaque material was injected into the lateral ventricle and the ventricular outline was depicted. A sagittal diagram showing the arrangement of hypothalamic nuclei in relation to the brain ventricular system was constructed from the transverse stereotaxic atlas. This diagram was revealed extremely useful in pinpointing the target on the radiographs of lateral view. Precision of this method was evaluated in female Shiba goats (n = 4) by comparing radiographically estimated positions of hypothalamic nuclei with those histologically determined. Despite of cranial variability among individual animals these two parameters matched well each other in all the nuclei examined. Furthermore, chronic cannulae were implanted into different hypothalamic structures of one goat and the accuracy of their placement was confirmed histologically. Thus, it was revealed that the stereotaxy by aid of radiography herein described was accurate enough to apply to various neuroendocrinological studies in the Shiba goat

  3. GLASS BOX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The goals of this effort were to develop Glass Box capabilities to allow for the capturing of analyst activities and the associated data resources, track and log the results of automated processing...

  4. Channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    In a channel box of a BWR type reactor, protruding pads are disposed in axial position on the lateral side of a channel box opposing to a control rod and facing the outer side portion of the control rod in a reactor core loaded state. In the initial loading stage of fuel assemblies, channel fasteners and spacer pads are abutted against each other in the upper portion between the channel boxes sandwiching the control rod therebetween. Further, in the lower portion, a gap as a channel for the movement of the control rod is ensured by the support of fuel support metals. If the channel box is bent toward the control rod along with reactor operation, the pads are abutted against each other to always ensure the gap through which the control rod can move easily. Further, when the pads are brought into contact with each other, the bending deformation of the channel box is corrected by urging to each other. Thus, the control rod can always be moved smoothly to attain reactor safety operation. (N.H.)

  5. Direct gene transfer in the Gottingen minipig CNS using stereotaxic lentiviral microinjections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GLUD, AN; Hedegaard, Claus; Nielsen, Mette Slot

    2010-01-01

    We aim to induce direct viral mediated gene transfer in the substantia nigra (SN) of the Gottingen minipig using MRI guided stereotaxic injections of lentiviral vectors encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Nine female Gottingen minipigs were injected unilaterally into the SN with 6...... per 2.5 microliters lentivirus capable of transducing cells and mediating expression of recombinant EGFP. The animals were euthanized after four (n=3) or twenty weeks (n=6). Fresh brain tissue from three animals was used for PCR. The remaining six brains were cryo- or paraffin...

  6. Interactive, three dimensional, CT-based treatment planning of stereotaxic I-125 brain implants. 132

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulu, B.; Lewis, J.; Smith, V.; Stuart, A.

    1987-01-01

    Brain implants of I-125 seeds are done with the Brown-Roberts-Wells stereotaxic frame. The patient is CT scanned with the frame bolted to the skull. In the time between the scan and surgery, while the patient is under anesthesia, an interactive three dimensional CT-based treatment plan is performed on a VAX computer. The program is menu driven, easy to use, and easily modifiable. Device dependencies are limited to a small number of subroutines, and an array processor is used to speed dose calculations

  7. The magnetic particle in a box: Analytic and micromagnetic analysis of probe-localized spin wave modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Manuilov, Sergei A.; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Fengyuan; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-05-01

    The dipole field from a probe magnet can be used to localize a discrete spectrum of standing spin wave modes in a continuous ferromagnetic thin film without lithographic modification to the film. Obtaining the resonance field for a localized mode is not trivial due to the effect of the confined and inhomogeneous magnetization precession. We compare the results of micromagnetic and analytic methods to find the resonance field of localized modes in a ferromagnetic thin film, and investigate the accuracy of these methods by comparing with a numerical minimization technique that assumes Bessel function modes with pinned boundary conditions. We find that the micromagnetic technique, while computationally more intensive, reveals that the true magnetization profiles of localized modes are similar to Bessel functions with gradually decaying dynamic magnetization at the mode edges. We also find that an analytic solution, which is simple to implement and computationally much faster than other methods, accurately describes the resonance field of localized modes when exchange fields are negligible, and demonstrating the accessibility of localized mode analysis.

  8. Doses to organs at cerebral risks: optimization by robotized stereotaxic radiotherapy and automatic segmentation atlas versus three dimensional conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondiau, P.Y.; Thariat, J.; Benezery, K.; Herault, J.; Dalmasso, C.; Marcie, S.; Malandain, G.

    2007-01-01

    The stereotaxic radiotherapy robotized by 'Cyberknife fourth generation' allows a dosimetric optimization with a high conformity index on the tumor and radiation doses limited on organs at risk. A cerebral automatic anatomic segmentation atlas of organs at risk are used in routine in three dimensions. This study evaluated the superiority of the stereotaxic radiotherapy in comparison with the three dimensional conformal radiotherapy on the preservation of organs at risk in regard of the delivered dose to tumors justifying an accelerated hypo fractionation and a dose escalation. This automatic segmentation atlas should allow to establish correlations between anatomy and cerebral dosimetry; This atlas allows to underline the dosimetry optimization by stereotaxic radiotherapy robotized for organs at risk. (N.C.)

  9. Glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Atsushi

    1990-01-01

    Wire rope earthquake proof supports having sufficient vibration transmitting and attenuating property are disposed between a fixed floor and the bottom of a glove box in order to improve earthquake proofness of the glove box. The vertical weight of the glove box is supported by support legs slidable on the surface of the fixed floor. The wire rope earthquake-proof supports when undergoing a load, cause stretching and rolling against the external force such as earthquakes, and provide flexible spring support and cause a great damping due to friction with strands. Further, the vertical weight is always supported by the support legs and, when a horizontal weight is applied, the glove box slides on the fixed floor freely with slidable members. In this way, stress concentration generated at joint portions of columns and beams can be moderated greatly and earthquake proofness can be improved. Further, quality control and maintenance for the device is almost unnecessary owing to excellent fatigue-resistant characteristics of the wire rope earthquake proof supports. (N.H.)

  10. Binding of DEAD-box helicase Dhh1 to the 5'-untranslated region of ASH1 mRNA represses localized translation of ASH1 in yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianjun; Meng, Xiuhua; Li, Delin; Chen, Shaoyin; Luo, Jianmin; Zhu, Linjie; Singer, Robert H; Gu, Wei

    2017-06-09

    Local translation of specific mRNAs is regulated by dynamic changes in their subcellular localization, and these changes are due to complex mechanisms controlling cytoplasmic mRNA transport. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well suited to studying these mechanisms because many of its transcripts are transported from the mother cell to the budding daughter cell. Here, we investigated the translational control of ASH1 mRNA after transport and localization. We show that although ASH1 transcripts were translated after they reached the bud tip, some mRNAs were bound by the RNA-binding protein Puf6 and were non-polysomal. We also found that the DEAD-box helicase Dhh1 complexed with the untranslated ASH1 mRNA and Puf6. Loss of Dhh1 affected local translation of ASH1 mRNA and resulted in delocalization of ASH1 transcript in the bud. Forcibly shifting the non-polysomal ASH1 mRNA into polysomes was associated with Dhh1 dissociation. We further demonstrated that Dhh1 is not recruited to ASH1 mRNA co-transcriptionally, suggesting that it could bind to ASH1 mRNA within the cytoplasm. Of note, Dhh1 bound to the 5'-UTR of ASH1 mRNA and inhibited its translation in vitro These results suggest that after localization to the bud tip, a portion of the localized ASH1 mRNA becomes translationally inactive because of binding of Dhh1 and Puf6 to the 5'- and 3'-UTRs of ASH1 mRNA. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. CT-guided stereotaxic implantation of Ommaya reservoir for cystic brain tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasato, Nobukazu; Niizuma, Hiroshi; Johkura, Hidefumi; Katoh, Seiya; Otsuki, Taisuke; Katakura, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Jiro

    1988-02-01

    We report the use of CT-guided stereotaxic system to implant Ommaya reservoir in 26 patients with cystic brain tumors consisting of 16 gliomas, 3 craniopharyngiomas, 3 metastatic brain tumors and 5 other and unknown pathologies, on the way of their biopsy. The entire procedure was carried out in the CT room using Leksell's CT stereotaxic system. In 24 cases with supratentorial tumors, it was at the option of the operator to take any approach such as frontal, posterior temporal and parietal approaches. Especially in 3 cases of craniopharyngioma, we inserted the tube into their cyst directly so that the ventricle should not be open to the cyst. Also in cases of a pontine glioma and a C-P angle metastatic tumor, we used retromastoid approach to the posterior fossa by making patient's heads turned about 30 to 40 deg to contralateral side of the approach, with slight flexion of the neck. Minimal bleeding occurred during operation in one case, however, it showed no clinical symptoms. Advantages of this method are as follows: Operative invasion is minimal; The surgeon can check the course of the cannula and position of the tip of Ommaya tube even at operation, and can modify it, if necessary.

  12. CT-guided stereotaxic implantation of Ommaya reservoir for cystic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasato, Nobukazu; Niizuma, Hiroshi; Johkura, Hidefumi; Katoh, Seiya; Otsuki, Taisuke; Katakura, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Jiro

    1988-01-01

    We report the use of CT-guided stereotaxic system to implant Ommaya reservoir in 26 patients with cystic brain tumors consisting of 16 gliomas, 3 craniopharyngiomas, 3 metastatic brain tumors and 5 other and unknown pathologies, on the way of their biopsy. The entire procedure was carried out in the CT room using Leksell's CT stereotaxic system. In 24 cases with supratentorial tumors, it was at the option of the operator to take any approach such as frontal, posterior temporal and parietal approaches. Especially in 3 cases of craniopharyngioma, we inserted the tube into their cyst directly so that the ventricle should not be open to the cyst. Also in cases of a pontine glioma and a C-P angle metastatic tumor, we used retromastoid approach to the posterior fossa by making patient's heads turned about 30 to 40 deg to contralateral side of the approach, with slight flexion of the neck. Minimal bleeding occurred during operation in one case, however, it showed no clinical symptoms. Advantages of this method are as follows: Operative invasion is minimal; The surgeon can check the course of the cannula and position of the tip of Ommaya tube even at operation, and can modify it, if necessary. (author)

  13. Stereotaxic Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytologic Evaluation of Non-palpable Breast Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Haghighi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although long-term mammography is the standard means of evaluation for the probably benign lesions of breast, some times we feel obliged to know about the benignity and the extent of lesions earlier. Therefore we evaluated the diagnostic value of stereotaxic fine-needle aspiration (SFNA in low suspicion breast lesions as an alternative to the routine modality. Methods: The study included 150 low-suspicion or probably benign breast lesions detected on mammography. All cases underwent SFNA and followed by exciosional biopsy or follow-up mammography based on SFNA findings. Results: Fibroadenoma and normal tissue lesions were diagnosed in 57% of patients, in whom no evidence of malignancy was found in the follow-up period. In 48 patients with cytologic findings suggestive of proliferative fibrocystic disease, three cases of malignancy were detected by excisional biopsy. Conclusion: A SFNA result suggesting benignity allows safe clinical follow-up, whereas a suspicious or equivocal diagnosis needs more invasive modalities for further investigations. Key words: Breast, Mammography, Stereotaxic, Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA

  14. In vivo study of rat cortical hemodynamics using a stereotaxic-apparatus-compatible photoacoustic microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Heng; Chen, Qian; Qi, Weizhi; Chen, Xingxing; Xi, Lei

    2018-04-19

    Brain imaging is an important technique in cognitive neuroscience. In this article, we designed a stereotaxic-apparatus-compatible photoacoustic microscope for the studies of rat cortical hemodynamics. Compared with existing optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (ORPAM) systems, the probe owns feature of fast, light and miniature. In this microscope, we integrated a miniaturized ultrasound transducer with a center frequency of 10 MHz to detect photoacoustic signals and a 2-dimensional (2D) microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scanner to achieve raster scanning of the optical focus. Based on phantom evaluation, this imaging probe has a high lateral resolution of 3.8 μm and an effective imaging domain of 2 × 2 mm 2 . Different from conventional ORPAMs, combining with standard stereotaxic apparatus enables broad studies of rodent brains without any motion artifact. To show its capability, we successfully captured red blood cell flow in the capillary, monitored the vascular changes during bleeding and blood infusion and visualized cortical hemodynamics induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. CT-guided stereotaxic biopsy in 104 cases of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizuma, Hiroshi; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Jokura, Hidehumi; Otsuki, Taisuke; Katakura, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Jiro

    1988-01-01

    Biopsy of suspected brain tumor was performed on 104 cases using Leksell's CT-guided stereotaxic system. The entire operation was performed in the CT room. A Backlund's spiral biopsy needle was advanced to the target point in a stepwise fashion and two to nine tissue samples were obtained from one to three biopsy tracks. Tissue sampling was impossible in two cases because the tumors were too hard for biopsy needle to advance. Also, sampling was sometimes difficult in the case of soft and necrotic tumor, cystic tumor, already treated (irradiated) tumor and the lesion including old blood clot. After the biopsy, minimal bleeding occurred in nine cases, however, stopped within 10 minutes by controlling the blood pressure. A minimum sized hematoma was visible on the postoperative CT in four cases. Postoperative neurological deterioration was seen in two cases. One case was transient and the other seemed to be in his natural course. Anyway, there were neither cases of operative mortality nor severely complicated cases in these series. Useful pathological diagnosis was possible in 83 cases (80 %). Accurate diagnosis was not possible in the remaining 21 cases, however, their histological datum such as necrosis, blood clot, and so on were very useful to estimate the lesions. In summary, accurate diagnosis rate of CT-guided stereotaxic needle biopsy was 80 %. However, it appeared to be a safe and useful procedure in the diagnosis of intracranial mass lesions. (author)

  16. Stereotaxic implantation of dispersed cell suspensions into brain. A systematic appraisal of cell placement and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plunkett, R.J.; Weber, R.J.; Oldfield, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The application of several recent advances in cell biology, brain implantation, and cell-mediated tumor immunotherapy requires successful and reproducible placement of viable cell suspensions into brain. Stereotaxic implantation is being used to inject cytotoxic lymphocytes into gliomas and to replace dopaminergic cells in parkinsonian models. Systematic assessment of the factors that influence success in implantation of cell suspensions into solid tissues is needed. A model was developed for investigation of stereotaxic implantation using radiolabeled rat lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. Anesthetized rats received microliter injections of cell suspension into the right caudate nucleus. The injection volume, cell concentration, infusion rate, and needle size were varied systematically. The animals were sacrificed 1 hour after injection; the brain was removed and sectioned, and the radioactivity was counted. Three aliquots of the suspension were injected into counting tubes for control analysis. Recovery of radioactivity was expressed as the percent of mean counts per minute (cpm) in the right frontal lobe/mean cpm in the three control tubes. To assess the viability of implanted cells, the right frontal region was mechanically dissociated in media and centrifuged, and the pellet and supernatant were counted. By using small needles and slow infusion of volumes of 10 microliters or less, 85% to 90% of the radioactivity was recovered in the caudate nucleus. At least half of the implanted cells were viable. Consistent, accurate implantation of dispersed cells into brain over a range of volumes, cell concentrations, infusion rates, and needle sizes was achieved

  17. Glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisert, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    An arrangement for effecting access for performing work within a glove box comprises an elongate arm-length impermeable flexible sleeve, a fitting having an aperture therethrough, adapted to be secured in sealing relation in a port, in a wall of the glove box, the fitting including an outwardly extending lip having at least one continuous groove extending around its outer periphery, one end of the sleeve extending through the aperture in fitting and being folded back against the outer periphery of the lip, a resilient fastening ring securing the sleeve in sealing engagement in the groove, clamping means securing the sleeves to the lip and a glove secured in sealing relation via a bushing to the other end of the sleeve. (author)

  18. Boxing clever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanbury, Kate

    1999-09-10

    The outages caused by storms bringing down trees on power transmission lines on Boxing Day 1998 in Scotland, Northern Ireland and Northern England forced ScottishPower to modify its pylon policy. The results of the analysis of pylons requiring work by the Rural Care Team at ScottishPower are summarised, and the identification of the problems caused by the Sitk spruce is reported. The selection of the relocation and clearance remediation option, the policy of replacing one tree with two, the approach to landowners, and the need to consider environmental concerns during the planning of networks are discussed. (UK)

  19. Clinical evaluation of CT-guided stereotaxic evacuation of hypertensive intracerebral hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masato; Yoshinaga, Shiya; Nakayama, Yoshiya; Hirakawa, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Akira; Tomonaga, Masamichi

    1989-01-01

    The clinical results of CT-guided stereotaxic evacuation of hypertensive intracerebral hematomas which had been done in our department during the last 16 months were evaluated. They included 18 cases; 8 of thalamic, 9 of putaminal and one of cerebellar hematoma. The patients were 11 males and 7 females, with an average age of 57. The time interval from oneset to surgery was 1-21 days, 9.5 days on average. The hematoma volume estimated on a CT scan was 6-35 ml and the average rate of hematoma removal by surgery was 75%. Intraoperative monitoring with ultrasonography and postoperative infusion of Urokinase increased the removal rate. In 14 cases, the mental ability and motor function improved within days after surgery and rehabilitation was started within a short period. However, the recovery in aged people was generally poor. Rebleeding occurred postoperatively in one case, necessitating a subsequent craniotomy. (author)

  20. Three-dimensional digitizer (neuronavigator): new equipment for computed tomography-guided stereotaxic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, E; Watanabe, T; Manaka, S; Mayanagi, Y; Takakura, K

    1987-06-01

    A new device was invented as an adjunct for computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotaxic or open neurosurgery. It is composed of a multijoint three-dimensional digitizer (sensor arm) and a microcomputer, which indicates the place of the sensor arm tip on preoperative CT images. Computed tomography scan is performed preoperatively with three markers placed on the nasion and ears. At surgery, after fixing the patient's head and the sensor arm, sampling of the standard points was done to translate the position of the tip of the sensor arm onto the CT images displayed on a computer screen. In this way positional data from conventional preoperative CT scan can be directly transferred into the surgical field. This system has the unique feature of introducing CT-guided stereotaxis into conventional open neurosurgery.

  1. Hippocampal Neurogenesis and the Brain Repair Response to Brief Stereotaxic Insertion of a Microneedle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that transient microinjury to the brain elicits cellular and humoral responses that stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Brief stereotaxic insertion and removal of a microneedle into the right hippocampus resulted in (a significantly increased expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, the chemokine MIP-1a, and the proinflammatory cytokine IL12p40; (b pronounced activation of microglia and astrocytes; and (c increase in hippocampal neurogenesis. This study describes immediate and early humoral and cellular mechanisms of the brain’s response to microinjury that will be useful for the investigation of potential neuroprotective and deleterious effects of deep brain stimulation in various neuropsychiatric disorders.

  2. Computation of a high-resolution MRI 3D stereotaxic atlas of the sheep brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ella, Arsène; Delgadillo, José A; Chemineau, Philippe; Keller, Matthieu

    2017-02-15

    The sheep model was first used in the fields of animal reproduction and veterinary sciences and then was utilized in fundamental and preclinical studies. For more than a decade, magnetic resonance (MR) studies performed on this model have been increasingly reported, especially in the field of neuroscience. To contribute to MR translational neuroscience research, a brain template and an atlas are necessary. We have recently generated the first complete T1-weighted (T1W) and T2W MR population average images (or templates) of in vivo sheep brains. In this study, we 1) defined a 3D stereotaxic coordinate system for previously established in vivo population average templates; 2) used deformation fields obtained during optimized nonlinear registrations to compute nonlinear tissues or prior probability maps (nlTPMs) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM) tissues; 3) delineated 25 external and 28 internal sheep brain structures by segmenting both templates and nlTPMs; and 4) annotated and labeled these structures using an existing histological atlas. We built a quality high-resolution 3D atlas of average in vivo sheep brains linked to a reference stereotaxic space. The atlas and nlTPMs, associated with previously computed T1W and T2W in vivo sheep brain templates and nlTPMs, provide a complete set of imaging space that are able to be imported into other imaging software programs and could be used as standardized tools for neuroimaging studies or other neuroscience methods, such as image registration, image segmentation, identification of brain structures, implementation of recording devices, or neuronavigation. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:676-692, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Box Integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2006-06-01

    By a "box integral" we mean here an expectation $\\langle|\\vec r - \\vec q|^s \\rangle$ where $\\vec r$runs over the unit $n$-cube,with $\\vec q$ and $s$ fixed, explicitly:\\begin eqnarray*&&\\int_01 \\cdots \\int_01 \\left((r_1 - q_1)2 + \\dots+(r_n-q_n)2\\right)^ s/2 \\ dr_1 \\cdots dr_n.\\end eqnarray* The study ofbox integrals leads one naturally into several disparate fields ofanalysis. While previous studies have focused upon symbolic evaluationand asymptotic analysis of special cases (notably $s = 1$), we workherein more generally--in interdisciplinary fashion--developing resultssuch as: (1) analytic continuation (in complex $s$), (2) relevantcombinatorial identities, (3) rapidly converging series, (4) statisticalinferences, (5) connections to mathematical physics, and (6)extreme-precision quadrature techniques appropriate for these integrals.These intuitions and results open up avenues of experimental mathematics,with a view to new conjectures and theorems on integrals of thistype.

  4. Stereotaxic core needle biopsy of breast microcalcifications obtained using a standard mammography table with an add-on unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, S.E.; Taves, D.H.; McCurdy, L.I.

    2000-01-01

    To demonstrate the reliability of stereotaxic biopsy of indeterminate microcalcifications using a standard mammography table with an add-on unit. In 121 cases of indeterminate microcalcifications, core biopsy was performed using a standard mammography table with an add-on stereotaxic unit. Microcalcifications were identified on radiography of core specimens. Microcalcifications and a definitive histologic diagnosis were obtained in 112 core biopsies (92.6%), with no significant complications. In 23 lesions frank malignancy was diagnosed, and all of these diagnoses were confirmed on surgery. Pathologic examination suggested carcinoma in 4 lesions, and open biopsy confirmed malignancy in 3 of these cases. Four lesions showed atypical ductal hyperplasia. Benign disease was diagnosed in 81 lesions, of which 78 remained stable on mammographic follow-up (mean 16 months later) and 3 were subjected to surgical biopsy (of which 1 was malignant and 2 were benign). Nine cases were technically unsatisfactory because microcalcifications were not sampled. Stereotaxic core biopsy performed with an add-on unit is a safe and reliable technique for biopsy of indeterminate microcalcifications. For successful biopsy, microcalcifications must be harvested. Pathologic results should be correlated with mammographic findings. The accuracy rate compares favourably with results reported using prone biopsy tables. In an era of cost containment, this alternative to prone biopsy tables could result m significant savings in terms of capital investment and use of hospital rooms. In this study, surgical biopsy could have been avoided in 64.5% of cases. (author)

  5. A three-dimensional stereotaxic atlas of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Piotr; Chlodzinska, Natalia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Banasik, Tomasz; Djavadian, Ruzanna L; Węglarz, Władysław P; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2018-05-01

    The gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) is a small marsupial gaining recognition as a laboratory animal in biomedical research. Despite numerous studies on opossum neuroanatomy, a consistent and comprehensive neuroanatomical reference for this species is still missing. Here we present the first three-dimensional, multimodal atlas of the Monodelphis opossum brain. It is based on four complementary imaging modalities: high resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance images, micro-computed tomography scans of the cranium, images of the face of the cutting block, and series of sections stained with the Nissl method and for myelinated fibers. Individual imaging modalities were reconstructed into a three-dimensional form and then registered to the MR image by means of affine and deformable registration routines. Based on a superimposition of the 3D images, 113 anatomical structures were demarcated and the volumes of individual regions were measured. The stereotaxic coordinate system was defined using a set of cranial landmarks: interaural line, bregma, and lambda, which allows for easy expression of any location within the brain with respect to the skull. The atlas is released under the Creative Commons license and available through various digital atlasing web services.

  6. Interstitial hyperthermia using 8 MHz radiofrequency and stereotaxic brachytherapy for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Satoshi

    1990-01-01

    As a preliminary study of the interstitial hyperthermia combined with interstitial irradiation (brachytherapy) for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, we performed an experiment of interstitial hyperthermia of brain tissue of dogs. Nine afterloading tubes, four for needle electrodes and five for thermisters, were inserted in the brain tissue of dogs. Rise and stability of temperature were ascertained, and clinical safety was confirmed. Thereafter this combined therapy was applied on seven cases, in which three were malignant gliomas and four were metastatic tumors. Through the guide tubes, 192 Ir thin wires were implanted stereotaxically, and interstitial irradiation was carried out. After removal of 192 Ir wires, needle electrodes were inserted through the same tubes, and also a thermister was guided at the center of electrodes. And interstitial hyperthermia using 8 MHz radiofrequency was carried out. The results of the treatment were evaluated with CT scan based on criteria of the Japan Neurological Society. In cases of malignant gliomas, 2 PRs (partial remission), and 1 NC (no change) were obtained. In cases of metastatic tumors, 1 CR (complete remission), 2 PRs, 1 NC were obtaind. In cases of NCs, progression of tumors have been suppressed for 10 and 17 months, and still alive. As complication, transient worsening of neurological symptoms were observed in four cases (increased paresis: two cases, nausea and vomiting: two cases). The author have had an impression that interstitial hyperthermia combined with interstitial irradiation might become an effective means of treatment of brain tumors. (author)

  7. The lithium vapor box divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R J; Schwartz, J; Myers, R

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m −2 , implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma. (paper)

  8. Stereotaxic percutaneous core biopsy versus surgical biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions using a standard mammographic table with an add-on device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.F.; Papoff, W.J.; Doan, L.; Eliasziw, M.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of using a regular mammographic table with an add-on device for biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions in women in a community hospital setting. During a 3-year period, 70 consenting women (39-80 years of age) with a nonpalpable mammographically suspicious lesion on routine screening mammography underwent 14-gauge automated percutaneous core biopsies, immediate needle localization and lumpectomy. The needle and surgical biopsy results were independently classified into 1 of 5 categories: cancer, fibroadenomal fibrocystic change, normal or other. The procedure was well tolerated, and all core specimens yielded adequate tissue for pathologic evaluation. There were 3 episodes of vasovagal reaction. There was complete agreement in histologic findings in 64 cases (91%), including 22 of 24 cancers (92%). The overall agreement for categorizing lesions was 91% (k 0.88), and there was 97% agreement (k = 0.94) for the classification of cancer versus benign lesion. The results are similar to those of studies performed with dedicated prone equipment. Stereotaxic core biopsies can be done safely and accurately in a community hospital setting with relatively inexpensive nondedicated mammographic equipment. (author)

  9. Stereotaxic percutaneous core biopsy versus surgical biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions using a standard mammographic table with an add-on device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, M.F.; Papoff, W.J.; Doan, L.; Eliasziw, M. [St. Thomas-Elgin General Hospital, St. Thomas, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-02-01

    To determine the accuracy of using a regular mammographic table with an add-on device for biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions in women in a community hospital setting. During a 3-year period, 70 consenting women (39-80 years of age) with a nonpalpable mammographically suspicious lesion on routine screening mammography underwent 14-gauge automated percutaneous core biopsies, immediate needle localization and lumpectomy. The needle and surgical biopsy results were independently classified into 1 of 5 categories: cancer, fibroadenomal fibrocystic change, normal or other. The procedure was well tolerated, and all core specimens yielded adequate tissue for pathologic evaluation. There were 3 episodes of vasovagal reaction. There was complete agreement in histologic findings in 64 cases (91%), including 22 of 24 cancers (92%). The overall agreement for categorizing lesions was 91% (k 0.88), and there was 97% agreement (k = 0.94) for the classification of cancer versus benign lesion. The results are similar to those of studies performed with dedicated prone equipment. Stereotaxic core biopsies can be done safely and accurately in a community hospital setting with relatively inexpensive nondedicated mammographic equipment. (author)

  10. Air tight electrical box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pringle, C.G.

    1990-08-14

    An air-impervious electrical box to facilitate air sealing a house comprises an integral, rigid box body having a continuous flange, integral with the body, circumscribing and outwardly extending from the sides of the body. This flange is rearwardly positioned behind the front edges of the sides of the body a predetermined distance so that the electrical box may be secured to framing by nailing through the flange. Drywall is then secured to the frame on top of and adjecent to the flange. Such box eliminates the necessity for solid backing and minimizes passage of air through the box and space between the drywall and the box.

  11. Analysis of 62 cases with stereotaxic breast biopsy with a prone table system: emphasis on lesions with microcalcificatios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Il Gyu; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Han, Boo Kyung; Byun, Hong Sik; Choo, In Wook

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of stereotaxic breast core biopsy using a prone table system, and the effects of operator experience, lesion characteristics and number of samples on biopsy results in cases involving nonpalpable breast lesions. We performed stereotaxic core biopsies of 62 nonpalpable mammographic lesions in 61 patients. Subsequent surgical excision was performed in 11 cases with microcalcifications and one case with a mass. We equally divided patients with microcalcifications into two groups (early and late periods) and analyzed the mammographic findings. Correlation of the pathologic results of core biopsy with those of surgical excision were investigated. In two patients, stereotaxic biopsy was impossible due to poor visibility of microcalcifications and thinness of the compressed breast. In 59 patients, core biopsy was successfully performed and specimens were adequate for pathologic examination. The average number of microcalcifications seen on specimen mammography in the two groups was 1.8(range : 0x8) and 2.5(range : 0x4) respectively. In patients from whom less than five and five or more samples were taken, the average number of microcalcifications seen on specimen mammography was 1.5(range : 0x6) and 2.6(range : 0x8), respectively, throughout the whole period. The pathologic findings were fibrocystic change in 50 cases, fibroadenoma in four, ductal carcinoma in situ in four, invasive ductal carcinoma in one, and atypical ductal hyperplasia in one. The agreement rate of pathologic results between core biopsy and surgical excision was 83%(10/12) for malignancy and 75% for histology. In three cases with disagreement between core and surgical pathologic results, the sampling number was small (3x 4 times) and in two of the three cases, microcalcifications were not visible on mammography operator experience and sampling numbers larger than five results in an increased number of microcalcifications in specimens and more reliable core biopsy

  12. Analysis of 62 cases with stereotaxic breast biopsy with a prone table system: emphasis on lesions with microcalcificatios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Il Gyu; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Han, Boo Kyung; Byun, Hong Sik; Choo, In Wook [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of stereotaxic breast core biopsy using a prone table system, and the effects of operator experience, lesion characteristics and number of samples on biopsy results in cases involving nonpalpable breast lesions. We performed stereotaxic core biopsies of 62 nonpalpable mammographic lesions in 61 patients. Subsequent surgical excision was performed in 11 cases with microcalcifications and one case with a mass. We equally divided patients with microcalcifications into two groups (early and late periods) and analyzed the mammographic findings. Correlation of the pathologic results of core biopsy with those of surgical excision were investigated. In two patients, stereotaxic biopsy was impossible due to poor visibility of microcalcifications and thinness of the compressed breast. In 59 patients, core biopsy was successfully performed and specimens were adequate for pathologic examination. The average number of microcalcifications seen on specimen mammography in the two groups was 1.8(range : 0x8) and 2.5(range : 0x4) respectively. In patients from whom less than five and five or more samples were taken, the average number of microcalcifications seen on specimen mammography was 1.5(range : 0x6) and 2.6(range : 0x8), respectively, throughout the whole period. The pathologic findings were fibrocystic change in 50 cases, fibroadenoma in four, ductal carcinoma in situ in four, invasive ductal carcinoma in one, and atypical ductal hyperplasia in one. The agreement rate of pathologic results between core biopsy and surgical excision was 83%(10/12) for malignancy and 75% for histology. In three cases with disagreement between core and surgical pathologic results, the sampling number was small (3x 4 times) and in two of the three cases, microcalcifications were not visible on mammography operator experience and sampling numbers larger than five results in an increased number of microcalcifications in specimens and more reliable core biopsy.

  13. Fractionated stereotaxic radiotherapy in the treatment of the retinoblastoma: preliminary results; Radiotherapie stereotaxique fractionnee dans le traitement du retinoblastome: resultats preliminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pica, A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Service de Radiotherapie, Lausanne (Switzerland); Moeckli, R.; Do, H. [Institut de Radiophysique Appliquee, Lausanne (Switzerland); Balmer, A.; Munier, F. [Hopital ophtalmique Jules-Gonin, Lausanne (Switzerland); Chollet Rivier, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Service d' Anesthesie, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2006-11-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact in term of morbidity at short and long term and the response to the fractionated stereotaxic radiotherapy with a micro multi slides collimator in the treatment of the retinoblastoma. (N.C.)

  14. Fully automated quantification of regional cerebral blood flow with three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest template. Validation using magnetic resonance imaging. Technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Ryo; Katayama, Shigenori; Takeda, Naoya; Fujita, Katsuzo [Nishi-Kobe Medical Center (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Fukui Medical Univ., Matsuoka (Japan); Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2003-03-01

    The previously reported three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest (ROI) template (3DSRT-t) for the analysis of anatomically standardized technetium-99m-L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images was modified for use in a fully automated regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) quantification software, 3DSRT, incorporating an anatomical standardization engine transplanted from statistical parametric mapping 99 and ROIs for quantification based on 3DSRT-t. Three-dimensional T{sub 2}-weighted magnetic resonance images of 10 patients with localized infarcted areas were compared with the ROI contour of 3DSRT, and the positions of the central sulcus in the primary sensorimotor area were also estimated. All positions of the 20 lesions were in strict accordance with the ROI delineation of 3DSRT. The central sulcus was identified on at least one side of 210 paired ROIs and in the middle of 192 (91.4%) of these 210 paired ROIs among the 273 paired ROIs of the primary sensorimotor area. The central sulcus was recognized in the middle of more than 71.4% of the ROIs in which the central sulcus was identifiable in the respective 28 slices of the primary sensorimotor area. Fully automated accurate ROI delineation on anatomically standardized images is possible with 3DSRT, which enables objective quantification of rCBF and vascular reserve in only a few minutes using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT images obtained by the resting and vascular reserve (RVR) method. (author)

  15. Fully automated quantification of regional cerebral blood flow with three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest template. Validation using magnetic resonance imaging. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Ryo; Katayama, Shigenori; Takeda, Naoya; Fujita, Katsuzo; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Konishi, Junji

    2003-01-01

    The previously reported three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest (ROI) template (3DSRT-t) for the analysis of anatomically standardized technetium-99m-L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images was modified for use in a fully automated regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) quantification software, 3DSRT, incorporating an anatomical standardization engine transplanted from statistical parametric mapping 99 and ROIs for quantification based on 3DSRT-t. Three-dimensional T 2 -weighted magnetic resonance images of 10 patients with localized infarcted areas were compared with the ROI contour of 3DSRT, and the positions of the central sulcus in the primary sensorimotor area were also estimated. All positions of the 20 lesions were in strict accordance with the ROI delineation of 3DSRT. The central sulcus was identified on at least one side of 210 paired ROIs and in the middle of 192 (91.4%) of these 210 paired ROIs among the 273 paired ROIs of the primary sensorimotor area. The central sulcus was recognized in the middle of more than 71.4% of the ROIs in which the central sulcus was identifiable in the respective 28 slices of the primary sensorimotor area. Fully automated accurate ROI delineation on anatomically standardized images is possible with 3DSRT, which enables objective quantification of rCBF and vascular reserve in only a few minutes using 99m Tc-ECD SPECT images obtained by the resting and vascular reserve (RVR) method. (author)

  16. Advantages of stereotaxic needle biopsy of brain tumor using interventional magnetic resonance imaging. Report of 12 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terao, Tohru; Hashimoto, Takuo; Koyama, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koichi; Harada, Junta; Abe, Toshiaki

    1998-01-01

    Interventional MRI, an advanced neuroimaging system, was used to perform stereotaxic needle biopsy of brain tissue (AIRIS, 0.3 Tesla, Hitachi) in 12 patients (9 males, 3 females) with intraparenchymal abnormal lesions. This system permits accurate and safe biopsy of brain tissue in real time. Patient ages ranged from 31 to 79 years (mean 61.5 years). We evaluated the abnormal lesion and dominant hemisphere of these patients preoperatively by using CT, MRI and cerebral angiography. Lesions were located in the left frontal lobe in 3 cases, the right frontal lobe in 1 case, the left temporal lobe in 1 case, the right temporal lobe in 1 case, the left parietal lobe in 2 cases, the right parietal lobe in 1 case, the left occipital lobe in 1 case, the bilateral basal ganglia in 1 case and the corpus callosum in 1 case. The sampling points were in the dominant hemisphere in 7 cases and in the non-dominant hemisphere in 5 cases. The diagnosis based on stereotaxic needle biopsy using this system were 4 gliomas, 1 brain abscess, 1 metastatic brain tumor, 1 granuloma, 2 cerebral infarctions, 2 malignant lymphomas and 1 normal brain tissue. Success rate of biopsy for our 12 cases using this system was 91.7%. Brain hemorrhage was a complication in 1 case but there was no case of meningitis or convulsion. This method is useful in patients with inoperable lesions, including deep lesion or lesions in the brainstem diencephalon or dominant hemisphere, in patients with serious complications, and in geriatric patients. In the future, this MRI system may be applied to minimally invasive therapies such as tumor ablation, cryosurgery, chemoablation, and ventrolateral thalamotomy for parkinsonism. (author)

  17. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  18. Math in the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeYoung, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make an origami paper box and explores the algebra, geometry, and other mathematics that unfolds. A set of origami steps that transforms the paper into an open box can hold mathematical surprises for both students and teachers. An origami lesson can engage students in an open-ended exploration of the relationship…

  19. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  20. Localization and Differential Expression of the Krüppel-Associated Box Zinc Finger Proteins 1 and 54 in Early Mouse Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Maria; Teperek, Marta; Elholm, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    -fused reporter gene into zygotes demonstrated the intracellular distribution of ZFP1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ZFP54-GFP colocalized with a DNA marker in the two-cell embryo. The KRAB domain was essential to colocalize with DNA, and deletion of the KRAB domain in ZFP1-GFP and ZFP54-GFP localized...

  1. Black-Box Search by Unbiased Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The complexity theory for black-box algorithms, introduced by Droste, Jansen, and Wegener (Theory Comput. Syst. 39:525–544, 2006), describes common limits on the efficiency of a broad class of randomised search heuristics. There is an obvious trade-off between the generality of the black-box model...... and the strength of the bounds that can be proven in such a model. In particular, the original black-box model provides for well-known benchmark problems relatively small lower bounds, which seem unrealistic in certain cases and are typically not met by popular search heuristics.In this paper, we introduce a more...... restricted black-box model for optimisation of pseudo-Boolean functions which we claim captures the working principles of many randomised search heuristics including simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, randomised local search, and others. The key concept worked out is an unbiased variation operator...

  2. Pion in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietenholz, W.; Rakow, P.E.L.; Schierholz, G.; Regensburg Univ.

    2010-02-01

    The residual mass of the pion in a finite spatial box at vanishing quark masses is computed with two flavors of dynamical clover fermions. The result is compared with predictions of chiral perturbation theory in the δ regime. (orig.)

  3. Experimental realization of the quantum box problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resch, K.J.; Lundeen, J.S.; Steinberg, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The three-box problem is a gedankenexperiment designed to elucidate some interesting features of quantum measurement and locality. A particle is prepared in a particular superposition of three boxes, and later found in a different (but nonorthogonal) superposition. It was predicted that appropriate 'weak' measurements of particle position in the interval between preparation and post-selection would find the particle in two different places, each with certainty. We verify these predictions in an optical experiment and address the issues of locality and of negative probability

  4. Infectious disease and boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Osric S

    2009-10-01

    There are no unique boxing diseases but certain factors contributing to the spread of illnesses apply strongly to the boxer, coach, and the training facility. This article examines the nature of the sport of boxing and its surrounding environment, and the likelihood of spread of infection through airborne, contact, or blood-borne routes of transmission. Evidence from other sports such as running, wrestling, and martial arts is included to help elucidate the pathophysiologic elements that could be identified in boxers.

  5. [Boxing: traumatology and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanis, Emmanuel-Alain; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Perez, Georges; Senegas, Xavier; Furgoni, Julien; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Louquet, Jean-Louis; Henrion, Roger

    2010-10-01

    In 1986, a surgeon who, as an amateur boxer himself was concerned with boxers' health, approached a pioneering Parisian neuroimaging unit. Thus began a study in close cooperation with the French Boxing Federation, spanning 25 years. In a first series of 52 volunteer boxers (13 amateurs and 39 professionals), during which MRI gradually replaced computed tomography, ten risk factors were identified, which notably included boxing style: only one of 40 "stylists" with a good boxing technique had cortical atrophy (4.5 %), compared to 15 % of "sloggers". Changes to the French Boxing Federation rules placed the accent on medical prevention. The second series, of 247 boxers (81 amateurs and 266 professionals), showed a clear improvement, as lesions were suspected in 14 individuals, of which only 4 (1.35 %) were probably due to boxing. The third and fourth series were part of a protocol called "Brain-Boxing-Ageing", which included 76 boxers (11 having suffered KOs) and 120 MRI scans, with reproducible CT and MRI acquisitions (9 sequences with 1.5 T then 3 T, and CT). MRI anomalies secondary to boxing were found in 11 % of amateurs and 38 % of professionals (atrophy, high vascular T2 signal areas, 2 cases of post-KO subdural bleeding). CT revealed sinus damage in 13 % of the amateurs and 19 % of the professionals. The risk of acute and chronic facial and brain damage was underline, along with detailed precautionary measures (organization of bouts, role of the referee and ringside doctor, and application of French Boxing Federation rules).

