WorldWideScience

Sample records for stereoscopic stop-motion films

  1. Size Optimization of 3D Stereoscopic Film Frames

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... perception. Keywords- Optimization; Stereoscopic Film; 3D Frames;Aspect. Ratio ... television will mature to enable the viewing of 3D films prevalent[3]. On the .... Industry Standard VFX Practices and Proced. 2014. [10] N. A. ...

  2. Frame by frame stop motion non-traditional approaches to stop motion animation

    CERN Document Server

    Gasek, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In a world that is dominated by computer images, alternative stop motion techniques like pixilation, time-lapse photography and down-shooting techniques combined with new technologies offer a new, tangible and exciting approach to animation. With over 25 years professional experience, industry veteran, Tom Gasek presents a comprehensive guide to stop motion animation without the focus on puppetry or model animation. With tips, tricks and hands-on exercises, Frame by Frame will help both experienced and novice filmmakers get the most effective results from this underutilized branch of animation

  3. The Effect of Stereoscopic ("3D") vs. 2D Presentation on Learning through Video and Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron; Kasal, E.

    2014-01-01

    Two Eyes, 3D is a NSF-funded research project into the effects of stereoscopy on learning of highly spatial concepts. We report final results on one study of the project which tested the effect of stereoscopic presentation on learning outcomes of two short films about Type 1a supernovae and the morphology of the Milky Way. 986 adults watched either film, randomly distributed between stereoscopic and 2D presentation. They took a pre-test and post-test that included multiple choice and drawing tasks related to the spatial nature of the topics in the film. Orientation of the answering device was also tracked and a spatial cognition pre-test was given to control for prior spatial ability. Data collection took place at the Adler Planetarium's Space Visualization Lab and the project is run through the AAVSO.

  4. Atomic structure of Fe thin-films on Cu(0 0 1) studied with stereoscopic photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Azusa N.; Fujikado, M.; Uchida, T.; Okamoto, S.; Fukumoto, K.; Guo, F.Z.; Matsui, F.; Nakatani, K.; Matsushita, T.; Hattori, K.; Daimon, H.

    2004-01-01

    The complex magnetic properties of Fe films epitaxially grown on Cu(0 0 1) have been discussed in relation to their atomic structure. We have studied the Fe films on Cu(0 0 1) by a new direct method for three-dimensional (3D) atomic structure analysis, so-called 'stereoscopic photography'. The forward-focusing peaks in the photoelectron angular distribution pattern excited by the circularly polarized light rotate around the light axis in either clockwise or counterclockwise direction depending on the light helicity. By using a display-type spherical mirror analyzer for this phenomenon, we can obtain stereoscopic photographs of atomic structure. The photographs revealed that the iron structure changes from bcc to fcc and almost bcc structure with increasing iron film thickness

  5. Novel 3D Stereoscopic Film Compression using Multiwavelet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... this works based on observing the parsing evaluation of the ... enhance the performance of the quality of the 3D film is .... enhance our understanding of compression the video fra .... rt stereoscopy, for example in future can.

  6. Comparing Short- and Long-Term Learning Effects between Stereoscopic and Two-Dimensional Film at a Planetarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C. Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun; Subbarao, Mark; Kasal, Evan; Aguileara, Julieta

    2015-01-01

    Science centers such as museums and planetariums have used stereoscopic ("three-dimensional") films to draw interest from and educate their visitors for decades. Despite the fact that most adults who are finished with their formal education get their science knowledge from such free-choice learning settings very little is known about the…

  7. Stereoscopic filming for investigating evasive side-stepping and anterior cruciate ligament injury risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcus J. C.; Bourke, Paul; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Lloyd, David G.; Lay, Brendan

    2010-02-01

    Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are serious and debilitating, often resulting from the performance of evasive sides-stepping (Ssg) by team sport athletes. Previous laboratory based investigations of evasive Ssg have used generic visual stimuli to simulate realistic time and space constraints that athletes experience in the preparation and execution of the manoeuvre. However, the use of unrealistic visual stimuli to impose these constraints may not be accurately identifying the relationship between the perceptual demands and ACL loading during Ssg in actual game environments. We propose that stereoscopically filmed footage featuring sport specific opposing defender/s simulating a tackle on the viewer, when used as visual stimuli, could improve the ecological validity of laboratory based investigations of evasive Ssg. Due to the need for precision and not just the experience of viewing depth in these scenarios, a rigorous filming process built on key geometric considerations and equipment development to enable a separation of 6.5 cm between two commodity cameras had to be undertaken. Within safety limits, this could be an invaluable tool in enabling more accurate investigations of the associations between evasive Ssg and ACL injury risk.

  8. A video-based system for hand-driven stop-motion animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoguang; Fu, Hongbo; Zheng, Hanlin; Liu, Ligang; Wang, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Stop-motion is a well-established animation technique but is often laborious and requires craft skills. A new video-based system can animate the vast majority of everyday objects in stop-motion style, more flexibly and intuitively. Animators can perform and capture motions continuously instead of breaking them into increments and shooting one still picture per increment. More important, the system permits direct hand manipulation without resorting to rigs, achieving more natural object control for beginners. The system's key component is two-phase keyframe-based capturing and processing, assisted by computer vision techniques. With this system, even amateurs can generate high-quality stop-motion animations.

  9. Stop-motion: comunicación, creación y diversión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Daniel García Martínez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Could media be used to work on language competence? In this article I will defend the comprehension process as a General Cognitive Skill and based on this I will show how I used that idea to work with my students at school, Agora Portals International School, with a visual technique called stop-motion. The results were amazing.

  10. Crosstalk evaluation in stereoscopic displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Teunissen, C.; Tu, Yan; Chen, Li; Zhang, P.; Zhang, T.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial progress in liquid-crystal display and polarization film technology has enabled several types of stereoscopic displays. Despite all progress, some image distortions still exist in these 3-D displays, of which interocular crosstalk - light leakage of the image for one eye to the other eye

  11. Stop-motion para la alfabetización digital en Educación Primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que la alfabetización digital en medios se reconoce como una de las competencias esenciales necesarias para vivir en una nueva era de los medios de comunicación, solo acaba de empezar a ganar atención en la educación primaria de Taiwán. Una de las razones es la educación orientada a los exámenes, y como consecuencia, el que se desvíe muy pocos recursos para este aprendizaje informal. La otra razón es que los educadores tienden a pensar en la educación en medios digitales como una serie de operaciones puramente técnicas, lo que podría llevar a los estudiantes de medios digitales a aprender a trabajar sin sentido. Por lo tanto, este estudio diseñó una exhibición de contenidos basada en el modelo de aprendizaje experiencial de Kolb con el fin de enseñar a los estudiantes conceptos de videos stop-motion y técnicas de producción cinematográfica. El experimento diseñado involucró a 247 estudiantes de tercer grado de primaria que fueron agrupados para visitar la exposición experiencial. Los hallazgos sugieren una mejora en los estudiantes de su conocimiento de videos stop-motion. El análisis de los vídeos producidos también muestra que han mejorado su capacidad mediática para representar sus ideas y comunicarse con los demás. A través del análisis de la influencia de la demografía en la prueba de conocimiento, los hallazgos revelan que la exposición experiencial es más efectiva para los estudiantes de primaria femeninos, y que las experiencias anteriores relevantes de los estudiantes no deberían afectar a los conocimientos adquiridos. Teniendo en cuenta estos resultados y observaciones, creemos que la exposición experimental propuesta es una forma prometedora de llevar a cabo la educación en alfabetización digital en las escuelas primarias.

  12. Two Eyes, 3D: Stereoscopic Design Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron; Subbarao, M.; Wyatt, R.

    2013-01-01

    Two Eyes, 3D is a NSF-funded research project about how people perceive highly spatial objects when shown with 2D or stereoscopic ("3D") representations. As part of the project, we produced a short film about SN 2011fe. The high definition film has been rendered in both 2D and stereoscopic formats. It was developed according to a set of stereoscopic design principles we derived from the literature and past experience producing and studying stereoscopic films. Study participants take a pre- and post-test that involves a spatial cognition assessment and scientific knowledge questions about Type-1a supernovae. For the evaluation, participants use iPads in order to record spatial manipulation of the device and look for elements of embodied cognition. We will present early results and also describe the stereoscopic design principles and the rationale behind them. All of our content and software is available under open source licenses. More information is at www.twoeyes3d.org.

  13. Digital stereoscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A. Ravishankar; Jaimes, Alejandro

    1999-05-01

    The convergence of inexpensive digital cameras and cheap hardware for displaying stereoscopic images has created the right conditions for the proliferation of stereoscopic imagin applications. One application, which is of growing importance to museums and cultural institutions, consists of capturing and displaying 3D images of objects at multiple orientations. In this paper, we present our stereoscopic imaging system and methodology for semi-automatically capturing multiple orientation stereo views of objects in a studio setting, and demonstrate the superiority of using a high resolution, high fidelity digital color camera for stereoscopic object photography. We show the superior performance achieved with the IBM TDI-Pro 3000 digital camera developed at IBM Research. We examine various choices related to the camera parameters, image capture geometry, and suggest a range of optimum values that work well in practice. We also examine the effect of scene composition and background selection on the quality of the stereoscopic image display. We will demonstrate our technique with turntable views of objects from the IBM Corporate Archive.

  14. Interactive floating windows: a new technique for stereoscopic video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerebecki, Chris; Stanfield, Brodie; Tawadrous, Mina; Buckstein, Daniel; Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill

    2012-03-01

    The film industry has a long history of creating compelling experiences in stereoscopic 3D. Recently, the video game as an artistic medium has matured into an effective way to tell engaging and immersive stories. Given the current push to bring stereoscopic 3D technology into the consumer market there is considerable interest to develop stereoscopic 3D video games. Game developers have largely ignored the need to design their games specifically for stereoscopic 3D and have thus relied on automatic conversion and driver technology. Game developers need to evaluate solutions used in other media, such as film, to correct perceptual problems such as window violations, and modify or create new solutions to work within an interactive framework. In this paper we extend the dynamic floating window technique into the interactive domain enabling the player to position a virtual window in space. Interactively changing the position, size, and the 3D rotation of the virtual window, objects can be made to 'break the mask' dramatically enhancing the stereoscopic effect. By demonstrating that solutions from the film industry can be extended into the interactive space, it is our hope that this initiates further discussion in the game development community to strengthen their story-telling mechanisms in stereoscopic 3D games.

  15. Stereoscopic 3D video games and their effects on engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill; Zerebecki, Chris; Tawadrous, Mina; Stanfield, Brodie; Hogue, Urszula

    2012-03-01

    With television manufacturers developing low-cost stereoscopic 3D displays, a large number of consumers will undoubtedly have access to 3D-capable televisions at home. The availability of 3D technology places the onus on content creators to develop interesting and engaging content. While the technology of stereoscopic displays and content generation are well understood, there are many questions yet to be answered surrounding its effects on the viewer. Effects of stereoscopic display on passive viewers for film are known, however video games are fundamentally different since the viewer/player is actively (rather than passively) engaged in the content. Questions of how stereoscopic viewing affects interaction mechanics have previously been studied in the context of player performance but very few have attempted to quantify the player experience to determine whether stereoscopic 3D has a positive or negative influence on their overall engagement. In this paper we present a preliminary study of the effects stereoscopic 3D have on player engagement in video games. Participants played a video game in two conditions, traditional 2D and stereoscopic 3D and their engagement was quantified using a previously validated self-reporting tool. The results suggest that S3D has a positive effect on immersion, presence, flow, and absorption.

  16. Clinical usefulness of stereoscopic DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussaka, Hiromasa; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Miyawaki, Masayuki; Korogi, Yukinori; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Izunaga, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Koki; Yoshizumi, Kazuhiro

    1988-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is widely used as a screening examination for vascular diseases, but it has several disadvantages, one of which is overlapping of the vessels. To overcome this disadvantage, stereoscopic technique is applied to our DSA equipment. Stereoscopic DSA is obtained by alternate exposures from twin focal spots of an x-ray tube without additional contrast medium or radiation exposures. Stereoscopic intravenous DSA was performed 223 times, and was useful in 157 times (70.4 %) for the identification and stereoscopic observation of the abdominal and pelvic vessels. Thirty-seven intra-arterial DSAs were performed stereoscopically for cranial, abdominal and pelvic angiograms, and effective studies were obtained in 30 DSAs (81.1 %) with demonstration of tumor stains and displacement of the vessels. It is necessary to use adequate compensation filters for the good stereoscopic DSAs, especially for the cervical and thoracic DSAs. (author)

  17. Stereoscopic image production: live, CGI, and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Enrique

    2006-02-01

    This paper shortly describes part of the experience gathered in more than 10 years of stereoscopic movie production, some of the most common problems found and the solutions, with more or less fortune, we applied to solve those problems. Our work is mainly focused in the entertainment market, theme parks, museums, and other cultural related locations and events. In our movies, we have been forced to develop our own devices to permit correct stereo shooting (stereoscopic rigs) or stereo monitoring (real-time), and to solve problems found with conventional film editing, compositing and postproduction software. Here, we discuss stereo lighting, monitoring, special effects, image integration (using dummies and more), stereo-camera parameters, and other general 3-D movie production aspects.

  18. Creating Stop-Motion Videos with iPads to Support Students' Understanding of Cell Processes: "Because You Have to Know What You're Talking about to Be Able to Do It"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Cynthia C. M.; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Ivankovic, Diana; Norris, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study is two-fold: (a) describe the implementation of a stop-motion animation video activity to support students' understanding of cell processes, and (b) present research findings about students' beliefs and use of iPads to support their creation of stop-motion videos in an introductory biology course. Data…

  19. Stereoscopic 3D graphics generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Liu, Jianping; Zan, Y.

    1997-05-01

    Stereoscopic display technology is one of the key techniques of areas such as simulation, multimedia, entertainment, virtual reality, and so on. Moreover, stereoscopic 3D graphics generation is an important part of stereoscopic 3D display system. In this paper, at first, we describe the principle of stereoscopic display and summarize some methods to generate stereoscopic 3D graphics. Secondly, to overcome the problems which came from the methods of user defined models (such as inconvenience, long modifying period and so on), we put forward the vector graphics files defined method. Thus we can design more directly; modify the model simply and easily; generate more conveniently; furthermore, we can make full use of graphics accelerator card and so on. Finally, we discuss the problem of how to speed up the generation.

  20. Stop-motion radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottern, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of radiographic techniques used at Sandia Laboratories to examine dynamic events are described. The techniques, while not interfering with the events, make possible recording of data not obtainable by other means. The events being recorded may occur within microseconds or may require a time span of many seconds. Arrangement of equipment and various methods of image recording are discussed

  1. Stop-motion radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottern, R.W.

    1976-12-01

    A variety of radiographic techniques used at Sandia Laboratories to examine dynamic events is described. The techniques, while not interfering with the events, make possible recording of data not obtainable by other means. The events being recorded may occur within microseconds or may require a time span of many seconds. The arrangement of equipment and various methods of image recording are discussed

  2. Digital stereoscopic cinema: the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Lenny

    2008-02-01

    Over 1000 theaters in more than a dozen countries have been outfitted with digital projectors using the Texas Instruments DLP engine equipped to show field-sequential 3-D movies using the polarized method of image selection. Shuttering eyewear and advanced anaglyph products are also being deployed for image selection. Many studios are in production with stereoscopic films, and some have committed to producing their entire output of animated features in 3-D. This is a time of technology change for the motion picture industry.

  3. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, C.S.

    1986-05-02

    An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  4. Polarizing aperture stereoscopic cinema camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Lenny

    2012-07-01

    The art of stereoscopic cinematography has been held back because of the lack of a convenient way to reduce the stereo camera lenses' interaxial to less than the distance between the eyes. This article describes a unified stereoscopic camera and lens design that allows for varying the interaxial separation to small values using a unique electro-optical polarizing aperture design for imaging left and right perspective views onto a large single digital sensor, the size of the standard 35 mm frame, with the means to select left and right image information. Even with the added stereoscopic capability, the appearance of existing camera bodies will be unaltered.

  5. Stereoscopic methods in TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, L.E.

    1975-07-01

    Stereoscopic methods used in TEM are reviewed. The use of stereoscopy to characterize three-dimensional structures observed by TEM has become widespread since the introduction of instruments operating at 1 MV. In its emphasis on whole structures and thick specimens this approach differs significantly from conventional methods of microstructural analysis based on three-dimensional image reconstruction from a number of thin-section views. The great advantage of stereo derives from the ability to directly perceive and measure structures in three-dimensions by capitalizing on the unsurpassed human ability for stereoscopic matching of corresponding details on picture pairs showing the same features from different viewpoints. At this time, stereo methods are aimed mainly at structural understanding at the level of dislocations, precipitates, and irradiation-induced point-defect clusters in crystal and on the cellular irradiation-induced point-defect clusters in crystal and on the cellular level of biological specimens. 3-d reconstruction methods have concentrated on the molecular level where image resolution requirements dictate the use of very thin specimens. One recent application of three-dimensional coordinate measurements is a system developed for analyzing depth variations in the numbers, sizes and total volumes of voids produced near the surfaces of metal specimens during energetic ion bombardment. This system was used to correlate the void volumes at each depth along the ion range with the number of atomic displacements produced at that depth, thereby unfolding the entire swelling versus dose relationship from a single stereo view. A later version of this system incorporating computer-controlled stereo display capabilities is now being built

  6. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor.

  7. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Methodology for stereoscopic motion-picture quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, Alexander; Vatolin, Dmitriy; Sumin, Denis; Napadovsky, Vyacheslav; Borisov, Alexey

    2013-03-01

    Creating and processing stereoscopic video imposes additional quality requirements related to view synchronization. In this work we propose a set of algorithms for detecting typical stereoscopic-video problems, which appear owing to imprecise setup of capture equipment or incorrect postprocessing. We developed a methodology for analyzing the quality of S3D motion pictures and for revealing their most problematic scenes. We then processed 10 modern stereo films, including Avatar, Resident Evil: Afterlife and Hugo, and analyzed changes in S3D-film quality over the years. This work presents real examples of common artifacts (color and sharpness mismatch, vertical disparity and excessive horizontal disparity) in the motion pictures we processed, as well as possible solutions for each problem. Our results enable improved quality assessment during the filming and postproduction stages.