  6. Nonneurologic emergencies in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Domenic F

    2009-10-01

    Professional boxing has done an admirable job in promoting safety standards in its particular sport. However, injuries occur during the normal course of competition and, unfortunately, an occasional life-threatening emergency may arise. Although most common medical emergencies in boxing are injuries from closed head trauma, in this article those infrequent but potentially catastrophic nonneurologic conditions are reviewed along with some less serious emergencies that the physician must be prepared to address.

  7. Prognostic implications of the nuclear localization of Y-box-binding protein-1 and CXCR4 expression in ovarian cancer: their correlation with activated Akt, LRP/MVP and P-glycoprotein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yoshinao; Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Basaki, Yuji; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Hirakawa, Toshio; Wake, Norio; Ono, Mayumi; Nishio, Kazuto; Kuwano, Michihiko; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear localization of Y-box-binding protein-1 (YB-1) is known to be a poor prognostic factor in several human malignancies, including ovarian carcinoma. Following on from our basic study dealing with microarray analyses of YB-1-associated gene expression in ovarian cancer cells, we examined whether nuclear localization of YB-1 is associated with the expression of CXCR4, a vault protein named lung resistance-related vault protein (LRP/MVP), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) or P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in human ovarian carcinoma. Fifty-three surgically resected ovarian carcinomas treated with paclitaxel and carboplatin were examined immunohistochemically for nuclear YB-1 expression and intrinsic expression of p-Akt, P-gp, LRP/MVP and CXCR4. Nuclear expression of YB-1 demonstrated significant correlation with p-Akt, P-gp and LRP expression, but no relationship with CXCR4 expression. By multivariate analysis, only YB-1 nuclear expression and CXCR4 expression were independent prognostic factors with regard to overall survival. These results indicate that YB-1 nuclear expression and CXCR4 expression are important prognostic factors in ovarian carcinoma.

  8. The BOXES Methodology Black Box Dynamic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Robust control mechanisms customarily require knowledge of the system’s describing equations which may be of the high order differential type.  In order to produce these equations, mathematical models can often be derived and correlated with measured dynamic behavior.  There are two flaws in this approach one is the level of inexactness introduced by linearizations and the other when no model is apparent.  Several years ago a new genre of control systems came to light that are much less dependent on differential models such as fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. Both of these soft computing solutions require quite considerable a priori system knowledge to create a control scheme and sometimes complicated training program before they can be implemented in a real world dynamic system. Michie and Chambers’ BOXES methodology created a black box system that was designed to control a mechanically unstable system with very little a priori system knowledge, linearization or approximation.  All the method need...

  9. Deep Cuboid Detection: Beyond 2D Bounding Boxes

    OpenAIRE

    Dwibedi, Debidatta; Malisiewicz, Tomasz; Badrinarayanan, Vijay; Rabinovich, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We present a Deep Cuboid Detector which takes a consumer-quality RGB image of a cluttered scene and localizes all 3D cuboids (box-like objects). Contrary to classical approaches which fit a 3D model from low-level cues like corners, edges, and vanishing points, we propose an end-to-end deep learning system to detect cuboids across many semantic categories (e.g., ovens, shipping boxes, and furniture). We localize cuboids with a 2D bounding box, and simultaneously localize the cuboid's corners,...

  10. Eye trauma in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Gustavo; Curreri, Anthony

    2009-10-01

    In boxing, along with a few other sports, trauma is inherent to the nature of the sport; therefore it is considered a high-risk sport for ocular injuries. The long-term morbidity of ocular injuries suffered by boxers is difficult to estimate due to the lack of structured long-term follow-up of these athletes. Complications of blunt ocular trauma may develop years after the athlete has retired from the ring and is no longer considered to be at risk for boxing-related injuries. This article describes the wide range of eye injuries a boxer can sustain, and their immediate and long-term clinical management.

  11. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Welch, Steven; Smith, Dale Shane; Che, Siinn; Gan, K.K.; Boyd, George Russell Jr

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm^3. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  12. Teaching with Box Tops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  13. Glove box posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    A system for posting objects into closed containers, such as glove boxes, is described in which the bag used, preferably made of plastic, does not have to be fitted and sealed by the operator during each posting operation. (U.K.)

  14. Mystery Box Marvels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  15. Ocular complications of boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Methods: Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Results: Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15–36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p⩽0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Conclusions: Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance. PMID:15665199

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of an F-box family gene CarF-box1 from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuying; Gu, Hanyan; Wang, Xiansheng; Chen, Quanjia; Shi, Shubing; Zhang, Jusong; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Hao

    2012-03-01

    F-box protein family has been found to play important roles in plant development and abiotic stress responses via the ubiquitin pathway. In this study, an F-box gene CarF-box1 (for Cicer arietinum F-box gene 1, Genbank accession no. GU247510) was isolated based on a cDNA library constructed with chickpea seedling leaves treated by polyethylene glycol. CarF-box1 encoded a putative protein with 345 amino acids and contained no intron within genomic DNA sequence. CarF-box1 is a KFB-type F-box protein, having a conserved F-box domain in the N-terminus and a Kelch repeat domain in the C-terminus. CarF-box1 was localized in the nucleus. CarF-box1 exhibited organ-specific expression and showed different expression patterns during seed development and germination processes, especially strongly expressed in the blooming flowers. In the leaves, CarF-box1 could be significantly induced by drought stress and slightly induced by IAA treatment, while in the roots, CarF-box1 could be strongly induced by drought, salinity and methyl jasmonate stresses. Our results suggest that CarF-box1 encodes an F-box protein and may be involved in various plant developmental processes and abiotic stress responses.

  17. Lévy flights in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iomin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •A quantum Lévy process in a box involves topological constraints in space. •The eigenvalue problem is formulated for the Lévy process in the box. •The path integral formalism with the Lévy measure is constructed. •The evolution operator is obtained in the path integral presentation. -- Abstract: It is shown that a quantum Lévy process in a box leads to a problem involving topological constraints in space, and its treatment in the framework of the path integral formalism with the Lévy measure is suggested. The eigenvalue problem for the infinite potential well is properly defined and solved. An analytical expression for the evolution operator is obtained in the path integral presentation, and the path integral takes the correct limit of the local quantum mechanics with topological constraints. An example of the Lévy process in oscillating walls is also considered in the adiabatic approximation

  18. Fuel assembly and fuel channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Toraki; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Ishizaki, Hideaki; Nakajima, Junjiro; Aizawa, Yasuhiro.

    1992-01-01

    A fuel channel box has a square cylindrical shape and, in the transversal cross sectional shape, the wall thickness of a corner portion is greater than that of a central portion of the side wall except for an upper portion thereof. The upper portion of the channel box includes a region to be in contact with an upper lattice plate and a region to attach a channel spacer. Then, the wall thickness of these regions is uniform in the transversal cross section and they have the same wall thickness with that of the corner portion which has the increased wall thickness. With such a constitution, the upper portion of the channel box receives a counter force applied from the upper lattice plate upon occurrence of earthquakes and moderate it to reduce local stresses and deformation. Further, a similar region with increased wall thickness is disposed also to the lower portion of the channel box, thereby enabling to suppress the amount of coolants leaked from a portion between the lower portion and a lower tie plate, and improve the mechanical integrity of the channel box. (I.N.)

  19. Decommissioning a small glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, R.D.; McSherry, K.

    1985-11-01

    An account is given of dismantling a fuel fabrication glove box using simple tooling. The fissile content of the box was first measured by several non-destructive techniques. After cleaning, the box was dismantled using hand tools and finally packed for disposal. A record of operator radiation doses, the time taken for each stage of the operation and packing information is given. (author)

  20. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00377159; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. Many novel solutions were developed for the custom design and manufacturing. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm$^{3}$. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  1. Boxed Permutation Pattern Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amit, Mika; Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2016-01-01

    the goal is to only find the boxed subsequences of T that are order-isomorphic to P. This problem was introduced by Bruner and Lackner who showed that it can be solved in O(n3) time. Cho et al. [CPM 2015] gave an O(n2m) time algorithm and improved it to O(n2 logm). In this paper we present a solution...

  2. The Box Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactor...... description of this momentum flow. The Box Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  3. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  4. Usefulness of a three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template on anatomically standardised {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Ryo [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Nishi-Kobe Medical Center, Kobe (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui Medical University, Fukui (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, National Center Hospital for Mental, Tokyo (Japan); Konishi, Junji [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    We have constructed a three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template (3DSRT) on anatomically standardised cerebral blood flow (CBF) single-photon emission tomography (SPET) images to objectively estimate regional CBF (rCBF). The 3DSRT is composed of 259 regions of interest (ROIs) in 11 segments (1, superior frontal; 2, middle and inferior frontal; 3, primary sensorimotor; 4, parietal; 5, angular; 6, temporal; 7, occipital; 8, pericallosal; 9, lenticular nucleus; 10, thalamus; 11, hippocampus) on each side. We measured the rCBF values of the 518 ROIs and calculated the area-weighted average (segmental CBF; sCBF) of the 22 segments based on the rCBF in each ROI. We compared vascular reserve before and after revascularisation surgery using sCBF on anatomically standardised resting and acetazolamide (Acz)-challenged CBF SPET images, which were obtained using an equal-volume-split dual-injection single-day protocol [resting and vascular reserve (RVR) method] in 13 patients who had not suffered any major stroke but did have significant cerebrovascular stenosis. Prior to the evaluation, we examined the sCBF values of 16 subjects with various cerebrovascular conditions (8, normal; 3, lacunar infarction; 2, chronic infarction; 2, meningioma; 1, aneurysm) using physiological saline instead of Acz (placebo study) in order to confirm the reproducibility of the RVR method. In the placebo study we observed excellent linearity (y=1.444+0.964x) between the 352 pairs of baseline (x) and post-placebo (y) sCBF values in the 16 subjects, irrespective of the segment location. In all of the 13 patients, estimation of sCBF demonstrated impaired vascular reserve pre-operatively and improved vascular reserve postoperatively. We conclude that the 3DSRT, which could be identically set on the anatomically standardised images obtained at baseline and after Acz injection, allowed objective assessment of the pre- and postoperative vascular reserve, which was not easy with conventional ROI settings

  5. Outside the box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, Max

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Queensland-based Hydrasyst wants to take its motto of 'Do more with less' into the greywater sector with a new water recycling and energy recovery technology launched in November, called The Grey Box. The company is initially targeting large industrial laundries as they are major generators of greywater and heavy energy users, but it has ambitions well beyond that. The average commercial laundry consumes 1-5ML of water a week, using about 16 litres for every 1kg of clothing washed. Hydrasyst director Stephen Balemi said The Grey Box can slash the volume by 80 per cent. While he was reluctant to disclose too much technical detail, he claimed it is the only technology serving the $1 billion a year laundry sector that combines microfiltration / ultrafiltration membrane technology and energy reduction components. The heart of the system is a ceramic hollow fibre membrane. Balemi said it produces higher filtrate quality than competitors, meaning the recycled water can be reused more often, and can process feed water of up to 70°C compared to typical ultrafiltration membranes that cap out at about 38°C. This means the recycled water can be reused at higher temperatures, with the heat in it recovered by a precise steam heater built into The Grey Box. “As an overall measure, it saves 80 per cent of the water that is processed and saves 20 per cent of the energy,” Balemi said. Four systems have already been installed, with one going into a large commercial laundry in south Queensland and another to AMP's state-of-the-art 6 Green Star building in Brisbane. “We can modify them slightly to suit the industry, depending on the quality of raw water they are trying to recycle and also depending on the size of the project,,” said Balemi. Where many organisations build systems to specification, The Grey Box is offered in three standard sizes: the HY20 (20kL per day, based on a 10 hour day), HY80 (80kL per day) and HY130 (130kL per day). They can be used

  6. The accident of stereotaxic radiosurgery at the University hospital center of Toulouse. Expert report n.2. Dosimetric and clinical evaluation. Risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The regional center of stereotaxic radiosurgery (C.R.R.S.) of the University hospital center (C.H.U.) of Toulouse is equipped since april 2006 with a Novalis accelerator (Brainlab) devoted to radiosurgery and intra skull stereotaxic radiotherapy.In april 2007, during an intercomparison of dosimetry files coming from various sites, the Brainlab society detects an anomaly. The analysis made by the society concludes to the use of an unsuited detector for the measurement of a dosimetry parameter during the accelerator initial calibration. Following this error, 145 patients (on 172 patients treated since the center opening) suffer of an overdose whom importance is variable. On the 26. june 2007 the Authority of nuclear safety (Asn) requires an expertise on the following points: checking of the experimental protocols of micro-beams calibration before and after correction of the dysfunction; analysis at the theoretical level of the neurological complications risk at long term for the exposed patients. The second point of this request is the subject of this report. It gives the synthesis of the whole of information, at the clinical and dosimetric level and outlines successively: the expertise methodology; the cohort of patients treated at the C.R.R.S.; the parameters of the risk analysis of neurological complications; the different risk analysis according the pathologies treated at the C.R.R.S.; the recommendations. (N.C.)

  7. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...... buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box....

  8. Box-particle intensity filter

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, Marek; Gning, Amadou; Mihaylova, Lyudmila; Cremers, Daniel; Koch, Wofgang; Streit, Roy

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a novel approach for multi-target tracking, called box-particle intensity filter (box-iFilter). The approach is able to cope with unknown clutter, false alarms and estimates the unknown number of targets. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic and data association uncertainty. The box-iFilter reduces the number of particles significantly, which improves the runtime considerably. The low particle number enables thi...

  9. The Classroom Animal: Box Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic information on the anatomy, physiology, behaviors, and distribution patterns of the box turtle. Offers suggestions for the turtle's care and maintenance in a classroom environment. (ML)

  10. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  11. Acsys in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briegel, C.; Finstrom, D.; Hendricks, B.; King, C.; Lackey, S.; Neswold, R.; Nicklaus, D.; Patrick, J.; Petrov, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Schumann, C.; Smedinghoff, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Accelerator Control System (ACSYS) at Fermilab has evolved to enable this relatively large control system to be encapsulated into a 'box' such as a laptop. The goal was to provide a platform isolated from the 'online' control system. This platform can be used internally for making major upgrades and modifications without impacting operations. It also provides a stand-alone environment for research and development including a turnkey control system for collaborators. Over time, the code base running on Scientific Linux has enabled all the salient features of the Fermilab's control system to be captured in an off-the-shelf laptop. The anticipated additional benefits of packaging the system include improved maintenance, reliability, documentation, and future enhancements. (authors)

  12. Boxing with Bell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    When Protech Mining moved onto a greenfields site near Ermelo in mid-November last year to start work on the establishment of a box cut for an underground bituminous coal and anthracite mine for Delta Colliery, the company could not have foreseen the difficulties it was to encounter from the unusually high rainfall which fell, almost without abatement, from the time the first sod was turned. Production at the so called Mooiplants mine will commence in March 2001. Mining will take place at a maximum depth of 47 m and coal will be extracted from underground by two conveyor belts and stockpiled. Bell B40 CM mining trucks and an 18 Bell B20 articulated dump truck will be in the haulage fleet. 3 photos.

  13. What Makes a Better Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Every morning, many Americans start their day with a bowl of cereal. Some spend time while they eat breakfast reading the back of the cereal box, but few consider its size, shape, and construction, or realize that it was designed by an engineer. This article describes a lesson in which students design, build, and critique cereal boxes. The lesson…

  14. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  15. Relativistic particle in a box

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto, P.; Fiolhais, Carlos; Gil, Victor

    1996-01-01

    The problem of a relativistic spin 1/2 particle confined to a one-dimensional box is solved in a way that resembles closely the solution of the well known quantum-mechanical textbook problem of a non-relativistic particle in a box. The energy levels and probability density are computed and compared with the non-relativistic case

  16. Channel box dimension measuring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Hirotake; Jo, Hiroto.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for measuring the entire length of a channel box of a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor. Namely, four sensors are used as one set that generate ultrasonic waves from oblique upper portion, oblique lower portion, upper portion and lower portion of the channel box respectively. The distances between the four sensors and each of the portions of the channel box are measured respectively for both of a reference member and a member to be measured. The entire length of the channel box is measured by calculating the measured values and the angles of the obliquely disposed sensors according to a predetermined formula. According to the method of the present invention, the inclination of the channel box to be measured can be corrected. In addition, accuracy of the measurement is improved and the measuring time is saved as well as the measuring device and operation can be simplified. (I.S.)

  17. Thinking Inside the Box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeheim, Charles T.

    2007-01-01

    In early 2007, SLAC was faced with a shortage of both electrical power and cooling in the main computer building, at the same time that the BaBar collaboration needed a new cluster of 250 batch machines installed. A number of different options were explored for the expansion. Provision of additional electrical power to the building was estimated to take one to two years, and cost several million dollars; additional cooling was even worse. Space in a Silicon Valley co-location facilities was reasonable on a one-year timescale, but broke even in costs by the end of three years, and were more expensive after that. There were also unresolved questions about the affects of additional latency from an offsite compute cluster to the onsite disk servers. The option of converting existing experimental hall space into computer space was estimated at one year, with uncertain availability. An option to aggressively replace several existing clusters with more power-efficient equipment was studied closely, but was disruptive to continued operations, expensive, and didn't provide any additional headroom. Finally, the installation of a Sun Project Blackbox (PBB) unit was selected as providing the capacity on a timescale of six months for a reasonable cost with minimal disruption to service. SLAC obtained and installed a beta unit and have been running it in production since September 2007. The experiences described are with the Early Access version of the PBB. The production version of the box has engineering changes based in part on our experiences

  18. Fuel element box inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortmayer, R.M.; Pick, W.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns a device for inspecting the outer geometry of a long fuel element box by measuring the surface contours over its longitudinal crossection and along its length by sensors. These are kept in a sledge which can be moved along the fuel element guide in a slot guide. The measurement signals reach an evaluation device outside the longitudinal box. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Black holes in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek, Helvi; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Herdeiro, Carlos; Zilhao, Miguel; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of BHs in 'confining boxes' is interesting for a number of reasons, particularly because it mimics some aspects of anti-de Sitter spacetimes. These admit no Cauchy surface and are a simple example of a non-globally hyperbolic spacetime. We are here interested in the potential role that boundary conditions play in the evolution of a BH system. For that, we imprison a binary BH in a box, at which boundary we set mirror-like boundary conditions.

  20. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  1. Injury risk in professional boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Gregory H; Li, Guohu; Levy, Fred

    2005-10-01

    Although a popular endeavor, boxing has fallen under increased scrutiny because of its association with traumatic brain injury. However, few studies have investigated the overall epidemiology of boxing injuries from representative samples, and no study has ever documented the incidence of injuries in female boxers. This study is a review of professional boxing data from the state of Nevada from September 2001 through March 2003. Medical and outcome data for all professional boxing matches occurring in Nevada between September 2001 and March 2003 (n = 524 matches) were analyzed on the basis of a pair-matched, case-control design. Cases were boxers who received an injury during the boxing matches. Boxers who were not injured served as control subjects. Both conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for injury. The overall incidence rate of injury was 17.1 per 100 boxer-matches, or 3.4 per 100 boxer-rounds. Facial laceration accounted for 51% of all injuries, followed by hand injury (17%), eye injury (14%), and nose injury (5%). Male boxers were significantly more likely than female boxers to receive injuries (3.6 versus 1.2 per 100 boxer-rounds, P = 0.01). Male boxing matches also ended in knockouts and technical knockouts more often than did female matches (P boxing matches is high, particularly among male boxers. Superficial facial lacerations are the most common injury reported. Male boxers have a higher rate of knockout and technical knockouts than female boxers. Further research is necessary to determine the outcomes of injury, particularly the long-term neurologic outcome differences between sexes.

  2. Box graphs and resolutions I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU(5 by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  3. Decontamination of TRU glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.H.

    1978-03-01

    Two glove boxes that had been used for work with transuranic nuclides (TRU) for about 12 years were decontaminated in a test program to collect data for developing a decontamination facility for large equipment highly contaminated with alpha emitters. A simple chemical technique consisting of a cycle of water flushes and alkaline permanganate and oxalic acid washes was used for both boxes. The test showed that glove boxes and similar equipment that are grossly contaminated with transuranic nuclides can be decontaminated to the current DIE nonretrievable disposal guide of <10 nCi TRU/g with a moderate amount of decontamination solution and manpower. Decontamination of the first box from an estimated 1.3 Ci to about 5 mCi (6 nCi/g) required 1.3 gallons of decontamination solution and 0.03 man-hour of work for each square foot of surface area. The second box was decontaminated from an estimated 3.4 Ci to about 2.8 mCi (4.2 nCi/g) using 0.9 gallon of decontamination solution and 0.02 man-hour for each square foot of surface area. Further reductions in contamination were achieved by repetitive decontamination cycles, but the effectiveness of the technique decreased sharply after the initial cycle

  4. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  5. Majorana box qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plugge, Stephan; Rasmussen, Asbjørn; Flensberg, Karsten; Egger, Reinhold

    2017-01-01

    Quantum information protected by the topology of the storage medium is expected to exhibit long coherence times. Another feature is topologically protected gates generated through braiding of Majorana bound states (MBSs). However, braiding requires structures with branched topological segments which have inherent difficulties in the semiconductor–superconductor heterostructures now believed to host MBSs. In this paper, we construct quantum bits taking advantage of the topological protection and non-local properties of MBSs in a network of parallel wires, but without relying on braiding for quantum gates. The elementary unit is made from three topological wires, two wires coupled by a trivial superconductor and the third acting as an interference arm. Coulomb blockade of the combined wires spawns a fractionalized spin, non-locally addressable by quantum dots used for single-qubit readout, initialization, and manipulation. We describe how the same tools allow for measurement-based implementation of the Clifford gates, in total making the architecture universal. Proof-of-principle demonstration of topologically protected qubits using existing techniques is therefore within reach. (fast track communication)

  6. A new set of ESTs from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. embryo reveals two novel F-box genes, CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM, with potential roles in seed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Gupta

    Full Text Available Considering the economic importance of chickpea (C. arietinum L. seeds, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying seed development for which a cDNA library was constructed from 6 day old chickpea embryos. A total of 8,186 ESTs were obtained from which 4,048 high quality ESTs were assembled into 1,480 unigenes that majorly encoded genes involved in various metabolic and regulatory pathways. Of these, 95 ESTs were found to be involved in ubiquitination related protein degradation pathways and 12 ESTs coded specifically for putative F-box proteins. Differential transcript accumulation of these putative F-box genes was observed in chickpea tissues as evidenced by quantitative real-time PCR. Further, to explore the role of F-box proteins in chickpea seed development, two F-box genes were selected for molecular characterization. These were named as CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM depending on their C-terminal domains, PP2 and LysM, respectively. Their highly conserved structures led us to predict their target substrates. Subcellular localization experiment revealed that CarF-box_PP2 was localized in the cytoplasm and CarF-box_LysM was localized in the nucleus. We demonstrated their physical interactions with SKP1 protein, which validated that they function as F-box proteins in the formation of SCF complexes. Sequence analysis of their promoter regions revealed certain seed specific cis-acting elements that may be regulating their preferential transcript accumulation in the seed. Overall, the study helped in expanding the EST database of chickpea, which was further used to identify two novel F-box genes having a potential role in seed development.

  7. A new set of ESTs from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) embryo reveals two novel F-box genes, CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM, with potential roles in seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shefali; Garg, Vanika; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    Considering the economic importance of chickpea (C. arietinum L.) seeds, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying seed development for which a cDNA library was constructed from 6 day old chickpea embryos. A total of 8,186 ESTs were obtained from which 4,048 high quality ESTs were assembled into 1,480 unigenes that majorly encoded genes involved in various metabolic and regulatory pathways. Of these, 95 ESTs were found to be involved in ubiquitination related protein degradation pathways and 12 ESTs coded specifically for putative F-box proteins. Differential transcript accumulation of these putative F-box genes was observed in chickpea tissues as evidenced by quantitative real-time PCR. Further, to explore the role of F-box proteins in chickpea seed development, two F-box genes were selected for molecular characterization. These were named as CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM depending on their C-terminal domains, PP2 and LysM, respectively. Their highly conserved structures led us to predict their target substrates. Subcellular localization experiment revealed that CarF-box_PP2 was localized in the cytoplasm and CarF-box_LysM was localized in the nucleus. We demonstrated their physical interactions with SKP1 protein, which validated that they function as F-box proteins in the formation of SCF complexes. Sequence analysis of their promoter regions revealed certain seed specific cis-acting elements that may be regulating their preferential transcript accumulation in the seed. Overall, the study helped in expanding the EST database of chickpea, which was further used to identify two novel F-box genes having a potential role in seed development.

  8. Medical and Safety Reforms in Boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Barry D.

    1988-01-01

    The continued existence of boxing as an accepted sport in civilized society has been long debated. The position of the American Medical Association (AMA) has evolved from promoting increased safety and medical reform to recommending total abolition of both amateur and professional boxing. In response to the AMA opposition to boxing, the boxing community has attempted to increase the safeguards in amateur and professional boxing. The United States of America Amateur Boxing Federation, which is the national regulatory agency for all amateur boxing in the United States, has taken several actions to prevent the occurrence of acute brain injury and is currently conducting epidemiologic studies to assess the long-term neuropsychologic consequences of amateur boxing. In professional boxing, state regulatory agencies such as the New York State Athletic Commission have introduced several medical interventions to prevent and reduce neurologic injury. The lack of a national regulatory agency to govern professional boxing has stimulated the formation of the Association of Boxing Commissions and potential legislation for the federal regulation of professional boxing by a federally chartered organization called the United States Boxing Commission. The AMA's opposition to boxing and the medical and safety reforms implemented by the proponents of boxing are discussed. PMID:3385788

  9. Identifying competencies of boxing coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tasiopoulos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the management skills required by boxing coaches to administrate their clubs. For the purposes of this study a scale was constructed which was answered by 98 boxing coaches. Explanatory factor analysis revealed seven factors: Communication-public relations (5 items, event management (4 items, management techniques (4 items, new technologies (4 items, prevention-safety (2 items, sport (5 items and sports facilities (2 items. The Cronbach of the scale was 0.85. The five competencies that rated by the coaches were: Supervisors of the area of training, maintaining excellent communication with athletes, using new technologies (e-mail, internet, handling disciplinary matters, accidents, complaints and reports on some sporting games and promoted harmony among athletes. We concluded that boxing coaches understand that the competencies required for meeting their obligations, were related to sports, prevention, safety and communications-public relations.

  10. Fitting boxes to Manhattan scenes using linear integer programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Minglei; Nan, Liangliang; Liu, Shaochuang

    2016-01-01

    We propose an approach for automatic generation of building models by assembling a set of boxes using a Manhattan-world assumption. The method first aligns the point cloud with a per-building local coordinate system, and then fits axis

  11. Neurochemical aftermath of amateur boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterberg, Henrik; Hietala, M Albert; Jonsson, Michael; Andreasen, Niels; Styrud, Ewa; Karlsson, Ingvar; Edman, Ake; Popa, Cornel; Rasulzada, Abdullah; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Mehta, Pankaj D; Rosengren, Lars; Blennow, Kaj; Wallin, Anders

    2006-09-01

    Little solid information is available on the possible risks for neuronal injury in amateur boxing. To determine whether amateur boxing and severity of hits are associated with elevated levels of biochemical markers for neuronal injury in cerebrospinal fluid. Longitudinal study. Referral center specializing in evaluation of neurodegenerative disorders. Fourteen amateur boxers (11 men and 3 women) and 10 healthy male nonathletic control subjects. The boxers underwent lumbar puncture 7 to 10 days and 3 months after a bout. The control subjects underwent LP once. Neurofilament light protein, total tau, glial fibrillary acidic protein, phosphorylated tau, and beta-amyloid protein 1-40 (Abeta([1-40])) and 1-42 (Abeta([1-42])) concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid were measured. Increased levels after a bout compared with after 3 months of rest from boxing were found for 2 markers for neuronal and axonal injury, neurofilament light protein (mean +/- SD, 845 +/- 1140 ng/L vs 208 +/- 108 ng/L; P = .008) and total tau (mean +/- SD, 449 +/- 176 ng/L vs 306 +/- 78 ng/L; P = .006), and for the astroglial injury marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (mean +/- SD, 541 +/- 199 ng/L vs 405 +/- 138 ng/L; P = .003). The increase was significantly higher among boxers who had received many hits (>15) or high-impact hits to the head compared with boxers who reported few hits. In the boxers, concentrations of neurofilament light protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein, but not total tau, were significantly elevated after a bout compared with the nonathletic control subjects. With the exception of neurofilament light protein, there were no significant differences between boxers after 3 months of rest from boxing and the nonathletic control subjects. Amateur boxing is associated with acute neuronal and astroglial injury. If verified in longitudinal studies with extensive follow-up regarding the clinical outcome, analyses of cerebrospinal fluid may provide a scientific basis for

  12. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fixture, wiring device, or similar item, including each separately installed connection and junction box... used. (d) As appropriate, each outlet-box or junction-box installation must meet the following...

  13. Rat brain digital stereotaxic white matter atlas with fine tract delineation in Paxinos space and its automated applications in DTI data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shengxiang; Wu, Shang; Huang, Qi; Duan, Shaofeng; Liu, Hua; Li, Yuxiao; Zhao, Shujun; Nie, Binbin; Shan, Baoci

    2017-11-01

    To automatically analyze diffusion tensor images of the rat brain via both voxel-based and ROI-based approaches, we constructed a new white matter atlas of the rat brain with fine tracts delineation in the Paxinos and Watson space. Unlike in previous studies, we constructed a digital atlas image from the latest edition of the Paxinos and Watson. This atlas contains 111 carefully delineated white matter fibers. A white matter network of rat brain based on anatomy was constructed by locating the intersection of all these tracts and recording the nuclei on the pathway of each white matter tract. Moreover, a compatible rat brain template from DTI images was created and standardized into the atlas space. To evaluate the automated application of the atlas in DTI data analysis, a group of rats with right-side middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and those without were enrolled in this study. The voxel-based analysis result shows that the brain region showing significant declines in signal in the MCAO rats was consistent with the occlusion position. We constructed a stereotaxic white matter atlas of the rat brain with fine tract delineation and a compatible template for the data analysis of DTI images of the rat brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in the Model of Parkinson’s Disease Induced by Unilateral Stereotaxic Injection of 6-Ohda in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Pessoa de Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate behavioral and neurochemical effects of α-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg alone or associated with L-DOPA using an animal model of Parkinson’s disease induced by stereotaxic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA in rat striatum. Motor behavior was assessed by monitoring body rotations induced by apomorphine, open field test and cylinder test. Oxidative stress was accessed by determination of lipid peroxidation using the TBARS method, concentration of nitrite and evaluation of catalase activity. α-Lipoic acid decreased body rotations induced by apomorphine, as well as caused an improvement in motor performance by increasing locomotor activity in the open field test and use of contralateral paw (in the opposite side of the lesion produced by 6-OHDA at cylinder test. α-lipoic acid showed antioxidant effects, decreasing lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels and interacting with antioxidant system by decreasing of endogenous catalase activity. Therefore, α-lipoic acid prevented the damage induced by 6-OHDA or by chronic use of L-DOPA in dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that α-lipoic could be a new therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease prevention and treatment.

  15. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  16. Glove boxes and similar containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    According to the present invention a glove box or similar containment is provided with an exhaust system including a vortex amplifier venting into the system, the vortex amplifier also having its main inlet in fluid flow connection with the containment and a control inlet in fluid flow connection with the atmosphere outside the containment. (U.S.)

  17. Innovations in Los Alamos alpha box design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, J.M.; Dowler, K.E.; Cook, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Destructive examinations of irradiated fuel pins containing plutonium fuel must be performed in shielded hot cells with strict provisions for containing the plutonium. Alpha boxes provide containment for the plutonium, toxic fission products, and other hazardous highly radioactive materials. The alpha box contains windows for viewing and a variety of transfer systems specially designed to allow transfers in and out of the alpha box without spread of the hazardous materials that are contained in the box. Alpha boxes have been in use in the Wing 9 hot cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than 20 years. Features of the newly designed alpha boxes are presented

  18. Hairy black holes in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Pallab [International Center for Theoretical Sciences,IISc Campus, Bangalore 560012 (India); Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P.N. Bala [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-11-08

    We do a systematic study of the phases of gravity coupled to an electromagnetic field and charged scalar in flat space, with box boundary conditions. The scalar-less box has previously been investigated by Braden, Brown, Whiting and York (and others) before AdS/CFT and we elaborate and extend their results in a language more familiar from holography. The phase diagram of the system is analogous to that of AdS black holes, but we emphasize the differences and explain their origin. Once the scalar is added, we show that the system admits both boson stars as well as hairy black holes as solutions, providing yet another way to evade flat space no-hair theorems. Furthermore both these solutions can exist as stable phases in regions of the phase diagram. The final picture of the phases that emerges is strikingly similar to that found recently for holographic superconductors in global AdS, http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.07211. Our construction lays bare certain previously unnoticed subtleties associated to the definition quasi-local charges for gravitating scalar fields in finite regions.

  19. Hairy black holes in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P.N. Bala

    2016-01-01

    We do a systematic study of the phases of gravity coupled to an electromagnetic field and charged scalar in flat space, with box boundary conditions. The scalar-less box has previously been investigated by Braden, Brown, Whiting and York (and others) before AdS/CFT and we elaborate and extend their results in a language more familiar from holography. The phase diagram of the system is analogous to that of AdS black holes, but we emphasize the differences and explain their origin. Once the scalar is added, we show that the system admits both boson stars as well as hairy black holes as solutions, providing yet another way to evade flat space no-hair theorems. Furthermore both these solutions can exist as stable phases in regions of the phase diagram. The final picture of the phases that emerges is strikingly similar to that found recently for holographic superconductors in global AdS, http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.07211. Our construction lays bare certain previously unnoticed subtleties associated to the definition quasi-local charges for gravitating scalar fields in finite regions.

  20. Light Therapy Boxes for Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal affective disorder treatment: Choosing a light therapy box Light therapy boxes can offer an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder. Features such as light intensity, safety, cost and ...

  1. Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation of the capt......Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation...

  2. Box-particle probability hypothesis density filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, M.; Gning, A.; Mihaylova, L.; Cremers, D.; Koch, W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a novel approach for multitarget tracking, called box-particle probability hypothesis density filter (box-PHD filter). The approach is able to track multiple targets and estimates the unknown number of targets. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic, and data association uncertainty. The box-PHD filter reduces the number of particles significantly, which improves the runtime considerably. The small number of box-p...

  3. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  4. Water box for steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, Robert; Viaud, Michel.

    1975-01-01

    This invention relates to a water box for connecting an assembly composed of a vertical steam generator and a vertical pump to the vessel of the nuclear reactor, the assembly forming the primary cooling system of a pressurised water reactor. This invention makes it easy to dismantle the pump on the water box without significant loss of water in the primary cooling system of the reactor and particularly without it being necessary to drain the water contained in the steam generator beforehand. It makes it possible to shorten the time required for dismantling the primary pump in order to service or repair it and makes dismantling safer in that the dismantling does not involve draining the steam generator and therefore the critical storage of a large amount of cooling water that has been in contact with the fuel assemblies of the nuclear reactor core [fr

  5. Broken links and black boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper argues...... observable distributions and patterns of association in the archaeological record. In formal terms this is not a problem of network analysis, but network synthesis: the classic problem of cracking codes or reconstructing black-box circuits....

  6. Delimitação dos núcleos talâmicos pela eletrofisiologia estereotáxica Delimitation of the thalamic nuclei by stereotaxic electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Luís Latuf

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Os limites da área destruída durante a cirurgia estereotáxica são descritos levando em consideração as complicações decorrentes de lesões determinadas erroneamente. São comentados os métodos empregados com a finalidade de controlar a delimitação do alvo, sendo descrita a técnica usada em 23 talamotomias com derivação da atividade elétrica celular dos núcleos talâmicos atravessados e a pesquisa de potenciais evocados, graças à somatotopia da representação táctil no núcleo ventral posterior. Com este método reduz-se de mais ou menos 1 mm o erro radiológico, prescisando-se o alvo terapêutico talâmico nos três planos de espaço.The limits of the area to be destroyed during the stereotaxic surgery for the treatment of tremors are described taking into account the complications due to lesions erroneously performed. The method applied is commented in order to control the accuracy of the target delimitation, describing the technique employed in 23 thalamotomies, recording the electrical activity of the thalamic nuclei acrossed and researching evoked potentials thanks to the somatotopic tactil representation in the ventral posterior nuclei. The method permits to reduce radiologic errors giving more accuracy for the delimitation of thalamic target in the three planes of space.

  7. Analysis of neural mechanisms underlying verbal fluency in cytoarchitectonically defined stereotaxic space--the roles of Brodmann areas 44 and 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amunts, Katrin; Weiss, Peter H; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Pieperhoff, Peter; Eickhoff, Simon; Gurd, Jennifer M; Marshall, John C; Shah, Nadim J; Fink, Gereon R; Zilles, Karl

    2004-05-01

    We investigated neural activations underlying a verbal fluency task and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of Broca's speech region (Brodmann's areas 44 and 45). To do so, we reanalyzed data from a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [Brain 125 (2002) 1024] and from a cytoarchitectonic study [J. Comp. Neurol. 412 (1999) 319] and developed a method to combine both data sets. In the fMRI experiment, verbal fluency was investigated in 11 healthy volunteers, who covertly produced words from predefined categories. A factorial design was used with factors verbal class (semantic vs. overlearned fluency) and switching between categories (no vs. yes). fMRI data analysis employed SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping). Cytoarchitectonic maps of areas 44 and 45 were derived from histologic sections of 10 postmortem brains. Both the in vivo fMRI and postmortem MR data were warped to a common reference brain using a new elastic warping tool. Cytoarchitectonic probability maps with stereotaxic information about intersubject variability were calculated for both areas and superimposed on the functional data, which showed the involvement of left hemisphere areas with verbal fluency relative to the baseline. Semantic relative to overlearned fluency showed greater involvement of left area 45 than of 44. Thus, although both areas participate in verbal fluency, they do so differentially. Left area 45 is more involved in semantic aspects of language processing, while area 44 is probably involved in high-level aspects of programming speech production per se. The combination of functional data analysis with a new elastic warping tool and cytoarchitectonic maps opens new perspectives for analyzing the cortical networks involved in language.

  8. Invariant box-parameterization of neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, Thomas J.; Wagner, DJ

    1998-01-01

    The model-independent 'box' parameterization of neutrino oscillations is examined. The invariant boxes are the classical amplitudes of the individual oscillating terms. Being observables, the boxes are independent of the choice of parameterization of the mixing matrix. Emphasis is placed on the relations among the box parameters due to mixing-matrix unitarity, and on the reduction of the number of boxes to the minimum basis set. Using the box algebra, we show that CP-violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. General analyses of neutrino oscillations among n≥3 flavors can readily determine the boxes, which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements

  9. Invariant box parameterization of neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, T.J.; Wagner, D.

    1998-01-01

    The model-independent 'box' parameterization of neutrino oscillations is examined. The invariant boxes are the classical amplitudes of the individual oscillating terms. Being observables, the boxes are independent of the choice of parameterization of the mixing matrix. Emphasis is placed on the relations among the box parameters due to mixing matrix unitarity, and on the reduction of the number of boxes to the minimum basis set. Using the box algebra, we show that CP-violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. General analyses of neutrino oscillations among n≥3 flavors can readily determine the boxes, which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  10. Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, E. T. K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).

  11. Indigenous development of a glove box for ICP-OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.; Anwar, M.K.; Bangash, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical analysis involving nuclear materials are bound to be carried out in safety enclosures like glove box, fume hood etc. whereas chemical analysis which produce mist or vapors of these materials like Atomic absorption Spectrometry, Flame photometry and ICP-AE spectrometry etc. must be performed in a glove box with HEPA filters on exhaust. These instruments with glove box adaptation are rare and impossible to import for our country. An ICP-OES, model Integra-XL of GBC-Australia was purchased in 2008 for chemical analysis of similar materials. As usual it was manufactured to operate in open atmosphere. The required analytical work could not be done in open atmosphere due to active nature of the samples. Therefore modification and glove box (GB) adaptation was required. Although large in size yet difficult to adapt for GB, the instrument had to be modified to a large extent as only sample handling part of the instrument had to placed inside GB, leaving rest of the instrument available for later repair/maintenance work. Different options were considered for modification keeping in mind the isolation and negative pressure inside the GB and maintaining the integrity of the instrument. One of such option was finalized which involved shifting the optic tank etc. A no of isolation gadgets were designed and fabricated locally. This indigenization has saved some handsome amount of foreign exchange. (Author)

  12. Fitting boxes to Manhattan scenes using linear integer programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Minglei

    2016-02-19

    We propose an approach for automatic generation of building models by assembling a set of boxes using a Manhattan-world assumption. The method first aligns the point cloud with a per-building local coordinate system, and then fits axis-aligned planes to the point cloud through an iterative regularization process. The refined planes partition the space of the data into a series of compact cubic cells (candidate boxes) spanning the entire 3D space of the input data. We then choose to approximate the target building by the assembly of a subset of these candidate boxes using a binary linear programming formulation. The objective function is designed to maximize the point cloud coverage and the compactness of the final model. Finally, all selected boxes are merged into a lightweight polygonal mesh model, which is suitable for interactive visualization of large scale urban scenes. Experimental results and a comparison with state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  13. Box Cello Middle School Science Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegrift, Guy

    1998-10-01

    The Box Cello is a middle school science club which is attempting to (1) understand the cello and (2) design a low-cost starter instrument. We can support and justify this research by adding a third goal: (3) to help supply local science classes with equipment. My policy of spending one entire day each week away from the university, out in a local school is essential to this project. This schedule also permits me to conduct lessons on optics and music in the schools. And, it permits circulation of tools and equipment. A simple calculation demonstrates the great economy achieved by combining science clubs with academic year school visits. Consider the cost of letting 10,000 students in 10 middle schools each learn about and play with a pair of "upside-down" glasses for one hour. A visit to each school for three consecutive weeks would easily permit such a circulation if only 30 pairs were constructed. Assume rhetorically, that the construction of 30 pairs of glasses were to consume the entire estimated annual budget of $100,000. The cost per student would be only ten dollars! The visits, guest lectures, and equipment loans permit informal networking (including lunch) with math, science and music teachers in 10 schools. For more information, visit the http://www.utep.edu/boxcello/

  14. Introduction to the Box Particle Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Gning, Amadou; Ristic, B; Mihaylova, Lyudmila; Abdallah, F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for solving nonlinear filtering problems. This approach is particularly appealing in practical situations involving imprecise stochastic measurements, thus resulting in very broad posterior densities. It relies on the concept of a box particle, which occupies a small and controllable rectangular region having a non-zero volume in the state space. Key advantages of the box particle filter (Box-PF) against the standard particle filter (PF) are in its reduced c...

  15. Two particle states in an asymmetric box

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Liu, Chuan

    2004-01-01

    The exact two-particle energy eigenstates in an asymmetric rectangular box with periodic boundary conditions in all three directions are studied. Their relation with the elastic scattering phases of the two particles in the continuum are obtained. These results can be viewed as a generalization of the corresponding formulae in a cubic box obtained by L\\"uscher before. In particular, the s-wave scattering length is related to the energy shift in the finite box. Possible applications of these f...

  16. The three-box paradox revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravon, Tamar; Vaidman, Lev

    2007-01-01

    The classical three-box paradox of Kirkpatrick (2003 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 4891) is compared to the original quantum three-box paradox of Aharonov and Vaidman (1991 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 24 2315). It is argued that the quantum three-box experiment is a 'quantum paradox' in the sense that it is an example of a classical task which cannot be accomplished using classical means, but can be accomplished using quantum devices. It is shown that Kirkpatrick's card game is analogous to a different game with a particle in three boxes which does not contain paradoxical features

  17. Dimension measuring method for channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hiroto.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention concerns detection of a channel box for spent fuel assemblies of a BWR type reactor, which measures a cross sectional shape and dimension of the channel box to check deformation amount such as expansion. That is, a customary fuel exchanger and a dimension measuring device are used. The lower end of the channel box is measured by a distance sensor of the dimension measuring device when it is aligned with a position of the distance sensor. The channel box is lowered at the same time while detecting axial position data of the fuel exchanger. The position of the channel box in an axial direction is detected based on axial position data of the fuel exchanger. The lower end of the channel box can accurately be recognized by the detection of both of them. Subsequent deformation measurement for the channel box at accurate axial positions is enabled. In addition, since the axial position data of the fuel exchanger per se are detected, an axial profile of the channel box can be measured even if a lifting speed of the channel box is varied on every region. (I.S.)

  18. Repackaging SRS Black Box TRU Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swale, D. J.; Stone, K.A.; Milner, T. N.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, large items of TRU Waste, which were too large to be packaged in drums for disposal have been packaged in various sizes of custom made plywood boxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS), for many years. These boxes were subsequently packaged into large steel ''Black Boxes'' for storage at SRS, pending availability of Characterization and Certification capability, to facilitate disposal of larger items of TRU Waste. There are approximately 107 Black Boxes in inventory at SRS, each measuring some 18' x 12' x 7', and weighing up to 45,000 lbs. These Black Boxes have been stored since the early 1980s. The project to repackage this waste into Standard Large Boxes (SLBs), Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and Ten Drum Overpacks (TDOP), for subsequent characterization and WIPP disposal, commenced in FY04. To date, 10 Black Boxes have been repackaged, resulting in 40 SLB-2's, and 37 B25 overpack boxes, these B25's will be overpacked in SLB-2's prior to shipping to WIPP. This paper will describe experience to date from this project

  19. VO₂ requirements of boxing exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneau, Eric; Mekary, Saïd; Léger, Luc A

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the physiological requirements of various boxing exercises such as sparring, pad work, and punching bag. Because it was not possible to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) of "true" sparring with a collecting gas valve in the face, we developed and validated a method to measure VO₂ of "true" sparring based on "postexercise" measurements. Nine experienced male amateur boxers (Mean ± SD: age = 22.0 ± 3.5 years, height = 176.0 ± 8.0 cm, weight = 71.4 ± 10.9 kg, number of fights = 13.0 ± 9.5) of regional and provincial level volunteered to participate in 3 testing sessions: (a) maximal treadmill test in the LAB, (b) standardized boxing training in the GYM, and (c) standardized boxing exercises in the LAB. Measures of VO₂, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration [LA], rated perceived exertion level, and punching frequencies were collected. VO₂ values of 43.4 ± 5.9, 41.1 ± 5.1, 24.7 ± 6.1, 30.4 ± 5.8, and 38.3 ± 6.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ were obtained, which represent 69.7 ± 8.0, 66.1 ± 8.0, 39.8 ± 10.4, 48.8 ± 8.5, and 61.7 ± 10.3%VO₂peak for sparring, pad work, and punching bag at 60, 120, and 180 b·min⁻¹, respectively. Except for lower VO₂ values for punching the bag at 60 and 120 b·min⁻¹ (p < 0.05), there was no VO₂ difference between exercises. Similar pattern was obtained for %HRmax with respective values of 85.5 ± 5.9, 83.6 ± 6.3, 67.5 ± 3.5, 74.8 ± 5.9, and 83.0 ± 6.0. Finally, sparring %HRmax and [LA] were slightly higher in the GYM (91.7 ± 4.3 and 9.4 ± 2.2 mmol·L⁻¹) vs. LAB (85.5 ± 5.9 and 6.1 ± 2.3 mmol·L⁻¹). Thus, in this study simulated LAB sparring and pad work required similar VO₂ (43-41 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, respectively), which corresponds to ~70%VO₂peak. These results underline the importance of a minimum of aerobic fitness for boxers and draw some guidelines for the intensity of training.

  20. Black-boxing and cause-effect power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albantakis, Larissa; Tononi, Giulio

    2018-01-01

    Reductionism assumes that causation in the physical world occurs at the micro level, excluding the emergence of macro-level causation. We challenge this reductionist assumption by employing a principled, well-defined measure of intrinsic cause-effect power–integrated information (Φ), and showing that, according to this measure, it is possible for a macro level to “beat” the micro level. Simple systems were evaluated for Φ across different spatial and temporal scales by systematically considering all possible black boxes. These are macro elements that consist of one or more micro elements over one or more micro updates. Cause-effect power was evaluated based on the inputs and outputs of the black boxes, ignoring the internal micro elements that support their input-output function. We show how black-box elements can have more common inputs and outputs than the corresponding micro elements, revealing the emergence of high-order mechanisms and joint constraints that are not apparent at the micro level. As a consequence, a macro, black-box system can have higher Φ than its micro constituents by having more mechanisms (higher composition) that are more interconnected (higher integration). We also show that, for a given micro system, one can identify local maxima of Φ across several spatiotemporal scales. The framework is demonstrated on a simple biological system, the Boolean network model of the fission-yeast cell-cycle, for which we identify stable local maxima during the course of its simulated biological function. These local maxima correspond to macro levels of organization at which emergent cause-effect properties of physical systems come into focus, and provide a natural vantage point for scientific inquiries. PMID:29684020

  1. Black-boxing and cause-effect power.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Marshall

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reductionism assumes that causation in the physical world occurs at the micro level, excluding the emergence of macro-level causation. We challenge this reductionist assumption by employing a principled, well-defined measure of intrinsic cause-effect power-integrated information (Φ, and showing that, according to this measure, it is possible for a macro level to "beat" the micro level. Simple systems were evaluated for Φ across different spatial and temporal scales by systematically considering all possible black boxes. These are macro elements that consist of one or more micro elements over one or more micro updates. Cause-effect power was evaluated based on the inputs and outputs of the black boxes, ignoring the internal micro elements that support their input-output function. We show how black-box elements can have more common inputs and outputs than the corresponding micro elements, revealing the emergence of high-order mechanisms and joint constraints that are not apparent at the micro level. As a consequence, a macro, black-box system can have higher Φ than its micro constituents by having more mechanisms (higher composition that are more interconnected (higher integration. We also show that, for a given micro system, one can identify local maxima of Φ across several spatiotemporal scales. The framework is demonstrated on a simple biological system, the Boolean network model of the fission-yeast cell-cycle, for which we identify stable local maxima during the course of its simulated biological function. These local maxima correspond to macro levels of organization at which emergent cause-effect properties of physical systems come into focus, and provide a natural vantage point for scientific inquiries.

  2. IMPROVED, FAVORABLE FOR ENVIRONMENT POLYURETHANE COLD-BOX-PROCESS (COLD BOX «HUTTENES-ALBERTUS» .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sergini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the laboratory and industrial investigations, the purpose of which is improvement of the classical Cold-box-process, i.e. the process of the slugs hardening in cold boxes, are presented.

  3. VORONOI DIAGRAMS WITHOUT BOUNDING BOXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. K. Sang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010 and Nerbonne et al (2011.

  4. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  5. Mammographic scar for stereotaxic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Tattis; Hincapie U, Ana Lucia; Patino P, Jairo Hernando

    1997-01-01

    It is reported the case of 56 years old woman who underwent a stereotactic biopsy because of having a circumscribed breast nodule. The histologic diagnosis was benign. After six months, during the mammographic control, it was noticed that the nodule showed irregular contours, because of that a surgical biopsy was performed. The histopathology was reported as benign. it is considered then, that the mammographic changes observed in the mammographic control are due to scar phenomenon after stereotactic biopsy. This findings has not been reported previously

  6. Electrical requirements for unshielded glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The specification relates to the general design and installation of electrical services required in unshielded glove boxes in which atmospheres of air, argon or nitrogen etc. may exist either temporarily or permanently. The specification does not apply to electrical services for glove boxes with flammable explosive atmospheres. (author)

  7. British Box Business: A History of OCL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, René Taudal

    2018-01-01

    Book review of British Box Business: A History of OCL / edited by A. Bott SCARA, Goldaming, 2009, £17 (hb) 288 pages, illustrations, bibliography, index iSBn 139780955922701......Book review of British Box Business: A History of OCL / edited by A. Bott SCARA, Goldaming, 2009, £17 (hb) 288 pages, illustrations, bibliography, index iSBn 139780955922701...

  8. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  9. Opportunities in white-box cryptography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiels, W.

    White-box cryptography is the discipline of implementing a cryptographic algorithm in software such that an adversary will have difficulty extracting the cryptographic key. This approach assumes that the adversary has full access to and full control over the implementation's execution. White-box

  10. Modern biotechnology Panacea or new Pandora's box?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramper, J.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    According to Greek mythology Pandora was sent down to earth upon the orders of Zeus. She was given a mysterious box which she was not allowed to open. However, Pandora was very curious and when she arrived on earth she couldn?t help taking a peek inside the box. She saw that it was filled with gifts

  11. DISTORTION ANALYSIS OF TILL -WALLED BOX GIRDERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    bridges, buildings, motor vehicles, ships and aircrafts. Due to thinness of the box walls, generalized loads applied to this structure give rise to warping and distortion of ..... Recommendation for Design of. Intermediate Diaphragms in Box. Girders, Transactions of Japanese. Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 14,1984, pp 121-126.

  12. Magnetorotational Dynamo Action in the Shearing Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disk plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. To explain the relatively larger effort required to obtain the dynamo action in a long box, we propose that the turbulent eddies caused by the instability most efficiently fold and mix the magnetic field lines in the radial direction. As a result, in the long box the scale of the generated strong azimuthal (stream-wise directed) magnetic field is always comparable to the scale of the turbulent eddies. In contrast, in the tall box the azimuthal magnetic flux spreads in the vertical direction over a distance exceeding the scale of the turbulent eddies. As a result, different vertical sections of the tall box are permeated by large-scale nonzero azimuthal magnetic fluxes, facilitating the instability. NSF AGS-1261659, Vilas Associates Award, NSF-Teragrid Project TG-PHY110016.

  13. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze is not just for faces anymore— ...

  14. Boxing Injuries from an Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Michael J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the safeguards as well as the injury pattern of the boxing program at the US Military Academy at West Point from 1983 to 1985. About 2,100 cadets received boxing instruction during this period with an injury rate of less than four percent. (Author/MT)

  15. Boxing against drones : Drones in sports education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, S.G.; Barakova, E.I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how drones could be integrated into the context of sports, boxing in particular. The goal of this project is to design a drone application that allows direct and embodied interaction. The sport of boxing provides a very interesting setting, because the intimidating and

  16. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements for reconstituted wood boxes are as follows: (1) The walls of boxes must be made of water... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515...

  17. North American box turtles: A natural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.

  18. Dustproof cooling of the electrical box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec Patrik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In present are electrical boxes cooled by air through the intake hole on the bottom electrical box to the box space with electrotechnical elements and exhaust through the hole at the top to the surrounding by natural convection. This cooling method is effective but operate with the risk of contamination electrotechnical elements by dust sucking from surrounding air. The goal of this work is solution of the dustproof cooling of the electrical box by natural convection. The work deal with design of the device with the heat transfer by the phase change of the working fluid and experimental measuring its thermal performance at the cooling electrotechnical elements loaded by heat 1 200 W in the dustproof electrical box.

  19. Technology integration box beam failure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuart, M. J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Davis, D. D., Jr.; Davis, R. C.; Farley, G. L.; Lotts, C. G.; Wang, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    Composite structures have the potential to be cost-effective, structurally efficient primary aircraft structures. The Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program has the goal to develop the technology to exploit this potential for heavily loaded aircraft structures. As part of the ACT Program, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company completed the design and fabrication of the Technology Integration Box Beam (TIBB). The TIBB is an advanced composite prototype structure for the center wing section of the C-130 aircraft. Lockheed subjected the TIBB to downbending, upbending, torsion and combined upbending and torsion load conditions to verify the design. The TIBB failed at 83 percent of design ultimate load for the combined upbending and torsion load condition. The objective of this paper is to describe the mechanisms that led to the failure of the TIBB. The results of a comprehensive analytical and experimental study are presented. Analytical results include strain and deflection results from both a global analysis of the TIBB and a local analysis of the failure region. These analytical results are validated by experimental results from the TIBB tests. The analytical and experimental results from the TIBB tests are used to determine a sequence of events that resulted in failure of the TIBB. A potential cause of failure is high stresses in a stiffener runout region. Analytical and experimental results are also presented for a stiffener runout specimen that was used to simulate the TIBB failure mechanisms.

  20. The ocular complications of boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, V J; Yannuzzi, L A; Sorenson, J A; Delrowe, D J; Cambell, E A

    1987-06-01

    In cooperation with the New York State Athletic Commission, 74 boxers applying for a new or yearly renewal license were sequentially referred over a 2-year period for a complete dilated ocular examination at the Sports Vision Institute of the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. At least one ocular injury was found in 66% of boxers. Vision-threatening injuries, defined as significant damage to the angle, lens, macula, or peripheral retina occurred in 58% of boxers. Nineteen percent of boxers had angle abnormalities. Nineteen percent of boxers had pathologic cataracts, over 70% of these were posterior subcapsular. Six boxers had macular lesions. A total of 24% of boxers had retinal tears. Standardized photographs were used to distinguish pathologic cataracts from congenital opacities and pathologic retinal tears from atrophic holes. Attempts were made to identify risk factors in boxing that might be predictive for ocular injury. Variables included age, weight division, left- or right-handedness, total number of losses, and total number of bouts. Significant correlations were found between the total number of bouts and the total number of losses, and the presence of retinal tears. College varsity athletes were selected as controls. Significant differences were found between boxers and controls for the total number of injuries, total vision-threatening injuries, and the number of retinal tears. A series of recommendations are proposed to aide in the early detection and prevention of serious ocular injuries.

  1. Design report for shielded glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, J. H.; Lee, J. C.; Seo, K. S.; Bang, K. S.; Lee, D. W.; Kim, J. H.; Min, D. K.; Park, S. W.

    1999-05-01

    For the examination of spent fuels and high radioactive specimens using a specially equipped scanning electron microscope, a shielded glove box was designed and constructed at PIE facility of KAERI. This glove box consisted of shielding walls, containment box, lead glasses, manipulators, gloves, ventilation systems, doors, hot-cell specimen cask adapter, etc. It was emphasized that both the easy operation and radiation safety are important factors in the shielded glove box were installed also considered as a important factor to build the basic concept of the assembling. Two sliding doors and one hinge-type door were installed for the easy installation, operation and maintenance of scanning electron microscope. Containment box which confines the radioactive material into the box consisted of reinforced transparent glasses, aluminum frames and stainless steel plate liner. Therefore everything beyond the containment box can be seen through the lead glass which installed at the front shielding wall. All shielding walls and doors were introduced separately into the room and assembled by bolting. (author). 3 refs., 5 tabs., 18 figs

  2. Two particle states in an asymmetric box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Liu Chuan

    2004-01-01

    The exact two-particle energy eigenstates in an asymmetric rectangular box with periodic boundary conditions in all three directions are studied. Their relation with the elastic scattering phases of the two particles in the continuum are obtained. These results can be viewed as a generalization of the corresponding formulae in a cubic box obtained by Luescher before. In particular, the s-wave scattering length is related to the energy shift in the finite box. Possible applications of these formulae are also discussed

  3. MADS-box gene evolution - structure and transcription patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Pedersen, Louise Buchholt; Skipper, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs......Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs...

  4. Novel functions of prototype foamy virus Gag glycine- arginine-rich boxes in reverse transcription and particle morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllers, Erik; Uhlig, Tobias; Stirnnagel, Kristin; Fiebig, Uwe; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Lindemann, Dirk

    2011-02-01

    Prototype foamy virus (PFV) Gag lacks the characteristic orthoretroviral Cys-His motifs that are essential for various steps of the orthoretroviral replication cycle, such as RNA packaging, reverse transcription, infectivity, integration, and viral assembly. Instead, it contains three glycine-arginine-rich boxes (GR boxes) in its C terminus that putatively represent a functional equivalent. We used a four-plasmid replication-deficient PFV vector system, with uncoupled RNA genome packaging and structural protein translation, to analyze the effects of deletion and various substitution mutations within each GR box on particle release, particle-associated protein composition, RNA packaging, DNA content, infectivity, particle morphology, and intracellular localization. The degree of viral particle release by all mutants was similar to that of the wild type. Only minimal effects on Pol encapsidation, exogenous reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, and genomic viral RNA packaging were observed. In contrast, particle-associated DNA content and infectivity were drastically reduced for all deletion mutants and were undetectable for all alanine substitution mutants. Furthermore, GR box I mutants had significant changes in particle morphology, and GR box II mutants lacked the typical nuclear localization pattern of PFV Gag. Finally, it could be shown that GR boxes I and III, but not GR box II, can functionally complement each other. It therefore appears that, similar to the orthoretroviral Cys-His motifs, the PFV Gag GR boxes are important for RNA encapsidation, genome reverse transcription, and virion infectivity as well as for particle morphogenesis.

  5. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky's question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  6. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  7. Glove boxes. Dimensions and requirements. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The standard is to be applied to work done in glove-boxes, whereby either the personnel need to be protected from the damaging effects of the materials being handled, or the materials from the effects of the environment. It is to be applied to glove-boxes in which substances are handled which emit ionising radiation (radioactive substances). This norm is not restricted to glove-boxes in which processes are carried out on a technique scale. In accordance with this norm, only those pressures and temperatures are allowed to be present in the glove-boxes, that do not offer significantly from the work areas. Alongside the stipulations of this standard regard is also always to be taken of the regulations in the radiation protection ordinance. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    of two papers where the stochastic differential equation based model is used for sewer runoff from a drainage system. A simple model is used to describe a complex rainfall-runoff process in a catchment, but the stochastic part of the system is formulated to include the increasing uncertainty when...... rainwater flows through the system, as well as describe the lower limit of the uncertainty when the flow approaches zero. The first paper demonstrates in detail the grey box model and all related transformations required to obtain a feasible model for the sewer runoff. In the last paper this model is used......The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...

  9. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  10. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  11. Spacer for supporting fuel element boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.

    1979-01-01

    A spacer plate unit arranged externally on each side and at a predetermined level of a polygonal fuel element box for mutually supporting, with respect to one another, a plurality of the fuel element boxes forming a fuel element bundle, is formed of a first and a second spacer plate part each having the same length and the same width and being constituted of unlike first and second materials, respectively. The first and second spacer plate parts of the several spacer plate units situated at the predetermined level are arranged in an alternating continuous series when viewed in the peripheral direction of the fuel element box, so that any two spacer plate units belonging to face-to-face oriented sides of two adjoining fuel element boxes in the fuel element bundle define interfaces of unlike materials

  12. Study on structural integrity in box structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Masayuki; Ueta, Masahiro; Kanaoka, Tadashi; Ikeuchi, Toshiaki; Kodama, Tetsuhiro.

    1991-01-01

    This study was carried out to give an experimental foundation to the structural integrity of a box structure. Crack growth tests were performed on the reduced scale models, simulating typical portions of the box structure, in air at room temperature. The results show that the amount of crack growth is too small to injure the structural integrity of the models for the postulated loading cycle, and make clear the effective structure against crack growth. (author)

  13. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  14. Box-Cox transformation for QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runqing; Yi, Nengjun; Xu, Shizhong

    2006-01-01

    The maximum likelihood method of QTL mapping assumes that the phenotypic values of a quantitative trait follow a normal distribution. If the assumption is violated, some forms of transformation should be taken to make the assumption approximately true. The Box-Cox transformation is a general transformation method which can be applied to many different types of data. The flexibility of the Box-Cox transformation is due to a variable, called transformation factor, appearing in the Box-Cox formula. We developed a maximum likelihood method that treats the transformation factor as an unknown parameter, which is estimated from the data simultaneously along with the QTL parameters. The method makes an objective choice of data transformation and thus can be applied to QTL analysis for many different types of data. Simulation studies show that (1) Box-Cox transformation can substantially increase the power of QTL detection; (2) Box-Cox transformation can replace some specialized transformation methods that are commonly used in QTL mapping; and (3) applying the Box-Cox transformation to data already normally distributed does not harm the result.

  15. Sport medicine and the ethics of boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, S.; Herrera, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    In the light of medical evidence of the health risks associated with boxing, a watchful agnostic position among sport physicians is no longer justifiable. The normal activity in a boxing match places the athletes at risk of head injury, some of which may be difficult to detect and impossible to repair. This suggests that sport physicians and others expert in the prevention and diagnosis of such injuries should take a public stand against boxing, as other medical associations have. Although there is a need for continuing research into the health risks, doctors can in the interim take steps to increase public awareness of these risks. Sport physicians in particular can make a strong public statement by also ending their professional involvement with boxing. This need not be interpreted as paternalism; doctors are qualified neither to make laws nor to restrict private behaviour. Sport physicians are, however, well equipped to advise those who do make laws and those who choose to engage in boxing. In the end, because this stance against boxing will probably reduce the number of brain injuries in certain athletes, autonomy will be preserved, rather than restricted. 


 PMID:10597855

  16. Amateur boxing: physical and physiological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Franchini, Emerson; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Raja Bouguezzi; Hachana, Younés

    2015-03-01

    Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports. The aim of the current review is to critically analyze the amateur boxer's physical and physiological characteristics and to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. High-level male and female boxers show a propensity for low body fat levels. Although studies on boxer somatotypes are limited, the available information shows that elite-level male boxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and a low body fat level. To help support the overall metabolic demands of a boxing match and to accelerate the recovery process between rounds, athletes of both sexes require a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness. International boxers show a high peak and mean anaerobic power output. Muscle strength in both the upper and lower limbs is paramount for a fighter's victory and is one of the keys to success in boxing. As boxing punches are brief actions and very dynamic, high-level boxing performance requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Albeit limited, the available studies reveal that isometric strength is linked to high-level boxing performance. Future investigations into the physical and physiological attributes of boxers are required to enrich the current data set and to help create a suitable training program.

  17. A flexible system to capture sample vials in a storage box - the box vial scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Steven E; Kressin, Kenneth R; Deick, Steven D

    2009-01-01

    Tracking sample vials in a research environment is a critical task and doing so efficiently can have a large impact on productivity, especially in high volume laboratories. There are several challenges to automating the capture process, including the variety of containers used to store samples. We developed a fast and robust system to capture the location of sample vials being placed in storage that allows the laboratories the flexibility to use sample containers of varying dimensions. With a single scan, this device captures the box identifier, the vial identifier and the location of each vial within a freezer storage box. The sample vials are tracked through a barcode label affixed to the cap while the boxes are tracked by a barcode label on the side of the box. Scanning units are placed at the point of use and forward data to a sever application for processing the scanned data. Scanning units consist of an industrial barcode reader mounted in a fixture positioning the box for scanning and providing lighting during the scan. The server application transforms the scan data into a list of storage locations holding vial identifiers. The list is then transferred to the laboratory database. The box vial scanner captures the IDs and location information for an entire box of sample vials into the laboratory database in a single scan. The system accommodates a wide variety of vials sizes by inserting risers under the sample box and a variety of storage box layouts are supported via the processing algorithm on the server.

  18. Exergaming boxing versus heavy-bag boxing: are these equipotent for individuals with spinal cord injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Rosly, Maziah; Mat Rosly, Hadi; Hasnan, Nazirah; Davis, Glen M; Husain, Ruby

    2017-08-01

    Current strategies for increased physical activity and exercise in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) face many challenges with regards to maintaining their continuity of participation. Barriers cited often include problems with accessing facilities, mundane, monotonous or boring exercises and expensive equipment that is often not adapted for wheelchair users. To compare the physiological responses and user preferences between conventional heavy-bag boxing against a novel form of video game boxing, known as exergaming boxing. Cross-sectional study. Exercise laboratory setting in a university medical center. Seventeen participants with SCI were recruited, of which sixteen were male and only one female. Their mean age was 35.6±10.2 years. All of them performed a 15-minute physical exercise session of exergaming and heavy-bag boxing in a sitting position. The study assessed physiological responses in terms of oxygen consumption, metabolic equivalent (MET) and energy expenditure between exergaming and heavy-bag boxing derived from open-circuit spirometry. Participants also rated their perceived exertion using Borg's category-ratio ratings of perceived exertion. Both exergaming (MET: 4.3±1.0) and heavy-bag boxing (MET: 4.4±1.0) achieved moderate exercise intensities in these participants with SCI. Paired t-test revealed no significant differences (P>0.05, Cohen's d: 0.02-0.49) in the physiological or perceived exertional responses between the two modalities of boxing. Post session user survey reported all the participants found exergaming boxing more enjoyable. Exergaming boxing, was able to produce equipotent physiological responses as conventional heavy-bag boxing. The intensity of both exercise modalities achieved recommended intensities for health and fitness benefits. Exergaming boxing have the potential to provide an enjoyable, self-competitive environment for moderate-vigorous exercise even at the comfort of their homes.

  19. Complementarity in the Einstein-Bohr photon box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieks, D.G.B.J.; Lam, S

    2008-01-01

    The Bohr-Einstein photon box thought experiment is a forerunner of the EPR experiment: a packet of radiation escapes from a box, and the box-plus-radiation state remains entangled. Hence, a measurement on the box makes a difference for the state of the far-away radiation long after its escape. This

  20. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not more...

  1. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for a...

  2. Plutonium glove boxes - metrology and operational states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyer, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective was to undertake a literature review in support of NII's ongoing work in improving safety in the nuclear industry to help define suitable standards of cleanliness for plutonium glove boxes. This is to cover the following areas: existing or proposed national/international standards relating to plutonium glove box cleanliness management; practicable metrology options for assessing the plutonium content of glove boxes; any available dose information relating to the operation of modern and 'old design'; current contamination levels of specific significance (i.e. any accepted level in decommissioning/waste terms, typical criticality limits (if available), any box plutonium loadings that are documented with corresponding operator doses etc.); and, techniques for the decontamination of plutonium glove boxes and their relative effectiveness. This should then form the basis of any further development work undertaken by the UK nuclear industry. Main recommendations are as follows: 1) No information could be found in open literature on acceptable levels of contamination in boxes and action levels for cleanup. If these are not available in closed publications the 2) Where possible, the decontamination methods identified should be tested and dose information recorded against each method to allow informed decisions on which is the optimum technique for a particular form of contamination. 3) Consideration should be given to utilisation of metrology options which have the lowest potential for exposure of operators. Preferred options, may be detection from the outside of boxes using hand-held or permanently located radiation detectors, or semi-intrusive methods such as air-ionisation readings which would require one-off installation of detectors in ductwork

  3. DSMC simulations of vapor transport toward development of the lithium vapor box divertor concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoe, Christopher; Schwartz, Jacob; Goldston, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The lithium vapor divertor box concept attempts to achieve volumetric dissipation of the high heat efflux from a fusion power system. The vapor extracts the heat of the incoming plasma by ionization and radiation, while remaining localized in the vapor box due to differential pumping based on rapid condensation. Preliminary calculations with lithium vapor at densities appropriate for an NSTX-U-scale machine give Knudsen numbers between 0.01 and 1, outside both the range of continuum fluid dynamics and of collisionless Monte Carlo. The direct-simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, however, can simulate rarefied gas flows in this regime. Using the solver contained in the OpenFOAM package, pressure-driven flows of water vapor will be analyzed. The use of water vapor in the relevant range of Knudsen number allows for a flexible similarity experiment to verify the reliability of the code before moving to tests with lithium. The simulation geometry consists of chains of boxes on a temperature gradient, connected by slots with widths that are a representative fraction of the dimensions of the box. We expect choked flow, sonic shocks, and order-of-magnitude pressure and density drops from box to box, but this expectation will be tested in the simulation and then experiment. This work is supported by the Princeton Environmental Institute.

  4. Changes in position and quality of preferred nest box: effects on nest box use by laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2013-01-01

    Using laying hens, we investigated whether position of a nest box, both within the pen and relative to other nest boxes, influenced the preference for a nest box, and how a sudden and marked change to the preferred box influenced the use of nest boxes by the hens. Groups (n=12) of 15 Isa Warren...... hens were housed in pens, each with five identical nest boxes in different positions: Two single (in a corner or not) and a triplet of nest boxes (one of which in a corner). The use of nest boxes was determined by the number of eggs laid daily in each box. Three experiments, each lasting 10 days, were...... carried out. First, the undisturbed use of each of the nest box types was investigated, and a strong preference (Peggs laid there. Second, each of the hen groups was moved to another pen allocated at random, and where...

  5. Remote sampling and analysis of highly radioactive samples in shielded boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirpikov, D.A.; Miroshnichenko, I.V.; Pykhteev, O.Yu.

    2010-01-01

    The sampling procedure used for highly radioactive coolant water is associated with high risk of personnel irradiation and uncontrolled radioactive contamination. Remote sample manipulation with provision for proper radiation shielding is intended for safety enhancement of the sampling procedure. The sampling lines are located in an isolated compartment, a shielded box. Various equipment which enables remote or automatic sample manipulation is used for this purpose. The main issues of development of the shielded box equipment intended for a wider ranger of remote chemical analyses and manipulation techniques for highly radioactive water samples are considered in the paper. There were three principal directions of work: Transfer of chemical analysis performed in the laboratory inside the shielded box; Prevalence of computer-aided and remote techniques of highly radioactive sample manipulation inside the shielded box; and, Increase in control over sampling and determination of thermal-hydraulic parameters of the coolant water in the sampling lines. The developed equipment and solutions enable remote chemical analysis in the restricted volume of the shielded box by using ion-chromatographic, amperometrical, fluorimetric, flow injection, phototurbidimetric, conductometric and potentiometric methods. Extent of control performed in the shielded box is determined taking into account the requirements of the regulatory documents as well as feasibility and cost of the technical adaptation of various methods to the shielded box conditions. The work resulted in highly precise determination of more than 15 indexes of the coolant water quality performed in on-line mode in the shielded box. It averages to 80% of the total extent of control performed at the prototype reactor plants. The novel solutions for highly radioactive sample handling are implemented in the shielded box (for example, packaging, sample transportation to the laboratory, volume measurement). The shielded box is

  6. SimpleBox 4.0: Improving the model while keeping it simple….

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Anne; Schoorl, Marian; van de Meent, Dik

    2016-04-01

    Chemical behavior in the environment is often modeled with multimedia fate models. SimpleBox is one often-used multimedia fate model, firstly developed in 1986. Since then, two updated versions were published. Based on recent scientific developments and experience with SimpleBox 3.0, a new version of SimpleBox was developed and is made public here: SimpleBox 4.0. In this new model, eight major changes were implemented: removal of the local scale and vegetation compartments, addition of lake compartments and deep ocean compartments (including the thermohaline circulation), implementation of intermittent rain instead of drizzle and of depth dependent soil concentrations, adjustment of the partitioning behavior for organic acids and bases as well as of the value for enthalpy of vaporization. In this paper, the effects of the model changes in SimpleBox 4.0 on the predicted steady-state concentrations of chemical substances were explored for different substance groups (neutral organic substances, acids, bases, metals) in a standard emission scenario. In general, the largest differences between the predicted concentrations in the new and the old model are caused by the implementation of layered ocean compartments. Undesirable high model complexity caused by vegetation compartments and a local scale were removed to enlarge the simplicity and user friendliness of the model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Occupancy modeling reveals territory-level effects of nest boxes on the presence, colonization, and persistence of a declining raptor in a fruit-growing region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Shave

    Full Text Available Nest boxes for predators in agricultural regions are an easily implemented tool to improve local habitat quality with potential benefits for both conservation and agriculture. The potential for nest boxes to increase raptor populations in agricultural regions is of particular interest given their positions as top predators. This study examined the effects of cherry orchard nest boxes on the local breeding population of a declining species, the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius, in a fruit-growing region of Michigan. During the 2013-2016 study, we added a total of 23 new nest boxes in addition to 24 intact boxes installed previously; kestrels used up to 100% of our new boxes each season. We conducted temporally-replicated surveys along four roadside transects divided into 1.6 km × 500 m sites. We developed a multi-season occupancy model under a Bayesian framework and found that nest boxes had strong positive effects on first-year site occupancy, site colonization, and site persistence probabilities. The estimated number of occupied sites increased between 2013 and 2016, which correlated with the increase in number of sites with boxes. Kestrel detections decreased with survey date but were not affected by time of day or activity at the boxes themselves. These results indicate that nest boxes determined the presence of kestrels at our study sites and support the conclusion that the local kestrel population is likely limited by nest site availability. Furthermore, our results are highly relevant to the farmers on whose properties the boxes were installed, for we can conclude that installing a nest box in an orchard resulted in a high probability of kestrels occupying that orchard or the areas adjacent to it.

  8. Occupancy modeling reveals territory-level effects of nest boxes on the presence, colonization, and persistence of a declining raptor in a fruit-growing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shave, Megan E; Lindell, Catherine A

    2017-01-01

    Nest boxes for predators in agricultural regions are an easily implemented tool to improve local habitat quality with potential benefits for both conservation and agriculture. The potential for nest boxes to increase raptor populations in agricultural regions is of particular interest given their positions as top predators. This study examined the effects of cherry orchard nest boxes on the local breeding population of a declining species, the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), in a fruit-growing region of Michigan. During the 2013-2016 study, we added a total of 23 new nest boxes in addition to 24 intact boxes installed previously; kestrels used up to 100% of our new boxes each season. We conducted temporally-replicated surveys along four roadside transects divided into 1.6 km × 500 m sites. We developed a multi-season occupancy model under a Bayesian framework and found that nest boxes had strong positive effects on first-year site occupancy, site colonization, and site persistence probabilities. The estimated number of occupied sites increased between 2013 and 2016, which correlated with the increase in number of sites with boxes. Kestrel detections decreased with survey date but were not affected by time of day or activity at the boxes themselves. These results indicate that nest boxes determined the presence of kestrels at our study sites and support the conclusion that the local kestrel population is likely limited by nest site availability. Furthermore, our results are highly relevant to the farmers on whose properties the boxes were installed, for we can conclude that installing a nest box in an orchard resulted in a high probability of kestrels occupying that orchard or the areas adjacent to it.

  9. Reassessment of the nonlocality of correlation boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.P.; Parisio, Fernando, E-mail: parisio@df.ufpe.br

    2017-01-15

    Correlation boxes are hypothetical systems usually designed to produce the maximal algebraic violation of a Bell inequality, beyond the quantum bound and without superluminal signalling. The fact that these systems show stronger correlations than those presented by maximally entangled quantum states, as the spin singlet, has been regarded as a demonstration that the former are more nonlocal than the latter. By applying an alternative, consistent measure of nonlocality to a family of correlation boxes, we show that this conclusion is not necessarily true. Complementarily, we define a class of systems displaying subquantum correlations which, nevertheless, are more nonlocal than the singlet state, showing that the extent of the numeric violation of an inequality may have little to do with the degree of nonlocality, especially in the case of correlation boxes.

  10. Design and Development of Smart Medicine Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Ekbal; Husaini, Yusnira

    2018-03-01

    The Smart Medicine Box is successfully designed in helping the introvert patients taking their medicine without help of others. This project is to develop a robotic device that can assist patient to take medicine alone by implementing an IOT apps system for controlling the Smart Medicine Box where it will overcome an emotional disturbance experience by the introvert patients. There are four sensors such as PIR, IR, temperature and ultrasonic sensors use for the project. The purpose of PIR sensor is to detect hand movement near the device, while IR sensor is to detect the line follower on the floor. The LM 35 acts as the detection of the temperature inside the box and the ultrasonic acts as the detection of the obstacle in front of the device. The MIT Apps Invention 2 is used to develop an apps and collect the data from sensors through Arduino microcontroller. A proof of concept design has implemented and demonstrated successfully.

  11. Fire test of DOT 7A Boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.D.

    1979-05-01

    The primary objective of conducting the full-scale fire tests of the DOT (Department of Transportation) 7A FRP Boxes was to provide information to assist in quantifying the fire hazard of the storage located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), and to learn if changing the storage array will decrease the fire risk. Also, the level of fire fighting and fire protection required to maintain the risk at the RWMC within acceptable DOE guidelines was investigated. Two full-scale fire tests were conducted at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in June 1978, using the DOE 7A FRP Plywood Storage Containers. The fire tests showed that when subjected to a substantial ignition source, the boxes will propagate fire as long as no fire-suppression measures are taken. Fire will breach the boxes and spread the radioactive contaminated waste if it is not extinguished. As the fire progresses, additional boxes will become involved, and eventually the entire storage array will ignite. It is recommended that the use of DOT 7A Boxes be discontinued and replaced with noncombustible storage containers. In the event this is not practicable, guidance recommendations are presented to minimize the large fire loss potential. It is also recommended that an investigation be conducted into the number of boxes that can be destroyed and still maintain a safe environment for employees and the public. This investigation should include how far radioactive contamination will spread, what cleanup will be required, anticipated exposure of the people within the area, and the public impact of such a fire

  12. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron S; Thomas, Brian L; Krishnan, Narayanan C

    2013-07-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box", a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies.

  13. Piracy and Box Office Movie Revenues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peukert, Christian; Claussen, Jörg; Kretschmer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the heterogeneous effects of online copyright enforcement. We ask whether the unexpected shutdown of the popular file hosting platform Megaupload had a differential effect on box office revenues of wide-release vs. niche movies. Identification comes from a comparison...

  14. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  15. PVC posting bags for glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    This specification covers the materials, measurements and manufacture of unpigmented PVC posting bags for use on glove boxes, together with methods of testing the materials. These bags are used in the handling of radioactive and toxic materials of a hazardous nature and therefore must be of the highest standard of mechanical strength, leak tightness and general finish. (author)

  16. Box and block test in Beninese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natta, Ditouah Didier Niama; Alagnidé, Etienne; Kpadonou, Toussaint Godonou; Detrembleur, Christine; Lejeune, Thierry M; Stoquart, Gaëtan G

    2015-11-01

    To determine the Box and Block Test norm in a sub-Saharan population and to compare these data with published norms for North American adults. A total of 692 healthy Beninese people, age range 20-85 years, were recruited. These subjects were asked to perform the Box and Block Test with both hands. Box and Block Test scores (mean and standard deviation (SD)) for women and men were, respectively, 81.3 (15.4) and 79 (16.6) for the dominant hand and 73.2 (13.7) and 72 (14.8) for the non-dominant hand. Mean Box and Block Test scores ranged from 89.1 (12.7) for people under the age of 25 years to 55.23 (10.5) for people over the age of 74 years. Manual dexterity was better for women than men, for dominant hand than non-dominant hand, and for younger subjects. In comparison with published results for US subjects, Beninese subjects had better dexterity below the age of 50 years in both sexes for the right hand and worse dexterity over 64 years of age in both sexes for the right hand. Developing and validating outcome scales in Africa will help to improve functional assessment of African populations in clinical practice and research.