  9. A systematized WYSIWYG pipeline for digital stereoscopic 3D filmmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert; Ward, Chris; Hušák, Michal

    2008-02-01

    Digital tools are transforming stereoscopic 3D content creation and delivery, creating an opportunity for the broad acceptance and success of stereoscopic 3D films. Beginning in late 2005, a series of mostly CGI features has successfully initiated the public to this new generation of highly-comfortable, artifact-free digital 3D. While the response has been decidedly favorable, a lack of high-quality live-action films could hinder long-term success. Liveaction stereoscopic films have historically been more time-consuming, costly, and creatively-limiting than 2D films - thus a need arises for a live-action 3D filmmaking process which minimizes such limitations. A unique 'systematized' what-you-see-is-what-you-get (WYSIWYG) pipeline is described which allows the efficient, intuitive and accurate capture and integration of 3D and 2D elements from multiple shoots and sources - both live-action and CGI. Throughout this pipeline, digital tools utilize a consistent algorithm to provide meaningful and accurate visual depth references with respect to the viewing audience in the target theater environment. This intuitive, visual approach introduces efficiency and creativity to the 3D filmmaking process by eliminating both the need for a 'mathematician mentality' of spreadsheets and calculators, as well as any trial and error guesswork, while enabling the most comfortable, 'pixel-perfect', artifact-free 3D product possible.

  10. Optimization of CMOS image sensor utilizing variable temporal multisampling partial transfer technique to achieve full-frame high dynamic range with superior low light and stop motion capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Salman; Smith, Craig; Armstrong, Frank; Barnard, Gerrit; Schneider, Alex; Guidash, Michael; Vogelsang, Thomas; Endsley, Jay

    2018-03-01

    Differential binary pixel technology is a threshold-based timing, readout, and image reconstruction method that utilizes the subframe partial charge transfer technique in a standard four-transistor (4T) pixel CMOS image sensor to achieve a high dynamic range video with stop motion. This technology improves low light signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by up to 21 dB. The method is verified in silicon using a Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company's 65 nm 1.1 μm pixel technology 1 megapixel test chip array and is compared with a traditional 4 × oversampling technique using full charge transfer to show low light SNR superiority of the presented technology.

  11. Stereoscopic medical imaging collaboration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Fumio; Hirano, Takenori; Nakabayasi, Yuusuke; Minoura, Hirohito; Tsuruoka, Shinji

    2007-02-01

    The computerization of the clinical record and the realization of the multimedia have brought improvement of the medical service in medical facilities. It is very important for the patients to obtain comprehensible informed consent. Therefore, the doctor should plainly explain the purpose and the content of the diagnoses and treatments for the patient. We propose and design a Telemedicine Imaging Collaboration System which presents a three dimensional medical image as X-ray CT, MRI with stereoscopic image by using virtual common information space and operating the image from a remote location. This system is composed of two personal computers, two 15 inches stereoscopic parallax barrier type LCD display (LL-151D, Sharp), one 1Gbps router and 1000base LAN cables. The software is composed of a DICOM format data transfer program, an operation program of the images, the communication program between two personal computers and a real time rendering program. Two identical images of 512×768 pixcels are displayed on two stereoscopic LCD display, and both images show an expansion, reduction by mouse operation. This system can offer a comprehensible three-dimensional image of the diseased part. Therefore, the doctor and the patient can easily understand it, depending on their needs.

  12. Subjective experiences of watching stereoscopic Avatar and U2 3D in a cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölönen, Monika; Salmimaa, Marja; Takatalo, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    A stereoscopic 3-D version of the film Avatar was shown to 85 people who subsequently answered questions related to sickness, visual strain, stereoscopic image quality, and sense of presence. Viewing Avatar for 165 min induced some symptoms of visual strain and sickness, but the symptom levels remained low. A comparison between Avatar and previously published results for the film U2 3D showed that sickness and visual strain levels were similar despite the films' runtimes. The genre of the film had a significant effect on the viewers' opinions and sense of presence. Avatar, which has been described as a combination of action, adventure, and sci-fi genres, was experienced as more immersive and engaging than the music documentary U2 3D. However, participants in both studies were immersed, focused, and absorbed in watching the stereoscopic 3-D (S3-D) film and were pleased with the film environments. The results also showed that previous stereoscopic 3-D experience significantly reduced the amount of reported eye strain and complaints about the weight of the viewing glasses.

  13. Stereoscopic game design and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Joe; Holliman, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    We report on a new game design where the goal is to make the stereoscopic depth cue sufficiently critical to success that game play should become impossible without using a stereoscopic 3D (S3D) display and, at the same time, we investigate whether S3D game play is affected by screen size. Before we detail our new game design we review previously unreported results from our stereoscopic game research over the last ten years at the Durham Visualisation Laboratory. This demonstrates that game players can achieve significantly higher scores using S3D displays when depth judgements are an integral part of the game. Method: We design a game where almost all depth cues, apart from the binocular cue, are removed. The aim of the game is to steer a spaceship through a series of oncoming hoops where the viewpoint of the game player is from above, with the hoops moving right to left across the screen towards the spaceship, to play the game it is essential to make decisive depth judgments to steer the spaceship through each oncoming hoop. To confound these judgements we design altered depth cues, for example perspective is reduced as a cue by varying the hoop's depth, radius and cross-sectional size. Results: Players were screened for stereoscopic vision, given a short practice session, and then played the game in both 2D and S3D modes on a seventeen inch desktop display, on average participants achieved a more than three times higher score in S3D than they achieved in 2D. The same experiment was repeated using a four metre S3D projection screen and similar results were found. Conclusions: Our conclusion is that games that use the binocular depth cue in decisive game judgements can benefit significantly from using an S3D display. Based on both our current and previous results we additionally conclude that display size, from cell-phone, to desktop, to projection display does not adversely affect player performance.

  14. 21 CFR 886.1870 - Stereoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exercises of eye muscles. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The AC-powered device and the... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1870 Stereoscope. (a) Identification. A stereoscope is an AC...

  15. Depth Perception In Remote Stereoscopic Viewing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Von Sydow, Marika

    1989-01-01

    Report describes theoretical and experimental studies of perception of depth by human operators through stereoscopic video systems. Purpose of such studies to optimize dual-camera configurations used to view workspaces of remote manipulators at distances of 1 to 3 m from cameras. According to analysis, static stereoscopic depth distortion decreased, without decreasing stereoscopitc depth resolution, by increasing camera-to-object and intercamera distances and camera focal length. Further predicts dynamic stereoscopic depth distortion reduced by rotating cameras around center of circle passing through point of convergence of viewing axes and first nodal points of two camera lenses.

  16. Brief history of electronic stereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Lenny

    2012-02-01

    A brief history of recent developments in electronic stereoscopic displays is given concentrating on products that have succeeded in the market place and hence have had a significant influence on future implementations. The concentration is on plano-stereoscopic (two-view) technology because it is now the dominant display modality in the marketplace. Stereoscopic displays were created for the motion picture industry a century ago, and this technology influenced the development of products for science and industry, which in turn influenced product development for entertainment.

  17. Stereoscopic augmented reality for laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xin; Azizian, Mahdi; Wilson, Emmanuel; Wu, Kyle; Martin, Aaron D; Kane, Timothy D; Peters, Craig A; Cleary, Kevin; Shekhar, Raj

    2014-07-01

    Conventional laparoscopes provide a flat representation of the three-dimensional (3D) operating field and are incapable of visualizing internal structures located beneath visible organ surfaces. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images are difficult to fuse in real time with laparoscopic views due to the deformable nature of soft-tissue organs. Utilizing emerging camera technology, we have developed a real-time stereoscopic augmented-reality (AR) system for laparoscopic surgery by merging live laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS) with stereoscopic video. The system creates two new visual cues: (1) perception of true depth with improved understanding of 3D spatial relationships among anatomical structures, and (2) visualization of critical internal structures along with a more comprehensive visualization of the operating field. The stereoscopic AR system has been designed for near-term clinical translation with seamless integration into the existing surgical workflow. It is composed of a stereoscopic vision system, a LUS system, and an optical tracker. Specialized software processes streams of imaging data from the tracked devices and registers those in real time. The resulting two ultrasound-augmented video streams (one for the left and one for the right eye) give a live stereoscopic AR view of the operating field. The team conducted a series of stereoscopic AR interrogations of the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and kidneys in two swine. The preclinical studies demonstrated the feasibility of the stereoscopic AR system during in vivo procedures. Major internal structures could be easily identified. The system exhibited unobservable latency with acceptable image-to-video registration accuracy. We presented the first in vivo use of a complete system with stereoscopic AR visualization capability. This new capability introduces new visual cues and enhances visualization of the surgical anatomy. The system shows promise to improve the precision and

  18. Comparison of film and digital fundus photographs in eyes of individuals with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gangaputra, Sapna; Almukhtar, Talat; Glassman, Adam R

    2011-01-01

    To compare grading of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) from stereoscopic film versus stereoscopic digital photographs obtained from a subset of Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) participants.......To compare grading of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) from stereoscopic film versus stereoscopic digital photographs obtained from a subset of Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) participants....

  19. Designing stereoscopic information visualization for 3D-TV: What can we can learn from S3D gaming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    This paper explores graphical design and spatial alignment of visual information and graphical elements into stereoscopically filmed content, e.g. captions, subtitles, and especially more complex elements in 3D-TV productions. The method used is a descriptive analysis of existing computer- and video games that have been adapted for stereoscopic display using semi-automatic rendering techniques (e.g. Nvidia 3D Vision) or games which have been specifically designed for stereoscopic vision. Digital games often feature compelling visual interfaces that combine high usability with creative visual design. We explore selected examples of game interfaces in stereoscopic vision regarding their stereoscopic characteristics, how they draw attention, how we judge effect and comfort and where the interfaces fail. As a result, we propose a list of five aspects which should be considered when designing stereoscopic visual information: explicit information, implicit information, spatial reference, drawing attention, and vertical alignment. We discuss possible consequences, opportunities and challenges for integrating visual information elements into 3D-TV content. This work shall further help to improve current editing systems and identifies a need for future editing systems for 3DTV, e.g., live editing and real-time alignment of visual information into 3D footage.

  20. 21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device intended for use as a viewing object...

  1. Stereoscopic display in a slot machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, M.

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a user trial with a slot machine equipped with a stereoscopic display. The main research question was to find out what kind of added value does stereoscopic 3D (S-3D) bring to slot games? After a thorough literature survey, a novel gaming platform was designed and implemented. Existing multi-game slot machine "Nova" was converted to "3DNova" by replacing the monitor with an S-3D display and converting six original games to S-3D format. To evaluate the system, several 3DNova machines were put available for players for four months. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out from statistical values, questionnaires and observations. According to the results, people find the S-3D concept interesting but the technology is not optimal yet. Young adults and adults were fascinated by the system, older people were more cautious. Especially the need to wear stereoscopic glasses provide a challenge; ultimate system would probably use autostereoscopic technology. Also the games should be designed to utilize its full power. The main contributions of this paper are lessons learned from creating an S-3D slot machine platform and novel information about human factors related to stereoscopic slot machine gaming.

  2. Matte painting in stereoscopic synthetic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

    2010-02-01

    While there have been numerous studies concerning human perception in stereoscopic environments, rules of thumb for cinematography in stereoscopy have not yet been well-established. To that aim, we present experiments and results of subject testing in a stereoscopic environment, similar to that of a theater (i.e. large flat screen without head-tracking). In particular we wish to empirically identify thresholds at which different types of backgrounds, referred to in the computer animation industry as matte paintings, can be used while still maintaining the illusion of seamless perspective and depth for a particular scene and camera shot. In monoscopic synthetic imagery, any type of matte painting that maintains proper perspective lines, depth cues, and coherent lighting and textures saves in production costs while still maintaining the illusion of an alternate cinematic reality. However, in stereoscopic synthetic imagery, a 2D matte painting that worked in monoscopy may fail to provide the intended illusion of depth because the viewer has added depth information provided by stereopsis. We intend to observe two stereoscopic perceptual thresholds in this study which will provide practical guidelines indicating when to use each of three types of matte paintings. We ran subject tests in two virtual testing environments, each with varying conditions. Data were collected showing how the choices of the users matched the correct response, and the resulting perceptual threshold patterns are discussed below.

  3. Visual discomfort in stereoscopic displays : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, M.T.M.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.; Woods, A.J.; Merritt, J.O.; Bolas, M.T.; McDowall, I.E.

    2007-01-01

    Visual discomfort has been the subject of considerable research in relation to stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays, but remains an ambiguous concept used to denote a variety of subjective symptoms potentially related to different underlying processes. In this paper we clarify the importance

  4. Visual discomfort in stereoscopic dsplays : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, M.T.M.; IJsselsteijn, W.; Heynderickx, I.

    2007-01-01

    Visual discomfort has been the subject of considerable research in relation to stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays, but remains an ambiguous concept used to denote a variety of subjective symptoms potentially related to different underlying processes. In this paper we clarify the importance

  5. Teaching with Stereoscopic Video: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variano, Evan

    2017-11-01

    I will present my work on creating stereoscopic videos for fluid pedagogy. I discuss a variety of workflows for content creation and a variety of platforms for content delivery. I review the qualitative lessons learned when teaching with this material, and discuss outlook for the future. This work was partially supported by the NSF award ENG-1604026 and the UC Berkeley Student Technology Fund.

  6. A stereoscopic television system for reactor inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friend, D.B.; Jones, A.

    1980-03-01

    A stereoscopic television system suitable for reactor inspection has been developed. Right and left eye views, obtained from two conventional black and white cameras, are displayed by the anaglyph technique and observers wear appropriately coloured viewing spectacles. All camera functions, such as zoom, focus and toe-in are remotely controlled. A laboratory experiment is described which demonstrates the increase in spatial awareness afforded by the use of stereo television and illustrates its potential in the supervision of remote handling tasks. Typical depth resolutions of 3mm at 1m and 10mm at 2m have been achieved with the reactor instrument. Trials undertaken during routine inspection at Oldbury Power Station in June 1978 are described. They demonstrate that stereoscopic television can indeed improve the convenience of remote handling and that the added display realism is beneficial in visual inspection. (author)

  7. Is eye damage caused by stereoscopic displays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Udo; Neumann, Markus D.; Kubbat, Wolfgang; Landau, Kurt

    2000-05-01

    A normal developing child will achieve emmetropia in youth and maintain it. Thereby cornea, lens and axial length of the eye grow astonishingly coordinated. In the last years research has evidenced that this coordinated growing process is a visually controlled closed loop. The mechanism has been studied particularly in animals. It was found that the growth of the axial length of the eyeball is controlled by image focus information from the retina. It was shown that maladjustment can occur by this visually-guided growth control mechanism that result in ametropia. Thereby it has been proven that e.g. short-sightedness is not only caused by heredity, but is acquired under certain visual conditions. It is shown that these conditions are similar to the conditions of viewing stereoscopic displays where the normal accommodation convergence coupling is disjoint. An evaluation is given of the potential of damaging the eyes by viewing stereoscopic displays. Concerning this, different viewing methods for stereoscopic displays are evaluated. Moreover, clues are given how the environment and display conditions shall be set and what users shall be chosen to minimize the risk of eye damages.

  8. Usability of stereoscopic view in teleoperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsuk, Wutthigrai

    2015-03-01

    Recently, there are tremendous growths in the area of 3D stereoscopic visualization. The 3D stereoscopic visualization technology has been used in a growing number of consumer products such as the 3D televisions and the 3D glasses for gaming systems. This technology refers to the idea that human brain develops depth of perception by retrieving information from the two eyes. Our brain combines the left and right images on the retinas and extracts depth information. Therefore, viewing two video images taken at slightly distance apart as shown in Figure 1 can create illusion of depth [8]. Proponents of this technology argue that the stereo view of 3D visualization increases user immersion and performance as more information is gained through the 3D vision as compare to the 2D view. However, it is still uncertain if additional information gained from the 3D stereoscopic visualization can actually improve user performance in real world situations such as in the case of teleoperation.

  9. Human factors involved in perception and action in a natural stereoscopic world: an up-to-date review with guidelines for stereoscopic displays and stereoscopic virtual reality (VR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Bayas, Luis

    2001-06-01

    In stereoscopic perception of a three-dimensional world, binocular disparity might be thought of as the most important cue to 3D depth perception. Nevertheless, in reality there are many other factors involved before the 'final' conscious and subconscious stereoscopic perception, such as luminance, contrast, orientation, color, motion, and figure-ground extraction (pop-out phenomenon). In addition, more complex perceptual factors exist, such as attention and its duration (an equivalent of 'brain zooming') in relation to physiological central vision, In opposition to attention to peripheral vision and the brain 'top-down' information in relation to psychological factors like memory of previous experiences and present emotions. The brain's internal mapping of a pure perceptual world might be different from the internal mapping of a visual-motor space, which represents an 'action-directed perceptual world.' In addition, psychological factors (emotions and fine adjustments) are much more involved in a stereoscopic world than in a flat 2D-world, as well as in a world using peripheral vision (like VR, using a curved perspective representation, and displays, as natural vision does) as opposed to presenting only central vision (bi-macular stereoscopic vision) as in the majority of typical stereoscopic displays. Here is presented the most recent and precise information available about the psycho-neuro- physiological factors involved in the perception of stereoscopic three-dimensional world, with an attempt to give practical, functional, and pertinent guidelines for building more 'natural' stereoscopic displays.

  10. Peculiarities of perception of stereoscopic radiation images in full colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamchev, G.V.

    1994-01-01

    The principles of coloring stereoscopic radiation images providing their three-dimensional structure distinguishing increase are discussed. The results of analytical and experimental studies dealing with estimation of the effect of stereoscopic image chromaticity on accuracy of metric operations realization in three-dimensional space are given. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. An HTML Tool for Production of Interactive Stereoscopic Compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakov, Alexey; Soto, Maria Teresa; Martí, Enric; Carrabina, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    The benefits of stereoscopic vision in medical applications were appreciated and have been thoroughly studied for more than a century. The usage of the stereoscopic displays has a proven positive impact on performance in various medical tasks. At the same time the market of 3D-enabled technologies is blooming. New high resolution stereo cameras, TVs, projectors, monitors, and head mounted displays become available. This equipment, completed with a corresponding application program interface (API), could be relatively easy implemented in a system. Such complexes could open new possibilities for medical applications exploiting the stereoscopic depth. This work proposes a tool for production of interactive stereoscopic graphical user interfaces, which could represent a software layer for web-based medical systems facilitating the stereoscopic effect. Further the tool's operation mode and the results of the conducted subjective and objective performance tests will be exposed.