  17. Hadron scattering in an asymmetric box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Chen Ying; Meng Guozhan; Feng Xu; Gong Ming; He Song; Li Gang; Liu Chuan; Liu Yubin; Ma Jianping; Meng Xiangfei; Shen Yan; Zhang Jianbo

    2007-01-01

    We propose to study hadron-hadron scattering using lattice QCD in an asymmetric box which allows one to access more non-degenerate low-momentum modes for a given volume. The conventional Luescher's formula applicable in a symmetric box is modified accordingly. To illustrate the feasibility of this approach, pion-pion elastic scattering phase shifts in the I = 2, J = 0 channel are calculated within quenched approximation using improved gauge and Wilson fermion actions on anisotropic lattices in an asymmetric box. After the chiral and continuum extrapolation, we find that our quenched results for the scattering phase shifts in this channel are consistent with the experimental data when the three-momentum of the pion is below 300MeV. Agreement is also found when compared with previous theoretical results from lattice and other means. Moreover, with the usage of asymmetric volume, we are able to compute the scattering phases in the low-momentum range (pion three momentum less than about 350MeV in the center of mass frame) for over a dozen values of the pion three-momenta, much more than using the conventional symmetric box with comparable volume

  18. Safety evaluation for packaging CPC metal boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.

    1995-01-01

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides authorization for the use of Container Products Corporation (CPC) metal boxes, as described in this document, for the interarea shipment of radioactive contaminated equipment and debris for storage in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) or T Plant located in the 200 West Area. Authorization is granted until November 30, 1995. The CPC boxes included in this SEP were originally procured as US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A Type A boxes. A review of the documentation provided by the manufacturer revealed the documentation did not adequately demonstrate compliance to the 4 ft drop test requirement of 49 CFR 173.465(c). Preparation of a SEP is necessary to document the equivalent safety of the onsite shipment in lieu of meeting DOT packaging requirements until adequate documentation is received. The equivalent safety of the shipment is based on the fact that the radioactive contents consist of contaminated equipment and debris which are not dispersible. Each piece is wrapped in two layers of no less than 4 mil plastic prior to being placed in the box which has an additional 10 mil liner. Pointed objects and sharp edges are padded to prevent puncture of the plastic liner and wrapping

  19. Nondestructive assay of boxed radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, W.P.; Roberts, R.J.; Jasen, W.G.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes the problems related to the nondestructive assay (NDA) of boxed radioactive waste at the Hanford Site and how Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) is solving the problems. The waste form and radionuclide content are described. The characteristics of the combined neutron and gamma-based measurement system are described

  20. Study of WATCH GRB error boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Lund, Niels

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the first WATCH GRB Catalogue ofγ-ray Bursts in order to find correlations between WATCH GRB error boxes and a great variety of celestial objects present in 33 different catalogues. No particular class of objects has been found to be significantly correlated with the WATCH GRBs....

  1. Reflective Cracking between Precast Prestressed Box Girders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The adjacent precast prestressed concrete box-beam bridge is the bridge of choice for short and short-to-medium span bridges. This choice is because of the ease of construction, favorable span-to-depth ratios, aesthetic appeal, and high torsional sti...

  2. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlichta, Paul J.

    1989-09-01

    A ballast system is disclosed for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and the gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  3. 49 CFR 178.514 - Standards for plywood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... identification code for a plywood box is 4D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood boxes are as follows: (1..., commercially dry and free from defects that would materially lessen the strength of the box. The strength of the material used and the method of construction must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use...

  4. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition. ...

  5. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  6. Using Origami Boxes to Explore Concepts of Geometry and Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Arsalan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this classroom note is to provide an example of how a simple origami box can be used to explore important concepts of geometry and calculus. This article describes how an origami box can be folded, then it goes on to describe how its volume and surface area can be calculated. Finally, it describes how the box could be folded to…

  7. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... remains on for a period in excess of three minutes. The automatic cutoff system must be designed so the... Public Safety Pool for highway call box systems subject to the following requirements: (1) Call box... effective radiated power (ERP). (3) The height of a call box antenna may not exceed 6.1 meters (20 feet...

  8. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18..., AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement...

  9. Water-cooled target-box design at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.; Lambert, J.

    1983-01-01

    The target boxes in the main experimental beam line (Line A) at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) have operated since 1976. A program of replacing the boxes is underway. This paper will present past history, design considerations, calculational results and the final box design

  10. Grey-Box Modelling of Pharmacokinetic /Pharmacodynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    Grey-box pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is presented as a promising way of modelling PK/PD systems. The concept behind grey-box modelling is based on combining physiological knowledge along with information from data in the estimation of model parameters. Grey-box modelling...

  11. Box of ideal gas in free fall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothawala, Dawood, E-mail: dawood@physics.iitm.ac.in [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2013-03-26

    We study the quantum partition function of non-relativistic, ideal gas in a (non-cubical) box falling freely in arbitrary curved spacetime with center 4-velocity u{sup a}. When perturbed energy eigenvalues are properly taken into account, we find that corrections to various thermodynamic quantities include a very specific, sub-dominant term which is independent of kinematic details such as box dimensions and mass of particles. This term is characterized by the dimensionless quantity, Ξ=R{sub 0{sup ^}0{sup ^}}Λ{sup 2}, where R{sub 0{sup ^}0{sup ^}}=R{sub ab}u{sup a}u{sup b} and Λ=βℏc, and, quite intriguingly, produces Euler relation of homogeneity two between entropy and energy – a relation familiar from black hole thermodynamics.

  12. A white box perspective on behavioural adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application and adap......We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application...... and adaptation logic through a clear identification of the set of data that is relevant for the latter. The framework provides an original perspective from which we survey a representative set of approaches to adaptation, ranging from programming languages and paradigms to computational models and architectural...

  13. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  14. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  15. The 'Falling Box' method in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladush, V.D.

    1998-01-01

    The problems of justification, generalization, and applicability of the 'falling box' method to obtained some exact solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations are investigated. The 'physical' inference of the Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter and Kerr metrics is shown. Explanation is given for the well-known relativistic phenomenon which consists in that gravity is created by the double density of the electrical field energy

  16. Dry boxes and inert atmosphere techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartak, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Practitioners need to conduct experiments with molten salts in an inert atmosphere owing to the chemical reactivity of these media. Most fused salt solvent systems show reactivity to water and/or oxygen, which results in significant chemical changes in the properties of these solvents. Although several studies on the nature of an oxygen/oxide electrode in this melt have been reported, the reactions have not been fully understood because of apparent water contamination in many cases. Nitrate melt systems are also hygroscopic; for example, the LiNO 3 -KNO 3 eutectic (177 0 C) absorbs water to at least 0.2% by weight. The result is that the electrochemistry of heavier, electropositive metal ions has been significantly altered. In addition, trace amounts of water have been shown to significantly affect the oxygen-oxide redox chemistry in NaNO 3 -KNO 3 melts (250 0 C). The haloaluminates, which include AlCl 3 -NaCl (175 0 C), as well as AlCl 3 -organic salt binaries are particularly sensitive to the presence of both oxygen and moisture. Oxygen is a strong oxidant in the fused hydroxide systems with formation of superoxide ion from either oxide or water. This chapter describes general, inert atmosphere techniques which can be used by the molten salt experimentalist. Because of the limitations of volatility, vacuum manipulations are not considered. Rather, the use of glove boxes, glove bags, and inert bench-top techniques are discussed. The areas covered are: glove box and bag equipment, operation and maintenance of glove boxes and glove bags, and common operations conducted inside glove boxes

  17. PCB-Based Break-Out Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  18. Removable glove for a glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The glove includes one part forming a cuff and another part forming the glove. These two parts are joined in a leak-tight manner by a rigid ring. The glove part is interchangeable without breaking the seal through two neighbouring grooves formed on the ring to receive a bead made on the open end of the glove. The grooves are visible when the glove is placed outside the glove box, thereby enabling the glove part to be changed in this position [fr

  19. The future of grey-box fuzzing

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelt, Isak

    2017-01-01

    Society are becoming more dependent on software, and more artifacts are being connected to the Internet each day [31]. This makes the work of tracking down vulnerabilities in software a moral obligation for software developers. Since manual testing is expensive [7], automated bug finding techniques are attractive within the quality assurance field, since it can save companies a lot of money. This thesis summarizes the research of an automated bug finding technique called grey-box fuzzing, wit...

  20. Monitoring Instrument for X-Ray Box

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes Ospina, Alberto; Kuehn, Susanne; Schaepe, Steffen; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    A humidity and temperature readout instrument has been designed and implemented in order to monitor the X-Ray Box used for testing the silicon detectors prototypes of the ITk. The sensors are connected to an Arduino Mega board equipped with 16 analog inputs and a serial port to a computer. A user-friendly software has been also designed in order to give an easy access to all measurements.

  1. Cardiovascular issues in boxing and contact sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stephen A

    2009-10-01

    Despite the inherent risks associated with exercise in general and boxing in particular, the sport has had a limited number of catastrophic cardiovascular events. Screening should be based on risks involved and become more extensive with the advancement of the athlete. Anatomic and electrophysiologic risks need to be assessed and may preclude participation with resultant life style and economic complications. There should be adequate preparation for the rare potential cardiovascular complication at all events, with the ability to rapidly assess and treat arrhythmias.

  2. Acute subdural hematoma because of boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushi, Hidehiko; Saito, Takeshi; Sakagami, Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Jyoji; Tanjoh, Katsuhisa

    2009-02-01

    To identify factors determining the clinical characteristics and prognosis of acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) arising from boxing injuries by comparing with ASDH due to any nonboxing cause. Two groups were selected for this study: 10 patients with ASDH because of boxing injuries and 26 patients with nonboxer ASDH. All of the patients underwent neurologic examination by neurosurgeons. Primary resuscitation and stabilization as well as operative therapy were performed to all patients according to the European Brain Injury Consortium Guidelines. Two groups were compared in terms of age, the Glasgow Coma Scale at admission, neurologic findings, craniogram and brain computed tomography scan findings, operative findings, and prognosis. As potential prognostic indicators for boxers, the time interval until surgery, the Glasgow Outcome Scale, hematoma thickness, midline shift, and the site of bleeding were analyzed. The characteristics of patients because of boxing injuries are that patients were younger, had lucid interval, and had no cerebral contusion or contralateral brain injury. There was no significant difference in initial Glasgow Coma Scale, hematoma thickness, midline shift, and their prognosis. The most peculiar clinical presentation of boxers' ASDH was that all bleedings were limited from "bridging veins" or "cortical veins." The prognosis of boxers was most closely correlated with the site of bleeding (r2 = 0.81; p = 0.0001) and the midline shift (r2 = 0.67; p = 0.007). Our study shows that ASDH because of boxing is characterized by bleeding from bridging or cortical veins, and that the site of bleeding is a significant determinant of their prognosis.

  3. Cover gas box for handling sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenstler, K.; Betzl, K.

    1978-01-01

    An inert atmosphere box has been developed to work with sodium experimentally and analytically. The volumen of the box is 0.6 m 3 . A blower mounted inside the work chamber constantly circulates the argon from the work chamber through a gas purification system (nickel-catalyst 6525 and molecular sieve 4A). The flow rate is 450 l/h. The box is equipped with neoprene gloves. The glove ports can be closed with interior flanges. The work chamber is constantly kept to a low superpressure of 25 mm water gange. In a bypass the oxygen concentration is measured with the OXYLYT-electrolyte cell and the water vapour concentration with the KEIDEL-electrolytic hygrometer. During long-term operation oxygen levels of 35 vpm and water vapour levels of 50 vpm can be hold even when the gloves are not covered. By means of putting a vessel with liquid sodium in the work chamber oxygen levels of 8 vpm and water vapour levels of 20 vpm can be attained for short times. The inert atmosphere purity can be improved by means of increasing the gas flow rate. (author)

  4. Effectiveness of box trainers in laparoscopic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhariwal Anender

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and Objectives: Various devices are used to aid in the education of laparoscopic skills ranging from simple box trainers to sophisticated virtual reality trainers. Virtual reality system is an advanced and effective training method, however it is yet to be adopted in India due to its cost and the advanced technology required for it. Therefore, box trainers are being used to train laparoscopic skills. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the overall effectiveness of the box-training course. Study Procedure: The study was conducted during six-day laparoscopic skills training workshops held during 2006. Twenty five surgeons; age range of 26 to 45 years, of either sex, who had not performed laparoscopic surgery before; attending the workshop were evaluated. Each participant was given a list of tasks to perform before beginning the box-training course on day one and was evaluated quantitatively by rating the successful completion of each test. Evaluation began when the subject placed the first tool into the cannula and ended with task completion. Two evaluation methods used to score the subject, including a global rating scale and a task-specific checklist. After the subject completed all sessions of the workshop, they were asked to perform the same tasks and were evaluated in the same manner. For each task completed by the subjects, the difference in the scores between the second and first runs were calculated and interpreted as an improvement as a percentage of the initial score. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon matched-paired signed-ranks test was applied to find out the statistical significance of the results obtained. Results: The mean percentage improvement in scores for both the tasks, using global rating scale, was 44.5% + 6.930 (Mean + SD. For task 1, using the global rating scale mean percentage improvement was 49.4% + 7.948 (Mean + SD. For task 2, mean percentage improvement using global rating scale was 39.6% + 10.4 (Mean

  5. Prohibiting Headgear for Safety in Amateur Boxing? Opinion of the Canadian Boxing Community: an Online Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Philip; Rempel, Philip

    In 2013, the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) introduced a rule banning headgear for male-senior open class boxers during competition. The AIBA has defended the rule change as motivated by safety and supported by internal unpublished studies. As a result, in 2018, the AIBA plans to universally prohibit headgear in competition: for all competitors (male and female), all ages and all levels. Within Canada, this ruling has generated controversy in the boxing community, yet there has been no overall measure of opinion. To address this, we instituted a voluntary, anonymous, online open-access poll to allow members of the boxing community to express their stance on headgear use in competition. In total, 636 responses were received. A total of 71.5 % of Canadian respondents believed headgear should be mandatory at all levels. Only 5.8 % agreed that headgear should be prohibited, as planned for 2018. Estimating results on a representative breakdown of boxing membership in Canada, a similar pattern emerged, whereby 68.2 % concurred with mandatory headgear while only 4.95 % supported its prohibition. Parents of boxers were almost unanimously against banning headgear, stating they would change sports as a result. Similarly, only 1.7 % of women believed headgear should be prohibited. The consensus of the Canadian boxing community largely opposes the rule changes that the AIBA has implemented. The results highlight risks posed to the long-term viability of the sport, if significant grassroots safety concerns are disregarded.

  6. Policy statement—Boxing participation by children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Laura; LeBlanc, Claire M A

    2011-09-01

    Thousands of boys and girls younger than 19 years participate in boxing in North America. Although boxing provides benefits for participants, including exercise, self-discipline, and self-confidence, the sport of boxing encourages and rewards deliberate blows to the head and face. Participants in boxing are at risk of head, face, and neck injuries, including chronic and even fatal neurologic injuries. Concussions are one of the most common injuries that occur with boxing. Because of the risk of head and facial injuries, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Canadian Paediatric Society oppose boxing as a sport for children and adolescents. These organizations recommend that physicians vigorously oppose boxing in youth and encourage patients to participate in alternative sports in which intentional head blows are not central to the sport.

  7. Classification of EA1-box proteins and new insights into their role during reproduction in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebler, Susanne; Márton, Mihaela L; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    EA1-box protein classification. Success in reproduction and vegetative development in flowering plants strongly depends on precise cell-to-cell signaling events mediated by secreted peptides.A small peptide family named as EA1-like (EAL) has been first described 10 years ago and includes EA1 involved in pollen tubes attraction by the female gametophyte and EAL1-regulating germ cell identity in maize. EALs consist of an N-terminal endoplasmic reticulum-targeting motif, the highly conserved EA1-box and a short C-terminal alanine-rich domain. Whereas EAL peptides are exclusively found in the Gramineae, the EA1-box is widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. Based on in silico analysis and subcellular localization studies, we report here a new classification of EA1-box proteins in flowering plants. They can be distinguished into three protein classes: the already defined EAL proteins, the EAG (EA1-box glycine-rich) proteins and the EAC (EA1-box containing)proteins. While fusion proteins of EAL and EAC classes locate to the secretory pathway, EAGs are cytoplasmic and locate also to the nucleus. Moreover, we further show that the third EAL protein of Zea mays, EAL2, appears to be also involved in processes related to late embryogenic development as its peptide level increases after formation of leaf primordia. Immunohistochemical studies indicate its presence in the scutellar parenchyma and around the vasculature, where it is secreted to the extracellular space. In conclusion, the members of the maize EAL family possess very diverse functions during reproduction and it will now be exciting to elucidate the functions of EAGs and EACs in plants.

  8. Implementation of T-box/T/sup -1/-box based AES design on latest xilinx fpga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundi, D.E.; Aziz, A.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an efficient implementation of the AES (Advance Encryption Standard) based on Tbox/T-1-box design for both the encryption and decryption on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The proposed architecture not only make efficient use of full capacity of dedicated 32 Kb BRAM (Block RAM) of latest Xilinx FPGAs (Virtex-5, Virtex-6 and 7 Series) but also saves considerable amount of BRAM and logical resources by using multiple accesses from single BRAM in one cycle of system clock as compared to conventional LUT (Look-Up-Table) techniques. The proposed T-box/T-1-box based AES design for both the encryption and decryption fits into just 4 BRAMs on FPGA and results in good efficiency TPS (Throughput per Slice) with less power consumption. (author)

  9. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an environ......This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect...... to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending...

  10. DFBX boxes -- electrical and cryogenic distribution boxes for the superconducting magnets in the LHC straight sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbasnik, Jon P.; Corradi, Carol A.; Gourlay, S.A.; Green, MichaelA.; Hafalia, Aurelio Q.; Kajiyama, Yoichi Jr.; Knolls, Michael J.; LaMantia, Roberto F.; Rasson, Joseph E.; Reavill, Dulie; Turner, William C.

    2002-01-01

    DFBX distribution boxes provide cryogenic and electrical services to superconducting quadrupoles and to a superconducting dipole at either end of four of the long straight sections in the LHC. The DFBX boxes also provide instrumentation and quench protection to the magnets. Current for the quadrupole and the dipole magnet is delivered through leads that combine HTS and gas cooled leads. Current for the 600 A and 120 A correction magnets is provided by pure gas-cooled leads. The bus bars from the leads to the magnets pass through low leak-rate lambda plugs between 1.8 K and 4.4 K. The heat leak into the 1.9 K region from the liquid helium tank is determined by the design of the lambda plugs. This paper describes the DFBX boxes and their function of delivering current and instrumentation signals to the magnets

  11. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel or aluminum boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. 178.512... aluminum boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel or aluminum boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; and (2) 4B for an aluminum box. (b) Construction requirements for steel or aluminum boxes are as...

  12. Hegelian Phenomenology of Spirit and Boxing Fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented text the author points out to anthropological as well as axiological foundations of the boxing fight from the viewpoint of Hegel’s philosophy. In the genial idealist’s views it is possible to perceive the appreciation of the body, which constitutes a necessary basis for the man’s physical activity, for his work oriented towards the self-transformation and the transformation of the external world, as well as for rivalry and the hand-to-hand fight. While focusing our attention on the issue of rivalry and on the situation of the fight - and regarding it from the viewpoint of the master - slave theory (included in the phenomenology of spirit, it is possible to proclaim that even a conventionalised boxing fight - that is, restricted by cultural and sports rules of the game - has features of the fight to the death between two Hegelian forms of selfknowledge striving for self-affirmation and self-realisation. In the boxing fight, similarly as in the above mentioned Hegelian theory, a problem of work and of the development of the human individual (that is, of the subject, self-knowledge, the participant of the fight appears. There appears also a prospect of death as a possible end of merciless rivalry. The fight revalues the human way in an important way, whereas the prospect for death, the awareness of its proximity, the feeling that its close and possible, saturates the life with additional values. It places the boxer, just like every subject fighting in a similar or a different way, on the path towards absolute abstraction - that is, it brings him closer to his self-fulfilment in the Absolute, to the absolute synthesis. The Hegelian viewpoint enables also to appreciate the boxing fight as a manifestation of low culture (being in contrast with high culture, to turn attention to the relations which - according to Hegel - take place between the Absolute and the man, as well as to show which place is occupied by the subject both in

  13. A generalization of the finiteness problem in local cohomology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Math. Sci.) Vol. 119, No. 2, April 2009, pp. 159–164. © Printed in India. A generalization of the finiteness problem in local cohomology modules. AMIR MAFI. Department of Mathematics, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj, Iran. Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, P.O. Box 19395-5746,.

  14. Numerical investigation of thermally stratified Williamson fluid flow over a cylindrical surface via Keller box method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, S.; Rehman, Khalil Ur; Malik, M. Y.

    Present study is addressed to express the implementation of Keller-Box technique on physical problem in the field of fluid rheology, for this purpose the Williamson fluid flow is considered along a cylindrical stretching surface manifested with temperature stratification. The flow model is translated mathematically in terms of differential equations. Numerical simulation is executed to trace out the solution structure of developed differential system. The graphical outcomes for the flow regime of two different geometries (i-e cylindrical and plane surface) are reported and examined towards involved physical parameters. Furthermore, the local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are computed numerically. A remarkable agreement of present study is noticed with the previously published results, which confirms the implementation and validation of Keller-Box scheme and it will serve as a helping source for the future correspondence.

  15. Adaptation of Black-Box Software Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the software market leads to crucial problems for software companies. More competition between software companies arises and leads to the force on companies to develop ever newer software products in ever shortened time interval. Therefore the time to market for software systems is shortened and obviously the product life cycle is shortened too. Thus software companies shortened the time interval for research and development. Due to the fact of competition between software companies software products have to develop low-priced and this leads to a smaller return on investment. A big challenge for software companies is the use of an effective research and development process to have these problems under control. A way to control these problems can be the reuse of existing software components and adapt those software components to new functionality or accommodate mismatched interfaces. Complete redevelopment of software products is more expensive and time consuming than to develop software components. The approach introduced here presents novel technique together with a supportive environment that enables developers to cope with the adaptability of black-box software components. A supportive environment will be designed that checks the compatibility of black-box software components with the assistance of their specifications. Generated adapter software components can take over the part of adaptation and advance the functionality. Besides, a pool of software components can be used to compose an application to satisfy customer needs. Certainly this pool of software components consists of black-box software components and adapter software components which can be connected on demand.

  16. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance.

  17. Boxing headguard performance in punch machine tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Patton, Declan A

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents a novel laboratory method for assessing boxing headguard impact performance. The method is applied to examine the effects of headguards on head impact dynamics and injury risk. A linear impactor was developed, and a range of impacts was delivered to an instrumented Hybrid III head and neck system both with and without an AIBA (Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur)-approved headguard. Impacts at selected speeds between 4.1 and 8.3 m/s were undertaken. The impactor mass was approximately 4 kg and an interface comprising a semirigid 'fist' with a glove was used. The peak contact forces were in the range 1.9-5.9 kN. Differences in head impact responses between the Top Ten AIBA-approved headguard and bare headform in the lateral and forehead tests were large and/or significant. In the 8.3 m/s fist-glove impacts, the mean peak resultant headform accelerations for bare headform tests was approximately 130 g compared with approximately 85 g in the forehead impacts. In the 6.85 m/s bare headform impacts, mean peak resultant angular head accelerations were in the range of 5200-5600 rad/s(2) and almost halved by the headguard. Linear and angular accelerations in 45° forehead and 60° jaw impacts were reduced by the headguard. The data support the opinion that current AIBA headguards can play an important role in reducing the risk of concussion and superficial injury in boxing competition and training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Keller-box method and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Kerehalli V

    2014-01-01

    Most of the problems arising in science and engineering are nonlinear. They are inherently difficult to solve. Traditional analytical approximations are valid only for weakly nonlinear problems, and often break down for problems with strong nonlinearity. This book presents the current theoretical developments and applications of Keller-Box method to nonlinear problems. The first half of the bookaddresses basic concepts to understand the theoretical framework for the method. In the second half of the book, the authorsgive a number of examples of coupled nonlinear problems that have been solved

  19. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.

    1994-01-01

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory's NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system's embedded operating and data reduction software

  20. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Diane J.; Crandall, Aaron S.; Thomas, Brian L.; Krishnan, Narayanan C.

    2012-01-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS “smart home in a box”, a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and...

  1. Smart Distribution Boxes, Complete Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platise, Uros

    2010-09-15

    Present households demand side management implementations are turning conventional appliances into smart ones to support auto demand (AutoDR) response function. Present concept features a direct link between the power meters and appliances. In this paper new concept and example of implementation of a so-called Smart Distribution Box (SmartDB) is represented for complete energy and power management. SmartDBs, as an intermediate layer, are extending smart grid power meter functionality to support AutoDR with fast and guaranteed response times, distributed power sources, and besides provide full control over energy management and extra safety functions to the consumers.

  2. Seismic stability of a standalone glove box structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswat, A., E-mail: anupams@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Reddy, G.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Ghosh, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India); Ghosh, A.K.; Kumar, Arun [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Glove box is a leak tight, safety related structure used for handling radiotoxic materials. • To study the seismic performance of a freestanding glove box, extensive shake table testing has been carried out. • Glove box maintained structural integrity and leak tightness up to design basis earthquake loading. • Detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the structure is developed and analyzed by using direct time integration methods. • Simplified numerical method is proposed and successfully applied, to quickly estimate sliding displacement and determine upper bounds for it. - Abstract: In a nuclear fuel cycle facility, radiotoxic materials are being handled in freestanding leak tight enclosures called glove boxes (GBs). These glove boxes act as a primary confinement for the radiotoxic materials. Glove boxes are designed as per codal requirements for class I component. They are designed to withstand extreme level of earthquake loading with a return period of 10,000 years. To evaluate seismic performance of the glove box, there is a need to check the stability (sliding and overturning), structural integrity (stresses and strains) and leak tightness under earthquake loading. Extensive shake table experiments were conducted on a single standalone glove box. Actual laboratory conditions were simulated during testing to check the response. After extensive shake table testing, glove box structure was also analyzed using finite element (FE) software. Detailed three-dimensional model of glove box structure was developed and analyzed using nonlinear time history method. It was observed that finite element methods could be utilized to accurately predict dynamic response of glove box structure. This paper discusses the details and results of shake table testing and methodology used for modelling and analysing freestanding glove box structure under seismic loading. In addition, simplified numerical procedure, developed using energy conservation

  3. Seismic stability of a standalone glove box structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswat, A.; Reddy, G.R.; Ghosh, S.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kumar, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Glove box is a leak tight, safety related structure used for handling radiotoxic materials. • To study the seismic performance of a freestanding glove box, extensive shake table testing has been carried out. • Glove box maintained structural integrity and leak tightness up to design basis earthquake loading. • Detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the structure is developed and analyzed by using direct time integration methods. • Simplified numerical method is proposed and successfully applied, to quickly estimate sliding displacement and determine upper bounds for it. - Abstract: In a nuclear fuel cycle facility, radiotoxic materials are being handled in freestanding leak tight enclosures called glove boxes (GBs). These glove boxes act as a primary confinement for the radiotoxic materials. Glove boxes are designed as per codal requirements for class I component. They are designed to withstand extreme level of earthquake loading with a return period of 10,000 years. To evaluate seismic performance of the glove box, there is a need to check the stability (sliding and overturning), structural integrity (stresses and strains) and leak tightness under earthquake loading. Extensive shake table experiments were conducted on a single standalone glove box. Actual laboratory conditions were simulated during testing to check the response. After extensive shake table testing, glove box structure was also analyzed using finite element (FE) software. Detailed three-dimensional model of glove box structure was developed and analyzed using nonlinear time history method. It was observed that finite element methods could be utilized to accurately predict dynamic response of glove box structure. This paper discusses the details and results of shake table testing and methodology used for modelling and analysing freestanding glove box structure under seismic loading. In addition, simplified numerical procedure, developed using energy conservation

  4. Idealized flow patterns and transit times in gas/liquid contacting trays with multiple box downcomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Arcy, D.

    1977-08-01

    Trays with multiple box downcomers are often used in chemical process plants nowadays. In order to make a theoretical assessment of the mass transfer efficiency of such trays, knowledge is needed of the time spent by the liquid at various parts of the tray. An idealized but reasonable flow pattern has been assumed and the local velocities and transit times along ten equally-spaced stream lines have been computed. Numerical and graphical results are presented. (author)

  5. Fibrillarin and Nop56 interact before being co-assembled in box C/D snoRNPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechertier, Tanguy; Grob, Alice; Hernandez-Verdun, Daniele; Roussel, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Small nucleolar RNAs play crucial roles in ribosome biogenesis. They guide folding, site-specific nucleotide modifications and participate in cleavage of precursor ribosomal RNAs. To better understand how the biogenesis of the box C/D small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs) occur in a cellular context, we used a new approach based on the possibility of relocalizing a given nuclear complex by adding an affinity tag for B23 to one component of this complex. We selectively delocalized each core box C/D protein, namely 15.5kD, Nop56, Nop58 and fibrillarin, and analyzed the effect of such changes on other components of the box C/D snoRNPs. We show that modifying the localization and the mobility of core box C/D proteins impairs their association with box C/D snoRNPs. In addition, we demonstrate that fibrillarin and Nop56 directly interact in vivo. This interaction, indispensable for the association of both proteins with the box C/D snoRNPs, does not involve the glycine- and arginine-rich domain or the RNA-binding domain but the alpha-helix domain of fibrillarin. In addition, no RNA seems required to maintain fibrillarin-Nop56 interaction

  6. Box Tree Moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae, New Invasive Insect Pest in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Matošević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Alien invasive species have been described as an outstanding global problem. Hundreds of species are intentionally and unintentionally moved worldwide and and numbers of introductions to new habitats have been accelerated all over the world due to the increasing mobility of people and goods over the past decades. Numerous alien insect species, many of them introduced only in the last 20 years, have become successfully established in various ecosystems in Croatia. Box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae is an invasive pest recently introduced to Europe causing serious damage to ornamental box (Buxus sp. shrubs and trees. The aim of this paper is to describe the biology of box tree moth with prognosis of its future spread and damages in Croatia. Material and Methods: Young larvae (first and second larval stage and adults of box tree moth were collected in August and September 2013 in Arboretum Opeka and in Varaždin. They were brought to the entomological laboratory of Croatian Forest Research Institute where they were reared to pupae and then to moths. Results and Conclusions: The box tree moth was recorded for the first time in North Croatia in August 2013. Larvae were found defoliating box plants (B. sempervirens in Arboretum Opeka, Vinica and they have been identified as C. prespectalis. According to damages it can be assumed that the pest has been introduced to the region earlier (in 2011 or 2012 and that the primary infection has not been detected. At least two generations per year could be assumed in Croatia in 2013. The damage done to box tree plants on the locality of study is serious. The plants have been defoliated, particularly in the lower parts. The defoliation reduced the amenity value of plants. This is the first record of this pest and its damages in Northern Croatia and it can be expected that the pest will rapidly spread to other parts of Croatia seriously damaging box plants

  7. Glove box operations for transplutonium element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, J.B.; Alexander, C.W.; Wiggins, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Glove boxes are used in the Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for (1) completing the final chemical processing steps to isolate and purify the transplutonium elements, (2) packaging transplutonium elements for shipment, (3) preirradiation and postirradiation processing of samples used to produce special transplutonium isotopes in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and (4) conducting special projects, which include providing highly purified transplutonium products in special chemical forms and/or in experimental devices as requested by researchers. During 20 years of operation, the quantities of transplutonium elements produced, and thus the amount of radioactivity handled, have continually increased. At the same time, substantial effort has been expended to reduce personnel radiation exposures. Equipment and techniques have been developed to maintain the desired operational capabilities in the glove boxes while keeping radiation exposures to operating personnel as low as reasonably achievable. Developments have included the design and fabrication of product handling and collection devices, product storage containers, and laminated exterior shields of lead glass, lead acrylic, acrylic sheets, polyethylene, and lead

  8. Injuries in competitive boxing. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Zarghooni, K; Sobottke, R; Eysel, P; Herren, C; Knöll, P; Illgner, U; Michael, J

    2015-03-01

    Boxing remains a subject of controversy and is often classified as dangerous. But the discussion is based mostly on retrospective studies. This survey was conducted as a prospective study. From October 2012 to September 2013, 44 competitive boxers were asked to report their injuries once a month. The questionnaire collected general information (training, competition) and recorded the number of bouts fought, injuries and resulting lost days. A total of 192 injuries were recorded, 133 of which resulted in interruption of training or competition. Each boxer sustained 3 injuries per year on average. The injury rate was 12.8 injuries per 1 000 h of training. Boxers fighting more than 3 bouts per year sustain more injuries (p=0.0075). The injury rate does is not a function of age (age≤19 vs. > 19a, p=0.53). Injuries to the head and the upper limbs occur most frequently. The most common injuries are soft tissue lacerations and contusions. Head injuries with neurological symptoms rarely occur (4.2%). Boxing has a high injury rate that is comparable with other contact sports, but most injuries are minor. Injury frequency is not a function of whether the boxer competes in the junior or adult category. Athletes fighting many bouts per year have a greater risk of injury. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 regulates herpes simplex virus replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jungeun; Shin, Bongjin; Park, Eui-Soon; Yang, Sujeong; Choi, Seunga [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Bio Brain Center, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Misun [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Jaerang, E-mail: jrrho@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Bio Brain Center, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); GRAST, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is involved in viral infection and replication through the modulation of diverse cellular processes including RNA metabolism, cytokine signaling, and subcellular localization. It has been suggested previously that the protein arginine methylation of the RGG-box of ICP27 is required for herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) viral replication and gene expression in vivo. However, a cellular mediator for this process has not yet been identified. In our current study, we show that the protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is a cellular mediator of the arginine methylation of ICP27 RGG-box. We generated arginine substitution mutants in this domain and examined which arginine residues are required for methylation by PRMT1. R138, R148 and R150 were found to be the major sites of this methylation but additional arginine residues serving as minor methylation sites are still required to sustain the fully methylated form of ICP27 RGG. We also demonstrate that the nuclear foci-like structure formation, SRPK interactions, and RNA-binding activity of ICP27 are modulated by the arginine methylation of the ICP27 RGG-box. Furthermore, HSV-1 replication is inhibited by hypomethylation of this domain resulting from the use of general PRMT inhibitors or arginine mutations. Our data thus suggest that the PRMT1 plays a key role as a cellular regulator of HSV-1 replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation.

  10. Software sensors based on the grey-box modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Harremoës, P.; Strube, Rune

    1996-01-01

    In recent years the grey-box modelling approach has been applied to wastewater transportation and treatment Grey-box models are characterized by the combination of deterministic and stochastic terms to form a model where all the parameters are statistically identifiable from the on......-box model for the specific dynamics is identified. Similarly, an on-line software sensor for detecting the occurrence of backwater phenomena can be developed by comparing the dynamics of a flow measurement with a nearby level measurement. For treatment plants it is found that grey-box models applied to on......-line measurements. With respect to the development of software sensors, the grey-box models possess two important features. Firstly, the on-line measurements can be filtered according to the grey-box model in order to remove noise deriving from the measuring equipment and controlling devices. Secondly, the grey...

  11. A Group Action Method for Construction of Strong Substitution Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Sajjad Shaukat; Shah, Tariq; Attaullah, Atta

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the method to develop cryptographically strong substitution box is presented which can be used in multimedia security and data hiding techniques. The algorithm of construction depends on the action of a projective general linear group over the set of units of the finite commutative ring. The strength of substitution box and ability to create confusion is assessed with different available analyses. Moreover, the ability of resistance against malicious attacks is also evaluated. The substitution box is examined by bit independent criterion, strict avalanche criterion, nonlinearity test, linear approximation probability test and differential approximation probability test. This substitution box is equated with well-recognized substitution boxes such as AES, Gray, APA, S8, prime of residue, Xyi and Skipjack. The comparison shows encouraging results about the strength of the proposed box. The majority logic criterion is also calculated to analyze the strength and its practical implementation.

  12. Evolving S Boxes with Reduced Differential Power Analysis Susceptibiltiy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-02

    their applications : proceedings of the second International Conference on Genetic Algorithms : July 28-31, 1987 at the Massachusetts Institute of...relax cryptanalytic constraints to lower S-box leakage, as quantified by the transparency order. We apply genetic algorithms to generate 8-bit S-boxes...single objective genetic algorithms for generating S-boxes than the existing literature. We demonstrate this in the first side-by-side comparison of the

  13. Construction and properties of Box-Behnken designs

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Jinnam

    1992-01-01

    Box-Behnken designs are used to estimate parameters in a second-order response surface model (Box and Behnken, 1960). These designs are formed by combining ideas from incomplete block designs (BIBD or PBIBD) and factorial experiments, specifically 2k full or 2k-1 fractional factorials. In this dissertation, a more general mathematical formulation of the Box-Behnken method is provided, a general expression for the coefficient matrix in the least squares analysis for estimatin...

  14. Hydrogen atom within spherical boxes with penetrable walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley-Koo, E.; Rubinstein, S.

    1979-01-01

    We study a model for the hydrogen atom confined within spherical boxes with penetrable walls. The potential consists of the Coulomb potential inside the box and a constant potential outside the box; the Schroedinger equation admits analytical solutions in both regions. The energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for the lowest states of the system are determined numerically for boxes of different sizes and penetrabilities. In addition, we also evaluate the hyperfine splitting, nuclear magnetic shielding, polarizability and pressure of the system and investigate the effect of the confinement on these atomic properties

  15. The DFBX cryogenic distribution boxes for the LHC straight sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbasnik, Jon P.; Corradi, Carol A.; Green, Michael A.; Kajiyama, Y.; Knolls, Michael J.; LaMantia, Roberto F.; Rasson, Joseph E.; Reavill, Dulie; Turner, William C.

    2002-01-01

    The DFBX distribution boxes are designed to connect the LHC cryogenic distribution system to the interaction region quadrupoles [1] and dipoles for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The DFBX distribution boxes also have the current leads for the superconducting interaction region magnets and the LHC interaction region correction coils. The DFBX boxes also connect the magnet and cryogenic instrumentation to the CERN data collection system. The DFBX boxes serve as the cryogenic circulation center and the nerve center for four of the LHC straight sections. This report describes primarily the cryogenic function of the DFBXs

  16. New approaches to glove box design at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lini, D.C.; Fisher, F.D.; Walters, F.F.

    1986-01-01

    Glove boxes provide the primary environmental containment system for plutonium processing operations at US Dept. of Energy (DOE)-owned facilities such as Rockwell Hanford. As noted in previous presentations, glove box designs and operations have evolved through stages that are a result of advances in processing techniques, new regulatory requirements, and cost escalation. These factors will continue to influence the current glove box designs and operations. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss required upgrades and changes that are being incorporated into glove boxes being installed at Rockwell Hanford and other DOE installations or are being evaluated for future upgrades

  17. Ion-wake Field inside a Glass Box

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mudi; Dropmann, Michael; Zhang, Bo; Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.

    2016-01-01

    The confinement provided by a glass box is proving ideal for the formation of vertically aligned structures and a convenient method for controlling the number of dust particles comprising these dust structures, as well as their size and shape. In this paper, the electronic confinement of the glass box is mapped and the particle interactions between the particle pairs inside the glass box are measured. The ion-wake field is shown to exist within the glass box and its vertical and horizontal ex...

  18. A novel heuristic method for obtaining S-boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guo

    2008-01-01

    An efficient algorithm named chaotic multi-swapping and simulated annealing (CMSSA) for obtaining cryptographically strong 8 x 8 S-boxes is presented. The method is based on chaotic maps and simulated annealing. In addition, cryptographic properties such as bijectivity, strict avalanche criterion, nonlinearity, output bits independence criterion and equiprobable input/output XOR distribution are analyzed in detail for the S-box produced. The results of numerical analysis show that the box has nearly fulfilled the criteria for a cryptographically strong S-box and can effectively resist several attacks

  19. Recent advances towards a lithium vapor box divertor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Goldston

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fusion power plants are likely to require near complete detachment of the divertor plasma from the divertor target plates, in order to have both acceptable heat flux at the target to avoid prompt damage and also acceptable plasma temperature at the target surface, to minimize long-term erosion. However hydrogenic and impurity puffing experiments show that detached operation leads easily to x-point MARFEs, impure plasmas, degradation in confinement, and lower helium pressure at the exhaust. The concept of the Lithium Vapor Box Divertor is to use local evaporation and strong differential pumping through condensation to localize low-Z gas-phase material that absorbs the plasma heat flux and so achieve detachment while avoiding these difficulties. The vapor localization has been confirmed using preliminary Navier–Stokes calculations. We use ADAS calculations of εcool, the plasma energy lost per injected lithium atom, to estimate the lithium vapor pressure, and so temperature, required for detachment, taking into account power balance. We also develop a simple model of detachment to evaluate the required upstream density, based on further taking into account dynamic pressure balance. A remarkable general result is found, not just for lithium-vapor-induced detachment, that the upstream density divided by the Greenwald-limit density scales as nup/nGW ∝ (P5/8/B3/8 Tdet1/2/(εcool+γTdet, with no explicit size scaling. Tdet is the temperature just before strong pressure loss, assumed to be ∼ ½ of the ionization potential of the dominant recycling species, and γ is the sheath heat transmission factor.

  20. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise.

  1. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: General. 215.107... Suspension System § 215.107 Defective plain bearing box: General. A railroad may not place or continue in... the bearing; or (2) Have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and the bearings. ...

  2. A sealed enclosure of the glove box type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreels, Pierre.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealed enclosure of the glove-box type. According to the invention, the box-frame comprises: angle-bars having a right-angled cross-section, sealing joints, tightening bars and fastening means [fr

  3. 77 FR 74513 - Folding Gift Boxes From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the... boxes from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry... Publication 4365 (November 2012), entitled Folding Gift Boxes from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-921 (Second...

  4. Immunohistochemical evidence for multiple photosystems in box jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekström, Peter; Garm, Anders Lydik; Pålsson, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    data demonstrate that the lens eyes of box jellyfish utilize a single opsin and are thus color-blind, and that there is probably a different photopigment in the pigment cup eyes. The results support our hypothesis that the lens eyes and the pigment cup eyes of box jellyfish are involved in different...

  5. Dream Box Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  6. Faster Black-Box Algorithms Through Higher Arity Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Johannsen, Daniel; Kötzing, Timo

    2011-01-01

    We extend the work of Lehre and Witt (GECCO 2010) on the unbiased black-box model by considering higher arity variation operators. In particular, we show that already for binary operators the black-box complexity of LeadingOnes drops from (n2) for unary operators to O(n log n). For OneMax, the (n...

  7. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Martial

    2010-01-01

    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  8. Lightweight S-Box Architecture for Secure Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Prathiba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight cryptographic solutions are required to guarantee the security of Internet of Things (IoT pervasiveness. Cryptographic primitives mandate a non-linear operation. The design of a lightweight, secure, non-linear 4 × 4 substitution box (S-box suited to Internet of Things (IoT applications is proposed in this work. The structure of the 4 × 4 S-box is devised in the finite fields GF (24 and GF ((222. The finite field S-box is realized by multiplicative inversion followed by an affine transformation. The multiplicative inverse architecture employs Euclidean algorithm for inversion in the composite field GF ((222. The affine transformation is carried out in the field GF (24. The isomorphic mapping between the fields GF (24 and GF ((222 is based on the primitive element in the higher order field GF (24. The recommended finite field S-box architecture is combinational and enables sub-pipelining. The linear and differential cryptanalysis validates that the proposed S-box is within the maximal security bound. It is observed that there is 86.5% lesser gate count for the realization of sub field operations in the composite field GF ((222 compared to the GF (24 field. In the PRESENT lightweight cipher structure with the basic loop architecture, the proposed S-box demonstrates 5% reduction in the gate equivalent area over the look-up-table-based S-box with TSMC 180 nm technology.

  9. Modelling of Box Type Solar Cooker Performance in a Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal performance model of box type solar cooker with loaded water is presented. The model was developed using the method of Funk to estimate cooking power in terms of climatic and design parameters for box type solar cooker in a tropical environment. Coefficients for each term used in the model were determined ...

  10. Using Willie's Acid-Base Box for Blood Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a method developed by Dr. William T. Lipscomb for teaching blood gas analysis of acid-base status and provides three examples using Willie's acid-base box. Willie's acid-base box is constructed using three of the parameters of standard arterial blood gas analysis: (1) pH; (2) bicarbonate; and (3) CO[subscript…

  11. Natural Interaction Based Online Military Boxing Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenglei; Wang, Lu; Sun, Bing; Yin, Xu; Wang, Xiaoting; Liu, Li; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Military boxing, a kind of Chinese martial arts, is widespread and health beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a military boxing learning system realized by 3D motion capture, Web3D and 3D interactive technologies. The interactions with the system are natural and intuitive. Users can observe and learn the details of each action of the…

  12. Boxing It Up-a Cross-curricular Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Wesley

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a class project that examined the manufacture of boxes and packaging to teach about design and technology. The class discovered basic manufacturing techniques by examining and disassembling cereal boxes. Field trips to stores provided more examples. Appraises the children's final projects and discusses acquiring materials. (MJP)

  13. Boxing Up a Mini Herd: Art Put to Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Midge

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art project for high school students that was inspired by the 1999 "Cows on Parade" exhibition in Chicago (Illinois). Explains that students used old Gateway computer boxes to create their own cows using the box, scissors, and a hot-glue gun. (CMK)

  14. Decontamination and dismantling of large plutonium-contamined glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draulans, J.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the work performed in the frame of two C.E.C. - Contracts FI1D-002400-B Decommissioning of very large glove boxes and FI1D-0058 Decommissioning of a complex glove box structure to be dismounted partially on place. Detailed information is given about each glove box. The selection of the solution Transportation of the glove boxes to a specialized dismantling plant is justified. The necessary contacts inside the BELGONUCLEAIRE MOX plant and between the latter and other organizations are explained. The problems of manipulating large gloves are listed and the retained solution of building a so called Stiffening frame around each glove box is described. Furthermore information is given concerning required operators time for cleaning, manipulating, packing and dismantling together with received doses and quantities of waste produced. Concerning the glove box unit partially to be dismounted on place, detailed information is given about the way the glove boxes have been treated prior to this partial dismantling on place and about the way this partial dismantling has been performed. From these results one can conclude that such a delicate task can be performed without major difficulties. Finally information is given of the decontamination test of a highly Pu contaminated glove box with freon with rather poor results and of the preliminary CO 2 blasting tests on non active samples

  15. Heart Rate and Liking During "Kinect Boxing" Versus "Wii Boxing": The Potential for Enjoyable Vigorous Physical Activity Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gabriel J; Peacock, Corey A; Barkley, Jacob E; Gish, Brian; Brock, Scott; Volpenhein, Josh

    2015-08-01

    Nintendo(®) (Kyoto, Japan) "Wii™ Sports Boxing" ("Wii Boxing") and Xbox(®) (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) "Kinect(®) Sports Boxing" ("Kinect Boxing") are both boxing simulation videogames that are available for two different active videogame (AVG) systems. Although these AVGs are similar, the style of gameplay required is different (i.e., upper body only versus total body movements) and may alter physical activity intensity and one's preference for playing one game over the other. AVGs that elicit the greatest physiologic challenge and are preferred by users should be identified in an effort to enhance the efficacy of physical activity interventions and programs that include AVGs. The mean heart rate (HRmean) and peak heart rate (HRpeak) for 27 adults (22.7±4.2 years old) were recorded during four 10-minute conditions: seated rest, treadmill walking at 3 miles/hour, "Wii Boxing," and "Kinect Boxing." Upon completion of all four conditions, participants indicated which condition they preferred, and HRmean and HRpeak were calculated as a percentage of age-predicted maximum heart rate to classify physical activity intensity for the three activity conditions (treadmill, "Wii Boxing," and "Kinect Boxing"). "Kinect Boxing" significantly (P<0.001) increased percentage HRmean (64.1±1.6 percent of age-predicted maximum) and percentage HRpeak (76.5±1.9 percent) above all other conditions: Wii HRmean, 53.0±1.2 percent; Wii HRpeak, 61.8±1.5 percent; treadmill HRmean, 52.4±1.2 percent; treadmill HRpeak, 55.2±2.2 percent. Percentage HRpeak for "Kinect Boxing" was great enough to be considered a vigorous-intensity physical activity. There was no difference (P=0.55) in percentage HRmean between "Wii Boxing" and treadmill walking. Participants also preferred "Kinect Boxing" (P<0.001; n=26) to all other conditions ("Wii Boxing," n=1; treadmill n=0). "Kinect Boxing" was the most preferred and the only condition that was physiologically challenging enough to be classified as a

  16. Internal Associations of the Acidic Region of Upstream Binding Factor Control Its Nucleolar Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueshima, Shuhei; Nagata, Kyosuke; Okuwaki, Mitsuru

    2017-11-15

    Upstream binding factor (UBF) is a member of the high-mobility group (HMG) box protein family, characterized by multiple HMG boxes and a C-terminal acidic region (AR). UBF is an essential transcription factor for rRNA genes and mediates the formation of transcriptionally active chromatin in the nucleolus. However, it remains unknown how UBF is specifically localized to the nucleolus. Here, we examined the molecular mechanisms that localize UBF to the nucleolus. We found that the first HMG box (HMG box 1), the linker region (LR), and the AR cooperatively regulate the nucleolar localization of UBF1. We demonstrated that the AR intramolecularly associates with and attenuates the DNA binding activity of HMG boxes and confers the structured DNA preference to HMG box 1. In contrast, the LR was found to serve as a nuclear localization signal and compete with HMG boxes to bind the AR, permitting nucleolar localization of UBF1. The LR sequence binds DNA and assists the stable chromatin binding of UBF. We also showed that the phosphorylation status of the AR does not clearly affect the localization of UBF1. Our results strongly suggest that associations of the AR with HMG boxes and the LR regulate UBF nucleolar localization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. 49 CFR 178.513 - Standards for boxes of natural wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for boxes of natural wood. 178.513... natural wood. (a) The following are the identification codes for boxes of natural wood: (1) 4C1 for an ordinary box; and (2) 4C2 for a box with sift-proof walls. (b) Construction requirements for boxes of...

  18. Structural testing of the technology integration box beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    A full-scale section of a transport aircraft wing box was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested. The wing box section, which was called the technology integration box beam, contained blade stiffened covers and T-stiffened channel spars constructed using graphite/epoxy materials. Covers, spars, and the aluminum ribs were assembled using mechanical fasteners. The box beam was statically tested for several loading conditions to verify the stiffness and strength characteristics of the composite wing design. Failure of the box beam occurred at 125 percent of design limit load during the combined upbending and torsion ultimate design load test. It appears that the failure initiated at a stiffener runout location in the upper cover which resulted in rupture of the upper cover and portions of both spars.

  19. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Croft, S; Chard-Mj, P; Estop, J R; Martancik, D; Sheila-Melton; Young, B

    2003-01-01

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nucli...

  20. Getting started with Citrix VDI-in-a-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stuart Arthur

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to simplify and streamline virtual desktops so you get a production-quality solution while instantly lowering your costs and improving security.Getting Started with Citrix VDI-in-a-Box is great for IT professionals who are new to VDI-in-a-Box and who are looking for a good grounding in the product. You may be planning to research VDI-in-a-Box in more detail, or you may be tasked with researching how VDI-in-a-Box could improve the productivity of your organization. No prior knowledge of VDI-in-a-Box is required, just a

  1. Removal of the nonconformities in the drug boxes packaging industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălan Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the specific quality aspects of cardboard drug boxes (folding boxes used as packaging in pharmaceutical industry. The types of defects and nonconformities that occur during offset printing and finishing of the packaging products are being identified and analyzed, such as: differences in color printing, scratches on the printed sheets, cracks during creasing, unparalleled gluing in respect to the closing flaps, ungluing, successive drug boxes stick to each other. The paper also focuses on aspects regarding the nonconformities removal of the drug boxes by establishing a control plan and preventive and corrective methods applicable in different technological stages of the production flow. Monitoring and analyzing activities for quality improvement of the drug boxes, in accordance with the quality specifications required by customers were performed for 20 months on a production line with Heidelberg machines. Nonconformities considered in this paper are also encountered in advertising printing.

  2. Tworty Box to Improve the Equipment Logistics of Container Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Malchow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A major share of all empty container positioning (deadheading is resulting from imbalances with regard to container sizes (20ft/40ft. In order to reduce the shipments of 'containerised air' a new type of container has been developed by the author: The Tworty Boxes can either be used as a standard 20ft or in coupled condition as a 40ft container. The outside appearance resembles any standard 20ft container. However the Tworty Box is unique in that it has an additional door at the front side that opens to the inside. This door can be fixed to the ceiling and by using of bonding elements another Tworty Box can be joined up, thereby creating the full 40ft inside space. Operated as a single 20ft box the additional door remains locked, access is only through the existing standard door. Tworty Boxes do not require any additional components and fulfil all ISO and CSC requirements.

  3. Corrosion Evaluation of Tank 40 Leak Detection Box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.I.

    1999-07-29

    'Leak detection from the transfer lines in the tank farm has been a concern for many years because of the need to minimize exposure of personnel and contamination of the environment. The leak detection box (LDB) is one line of defense, which must be maintained to meet this objective. The evaluation of a failed LDB was one item from an action plan aimed at minimizing the degradation of LDBs. The Tank 40 LDB, which failed in service, was dug up and shipped to SRTC for evaluation. During a video inspection while in service, this LDB was found to have black tubercles on the interior, which suggested possible microbial involvement. The failure point, however, was believed to have occurred in the drain line from the transfer line jacket. Visual, metallurgical, and biological analyses were performed on the LDB. The analysis results showed that there was not any adverse microbiological growth or significant localized corrosion. The corrosion of the LDB was caused by exposure to aqueous environments and was typical of carbon steel pipes in soil environments.'

  4. Shearing Box Simulations of the MRI in a Collisionless Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Prateek; Hammett, Gregory W.; Quataert, Eliot; Stone, James M.

    2005-01-01

    We describe local shearing box simulations of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless plasma. Collisionless effects may be important in radiatively inefficient accretion flows, such as near the black hole in the Galactic Center. The MHD version of ZEUS is modified to evolve an anisotropic pressure tensor. A fluid closure approximation is used to calculate heat conduction along magnetic field lines. The anisotropic pressure tensor provides a qualitatively new mechanism for transporting angular momentum in accretion flows (in addition to the Maxwell and Reynolds stresses). We estimate limits on the pressure anisotropy due to pitch angle scattering by kinetic instabilities. Such instabilities provide an effective ''collision'' rate in a collisionless plasma and lead to more MHD-like dynamics. We find that the MRI leads to efficient growth of the magnetic field in a collisionless plasma, with saturation amplitudes comparable to those in MHD. In the saturated state, the anisotropic stress is comparable to the Maxwell stress, implying that the rate of angular momentum transport may be moderately enhanced in a collisionless plasma

  5. The applicability of a multitask boxing program using the BoxMaster ® for Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Domingos, Josefa; Loureiro, Rita; Godinho, Catarina; Dean, John; Ferreira, Joaquim J.

    2016-01-01

    Poster presented at the 4th World Parkinson Congress. Portland, Oregon, 20-23 September 2016 "Objective: To test the applicability of a multitasking boxing program using the BoxMaster® in individuals with Parkinson’s disease that combines motor, cognitive and vocal exercises." N/A

  6. Essential and distinct roles of the F-box and helicase domains of Fbh1 in DNA damage repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinagawa Hideo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are induced by exogenous insults such as ionizing radiation and chemical exposure, and they can also arise as a consequence of stalled or collapsed DNA replication forks. Failure to repair DSBs can lead to genomic instability or cell death and cancer in higher eukaryotes. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbh1 gene encodes an F-box DNA helicase previously described to play a role in the Rhp51 (an orthologue of S. cerevisiae RAD51-dependent recombinational repair of DSBs. Fbh1 fused to GFP localizes to discrete nuclear foci following DNA damage. Results To determine the functional roles of the highly conserved F-box and helicase domains, we have characterized fbh1 mutants carrying specific mutations in these domains. We show that the F-box mutation fbh1-fb disturbs the nuclear localization of Fbh1, conferring an fbh1 null-like phenotype. Moreover, nuclear foci do not form in fbh1-fb cells with DNA damage even if Fbh1-fb is targeted to the nucleus by fusion to a nuclear localization signal sequence. In contrast, the helicase mutation fbh1-hl causes the accumulation of Fbh1 foci irrespective of the presence of DNA damage and confers damage sensitivity greater than that conferred by the null allele. Additional mutation of the F-box alleviates the hypermorphic phenotype of the fbh1-hl mutant. Conclusion These results suggest that the F-box and DNA helicase domains play indispensable but distinct roles in Fbh1 function. Assembly of the SCFFbh1 complex is required for both the nuclear localization and DNA damage-induced focus formation of Fbh1 and is therefore prerequisite for the Fbh1 recombination function.

  7. Design of strong wooden box coated with fiberglass reinforced resin for shipping and burial of contaminated glove boxes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of al bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; and (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. This attachment contains design of strong wooden box coated with fiberglass reinforced resin for shipping and burial of contaminated glove boxes

  8. Arabidopsis AtbHLH112 regulates the expression of genes involved in abiotic stress tolerance by binding to their E-box and GCG-box motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujia; Ji, Xiaoyu; Nie, Xianguang; Qu, Min; Zheng, Lei; Tan, Zilong; Zhao, Huimin; Huo, Lin; Liu, Shengnan; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Yucheng

    2015-08-01

    Plant basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play essential roles in abiotic stress tolerance. However, most bHLHs have not been functionally characterized. Here, we characterized the functional role of a bHLH transcription factor from Arabidopsis, AtbHLH112, in response to abiotic stress. AtbHLH112 is a nuclear-localized protein, and its nuclear localization is induced by salt, drought and abscisic acid (ABA). In addition, AtbHLH112 serves as a transcriptional activator, with the activation domain located at its N-terminus. In addition to binding to the E-box motifs of stress-responsive genes, AtbHLH112 binds to a novel motif with the sequence 'GG[GT]CC[GT][GA][TA]C' (GCG-box). Gain- and loss-of-function analyses showed that the transcript level of AtbHLH112 is positively correlated with salt and drought tolerance. AtbHLH112 mediates stress tolerance by increasing the expression of P5CS genes and reducing the expression of P5CDH and ProDH genes to increase proline levels. AtbHLH112 also increases the expression of POD and SOD genes to improve reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability. We present a model suggesting that AtbHLH112 is a transcriptional activator that regulates the expression of genes via binding to their GCG- or E-boxes to mediate physiological responses, including proline biosynthesis and ROS scavenging pathways, to enhance stress tolerance. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Stereotaxic external irradiation for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.H.; Fayos, J.V.; Houdek, P.V.; Landy, H.; Van Buren, J.

    1987-01-01

    A system has been developed to deliver precision radiation therapy to a limited volume of brain tissue. A CT-compatible nonmetallic headband, or ''halo,'' is secured to the skull with screw pins. A metal frame attached to the CT couch and the patient's head is secured to the couch by temporarily affixing the halo to the frame. A CT scan is obtained to determine the x,y,z coordinates of the brain lesion. The same halo, frame, and coordinates are used in daily treatment with 10-MVX accelerator and a coplanar arc rotation technique. Field size is determined to cover the target volume with the 90% isodose line. Verification films are obtained twice a week. On completion of treatment, the halo is removed. From December 1982 to January 1986, 14 patients were treated with this system. Six had pituitary tumors, two had craniopharyngiomas, and six had astrocytomas. The dose delivered ranged from 3,600 rad in 12 fractions to 6,250 rad in 25 fractions at a rate of one fraction per day, 5 days a week. Judging from the verification films, daily administration of intended radiation was extremely good. Superficial infection of the screw-pin sites healed without sequelae. All patients were alive at the last follow-up. This system is relatively simple yet able to deliver precision irradiation without any remarkable complications

  10. Boxes of Model Building and Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Dušan

    2017-01-01

    Macromolecular crystallography and electron microscopy (single-particle and in situ tomography) are merging into a single approach used by the two coalescing scientific communities. The merger is a consequence of technical developments that enabled determination of atomic structures of macromolecules by electron microscopy. Technological progress in experimental methods of macromolecular structure determination, computer hardware, and software changed and continues to change the nature of model building and visualization of molecular structures. However, the increase in automation and availability of structure validation are reducing interactive manual model building to fiddling with details. On the other hand, interactive modeling tools increasingly rely on search and complex energy calculation procedures, which make manually driven changes in geometry increasingly powerful and at the same time less demanding. Thus, the need for accurate manual positioning of a model is decreasing. The user's push only needs to be sufficient to bring the model within the increasing convergence radius of the computing tools. It seems that we can now better than ever determine an average single structure. The tools work better, requirements for engagement of human brain are lowered, and the frontier of intellectual and scientific challenges has moved on. The quest for resolution of new challenges requires out-of-the-box thinking. A few issues such as model bias and correctness of structure, ongoing developments in parameters defining geometric restraints, limitations of the ideal average single structure, and limitations of Bragg spot data are discussed here, together with the challenges that lie ahead.

  11. Non-signaling boxes and quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylec, T I; Kuś, M

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantum logic approach we analyze the structure of the so-called non-signaling theories respecting relativistic causality, but allowing correlations violating bounds imposed by quantum mechanics such as CHSH inequality. We discuss the relations among such theories, quantum mechanics, and classical physics. Our main result is the construction of a probability theory adequate for the simplest instance of a non-signaling theory—the two non-signaling boxes world—in which we exhibit its differences in comparison with classical and quantum probabilities. We show that the question of whether such a theory can be treated as a kind of ‘generalization’ of the quantum theory of the two-qubit system cannot be answered positively. Some of its features put it closer to the quantum world—on the one hand, for example, the measurements are destructive, though on the other hand the Heisenberg uncertainty relations are not satisfied. Another interesting property contrasting it from quantum mechanics is that the subset of ‘classically correlated states’, i.e. the states with only classical correlations, does not reproduce the classical world of the two two-state systems. Our results establish a new link between quantum information theory and the well-developed theory of quantum logics. (paper)

  12. Opening up a Colourful Cosmic Jewel Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The combination of images taken by three exceptional telescopes, the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal , the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, has allowed the stunning Jewel Box star cluster to be seen in a whole new light. Star clusters are among the most visually alluring and astrophysically fascinating objects in the sky. One of the most spectacular nestles deep in the southern skies near the Southern Cross in the constellation of Crux. The Kappa Crucis Cluster, also known as NGC 4755 or simply the "Jewel Box" is just bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It was given its nickname by the English astronomer John Herschel in the 1830s because the striking colour contrasts of its pale blue and orange stars seen through a telescope reminded Herschel of a piece of exotic jewellery. Open clusters [1] such as NGC 4755 typically contain anything from a few to thousands of stars that are loosely bound together by gravity. Because the stars all formed together from the same cloud of gas and dust their ages and chemical makeup are similar, which makes them ideal laboratories for studying how stars evolve. The position of the cluster amongst the rich star fields and dust clouds of the southern Milky Way is shown in the very wide field view generated from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 data. This image also includes one of the stars of the Southern Cross as well as part of the huge dark cloud of the Coal Sack [2]. A new image taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the cluster and its rich surroundings in all their multicoloured glory. The large field of view of the WFI shows a vast number of stars. Many are located behind the dusty clouds of the Milky Way and therefore appear red [3]. The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) allows a much closer look at the cluster itself. The telescope's huge mirror

  13. Breaking open the set top box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, David; Wiley, Anthony; Catania, Nicolas; Coles, Alastair N.; Smith, Duncan; Baynham, Simon; Deliot, Eric; Chidzey, Rod

    1998-02-01

    In this paper we describe the work being done at HP Labs Bristol in the area of home networks and gateways. This work is based on the idea of breaking open the set top box by physically separating the access network specific functions from the application specific functions. The access network specific functions reside in an access network gateway that can be shared by many end user devices. The first section of the paper present the philosophy behind this approach. The end user devices and the access network gateways must be interconnected by a high bandwidth network which can offer a bounded delay service for delay sensitive traffic. We are advocating the use of IEEE 1394 for this network, and the next section of the paper gives a brief introduction to this technology. We then describe a prototype digital video broadcasting satellite compliant gateway that we have built. This gateway could be used, for example, by a PC for receiving a data service or by a digital TV for receiving an MPEG-2 video service. A control architecture is the presented which uses a PC application to provide a web based user interface to the system. Finally, we provide details of our work on extending the reach of IEEE 1394 and its standardization status.

  14. Magnetorotational Instability: Nonmodal Growth and the Relationship of Global Modes to the Shearing Box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Squire, A Bhattacharjee [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We study the magnetorotational instability (MRI) (Balbus & Hawley 1998) using non-modal stability techniques.Despite the spectral instability of many forms of the MRI, this proves to be a natural method of analysis that is well-suited to deal with the non-self-adjoint nature of the linear MRI equations. We find that the fastest growing linear MRI structures on both local and global domains can look very diff erent to the eigenmodes, invariably resembling waves shearing with the background flow (shear waves). In addition, such structures can grow many times faster than the least stable eigenmode over long time periods, and be localized in a completely di fferent region of space. These ideas lead – for both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modes – to a natural connection between the global MRI and the local shearing box approximation. By illustrating that the fastest growing global structure is well described by the ordinary diff erential equations (ODEs) governing a single shear wave, we find that the shearing box is a very sensible approximation for the linear MRI, contrary to many previous claims. Since the shear wave ODEs are most naturally understood using non-modal analysis techniques, we conclude by analyzing local MRI growth over finite time-scales using these methods. The strong growth over a wide range of wave-numbers suggests that non-modal linear physics could be of fundamental importance in MRI turbulence (Squire & Bhattacharjee 2014).

  15. On the channel box for the fuel bundle of BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Hiroomi; Yamamoto, Takeo

    1976-01-01

    Channel boxes play the important roles of making coolant flow uniform and protecting fuel rods as the component of fuel assemblies for BWRs. About ten years ago, the domestic production of channel boxes was first investigated, and now, the original technology has been developed, and the channel boxes sufficiently satisfying the required quality can be produced. The actual experience by being charged in reactors has also been accumulated. At present, the supply capacity is almost sufficient to meet the domestic demand, and the future increase of demand can be dealt with promptly. The channel boxes are made of Zircaloy-4 plates which are favorable in view of neutron absorption, and are the boxes with 138 mm hollow square section, 2 mm thickness, and 4240 mm length. Two channels were welded together and made into a box. In order to eliminate the residual stress caused during the manufacture, high temperature heating with an electric furnace was adopted. The measurement of dimensions and the inspection of appearance of the channel boxes after irradiation proved that they were rather superior to imported ones. The production processes, the system for the quality guarantee, and the quality control in the Kobe Steel Ltd. are explained. The test and inspection are carried out at the time of accepting outside products, before starting the production, after the completion of longitudinal welding and after the completion of production. (Kako, I.)

  16. Evaluation method for the deformation of channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaoka, Noriyuki; Kumahora, Hiroki; Miki, Kazuyoshi.

    1990-01-01

    In a BWR type nuclear reactor, a channel box undergoes creep deformation due to the effects of a pressure difference between inside and outside of the channel box and a reactor water temperature, which is accelerated by the irradiation of radiation rays and the extent of which depends on the loading position. Then, there are provided a step of determining the extent of the deformation of the channel box in a burning period in the past, a step of setting the loading position for the channel box in the reactor core, a step of forecasting the extent of the deformation of the channel box based on the data of reactor core characteristics, the date of the physical properties of the materials and the shape of the channel box, the data of the loading pattern of fuel assemblies and the extent of deformation, and a step of estimating whether the forecast deforming extent is within an allowable range or not. As a result, the deforming extent for each of the channel boxes can be forecast and, accordingly, the interference with the control rods can be estimated accurately. (N.H.)

  17. A new box system for a high pressure tritium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, S.W.; Borree, R.J.; Chambers, D.I.; Souers, P.C.; Merrill, J.T.; Wiggins, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A 200 MPa (30 kpsi) high pressure tritium pump inside a box system is described. This system is currently under construction but all representative mechanical parts have been fabricated and tested. The pump is a conventional mechanical-plus-cryostaged system, so that most of the interesting features are in the box. The system contains nine separate sections, with automatic pressure balancing and venting systems. Five sections are hood-to-box convertible enclosures with inflatable door seals. The procedure of cryostaging with liquid argon is described. Special detail is given to valves and motor shaft seals. 3 refs., 4 figs

  18. Scattering phaseshift formulas for mesons and baryons in elongated boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Frank X.; Alexandru, Andrei

    2018-03-01

    We derive Lüscher phaseshift formulas for two-particle states in boxes elongated in one of the dimensions. Such boxes offer a cost-effective way of varying the relative momentum of the particles. Boosted states in the elongated direction, which allow wider access to energies, are also considered. The formulas for the various scenarios (moving and zero-momentum states in cubic and elongated boxes) are compared and relations between them are clarified. The results are applicable to a wide set of meson-meson and meson-baryon elastic scattering processes, with the two-particle system having equal or unequal masses.

  19. Security of the AES with a Secret S-Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiessen, Tyge; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Kölbl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    How does the security of the AES change when the S-box is replaced by a secret S-box, about which the adversary has no knowledge? Would it be safe to reduce the number of encryption rounds? In this paper, we demonstrate attacks based on integral cryptanalysis which allow to recover both the secret...... key and the secret S-box for respectively four, five, and six rounds of the AES. Despite the significantly larger amount of secret information which an adversary needs to recover, the attacks are very efficient with time/data complexities of 217/216, 238/240 and 290/264, respectively. Another...

  20. [Boxing-related cranial injury in children: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, S; Rougeau, T; Grevent, D; Chéron, G

    2012-11-01

    No pediatric recommendations exist in France on the exercise of boxing by children and adolescents despite the risk of traumatic injury, sometimes serious. We report the case of a 15-year-old boy who participated in amateur boxing and had a subdural hematoma. Brain injuries and concussions are frequent and multiple. Severity is not always correlated with the intensity of the blows. There are age-related features. Several international medical organizations oppose boxing for children and adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Design of housing file box of fire academy based on RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaiyi

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a design scheme of intelligent file box based on RFID. The advantages of RFID file box and traditional file box are compared and analyzed, and the feasibility of RFID file box design is analyzed based on the actual situation of our university. After introducing the shape and structure design of the intelligent file box, the paper discusses the working process of the file box, and explains in detail the internal communication principle of the RFID file box and the realization of the control system. The application of the RFID based file box will greatly improve the efficiency of our school's archives management.

  2. The AirQuality SenseBox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Dustin; Nuest, Daniel; Bröring, Arne; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-04-01

    In the past year, a group of open hardware enthusiasts and citizen scientists had large success in the crowd-funding of an open hardware-based sensor platform for air quality monitoring, called the Air Quality Egg. Via the kickstarter platform, the group was able to collect triple the amount of money than needed to fulfill their goals. Data generated by the Air Quality Egg is pushed to the data logging platform cosm.com, which makes the devices a part of the Internet of Things. The project aims at increasing the participation of citizens in the collection of data, the development of sensors, the operation of sensor stations, and, as data on cosm is publicly available, the sharing, visualization and analysis of data. Air Quality Eggs can measure NO2 and CO concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature. The chosen sensors are low-cost and have limited precision and accurracy. The Air Quality Egg consists of a stationary outdoor and a stationary indoor unit. Each outdoor unit will wirelessly transmit air quality measurements to the indoor unit, which forwards the data to cosm. Most recent versions of the Air Quality Egg allow a rough calibration of the gas sensors and on-the-fly conversion from raw sensor readings (impedance) to meaningful air quality data expressed in units of parts per billion. Data generated by these low-cost platforms are not intended to replace well-calibrated official monitoring stations, but rather augment the density of the total monitoring network with citizen sensors. To improve the usability of the Air Quality Egg, we present a new and more advanced concept, called the AirQuality SenseBox. We made the outdoor platform more autonomous and location-aware by adding solarpanels and rechargeable batteries as a power source. The AirQuality SenseBox knows its own position from a GPS device attached to the platform. As a mobile sensor platform, it can for instance be attached to vehicles. A low-cost and low-power wireless chipset

  3. Numerical study on shear resisting mechanism for corroded RC box culverts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toyofumi; Matsumura, Takuro; Iwamori, Akiyuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of reinforcing steel corrosion on the shear resisting mechanism of RC box culverts and the applicability of the material degradation model in a finite element method. First, in FEM analyses, loss of reinforcement section area and initial tension strain due to reinforcement corrosion, and deteriorated bond characteristics between reinforcement and concrete, were considered. Second, cyclic loading tests using full-scale corroded specimens were numerically analyzed. The analyzed crack patterns and load-displacement relationships up to the maximum load were observed to be in close agreement with the experiment results within the average corrosion ratio of 10% of primary reinforcement. The fact that corrosion cracks can importantly affect the progression of shear cracks and shear strength of RC beams was also found. On the other hand, we established that RC box culverts being statically indeterminate structures, sectional forces are redistributed after cracking damage, and local material deterioration has a minor effect on shear capacity. Furthermore, a parametric study was carried out for corroded RC box culverts using parameters such as size, steel corrosion location, and corrosion level. (author)

  4. Trial manufacture of portable type `WISH BOX`; Kahangata WISH BOX no shisaku kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I; Sakuma, H; Qin, W [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan); Onai, Y

    1996-10-27

    This paper proposes the small portable type power source `WISH BOX` (wind and solar hybrid) composed of a small wind power generator and solar cell panels. Since solar radiation and wind power are complementary to each other in seasons, day and night, and fine and cloudy weather, WISH BOX is useful for standalone power source in non-power areas of developing countries, life spot in disasters, and outdoor leisure. The most small light-weight high-performance AIR303 produced by Southwest Windpower Co., USA is used as wind power generator, and two 50W solar cell panels HSC-5010-S produced by Daido Hokusan Co. is used. Sealed lead storage batteries (12V, 20Ah each) are also connected to cope with load fluctuation. In comparison with conventional portable gasoline engine generators, this environment-friendly generator is featured by fuel-free, no emission of gases, no noises and no fire occurrence, and can also supply stable power with small batteries even in the nighttime and cloudy weather by combining wind power. The generator of 400,000 yen is now in field experiment. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Earthquake resistance test of full-scale glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Ohtani, K.; Hayashi, M.; Kozeki, M.; Ide, T.; Sakuno, K.

    1989-01-01

    A glove box used at nuclear facilities must confine radioactive materials. High airtightness and negative internal pressure are used to prevent leaks. The allowable leakage rate of air is 0.1% vol/hr or less at the pre-service inspection. The negative pressure value is kept at - 30 mm H 2 O in normal operation. The glove box structural strength and its confinement reliability during an earthquake are major concerns. The verification of aseismic analysis methods and assumptions for a glove box are thus of great importance. Data on the dynamic behavior of giant glove boxes was recently obtained in large shaker experiments. This paper describes these experimental results and the appropriateness of aseismic analysis methods used in current design

  6. Experts’ Misinterpretation of Box Plots – a Dual Processing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that students often misinterpret the area of the box in box plots as representing the frequency or proportion of observations in that interval, while it actually represents density. This misinterpretation has been shown to be based on the saliency of this area and can be explained by heuristic reasoning as defined by dual process theories. In this study we tested whether expert users of box plots also display this misinterpretation and show signs of the same heuristic reasoning as found in students. Using a reaction time test, we found signs of heuristic reasoning in experts, both with respect to accuracy and reaction times. If even experts have difficulty interpreting box plots, one can question whether these are an appropriate form of representation to use when reporting data and deserve the prominent place they currently have in the statistics curriculum.

  7. EPA EcoBox Tools by Exposure Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  8. EPA EcoBox Tools by Exposure Pathways - Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  9. EPA EcoBox Tools by Exposure Pathways - Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  10. Radiotheraphy of tumors of osseus box of encephalos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra e Oliveira, V.; Morales, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    A revision of malignant pathology involving the osseous box of encephalos (and base of skull), their peculiarities, histological patterns and used treatment plans are made. The frequency of pathology and the clinical behaviour are showed. (Author) [pt

  11. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing

    OpenAIRE

    Gartland, S; Malik, M; Lovell, M

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo.

  12. 75 FR 71642 - Group E Post Office Box Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ...: PART 111--[AMENDED] 1. The authority citation for 39 CFR part 111 continues to read as follows... box units, apartment style receptacles, mailrooms, or clusters of roadside receptacles. 3. Locations...

  13. Confirmation test on confinement performance of improved glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, S.; Kanazawa, J.; Nakajima, M.; Sakuno, K.; Miyata, H.

    1995-01-01

    Glove boxes are used at nuclear facilities to confine radioactive materials by ensuring a high level of airtightness and negative internal pressure. The allowable rate of air leakage is 0.1% vol/hr or less at the pre-service inspection. The negative pressure value is normally maintained at about -30 mm H 2 O. Structural strength and confinement reliability of glove boxes during earthquake are major concerns, and most important glove boxes are designed to withstand seismic class A events is Japan. This paper describes vibration tests done to confirm that improve large-sized glove boxes maintain their confinement performance and structural strength even during earthquake and that the design analysis methods used are appropriate. (author). 1 ref., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Fusion welded fabrication of unshielded steel glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This Specification deals with the manufacture, testing, inspection and delivery of fabricated glove boxes, including such internal and/or external fittings as are shown on the relevant drawings. (author)

  15. Decorated-box-diagram contributions to Bhabha scattering. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeldt, G.; Osland, P.

    1994-01-01

    We evaluate, in the light-energy limit, s>>vertical stroke tvertical stroke >>m 2 >>λ 2 , the sum of amplitudes corresponding to a class of Feynman diagrams describing two-loop virtual photonic corrections to Bhabha scattering. The diagrams considered are box and crossed-box diagrams with an extra photon decorating one of the fermion lines. The mathematical method employed is that of Mellin transforms. In the eikonal approximation, this sum of two-loop amplitudes has previously been evaluated, and found to be equal to the sum of the box and crossed-box amplitudes, multiplied by the electric form factor of the electron. We obtain a similar factorization, but with the form factor replaced by another expression involving the logarithms log(λ 2 /m 2 ) and log(λ 2 /vertical stroke tvertical stroke ). (orig.)

  16. Experimental study of multipurpose solar hot box at Freiburg, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandwani, S.S. [Iowa State University, Ames (United States). International Inst. of Theoretical and Applied Physics; Steinhart, J.; Henning, H.M.; Rommel, M.; Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    With the aim to test an compare some properties of materials and common geometries that are used for designing solar cookers, water heaters, etc. we have made a solar hot box with two similar compartments. In the present study this hot box has been used for, (a) comparing the behavior of a metallic slab filled with a phase change material for short term heat storage, with a conventional absorbing sheet, (b) the use of a selectively coated, as compared to a normal black painted, cooking pot, and (c) for finding the overall heat loss coefficient and thermal capacity of the box. Experiments with the solar hot box will yield valuable information on solar systems that are to be constructed. Besides its use for research this multi-purpose device has been used both to pasteurize up to 14-16 l of water and for cooking. (author)

  17. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  18. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  19. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Stressors in ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  20. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Biological

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  1. Boxing: medical care in and out of the ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrell, Robert C

    2007-10-01

    Boxing may well be the oldest sport known to mankind and probably the most controversial. Injuries are common in boxing, occurring most often to the head, neck, face, and hands. Brain injury, both acute and chronic, is the major risk for potential catastrophe. Medical care for the boxer extends beyond the competition in the boxing ring; the ringside physician is responsible for protecting both boxers and must make quick decisions about their continued participation based upon a limited examination. A thorough knowledge of the rules and regulations of boxing is necessary for the ringside physician to effectively care for the athlete. In spite of the perceived brutality associated with the sport, most injuries are minor, although serious injuries and deaths do occur, most commonly due to brain injury. Given the potential for catastrophic injury, the ringside physician must be prepared and equipped to care for the boxer.

  2. Box photosynthesis modeling results for WRF/CMAQ LSM

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Box Photosynthesis model simulations for latent heat and ozone at 6 different FLUXNET sites. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Ran, L., J....

  3. Design, architecture and implementation of a residential energy box management tool in a SmartGrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioakimidis, Christos S.; Oliveira, Luís J.; Genikomsakis, Konstantinos N.; Dallas, Panagiotis I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the EB (energy box) concept in the context of the V2G (vehicle-to-grid) technology to address the energy management needs of a modern residence, considering that the available infrastructure includes micro-renewable energy sources in the form of solar and wind power, the electricity loads consist of “smart” and conventional household appliances, while the battery of an EV (electric vehicle) plays the role of local storage. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective DSP (dynamic stochastic programming) model in order to maximize comfort and lifestyle preferences and minimize cost. Combining the DSP model that controls the EB operation with a neural network based approach for simulating the thermal model of a building, a set of scenarios are examined to exemplify the applicability of the proposed energy management tool. The EB is capable of working under real-time tariff and placing bids in electricity markets both as a stand-alone option and integrated in a SmartGrid paradigm, where a number of EBs are managed by an aggregator. The results obtained for the Portuguese tertiary electricity market indicate that this approach has the potential to compete as an ancillary service and sustain business with benefits for both the microgrid and residence occupants. - Highlights: • The energy box is a residential energy management tool in the context of V2G (vehicle-to-grid). • Multi-objective dynamic stochastic programming is used to model the energy box. • The energy box is working under real-time electricity pricing. • The proposed implementation is capable of placing bids in electricity markets. • The results indicate its potential to compete in the Portuguese tertiary market

  4. Fatigue Testing of Maglev-Hybrid Box Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-02

    04142009 3. DATES COVERED: (From - To) 23052006-14092008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fatigue Testing of Maglev -Hybrid Box Beam 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER NA...was previously built under collaboration between Maglev Inc. and Lehigh University. The girder was instrumented with strain gages and LVDT’s to monitor...report March 2,2009 Contract N00014-06-1-0872 Project: Fatigue Testing of Maglev -Hybrid Box Beam Prepared by Dr. J.L. Grenestedt and Dr. R. Sause

  5. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-08-27

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public.