  12. The effects of 5.1 sound presentations on the perception of stereoscopic imagery in video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Brian; Galperin, Daniel; Collins, Karen; Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill

    2013-03-01

    Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content in games, film and other audio-visual media has been steadily increasing over the past number of years. However, there are still open, fundamental questions regarding its implementation, particularly as it relates to a multi-modal experience that involves sound and haptics. Research has shown that sound has considerable impact on our perception of 2D phenomena, but very little research has considered how sound may influence stereoscopic 3D. Here we present the results of an experiment that examined the effects of 5.1 surround sound (5.1) and stereo loudspeaker setups on depth perception in relation to S3D imagery within a video game environment. Our aim was to answer the question: "can 5.1 surround sound enhance the participant's perception of depth in the stereoscopic field when compared to traditional stereo sound presentations?" In addition, our study examined how the presence or absence of Doppler frequency shift and frequency fall-off audio effects can also influence depth judgment under these conditions. Results suggest that 5.1 surround sound presentations enhance the apparent depth of stereoscopic imagery when compared to stereo presentations. Results also suggest that the addition of audio effects such as Doppler shift and frequency fall-off filters can influence the apparent depth of S3D objects.

  13. Evaluating methods for controlling depth perception in stereoscopic cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Geng; Holliman, Nick

    2009-02-01

    Existing stereoscopic imaging algorithms can create static stereoscopic images with perceived depth control function to ensure a compelling 3D viewing experience without visual discomfort. However, current algorithms do not normally support standard Cinematic Storytelling techniques. These techniques, such as object movement, camera motion, and zooming, can result in dynamic scene depth change within and between a series of frames (shots) in stereoscopic cinematography. In this study, we empirically evaluate the following three types of stereoscopic imaging approaches that aim to address this problem. (1) Real-Eye Configuration: set camera separation equal to the nominal human eye interpupillary distance. The perceived depth on the display is identical to the scene depth without any distortion. (2) Mapping Algorithm: map the scene depth to a predefined range on the display to avoid excessive perceived depth. A new method that dynamically adjusts the depth mapping from scene space to display space is presented in addition to an existing fixed depth mapping method. (3) Depth of Field Simulation: apply Depth of Field (DOF) blur effect to stereoscopic images. Only objects that are inside the DOF are viewed in full sharpness. Objects that are far away from the focus plane are blurred. We performed a human-based trial using the ITU-R BT.500-11 Recommendation to compare the depth quality of stereoscopic video sequences generated by the above-mentioned imaging methods. Our results indicate that viewers' practical 3D viewing volumes are different for individual stereoscopic displays and viewers can cope with much larger perceived depth range in viewing stereoscopic cinematography in comparison to static stereoscopic images. Our new dynamic depth mapping method does have an advantage over the fixed depth mapping method in controlling stereo depth perception. The DOF blur effect does not provide the expected improvement for perceived depth quality control in 3D cinematography

  14. Psychometric Assessment of Stereoscopic Head-Mounted Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Jan 2015 - Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PSYCHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF STEREOSCOPIC HEAD- MOUNTED DISPLAYS...to render an immersive three-dimensional constructive environment. The purpose of this effort was to quantify the impact of aircrew vision on an...simulated tasks requiring precise depth discrimination. This work will provide an example validation method for future stereoscopic virtual immersive

  15. What is stereoscopic vision good for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jenny C. A.

    2015-03-01

    Stereo vision is a resource-intensive process. Nevertheless, it has evolved in many animals including mammals, birds, amphibians and insects. It must therefore convey significant fitness benefits. It is often assumed that the main benefit is improved accuracy of depth judgments, but camouflage breaking may be as important, particularly in predatory animals. In humans, for the last 150 years, stereo vision has been turned to a new use: helping us reproduce visual reality for artistic purposes. By recreating the different views of a scene seen by the two eyes, stereo achieves unprecedented levels of realism. However, it also has some unexpected effects on viewer experience. The disruption of established mechanisms for interpreting pictures may be one reason why some viewers find stereoscopic content disturbing. Stereo vision also has uses in ophthalmology. Clinical stereoacuity tests are used in the management of conditions such as strabismus and amblyopia as well as vision screening. Stereoacuity can reveal the effectiveness of therapy and even predict long-term outcomes post surgery. Yet current clinical stereo tests fall far short of the accuracy and precision achievable in the lab. At Newcastle University, we are exploiting the recent availability of autostereo 3D tablet computers to design a clinical stereotest app in the form of a game suitable for young children. Our goal is to enable quick, accurate and precise stereoacuity measures which will enable clinicians to obtain better outcomes for children with visual disorders.

  16. Using mental rotation to evaluate the benefits of stereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsiselmi, Y.; Holliman, N. S.

    2009-02-01

    Context: The idea behind stereoscopic displays is to create the illusion of depth and this concept could have many practical applications. A common spatial ability test involves mental rotation. Therefore a mental rotation task should be easier if being undertaken on a stereoscopic screen. Aim: The aim of this project is to evaluate stereoscopic displays (3D screen) and to assess whether they are better for performing a certain task than over a 2D display. A secondary aim was to perform a similar study but replicating the conditions of using a stereoscopic mobile phone screen. Method: We devised a spatial ability test involving a mental rotation task that participants were asked to complete on either a 3D or 2D screen. We also design a similar task to simulate the experience on a stereoscopic cell phone. The participants' error rate and response times were recorded. Using statistical analysis, we then compared the error rate and response times of the groups to see if there were any significant differences. Results: We found that the participants got better scores if they were doing the task on a stereoscopic screen as opposed to a 2D screen. However there was no statistically significant difference in the time it took them to complete the task. We also found similar results for 3D cell phone display condition. Conclusions: The results show that the extra depth information given by a stereoscopic display makes it easier to mentally rotate a shape as depth cues are readily available. These results could have many useful implications to certain industries.

  17. Interlopers 3D: experiences designing a stereoscopic game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, James; Holliman, Nicolas S.

    2014-03-01

    Background In recent years 3D-enabled televisions, VR headsets and computer displays have become more readily available in the home. This presents an opportunity for game designers to explore new stereoscopic game mechanics and techniques that have previously been unavailable in monocular gaming. Aims To investigate the visual cues that are present in binocular and monocular vision, identifying which are relevant when gaming using a stereoscopic display. To implement a game whose mechanics are so reliant on binocular cues that the game becomes impossible or at least very difficult to play in non-stereoscopic mode. Method A stereoscopic 3D game was developed whose objective was to shoot down advancing enemies (the Interlopers) before they reached their destination. Scoring highly required players to make accurate depth judgments and target the closest enemies first. A group of twenty participants played both a basic and advanced version of the game in both monoscopic 2D and stereoscopic 3D. Results The results show that in both the basic and advanced game participants achieved higher scores when playing in stereoscopic 3D. The advanced game showed that by disrupting the depth from motion cue the game became more difficult in monoscopic 2D. Results also show a certain amount of learning taking place over the course of the experiment, meaning that players were able to score higher and finish the game faster over the course of the experiment. Conclusions Although the game was not impossible to play in monoscopic 2D, participants results show that it put them at a significant disadvantage when compared to playing in stereoscopic 3D.

  18. Stereoscopic Integrated Imaging Goggles for Multimodal Intraoperative Image Guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Mela

    Full Text Available We have developed novel stereoscopic wearable multimodal intraoperative imaging and display systems entitled Integrated Imaging Goggles for guiding surgeries. The prototype systems offer real time stereoscopic fluorescence imaging and color reflectance imaging capacity, along with in vivo handheld microscopy and ultrasound imaging. With the Integrated Imaging Goggle, both wide-field fluorescence imaging and in vivo microscopy are provided. The real time ultrasound images can also be presented in the goggle display. Furthermore, real time goggle-to-goggle stereoscopic video sharing is demonstrated, which can greatly facilitate telemedicine. In this paper, the prototype systems are described, characterized and tested in surgeries in biological tissues ex vivo. We have found that the system can detect fluorescent targets with as low as 60 nM indocyanine green and can resolve structures down to 0.25 mm with large FOV stereoscopic imaging. The system has successfully guided simulated cancer surgeries in chicken. The Integrated Imaging Goggle is novel in 4 aspects: it is (a the first wearable stereoscopic wide-field intraoperative fluorescence imaging and display system, (b the first wearable system offering both large FOV and microscopic imaging simultaneously,

  19. Stereoscopic radiographic images with gamma source encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strocovsky, S.G.; Otero, D

    2012-01-01

    Conventional radiography with X-ray tube has several drawbacks, as the compromise between the size of the focal spot and the fluence. The finite dimensions of the focal spot impose a limit to the spatial resolution. Gamma radiography uses gamma-ray sources which surpass in size, portability and simplicity to X-ray tubes. However, its low intrinsic fluence forces to use extended sources that also degrade the spatial resolution. In this work, we show the principles of a new radiographic technique that overcomes the limitations associated with the finite dimensions of X-ray sources, and that offers additional benefits to conventional techniques. The new technique called coding source imaging (CSI), is based on the use of extended sources, edge-encoding of radiation and differential detection. The mathematical principles and the method of images reconstruction with the new proposed technique are explained in the present work. Analytical calculations were made to determine the maximum spatial resolution and the variables on which it depends. The CSI technique was tested by means of Monte Carlo simulations with sets of spherical objects. We show that CSI has stereoscopic capabilities and it can resolve objects smaller than the source size. The CSI decoding algorithm reconstructs simultaneously four different projections from the same object, while conventional radiography produces only one projection per acquisition. Projections are located in separate image fields on the detector plane. Our results show it is possible to apply an extremely simple radiographic technique with extended sources, and get 3D information of the attenuation coefficient distribution for simple geometry objects in a single acquisition. The results are promising enough to evaluate the possibility of future research with more complex objects typical of medical diagnostic radiography and industrial gamma radiography (author)

  20. The Role of Amodal Surface Completion in Stereoscopic Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Barton L.; Schmid, Alexandra C.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the visual system can decompose stereoscopic textures into percepts of inhomogeneous transparency. We investigate whether this form of layered image decomposition is shaped by constraints on amodal surface completion. We report a series of experiments that demonstrate that stereoscopic depth differences are easier to discriminate when the stereo images generate a coherent percept of surface color, than when images require amodally integrating a series of color changes into a coherent surface. Our results provide further evidence for the intimate link between the segmentation processes that occur in conditions of transparency and occlusion, and the interpolation processes involved in the formation of amodally completed surfaces. PMID:23060829

  1. Stereoscopic radiographic images with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvani, M.I.; Almeida, G.L.; Rogers, J.D.; Lopes, R.T.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial structure of an object can be perceived by the stereoscopic vision provided by eyes or by the parallax produced by movement of the object with regard to the observer. For an opaque object, a technique to render it transparent should be used, in order to make visible the spatial distribution of its inner structure, for any of the two approaches used. In this work, a beam of thermal neutrons at the main port of the Argonauta research reactor of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has been used as radiation to render the inspected objects partially transparent. A neutron sensitive Imaging Plate has been employed as a detector and after exposure it has been developed by a reader using a 0.5 μm laser beam, which defines the finest achievable spatial resolution of the acquired digital image. This image, a radiographic attenuation map of the object, does not represent any specific cross-section but a convoluted projection for each specific attitude of the object with regard to the detector. After taking two of these projections at different object attitudes, they are properly processed and the final image is viewed by a red and green eyeglass. For monochromatic images this processing involves transformation of black and white radiographies into red and white and green and white ones, which are afterwards merged to yield a single image. All the processes are carried out with the software ImageJ. Divergence of the neutron beam unfortunately spoils both spatial and contrast resolutions, which become poorer as object-detector distance increases. Therefore, in order to evaluate the range of spatial resolution corresponding to the 3D image being observed, a curve expressing spatial resolution against object-detector gap has been deduced from the Modulation Transfer Functions experimentally. Typical exposure times, under a reactor power of 170 W, were 6 min for both quantitative and qualitative measurements. In spite of its intrinsic constraints

  2. Stereoscopic radiographic images with thermal neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvani, M. I.; Almeida, G. L.; Rogers, J. D.; Lopes, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    Spatial structure of an object can be perceived by the stereoscopic vision provided by eyes or by the parallax produced by movement of the object with regard to the observer. For an opaque object, a technique to render it transparent should be used, in order to make visible the spatial distribution of its inner structure, for any of the two approaches used. In this work, a beam of thermal neutrons at the main port of the Argonauta research reactor of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has been used as radiation to render the inspected objects partially transparent. A neutron sensitive Imaging Plate has been employed as a detector and after exposure it has been developed by a reader using a 0.5 μm laser beam, which defines the finest achievable spatial resolution of the acquired digital image. This image, a radiographic attenuation map of the object, does not represent any specific cross-section but a convoluted projection for each specific attitude of the object with regard to the detector. After taking two of these projections at different object attitudes, they are properly processed and the final image is viewed by a red and green eyeglass. For monochromatic images this processing involves transformation of black and white radiographies into red and white and green and white ones, which are afterwards merged to yield a single image. All the processes are carried out with the software ImageJ. Divergence of the neutron beam unfortunately spoils both spatial and contrast resolutions, which become poorer as object-detector distance increases. Therefore, in order to evaluate the range of spatial resolution corresponding to the 3D image being observed, a curve expressing spatial resolution against object-detector gap has been deduced from the Modulation Transfer Functions experimentally. Typical exposure times, under a reactor power of 170 W, were 6 min for both quantitative and qualitative measurements. In spite of its intrinsic constraints

  3. A system and method for adjusting and presenting stereoscopic content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    on the basis of one or more vision specific parameters (0M, ThetaMuAlphaChi, ThetaMuIotaNu, DeltaTheta) indicating abnormal vision for the user. In this way, presenting stereoscopic content is enabled that is adjusted specifically to the given person. This may e.g. be used for training purposes or for improved...

  4. 3D Stereoscopic Visualization of Fenestrated Stent Grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhonghua; Squelch, Andrew; Bartlett, Andrew; Cunningham, Kylie; Lawrence-Brown, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a technique of stereoscopic visualization in the evaluation of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm treated with fenestrated stent grafts compared with conventional 2D visualizations. Two patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm undergoing fenestrated stent grafting were selected for inclusion in the study. Conventional 2D views including axial, multiplanar reformation, maximum-intensity projection, and volume rendering and 3D stereoscopic visualizations were assessed by two experienced reviewers independently with regard to the treatment outcomes of fenestrated repair. Interobserver agreement was assessed with Kendall's W statistic. Multiplanar reformation and maximum-intensity projection visualizations were scored the highest in the evaluation of parameters related to the fenestrated stent grafting, while 3D stereoscopic visualization was scored as valuable in the evaluation of appearance (any distortions) of the fenestrated stent. Volume rendering was found to play a limited role in the follow-up of fenestrated stent grafting. 3D stereoscopic visualization adds additional information that assists endovascular specialists to identify any distortions of the fenestrated stents when compared with 2D visualizations.

  5. The rendering context for stereoscopic 3D web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qinshui; Wang, Wenmin; Wang, Ronggang

    2014-03-01

    3D technologies on the Web has been studied for many years, but they are basically monoscopic 3D. With the stereoscopic technology gradually maturing, we are researching to integrate the binocular 3D technology into the Web, creating a stereoscopic 3D browser that will provide users with a brand new experience of human-computer interaction. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to apply stereoscopy technologies to the CSS3 3D Transforms. Under our model, each element can create or participate in a stereoscopic 3D rendering context, in which 3D Transforms such as scaling, translation and rotation, can be applied and be perceived in a truly 3D space. We first discuss the underlying principles of stereoscopy. After that we discuss how these principles can be applied to the Web. A stereoscopic 3D browser with backward compatibility is also created for demonstration purposes. We take advantage of the open-source WebKit project, integrating the 3D display ability into the rendering engine of the web browser. For each 3D web page, our 3D browser will create two slightly different images, each representing the left-eye view and right-eye view, both to be combined on the 3D display to generate the illusion of depth. And as the result turns out, elements can be manipulated in a truly 3D space.

  6. Flow Mapping of a Jet in Crossflow with Stereoscopic PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Özcan, Oktay; Westergaard, C. H.

    2002-01-01

    Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been used to make a three-dimensional flow mapping of a jet in crossflow. The Reynolds number based on the free stream velocity and the jet diameter was nominally 2400. A jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio of 3.3 was used. Details of the formation...

  7. A study on correlation between stereographic cinematography and storytelling: through a documentary film about Ho Quyen-UNESCO World heritage in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yang Hyun; Ahn, Jaehong

    2010-02-01

    Nowadays stereoscopic technology is being paid attention as a leading technology for the next generation film industry in many countries including Korea. In Korean stereoscopic film production, however, the quality but also the quantity of stereoscopic contents still leaves much to be desired, and know-how and skill of stereoscopic film production has been elevated in tardy progress. This paper shows a research on the correlation between stereoscopic cinematography and storytelling. Based on a casestudy of a documentary film about Ho Quyen, UNESCO World Heritage in Vietnam, we could deliver guidelines for the stereoscopic film production and storytelling. For this study, we analyzed scenes and shots of a documentary film script in pre-production stage. These analysis results were reflected on a storyboard. A stereographer grasped the idea of a storytelling that a director had meant through a script and storyboard. Then he applied suitable parameters for a stereoscopic cinematography to every shot with a beamsplitter rig. A researcher wrote major parameters like interaxial distance, convergence angle in every shot. Then average parameter values of scenes were calculated from the parameter database, and the relationship between stereoscopic cinematography and storytelling was derived by shot-by-shot analysis.

  8. Dream Home: a multiview stereoscopic interior design system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Fu-Jen; Teng, Chih-Jen; Lin, Chung-Wei; Luo, An-Chun; Yang, Jinn-Cherng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel multi-view stereoscopic interior design system, "Dream Home", has been developed to bring users new interior design experience. Different than other interior design system before, we put emphasis on its intuitive manipulation and multi-view stereoscopic visualization in real time. Users can do their own interior design just using their hands and eyes without any difficulty. They manipulate furniture cards directly as they wish to setup their living room in the model house task space, get the multi-view 3D visual feedback instantly, and re-adjust cards until they are satisfied. No special skills are required, and you can explore your design talent arbitrarily. We hope that "Dream Home" will make interior design more user-friendly, more intuitive, and more vivid.

  9. Current status of stereoscopic 3D LCD TV technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jin

    2011-06-01

    The year 2010 may be recorded as a first year of successful commercial 3D products. Among them, the 3D LCD TVs are expected to be the major one regarding the sales volume. In this paper, the principle of current stereoscopic 3D LCD TV techniques and the required flat panel display (FPD) technologies for the realization of them are reviewed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Clinical Assessment of a New Stereoscopic Digital Angiography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, Thierry; Douek, Philippe; Finet, Gerard; Turjman, Francis; Picard, Catherine; Revel, Didier; Amiel, Michel

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical feasibility of an experimental modified angiographic system capable of real-time digital stereofluoroscopy and stereography in X-ray angiography, using a twin-focus tube and a stereoscopic monitor. Methods: We report the experience obtained in 37 patients with a well-documented examination. The patients were examined for coronary angiography (11 cases), aortography (7 cases), pulmonary angiography (6 cases), inferior vena cava filter placement (2 cases), and cerebral angiography (11 cases). Six radiologists were asked to use stereoscopic features for fluoroscopy and angiography. A questionnaire was designed to record their subjective evaluation of stereoscopic image quality, ergonomics of the system, and its medical interest. Results: Stereofluoroscopy was successfully used in 25 of 37 cases; diplopia and/or ghost images were reported in 6 cases. It was helpful for aortic catheterization in 10 cases and for selective catheterization in 5 cases. In stereoangiography, depth was easily and accurately perceived in 27 of 37 cases; diplopia and/or ghost images were reported in 4 cases. A certain gain in the three-dimensional evaluation of the anatomy and relation between vessels and lesions was noted. As regards ergonomic considerations, polarized spectacles were not considered cumbersome. Visual fatigue and additional work were variously reported. Stereoshift tuning before X-ray acquisition was not judged to be a limiting factor. Conclusion: A twin-focus X-ray tube and a polarized shutter for stereoscopic display allowed effective real-time three-dimensional perception of angiographic images. Our clinical study suggests no clear medical interest for diagnostic examinations, but the field of interventional radiology needs to be investigated

  11. Optimal display conditions for quantitative analysis of stereoscopic cerebral angiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charland, P.; Peters, T.; McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec

    1996-01-01

    For several years the authors have been using a stereoscopic display as a tool in the planning of stereotactic neurosurgical techniques. This PC-based workstation allows the surgeon to interact with and view vascular images in three dimensions, as well as to perform quantitative analysis of the three-dimensional (3-D) space. Some of the perceptual issues relevant to the presentation of medical images on this stereoscopic display were addressed in five experiments. The authors show that a number of parameters--namely the shape, color, and depth cue, associated with a cursor--as well as the image filtering and observer position, have a role in improving the observer's perception of a 3-D image and his ability to localize points within the stereoscopically presented 3-D image. However, an analysis of the results indicates that while varying these parameters can lead to an effect on the performance of individual observers, the effects are not consistent across observers, and the mean accuracy remains relatively constant under the different experimental conditions

  12. Quantitative evaluation of papilledema from stereoscopic color fundus photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Kardon, Randy H; Wang, Jui-Kai; Garvin, Mona K; Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D

    2012-07-03

    To derive a computerized measurement of optic disc volume from digital stereoscopic fundus photographs for the purpose of diagnosing and managing papilledema. Twenty-nine pairs of stereoscopic fundus photographs and optic nerve head (ONH) centered spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans were obtained at the same visit in 15 patients with papilledema. Some patients were imaged at multiple visits in order to assess their changes. Three-dimensional shape of the ONH was estimated from stereo fundus photographs using an automated multi-scale stereo correspondence algorithm. We assessed the correlation of the stereo volume measurements with the SD-OCT volume measurements quantitatively, in terms of volume of retinal surface elevation above a reference plane and also to expert grading of papilledema from digital fundus photographs using the Frisén grading scale. The volumetric measurements of retinal surface elevation estimated from stereo fundus photographs and OCT scans were positively correlated (correlation coefficient r(2) = 0.60; P photographs compares favorably with that from OCT scans and with expert grading of papilledema severity. Stereoscopic color imaging of the ONH combined with a method of automated shape reconstruction is a low-cost alternative to SD-OCT scans that has potential for a more cost-effective diagnosis and management of papilledema in a telemedical setting. An automated three-dimensional image analysis method was validated that quantifies the retinal surface topography with an imaging modality that has lacked prior objective assessment.

  13. Architecture for high performance stereoscopic game rendering on Android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Julien; Sanderson, Hugh; Shetty, Sampath

    2014-03-01

    Stereoscopic gaming is a popular source of content for consumer 3D display systems. There has been a significant shift in the gaming industry towards casual games for mobile devices running on the Android™ Operating System and driven by ARM™ and other low power processors. Such systems are now being integrated directly into the next generation of 3D TVs potentially removing the requirement for an external games console. Although native stereo support has been integrated into some high profile titles on established platforms like Windows PC and PS3 there is a lack of GPU independent 3D support for the emerging Android platform. We describe a framework for enabling stereoscopic 3D gaming on Android for applications on mobile devices, set top boxes and TVs. A core component of the architecture is a 3D game driver, which is integrated into the Android OpenGL™ ES graphics stack to convert existing 2D graphics applications into stereoscopic 3D in real-time. The architecture includes a method of analyzing 2D games and using rule based Artificial Intelligence (AI) to position separate objects in 3D space. We describe an innovative stereo 3D rendering technique to separate the views in the depth domain and render directly into the display buffer. The advantages of the stereo renderer are demonstrated by characterizing the performance in comparison to more traditional render techniques, including depth based image rendering, both in terms of frame rates and impact on battery consumption.

  14. The development and evaluation of a stereoscopic television system for use in nuclear environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbreck, A.A.; Murphy, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a stereoscopic TV system at Harwell Laboratory. The theory of stereo image geometry is outlined, and criteria for the matching of stereoscopic pictures are given. A stereoscopic TV system designed for remote handling tasks has been produced, it provides two selectable angles of view and variable convergence, the display is viewed via polarizing spectacles. Preliminary evaluations have indicated improved performance with no problems of operator fatigue

  15. The development and evaluation of a stereoscopic television system for remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbreck, A.A.; Murphy, S.P.; Smith, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a stereoscopic television system at Harwell Laboratory. The theory of stereo image geometry is outlined, and criteria for the matching of stereoscopic pictures are given. A stereoscopic television system designed for remote handling tasks has been produced, it provides two selectable angles of view and variable convergence, the display is viewed via polarizing spectacles. Evaluations have indicated improved performance with no problems of operator fatigue over a wide range of applications. (author)

  16. Efficient stereoscopic contents file format on the basis of ISO base media file format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyuheon; Lee, Jangwon; Suh, Doug Young; Park, Gwang Hoon

    2009-02-01

    A lot of 3D contents haven been widely used for multimedia services, however, real 3D video contents have been adopted for a limited applications such as a specially designed 3D cinema. This is because of the difficulty of capturing real 3D video contents and the limitation of display devices available in a market. However, diverse types of display devices for stereoscopic video contents for real 3D video contents have been recently released in a market. Especially, a mobile phone with a stereoscopic camera has been released in a market, which provides a user as a consumer to have more realistic experiences without glasses, and also, as a content creator to take stereoscopic images or record the stereoscopic video contents. However, a user can only store and display these acquired stereoscopic contents with his/her own devices due to the non-existence of a common file format for these contents. This limitation causes a user not share his/her contents with any other users, which makes it difficult the relevant market to stereoscopic contents is getting expanded. Therefore, this paper proposes the common file format on the basis of ISO base media file format for stereoscopic contents, which enables users to store and exchange pure stereoscopic contents. This technology is also currently under development for an international standard of MPEG as being called as a stereoscopic video application format.

  17. Measuring system with stereoscopic x-ray television for accurate diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, K.; Shimizu, S.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray stereoscopic television is diagnostically effective. The authors invented a measuring system using stereoscopic television whereby the coordinates of any two points and their separation can be measured in real time without physical contact. For this purpose, the distances between the two foci of the tube and between the tube and image intensifier were entered into a microcomputer beforehand, and any two points on the CRT stereoscopic image can be defined through the stereoscopic spectacles. The coordinates and distance are then displayed on the CRT monitor. By this means, measurements such as distance between vessels and size of organs are easily made

  18. A analysis of differences between common types of 3D stereoscopic movie & TV technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Shuangyin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D stereoscopic movie & TV technology develops rapidly.It is spreading into common people's life day by day.In this thesis,the author analyzes 3D stereoscopic movie & TV technology thoroughly.By comparing and studying the different technical solutions of the stereoscopic photography and video recording,production process and playing back,the author generalizes the characteristics of various programs and analyzes their strength and weakness.Eventually,the thesis gives the specific application of existing technical solutions and the future development.At last,it puts improvement goals of 3D stereoscopic movie & TV technology and gives large future development.

  19. Stereoscopic Feature Tracking System for Retrieving Velocity of Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga Zamalloa, C. C.; Landry, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    The present work is concerned with the surface velocity retrieval of flows using a stereoscopic setup and finding the correspondence in the images via feature tracking (FT). The feature tracking provides a key benefit of substantially reducing the level of user input. In contrast to other commonly used methods (e.g., normalized cross-correlation), FT does not require the user to prescribe interrogation window sizes and removes the need for masking when specularities are present. The results of the current FT methodology are comparable to those obtained via Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry while requiring little to no user input which allowed for rapid, automated processing of imagery.

  20. Evaluating stereoscopic displays : both efficiency measures and perceived workload sensitive to manipulations in binocular disparity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van M.H.P.H.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; Woods, A.J.; Holliman, N.S.; Dodgson, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Stereoscopic displays are known to offer a number of key advantages in visualizing complex 3D structures or datasets. The large majority of studies that focus on evaluating stereoscopic displays for professional applications use completion time and/or the percentage of correct answers to measure

  1. Application of stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to studies of transport in a dusty (complex) plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Edward Jr.; Williams, Jeremiah D.; Silver, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques [E. Thomas, Jr., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2672 (1999)] have been used to obtain detailed measurements of microparticle transport in dusty plasmas. This Letter reports on an extension of these techniques to a three-dimensional velocity vector measurement approach using stereoscopic PIV. Initial measurements using the stereoscopic PIV diagnostic are presented

  2. Low-cost universal stereoscopic virtual reality interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Michael R.

    1993-09-01

    Low cost stereoscopic virtual reality hardware interfacing with nearly any computer and stereoscopic software running on any PC is described. Both are user configurable for serial or parallel ports. Stereo modeling, rendering, and interaction via gloves or 6D mice are provided. Low cost LCD Visors and external interfaces represent a breakthrough in convenience and price/performance. A complete system with software, Visor, interface and Power Glove is under $DOL500. StereoDrivers will interface with any system giving video sync (e.g., G of RGB). PC3D will access any standard serial port, while PCVR works with serial or parallel ports and glove devices. Model RF Visors detect magnetic fields and require no connection to the system. PGSI is a microprocessor control for the Power Glove and Visors. All interfaces will operate to 120 Hz with Model G Visors. The SpaceStations are demultiplexing, field doubling devices which convert field sequential video or graphics for stereo display with dual video projection or dual LCD SpaceHelmets.

  3. Perceptual asymmetry reveals neural substrates underlying stereoscopic transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Allison, Robert S; Wilcox, Laurie M

    2012-02-01

    We describe a perceptual asymmetry found in stereoscopic perception of overlaid random-dot surfaces. Specifically, the minimum separation in depth needed to perceptually segregate two overlaid surfaces depended on the distribution of dots across the surfaces. With the total dot density fixed, significantly larger inter-plane disparities were required for perceptual segregation of the surfaces when the front surface had fewer dots than the back surface compared to when the back surface was the one with fewer dots. We propose that our results reflect an asymmetry in the signal strength of the front and back surfaces due to the assignment of the spaces between the dots to the back surface by disparity interpolation. This hypothesis was supported by the results of two experiments designed to reduce the imbalance in the neuronal response to the two surfaces. We modeled the psychophysical data with a network of inter-neural connections: excitatory within-disparity and inhibitory across disparity, where the spread of disparity was modulated according to figure-ground assignment. These psychophysical and computational findings suggest that stereoscopic transparency depends on both inter-neural interactions of disparity-tuned cells and higher-level processes governing figure ground segregation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Some theoretical aspects of the design of stereoscopic television systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.

    1980-03-01

    Several parameters which together specify the performance of a stereoscopic television system which has been demonstrated in reactors are investigated theoretically. These are: (1) the minimum resolvable depth interval in object space, (2) the region of space which can be displayed in three dimensions without causing undue eyestrain to the observer, (3) distortions which may arise in the display. The resulting equations form a basis from which operational stereocameras can be designed and a particular example is given, which also illustrates the relationships between the parameters. It is argued that the extent of the stereo region (parameter (2) above) predicted by previously published work is probably too large for closed circuit television inspection. This arises because the criterion used to determine the maximum tolerable screen parallax is too generous. An alternative, based upon the size of Panum's fusional area (a property of the observer's eye) is proposed. Preliminary experimental support for the proposal is given by measurements of the extent of the stereoscopic region using a number of observers. (author)

  5. Matching and correlation computations in stereoscopic depth perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takahiro; Tanabe, Seiji; Fujita, Ichiro

    2011-03-02

    A fundamental task of the visual system is to infer depth by using binocular disparity. To encode binocular disparity, the visual cortex performs two distinct computations: one detects matched patterns in paired images (matching computation); the other constructs the cross-correlation between the images (correlation computation). How the two computations are used in stereoscopic perception is unclear. We dissociated their contributions in near/far discrimination by varying the magnitude of the disparity across separate sessions. For small disparity (0.03°), subjects performed at chance level to a binocularly opposite-contrast (anti-correlated) random-dot stereogram (RDS) but improved their performance with the proportion of contrast-matched (correlated) dots. For large disparity (0.48°), the direction of perceived depth reversed with an anti-correlated RDS relative to that for a correlated one. Neither reversed nor normal depth was perceived when anti-correlation was applied to half of the dots. We explain the decision process as a weighted average of the two computations, with the relative weight of the correlation computation increasing with the disparity magnitude. We conclude that matching computation dominates fine depth perception, while both computations contribute to coarser depth perception. Thus, stereoscopic depth perception recruits different computations depending on the disparity magnitude.

  6. Virtual and stereoscopic anatomy: when virtual reality meets medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Jose Weber Vieira; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; de Moura Sousa Júnior, Leonardo; Otoch, Jose Pinhata; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE The authors sought to construct, implement, and evaluate an interactive and stereoscopic resource for teaching neuroanatomy, accessible from personal computers. METHODS Forty fresh brains (80 hemispheres) were dissected. Images of areas of interest were captured using a manual turntable and processed and stored in a 5337-image database. Pedagogic evaluation was performed in 84 graduate medical students, divided into 3 groups: 1 (conventional method), 2 (interactive nonstereoscopic), and 3 (interactive and stereoscopic). The method was evaluated through a written theory test and a lab practicum. RESULTS Groups 2 and 3 showed the highest mean scores in pedagogic evaluations and differed significantly from Group 1 (p 0.05). Size effects, measured as differences in scores before and after lectures, indicate the effectiveness of the method. ANOVA results showed significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups, and the Tukey test showed statistical differences between Group 1 and the other 2 groups (p < 0.05). No statistical differences between Groups 2 and 3 were found in the practicum. However, there were significant differences when Groups 2 and 3 were compared with Group 1 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The authors conclude that this method promoted further improvement in knowledge for students and fostered significantly higher learning when compared with traditional teaching resources.

  7. No-Reference Stereoscopic IQA Approach: From Nonlinear Effect to Parallax Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Gu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen a booming of the applications of stereoscopic images/videos and the corresponding technologies, such as 3D modeling, reconstruction, and disparity estimation. However, only a very limited number of stereoscopic image quality assessment metrics was proposed through the years. In this paper, we propose a new no-reference stereoscopic image quality assessment algorithm based on the nonlinear additive model, ocular dominance model, and saliency based parallax compensation. Our studies using the Toyama database result in three valuable findings. First, quality of the stereoscopic image has a nonlinear relationship with a direct summation of two monoscopic image qualities. Second, it is a rational assumption that the right-eye response has the higher impact on the stereoscopic image quality, which is based on a sampling survey in the ocular dominance research. Third, the saliency based parallax compensation, resulted from different stereoscopic image contents, is considerably valid to improve the prediction performance of image quality metrics. Experimental results confirm that our proposed stereoscopic image quality assessment paradigm has superior prediction accuracy as compared to state-of-the-art competitors.

  8. Stereoscopic HDTV Research at NHK Science and Technology Research Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanoue, Hirokazu; Nojiri, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on the two psychological factors of naturalness and ease of viewing of three-dimensional high-definition television (3D HDTV) images. It has been said that distortions peculiar to stereoscopic images, such as the “puppet theater” effect or the “cardboard” effect, spoil the sense of presence. Whereas many earlier studies have focused on geometrical calculations about these distortions, this book instead describes the relationship between the naturalness of reproduced 3D HDTV images and the nonlinearity of depthwise reproduction. The ease of viewing of each scene is regarded as one of the causal factors of visual fatigue. Many of the earlier studies have been concerned with the accurate extraction of local parallax; however, this book describes the typical spatiotemporal distribution of parallax in 3D images. The purpose of the book is to examine the correlations between the psychological factors and amount of characteristics of parallax distribution in order to understand the characte...

  9. Visual perception and stereoscopic imaging: an artist's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Steve

    2015-03-01

    This paper continues my 2014 February IS and T/SPIE Convention exploration into the relationship of stereoscopic vision and consciousness (90141F-1). It was proposed then that by using stereoscopic imaging people may consciously experience, or see, what they are viewing and thereby help make them more aware of the way their brains manage and interpret visual information. Environmental imaging was suggested as a way to accomplish this. This paper is the result of further investigation, research, and follow-up imaging. A show of images, that is a result of this research, allows viewers to experience for themselves the effects of stereoscopy on consciousness. Creating dye-infused aluminum prints while employing ChromaDepth® 3D glasses, I hope to not only raise awareness of visual processing but also explore the differences and similarities between the artist and scientist―art increases right brain spatial consciousness, not only empirical thinking, while furthering the viewer's cognizance of the process of seeing. The artist must abandon preconceptions and expectations, despite what the evidence and experience may indicate in order to see what is happening in his work and to allow it to develop in ways he/she could never anticipate. This process is then revealed to the viewer in a show of work. It is in the experiencing, not just from the thinking, where insight is achieved. Directing the viewer's awareness during the experience using stereoscopic imaging allows for further understanding of the brain's function in the visual process. A cognitive transformation occurs, the preverbal "left/right brain shift," in order for viewers to "see" the space. Using what we know from recent brain research, these images will draw from certain parts of the brain when viewed in two dimensions and different ones when viewed stereoscopically, a shift, if one is looking for it, which is quite noticeable. People who have experienced these images in the context of examining their own

  10. Disparity modifications and the emotional effects of stereoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Takashi; Atsuta, Daiki; Tomiyama, Yuya; Kim, Sanghyun; Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Mitsuya, Reiko; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a study that focuses on disparity changes in emotional scenes of stereoscopic (3D) images, in which an examination of the effects on pleasant and arousal was carried out by adding binocular disparity to 2D images that evoke specific emotions, and applying disparity modification based on the disparity analysis of famous 3D movies. From the results of the experiment, for pleasant, a significant difference was found only for the main effect of the emotions. On the other hand, for arousal, there was a trend of increasing the evaluation values in the order 2D condition, 3D condition and 3D condition applied the disparity modification for happiness, surprise, and fear. This suggests the possibility that binocular disparity and the modification affect arousal.