  6. Dynamics of a single particle in a horizontally shaken box

    OpenAIRE

    Drossel, Barbara; Prellberg, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a particle in a horizontally and periodically shaken box as a function of the box parameters and the coefficient of restitution. For certain parameter values, the particle becomes regularly chattered at one of the walls, thereby loosing all its kinetic energy relative to that wall. The number of container oscillations between two chattering events depends in a fractal manner on the parameters of the system. In contrast to a vertically vibrated particle, for which chat...

  7. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public

  8. Boxing training for patients with Parkinson disease: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Stephanie A; Diehl, M Dyer; Staples, William H; Conn, Lindsay; Davis, Kendra; Lewis, Nicole; Schaneman, Katie

    2011-01-01

    A nontraditional form of exercise recently applied for patients with Parkinson disease (PD) is boxing training. The primary purpose of this case series is to describe the effects of disease severity and duration of boxing training (short term and long term) on changes in balance, mobility, and quality of life for patients with mild or moderate to severe PD. The feasibility and safety of the boxing training program also were assessed. Six patients with idiopathic PD attended 24 to 36 boxing training sessions for 12 weeks, with the option of continuing the training for an additional 24 weeks (a seventh patient attended sessions for only 4 weeks). The 90-minute sessions included boxing drills and traditional stretching, strengthening, and endurance exercises. Outcomes were tested at the baseline and after 12, 24, and 36 weeks of boxing sessions (12-, 24-, and 36-week tests). The outcome measures were the Functional Reach Test, Berg Balance Scale, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, Timed "Up & Go" Test, Six-Minute Walk Test, gait speed, cadence, stride length, step width, activities of daily living and motor examination subscales of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale, and Parkinson Disease Quality of Life Scale. Six patients completed all phases of the case series, showed improvements on at least 5 of the 12 outcome measures over the baseline at the 12-week test, and showed continued improvements at the 24- and 36-week tests. Patients with mild PD typically showed improvements earlier than those with moderate to severe PD. Despite the progressive nature of PD, the patients in this case series showed short-term and long-term improvements in balance, gait, activities of daily living, and quality of life after the boxing training program. A longer duration of training was necessary for patients with moderate to severe PD to show maximal training outcomes. The boxing training program was feasible and safe for these patients with PD.

  9. Standards and interdisciplinary treatment of boxing injuries of the head in professional boxing on the basis of an IBF World Championship Fight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragu, Adrian; Unglaub, Frank; Radomirovic, Sinisa; Schnürer, Stefan; Wagner, Walter; Horch, Raymund E; Hell, Berthold

    2010-12-01

    Boxing injuries are well known in hobby boxing as well as in professional boxing. Especially in professional boxing it is of great importance to implement and follow prevention-, diagnosis- and therapy-standards in order to prevent or at least to minimize injuries of the athlete. The utmost aim would be to establish international prevention-, diagnosis- and therapy-standards for boxing injuries in professional boxing. However, this aim is on a short run unrealistic, as there are too many different professional boxing organisations with different regulations. A realistic short term aim would be to develop a national standard in order to unify the management and medical treatment of boxing injuries in professional boxing. We present the management and interdisciplinary treatment of a professional boxer with a bilateral open fracture of the mandible during a middle weight IBF World Championship Fight. On the basis of this case we want to present and discuss the possibilities of an interdisciplinary and successful medical treatment. In order to prevent or minimize boxing injuries of professional boxers, annual MRI-Scans of the head and neck have to be performed as prevention standard. Furthermore, neurocognitive tests must be performed on a regular basis. Boxing injuries in professional boxing need an interdisciplinary, unbiased and complex analysis directly at the boxing ring. The treatment of the injuries should be only performed in medical centres and thus under constant parameters. The needed qualifications must be learned in mandatory national licence courses of boxing physicians, referees and promoters.

  10. Prediction of welding shrinkage deformation of bridge steel box girder based on wavelet neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yulong; Miao, Yunshui; Han, Jiaqi; Yan, Feiyun

    2018-05-01

    Aiming at the low accuracy of traditional forecasting methods such as linear regression method, this paper presents a prediction method for predicting the relationship between bridge steel box girder and its displacement with wavelet neural network. Compared with traditional forecasting methods, this scheme has better local characteristics and learning ability, which greatly improves the prediction ability of deformation. Through analysis of the instance and found that after compared with the traditional prediction method based on wavelet neural network, the rigid beam deformation prediction accuracy is higher, and is superior to the BP neural network prediction results, conform to the actual demand of engineering design.

  11. Closure of an analytical chemistry glove box in alpha laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelfang, P.; Aparicio, G.; Cassaniti, P.

    1990-01-01

    The works with plutonium are performed in gloves box, operated below atmospheric pressure, to protect the experimenters from this alpha-active material. After 12 years of continual processes, it was necessary the decommissioning of the chemistry glove box in our alpha-laboratory. A great deal of our attention was devoted to the working techniques because of extreme care needed to avoid activity release. The decommissioning includes the following main operations: a) Planning and documentation for the regulatory authority. b) Internal decontamination with surface cleaning and chelating agents. c) Measurement of the remainder internal radioactivity. d) Sealing of the glove ports and nozzles. e) Disconnection of the glove box from the exhaust duct. f) Design and construction of a container for the glove box. g) Transportation of the glove box from alpha-laboratory, to a transitory storage until its final disposal. The above mentioned operations are described in this paper including too: data of personal doses during the operations, characteristics and volumes of radioactive wastes and a description of the instrument used for the measurement of inside glove box activity. (Author) [es

  12. Construction of dry-boxes for plutonium metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grison, E.; Pascard, R.

    1958-01-01

    The dry-boxes used at Chatillon are of two main types: a) boxes with a metal frame work of welded angle-pieces, panels of plexiglass, bakelite, duralumin, etc... They include a standard panel which enables them to be connected up to the contaminated repairs workshop; b) boxes made entirely of welded plastic. The working face only is of plexiglas held by screw clamps to a pure rubber joint. These boxes, which cannot be connected to the contaminated workshop, are generally reserved for small pieces of chemical apparatus. None has yet been used for working under argon, although their airtightness is excellent. After an interval of several hours, in fact, no decrease in the pressure inside the box can be detected. Several means can be adopted to ensure that the joints between panels and mountings are absolutely air-tight. Up to the present we are using three types of box with metal framework at the same time, without being able to make a definitive choice. (author) [fr

  13. Striking dynamics and kinetic properties of boxing and MMA gloves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the growing popularity of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA as a competitive sport, questions regarding the dynamic response and properties of MMA gloves arise. High-energy impacts from punches are very similar to boxing yet MMA competition requires the use of 4 oz fingerless glove, compared to the larger full enclosure boxing glove. This work assessed the kinetic properties and strike dynamics of MMA gloves and compared findings with traditional boxing gloves. Gloves mounted on a molded fist were impacted repetitively on an instrumental anvil designed for impact, over a 5 hour period resulting in 10,000 continuous and consistent strikes. Kinetic data from impacts were sampled at the beginning of the data collection and subsequently every 30 minutes (every 1,000 strikes. MMA gloves produced 4-5 times greater peak force and 5 times faster load rate compared to the boxing glove. However, MMA gloves also showed signs of material fatigue, with peak force increasing by 35% and rate of loading increasing by 60% over the duration of the test. Boxing glove characteristics did deteriorate but to a lesser extent. In summary, the kinetic properties of MMA glove differed substantially from the boxing glove resulting in impacts characterized by higher peak forces and more rapid development of force. Material properties including stiffness and thickness play a role in the kinetic characteristics upon impact, and can be inferred to alter injury mechanisms of blunt force trauma.

  14. Air-tighten test for used glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Masanori; Kashiro, Kashio; Matsumoto, Masaki; Ogiya, Takashi; Nakata, Keiji; Gohda, Masahiko

    2000-05-01

    All of the glove boxes in Plutonium Fuel Fabrication facilities are operated after confirming their condition by conducting negative pressure maintenance test and air-tighten test. Although we check the negative pressure maintenance condition before operating glove boxes in a daily basis, we have not been conducted the air-tighten test. Hence, we have conduct air-tighten test using the glove box that will be dismantled in the near future. In order to compare the present data to the criteria of licensing and to the measurement data for new glove box, the test was conducted by leak tightness vessel which is used the competent authority's test for newly constructed equipments. We also have confirmed the leakage condition in case failure of keeping negative pressure. The main results are as follows: 1. No leakage was detected after leaving the glove box 21 days in case failure of keeping negative pressure condition. 2. The measurement result of the air-tighten test was 0.025 vol%/h, and it was confirmed that this result is within the range of licensing criteria (-0.04 - 0.06 vol%/h). 3. The measurement result was also within the error of leak tightness vessel, and it was confirmed that the air-tighten condition was in force within this past 10 years after installing this glove box (the corresponding value for used the competent authority test for newly constructed equipments was 0.019 vol%/h). (author)

  15. Jewelry boxes contaminated by Aspergillus oryzae: an occupational health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Roussel, Anaïs; Millon, Laurence; Delaforge, Marcel; Reboux, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, 100,000 jewelry boxes, manufactured in China, were delivered to a jewelry manufacturer in Besançon, France. All the boxes were contaminated by mold. Because the workers refused to handle these jewelry boxes, the company contacted our laboratory to determine how to deal with the problem. Three choices were available: (1) decontaminate the boxes, (2) return the boxes to the Chinese manufacturer, or (3) destroy the entire shipment. Based on microscopic identification, the culture analysis was positive for A. oryzae. This could not be confirmed by molecular techniques because of the genetic proximity of A. oryzae and A. flavus. Because A. flavus can produce aflatoxins, we tested for them using mass spectrometry. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1 were not detected; however, given the specifics of this situation, we could not discard the possibility of the presence of other aflatoxins, such as P1, B3, GM2, and ethoxyaflatoxin B2. We concluded that the contamination by A. oryzae was probably due to food products. However, because of the possible presence of aflatoxins, occupational health risks could not be entirely ruled out. The decision was therefore taken to destroy all the jewelry boxes by incineration. To avoid a similar situation we propose: (1) to maintain conditions limiting mold contamination during production (not eating on the work site, efficient ventilation systems); (2) to desiccate the products before sending them; and (3) to closely control the levels of dampness during storage and transport.

  16. Mechanical analysis of an assembly box with honeycomb structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbell, Heiko; Himmel, Steffen; Schulenberg, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Fuel assembly concepts for supercritical water cooled reactors have often been designed with assembly and moderator boxes to provide additional moderator water in the core in case of higher coolant temperatures. The fuel assembly considered here has been designed for the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) with three succeeding heat up steps, one evaporator and two superheater steps. The high coolant pressure drop of such a core design causes, however, a higher pressure difference across the box walls than those typically occurring in boiling water reactors. Hot, superheated steam conditions, on the other hand, require thermally insulated box walls rather than solid box walls to reduce heating of the moderator water. In this paper an innovative design for moderator- and assembly boxes is investigated which consists of an alumina filled stainless steel honeycomb structure, built as a sandwich design between two stainless steel liners. The liners in contact with the colder moderator water are perforated to lower the pressure load on the honeycomb structure. As a consequence, the alumina will be soaked with supercritical water causing stagnant flow conditions in the honeycomb cells. In comparison to solid box walls, the use of the presented design can provide the same stiffness but with a drastic reduction of structural material and thus less neutron absorption. Finite Element Analyses are used to verify the required stiffness, to identify stress concentrations, and to optimize the design. (author)

  17. Action Localization by Tubelets from Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, M.; van Gemert, J.; Jégou, H.; Bouthemy, P.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of action localization, where the objective is to determine when and where certain actions appear. We introduce a sampling strategy to produce 2D+t sequences of bounding boxes, called tubelets. Compared to state-of-the-art alternatives, this drastically reduces the

  18. Black box reactor core; Blackbox Reaktorkern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Angela; Simon, Armin

    2017-07-15

    In the NPPs Brokdorf and Grohnde the fuel rods corrode partially significantly more than allowed. The origin of the formation of thick oxide layers on several fuel rod claddings is still not clear. In the Swiss NPP Leibstadt similar findings occurred in 2016. The nuclear authority ENSI suspects that local dry-outs could cause the strong oxidation.

  19. Principal Investigator-in-a-Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Human performance in orbit is currently limited by several factors beyond the intrinsic awkwardness of motor control in weightlessness. Cognitive functioning can be affected by such factors as cumulative sleep loss, stress and the psychological effects of long-duration small-group isolation. When an astronaut operates a scientific experiment, the performance decrement associated with such factors can lead to lost or poor quality data and even the total loss of a scientific objective, at great cost to the sponsors and to the dismay of the Principal Investigator. In long-duration flights, as anticipated on the International Space Station and on any planetary exploration, the experimental model is further complicated by long delays between training and experiment, and the large number of experiments each crew member must perform. Although no documented studies have been published on the subject, astronauts report that an unusually large number of simple errors are made in space. Whether a result of the effects of microgravity, accumulated fatigue, stress or other factors, this pattern of increased error supports the need for a computerized decision-making aid for astronauts performing experiments. Artificial intelligence and expert systems might serve as powerful tools for assisting experiments in space. Those conducting space experiments typically need assistance exactly when the planned checklist does not apply. Expert systems, which use bits of human knowledge and human methods to respond appropriately to unusual situations, have a flexibility that is highly desirable in circumstances where an invariably predictable course of action/response does not exist. Frequently the human expert on the ground is unavailable, lacking the latest information, or not consulted by the astronaut conducting the experiment. In response to these issues, we have developed "Principal Investigator-in-a-Box," or [PI], to capture the reasoning process of the real expert, the Principal

  20. Meal box schemes a convenient way to avoid convenience food? Uses and understandings of meal box schemes among Danish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Frej Daniel; Halkier, Bente

    2017-07-01

    The term convenience food is subject to diversification, lack of clarity and moral ambiguity. In this paper we address these issues and critically discuss convenience food by using empirical findings from a Danish study that deals with practitioners' uses of meal box schemes. The methodological design consists of thirteen individual interviews, four focus groups and some observations of cooking practices. We combine the empirical findings with a particular definition of convenience food by Brunner et al. (2010) and selected practice theoretical concepts. This particular combination enables us to categorize meal box schemes as a new form of convenience food called convenient food. In addition, results suggest that meal box schemes reduce leftovers from dinner. Meal boxes also influence dinner related activities such as planning ahead in time and grocery shopping, which require less physical and mental effort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fuel assembly, channel box of fuel assembly, fuel spacer of fuel assembly and method of manufacturing channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Nishida, Koji; Kawasaki, Terufumi.

    1997-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor, fuel rods disposed at corners of side walls of a channel box or in the periphery of the side walls are partially removed, and recessed portions are formed on the side walls of the channel box from which the fuel rods are removed. Spaces closed at the sides are formed in the inner side of the corner portions. Openings are formed for communicating the closed space with the outside of the channel box. Then, the channel area of the outer side of the channel box is increased, through which much water flows to increase the amount of water in the reactor core thereby promoting the moderation of neutrons and providing thermal neutrons suitable to nuclear fission. The degree of freedom for distribution of the spaces in the reactor core is increased to improve neutron economy thereby enabling to utilize reactor fuels effectively. (N.H.)

  2. Lessons learned from the blue box recycling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St Jacques, H. [Informa Market Research Co. Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The success of the Ontario Blue Box recycling program was described. The program, which was initiated by municipalities, is seen as a strong act for the environment which helps connect public behaviour with values. Canada produces the most waste per capita and is the second largest producer of greenhouse gases per capita. The program began in Kitchener, Ontario in 1981 in response to local pressure to take action to reduce waste. By 1998, 3,850,000 of 4,238,000 households in Ontario had access to the program with a participation rate of 90 per cent. In that year alone, 1,841,000 tonnes of household materials were recycled and diverted from the waste stream. The core materials that were initially collected at household curb sides were newsprint, glass containers, steel and aluminium cans. Apartment recycling was introduced as the program evolved but it is still a challenge to achieve recycling efficiencies in multi-unit residential buildings. The success of the program has been attributed to the fact that it was introduced at the right time and tapped into the strong desire to reduce the visible impact of consumerism. It provided a way to do an environmentally good thing with a minimum of inconvenience. Initially, the system was overwhelmed with an excess of recycled material and the closed loop system of the early days was full of gaps. Materials were stockpiled and waiting market development which would finally result in remanufacturing the recycled goods into new products. This part developed more slowly since market values priced virgin materials at lower costs. It was cautioned that this economic reality still applies and will not be corrected until full cost accounting is introduced. 4 tabs.

  3. Site in a box: Improving the Tier 3 experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dost, J. M.; Fajardo, E. M.; Jones, T. R.; Martin, T.; Tadel, A.; Tadel, M.; Würthwein, F.

    2017-10-01

    The Pacific Research Platform is an initiative to interconnect Science DMZs between campuses across the West Coast of the United States over a 100 gbps network. The LHC @ UC is a proof of concept pilot project that focuses on interconnecting 6 University of California campuses. It is spearheaded by computing specialists from the UCSD Tier 2 Center in collaboration with the San Diego Supercomputer Center. A machine has been shipped to each campus extending the concept of the Data Transfer Node to a cluster in a box that is fully integrated into the local compute, storage, and networking infrastructure. The node contains a full HTCondor batch system, and also an XRootD proxy cache. User jobs routed to the DTN can run on 40 additional slots provided by the machine, and can also flock to a common GlideinWMS pilot pool, which sends jobs out to any of the participating UCs, as well as to Comet, the new supercomputer at SDSC. In addition, a common XRootD federation has been created to interconnect the UCs and give the ability to arbitrarily export data from the home university, to make it available wherever the jobs run. The UC level federation also statically redirects to either the ATLAS FAX or CMS AAA federation respectively to make globally published datasets available, depending on end user VO membership credentials. XRootD read operations from the federation transfer through the nearest DTN proxy cache located at the site where the jobs run. This reduces wide area network overhead for subsequent accesses, and improves overall read performance. Details on the technical implementation, challenges faced and overcome in setting up the infrastructure, and an analysis of usage patterns and system scalability will be presented.

  4. Comparative Human and Automatic Evaluation of Glass-Box and Black-Box Approaches to Interactive Translation Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torregrosa Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactive translation prediction (ITP is a modality of computer-aided translation that assists professional translators by offering context-based computer-generated continuation suggestions as they type. While most state-of-the-art ITP systems follow a glass-box approach, meaning that they are tightly coupled to an adapted machine translation system, a black-box approach which does not need access to the inner workings of the bilingual resources used to generate the suggestions has been recently proposed in the literature: this new approach allows new sources of bilingual information to be included almost seamlessly. In this paper, we compare for the first time the glass-box and the black-box approaches by means of an automatic evaluation of translation tasks between related languages such as English–Spanish and unrelated ones such as Arabic–English and English–Chinese, showing that, with our setup, 20%–50% of keystrokes could be saved using either method and that the black-box approach outperformed the glass-box one in five out of six scenarios operating under similar conditions. We also performed a preliminary human evaluation of English to Spanish translation for both approaches. On average, the evaluators saved 10% keystrokes and were 4% faster with the black-box approach, and saved 15% keystrokes and were 12% slower with the glass-box one; but they could have saved 51% and 69% keystrokes respectively if they had used all the compatible suggestions. Users felt the suggestions helped them to translate faster and easier. All the tools used to perform the evaluation are available as free/open–source software.

  5. Influence of dimension box differences and time differences during operations of red box for motorcycles at signalized intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyadi, Agah Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Performance of signalized intersection has declined due to a large number of motorcycles. The number of motorcycles reached 98.2 million units and the composition of motorcycles has reached around 81.7% of the total composition of vehicles in Indonesia (AISI, 2017). To solve that problem, the red box for motorcycles are provided at the signalized intersection. Red box for the motorcycle at signalized intersections was developed from the concept of Advance Stop Line (ASL) for bicycles. The Red Box was developed to split the queue between motorcycles and other vehicles when waiting at red light. This paper aims to evaluate the influence of the red box dimension and red time operation differences. The survey was conducted as many as 30 cycles of traffic signals per day. The data were analyzed using software IBM SPSS Statistics 20 by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to obtain p-value (significant). The analysis shows that there are insignificant influences between the occupancy rates to the dimension of Red Box. Furthermore, that there is a significant difference that shows the dependency of only motorcycles in the Red Box Area towards red time operation.

  6. Total Radiosynthesis: Thinking outside "the box".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Steven H; Vasdev, Neil

    2015-09-01

    The logic of total synthesis transformed a stagnant state of medicinal and synthetic organic chemistry when there was a paucity of methods and reagents to synthesize drug molecules and/or natural products. Molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) is now experiencing a renaissance in the way radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging are synthesized, however, a paradigm shift is desperately needed in the discovery pipeline to accelerate in vivo imaging studies. A significant challenge in radiochemistry is the limited choice of labeled reagents (or building blocks) available for the synthesis of novel radiopharmaceuticals with the most commonly used short-lived radionuclides carbon-11 ( 11 C; half-life ~20 minutes) and fluorine-18 ( 18 F; half-life ~2 hours). In fact, most drugs cannot be labeled with 11 C or 18 F due to a lack of efficient and diverse radiosynthetic methods. In general, routine radiopharmaceutical production relies on the incorporation of the isotope at the last or penultimate step of synthesis, ideally within one half-life of the radionuclide, to maximize radiochemical yields and specific activities thereby reducing losses due to radioactive decay. Reliance on radiochemistry conducted within the constraints of an automated synthesis unit ("box") has stifled the exploration of multi-step reactions with short-lived radionuclides. Radiopharmaceutical synthesis can be transformed by considering logic of total synthesis to develop novel approaches for 11 C- and 18 F-radiolabeling complex molecules via retrosynthetic analysis and multi-step reactions. As a result of such exploration, new methods, reagents and radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo imaging studies are discovered. A new avenue to develop radiotracers that were previously unattainable due to the lack of efficient radiosynthetic methods is necessary to work towards our ultimate, albeit impossible goal - the concept we term total radiosynthesis - to radiolabel virtually any molecule

  7. In vivo mapping of the functional regions of the DEAD-box helicase Vasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Dehghani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The maternally expressed Drosophila melanogaster DEAD-box helicase Vasa (Vas is necessary for many cellular and developmental processes, including specification of primordial germ cells (pole cells, posterior patterning of the embryo, piRNA-mediated repression of transposon-encoded mRNAs, translational activation of gurken (grk mRNA, and completion of oogenesis itself. Vas protein accumulates in the perinuclear nuage in nurse cells soon after their specification, and then at stage 10 Vas translocates to the posterior pole plasm of the oocyte. We produced a series of transgenic constructs encoding eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations affecting different regions of the protein, and analyzed in vivo which Vas functions each could support. We identified novel domains in the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein that are essential for localization, transposon repression, posterior patterning, and pole cell specification. One such functional region, the most C-terminal seven amino acids, is specific to Vas orthologues and is thus critical to distinguishing Vas from other closely related DEAD-box helicases. Surprisingly, we also found that many eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations that would be expected to abrogate DEAD-box helicase function localized to the nuage and posterior pole, and retained the capacity to support oogenesis, although they did not function in embryonic patterning, pole cell specification, grk activation, or transposon repression. We conclude from these experiments that Vas, a multifunctional protein, uses different domains and different molecular associations to carry out its various cellular and developmental roles.

  8. A novel method to design S-box based on chaotic map and genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yong; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Li, Changbing; Li, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The substitution box (S-box) is an important component in block encryption algorithms. In this Letter, the problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem and a method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm is proposed. Since the proposed method makes full use of the traits of chaotic map and evolution process, stronger S-box is obtained. The results of performance test show that the presented S-box has good cryptographic properties, which justify that the proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes. -- Highlights: ► The problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem. ► We present a new method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm. ► The proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes.

  9. A novel method to design S-box based on chaotic map and genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong, E-mail: wangyong_cqupt@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Laboratory of Electronic Commerce and Logistics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Wong, Kwok-Wo [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Li, Changbing [Key Laboratory of Electronic Commerce and Logistics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Li, Yang [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mapping Street, S1 3DJ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-30

    The substitution box (S-box) is an important component in block encryption algorithms. In this Letter, the problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem and a method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm is proposed. Since the proposed method makes full use of the traits of chaotic map and evolution process, stronger S-box is obtained. The results of performance test show that the presented S-box has good cryptographic properties, which justify that the proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes. -- Highlights: ► The problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem. ► We present a new method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm. ► The proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes.

  10. Cdc20 mediates D-box-dependent degradation of Sp100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ran; Li, Ke-min; Zhou, Cai-hong; Xue, Jing-lun [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ji, Chao-neng, E-mail: Chnji@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Jin-zhong, E-mail: kingbellchen@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc20 is a co-activator of APC/C complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc20 recruits Sp100 and mediates its degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The D-box of Sp100 is required for Cdc20-mediated degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sp100 expresses consistently at both the mRNA and protein levels in cell cycle. -- Abstract: Cdc20 is a co-activator of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C complex), which recruits substrates at particular phases of the cell cycle and mediates their degradation. Sp100 is a PML-NB scaffold protein, which localizes to nuclear particles during interphase and disperses from them during mitosis, participates in viral resistance, transcriptional regulation, and apoptosis. However, its metabolism during the cell cycle has not yet been fully characterized. We found a putative D-box in Sp100 using the Eukaryotic Linear Motif (ELM) predictor database. The putative D-box of Sp100 was verified by mutational analysis. Overexpression of Cdc20 resulted in decreased levels of both endogenous Sp100 protein and overexpressed Sp100 mRNA in HEK 293 cells. Only an overexpressed D-box deletion mutant of Sp100 accumulated in HEK293 cells that also overexpressed Cdc20. Cdc20 knockdown by cdc20 specific siRNA resulted in increased Sp100 protein levels in cells. Furthermore, we discovered that the Cdc20 mediated degradation of Sp100 is diminished by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, which suggests that the ubiquitination pathway is involved in this process. However, unlike the other Cdc20 substrates, which display oscillating protein levels, the level of Sp100 protein remains constant throughout the cell cycle. Additionally, both overexpression and knockdown of endogenous Sp100 had no effect on the cell cycle. Our results suggested that sp100 is a novel substrate of Cdc20 and it is degraded by the ubiquitination pathway. The intact D-box of Sp100 was necessary for this process. These findings expand

  11. Cdc20 mediates D-box-dependent degradation of Sp100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ran; Li, Ke-min; Zhou, Cai-hong; Xue, Jing-lun; Ji, Chao-neng; Chen, Jin-zhong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cdc20 is a co-activator of APC/C complex. ► Cdc20 recruits Sp100 and mediates its degradation. ► The D-box of Sp100 is required for Cdc20-mediated degradation. ► Sp100 expresses consistently at both the mRNA and protein levels in cell cycle. -- Abstract: Cdc20 is a co-activator of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C complex), which recruits substrates at particular phases of the cell cycle and mediates their degradation. Sp100 is a PML-NB scaffold protein, which localizes to nuclear particles during interphase and disperses from them during mitosis, participates in viral resistance, transcriptional regulation, and apoptosis. However, its metabolism during the cell cycle has not yet been fully characterized. We found a putative D-box in Sp100 using the Eukaryotic Linear Motif (ELM) predictor database. The putative D-box of Sp100 was verified by mutational analysis. Overexpression of Cdc20 resulted in decreased levels of both endogenous Sp100 protein and overexpressed Sp100 mRNA in HEK 293 cells. Only an overexpressed D-box deletion mutant of Sp100 accumulated in HEK293 cells that also overexpressed Cdc20. Cdc20 knockdown by cdc20 specific siRNA resulted in increased Sp100 protein levels in cells. Furthermore, we discovered that the Cdc20 mediated degradation of Sp100 is diminished by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, which suggests that the ubiquitination pathway is involved in this process. However, unlike the other Cdc20 substrates, which display oscillating protein levels, the level of Sp100 protein remains constant throughout the cell cycle. Additionally, both overexpression and knockdown of endogenous Sp100 had no effect on the cell cycle. Our results suggested that sp100 is a novel substrate of Cdc20 and it is degraded by the ubiquitination pathway. The intact D-box of Sp100 was necessary for this process. These findings expand our knowledge of both Sp100 and Cdc20 as well as their role in ubiquitination.

  12. Energy savings assessment for digital-to-analog converter boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Hoi Ying; Meier, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes. - Research highlights: → We examined energy efficiency policies on digital-to-analog converter boxes in US. → The government assistance program resulted in high participation. → 35 million coupons were redeemed for the purchases of energy efficient DTAs. → Between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the policies. → Savings are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.

  13. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. Stephen Croft; Mr. David Martancik; Dr. Brian Young; Dr. Patrick MJ Chard; Dr. Robert J Estop; Sheila Melton; Gaetano J. Arnone

    2003-01-13

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.

  14. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, Stephen; Martancik, David; Young, Brian; Chard MJ, Patrick; Estop J, Robert; Sheila Melton; Arnone, Gaetano J.

    2003-01-01

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL

  15. Evaluation for rigidity of box construction of nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Tetsuo

    1979-01-01

    A huge box-shaped structure (hereafter, called box construction) of reinforced concrete is presently utilized as the reactor building structure in nuclear power plants. Evaluation of the rigidity of the huge box construction is required for making a vibration analysis model of nuclear reactor buildings. It is necessary to handle the box construction as the plates to which the force in plane is applied. This paper describes that the bending theory in elementary beam theory is equivalent to a peculiar, orthogonally anisotropic plate, the shearing rigidity and film rigidity in y direction of which are put to infinity and the Poisson's ratio is put to zero, viewed from the two-dimensional theory of elasticity. The form factor of 1.2 for shearing deformation in rectangular cross section was calculated from the parabolic distribution of shearing stress intensity, and it is the maximum value. The factor is equal to 1.2 for slender beams, but smaller than 1.2 for short and thick beams, having tendency to converge to 1.0. The non-conformity of boundary conditions regarding the shearing force at the both ends of cantilevers does not affect very seriously the evaluation of shearing rigidity. From the above results, it was found that the application of the theory to the box construction was able to give the rigidity evaluation with sufficient engineering accuracy. The theory can also be applied to the evaluation of tube type ultrahigh buildings. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Laparoscopic virtual reality simulator and box trainer in gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Ali; Sendağ, Fatih; Oztekin, Mehmet K

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether a virtual reality simulator (LapSim) and traditional box trainer are effective tools for the acquisition of basic laparoscopic skills, and whether the LapSim is superior to the box trainer in surgical education. In a study at Ege University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey, between September 2008 and March 2013, 40 first- and second-year residents were randomized to train via the LapSim or box trainer for 4 weeks, and 20 senior residents were allocated to a control group. All 3 groups performed laparoscopic bilateral tubal ligation. Video records of each operation were assessed via the general rating scale of the Objective Structured Assessment of Laparoscopic Salpingectomy and by operation time in seconds. Compared with the control group, the LapSim and box trainer groups performed significantly better in total score (Peducation. Training with a virtual reality simulator or box trainer should be considered before actual laparoscopic procedures are carried out. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, Robert [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lange, Rich [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance. Current Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) guidance (Group 11, Appendix 3, ACCA Manual D, Rutkowski 2009) allows for unconstrained variation in the number of takeoffs, box sizes, and takeoff locations. The only variables currently used in selecting an equivalent length (EL) are velocity of air in the duct and friction rate, given the first takeoff is located at least twice its diameter away from the inlet. This condition does not account for other factors impacting pressure loss across these types of fittings. For each simulation, the IBACOS team converted pressure loss within a box to an EL to compare variation in ACCA Manual D guidance to the simulated variation. IBACOS chose cases to represent flows reasonably correlating to flows typically encountered in the field and analyzed differences in total pressure due to increases in number and location of takeoffs, box dimensions, and velocity of air, and whether an entrance fitting is included. The team also calculated additional balancing losses for all cases due to discrepancies between intended outlet flows and natural flow splits created by the fitting. In certain asymmetrical cases, the balancing losses were significantly higher than symmetrical cases where the natural splits were close to the targets. Thus, IBACOS has shown additional design constraints that can ensure better system performance.

  18. Light box for investigation of characteristics of optoelectronics detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szreder, Agnieszka; Mazikowski, Adam

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a light box for investigation of characteristics of optoelectronic detectors is described. The light box consists of an illumination device, an optical power sensor and a mechanical enclosure. The illumination device is based on four types of high-power light emitting diodes (LED): white light, red, green and blue. The illumination level can be varied for each LED independently by the driver and is measured by optical power sensor. The mechanical enclosure provides stable mounting points for the illumination device, sensor and the examined detector and protects the system from external light, which would otherwise strongly influence the measurement results. Uniformity of illumination distribution provided by the light box for all colors is good, making the measurement results less dependent on the position of the examined detector. The response of optoelectronic detectors can be investigated using the developed light box for each LED separately or for any combination of up to four LED types. As the red, green and blue LEDs are rather narrow bandwidth sources, spectral response of different detectors can be examined for these wavelength ranges. The described light box can be used for different applications. Its primary use is in a student laboratory setup for investigation of characteristics of optoelectronic detectors. Moreover, it can also be used in various colorimetric or photographic applications. Finally, it will be used as a part of demonstrations from the fields of vision and color, performed during science fairs and outreach activities increasing awareness of optics and photonics.

  19. Injury rates and risk factors in competitive professional boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazryn, Tsharni R; McCrory, Paul R; Cameron, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    To determine injury rates and risk factors for injury in a cohort of professional boxers. Retrospective cohort design reporting on data collected for a fight statistics database maintained by the Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board of Victoria, Australia. Data were extracted for the years January 1997 through June 2005. Victoria, Australia. 545 professional boxers (age, 18 to 43 years) who participated in a total of 907 fights over the study period. Independent variables under investigation included age, gender, weight, bout exposure, and location of the bout (within or outside of the State of Victoria). Physician-reported acute boxing injuries occurring during bouts of any region or nature. 214 injuries were sustained over the 8.5 years, corresponding to an injury rate of 23.6 per 100 professional fights. The majority of these injuries were lacerations to the head and face. An increasing age and an increasing number of fights were both significant predictors of injury. Injury reduction strategies for professional boxing might include restrictions of eligibility to fight based on age and boxing bout exposure. Future research using prospective cohort designs and standardized injury definitions are needed to confirm these results. Greater mechanistic detail and more complete data entry are necessary to ensure that optimal injury prevention strategies can be developed and implemented. Upon confirmation of the results of this study, the Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board of Victoria may consider different criteria upon which to sanction a fight.

  20. Mortality resulting from head injury in professional boxing: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lissa C; Newman, C Benjamin; Volk, Hunter; Svinth, Joseph R; Conklin, Jordan; Levy, Michael L

    2010-08-01

    The majority of boxing-related fatalities result from traumatic brain injury. Biomechanical forces in boxing result in rotational acceleration with resultant subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injury. Given the inherent risk and the ongoing criticism boxing has received, we evaluated mortalities associated with professional boxing. We used the Velazquez Fatality Collection of boxing injuries and supplementary sources to analyze mortality from 1950 to 2007. Variables evaluated included age at time of death, association with knockout or other outcome of match, rounds fought, weight class, location of fight, and location of preterminal event. There were 339 mortalities between 1950 and 2007 (mean age, 24 +/- 3.8 years); 64% were associated with knockout and 15% with technical knockout. A higher percentage occurred in the lower weight classes. The preterminal event occurred in the ring (61%), in the locker room (17%), and outside the arena (22%). We evaluated for significant changes after 1983 when championship bouts were reduced from 15 to 12 rounds. There was a significant decline in mortality after 1983. We found no significant variables to support that this decline is related to a reduction in rounds. Rather, we hypothesize the decline to be the result of a reduction in exposure to repetitive head trauma (shorter careers and fewer fights), along with increased medical oversight and stricter safety regulations. Increased efforts should be made to improve medical supervision of boxers. Mandatory central nervous system imaging after a knockout could lead to a significant reduction in associated mortality.

  1. Mortality resulting from head injury in professional boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lissa C; Newman, C Benjamin; Volk, Hunter; Svinth, Joseph R; Conklin, Jordan; Levy, Michael L

    2010-11-01

    The majority of boxing-related fatalities result from traumatic brain injury. Biomechanical forces in boxing result in rotational acceleration with resultant subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injury. Given the inherent risk and the ongoing criticism boxing has received, we evaluated mortalities associated with professional boxing. We used the Velaquez Fatality Collection of boxing injuries and supplementary sources to analyze mortality from 1950 to 2007. Variables evaluated included age at time of death, association with knockout or other outcome of match, rounds fought, weight class, location of fight, and location of pretermial event. There were 339 mortalities between 1950 and 2007 (mean age, 24 ± 3.8 years); 64% were associated with knockout and 15% with technical knockout. A higher percentage occurred in the lower weight classes. The preterminal event occurred in the ring (61%), in the locker room (17%), and outside the arena (22%), We evaluated for significant changes after 1983 when championship bouts were reduced from 15 to 12 rounds. There was a significant decline in mortality after 1983. We found no significant variables to support that this decline is related to a reduction in rounds. Rather, we hypothesize the decline to be the result of a reduction in exposure to repetitive head trauma (shorter careers and fewer fights), along with increased medical oversight and stricter safety regulations. Increased efforts should be made to improve medical supervisions of boxers. Mandatory central nervous system imaging after a knockout could lead to a significant reduction in associated mortality.

  2. A Finite Segment Method for Skewed Box Girder Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwei Xue

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A finite segment method is presented to analyze the mechanical behavior of skewed box girders. By modeling the top and bottom plates of the segments with skew plate beam element under an inclined coordinate system and the webs with normal plate beam element, a spatial elastic displacement model for skewed box girder is constructed, which can satisfy the compatibility condition at the corners of the cross section for box girders. The formulation of the finite segment is developed based on the variational principle. The major advantage of the proposed approach, in comparison with the finite element method, is that it can simplify a three-dimensional structure into a one-dimensional structure for structural analysis, which results in significant saving in computational times. At last, the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed finite segment method are verified by a model test.

  3. Qualification of box HEPA filters for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Wilson, K.; Rainer, F.

    1995-03-01

    We have successfully completed qualification tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that are encapsulated within a box and manufactured by American Air Filters. The qualification tests are required by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Standard ASME N509 and the U.S. Military Standard MIL-F-51068 for HEPA filters to be used in nuclear applications. The qualification tests specify minimum filter efficiencies following exposure to heated air, overpressure, and rough handling. Prior to this study, no box HEPA filters from any manufacturer had been qualified despite their wide-spread use in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Box HEPA filters are not addressed in any of the existing HEPA standards and only briefly discussed in the Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook

  4. Ber analysis of the box relaxation for BPSK signal recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Thrampoulidis, Christos; Abbasi, Ehsan; Xu, Weiyu; Hassibi, Babak

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of recovering an n-dimensional BPSK signal from m linear noise-corrupted measurements using the box relaxation method which relaxes the discrete set {±1}n to the convex set [-1,1]n to obtain a convex optimization algorithm followed by hard thresholding. When the noise and measurement matrix have iid standard normal entries, we obtain an exact expression for the bit-wise probability of error Pe in the limit of n and m growing and m/n fixed. At high SNR our result shows that the Pe of box relaxation is within 3dB of the matched filter bound (MFB) for square systems, and that it approaches the (MFB) as m grows large compared to n. Our results also indicate that as m, n → ∞, for any fixed set of size k, the error events of the corresponding k bits in the box relaxation method are independent.

  5. Track plate enclosures: Box designs affecting attractiveness to riparian mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukmas, J.J.; Mayack, D.T.; Richmond, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of four track plate enclosure designs for monitoring the abundance of small and medium-sized mammals along 10 streams in New York State. Box size and clarity of view through the box were evaluated as factors affecting visitation. We checked track plate stations weekly from September 1999 to March 2000. Eleven mammalian species or species groups visited the track plate stations. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) (P = 0.020) and feral cats (Felis catus) (P = 0.008) visited large enclosures significantly more than small enclosures. Feral cats visited clear-view enclosures significantly more than obstructed-view enclosures (P = 0.025). Enclosure size and view did not significantly affect visitation by other species; however, a large box with a clear view was the most effective design.

  6. Ber analysis of the box relaxation for BPSK signal recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Thrampoulidis, Christos

    2016-06-24

    We study the problem of recovering an n-dimensional BPSK signal from m linear noise-corrupted measurements using the box relaxation method which relaxes the discrete set {±1}n to the convex set [-1,1]n to obtain a convex optimization algorithm followed by hard thresholding. When the noise and measurement matrix have iid standard normal entries, we obtain an exact expression for the bit-wise probability of error Pe in the limit of n and m growing and m/n fixed. At high SNR our result shows that the Pe of box relaxation is within 3dB of the matched filter bound (MFB) for square systems, and that it approaches the (MFB) as m grows large compared to n. Our results also indicate that as m, n → ∞, for any fixed set of size k, the error events of the corresponding k bits in the box relaxation method are independent.

  7. Predicting a future lifetime through Box-Cox transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z

    1999-09-01

    In predicting a future lifetime based on a sample of past lifetimes, the Box-Cox transformation method provides a simple and unified procedure that is shown in this article to meet or often outperform the corresponding frequentist solution in terms of coverage probability and average length of prediction intervals. Kullback-Leibler information and second-order asymptotic expansion are used to justify the Box-Cox procedure. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are also performed to evaluate the small sample behavior of the procedure. Certain popular lifetime distributions, such as Weibull, inverse Gaussian and Birnbaum-Saunders are served as illustrative examples. One important advantage of the Box-Cox procedure lies in its easy extension to linear model predictions where the exact frequentist solutions are often not available.