  11. Stereoscopic augmented reality with pseudo-realistic global illumination effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sorbier, Francois; Saito, Hideo

    2014-03-01

    Recently, augmented reality has become very popular and has appeared in our daily life with gaming, guiding systems or mobile phone applications. However, inserting object in such a way their appearance seems natural is still an issue, especially in an unknown environment. This paper presents a framework that demonstrates the capabilities of Kinect for convincing augmented reality in an unknown environment. Rather than pre-computing a reconstruction of the scene like proposed by most of the previous method, we propose a dynamic capture of the scene that allows adapting to live changes of the environment. Our approach, based on the update of an environment map, can also detect the position of the light sources. Combining information from the environment map, the light sources and the camera tracking, we can display virtual objects using stereoscopic devices with global illumination effects such as diffuse and mirror reflections, refractions and shadows in real time.

  12. Head-coupled remote stereoscopic camera system for telepresence applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolas, Mark T.; Fisher, Scott S.

    1990-09-01

    The Virtual Environment Workstation Project (VIEW) at NASA's Ames Research Center has developed a remotely controlled stereoscopic camera system that can be used for telepresence research and as a tool to develop and evaluate configurations for head-coupled visual systems associated with space station telerobots and remote manipulation robotic arms. The prototype camera system consists of two lightweight CCD video cameras mounted on a computer controlled platform that provides real-time pan, tilt, and roll control of the camera system in coordination with head position transmitted from the user. This paper provides an overall system description focused on the design and implementation of the camera and platform hardware configuration and the development of control software. Results of preliminary performance evaluations are reported with emphasis on engineering and mechanical design issues and discussion of related psychophysiological effects and objectives.

  13. Efficient Stereoscopic Video Matching and Map Reconstruction for a Wheeled Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Montiel-Ross

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to achieve stereoscopic vision for mobile robot (MR navigation with the advantage of not needing camera calibration for depth (distance estimation measurements. It uses the concept of the adaptive candidate matching window for stereoscopic correspondence for block matching, resulting in improvements in efficiency and accuracy. An average of 40% of time reduction in the calculation process is obtained. All the algorithms for navigation, including the stereoscopic vision module, were implemented using an original computer architecture for the Virtex 5 FPGA, where a distributed multicore processor system was embedded and coordinated using the Message Passing Interface.

  14. Many-core computing for space-based stereoscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Paul; Torres, Gildo; LeGrand, Keith; Adjouadi, Malek; Liu, Chen; Darling, Jacob; Pernicka, Henry

    The potential benefits of using parallel computing in real-time visual-based satellite proximity operations missions are investigated. Improvements in performance and relative navigation solutions over single thread systems can be achieved through multi- and many-core computing. Stochastic relative orbit determination methods benefit from the higher measurement frequencies, allowing them to more accurately determine the associated statistical properties of the relative orbital elements. More accurate orbit determination can lead to reduced fuel consumption and extended mission capabilities and duration. Inherent to the process of stereoscopic image processing is the difficulty of loading, managing, parsing, and evaluating large amounts of data efficiently, which may result in delays or highly time consuming processes for single (or few) processor systems or platforms. In this research we utilize the Single-Chip Cloud Computer (SCC), a fully programmable 48-core experimental processor, created by Intel Labs as a platform for many-core software research, provided with a high-speed on-chip network for sharing information along with advanced power management technologies and support for message-passing. The results from utilizing the SCC platform for the stereoscopic image processing application are presented in the form of Performance, Power, Energy, and Energy-Delay-Product (EDP) metrics. Also, a comparison between the SCC results and those obtained from executing the same application on a commercial PC are presented, showing the potential benefits of utilizing the SCC in particular, and any many-core platforms in general for real-time processing of visual-based satellite proximity operations missions.

  15. Analysis of brain activity and response during monoscopic and stereoscopic visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calore, Enrico; Folgieri, Raffaella; Gadia, Davide; Marini, Daniele

    2012-03-01

    Stereoscopic visualization in cinematography and Virtual Reality (VR) creates an illusion of depth by means of two bidimensional images corresponding to different views of a scene. This perceptual trick is used to enhance the emotional response and the sense of presence and immersivity of the observers. An interesting question is if and how it is possible to measure and analyze the level of emotional involvement and attention of the observers during a stereoscopic visualization of a movie or of a virtual environment. The research aims represent a challenge, due to the large number of sensorial, physiological and cognitive stimuli involved. In this paper we begin this research by analyzing possible differences in the brain activity of subjects during the viewing of monoscopic or stereoscopic contents. To this aim, we have performed some preliminary experiments collecting electroencephalographic (EEG) data of a group of users using a Brain- Computer Interface (BCI) during the viewing of stereoscopic and monoscopic short movies in a VR immersive installation.

  16. Influence of stereoscopic vision on task performance with an operating microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Lisanne M.; Wanders, Wouter; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Koopmans, Steven A.

    PURPOSE: To determine the extent to which stereoscopic depth perception influences the performance of tasks executed under an operating microscope. SETTING: Laboratory of Experimental Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Medical

  17. Enhancement of stereoscopic comfort by fast control of frequency content with wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Nicolas; Moreau, Guillaume; Fuchs, Philippe

    2003-05-01

    As the scope of virtual reality applications including stereoscopic imaging becomes wider, it is quite clear that not every designer of a VR application thinks of its constraints in order to make a correct use of stereo. Stereoscopic imagery though not required can be a useful tool for depth perception. It is possible to limit the depth of field as shown by Perrin who has also undertaken research on the link between the ability of fusing stereoscopic images (stereopsis) and local disparity and spatial frequency content. We will show how we can extend and enhance this work especially on the computational complexity point of view. The wavelet theory allows us to define a local spatial frequency and then a local measure of stereoscopic comfort. This measure is based on local spatial frequency and disparity as well as on the observations made by Woepking. Local comfort estimation allows us to propose several filtering methods to enhance this comfort. The idea to modify the images such as they check a "stereoscopic comfort condition" defined as a threshold for the stereoscopic comfort condition. More technically, we seek to limit high spatial frequency content when disparity is high thanks to the use of fast algorithms.

  18. Evaluating stereoscopic displays: both efficiency measures and perceived workload sensitive to manipulations in binocular disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beurden, Maurice H. P. H.; Ijsselsteijn, Wijnand A.; de Kort, Yvonne A. W.

    2011-03-01

    Stereoscopic displays are known to offer a number of key advantages in visualizing complex 3D structures or datasets. The large majority of studies that focus on evaluating stereoscopic displays for professional applications use completion time and/or the percentage of correct answers to measure potential performance advantages. However, completion time and accuracy may not fully reflect all the benefits of stereoscopic displays. In this paper, we argue that perceived workload is an additional valuable indicator reflecting the extent to which users can benefit from using stereoscopic displays. We performed an experiment in which participants were asked to perform a visual path-tracing task within a convoluted 3D wireframe structure, varying in level of complexity of the visualised structure and level of disparity of the visualisation. The results showed that an optimal performance (completion time, accuracy and workload), depend both on task difficulty and disparity level. Stereoscopic disparity revealed a faster and more accurate task performance, whereas we observed a trend that performance on difficult tasks stands to benefit more from higher levels of disparity than performance on easy tasks. Perceived workload (as measured using the NASA-TLX) showed a similar response pattern, providing evidence that perceived workload is sensitive to variations in disparity as well as task difficulty. This suggests that perceived workload could be a useful concept, in addition to standard performance indicators, in characterising and measuring human performance advantages when using stereoscopic displays.

  19. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  20. Stereoscopic Visualization of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Data: A Comparative Survey of Visualization Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raslan, O.; Debnam, J.M.; Ketonen, L.; Kumar, A.J.; Schellingerhout, D.; Wang, J.

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data has traditionally been displayed as a gray scale functional anisotropy map (GSFM) or color coded orientation map (CCOM). These methods use black and white or color with intensity values to map the complex multidimensional DTI data to a two-dimensional image. Alternative visualization techniques, such as V m ax maps utilize enhanced graphical representation of the principal eigenvector by means of a headless arrow on regular non stereoscopic (VM) or stereoscopic display (VMS). A survey of clinical utility of patients with intracranial neoplasms was carried out by 8 neuro radiologists using traditional and nontraditional methods of DTI display. Pairwise comparison studies of 5 intracranial neoplasms were performed with a structured questionnaire comparing GSFM, CCOM, VM, and VMS. Six of 8 neuro radiologists favored V m ax maps over traditional methods of display (GSFM and CCOM). When comparing the stereoscopic (VMS) and the non-stereoscopic (VM) modes, 4 favored VMS, 2 favored VM, and 2 had no preference. In conclusion, processing and visualizing DTI data stereoscopically is technically feasible. An initial survey of users indicated that V m ax based display methodology with or without stereoscopic visualization seems to be preferred over traditional methods to display DTI data.

  1. A Review on Stereoscopic 3D: Home Entertainment for the Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karajeh, Huda; Maqableh, Mahmoud; Masa'deh, Ra'ed

    2014-12-01

    In the last few years, stereoscopic developed very rapidly and employed in many different fields such as entertainment. Due to the importance of entertainment aspect of stereoscopic 3D (S3D) applications, a review of the current state of S3D development in entertainment technology is conducted. In this paper, a novel survey of the stereoscopic entertainment aspects is presented by discussing the significant development of a 3D cinema, the major development of 3DTV, the issues related to 3D video content and 3D video games. Moreover, we reviewed some problems that can be caused in the viewers' visual system from watching stereoscopic contents. Some stereoscopic viewers are not satisfied as they are frustrated from wearing glasses, have visual fatigue, complain from unavailability of 3D contents, and/or complain from some sickness. Therefore, we will discuss stereoscopic visual discomfort and to what extend the viewer will have an eye fatigue while watching 3D contents or playing 3D games. The suggested solutions in the literature for this problem are discussed.

  2. Student production: making a realistic stereo CG short film in six months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Celambarasan

    2010-02-01

    This paper breaks down the R&D and production challenges faced on a stereoscopic CG short film that was developed on a six month time budget. Using this film as an example, the manner in which technical innovation and story telling techniques can be used to emphasize the strengths and hide the weaknesses of a limited timeframe student production is discussed.

  3. Real-time photorealistic stereoscopic rendering of fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Benjamin M.; McAllister, David F.

    2007-02-01

    We propose a method for real-time photorealistic stereo rendering of the natural phenomenon of fire. Applications include the use of virtual reality in fire fighting, military training, and entertainment. Rendering fire in real-time presents a challenge because of the transparency and non-static fluid-like behavior of fire. It is well known that, in general, methods that are effective for monoscopic rendering are not necessarily easily extended to stereo rendering because monoscopic methods often do not provide the depth information necessary to produce the parallax required for binocular disparity in stereoscopic rendering. We investigate the existing techniques used for monoscopic rendering of fire and discuss their suitability for extension to real-time stereo rendering. Methods include the use of precomputed textures, dynamic generation of textures, and rendering models resulting from the approximation of solutions of fluid dynamics equations through the use of ray-tracing algorithms. We have found that in order to attain real-time frame rates, our method based on billboarding is effective. Slicing is used to simulate depth. Texture mapping or 2D images are mapped onto polygons and alpha blending is used to treat transparency. We can use video recordings or prerendered high-quality images of fire as textures to attain photorealistic stereo.

  4. Measurement of compressed breast thickness by optical stereoscopic photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Albert H; Mawdsley, Gordon E; Yaffe, Martin J

    2009-02-01

    The determination of volumetric breast density (VBD) from mammograms requires accurate knowledge of the thickness of the compressed breast. In attempting to accurately determine VBD from images obtained on conventional mammography systems, the authors found that the thickness reported by a number of mammography systems in the field varied by as much as 15 mm when compressing the same breast or phantom. In order to evaluate the behavior of mammographic compression systems and to be able to predict the thickness at different locations in the breast on patients, they have developed a method for measuring the local thickness of the breast at all points of contact with the compression paddle using optical stereoscopic photogrammetry. On both flat (solid) and compressible phantoms, the measurements were accurate to better than 1 mm with a precision of 0.2 mm. In a pilot study, this method was used to measure thickness on 108 volunteers who were undergoing mammography examination. This measurement tool will allow us to characterize paddle surface deformations, deflections and calibration offsets for mammographic units.

  5. Digital stereoscopic photography using StereoData Maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toeppen, John; Sykes, David

    2009-02-01

    Stereoscopic digital photography has become much more practical with the use of USB wired connections between a pair of Canon cameras using StereoData Maker software for precise synchronization. StereoPhoto Maker software is now used to automatically combine and align right and left image files to produce a stereo pair. Side by side images are saved as pairs and may be viewed using software that converts the images into the preferred viewing format at the time of display. Stereo images may be shared on the internet, displayed on computer monitors, autostereo displays, viewed on high definition 3D TVs, or projected for a group. Stereo photographers are now free to control composition using point and shoot settings, or are able to control shutter speed, aperture, focus, ISO, and zoom. The quality of the output depends on the developed skills of the photographer as well as their understanding of the software, human vision and the geometry they choose for their cameras and subjects. Observers of digital stereo images can zoom in for greater detail and scroll across large panoramic fields with a few keystrokes. The art, science, and methods of taking, creating and viewing digital stereo photos are presented in a historic and developmental context in this paper.

  6. Stereoscopic vision in the absence of the lateral occipital cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny C A Read

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Both dorsal and ventral cortical visual streams contain neurons sensitive to binocular disparities, but the two streams may underlie different aspects of stereoscopic vision. Here we investigate stereopsis in the neurological patient D.F., whose ventral stream, specifically lateral occipital cortex, has been damaged bilaterally, causing profound visual form agnosia. Despite her severe damage to cortical visual areas, we report that DF's stereo vision is strikingly unimpaired. She is better than many control observers at using binocular disparity to judge whether an isolated object appears near or far, and to resolve ambiguous structure-from-motion. DF is, however, poor at using relative disparity between features at different locations across the visual field. This may stem from a difficulty in identifying the surface boundaries where relative disparity is available. We suggest that the ventral processing stream may play a critical role in enabling healthy observers to extract fine depth information from relative disparities within one surface or between surfaces located in different parts of the visual field.

  7. Measurements of turbulent premixed flame dynamics using cinema stereoscopic PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Adam M.; Driscoll, James F. [University of Michigan, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ceccio, Steven L. [University of Michigan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2008-06-15

    A new experimental method is described that provides high-speed movies of turbulent premixed flame wrinkling dynamics and the associated vorticity fields. This method employs cinema stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and has been applied to a turbulent slot Bunsen flame. Three-component velocity fields were measured with high temporal and spatial resolutions of 0.9 ms and 140{mu}m, respectively. The flame-front location was determined using a new multi-step method based on particle image gradients, which is described. Comparisons are made between flame fronts found with this method and simultaneous CH-PLIF images. These show that the flame contour determined corresponds well to the true location of maximum gas density gradient. Time histories of typical eddy-flame interactions are reported and several important phenomena identified. Outwardly rotating eddy pairs wrinkle the flame and are attenuated at they pass through the flamelet. Significant flame-generated vorticity is produced downstream of the wrinkled tip. Similar wrinkles are caused by larger groups of outwardly rotating eddies. Inwardly rotating pairs cause significant convex wrinkles that grow as the flame propagates. These wrinkles encounter other eddies that alter their behavior. The effects of the hydrodynamic and diffusive instabilities are observed and found to be significant contributors to the formation and propagation of wrinkles. (orig.)

  8. Development of a stereoscopic three-dimensional drawing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Donald E.; McAllister, David F.

    1991-08-01

    With recent advances in 3-D technology, computer users have the opportunity to work within a natural 3-D environment; a flat panel LCD computer display of this type, the DTI-100M made by Dimension Technologies, Inc., recently went on the market. In a joint venture between DTI and NCSU, an object-oriented 3-D drawing application, 3-D Draw, was developed to address some issues of human interface design for interactive stereo drawing applications. The focus of this paper is to determine some of the procedures a user would naturally expect to follow while working within a true 3-D environment. The paper discusses (1) the interface between the Macintosh II and DTI-100M during implementation of 3-D Draw, including stereo cursor development and presentation of current 2-D systems, with an additional `depth'' parameter, in the 3-D world, (2) problems in general for human interface into the 3-D environment, and (3) necessary functions and/or problems in developing future stereoscopic 3-D operating systems/tools.

  9. Stereoscopic, thermal, and true deep cumulus cloud top heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Corlett, G. K.; Lawrence, S. P.; Remedios, J. J.; Sherwood, S. C.; Chae, J.; Minnis, P.; McGill, M.

    2004-05-01

    We compare cloud-top height estimates from several sensors: thermal tops from GOES-8 and MODIS, stereoscopic tops from MISR, and directly measured heights from the Goddard Cloud Physics Lidar on board the ER-2, all collected during the CRYSTAL-FACE field campaign. Comparisons reveal a persistent 1-2 km underestimation of cloud-top heights by thermal imagery, even when the finite optical extinctions near cloud top and in thin overlying cirrus are taken into account. The most severe underestimates occur for the tallest clouds. The MISR "best-sinds" and lidar estimates disagree in very similar ways with thermally estimated tops, which we take as evidence of excellent performance by MISR. Encouraged by this, we use MISR to examine variations in cloud penetration and thermal top height errors in several locations of tropical deep convection over multiple seasons. The goals of this are, first, to learn how cloud penetration depends on the near-tropopause environment; and second, to gain further insight into the mysterious underestimation of tops by thermal imagery.