  8. Stochastic Thermodynamics of a Particle in a Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zongping; Lan, Yueheng; Quan, H T

    2016-10-28

    The piston system (particles in a box) is the simplest paradigmatic model in traditional thermodynamics. However, the recently established framework of stochastic thermodynamics (ST) fails to apply to this model system due to the embedded singularity in the potential. In this Letter, we study the ST of a particle in a box by adopting a novel coordinate transformation technique. Through comparing with the exact solution of a breathing harmonic oscillator, we obtain analytical results of work distribution for an arbitrary protocol in the linear response regime and verify various predictions of the fluctuation-dissipation relation. When applying to the Brownian Szilard engine model, we obtain the optimal protocol λ_{t}=λ_{0}2^{t/τ} for a given sufficiently long total time τ. Our study not only establishes a paradigm for studying ST of a particle in a box but also bridges the long-standing gap in the development of ST.

  9. BOX-COX REGRESSION METHOD IN TIME SCALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATİLLA GÖKTAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Box-Cox regression method with λj, for j = 1, 2, ..., k, power transformation can be used when dependent variable and error term of the linear regression model do not satisfy the continuity and normality assumptions. The situation obtaining the smallest mean square error  when optimum power λj, transformation for j = 1, 2, ..., k, of Y has been discussed. Box-Cox regression method is especially appropriate to adjust existence skewness or heteroscedasticity of error terms for a nonlinear functional relationship between dependent and explanatory variables. In this study, the advantage and disadvantage use of Box-Cox regression method have been discussed in differentiation and differantial analysis of time scale concept.

  10. What boxing-related stimuli reveal about response behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoboni, Giovanni; Russo, Gabriele; Tessari, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    When two athletes meet inside the ropes of the boxing ring to fight, their cognitive systems have to respond as quickly as possible to a manifold of stimuli to assure victory. In the present work, we studied the pre-attentive mechanisms, which form the basis of an athlete's ability in reacting to an opponent's punches. Expert boxers, beginner boxers and people with no experience of boxing performed a Simon-like task where they judged the colour of the boxing gloves worn by athletes in attack postures by pressing two lateralised keys. Although participants were not instructed to pay attention to the direction of the punches, beginner boxers' responses resembled a defence-related pattern, expert boxers' resembled counterattacks, whereas non-athletes' responses were not influenced by the unrelated task information. Results are discussed in the light of an expertise-related action simulation account.

  11. High-mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end products contribute to lung injury during Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achouiti, Ahmed; van der Meer, Anne Jan; Florquin, Sandrine; Yang, Huan; Tracey, Kevin J.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F.; van der Poll, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus has emerged as an important cause of necrotizing pneumonia. Lung injury during S. aureus pneumonia may be enhanced by local release of damage associated molecular patterns such as high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). In the current study we sought to determine the functional

  12. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Griffiths

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance, white boxes (high reflectance, and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and

  13. Glove box adaptation of oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen determinator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanjaneyulu, P.S.; Phanindra Kumar, M.; Kulkarni, A.S.; Revathi, R.; Saxena, M.K.; Tomar, B.S.

    2017-01-01

    Radioanalytical Chemistry Division (RACD) is involved in chemical quality assurance (CQA) of various nuclear fuels and materials related to various DAE projects including FBTR and PFBR. Determination of oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen in these fuels is one of the important steps in the CQA of material. For this purpose, O, N and H determinator was indigenously designed, fabricated and commissioned with the help of M/s Chromatography and Instruments Company Ltd., Vadodara, India. The present article describes about glove box adaptation of this instrument and various safety features incorporated in the glove box and instrument at Lab. C-25, RACD, as per the recommendations of the plant level safety committee

  14. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems...... of the water in the overflow structures. The capacity of a pump draining the storage tunnel is estimated for two different rain events, revealing that the pump was malfunctioning during the first rain event. The proposed modeling approach can be used in automated online surveillance and control and implemented...

  15. Smart Remote for the Setup Box Using Gesture Control

    OpenAIRE

    Surepally Uday Kumar; K. Shamini

    2016-01-01

    The basic purpose of this project is to provide a means to control a set top box (capable of infrared communication), in this case Hathway using hand gestures. Thus, this system will act like a remote control for operating set top box, but this will be achieved through hand gestures instead of pushing buttons. To send and receive remote control signals, this project uses an infrared LED as Transmitter. Using an infrared receiver, an Arduino can detect the bits being sent by a remo...

  16. Improvements in or relating to glove boxes or similar containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, R.E.; Boyle, K.; Grant, J.

    1976-01-01

    The glove box described has an extract system that includes a vortex amplifier venting into the system. The main inlet of the vortex amplifier is connected with the containment system and a control inlet is provided in connection with the atmosphere outside the containment system. A variable flow restrictor is provided between the containment system and the extract system, bypassing the vortex amplifier. The arrangement is such that manipulation of a valve is not normally required. The arrangement is not restricted to glove boxes; it can provide an alternative to fume hoods. (U.K.)

  17. Development of remote handling tools for glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Yutaka; Nemoto, Takeshi; Denuma, Akio; Todokoro, Akio

    1996-01-01

    For a part of advanced nuclear fuel recycling technology development, we will separate and recover Americium from the MOX fuel scrap by solvent extraction. When we carry this examination, reduction of exposure from Americium-241 is one of important problems. To solve this problem fundamentally, we studied many joints type of the remote handling tools for glove box and produced a trial production machine. Also, we carried out basic function examinations of it. As a result, we got the prospect of development of the remote handling tools which could treat Americium in glove box. (author)

  18. Rapid spatial equilibration of a particle in a box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malabarba, Artur S L; Linden, Noah; Short, Anthony J

    2015-12-01

    We study the equilibration behavior of a quantum particle in a one-dimensional box, with respect to a coarse-grained position measurement (whether it lies in a certain spatial window or not). We show that equilibration in this context indeed takes place and does so very rapidly, in a time comparable to the time for the initial wave packet to reach the edges of the box. We also show that, for this situation, the equilibration behavior is relatively insensitive to the precise choice of position measurements or initial condition.

  19. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SKEW ANGLE ON BOX GIRDER BRIDGE DECK

    OpenAIRE

    Shrikant D. Bobade *, Dr. Valsson Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Box girder bridge deck, is the most common type of bridges in world and India, it consists of several Slab or girders. The span in the direction of the roadway and connected across their tops and bottoms by a thin continuous structural stab, the longitudinal box girders can be made of steel or concrete. The Simple supported single span concrete bridge deck is presented in present study. Skewed bridges are suitable in highway design when the geometry of straight bridges is not possible. The sk...

  20. bHLH106 Integrates Functions of Multiple Genes through Their G-Box to Confer Salt Tolerance on Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Niwa, Yasuo; Goto, Shingo; Ogawa, Takeshi; Shimizu, Masanori; Suzuki, Akane; Kobayashi, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    An activation-tagging methodology was applied to dedifferentiated calli of Arabidopsis to identify new genes involved in salt tolerance. This identified salt tolerant callus 8 (stc8) as a gene encoding the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor bHLH106. bHLH106-knockout (KO) lines were more sensitive to NaCl, KCl, LiCl, ABA, and low temperatures than the wild-type. Back-transformation of the KO line rescued its phenotype, and over-expression (OX) of bHLH106 in differentiated plants exhibited tolerance to NaCl. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused with bHLH106 revealed that it was localized to the nucleus. Prepared bHLH106 protein was subjected to electrophoresis mobility shift assays against E-box sequences (5'-CANNTG-3'). The G-box sequence 5'-CACGTG-3' had the strongest interaction with bHLH106. bHLH106-OX lines were transcriptomically analyzed, and resultant up- and down-regulated genes selected on the criterion of presence of a G-box sequence. There were 198 genes positively regulated by bHLH106 and 36 genes negatively regulated; these genes possessed one or more G-box sequences in their promoter regions. Many of these genes are known to be involved in abiotic stress response. It is concluded that bHLH106 locates at a branching point in the abiotic stress response network by interacting directly to the G-box in genes conferring salt tolerance on plants.

  1. Flora, life form and chorology of Box trees (Buxus hyrcana habitats in forests of the Farim area of Sari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Samira Soleymanipour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to present floristic-physiognomic investigation of Box trees (Buxus hyrcana of the Farim area of Sari. All of species in the area were recorded by two methods field-walk and 60 releves with an area of 400 m2 in a systematic-selective design in two elevation classes, more and less than 1200 m above sea level implemented. Our results showed that the flora of this region includes 47 families, 67 genera, and 77 species. Phanerophytes (37.7%, Cryptophytes (32.5% and Hemicryptophytes (24.7% were the most important structure groups of the local biological spectrum according to Raunkiaer method, and also with increasing elevation, portions of Hemicryptophytes and Cryptophytes increased and decreased, respectively. Chorological studies showed that chorotype form Euro-Sibria was the most important phytochorion in two habitats. The correlation of environment variables with two first axes of DCA showed that elevation of sea level and dominance average (canopy percentage of Box trees had decisive role on the vegetation composition and mean richness of species (Hill N0 index. Also, Jackknife estimation results confirmed that species richness in habitats with elevation more than 1200 m (75.8 species had a higher level compared to habitats with elevation less than 1200 m (58.6 species because of decreasing box trees dominance. Totally, the results of the present study not only confirmed the ecological capacity of Box trees in developing up to 1700 m in mountain forests of north Iran, but also the association of box trees with some plants of high regions with steep slope of north Hyrcanian forests such as: Acer mazandaranicum, Carpinus schuschaensis and Taxus baccata, can be introduced as two new syntaxa including Taxus baccata- Buxus hyrcana and Carpinus schuschaensis- Buxus hyrcana in Hyrcanian forests.

  2. Design, construction and performance evaluation of aBox type solar cooker with a glazing wiper mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleke Ademe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work describes the performance evaluation of a double-glazed box-type solar oven with three reflectors and with a vapor wiper mechanism fabricated using locally available materials. The box cooker has external box dimensions of 600 mm × 600 mm × 250 mm and pyramidal internal box dimensions of 460 mm × 460 mm top face and 300 mm × 300 mm bottom face with depth of 150 mm. The thermal performance was tested as per the ASAE International Test procedure and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS for testing the thermal performance of a box-type solar cooker. The obtained test results after employing required calculations were figures of merit F1 = 0.123 Km2/W, F2 = 0.540, the standard cooking power P50 = 36 W and the cumulative efficiency to be 22%, whereas with the application of the wiper mechanism, it was found that F1 = 0.123, F2 = 0.827, the standard cooking power (P50 = 51 W, and the cumulative efficiency to be 31.4%. The standard boiling time of 1.43 kg of water was calculated to be 53.54 and 88.84 minutes for the cooker with and without the application of wiper mechanism respectively. The thermal distribution of the cooker was modeled using interior box geometry as a boundary condition with ANSYS 15.0. The temperature distribution inside the box was simulated and the maximum wall temperature was found to be 139 ℃. This was lower than the experimental results by 22 ℃. The method of modeling and simulation of the cooker with and without a wiper mechanism is similar except for the variation of the transmittance of the glass due to shading of vapor which can be deducted from the cumulative efficiency for the latter case. The results show that using the vapor wiper mechanism increases the cumulative efficiency by 9.4% and reduces the boiling time by 35.3 minutes. Finally, the techno-economic analysis shows that the cooker with a vapor wiper mechanism has a good reliability for outdoor cooking of food and is economically feasible.

  3. Induction of Liquid Crystallinity by Self-Assembled Molecular Boxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piermattei, A.; Giesbers, M.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Mendes, E.; Picken, S.J.; Crego-Calama, M.; Reinhoudt, D.N.

    2006-01-01

    In a hierarchical process, three molecules of a calix[4]arene (blue) and six of barbituric or cyanuric acid (green) assemble into double-rosette boxes, which assemble into columns, which in turn assemble into columnar liquid-crystalline phases (see picture). The resulting mesophases have a

  4. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, Cory; Sierra, Tito; Boyer, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning increasingly to unified search solutions to simplify search and discovery of library resources. Unfortunately, very little research has been published on library user search behavior in single search box environments. This study examines how users search a large public university library using a prominent, single…

  5. Detection of early squats by axle box acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molodova, M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis discusses a new method for detection of short track irregularities, particularly squats, with axle box acceleration (ABA) measurements. A squat is a surface initiated short track defect, associated with high frequency vibrations of the wheel-rail system. High stresses in the contact

  6. Constructing probability boxes and Dempster-Shafer structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferson, Scott [Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY (United States); Kreinovich, Vladik [Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY (United States); Grinzburg, Lev [Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY (United States); Myers, Davis [Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY (United States); Sentz, Kari [Binghamton Univ., NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson School of Engineering and Applied Science, Systems Science and Industrial Engineering Dept.

    2015-05-01

    This report summarizes a variety of the most useful and commonly applied methods for obtaining Dempster-Shafer structures, and their mathematical kin probability boxes, from empirical information or theoretical knowledge. The report includes a review of the aggregation methods for handling agreement and conflict when multiple such objects are obtained from different sources.

  7. Recensie van The Innovative School Librarian : Thinking Outside The Box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danielle Quadakkers

    2009-01-01

    Recensie van The Innovative School Librarian : Thinking Outside The Box. In dit boek laten de auteurs door middel van praktijk en theorie zien hoe schoolbibliothecarissen hun grenzen kunnen verleggen, hoe ze zich meer in het onderwijs en het curriculum kunnen verdiepen en in samenspraak met

  8. Prioritizing Training To Maximize Results: The 3 Box System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Considers fundamentals of effective training and focuses on the evaluation of training. Describes the 3 Box System, which provides a framework for discussing: (1) basic training needs and priorities; (2) added value training, including ROI (return on investment); evaluation; and (3) prioritizing training budgets. (LRW)

  9. A QQ→QQ planar double box in canonical form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco S. Bianchi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a planar double box with four massive external momenta and two massive internal propagators. We derive the system of differential equations for the relevant master integrals, cast it in canonical form, write it as a dlog form and solve it in terms of iterated integrals up to depth four.

  10. De terugkeer van de olifant in box 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    De per 1 januari 2001 ingevoerde vermogensrendementsheffing van box 3 is volgens de staatssecretaris van Financiën een 'beauty of simplicity'. Het inkomen uit sparen en beleggen wordt gesteld op 4% van het gemiddelde vermogen op 1 januari en 31 december en wordt vervolgens belast tegen een tarief

  11. Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization Framework for Aircraft Box Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, R.E.C.; Zhao, X.; Wang, H.; Van Dalen, F.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive aircraft box structures are a perfect compromise between weight and price. The conceptual design process of these structures is a typical Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization effort, normally conducted by human engineers. The iterative nature of MDO turns development into a long and

  12. Efficient approximation of black-box functions and Pareto sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, G.

    2009-01-01

    In the case of time-consuming simulation models or other so-called black-box functions, we determine a metamodel which approximates the relation between the input- and output-variables of the simulation model. To solve multi-objective optimization problems, we approximate the Pareto set, i.e. the

  13. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood...

  14. A quantum particle in a box with moving walls

    OpenAIRE

    Di Martino, Sara; Anza', Fabio; Facchi, Paolo; Kossakowski, Andrzej; Marmo, Giuseppe; Messina, Antonino; Militello, Benedetto; Pascazio, Saverio

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the non-relativistic problem of a quantum particle that bounces back and forth between two moving walls. We recast this problem into the equivalent one of a quantum particle in a fixed box whose dynamics is governed by an appropriate time-dependent Schroedinger operator.

  15. Hunting the unknown: White-box database leakage detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costante, E.; Hartog, den J.I.; Petkovic, M.; Etalle, S.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Atluri, V.; Pernul, G.

    2014-01-01

    Data leakage causes significant losses and privacy breaches worldwide. In this paper we present a white-box data leakage detection system to spot anomalies in database transactions. We argue that our approach represents a major leap forward w.r.t. previous work because: i) it significantly decreases

  16. Testing the Box-Cox Parameter for an Integrated Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Huang (Jian); M. Kobayashi (Masahito); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses the constant elasticity of volatility (CEV) model suggested by Chan et al. (1992). The CEV model without mean reversion is shown to be the inverse Box-Cox transformation of integrated processes asymptotically. It is demonstrated that the maximum likelihood estimator

  17. Improving Your Data Transformations: Applying the Box-Cox Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Osborne

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of us in the social sciences deal with data that do not conform to assumptions of normality and/or homoscedasticity/homogeneity of variance. Some research has shown that parametric tests (e.g., multiple regression, ANOVA can be robust to modest violations of these assumptions. Yet the reality is that almost all analyses (even nonparametric tests benefit from improved the normality of variables, particularly where substantial non-normality is present. While many are familiar with select traditional transformations (e.g., square root, log, inverse for improving normality, the Box-Cox transformation (Box & Cox, 1964 represents a family of power transformations that incorporates and extends the traditional options to help researchers easily find the optimal normalizing transformation for each variable. As such, Box-Cox represents a potential best practice where normalizing data or equalizing variance is desired. This paper briefly presents an overview of traditional normalizing transformations and how Box-Cox incorporates, extends, and improves on these traditional approaches to normalizing data. Examples of applications are presented, and details of how to automate and use this technique in SPSS and SAS are included.

  18. Experimental Grey Box Model Identification of an Active Gas Bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    in a dynamic model of an active gas bearing and subsequent control loop design. A grey box model is determined based on experiments where piezo actuated valves are used to perturb the journal and hence excite the rotor-bearing system. Such modelling from actuator to output is shown to effciently support...

  19. The energetics of semicontact 3 x 2-min amateur boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip; Leithäuser, Renate M; Beneke, Ralph

    2014-03-01

    The energy expenditure of amateur boxing is unknown. Total metabolic cost (Wtot) as an aggregate of aerobic (Waer), anaerobic lactic (W[lactate]), and anaerobic alactic (WPCr) energy of a 3 × 2-min semicontact amateur boxing bout was analyzed. Ten boxers (mean ± SD [lower/upper 95% confidence intervals]) age 23.7 ± 4.1 (20.8/26.6) y, height 180.2 ± 7.0 (175.2/185.2) cm, body mass 70.6 ± 5.7 (66.5/74.7) kg performed a semicontact bout against handheld pads created from previously analyzed video footage of competitive bouts. Net metabolic energy was calculated using respiratory gases and blood [lactate]. Waer, 526.0 ± 57.1 (485.1/566.9) kJ, was higher (P boxing is predominantly aerobic. They also highlight the importance of a highly developed aerobic capacity as a prerequisite of a high activity rate during rounds and recovery of the high-energy phosphate system during breaks as interrelated requirements of successful boxing.

  20. Medical safety in boxing: administrative, ethical, legislative, and legal considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael B

    2009-10-01

    The roles and responsibilities of the ringside physician are complex and have evolved into a unique specialty in sport medicine. In addition to the medical aspects of ringside medicine, the doctor is now responsible for many administrative, ethical, and legal considerations. This article reviews and details the numerous roles the ringside physician plays in the sport of boxing.

  1. Influence of Resonances on the Huygens’ Box Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Bonev, Ivan Bonev

    2013-01-01

    The Huygens' box (HB) method of replacing an arbitrary module inside an electronic apparatus with a set of current sources on a closed surface is discussed. A numerical study is performed, with a typical printed circuit board (PCB) representing the module placed inside a tight metallic enclosure...

  2. The evidence for chronic traumatic encephalopathy in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Paul; Zazryn, Tsharni; Cameron, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The sport of boxing has been the source of much debate, with concerns about the neurological risks of participating having led to many calls to ban the sport. This review seeks to establish an evidence base for the development of boxing-related chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and to determine the relevance of this information to the modern day sport.The clinical features of CTE include various symptoms affecting the pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems, which manifest most often as disturbed gait and coordination, slurred speech and tremors, as well as cerebral dysfunction causing cognitive impairments and neurobehavioural disturbances. Both amateur and professional boxers are potentially at risk of developing CTE. No current epidemiological evidence exists to determine the prevalence of this condition in modern day boxing, despite 17% of professional boxers in Britain with careers in the 1930-50s having clinical evidence of CTE. As medical presence within the sport increases and with modern boxers likely to have shorter careers, a reduced exposure to repetitive head trauma, and improved treatment and understanding of the development of CTE will occur. This should lead to the incidence of CTE diminishing in boxing populations.

  3. A Grey Box Model for the Hydraulics in a Creek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The Saint-Venant equation of mass balance is used to derive a stochastics lumped model, describing the dynamics of a cross-sectional area in a river. The unknown parameters of the model are estimated by combining the physical equation with a set of data, a method known as grey box modelling...

  4. The Boxing Day Tsunami: Could the Disaster have been Anticipated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, P. R.; Burbdige, D.

    2005-05-01

    The occurrence of the 26 December, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the accompanying "Boxing Day" Tsunami, which killed over 280,00, has been described as one of the most lethal natural disasters in human history. Many lives could have been saved had a tsunami warning system, similar to that which exists for the Pacific Ocean, been in operation for the Indian Ocean. The former exists because great subduction zone earthquakes have generated destructive, Pacific-wide tsunami in the Pacific Ocean with some frequency. Prior to 26 December, 2004, all of the world's earthquakes with magnitude > 9 were widely thought to have occurred in the Pacific Ocean, where they caused destructive tsunami. Could the occurrence of similar earthquakes and tsunami in the Indian Ocean been predicted prior to the 2004 Box Day Tragedy? This presentation will argue that the answer is "Yes". Almost without exception (the exception being the 1952 Kamchatka earthquake) the massive subduction zone earthquakes and tsunami of the Pacific Ocean have been associated with the subduction of relatively young ocean lithosphere (Boxing day event, the effects in the Bay of Bengal would not have been as severe. Thus, it seems to this author that the Boxing Day event could and should have been anticipated. This presentation will further consider why it was not, and what steps can be taken to anticipate and mitigate the effects of future events that may occur in the Indian Ocean and elsewhere.

  5. BIOMECHANICS OF HEAD INJURY IN OLYMPIC TAEKWONDO AND BOXING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, G.P.; Pieter, W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose was to examine differences between taekwondo kicks and boxing punches in resultant linear head acceleration (RLA), head injury criterion (HIC15), peak head velocity, and peak foot and fist velocities. Data from two existing publications on boxing punches and taekwondo kicks were compared. Methods For taekwondo head impacts a Hybrid II Crash Dummy (Hybrid II) head was instrumented with a tri-axial accelerometer mounted inside the Hybrid II head. The Hybrid II was fixed to a height-adjustable frame and fitted with a protective taekwondo helmet. For boxing testing, a Hybrid III Crash Dummy head was instrumented with an array of tri-axial accelerometers mounted at the head centre of gravity. Results Differences in RLA between the roundhouse kick (130.11±51.67 g) and hook punch (71.23±32.19 g, d = 1.39) and in HIC15 (clench axe kick: 162.63±104.10; uppercut: 24.10±12.54, d = 2.29) were observed. Conclusions Taekwondo kicks demonstrated significantly larger magnitudes than boxing punches for both RLA and HIC. PMID:24744497

  6. Method for using a channel box for fuel assemblies in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Ken-ichi; Shinpo, Katsutoshi; Watahiki, Minoru.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To extend a service life of a channel box used in a light water nuclear reactor. Structure: A channel box mounted in the outer periphery of a fuel bundle is removed from the fuel bundle after use for a predetermined period of time, and the removed channel box is re-mounted on the fuel bundle with opposite ends of the box reversed in position for further use. By this arrangement, structural deformation of the channel box may be minimized to extend the service life of the box. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Optimizing PHB and Protease Production by Box Behnken Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd al fattah Amara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mixed culture is more suitable to adapt more flexible fermentation process and produce different product simultaneously. In this study a mixed Bacillus culture was investigated for their ability to produce the bioplastic "Polyhydroxybutyrate" and both of the mesophilic and the thermophilic proteases in one flask. Box-Behnken experimental design was used. The produced amount of PHB has been increased significantly. Meanwhile there is a competition between PHB and proteases. The maximum produced amount of PHB using Box-Behnken design was 2.82 g/l/48 h with protease activity equal to 41.9 Units/ml/48 h for thermophilic proteases and 99.65 Units/ml/48 h for mesophilic proteases. Excel solver was used for extra-optimization for the optimum conditions obtained from Box-Behnken experiments and its model. The maximum PHB obtained after using Excel solver was 2.88 g/l/48 h. The maximum mesophilic and thermophilic activities obtained at the same PHB production conditions were 175.68 and 243.38 Units/ml respectively. The model accuracy as obtained from Excel solver was 118.8%, which prove the power of the experimental design in optimizing such complicated process. The strategies used in this study are recommended for the production of PHB and different proteases simultaneously using Bacillus mixed culture. ABSTRAK: Kultur campuran adalah lebih sesuai bagi proses penapaian yang fleksibel dan ia boleh menghasilkan produk yang berbeza secara serentak. Dalam kajian ini keupayaan  menghasilkan "Polyhydroxybutyrate" bioplastik serta mesofilik dan termofilik protease dalam satu flask oleh  kultur Bacillus campuran telah disiasat. Eksperimen rekabentuk Box-Behnken telah digunakan. Jumlah PHB yang dikeluarkan meningkat dengan ketara dan terdapat persaingan antara PHB dan protease. Jumlah keluaran PHB maksima menggunakan rekabentuk Box-Behnken adalah 2.82 g/l/48 jam dengan aktiviti protease sama dengan 41.9 Unit/ml/48 jam untuk protease termofilik dan 99.65 Unit

  8. Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Khalid; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas ( 222 Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the 222 Rn concentrations (Bq/m 3 ) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter’s dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (η int ) and alpha hit efficiency (η hit ). The η int depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and η hit depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper explains that how radon

  9. Gamma-ray boxes from axion-mediated dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Gehler, Sergio López; Pato, Miguel; Lee, Hyun Min; Park, Wan-Il

    2013-01-01

    We compute the gamma-ray output of axion-mediated dark matter and derive the corresponding constraints set by recent data. In such scenarios the dark matter candidate is a Dirac fermion that pair-annihilates into axions and/or scalars. Provided that the axion decays (at least partly) into photons, these models naturally give rise to a box-shaped gamma-ray spectrum that may present two distinct phenomenological behaviours: a narrow box, resembling a line at half the dark matter mass, or a wide box, spanning an extensive energy range up to the dark matter mass. Remarkably, we find that in both cases a sizable gamma-ray flux is predicted for a thermal relic without fine-tuning the model parameters nor invoking boost factors. This large output is in line with recent Fermi-LAT observations towards the galactic centre region and is on the verge of being excluded. We then make use of the Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. data to derive robust, model-independent upper limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section for the narrow and wide box scenarios. H.E.S.S. constraints, in particular, turn out to match the ones from Fermi-LAT at hundreds of GeV and extend to multi-TeV masses. Future Čerenkov telescopes will likely probe gamma-ray boxes from thermal dark matter relics in the whole multi-TeV range, a region hardly accessible to direct detection, collider searches and other indirect detection strategies

  10. Analysis of S-box in Image Encryption Using Root Mean Square Error Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Iqtadar; Shah, Tariq; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Mahmood, Hasan

    2012-07-01

    The use of substitution boxes (S-boxes) in encryption applications has proven to be an effective nonlinear component in creating confusion and randomness. The S-box is evolving and many variants appear in literature, which include advanced encryption standard (AES) S-box, affine power affine (APA) S-box, Skipjack S-box, Gray S-box, Lui J S-box, residue prime number S-box, Xyi S-box, and S8 S-box. These S-boxes have algebraic and statistical properties which distinguish them from each other in terms of encryption strength. In some circumstances, the parameters from algebraic and statistical analysis yield results which do not provide clear evidence in distinguishing an S-box for an application to a particular set of data. In image encryption applications, the use of S-boxes needs special care because the visual analysis and perception of a viewer can sometimes identify artifacts embedded in the image. In addition to existing algebraic and statistical analysis already used for image encryption applications, we propose an application of root mean square error technique, which further elaborates the results and enables the analyst to vividly distinguish between the performances of various S-boxes. While the use of the root mean square error analysis in statistics has proven to be effective in determining the difference in original data and the processed data, its use in image encryption has shown promising results in estimating the strength of the encryption method. In this paper, we show the application of the root mean square error analysis to S-box image encryption. The parameters from this analysis are used in determining the strength of S-boxes

  11. Interspecific and intraspecific spatial separation by birds breeding in nest boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis C. Deeming

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nest boxes can be seen as a conservation tool for improving low-grade nesting habitat but it is unclear how sympatric species using boxes establish a spatial distribution relative to conspecifics and heterospecifics. This study determined the distances between nest boxes occupied by Blue Tits (Cyanistes caeruleus and Great Tits (Parus major in two British woodlands to ascertain whether spatial distribution was affected by species and, if it was, whether there were reproductive consequences of this breeding distribution. Occupancy of nest boxes at two woodland sites were recorded on an annual basis between 2010 and 2014, inclusive. Distances between nest boxes, and reproductive activity, were recorded. Even if nest boxes showed a clumped distribution in the woodlands, the occupancy of the boxes was random. Not all boxes were used and the minimum distance between occupied boxes was at least twice the distance between boxes in general. Blue Tits tended to have greater distances between boxes containing conspecifics but distances between boxes containing heterospecifics were generally of comparable lengths. Reproductive output was only affected in relation to clutch size for Blue Tits nesting at one site. Nest boxes that aim to improve habitats that lack suitable nesting sites should be placed to reflect actual dispersal distances of the focal bird species.

  12. The suppression effect of a periodic surface with semicircular grooves on the high power microwave long pill-box window multipactor phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Wang, Yong; Fan, Junjie; Zhong, Yong; Zhang, Rui

    2014-09-01

    To improve the transmitting power in an S-band klystron, a long pill-box window that has a disk with grooves with a semicircular cross section is theoretically investigated and simulated. A Monte-Carlo algorithm is used to track the secondary electron trajectories and analyze the multipactor scenario in the long pill-box window and on the grooved surface. Extending the height of the long-box window can decrease the normal electric field on the surface of the window disk, but the single surface multipactor still exists. It is confirmed that the window disk with periodic semicircular grooves can explicitly suppress the multipactor and predominantly depresses the local field enhancement and the bottom continuous multipactor. The difference between semicircular and sharp boundary grooves is clarified numerically and analytically.

  13. The suppression effect of a periodic surface with semicircular grooves on the high power microwave long pill-box window multipactor phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xue, E-mail: zhangxue.iecas@yahoo.com; Wang, Yong; Fan, Junjie; Zhong, Yong; Zhang, Rui [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peking, 100190 China (China)

    2014-09-15

    To improve the transmitting power in an S-band klystron, a long pill-box window that has a disk with grooves with a semicircular cross section is theoretically investigated and simulated. A Monte-Carlo algorithm is used to track the secondary electron trajectories and analyze the multipactor scenario in the long pill-box window and on the grooved surface. Extending the height of the long-box window can decrease the normal electric field on the surface of the window disk, but the single surface multipactor still exists. It is confirmed that the window disk with periodic semicircular grooves can explicitly suppress the multipactor and predominantly depresses the local field enhancement and the bottom continuous multipactor. The difference between semicircular and sharp boundary grooves is clarified numerically and analytically.

  14. The suppression effect of a periodic surface with semicircular grooves on the high power microwave long pill-box window multipactor phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xue; Wang, Yong; Fan, Junjie; Zhong, Yong; Zhang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    To improve the transmitting power in an S-band klystron, a long pill-box window that has a disk with grooves with a semicircular cross section is theoretically investigated and simulated. A Monte-Carlo algorithm is used to track the secondary electron trajectories and analyze the multipactor scenario in the long pill-box window and on the grooved surface. Extending the height of the long-box window can decrease the normal electric field on the surface of the window disk, but the single surface multipactor still exists. It is confirmed that the window disk with periodic semicircular grooves can explicitly suppress the multipactor and predominantly depresses the local field enhancement and the bottom continuous multipactor. The difference between semicircular and sharp boundary grooves is clarified numerically and analytically

  15. Evidence Based Practice Outside the Box (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn

    2008-09-01

    , switching the front tires with the back tires will increase the life span of the tires. Ergonomics is based heavily on human factors research and usability testing; theme park design is largely affected by studies onthe psychology of waiting; the study of local weather patterns and temperatures directly affects landscape architecture; advertising is strategically designed and presented based upon sociological studies such as demographics and viewing/reading behaviour. Could one argue that natural evolution is a result of nature’s long-term evidence-based practice? I know that I’m not alone in finding this fascinating, especially since the basis of these studies is information. While my own work may focus more on medical and health information, I feel that as an information specialist I can take pride in the fact that the soul of my field, information, is essential to the world around me. Think about this when you feel yourself getting cynical about research and the validity of your profession (don’t tell me you’ve never been there. I will be the first to admit that evidence is not always the be-all and end-all. There is a lot to be said for spontaneity (i.e. Hmmmm… I wonder if a sprig of fresh thyme would taste good in the mushroom sauce?” and happenstance (i.e. “Well, whaddaya know... penicillin!”. I certainly don’t think that every decision needs to be researched. But thank goodness for many research based decisions, without which the world would be a very different place and, heaven forbid, the perfect crème brulée may not exist.

  16. Designing key-dependent chaotic S-box with larger key space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Ruming; Yuan Jian; Wang Jian; Shan Xiuming; Wang Xiqin

    2009-01-01

    The construction of cryptographically strong substitution boxes (S-boxes) is an important concern in designing secure cryptosystems. The key-dependent S-boxes designed using chaotic maps have received increasing attention in recent years. However, the key space of such S-boxes does not seem to be sufficiently large due to the limited parameter range of discretized chaotic maps. In this paper, we propose a new key-dependent S-box based on the iteration of continuous chaotic maps. We explore the continuous-valued state space of chaotic systems, and devise the discrete mapping between the input and the output of the S-box. A key-dependent S-box is constructed with the logistic map in this paper. We show that its key space could be much larger than the current key-dependent chaotic S-boxes.

  17. Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Hum

    Single duct Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are currently the most widely used type of HVAC system in the United States. When installing such a system, it is critical to determine the minimum airflow set point of the terminal box, as an optimally selected set point will improve the level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) while at the same time lower overall energy costs. In principle, this minimum rate should be calculated according to the minimum ventilation requirement based on ASHRAE standard 62.1 and maximum heating load of the zone. Several factors must be carefully considered when calculating this minimum rate. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences may result in occupant discomfort and energy waste. If the minimum rate of airflow is set too high, the AHUs will consume excess fan power, and the terminal boxes may cause significant simultaneous room heating and cooling. At the same time, a rate that is too low will result in poor air circulation and indoor air quality in the air-conditioned space. Currently, many scholars are investigating how to change the algorithm of the advanced VAV terminal box controller without retrofitting. Some of these controllers have been found to effectively improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency. However, minimum airflow set points have not yet been identified, nor has controller performance been verified in confirmed studies. In this study, control algorithms were developed that automatically identify and reset terminal box minimum airflow set points, thereby improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, and reducing the overall rate of energy consumption. A theoretical analysis of the optimal minimum airflow and discharge air temperature was performed to identify the potential energy benefits of resetting the terminal box minimum airflow set points. Applicable control algorithms for calculating the ideal values for the minimum airflow reset were developed and

  18. VBSM: VCC-Based Black Box Service Model with Enhanced Data Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Won; Lee, Jae; Park, Jong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, intelligent transport systems have been applied to vehicle cloud environments. Such technology is especially useful for the systematic management of road traffic. Moreover, automobiles are increasingly equipped with a black box for accident prevention and preservation of evidence. Vehicle black boxes have become mandatory because black box images and voice data have served as forensic evidence in courts. However, the data from black boxes can be forged or modified by man-in-the-midd...

  19. A Monte Carlo Investigation of the Box-Cox Model and a Nonlinear Least Squares Alternative.

    OpenAIRE

    Showalter, Mark H

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports a Monte Carlo study of the Box-Cox model and a nonlinear least squares alternative. Key results include the following: the transformation parameter in the Box-Cox model appears to be inconsistently estimated in the presence of conditional heteroskedasticity; the constant term in both the Box-Cox and the nonlinear least squares models is poorly estimated in small samples; conditional mean forecasts tend to underestimate their true value in the Box-Cox model when the transfor...

  20. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  1. 78 FR 53812 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change... Proprietary Trader Program (S501) Continuing Education Regulatory Element Session on the BOX Market LLC (``BOX'') options facility. While changes to the fee schedule pursuant to this proposal will be effective upon...

  2. Evidence for multiple major histocompatibility class II X-box binding proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Celada, A; Maki, R

    1989-01-01

    The X box is a loosely conserved DNA sequence that is located upstream of all major histocompatibility class II genes and is one of the cis-acting regulatory elements. Despite the similarity between all X-box sequences, each promoter-proximal X box in the mouse appears to bind a separate nuclear factor.

  3. A comparison of the breeding ecology of birds nesting in boxes and tree cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Jared Verner; Lewis W. Oring

    1997-01-01

    We compared laying date, nesting success, clutch size, and productivity of four bird species that nest in boxes and tree cavities to examine whether data from nest boxes are comparable with data from tree cavities. Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) gained the most advantage from nesting in boxes. They initiated egg laying earlier, had higher nesting success, lower...

  4. The Box-and-Dot Method: A Simple Strategy for Counting Significant Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, W. Kirk

    2009-01-01

    A visual method for counting significant digits is presented. This easy-to-learn (and easy-to-teach) method, designated the box-and-dot method, uses the device of "boxing" significant figures based on two simple rules, then counting the number of digits in the boxes. (Contains 4 notes.)

  5. Gas box control system for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, H.H. Jr.; Hunt, A.L.; Clower, C.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) uses several methods to feed gas (usually deuterium) at different energies into the plasma region of the machine. One is an arrangement of eight high-speed piezo-electric valves mounted on special manifolds (gas box) that feed cold gas directly to the plasma. This paper describes the electronic valve control and data acquisition portions of the gas box, which are controlled by a desk-top computer. Various flow profiles have been developed and stored in the control computer for ready access by the operator. The system uses two modes of operation, one that exercises and characterizes the valves and one that operates the valves with the rest of the experiment. Both the valve control signals and the pressure transducers data are recorded on the diagnostics computer so that they are available for experiment analysis

  6. Application of glove box robotics to hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, D.K.; Hurd, R.L.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi-automated system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect the operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely using the robot in a telerobotic mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive type operations. The system will initially be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this program, provides background related to LLNL's robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans

  7. Blue Box Plus Quinte regional recycling demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The Blue Box Plus recycling program was established in September 1990 in the Quinte region of Ontario. The program was intended to develop the necessary operational information so that the existing program could expand to include mixed plastics, corrugated cardboard, and boxboard. Over 33,000 recycling boxes were distributed over an area covering 15 municipalities with a population base of 95,000. The program showed the willingness of the public to participate in recycling, but advertising and promotion of the program were critical for success. Separation of the recycled materials on the collection trucks was found to be a viable approach and more efficient than sorting at the recycling plant. Adding new materials to be recycled could be done efficiently, and operating costs were in line with those for other programs collecting fewer materials. A cooperative market development with industrial players opened up a new and expanding market for boxboard. 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Study of plutonium fire extinction in glove-boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, H.; Chappellier, A.; Debiar, A.; Savornin, J.

    1965-01-01

    The report concerns attempts to extinguish fire in uranium - chosen as a basis for comparison - and in plutonium, these being contained in glove boxes. The extinguishing powders TEC and MG 10 were tried and compared. The operator used in plastic bags. The metal was dealt with respectively in the form of billets, compact chips and finally thin shavings. In each case fire control was without difficulty. One must allow a certain time for cooling. The powder MG 10 showed very good results. Moreover, the trials proved that densely packed shavings are a very real security factor. The interior lay-out of the glove boxes ought, in order to facilitate further manipulations, be such as to render extinction as easy as possible should the need arise. (authors) [fr

  9. THE USE OF EVENT DATA RECORDER (EDR – BLACK BOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the registration of road events by a modern device called EDR – black box for all types of the motor vehicles. The device records data concerning vehicle’s technical condition, the way it was driven and RTS. The recorder may be used in private and commercial cars, taxies, buses and trucks. The recorder may serve the purpose of a neutral witness for the police, courts and insurance firms, for which it will facilitate making the reconstruction of the road accidents events and will provide a proof for those who caused them. The device will bring efficient driving, which will significantly contribute to decreasing the number of road accidents and limiting the environmental pollution. In the end in the last year German parliament backed a proposal to the European Commission to put black boxes, which gather information from vehicles involved in accidents, in all the new cars from 2015 on.

  10. Optimal Black-Box Secret Sharing over Arbitrary Abelian Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Fehr, Serge

    2002-01-01

    A black-box secret sharing scheme for the threshold access structure T t,n is one which works over any finite Abelian group G. Briefly, such a scheme differs from an ordinary linear secret sharing scheme (over, say, a given finite field) in that distribution matrix and reconstruction vectors...... are defined over ℤ and are designed independently of the group G from which the secret and the shares are sampled. This means that perfect completeness and perfect privacy are guaranteed regardless of which group G is chosen. We define the black-box secret sharing problem as the problem of devising......, for an arbitrary given T t,n , a scheme with minimal expansion factor, i.e., where the length of the full vector of shares divided by the number of players n is minimal. Such schemes are relevant for instance in the context of distributed cryptosystems based on groups with secret or hard to compute group order...

  11. Pressure regulation in the dry-boxes. Argon purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascard, R.; Fabre, R.