  10. Stereoscopic Machine-Vision System Using Projected Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    A machine-vision system capable of detecting obstacles large enough to damage or trap a robotic vehicle is undergoing development. The system includes (1) a pattern generator that projects concentric circles of laser light forward onto the terrain, (2) a stereoscopic pair of cameras that are aimed forward to acquire images of the circles, (3) a frame grabber and digitizer for acquiring image data from the cameras, and (4) a single-board computer that processes the data. The system is being developed as a prototype of machine- vision systems to enable robotic vehicles ( rovers ) on remote planets to avoid craters, large rocks, and other terrain features that could capture or damage the vehicles. Potential terrestrial applications of systems like this one could include terrain mapping, collision avoidance, navigation of robotic vehicles, mining, and robotic rescue. This system is based partly on the same principles as those of a prior stereoscopic machine-vision system in which the cameras acquire images of a single stripe of laser light that is swept forward across the terrain. However, this system is designed to afford improvements over some of the undesirable features of the prior system, including the need for a pan-and-tilt mechanism to aim the laser to generate the swept stripe, ambiguities in interpretation of the single-stripe image, the time needed to sweep the stripe across the terrain and process the data from many images acquired during that time, and difficulty of calibration because of the narrowness of the stripe. In this system, the pattern generator does not contain any moving parts and need not be mounted on a pan-and-tilt mechanism: the pattern of concentric circles is projected steadily in the forward direction. The system calibrates itself by use of data acquired during projection of the concentric-circle pattern onto a known target representing flat ground. The calibration- target image data are stored in the computer memory for use as a

  11. Traveling via Rome through the Stereoscope: Reality, Memory, and Virtual Travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Klahr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Underwood and Underwood’s 'Rome through the Stereoscope' of 1902 was a landmark in stereoscopic photography publishing, both as an intense, visually immersive experience and as a cognitively demanding exercise. The set consisted of a guidebook, forty-six stereographs, and five maps whose notations enabled the reader/viewer to precisely replicate the location and orientation of the photographer at each site. Combined with the extensive narrative within the guidebook, the maps and images guided its users through the city via forty-six sites, whether as an example of armchair travel or an actual travel companion. The user’s experience is examined and analyzed within the following parameters: the medium of stereoscopic photography, narrative, geographical imagination, and memory, bringing forth issues of movement, survey and route frames of reference, orientation, visualization, immersion, and primary versus secondary memories. 'Rome through the Stereoscope' was an example of virtual travel, and the process of fusing dual images into one — stereoscopic synthesis — further demarcated the experience as a virtual environment.

  12. High-Definition 3D Stereoscopic Microscope Display System for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Kwan-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical research has been performed by using advanced information techniques, and micro-high-quality stereo images have been used by researchers and/or doctors for various aims in biomedical research and surgery. To visualize the stereo images, many related devices have been developed. However, the devices are difficult to learn for junior doctors and demanding to supervise for experienced surgeons. In this paper, we describe the development of a high-definition (HD three-dimensional (3D stereoscopic imaging display system for operating a microscope or experimenting on animals. The system consists of a stereoscopic camera part, image processing device for stereoscopic video recording, and stereoscopic display. In order to reduce eyestrain and viewer fatigue, we use a preexisting stereo microscope structure and polarized-light stereoscopic display method that does not reduce the quality of the stereo images. The developed system can overcome the discomfort of the eye piece and eyestrain caused by use over a long period of time.

  13. METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE SPATIAL COORDINATES IN THE ACTIVE STEREOSCOPIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Korotaev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structural scheme of active stereoscopic system and algorithm of its operation, providing the fast calculation of the spatial coordinates. The system includes two identical cameras, forming a stereo pair, and a laser scanner, which provides vertical scanning of the space before the system by the laser beam. A separate synchronizer provides synchronous operation of the two cameras. The developed algorithm of the system operation is implemented in MATLAB. In the proposed algorithm, the influence of background light is eliminated by interframe processing. The algorithm is based on precomputation of coordinates for epipolar lines and corresponding points in stereoscopic image. These data are used to quick calculation of the three-dimensional coordinates of points that form the three-dimensional images of objects. Experiment description on a physical model is given. Experimental results confirm the efficiency of the proposed active stereoscopic system and its operation algorithm. The proposed scheme of active stereoscopic system and calculating method for the spatial coordinates can be recommended for creation of stereoscopic systems, operating in real time and at high processing speed: devices for face recognition, systems for the position control of railway track, automobile active safety systems.

  14. Visual Attention Modeling for Stereoscopic Video: A Benchmark and Computational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuming; Zhang, Chi; Li, Jing; Lei, Jianjun; Perreira Da Silva, Matthieu; Le Callet, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the visual attention modeling for stereoscopic video from the following two aspects. First, we build one large-scale eye tracking database as the benchmark of visual attention modeling for stereoscopic video. The database includes 47 video sequences and their corresponding eye fixation data. Second, we propose a novel computational model of visual attention for stereoscopic video based on Gestalt theory. In the proposed model, we extract the low-level features, including luminance, color, texture, and depth, from discrete cosine transform coefficients, which are used to calculate feature contrast for the spatial saliency computation. The temporal saliency is calculated by the motion contrast from the planar and depth motion features in the stereoscopic video sequences. The final saliency is estimated by fusing the spatial and temporal saliency with uncertainty weighting, which is estimated by the laws of proximity, continuity, and common fate in Gestalt theory. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art stereoscopic video saliency detection models on our built large-scale eye tracking database and one other database (DML-ITRACK-3D).

  15. Subjective and objective measurements of visual fatigue induced by excessive disparities in stereoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Ju; Kim, Dongchan; Sohn, Hosik; Lee, Seong-il; Park, Hyun Wook; Ro, Yong Man

    2013-03-01

    As stereoscopic displays have spread, it is important to know what really causes the visual fatigue and discomfort and what happens in the visual system in the brain behind the retina while viewing stereoscopic 3D images on the displays. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used for the objective measurement to assess the human brain regions involved in the processing of the stereoscopic stimuli with excessive disparities. Based on the subjective measurement results, we selected two subsets of comfort videos and discomfort videos in our dataset. Then, a fMRI experiment was conducted with the subsets of comfort and discomfort videos in order to identify which brain regions activated while viewing the discomfort videos in a stereoscopic display. We found that, when viewing a stereoscopic display, the right middle frontal gyrus, the right inferior frontal gyrus, the right intraparietal lobule, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the bilateral cuneus were significantly activated during the processing of excessive disparities, compared to those of small disparities (< 1 degree).

  16. Digital stereoscopic convergence where video games and movies for the home user meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, Ethan

    2009-02-01

    Today there is a proliferation of stereoscopic 3D display devices, 3D content, and 3D enabled video games. As we in the S-3D community bring stereoscopic 3D to the home user we have a real opportunity of using stereoscopic 3D to bridge the gap between exciting immersive games and home movies. But to do this, we cannot limit ourselves to current conceptions of gaming and movies. We need, for example, to imagine a movie that is fully rendered using avatars in a stereoscopic game environment. Or perhaps to imagine a pervasive drama where viewers can play too and become an essential part of the drama - whether at home or on the go on a mobile platform. Stereoscopic 3D is the "glue" that will bind these video and movie concepts together. As users feel more immersed, the lines between current media will blur. This means that we have the opportunity to shape the way that we, as humans, view and interact with each other, our surroundings and our most fundamental art forms. The goal of this paper is to stimulate conversation and further development on expanding the current gaming and home theatre infrastructures to support greatly-enhanced experiential entertainment.

  17. Visual discomfort while watching stereoscopic three-dimensional movies at the cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeri, Fabrizio; Livi, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates discomfort symptoms while watching Stereoscopic three-dimensional (S3D) movies in the 'real' condition of a cinema. In particular, it had two main objectives: to evaluate the presence and nature of visual discomfort while watching S3D movies, and to compare visual symptoms during S3D and 2D viewing. Cinema spectators of S3D or 2D films were interviewed by questionnaire at the theatre exit of different multiplex cinemas immediately after viewing a movie. A total of 854 subjects were interviewed (mean age 23.7 ± 10.9 years; range 8-81 years; 392 females and 462 males). Five hundred and ninety-nine of them viewed different S3D movies, and 255 subjects viewed a 2D version of a film seen in S3D by 251 subjects from the S3D group for a between-subjects design for that comparison. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors underlying symptoms: External Symptoms Factors (ESF) with a mean ± S.D. symptom score of 1.51 ± 0.58 comprised of eye burning, eye ache, eye strain, eye irritation and tearing; and Internal Symptoms Factors (ISF) with a mean ± S.D. symptom score of 1.38 ± 0.51 comprised of blur, double vision, headache, dizziness and nausea. ISF and ESF were significantly correlated (Spearman r = 0.55; p = 0.001) but with external symptoms significantly higher than internal ones (Wilcoxon Signed-ranks test; p = 0.001). The age of participants did not significantly affect symptoms. However, females had higher scores than males for both ESF and ISF, and myopes had higher ISF scores than hyperopes. Newly released movies provided lower ESF scores than older movies, while the seat position of spectators had minimal effect. Symptoms while viewing S3D movies were significantly and negatively correlated to the duration of wearing S3D glasses. Kruskal-Wallis results showed that symptoms were significantly greater for S3D compared to those of 2D movies, both for ISF (p = 0.001) and for ESF (p = 0.001). In short, the analysis of the symptoms

  18. Animating Energy: Stop-Motion Animation and Energy Tracking Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Leslie J.; Erstad, Craig; Gudeman, Paul; McGowan, Jacob; Mulhern, Kristin; Prader, Kaitlyn; Rodriguez, Gregoria; Showaker, Amy; Timmons, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Energy is a topic that is often treated as an accounting process-a number that students are asked to calculate, but that is not particularly meaningful in itself. When we try to ascribe meaning to this number ("an ability to do work," for example), we are met with caveats and hedges. As Feynman notes when lecturing on the conservation of…

  19. Move, Stop, Learn: Illustrating Mitosis through Stop-Motion Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Brandi L.; Deaton, Cynthia C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Learning about microscopic things, such as cells, can often be mundane to students because they are not able to see or manipulate what they are learning about. Students often recall learning about cell division through memorization--thus they find it tedious and dull. Few opportunities exist that allow students to explore and manipulate cells or…

  20. Application of longitudinal magnification effect to magnification stereoscopic angiography. A new method of cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, K.; Rossmann, K.; Duda, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    A new method of stereoscopic cerebral angiography was developed which employs 2X radiographic magnification. In order to obtain the same depth perception in the object as with conventional contact stereoscopic angiography, one can make the x-ray exposures at two focal spot positions which are separated by only 1 inch, whereas the contact technique requires a separation of 4 inches. The smaller distance is possible because, with 2X magnification, the transverse detail in the object is magnified by a factor of two, but the longitudinal detail, which is related to the stereo effect, is magnified by a factor of four, due to the longitudinal magnification effect. The small focal spot separation results in advantages such as improved stereoscopic image detail, better image quality, and low radiation exposure to the patient

  1. Evaluating visual discomfort in stereoscopic projection-based CAVE system with a close viewing distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weitao; Weng, Dongdong; Feng, Dan; Li, Yuqian; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-05-01

    As one of popular immersive Virtual Reality (VR) systems, stereoscopic cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE) system is typically consisted of 4 to 6 3m-by-3m sides of a room made of rear-projected screens. While many endeavors have been made to reduce the size of the projection-based CAVE system, the issue of asthenopia caused by lengthy exposure to stereoscopic images in such CAVE with a close viewing distance was seldom tangled. In this paper, we propose a light-weighted approach which utilizes a convex eyepiece to reduce visual discomfort induced by stereoscopic vision. An empirical experiment was conducted to examine the feasibility of convex eyepiece in a large depth of field (DOF) at close viewing distance both objectively and subjectively. The result shows the positive effects of convex eyepiece on the relief of eyestrain.

  2. Application of longitudinal magnification effect to magnification stereoscopic angiography. A new method of cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, K.; Rossmann, K.; Duda, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    A new method of stereoscopic cerebral angiography was developed which employs 2X radiographic magnification. In order to obtain the same depth perception in the object as with conventional contact stereoscopic angiography, one can make the x-ray exposures at two focal spot positions which are separated by only 1 inch, whereas the contact technique requires a separation of 4 inches. The smaller distance is possible because, with 2X magnification, the transverse detail in the object is magnified by a factor of two, but the longitudinal detail, which is related to the stereo effect, is magnified by a factor of four, due to the longitudinal magnification effect. The small focal spot separation results in advantages such as improved stereoscopic image detail, better image quality, and low radiation exposure to the patient.

  3. Usage of stereoscopic visualization in the learning contents of rotational motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Rotational motion plays an essential role in physics even at an introductory level. In addition, the stereoscopic display of three-dimensional graphics includes is advantageous for the presentation of rotational motions, particularly for depth recognition. However, the immersive visualization of rotational motion has been known to lead to dizziness and even nausea for some viewers. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the onset of nausea and visual fatigue when learning rotational motion through the use of a stereoscopic display. The findings show that an instruction method with intermittent exposure of the stereoscopic display and a simplification of its visual components reduced the onset of nausea and visual fatigue for the viewers, which maintained the overall effect of instantaneous spatial recognition.

  4. Doing Textiles Experiments in Game-Based Virtual Reality: A Design of the Stereoscopic Chemical Laboratory (SCL) for Textiles Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kung Wong; Kan, Chi Wai; Lee, Pui Yuen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the use of stereoscopic virtual technology in textile and fashion studies in particular to the area of chemical experiment. The development of a designed virtual platform, called Stereoscopic Chemical Laboratory (SCL), is introduced. Design/methodology/approach: To implement the suggested…

  5. Taking space literally: reconceptualizing the effects of stereoscopic representation on user experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Liebold

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, cinemas, home theater systems and game consoles have undergone a rapid evolution towards stereoscopic representation with recipients gradually becoming accustomed to these changes. Stereoscopy techniques in most media present two offset images separately to the left and right eye of the viewer (usually with the help of glasses separating both images resulting in the perception of three-dimensional depth. In contrast to these mass market techniques, true 3D volumetric displays or holograms that display an image in three full dimensions are relatively uncommon. The visual quality and visual comfort of stereoscopic representation is constantly being improved by the industry.

  6. Stereoscopic Three-Dimensional Visualization Applied to Multimodal Brain Images: Clinical Applications and a Functional Connectivity Atlas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Rojas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective visualization is central to the exploration and comprehension of brain imaging data. While MRI data are acquired in three-dimensional space, the methods for visualizing such data have rarely taken advantage of three-dimensional stereoscopic technologies. We present here results of stereoscopic visualization of clinical data, as well as an atlas of whole-brain functional connectivity. In comparison with traditional 3D rendering techniques, we demonstrate the utility of stereoscopic visualizations to provide an intuitive description of the exact location and the relative sizes of various brain landmarks, structures and lesions. In the case of resting state fMRI, stereoscopic 3D visualization facilitated comprehension of the anatomical position of complex large-scale functional connectivity patterns. Overall, stereoscopic visualization improves the intuitive visual comprehension of image contents, and brings increased dimensionality to visualization of traditional MRI data, as well as patterns of functional connectivity.

  7. Use of camera drive in stereoscopic display of learning contents of introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shu

    2011-03-01

    Simple 3D physics simulations with stereoscopic display were created for a part of introductory physics e-Learning. First, cameras to see the 3D world can be made controllable by the user. This enabled to observe the system and motions of objects from any position in the 3D world. Second, cameras were made attachable to one of the moving object in the simulation so as to observe the relative motion of other objects. By this option, it was found that users perceive the velocity and acceleration more sensibly on stereoscopic display than on non-stereoscopic 3D display. Simulations were made using Adobe Flash ActionScript, and Papervison 3D library was used to render the 3D models in the flash web pages. To display the stereogram, two viewports from virtual cameras were displayed in parallel in the same web page. For observation of stereogram, the images of two viewports were superimposed by using 3D stereogram projection box (T&TS CO., LTD.), and projected on an 80-inch screen. The virtual cameras were controlled by keyboard and also by Nintendo Wii remote controller buttons. In conclusion, stereoscopic display offers learners more opportunities to play with the simulated models, and to perceive the characteristics of motion better.

  8. The Impact of Stereoscopic Imagery and Motion on Anatomical Structure Recognition and Visual Attention Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmele, Martin; Schmidt, Elena; Lingenfelder, Melissa; Martens, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Gross anatomy is located in a three-dimensional space. Visualizing aspects of structures in gross anatomy education should aim to provide information that best resembles their original spatial proportions. Stereoscopic three-dimensional imagery might offer possibilities to implement this aim, though some research has revealed potential impairments…

  9. What is 3D good for? A review of human performance on stereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, John P.; Havig, Paul R.; Geiselman, Eric E.

    2012-06-01

    This work reviews the human factors-related literature on the task performance implications of stereoscopic 3D displays, in order to point out the specific performance benefits (or lack thereof) one might reasonably expect to observe when utilizing these displays. What exactly is 3D good for? Relative to traditional 2D displays, stereoscopic displays have been shown to enhance performance on a variety of depth-related tasks. These tasks include judging absolute and relative distances, finding and identifying objects (by breaking camouflage and eliciting perceptual "pop-out"), performing spatial manipulations of objects (object positioning, orienting, and tracking), and navigating. More cognitively, stereoscopic displays can improve the spatial understanding of 3D scenes or objects, improve memory/recall of scenes or objects, and improve learning of spatial relationships and environments. However, for tasks that are relatively simple, that do not strictly require depth information for good performance, where other strong cues to depth can be utilized, or for depth tasks that lie outside the effective viewing volume of the display, the purported performance benefits of 3D may be small or altogether absent. Stereoscopic 3D displays come with a host of unique human factors problems including the simulator-sickness-type symptoms of eyestrain, headache, fatigue, disorientation, nausea, and malaise, which appear to effect large numbers of viewers (perhaps as many as 25% to 50% of the general population). Thus, 3D technology should be wielded delicately and applied carefully; and perhaps used only as is necessary to ensure good performance.

  10. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  11. Organizational Learning Goes Virtual?: A Study of Employees' Learning Achievement in Stereoscopic 3D Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kung Wong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to deepen understanding of the use of stereoscopic 3D technology (stereo3D) in facilitating organizational learning. The emergence of advanced virtual technologies, in particular to the stereo3D virtual reality, has fundamentally changed the ways in which organizations train their employees. However, in academic or…

  12. Novel microscope-integrated stereoscopic heads-up display for intrasurgical optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liangbo; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Waterman, Gar; Hahn, Paul S.; Kuo, Anthony N.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Intra-operative optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires a display technology which allows surgeons to visualize OCT data without disrupting surgery. Previous research and commercial intrasurgical OCT systems have integrated heads-up display (HUD) systems into surgical microscopes to provide monoscopic viewing of OCT data through one microscope ocular. To take full advantage of our previously reported real-time volumetric microscope-integrated OCT (4D MIOCT) system, we describe a stereoscopic HUD which projects a stereo pair of OCT volume renderings into both oculars simultaneously. The stereoscopic HUD uses a novel optical design employing spatial multiplexing to project dual OCT volume renderings utilizing a single micro-display. The optical performance of the surgical microscope with the HUD was quantitatively characterized and the addition of the HUD was found not to substantially effect the resolution, field of view, or pincushion distortion of the operating microscope. In a pilot depth perception subject study, five ophthalmic surgeons completed a pre-set dexterity task with 50.0% (SD = 37.3%) higher success rate and in 35.0% (SD = 24.8%) less time on average with stereoscopic OCT vision compared to monoscopic OCT vision. Preliminary experience using the HUD in 40 vitreo-retinal human surgeries by five ophthalmic surgeons is reported, in which all surgeons reported that the HUD did not alter their normal view of surgery and that live surgical maneuvers were readily visible in displayed stereoscopic OCT volumes. PMID:27231616

  13. Stereoscopic Vascular Models of the Head and Neck: A Computed Tomography Angiography Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dongmei; Lynch, James C.; Smith, Andrew D.; Wilson, Timothy D.; Lehman, Michael N.

    2016-01-01

    Computer-assisted 3D models are used in some medical and allied health science schools; however, they are often limited to online use and 2D flat screen-based imaging. Few schools take advantage of 3D stereoscopic learning tools in anatomy education and clinically relevant anatomical variations when teaching anatomy. A new approach to teaching…

  14. Interaksi pada Museum Virtual Menggunakan Pengindera Tangan dengan Penyajian Stereoscopic 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Almas Samaita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kemajuan teknologi menjadikan museum mengembangkan cara penyajian koleksinya. Salah satu teknologi yang diadaptasi dalam penyajian museum virtual adalah Virtual Reality (VR dengan stereoscopic 3D. Sayangnya, museum virtual dengan teknik penyajian stereoscopic masih menggunakan keyboard dan mouse sebagai perangkat interaksi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang dan menerapkan interaksi dengan pengindera tangan pada museum virtual dengan penyajian stereoscopic 3D. Museum virtual divisualisasikan dengan teknik stereoscopic side-by-side melalui Head Mounting Display (HMD berbasis Android. HMD juga memiliki fungsi head tracking dengan membaca orientasi kepala. Interaksi tangan diterapkan dengan menggunakan pengindera tangan yang ditempatkan pada HMD. Karena pengindera tangan tidak didukung oleh HMD berbasis Android, maka digunakan server sebagai perantara HMD dan pengindera tangan. Setelah melalui pengujian, diketahui bahwa rata-rata confidence rate dari pembacaan pengindera tangan pada pola tangan untuk memicu interaksi adalah sebesar 99,92% dengan rata-rata efektifitas 92,61%. Uji ketergunaan juga dilakukan dengan pendasaran ISO/IEC 9126-4 untuk mengukur efektifitas, efisiensi, dan kepuasan pengguna dari sistem yang dirancang dengan meminta partisipan untuk melakukan 9 tugas yang mewakili interaksi tangan dalam museum virtual. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa semua pola tangan yang dirancang dapat dilakukan oleh partisipan meskipun pola tangan dinilai cukup sulit dilakukan. Melalui kuisioner diketahui bahwa total 86,67% partisipan setuju bahwa interaksi tangan memberikan pengalaman baru dalam menikmati museum virtual.

  15. An exploration of the initial effects of stereoscopic displays on optometric parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, M.F.; Lambooij, M.T.M.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.; Edgar, D.F.; Evans, B.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the effect on optometric variables of reading text presented in 2-D and 3-D on two types of stereoscopic display. METHODS: This study measured changes in binocular visual acuity, fixation disparity, aligning prism, heterophoria, horizontal fusional reserves, prism facility and

  16. Novel microscope-integrated stereoscopic heads-up display for intrasurgical optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liangbo; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Waterman, Gar; Hahn, Paul S; Kuo, Anthony N; Toth, Cynthia A; Izatt, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    Intra-operative optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires a display technology which allows surgeons to visualize OCT data without disrupting surgery. Previous research and commercial intrasurgical OCT systems have integrated heads-up display (HUD) systems into surgical microscopes to provide monoscopic viewing of OCT data through one microscope ocular. To take full advantage of our previously reported real-time volumetric microscope-integrated OCT (4D MIOCT) system, we describe a stereoscopic HUD which projects a stereo pair of OCT volume renderings into both oculars simultaneously. The stereoscopic HUD uses a novel optical design employing spatial multiplexing to project dual OCT volume renderings utilizing a single micro-display. The optical performance of the surgical microscope with the HUD was quantitatively characterized and the addition of the HUD was found not to substantially effect the resolution, field of view, or pincushion distortion of the operating microscope. In a pilot depth perception subject study, five ophthalmic surgeons completed a pre-set dexterity task with 50.0% (SD = 37.3%) higher success rate and in 35.0% (SD = 24.8%) less time on average with stereoscopic OCT vision compared to monoscopic OCT vision. Preliminary experience using the HUD in 40 vitreo-retinal human surgeries by five ophthalmic surgeons is reported, in which all surgeons reported that the HUD did not alter their normal view of surgery and that live surgical maneuvers were readily visible in displayed stereoscopic OCT volumes.

  17. Stereoscopic 3D display with dynamic optical correction for recovering from asthenopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Takashi; Kawai, Takashi; Otsuki, Masaki; Miyake, Nobuyuki; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Tsuneto

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider a practical application of a newly developed stereoscopic 3-D display that solves the problem of discrepancy between accommodation and convergence. The display uses dynamic optical correction to reduce the discrepancy, and can present images as if they are actually remote objects. The authors thought the display may assist in recovery from asthenopia, which is often caused when the eyes focus on a nearby object for a long time, such as in VDT (Visual Display Terminal) work. In general, recovery from asthenopia, and especially accommodative asthenopia, is achieved by focusing on distant objects. In order to verify this hypothesis, the authors performed visual acuity tests using Landolt rings before and after presenting stereoscopic 3-D images, and evaluated the degree of recovery from asthenopia. The experiment led to three main conclusions: (1) Visual acuity rose after viewing stereoscopic 3-D images on the developed display. (2) Recovery from asthenopia was particularly effective for the dominant eye in comparison with the other eye. (3) Interviews with the subjects indicated that the Landolt rings were particularly clear after viewing the stereoscopic 3-D images.

  18. Measurement of mean rotation and strain-rate tensors by using stereoscopic PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özcan, Oktay; Meyer, Knud Erik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2005-01-01

    A technique is described for measuring the mean velocity gradient (rate-of-displacement) tensor by using a conventional stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) system. Planar measurement of the mean vorticity vector, rate-of-rotation and rate-of-strain tensors and the production of turbule...

  19. Stereoscopic PIV and POD applied to the far turbulent axisymmetric jet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wähnström, Maja; George, William K.; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2006-01-01

    here applies stereoscopic PIV to the far field of the same jet in which the mode-2 phenomenon was first noticed. Indeed azimuthal mode-1 is maximal if all three velocity components are considered, so the new findings are confirmed. This work also addresses a number of outstanding issues from all...

  20. Evaluation of stereoscopic medical video content on an autostereoscopic display for undergraduate medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgner, Justus F. R.; Kawai, Takashi; Shibata, Takashi; Yamazoe, Takashi; Westhofen, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Introduction: An increasing number of surgical procedures are performed in a microsurgical and minimally-invasive fashion. However, the performance of surgery, its possibilities and limitations become difficult to teach. Stereoscopic video has evolved from a complex production process and expensive hardware towards rapid editing of video streams with standard and HDTV resolution which can be displayed on portable equipment. This study evaluates the usefulness of stereoscopic video in teaching undergraduate medical students. Material and methods: From an earlier study we chose two clips each of three different microsurgical operations (tympanoplasty type III of the ear, endonasal operation of the paranasal sinuses and laser chordectomy for carcinoma of the larynx). This material was added by 23 clips of a cochlear implantation, which was specifically edited for a portable computer with an autostereoscopic display (PC-RD1-3D, SHARP Corp., Japan). The recording and synchronization of left and right image was performed at the University Hospital Aachen. The footage was edited stereoscopically at the Waseda University by means of our original software for non-linear editing of stereoscopic 3-D movies. Then the material was converted into the streaming 3-D video format. The purpose of the conversion was to present the video clips by a file type that does not depend on a television signal such as PAL or NTSC. 25 4th year medical students who participated in the general ENT course at Aachen University Hospital were asked to estimate depth clues within the six video clips plus cochlear implantation clips. Another 25 4th year students who were shown the material monoscopically on a conventional laptop served as control. Results: All participants noted that the additional depth information helped with understanding the relation of anatomical structures, even though none had hands-on experience with Ear, Nose and Throat operations before or during the course. The monoscopic

  1. SEISVIZ3D: Stereoscopic system for the representation of seismic data - Interpretation and Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hartmann, Hartwig; Rilling, Stefan; Bogen, Manfred; Thomas, Rüdiger

    2015-04-01

    The seismic method is a valuable tool for getting 3D-images from the subsurface. Seismic data acquisition today is not only a topic for oil and gas exploration but is used also for geothermal exploration, inspections of nuclear waste sites and for scientific investigations. The system presented in this contribution may also have an impact on the visualization of 3D-data of other geophysical methods. 3D-seismic data can be displayed in different ways to give a spatial impression of the subsurface.They are a combination of individual vertical cuts, possibly linked to a cubical portion of the data volume, and the stereoscopic view of the seismic data. By these methods, the spatial perception for the structures and thus of the processes in the subsurface should be increased. Stereoscopic techniques are e. g. implemented in the CAVE and the WALL, both of which require a lot of space and high technical effort. The aim of the interpretation system shown here is stereoscopic visualization of seismic data at the workplace, i.e. at the personal workstation and monitor. The system was developed with following criteria in mind: • Fast rendering of large amounts of data so that a continuous view of the data when changing the viewing angle and the data section is possible, • defining areas in stereoscopic view to translate the spatial impression directly into an interpretation, • the development of an appropriate user interface, including head-tracking, for handling the increased degrees of freedom, • the possibility of collaboration, i.e. teamwork and idea exchange with the simultaneous viewing of a scene at remote locations. The possibilities offered by the use of a stereoscopic system do not replace a conventional interpretation workflow. Rather they have to be implemented into it as an additional step. The amplitude distribution of the seismic data is a challenge for the stereoscopic display because the opacity level and the scaling and selection of the data have to

  2. No-reference stereoscopic image quality measurement based on generalized local ternary patterns of binocular energy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wujie; Yu, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual no-reference (NR) quality measurement of stereoscopic images has become a challenging issue in three-dimensional (3D) imaging fields. In this article, we propose an efficient binocular quality-aware features extraction scheme, namely generalized local ternary patterns (GLTP) of binocular energy response, for general-purpose NR stereoscopic image quality measurement (SIQM). More specifically, we first construct the binocular energy response of a distorted stereoscopic image with different stimuli of amplitude and phase shifts. Then, the binocular quality-aware features are generated from the GLTP of the binocular energy response. Finally, these features are mapped to the subjective quality score of the distorted stereoscopic image by using support vector regression. Experiments on two publicly available 3D databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed metric compared with the state-of-the-art full reference and NR metrics. (paper)

  3. In-line phase-contrast stereoscopic X-ray imaging for radiological purposes: An initial experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegbahn, E.A.; Coan, P.; Zhou, S.-A.; Bravin, A.; Brahme, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report results from a pilot study in which the in-line propagation-based phase-contrast imaging technique is combined with the stereoscopic method. Two phantoms were imaged at several sample-detector distances using monochromatic, 30 keV, X-rays. High contrast- and spatial-resolution phase-contrast stereoscopic pairs of X-ray images were constructed using the anaglyph approach and a vivid stereoscopic effect was demonstrated. On the other hand, images of the same phantoms obtained with a shorter sample-to-detector distance, but otherwise the same experimental conditions (i.e. the same X-ray energy and absorbed radiation dose), corresponding to the conventional attenuation-based imaging mode, hardly revealed stereoscopic effects because of the lower image contrast produced. These results have confirmed our hypothesis that stereoscopic X-ray images of samples with objects composed of low-atomic-number elements are considerably improved if phase-contrast imaging is used. It is our belief that the high-resolution phase-contrast stereoscopic method will be a valuable new medical imaging tool for radiologists and that it will be of help to enhance the diagnostic capability in the examination of patients in future clinical practice, even though further efforts will be needed to optimize the system performance.

  4. Interactive and Stereoscopic Hybrid 3D Viewer of Radar Data with Gesture Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenetxea, Jon; Moreno, Aitor; Unzueta, Luis; Galdós, Andoni; Segura, Álvaro

    This work presents an interactive and stereoscopic 3D viewer of weather information coming from a Doppler radar. The hybrid system shows a GIS model of the regional zone where the radar is located and the corresponding reconstructed 3D volume weather data. To enhance the immersiveness of the navigation, stereoscopic visualization has been added to the viewer, using a polarized glasses based system. The user can interact with the 3D virtual world using a Nintendo Wiimote for navigating through it and a Nintendo Wii Nunchuk for giving commands by means of hand gestures. We also present a dynamic gesture recognition procedure that measures the temporal advance of the performed gesture postures. Experimental results show how dynamic gestures are effectively recognized so that a more natural interaction and immersive navigation in the virtual world is achieved.

  5. Application of a stereoscopic digital subtraction angiography approach to blood flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fencil, L.E.; Doi, K.; Hoffmann, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors are developing a stereoscopic digital subtraction angiographic (DSA) approach for accurate measurement of the size, magnification factor, orientation, and blood flow of a selected vessel segment. We employ a Siemens Digitron 2 and a Stereolix x-ray tube with a 25-mm tube shift. Absolute vessel sizes in each stereoscopic image are determined using the magnification factor and an iterative deconvolution technique employing the LSF of the DSA system. From data on vessel diameter and three-dimensional orientation, the effective attenuation coefficient of the diluted contrast medium can be determined, thus allowing accurate blood flow analysis in high-frame-rate DSA images. The accuracy and precision of the approach will be studied using both static and dynamic phantoms

  6. Optimizing visual comfort for stereoscopic 3D display based on color-plus-depth signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Jiang, Qiuping; Fu, Randi; Yu, Mei; Jiang, Gangyi

    2016-05-30

    Visual comfort is a long-facing problem in stereoscopic 3D (S3D) display. In this paper, targeting to produce S3D content based on color-plus-depth signals, a general framework for depth mapping to optimize visual comfort for S3D display is proposed. The main motivation of this work is to remap the depth range of color-plus-depth signals to a new depth range that is suitable to comfortable S3D display. Towards this end, we first remap the depth range globally based on the adjusted zero disparity plane, and then present a two-stage global and local depth optimization solution to solve the visual comfort problem. The remapped depth map is used to generate the S3D output. We demonstrate the power of our approach on perceptually uncomfortable and comfortable stereoscopic images.

  7. A novel no-reference objective stereoscopic video quality assessment method based on visual saliency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinyan; Zhao, Wei; Ye, Long; Zhang, Qin

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a no-reference objective stereoscopic video quality assessment method with the motivation that making the effect of objective experiments close to that of subjective way. We believe that the image regions with different visual salient degree should not have the same weights when designing an assessment metric. Therefore, we firstly use GBVS algorithm to each frame pairs and separate both the left and right viewing images into the regions with strong, general and week saliency. Besides, local feature information like blockiness, zero-crossing and depth are extracted and combined with a mathematical model to calculate a quality assessment score. Regions with different salient degree are assigned with different weights in the mathematical model. Experiment results demonstrate the superiority of our method compared with the existed state-of-the-art no-reference objective Stereoscopic video quality assessment methods.

  8. Distortion of depth perception in virtual environments using stereoscopic displays: quantitative assessment and corrective measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, Michael; Winkelholz, Carsten

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the presented research was to quantify the distortion of depth perception when using stereoscopic displays. The visualization parameters of the used virtual reality system such as perspective, haploscopic separation and width of stereoscopic separation were varied. The experiment was designed to measure distortion in depth perception according to allocentric frames of reference. The results of the experiments indicate that some of the parameters have an antithetic effect which allows to compensate the distortion of depth perception for a range of depths. In contrast to earlier research which reported underestimation of depth perception we found that depth was overestimated when using true projection parameters according to the position of the eyes of the user and display geometry.

  9. An MR-compatible stereoscopic in-room 3D display for MR-guided interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Alexander; Groebner, Jens; Umathum, Reiner; Maier, Florian; Semmler, Wolfhard; Bock, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A commercial three-dimensional (3D) monitor was modified for use inside the scanner room to provide stereoscopic real-time visualization during magnetic resonance (MR)-guided interventions, and tested in a catheter-tracking phantom experiment at 1.5 T. Brightness, uniformity, radio frequency (RF) emissions and MR image interferences were measured. Due to modifications, the center luminance of the 3D monitor was reduced by 14%, and the addition of a Faraday shield further reduced the remaining luminance by 31%. RF emissions could be effectively shielded; only a minor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decrease of 4.6% was observed during imaging. During the tracking experiment, the 3D orientation of the catheter and vessel structures in the phantom could be visualized stereoscopically.

  10. Phase-only stereoscopic hologram calculation based on Gerchberg–Saxton iterative algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xinyi; Xia Jun

    2016-01-01

    A phase-only computer-generated holography (CGH) calculation method for stereoscopic holography is proposed in this paper. The two-dimensional (2D) perspective projection views of the three-dimensional (3D) object are generated by the computer graphics rendering techniques. Based on these views, a phase-only hologram is calculated by using the Gerchberg–Saxton (GS) iterative algorithm. Comparing with the non-iterative algorithm in the conventional stereoscopic holography, the proposed method improves the holographic image quality, especially for the phase-only hologram encoded from the complex distribution. Both simulation and optical experiment results demonstrate that our proposed method can give higher quality reconstruction comparing with the traditional method. (special topic)

  11. Dynamic stereoscopic selective visual attention (dssva): integrating motion and shape with depth in video segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    López Bonal, María Teresa; Fernández Caballero, Antonio; Saiz Valverde, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Depth inclusion as an important parameter for dynamic selective visual attention is presented in this article. The model introduced in this paper is based on two previously developed models, dynamic selective visual attention and visual stereoscopy, giving rise to the so-called dynamic stereoscopic selective visual attention method. The three models are based on the accumulative computation problem-solving method. This paper shows how software reusability enables enhancing results in vision r...

  12. The right view from the wrong location: depth perception in stereoscopic multi-user virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Brice; Burton, Melissa; Kelly, Jonathan W; Gilbert, Stephen; Winer, Eliot

    2012-04-01

    Stereoscopic depth cues improve depth perception and increase immersion within virtual environments (VEs). However, improper display of these cues can distort perceived distances and directions. Consider a multi-user VE, where all users view identical stereoscopic images regardless of physical location. In this scenario, cues are typically customized for one "leader" equipped with a head-tracking device. This user stands at the center of projection (CoP) and all other users ("followers") view the scene from other locations and receive improper depth cues. This paper examines perceived depth distortion when viewing stereoscopic VEs from follower perspectives and the impact of these distortions on collaborative spatial judgments. Pairs of participants made collaborative depth judgments of virtual shapes viewed from the CoP or after displacement forward or backward. Forward and backward displacement caused perceived depth compression and expansion, respectively, with greater compression than expansion. Furthermore, distortion was less than predicted by a ray-intersection model of stereo geometry. Collaboration times were significantly longer when participants stood at different locations compared to the same location, and increased with greater perceived depth discrepancy between the two viewing locations. These findings advance our understanding of spatial distortions in multi-user VEs, and suggest a strategy for reducing distortion.