    1958-01-01

    Each dry-box is equipped with an autonomous installation for circulation and purification of argon and for pressure regulation. This installation consists essentially of a ballast tank, a compressor and two valves electromagnetically controlled by a contact manometer. The compressor and the valves are enclosed in the tank to form a system as compact as possible. The argon is purified by passing it over a furnace filled with titanium-zirconium turnings brought to about 800 deg. C, branching off the main system. With this set-up as well as the automatic maintenance of a constant depression in the box, a quality of argon is obtained whose oxygen contact is undetectable by the manganous hydroxide method. (author) [fr

  12. A Box-Cox normal model for response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein Entink, R H; van der Linden, W J; Fox, J-P

    2009-11-01

    The log-transform has been a convenient choice in response time modelling on test items. However, motivated by a dataset of the Medical College Admission Test where the lognormal model violated the normality assumption, the possibilities of the broader class of Box-Cox transformations for response time modelling are investigated. After an introduction and an outline of a broader framework for analysing responses and response times simultaneously, the performance of a Box-Cox normal model for describing response times is investigated using simulation studies and a real data example. A transformation-invariant implementation of the deviance information criterium (DIC) is developed that allows for comparing model fit between models with different transformation parameters. Showing an enhanced description of the shape of the response time distributions, its application in an educational measurement context is discussed at length.

  13. A new approach to the Box-Cox transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Iván eVélez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new methodology to estimate λ, the parameter of the Box-Cox transformation, as well as an alternative method to determine plausible values for it. The former is accomplished by defining a grid of values for λ and further perform a normality test on the λ -transformed data. The optimum value of λ, say λ * , is such that the p-value from the normality test is the highest. The set of plausible values is determined using the inverse probability method after plotting the p-values against the values of λ on the grid. Our methodology is illustrated with two real-world data sets. Furthermore, a simulation study suggests that our method improves the symmetry, kurtosis and, hence, the normality of data, making it a feasible alternative to the traditional Box-Cox transformation.

  14. First results from the BOXING (Birmingham-OCIW XMM and IMACS Nearby Groups) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, T. A.; Raychaudhury, S.; Mulchaey, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    We present the first results from the BOXING (Birmingham-OCIW XMM and IMACS Nearby Groups) project, a collaboration between the Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington (OCIW) and the University of Birmingham U.K. to study a sample of 25 galaxy groups (z ˜ 0.06) by means of optical photometry and spectroscopy (du Pont 2.5m; IMACS/Magellan) combined with x-ray observations (XMM). The combination of x-ray with optical data allows us to study the nature of the relationship between the properties of the groups and the galaxies that they contain. In this preliminary study, we present optical luminosity functions, which shows bimodal behavior in the poorer systems, interpreted as result of rapid merging. We also examine the dependence of galaxy morphology on local environment. Once spectroscopic observations are completed, we will be able to study velocity dispersions, star formation and nuclear activity in individual galaxies.

  15. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local content refers to materials and products made in a country as opposed those that are imported. There is an increasing interest in the concept of local content as a means of supporting local economies and providing jobs (Belderbos & Sleuwaegen...

  16. Changes in a box turtle population during three decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of a Maryland population of marked box-turtles (Terrapene carolina) in 1945, 1955, 1965 and 1975 showed a pronounced decline in population size during the three decades; the greatest change came between 1965 and 1975, when numbers were reduced by half. Proportions of females and of young also declined. Fifteen % of the males and 11% of the females that were more than 20 years old in 1945 still were present in 1975; some probably were more than 80 years old.

  17. Detection of early squats by axle box acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Molodova, M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis discusses a new method for detection of short track irregularities, particularly squats, with axle box acceleration (ABA) measurements. A squat is a surface initiated short track defect, associated with high frequency vibrations of the wheel-rail system. High stresses in the contact patch at squats cause accumulation of plastic deformation of the rail and growth of cracks. Cracks growing in the subsurface can cause a rail fracture. Light squats can be treated by grinding of the ra...

  18. Two-Black Box Concept for Warhead Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Cameron Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Frame, Katherine Chiyoko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mckigney, Edward Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Morag Kristin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We have created a possible solution to meeting the requirements of certification/authentication while still employing complicated criteria. Technical solutions to protecting information from the host in an inspection environment needs to be assessed by those with specific expertise but, LANL can still study the verification problem. The two-black box framework developed provides another potential solution to the confidence vs. certification paradox.

  19. Motivating quantum field theory: the boosted particle in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vutha, Amar C

    2013-01-01

    It is a maxim often stated, yet rarely illustrated, that the combination of special relativity and quantum mechanics necessarily leads to quantum field theory. An elementary illustration is provided using the familiar particle in a box, boosted to relativistic speeds. It is shown that quantum fluctuations of momentum lead to energy fluctuations, which are inexplicable without a framework that endows the vacuum with dynamical degrees of freedom and allows particle creation/annihilation. (letters and comments)

  20. Reexamination of the ISABELLE box car stacking scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasman, R.

    1975-01-01

    Box car stacking of ISABELLE after acceleration of the fundamental frequency in the AGS is reviewed with the present ISABELLE parameters and examined with regard to longitudinal impedence requirements. The scheme results in an impedance tolerance of Z/n less than or equal to 30 Ω compared to Z/n less than or equal to 5 Ω obtained for rf stacking. However, to meet the claimed luminosity, the AGS performance demands are increased above those assumed in the ISABELLE proposal

  1. Helium atom in a box: a fully quantal solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitnik, D.M. [Departmento de Fisica, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, and Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28 (C1428EGA) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-06-15

    A complete non-perturbative solution of the Helium atom in a box problem is presented by developing two numerical techniques. The first technique is the direct solution by diagonalization of the Hamiltonian, and the second is based on a constrained relaxation of the wave functions. Time-dependent propagation of doubly-excited wave-functions is analyzed, allowing the calculation and the visualization of the autoionization process.

  2. Abundance of juvenile eastern box turtles in manages forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z. Felix; Y. Wang; H. Czech; C. Schweitzer

    2008-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2005, we used drift fences and artificial pools to sample juvenile eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina) in northeastern Alabama in forest stands experimentally treated to retain various amounts of overstory trees—clear-cuts and those with 25%–50% and 75%–100% of trees retained.We captured juvenile turtles only in clear-cut and 25%–50% retention...

  3. Evaluation process radiological in ternopil region method of box models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.В. Матвєєва

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  Results of radionuclides Sr-90 flows analyses in the ecosystem of Kotsubinchiky village of Ternopolskaya oblast were analyzed. The block-scheme of ecosystem and its mathematical model using the box models method were made. It allowed us to evaluate the ways of dose’s loadings formation of internal irradiation for miscellaneous population groups – working people, retirees, children, and also to prognose the dynamic of these loadings during the years after the Chernobyl accident.

  4. Leaky-box approximation to the fractional diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchaikin, V V; Sibatov, R T; Saenko, V V

    2013-01-01

    Two models based on fractional differential equations for galactic cosmic ray diffusion are applied to the leaky-box approximation. One of them (Lagutin-Uchaikin, 2000) assumes a finite mean free path of cosmic ray particles, another one (Lagutin-Tyumentsev, 2004) uses distribution with infinite mean distance between collision with magnetic clouds, when the trajectories have form close to ballistic. Calculations demonstrate that involving boundary conditions is incompatible with spatial distributions given by the second model.

  5. Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latifah, E., E-mail: enylatifah@um.ac.id [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya, Indonesia and Physics Department, Malang State University (Indonesia); Purwanto, A. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

  6. Gap sequence, Lipschitz equivalence and box dimension of fractal sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Hui; Yang Yamin; Ruan Huojun

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a notion of gap sequences for compact sets E subset of R d , which is a generalization of the gap sequences of compact sets on the real line. We show that if the gap sequences of two fractal sets are not equivalent, then these two sets cannot be Lipschitz equivalent, where the latter fact is usually very hard to verify. Finally, we show that for some typical fractal sets, the gap sequences characterize the upper box dimension

  7. Decontamination of two filter boxes after a fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerre, P.; Mestre, E.; Lafitte, T.

    1961-01-01

    As a primary filter of the venting system caught fire in a hot cell of the Laboratory of Examination of Irradiated Fuels, this filter (as well as the secondary filter) has been removed, wrapped in polyvinyl sheets, and transported into the decontamination station. The authors report the details of the handling and decontamination operations: modifications to the station arrangement, measures of radiation protection, decontamination and measurements, observations made when disassembling the filter and filter-boxes [fr

  8. Metabolomic Profiling of the Malaria Box Reveals Antimalarial Target Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Erik L.; Painter, Heather J.; Samra, Jasmeet; Carrasquilla, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The threat of widespread drug resistance to frontline antimalarials has renewed the urgency for identifying inexpensive chemotherapeutic compounds that are effective against Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite species responsible for the greatest number of malaria-related deaths worldwide. To aid in the fight against malaria, a recent extensive screening campaign has generated thousands of lead compounds with low micromolar activity against blood stage parasites. A subset of these leads has been compiled by the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) into a collection of structurally diverse compounds known as the MMV Malaria Box. Currently, little is known regarding the activity of these Malaria Box compounds on parasite metabolism during intraerythrocytic development, and a majority of the targets for these drugs have yet to be defined. Here we interrogated the in vitro metabolic effects of 189 drugs (including 169 of the drug-like compounds from the Malaria Box) using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). The resulting metabolic fingerprints provide information on the parasite biochemical pathways affected by pharmacologic intervention and offer a critical blueprint for selecting and advancing lead compounds as next-generation antimalarial drugs. Our results reveal several major classes of metabolic disruption, which allow us to predict the mode of action (MoA) for many of the Malaria Box compounds. We anticipate that future combination therapies will be greatly informed by these results, allowing for the selection of appropriate drug combinations that simultaneously target multiple metabolic pathways, with the aim of eliminating malaria and forestalling the expansion of drug-resistant parasites in the field. PMID:27572391

  9. ConductHome: Gesture Interface Control of Home Automation Boxes

    OpenAIRE

    J. Branstett; V. Gagneux; A. Leleu; B. Levadoux; J. Pascale

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the interface ConductHome which controls home automation systems with a Leap Motion using "invariant gesture protocols". This interface is meant to simplify the interaction of the user with its environment. A hardware part allows the Leap Motion to be carried around the house. A software part interacts with the home automation box and displays the useful information for the user. An objective of this work is the development of a natural/invariant/simpl...

  10. Female boxing in Italy: 2002-2007 report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Massimiliano; Massimiliano, Bianco; Sanna, Nicola; Nicola, Sanna; Bucari, Sante; Sante, Bucari; Fabiano, Carmela; Carmela, Fabiano; Palmieri, Vincenzo; Palmieri, V; Zeppilli, Paolo; Paolo, Zeppilli

    2011-06-01

    To collect medical data on women's boxing. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Medical examinations requested by Italian laws. A retrospective study was conducted on all female boxing competitions in Italy from April 2001 to December 2007. Sixty-one amateur female boxers were evaluated longitudinally. (1) Retrospective study: All pre-/postmatch medical reports were analysed. (2) Prospective study: Breast, gynaecologic, brain, eyes, ear, nose and throat examinations were carried out. (1) Retrospective study: Any injury assessed before/after the match. (2) Prospective study: Health problems which could be related to boxing activity. (1) Retrospective study: Data from 5600 examinations were collected. Precompetition, a medical problem was recorded in three athletes (one conjunctiva hyperemia, one zygomatic bruise, one eyelid haematoma). Post competition, 51/2800 medical checks showed mild common injuries, such as soft tissue facial lesions, epistaxis and hand-wrist problems. Only one concussion was recorded with hospitalisation (for a thorough evaluation). Another athlete was hospitalised for a nasal fracture. (2) Prospective study: Two fibroadenomas, three ovarian cysts and one intramural uterine myoma were diagnosed. In four boxers, non-specific electroencephalographic abnormalities were detected, however, with a normal brain MRI in three (the fourth is still waiting for the radiologic procedure). Nasal septum deviation was common (42.6%) and a transmissive hypoacusia was observed in two athletes. No major eye injuries were reported. Female boxing seems to be a safe sport with a very low incidence of events requiring hospitalisation. No specific diseases in female boxers could be observed, in particular regarding the breast and reproductive system.

  11. Chronic Effects of Boxing: Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Cognitive Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Elisabeth A; Hunter, Jill V; Li, Xiaoqi; Amador, Cristian; Hanten, Gerri; Newsome, Mary R; Wu, Trevor C; McCauley, Stephen R; Vogt, Gregory S; Chu, Zili David; Biekman, Brian; Levin, Harvey S

    2016-04-01

    We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to evaluate the effects of boxing on brain structure and cognition in 10 boxers (8 retired, 2 active; mean age = 45.7 years; standard deviation [SD] = 9.71) and 9 participants (mean age = 43.44; SD = 9.11) in noncombative sports. Evans Index (maximum width of the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles/maximal width of the internal diameter of the skull) was significantly larger in the boxers (F = 4.52; p = 0.050; Cohen's f = 0.531). Word list recall was impaired in the boxers (F(1,14) = 10.70; p = 0.006; f = 0.84), whereas implicit memory measured by faster reaction time (RT) to a repeating sequence of numbers than to a random sequence was preserved (t = 2.52; p boxing had the most consistent, negative correlations with FA, ranging from -0.65 for the right ventral striatum to -0.92 for the right cerebral peduncle. Years of boxing was negatively related to the number of words consistently recalled over trials (r = -0.74; p = 0.02), delayed recall (r = -0.83; p = 0.003), and serial RT (r = 0.66; p = 0.05). We conclude that microstructural integrity of white matter tracts is related to declarative memory and response speed in boxers and to the extent of boxing exposure. Implications for chronic traumatic encephalopathy are discussed.

  12. Gold sales forecasting: The Box-Jenkins methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Tshepiso Tsoku

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study employs the Box-Jenkins Methodology to forecast South African gold sales. For a resource economy like South Africa where metals and minerals account for a high proportion of GDP and export earnings, the decline in gold sales is very disturbing. Box-Jenkins time series technique was used to perform time series analysis of monthly gold sales for the period January 2000 to June 2013 with the following steps: model identification, model estimation, diagnostic checking and forecasting. Furthermore, the prediction accuracy is tested using mean absolute percentage error (MAPE. From the analysis, a seasonal ARIMA(4,1,4×(0,1,112 was found to be the “best fit model” with an MAPE value of 11% indicating that the model is fit to be used to predict or forecast future gold sales for South Africa. In addition, the forecast values show that there will be a decrease in the overall gold sales for the first six months of 2014. It is hoped that the study will help the public and private sectors to understand the gold sales or output scenario and later plan the gold mining activities in South Africa. Furthermore, it is hoped that this research paper has demonstrated the significance of Box-Jenkins technique for this area of research and that they will be applied in the future.

  13. In-situ dismantling of plutonium-contaminated glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Koji; Watanabe, Hisashi; Ishikawa, Hisashi; Miyo, Hiroaki; Ohtsuka, Katsuyuki

    1980-01-01

    A plutonium-contaminated glove box was dismantled along with the development of the treatment techniques for plutonium-bearing wastes. The objectives of this in-situ dismantling of the glove box are to reuse the Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility more efficiently, to reduce the volume of wastes generated during the dismantling, and to acquire dismantling techniques for decommissioning the Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility in the future. Prior to the dismantling works, a greenhouse for decontamination was installed, and the decontamination with surfactants was performed. Unremovable contamination was coated with paint. After this greenhouse was removed, the main greenhouse for dismantling and three greenhouses for contamination control were assembled. The main workers wearing protective devices engaged in dismantling works in the greenhouse. As the protective devices, anorak type PVC suits with air line masks, Howell type pressurized suits, and respirators were used. The tools used for the dismantling are a plasma cutter, an electric nibbler, an electric disk grinder, an electric circular saw and an electric jig saw. The results of the dismantling in-situ were compared with two previous cases of dismantling carried out by different procedures. In the case of in-situ dismantling, the volume of wastes was 1.6 - 1.8 m 3 /m 3 of glove box, and considerable reduction was realized. (Kako, I.)

  14. Comparative structural analysis of human DEAD-box RNA helicases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schütz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available DEAD-box RNA helicases play various, often critical, roles in all processes where RNAs are involved. Members of this family of proteins are linked to human disease, including cancer and viral infections. DEAD-box proteins contain two conserved domains that both contribute to RNA and ATP binding. Despite recent advances the molecular details of how these enzymes convert chemical energy into RNA remodeling is unknown. We present crystal structures of the isolated DEAD-domains of human DDX2A/eIF4A1, DDX2B/eIF4A2, DDX5, DDX10/DBP4, DDX18/myc-regulated DEAD-box protein, DDX20, DDX47, DDX52/ROK1, and DDX53/CAGE, and of the helicase domains of DDX25 and DDX41. Together with prior knowledge this enables a family-wide comparative structural analysis. We propose a general mechanism for opening of the RNA binding site. This analysis also provides insights into the diversity of DExD/H- proteins, with implications for understanding the functions of individual family members.

  15. SSL/TLS Vulnerability Detection Using Black Box Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, D.; Sitorus, E. H.; Rahmat, R. F.; Hizriadi, A.

    2018-03-01

    Socket Secure Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) are cryptographic protocols that provide data encryption to secure the communication over a network. However, in some cases, there are vulnerability found in the implementation of SSL/TLS because of weak cipher key, certificate validation error or session handling error. One of the most vulnerable SSL/TLS bugs is heartbleed. As the security is essential in data communication, this research aims to build a scanner that detect the SSL/TLS vulnerability by using black box approach. This research will focus on heartbleed case. In addition, this research also gathers information about existing SSL in the server. The black box approach is used to test the output of a system without knowing the process inside the system itself. For testing purpose, this research scanned websites and found that some of the websites still have SSL/TLS vulnerability. Thus, the black box approach can be used to detect the vulnerability without considering the source code and the process inside the application.

  16. Comparative structural analysis of human DEAD-box RNA helicases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Patrick; Karlberg, Tobias; van den Berg, Susanne; Collins, Ruairi; Lehtiö, Lari; Högbom, Martin; Holmberg-Schiavone, Lovisa; Tempel, Wolfram; Park, Hee-Won; Hammarström, Martin; Moche, Martin; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Schüler, Herwig

    2010-09-30

    DEAD-box RNA helicases play various, often critical, roles in all processes where RNAs are involved. Members of this family of proteins are linked to human disease, including cancer and viral infections. DEAD-box proteins contain two conserved domains that both contribute to RNA and ATP binding. Despite recent advances the molecular details of how these enzymes convert chemical energy into RNA remodeling is unknown. We present crystal structures of the isolated DEAD-domains of human DDX2A/eIF4A1, DDX2B/eIF4A2, DDX5, DDX10/DBP4, DDX18/myc-regulated DEAD-box protein, DDX20, DDX47, DDX52/ROK1, and DDX53/CAGE, and of the helicase domains of DDX25 and DDX41. Together with prior knowledge this enables a family-wide comparative structural analysis. We propose a general mechanism for opening of the RNA binding site. This analysis also provides insights into the diversity of DExD/H- proteins, with implications for understanding the functions of individual family members.

  17. An Introduction to Plum Blossom Boxing: History, Culture and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Meihuaquan (“Plum Blossom Fist [Boxing]” has traditionally been practiced as vernacular (folk art practiced among the Han ethnic group residing in the Shandong, Henan and Hebei Provinces of China. Historical documentation dates Plum Blossom Boxing to the seventeenth century. The classic Chinese novel, Shuǐhǔ Zhuàn (Marsh Chronicles recounts the martial exploits of Shandong’s twelfth century outlaw heroes who may have been Mei Boxers, also. Thus, for perhaps a millennium, the region has been noted for vernacular martial arts and social banditry. The region’s rampant lawlessness promoted highly-developed martial prowess among both lawbreakers and those who were required to protect themselves against the brigands. Cultural, economic, and environmental factors in the region gave rise to heterodox political and religious beliefs that frequently served as a catalyst for martial sects, most notably the “Boxers” who at the turn of the twentieth century, came into conflict with the imperial government. These factors laid the groundwork for the “character traits” of the art while Taoism, the Five Elements theory, and a concept of predictable change shaped Plum Boxing’s strategic and mechanical principles. In the past decade, there have been efforts to globalize this vernacular martial art. Rather than driving Plum Boxing to extinction it is likely that the folk and the “larger than local” will co-exist.

  18. POD Model Reconstruction for Gray-Box Fault Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han; Zak, Michail

    2007-01-01

    Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is the mathematical basis of a method of constructing low-order mathematical models for the "gray-box" fault-detection algorithm that is a component of a diagnostic system known as beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAM). POD has been successfully applied in reducing computational complexity by generating simple models that can be used for control and simulation for complex systems such as fluid flows. In the present application to BEAM, POD brings the same benefits to automated diagnosis. BEAM is a method of real-time or offline, automated diagnosis of a complex dynamic system.The gray-box approach makes it possible to utilize incomplete or approximate knowledge of the dynamics of the system that one seeks to diagnose. In the gray-box approach, a deterministic model of the system is used to filter a time series of system sensor data to remove the deterministic components of the time series from further examination. What is left after the filtering operation is a time series of residual quantities that represent the unknown (or at least unmodeled) aspects of the behavior of the system. Stochastic modeling techniques are then applied to the residual time series. The procedure for detecting abnormal behavior of the system then becomes one of looking for statistical differences between the residual time series and the predictions of the stochastic model.

  19. Mesostructure, contemporary training model of the Cuban boxing school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hernández Sierra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to convey the experiences on the development and application of a meso-structure of 3-4 microcycles that allowed maintaining a long state of the sport form (5-6 months on a scientific-technical and methodological basis in the planning of the Sports training of the national boxing team, who participated in the 4th World Boxing Series (WSB. The investigated sample consisted of 21 boxers, representing 58%, of a population made up of 36 athletes / students belonging to the National School of Boxing. The importance of the research is that it exposes the use of new planning concepts and the current modifications in the training structure, as well as the contribution of science to the adaptation of training loads, which allows to obtain positive results during a long period of time. state of the sport form, factors on which it is necessary to reflect for an effective planning of modern sports training.

  20. Vehicle Plate Detection in Car Black Box Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjin Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet services that share vehicle black box videos need a way to obfuscate license plates in uploaded videos because of privacy issues. Thus, plate detection is one of the critical functions that such services rely on. Even though various types of detection methods are available, they are not suitable for black box videos because no assumption about size, number of plates, and lighting conditions can be made. We propose a method to detect Korean vehicle plates from black box videos. It works in two stages: the first stage aims to locate a set of candidate plate regions and the second stage identifies only actual plates from candidates by using a support vector machine classifier. The first stage consists of five sequential substeps. At first, it produces candidate regions by combining single character areas and then eliminates candidate regions that fail to meet plate conditions through the remaining substeps. For the second stage, we propose a feature vector that captures the characteristics of plates in texture and color. For performance evaluation, we compiled our dataset which contains 2,627 positive and negative images. The evaluation results show that the proposed method improves accuracy and sensitivity by at least 5% and is 30 times faster compared with an existing method.

  1. Packaging design criteria modified fuel spacer burial box. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    Various Hanford facilities must transfer large radioactively contaminated items to burial/storage. Presently, there are eighteen Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (FSBBs) available on the Hanford Site for transport of such items. Previously, the FSBBS were transported from a rail car to the burial trench via a drag-off operation. To allow for the lifting of the boxes into the burial trench, it will be necessary to improve the packagings lifting attachments and provide structural reinforcement. Additional safety improvements to the packaging system will be provided by the addition of a positive closure system and package ventilation. FSBBs that are modified in such a manner are referred to as Modified Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (MFSBs). The criteria provided by this PDC will be used to demonstrate that the transfer of the MFSB will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by a package meeting offsite transportation requirements. This fulfills the onsite transportation safety requirements implemented in WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) will be prepared to evaluate the safety of the transfer operation. Approval of the SARP is required to authorize transfer. Criteria are also established to ensure burial requirements are met

  2. Thermo-mechanical Design Methodology for ITER Cryodistribution cold boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vinit; Patel, Pratik; Das, Jotirmoy; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Bhattacharya, Ritendra; Shah, Nitin; Choukekar, Ketan; Chang, Hyun-Sik; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2017-04-01

    The ITER cryo-distribution (CD) system is in charge of proper distribution of the cryogen at required mass flow rate, pressure and temperature level to the users; namely the superconducting (SC) magnets and cryopumps (CPs). The CD system is also capable to use the magnet structures as a thermal buffer in order to operate the cryo-plant as much as possible at a steady state condition. A typical CD cold box is equipped with mainly liquid helium (LHe) bath, heat exchangers (HX’s), cryogenic valves, filter, heaters, cold circulator, cold compressor and process piping. The various load combinations which are likely to occur during the life cycle of the CD cold boxes are imposed on the representative model and impacts on the system are analyzed. This study shows that break of insulation vacuum during nominal operation (NO) along with seismic event (Seismic Level-2) is the most stringent load combination having maximum stress of 224 MPa. However, NO+SMHV (Séismes Maximaux Historiquement Vraisemblables = Maximum Historically Probable Earthquakes) load combination is having the least safety margin and will lead the basis of the design of the CD system and its sub components. This paper presents and compares the results of different load combinations which are likely to occur on a typical CD cold box.

  3. Molecular thermodynamics for cell biology as taught with boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Luis S; López, María José; Becker, Wayne M

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic principles are basic to an understanding of the complex fluxes of energy and information required to keep cells alive. These microscopic machines are nonequilibrium systems at the micron scale that are maintained in pseudo-steady-state conditions by very sophisticated processes. Therefore, several nonstandard concepts need to be taught to rationalize why these very ordered systems proliferate actively all over our planet in seeming contradiction to the second law of thermodynamics. We propose a model consisting of boxes with different shapes that contain small balls that are in constant motion due to a stream of air blowing from below. This is a simple macroscopic system that can be easily visualized by students and that can be understood as mimicking the behavior of a set of molecules exchanging energy. With such boxes, the basic concepts of entropy, enthalpy, and free energy can be taught while reinforcing a molecular understanding of the concepts and stressing the stochastic nature of the thermodynamic laws. In addition, time-related concepts, such as reaction rates and activation energy, can be readily visualized. Moreover, the boxes provide an intuitive way to introduce the role in cellular organization of "information" and Maxwell's demons operating under nonequilibrium conditions.

  4. The development of a reliable amateur boxing performance analysis template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Edward; Lamb, Kevin; Nicholas, Ceri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to devise a valid performance analysis system for the assessment of the movement characteristics associated with competitive amateur boxing and assess its reliability using analysts of varying experience of the sport and performance analysis. Key performance indicators to characterise the demands of an amateur contest (offensive, defensive and feinting) were developed and notated using a computerised notational analysis system. Data were subjected to intra- and inter-observer reliability assessment using median sign tests and calculating the proportion of agreement within predetermined limits of error. For all performance indicators, intra-observer reliability revealed non-significant differences between observations (P > 0.05) and high agreement was established (80-100%) regardless of whether exact or the reference value of ±1 was applied. Inter-observer reliability was less impressive for both analysts (amateur boxer and experienced analyst), with the proportion of agreement ranging from 33-100%. Nonetheless, there was no systematic bias between observations for any indicator (P > 0.05), and the proportion of agreement within the reference range (±1) was 100%. A reliable performance analysis template has been developed for the assessment of amateur boxing performance and is available for use by researchers, coaches and athletes to classify and quantify the movement characteristics of amateur boxing.

  5. Molecular Thermodynamics for Cell Biology as Taught with Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Luis S.; López, María José; Becker, Wayne M.

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic principles are basic to an understanding of the complex fluxes of energy and information required to keep cells alive. These microscopic machines are nonequilibrium systems at the micron scale that are maintained in pseudo-steady-state conditions by very sophisticated processes. Therefore, several nonstandard concepts need to be taught to rationalize why these very ordered systems proliferate actively all over our planet in seeming contradiction to the second law of thermodynamics. We propose a model consisting of boxes with different shapes that contain small balls that are in constant motion due to a stream of air blowing from below. This is a simple macroscopic system that can be easily visualized by students and that can be understood as mimicking the behavior of a set of molecules exchanging energy. With such boxes, the basic concepts of entropy, enthalpy, and free energy can be taught while reinforcing a molecular understanding of the concepts and stressing the stochastic nature of the thermodynamic laws. In addition, time-related concepts, such as reaction rates and activation energy, can be readily visualized. Moreover, the boxes provide an intuitive way to introduce the role in cellular organization of “information” and Maxwell's demons operating under nonequilibrium conditions. PMID:22383615

  6. A novel F-box protein CaF-box is involved in responses to plant hormones and abiotic stress in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rugang; Guo, Weili; Yin, Yanxu; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2014-02-10

    The F-box protein family is characterized by an F-box motif that has been shown to play an important role in regulating various developmental processes and stress responses. In this study, a novel F-box-containing gene was isolated from leaves of pepper cultivar P70 (Capsicum annuum L.) and designated CaF-box. The full-length cDNA is 2088 bp and contains an open reading frame of 1914 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 638 amino acids with a mass of 67.8 kDa. CaF-box was expressed predominantly in stems and seeds, and the transcript was markedly upregulated in response to cold stress, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) treatment, and downregulated under osmotic and heavy metal stress. CaF-box expression was dramatically affected by salt stress, and was rapidly increased for the first hour, then sharply decreased thereafter. In order to further assess the role of CaF-box in the defense response to abiotic stress, a loss-of-function experiment in pepper plants was performed using a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique. Measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and electrolyte leakage revealed stronger lipid peroxidation and cell death in the CaF-box-silenced plants than in control plants, suggesting CaF-box plays an important role in regulating the defense response to abiotic stress resistance in pepper plants.

  7. ArduiPod Box: a low-cost and open-source Skinner box using an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineño, Oskar

    2014-03-01

    This article introduces the ArduiPod Box, an open-source device built using two main components (i.e., an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller), developed as a low-cost alternative to the standard operant conditioning chamber, or "Skinner box." Because of its affordability, the ArduiPod Box provides an opportunity for educational institutions with small budgets seeking to set up animal laboratories for research and instructional purposes. A pilot experiment is also presented, which shows that the ArduiPod Box, in spite of its extraordinary simplicity, can be effectively used to study animal learning and behavior.

  8. Box-Particle Cardinality Balanced Multi-Target Multi-Bernoulli Filter

    OpenAIRE

    L. Song; X. Zhao

    2014-01-01

    As a generalized particle filtering, the box-particle filter (Box-PF) has a potential to process the measurements affected by bounded error of unknown distributions and biases. Inspired by the Box-PF, a novel implementation for multi-target tracking, called box-particle cardinality balanced multi-target multi-Bernoulli (Box-CBMeMBer) filter is presented in this paper. More important, to eliminate the negative effect of clutters in the estimation of the numbers of targets, an improved generali...

  9. Measuring Pu in a glove box using portable NaI and germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    A NaI crystal or germanium detector inside a portable lead shield can determine the amount of plutonium in a glove box. The number of counts required are defined and the locations outside the box where the detector needs to be positioned are given. The calculated accuracy for measuring the Pu when these locations are used is within +/-30% for most glove boxes. Other factors that may affect this accuracy, such as γ-ray absorption by glove-box materials, self-absorption by Pu, absorption by equipment in the glove box, and the limits of the counting equipment are also discussed

  10. Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Khalid, E-mail: kjamil@comsats.edu.pk; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid

    2014-11-11

    Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the {sup 222}Rn concentrations (Bq/m{sup 3}) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter’s dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (η{sub int}) and alpha hit efficiency (η{sub hit}). The η{sub int} depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and η{sub hit} depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper

  11. Quantifying the Physical Response to a Contemporary Amateur Boxing Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Mitchell J; Greig, Matt; Page, Richard M

    2018-04-01

    Finlay, MJ, Greig, M, and Page, RM. Quantifying the physical response to a contemporary amateur boxing simulation. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1005-1012, 2018-This study examined the physical response to a contemporary boxing-specific exercise protocol (BSEP), based on notational analysis of amateur boxing. Nine male senior elite amateur boxers completed a 3 × 3-minute BSEP, with a 1-minute passive recovery period interspersing each round. Average (HRave) and peak (HRpeak) heart rates, average (V[Combining Dot Above]O2ave) and peak oxygen consumptions (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), blood lactate (BLa) concentrations, rating of perceived exertion, and both triaxial and uniaxial PlayerLoad metrics were recorded during the completion of the BSEP. Blood lactate concentration increased significantly in each round (Round 1 = 2.4 ± 1.3 mmol·L; Round 2 = 3.3 ± 1.7 mmol·L; Round 3 = 4.3 ± 2.6 mmol·L). Significantly lower HRave and HRpeak values were found in the first round (HRave: 150 ± 15 b·min; HRpeak: 162 ± 12 b·min) when compared with the second (HRave: 156 ± 16 b·min; HRpeak: 166 ± 13 b·min) and third (HRave: 150 ± 15 b·min; HRpeak: 169 ± 14 b·min). No significant differences were found in any of the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 or PlayerLoad metrics recorded during the BSEP. The BSEP based on notational analysis elicited a fatigue response across rounds, confirming its validity. The BSEP can be used as a training tool for boxing-specific conditioning with implications for reduced injury risk, and to assess the physical response to boxing-specific interventions. Moreover, the BSEP can also be manipulated to suit all levels of participants or training phases, with practical applications in performance monitoring and microcycle periodization.

  12. A neurologist's reflections on boxing. V. Conclude remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterharnscheidt, F

    1995-01-01

    Clinical and morphological publications have shown convincingly, that participation in boxing leads to a severe permanent brain damage. The extent of the brain damage is correlated to the number of bouts fought, which correspondents in a certain way how many blows against his head a boxer received and to his weight class. The intensity of a boxing blow of a heavyweight is much more severe than those achieved by boxers of lighter weight classes. The permanent brain damage in a boxer, the amateur and the professional boxer, manifests itself in several clinical syndromes in which the pyramidal, the extrapyramidal and the cerebellar systems are involved. A traumatic Parkinsonism, in its complete or abortive form, develops as the result of the numerous boxing blows a boxer sustains in his boxing career. Especially lateral parts of the substantia nigra are affected and reveal at macroscopical and microscopical examination a severe loss of pigmented neurons. Melanin pigment is visible free in the tissue and/or is phagozytosed in macrophages and glial cells. The traumatic Parkinson syndrome, often only in an abortive form, is combined in a boxer with additional clinical and morphological findings due to traumatic lesions in other areas of the brain. It is not as pure as in a patient with a Parkinson syndrome sui generis. The permanent brain damage in a boxer is diffuse, involving all areas of the brain. Especially involved are the large neurons of different layers of the cerebral cortex, the neurons of the Ammons horn formation, the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. In place of destroyed and lost neurons, proliferation of glial elements, especially astroglial cells, has occurred. The defects are first replaced by protoplasmatic astroglial elements, and later by fibrillary astroglia. The destroyed neurons are replaced by glial scar tissue, which cannot perform the functions of the lost neurons. It is a process which is called partial necrosis of brain tissue. There is no

  13. Fano-Kondo and the Kondo box regimes crossover in a quantum dot coupled to a quantum box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Victor M.; Orellana, Pedro A.; Pacheco, Monica; Anda, Enrique V.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we study the Kondo effect of a quantum dot (QD) connected to leads and to a discrete set of one-particle states provided by a quantum box represented by a quantum ring (QR) pierced by a magnetic flux side attached to the QD. The interplay between the bulk Kondo effect and the so-called Kondo box regime is studied. In this system the QR energies can be continuously modified by the application of the magnetic field. The crossover between these two regimes is analyzed by changing the connection of the QD to the QR from the weak to the strong coupling regime. In the weak coupling regime, the differential conductance develops a sequence of Fano-Kondo anti-resonances due to destructive interference between the discrete quantum ring levels and the conducting Kondo channel provided by the leads. In the strong coupling regime the differential conductance has very sharp resonances when one of the Kondo discrete sub-levels characterizing the Kondo box is tuned by the applied potential. The conductance, the current fluctuations and the Fano coefficient result as being the relevant physical magnitudes to be analyzed to reveal the physical properties of these two Kondo regimes and the crossover region between them. The results were obtained by using the slave boson mean field theory (SBMFT).

  14. Insights into the quality of DnaA boxes and their cooperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming G.; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nielsen, Christina Bang

    2006-01-01

    Plasmids carrying the mioC promoter region with its two DnaA boxes are as efficient in titration of DnaA protein as plasmids carrying a replicationinactivated oriC region with its five DnaA boxes. The two DnaA boxes upstream of the mioC promoter were mutated in various ways to study the cooperati......Plasmids carrying the mioC promoter region with its two DnaA boxes are as efficient in titration of DnaA protein as plasmids carrying a replicationinactivated oriC region with its five DnaA boxes. The two DnaA boxes upstream of the mioC promoter were mutated in various ways to study...... the cooperativity between the DnaA boxes, and to study in vivo the in vitrodefined 9mer DnaA box consensus sequence TTA/TTNCACA). The quality and cooperativity of the DnaA oxes were determined in two complementary ways: as titration of DnaA protein leading to derepression of the dnaA promoter, and as repression...... of the mioC promoter caused by the DnaA protein binding to the DnaA boxes. Titration of DnaA protein correlated with repression of the mioC promoter. The level of titration and repression with the normal promoter-proximal box (TTTTCCACA) depends strongly on the presence and the quality of a DnaA box...

  15. S-Boxes Based on Affine Mapping and Orbit of Power Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mubashar; Azam, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    The demand of data security against computational attacks such as algebraic, differential, linear and interpolation attacks has been increased as a result of rapid advancement in the field of computation. It is, therefore, necessary to develop such cryptosystems which can resist current cryptanalysis and more computational attacks in future. In this paper, we present a multiple S-boxes scheme based on affine mapping and orbit of the power function used in Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The proposed technique results in 256 different S-boxes named as orbital S-boxes. Rigorous tests and comparisons are performed to analyse the cryptographic strength of each of the orbital S-boxes. Furthermore, gray scale images are encrypted by using multiple orbital S-boxes. Results and simulations show that the encryption strength of the orbital S-boxes against computational attacks is better than that of the existing S-boxes.

  16. An MCNP model of glove boxes in a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, D.E.; Kornreich, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear material processing usually occurs simultaneously in several glove boxes whose primary purpose is to contain radioactive materials and prevent inhalation or ingestion of radioactive materials by workers. A room in the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been slated for installation of a glove box for storing plutonium metal in various shapes during processing. This storage glove box will be located in a room containing other glove boxes used daily by workers processing plutonium parts. An MCNP model of the room and glove boxes has been constructed to estimate the neutron flux at various locations in the room for two different locations of the storage glove box and to determine the effect of placing polyethylene shielding around the storage glove box. A neutron dose survey of the room with sources dispersed as during normal production operations was used as a benchmark to compare the neutron dose equivalent rates calculated by the MCNP model

  17. Boxing participation by children and adolescents: A joint statement with the American Academy of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Laura K; Leblanc, Claire Ma

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of boys and girls younger than 19 years of age participate in boxing in North America. Although boxing provides benefits for participants, including exercise, self-discipline and self-confidence, the sport of boxing encourages and rewards deliberate blows to the head and face. Participants in boxing are at risk of head, face and neck injuries, including chronic and even fatal neurological injuries. Concussions are one of the most common injuries occurring in boxing. Because of the risk of head and facial injuries, the Canadian Paediatric Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics vigorously oppose boxing as a sport for children and adolescents. These organizations recommend that physicians oppose boxing in youth and encourage patients to participate in alternative sports in which intentional head blows are not central to the sport.

  18. A novel method of S-box design based on chaotic map and composition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambić, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel chaotic S-box generation method is presented. • Presented S-box has better cryptographic properties than other examples of chaotic S-boxes. • The advantages of the proposed method are the low complexity and large key space. -- Abstract: An efficient algorithm for obtaining random bijective S-boxes based on chaotic maps and composition method is presented. The proposed method is based on compositions of S-boxes from a fixed starting set. The sequence of the indices of starting S-boxes used is obtained by using chaotic maps. The results of performance test show that the S-box presented in this paper has good cryptographic properties. The advantages of the proposed method are the low complexity and the possibility to achieve large key space

  19. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Local Exhaust Capture Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U.; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1993-01-01

    Direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust system is defined by introducing an imaginary control box surrounding the contaminant source and the exhaust opening. The imaginary box makes it possible to distinguish between contaminants directly captured and those that escape. Two methods for estim...... location is less important for the case studied. The choice of sampling strategy to obtain a representative background concentration is essential as substantial differences on direct capture efficiency are found. Recommendations are given......Direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust system is defined by introducing an imaginary control box surrounding the contaminant source and the exhaust opening. The imaginary box makes it possible to distinguish between contaminants directly captured and those that escape. Two methods...... for estimation of direct capture efficiency are given: (1) a numerical method based on the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flows; and (2) a field method based on a representative background concentration. Direct capture efficiency is sensitive to the size of the control box, whereas its...

  20. Dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticle-core micelles as a modular strategy for particle-in-a-box-in-a-box nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, ten J.B.; Wang, J.; Leeuwen, van F.W.B.; Velders, A.H.

    2017-01-01

    The hierarchically controlled synthesis and characterization of self-assembling macromolecules and particles are key to explore and exploit new nanomaterials. Here we present a versatile strategy for constructing particle-in-a-box-in-a-box systems by assembling dendrimer-encapsulated gold