  13. Web GIS in practice VII: stereoscopic 3-D solutions for online maps and virtual globes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Maged N.K.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2009-01-01

    Because our pupils are about 6.5 cm apart, each eye views a scene from a different angle and sends a unique image to the visual cortex, which then merges the images from both eyes into a single picture. The slight difference between the right and left images allows the brain to properly perceive the 'third dimension' or depth in a scene (stereopsis). However, when a person views a conventional 2-D (two-dimensional) image representation of a 3-D (three-dimensional) scene on a conventional computer screen, each eye receives essentially the same information. Depth in such cases can only be approximately inferred from visual clues in the image, such as perspective, as only one image is offered to both eyes. The goal of stereoscopic 3-D displays is to project a slightly different image into each eye to achieve a much truer and realistic perception of depth, of different scene planes, and of object relief. This paper presents a brief review of a number of stereoscopic 3-D hardware and software solutions for creating and displaying online maps and virtual globes (such as Google Earth) in "true 3D", with costs ranging from almost free to multi-thousand pounds sterling. A practical account is also given of the experience of the USGS BRD UMESC (United States Geological Survey's Biological Resources Division, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center) in setting up a low-cost, full-colour stereoscopic 3-D system.

  14. Monoscopic versus stereoscopic photography in screening for clinically significant macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Christopher J; Agarwal, Anita; Merin, Lawrence M; Chomsky, Amy

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether monoscopic photography could serve as an accurate tool when used to screen for clinically significant macular edema. In a masked randomized fashion, two readers evaluated monoscopic and stereoscopic retinal photographs of 100 eyes. The photographs were evaluated first individually for probable clinically significant macular edema based on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study criteria and then as stereoscopic pairs. Graders were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity individually and in combination. Individually, reader one had a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of 0.77, and reader two had a sensitivity of 0.88 and a specificity of 0.94. In combination, the readers had a sensitivity of 0.91 and a specificity of 0.86. They correlated on 0.76 of the stereoscopic readings and 0.92 of the monoscopic readings. These results indicate that the use of monoscopic retinal photography may be an accurate screening tool for clinically significant macular edema.

  15. Case study: the introduction of stereoscopic games on the Sony PlayStation 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickerstaff, Ian

    2012-03-01

    A free stereoscopic firmware update on Sony Computer Entertainment's PlayStation® 3 console provides the potential to increase enormously the popularity of stereoscopic 3D in the home. For this to succeed though, a large selection of content has to become available that exploits 3D in the best way possible. In addition to the existing challenges found in creating 3D movies and television programmes, the stereography must compensate for the dynamic and unpredictable environments found in games. Automatically, the software must map the depth range of the scene into the display's comfort zone, while minimising depth compression. This paper presents a range of techniques developed to solve this problem and the challenge of creating twice as many images as the 2D version without excessively compromising the frame rate or image quality. At the time of writing, over 80 stereoscopic PlayStation 3 games have been released and notable titles are used as examples to illustrate how the techniques have been adapted for different game genres. Since the firmware's introduction in 2010, the industry has matured with a large number of developers now producing increasingly sophisticated 3D content. New technologies such as viewer head tracking and head-mounted displays should increase the appeal of 3D in the home still further.

  16. Learning Receptive Fields and Quality Lookups for Blind Quality Assessment of Stereoscopic Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Lin, Weisi; Wang, Shanshan; Jiang, Gangyi; Yu, Mei; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-03-01

    Blind quality assessment of 3D images encounters more new challenges than its 2D counterparts. In this paper, we propose a blind quality assessment for stereoscopic images by learning the characteristics of receptive fields (RFs) from perspective of dictionary learning, and constructing quality lookups to replace human opinion scores without performance loss. The important feature of the proposed method is that we do not need a large set of samples of distorted stereoscopic images and the corresponding human opinion scores to learn a regression model. To be more specific, in the training phase, we learn local RFs (LRFs) and global RFs (GRFs) from the reference and distorted stereoscopic images, respectively, and construct their corresponding local quality lookups (LQLs) and global quality lookups (GQLs). In the testing phase, blind quality pooling can be easily achieved by searching optimal GRF and LRF indexes from the learnt LQLs and GQLs, and the quality score is obtained by combining the LRF and GRF indexes together. Experimental results on three publicly 3D image quality assessment databases demonstrate that in comparison with the existing methods, the devised algorithm achieves high consistent alignment with subjective assessment.

  17. Continuous monitoring of prostate position using stereoscopic and monoscopic kV image guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M. Tynan R.; Parsons, Dave D.; Robar, James L. [Department of Medical Physics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2, Canada and Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, QEII Health Science Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 2Y9 (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate continuous kV x-ray monitoring of prostate motion using both stereoscopic and monoscopic localizations, assess the spatial accuracy of these techniques, and evaluate the dose delivered from the added image guidance. Methods: The authors implemented both stereoscopic and monoscopic fiducial localizations using a room-mounted dual oblique x-ray system. Recently developed monoscopic 3D position estimation techniques potentially overcome the issue of treatment head interference with stereoscopic imaging at certain gantry angles. To demonstrate continuous position monitoring, a gold fiducial marker was placed in an anthropomorphic phantom and placed on the Linac couch. The couch was used as a programmable translation stage. The couch was programmed with a series of patient prostate motion trajectories exemplifying five distinct categories: stable prostate, slow drift, persistent excursion, transient excursion, and high frequency excursions. The phantom and fiducial were imaged using 140 kVp, 0.63 mAs per image at 1 Hz for a 60 s monitoring period. Both stereoscopic and monoscopic 3D localization accuracies were assessed by comparison to the ground-truth obtained from the Linac log file. Imaging dose was also assessed, using optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter inserts in the phantom. Results: Stereoscopic localization accuracy varied between 0.13 ± 0.05 and 0.33 ± 0.30 mm, depending on the motion trajectory. Monoscopic localization accuracy varied from 0.2 ± 0.1 to 1.1 ± 0.7 mm. The largest localization errors were typically observed in the left–right direction. There were significant differences in accuracy between the two monoscopic views, but which view was better varied from trajectory to trajectory. The imaging dose was measured to be between 2 and 15 μGy/mAs, depending on location in the phantom. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated the first use of monoscopic localization for a room-mounted dual x-ray system. Three

  18. The Effect of Two-dimensional and Stereoscopic Presentation on Middle School Students' Performance of Spatial Cognition Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-02-01

    We investigated whether and how student performance on three types of spatial cognition tasks differs when worked with two-dimensional or stereoscopic representations. We recruited nineteen middle school students visiting a planetarium in a large Midwestern American city and analyzed their performance on a series of spatial cognition tasks in terms of response accuracy and task completion time. Results show that response accuracy did not differ between the two types of representations while task completion time was significantly greater with the stereoscopic representations. The completion time increased as the number of mental manipulations of 3D objects increased in the tasks. Post-interviews provide evidence that some students continued to think of stereoscopic representations as two-dimensional. Based on cognitive load and cue theories, we interpret that, in the absence of pictorial depth cues, students may need more time to be familiar with stereoscopic representations for optimal performance. In light of these results, we discuss potential uses of stereoscopic representations for science learning.

  19. Computer-enhanced stereoscopic vision in a head-mounted operating binocular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Figl, Michael; Matula, Christian; Hummel, Johann; Hanel, Rudolf; Imhof, Herwig; Wanschitz, Felix; Wagner, Arne; Watzinger, Franz; Bergmann, Helmar

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Varioscope, a commercially available head-mounted operating binocular, we have developed the Varioscope AR, a see through head-mounted display (HMD) for augmented reality visualization that seamlessly fits into the infrastructure of a surgical navigation system. We have assessed the extent to which stereoscopic visualization improves target localization in computer-aided surgery in a phantom study. In order to quantify the depth perception of a user aiming at a given target, we have designed a phantom simulating typical clinical situations in skull base surgery. Sixteen steel spheres were fixed at the base of a bony skull, and several typical craniotomies were applied. After having taken CT scans, the skull was filled with opaque jelly in order to simulate brain tissue. The positions of the spheres were registered using VISIT, a system for computer-aided surgical navigation. Then attempts were made to locate the steel spheres with a bayonet probe through the craniotomies using VISIT and the Varioscope AR as a stereoscopic display device. Localization of targets 4 mm in diameter using stereoscopic vision and additional visual cues indicating target proximity had a success rate (defined as a first-trial hit rate) of 87.5%. Using monoscopic vision and target proximity indication, the success rate was found to be 66.6%. Omission of visual hints on reaching a target yielded a success rate of 79.2% in the stereo case and 56.25% with monoscopic vision. Time requirements for localizing all 16 targets ranged from 7.5 min (stereo, with proximity cues) to 10 min (mono, without proximity cues). Navigation error is primarily governed by the accuracy of registration in the navigation system, whereas the HMD does not appear to influence localization significantly. We conclude that stereo vision is a valuable tool in augmented reality guided interventions. (note)

  20. Poster - 48: Clinical assessment of ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging of spine alignment for lung SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattarivand, Mike; Summers, Clare; Robar, James

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the validity of using spine as a surrogate for tumor positioning with ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: Using the Novalis ExacTrac x-ray system, 39 lung SBRT patients (182 treatments) were aligned before treatment with 6 degrees (6D) of freedom couch (3 translations, 3 rotations) based on spine matching on stereoscopic images. The couch was shifted to treatment isocenter and pre-treatment CBCT was performed based on a soft tissue match around tumor volume. The CBCT data were used to measure residual errors following ExacTrac alignment. The thresholds for re-aligning the patients based on CBCT were 3mm shift or 3° rotation (in any 6D). In order to evaluate the effect of tumor location on residual errors, correlations between tumor distance from spine and individual residual errors were calculated. Results: Residual errors were up to 0.5±2.4mm. Using 3mm/3° thresholds, 80/182 (44%) of the treatments required re-alignment based on CBCT soft tissue matching following ExacTrac spine alignment. Most mismatches were in sup-inf, ant-post, and roll directions which had larger standard deviations. No correlation was found between tumor distance from spine and individual residual errors. Conclusion: ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging offers a quick pre-treatment patient alignment. However, bone matching based on spine is not reliable for aligning lung SBRT patients who require soft tissue image registration from CBCT. Spine can be a poor surrogate for lung SBRT patient alignment even for proximal tumor volumes.

  1. Poster - 48: Clinical assessment of ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging of spine alignment for lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattarivand, Mike; Summers, Clare; Robar, James [Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the validity of using spine as a surrogate for tumor positioning with ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: Using the Novalis ExacTrac x-ray system, 39 lung SBRT patients (182 treatments) were aligned before treatment with 6 degrees (6D) of freedom couch (3 translations, 3 rotations) based on spine matching on stereoscopic images. The couch was shifted to treatment isocenter and pre-treatment CBCT was performed based on a soft tissue match around tumor volume. The CBCT data were used to measure residual errors following ExacTrac alignment. The thresholds for re-aligning the patients based on CBCT were 3mm shift or 3° rotation (in any 6D). In order to evaluate the effect of tumor location on residual errors, correlations between tumor distance from spine and individual residual errors were calculated. Results: Residual errors were up to 0.5±2.4mm. Using 3mm/3° thresholds, 80/182 (44%) of the treatments required re-alignment based on CBCT soft tissue matching following ExacTrac spine alignment. Most mismatches were in sup-inf, ant-post, and roll directions which had larger standard deviations. No correlation was found between tumor distance from spine and individual residual errors. Conclusion: ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging offers a quick pre-treatment patient alignment. However, bone matching based on spine is not reliable for aligning lung SBRT patients who require soft tissue image registration from CBCT. Spine can be a poor surrogate for lung SBRT patient alignment even for proximal tumor volumes.

  2. System design description for the LDUA high resolution stereoscopic video camera system (HRSVS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System (HRSVS), system 6230, was designed to be used as an end effector on the LDUA to perform surveillance and inspection activities within a waste tank. It is attached to the LDUA by means of a Tool Interface Plate (TIP) which provides a feed through for all electrical and pneumatic utilities needed by the end effector to operate. Designed to perform up close weld and corrosion inspection roles in US T operations, the HRSVS will support and supplement the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) and provide the crucial inspection tasks needed to ascertain waste tank condition

  3. Immersive Televisual Environments: Spectatorship, Stereoscopic Vision and the Failure of 3DTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkin Mehrabov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the most ground-breaking technological attempts in creating novel immersive media environments for heightened televisual user experiences: 3DTV, a Network of Excellence funded by the European Commission 6th Framework Information Society Technologies Programme. Based on the theoretical framework outlined by the works of Jonathan Crary and Brian Winston, and on empirical data obtained from author’s fieldwork and laboratory visit notes, as well as discussions with practitioners, the article explores the history of stereoscopic vision and technological progress related with it, and looks for possible reasons of 3DTV’s dramatic commercial failure.

  4. Teaching-learning: stereoscopic 3D versus Traditional methods in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Oropeza, Laura; Ortiz Sánchez, Ricardo; Ojeda Villagómez, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    In the UNAM Faculty of Odontology, we use a stereoscopic 3D teaching method that has grown more common in the last year, which makes it important to know whether students can learn better with this strategy. The objective of the study is to know, if the 4th year students of the bachelor's degree in dentistry learn more effectively with the use of stereoscopic 3D than the traditional method in Orthodontics. first, we selected the course topics, to be used for both methods; the traditional method using projection of slides and for the stereoscopic third dimension, with the use of videos in digital stereo projection (seen through "passive" polarized 3D glasses). The main topic was supernumerary teeth, including and diverted from their guide eruption. Afterwards we performed an exam on students, containing 24 items, validated by expert judgment in Orthodontics teaching. The results of the data were compared between the two educational methods for determined effectiveness using the model before and after measurement with the statistical package SPSS 20 version. The results presented for the 9 groups of undergraduates in dentistry, were collected with a total of 218 students for 3D and traditional methods, we found in a traditional method a mean 4.91, SD 1.4752 in the pretest and X=6.96, SD 1.26622, St Error 0.12318 for the posttest. The 3D method had a mean 5.21, SD 1.996779 St Error 0.193036 for the pretest X= 7.82, SD =0.963963, St Error 0.09319 posttest; the analysis of Variance between groups F= 5.60 Prob > 0.0000 and Bartlett's test for equal variances 21.0640 Prob > chi2 = 0.007. These results show that the student's learning in 3D means a significant improvement as compared to the traditional teaching method and having a strong association between the two methods. The findings suggest that the stereoscopic 3D method lead to improved student learning compared to traditional teaching.

  5. Measurement of rotation and strain-rate tensors by using stereoscopic PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özcan, O.; Meyer, Knud Erik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2004-01-01

    A simple technique is described for measuring the mean rate-of-displacement (velocity gradient) tensor in a plane by using a conventional stereoscopic PIV system. The technique involves taking PIV data in two or three closely-spaced parallel planes at different times. All components of the mean...... are presented to show the applicability of the proposed technique. The PIV cameras and light sheet optics shown in Fig. 1a are mounted on the same traverse mechanism in order to displace the measurement plane accurately. Data obtained in constant-y and -z planes are presented. Fig. 1b shows a contour plot...

  6. Evaluation of stereoscopic video cameras synchronized with the movement of an operator's head on the teleoperation of the actual backhoe shovel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Masahiko; Matsunaga, Katsuya

    1999-05-01

    Operator performance while using a remote controlled backhoe shovel is described for three different stereoscopic viewing conditions: direct view, fixed stereoscopic cameras connected to a helmet mounted display (HMD), and rotating stereo camera connected and slaved to the head orientation of a free moving stereo HMD. Results showed that the head- slaved system provided the best performance.

  7. Surface topography characterization using 3D stereoscopic reconstruction of SEM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantha Krishna, Amogh; Flys, Olena; Reddy, Vijeth V.; Rosén, B. G.

    2018-06-01

    A major drawback of the optical microscope is its limitation to resolve finer details. Many microscopes have been developed to overcome the limitations set by the diffraction of visible light. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is one such alternative: it uses electrons for imaging, which have much smaller wavelength than photons. As a result high magnification with superior image resolution can be achieved. However, SEM generates 2D images which provide limited data for surface measurements and analysis. Often many research areas require the knowledge of 3D structures as they contribute to a comprehensive understanding of microstructure by allowing effective measurements and qualitative visualization of the samples under study. For this reason, stereo photogrammetry technique is employed to convert SEM images into 3D measurable data. This paper aims to utilize a stereoscopic reconstruction technique as a reliable method for characterization of surface topography. Reconstructed results from SEM images are compared with coherence scanning interferometer (CSI) results obtained by measuring a roughness reference standard sample. This paper presents a method to select the most robust/consistent surface texture parameters that are insensitive to the uncertainties involved in the reconstruction technique itself. Results from the two-stereoscopic reconstruction algorithms are also documented in this paper.

  8. Broadcast-quality-stereoscopic video in a time-critical entertainment and corporate environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Jean-Philippe

    1995-03-01

    `reality present: Peter Gabrial and Cirque du Soleil' is a 12 minute original work directed and produced by Doug Brown, Jean-Philippe Gay & A. Coogan, which showcases creative content applications of commercial stereoscopic video equipment. For production, a complete equipment package including a Steadicam mount was used in support of the Ikegami LK-33 camera. Remote production units were fielded in the time critical, on-stage and off-stage environments of 2 major live concerts: Peter Gabriel's Secret World performance at the San Diego Sports Arena, and Cirque du Soleil's Saltimbanco performance in Chicago. Twin 60 Hz video channels were captured on Beta SP for maximum post production flexibility. Digital post production and field sequential mastering were effected in D-2 format at studio facilities in Los Angeles. The program was world premiered to a large public at the World of Music, Arts and Dance festivals in Los Angeles and San Francisco, in late 1993. It was presented to the artists in Los Angeles, Montreal and Washington D.C. Additional presentations have been made using a broad range of commercial and experimental stereoscopic video equipment, including projection systems, LCD and passive eyewear, and digital signal processors. Technical packages for live presentation have been fielded on site and off, through to the present.

  9. Analysis of scene distortions in stereoscopic images due to the variation of the ideal viewing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viale, Alberto; Villa, Dario

    2011-03-01

    Recently stereoscopy has increased a lot its popularity and various technologies are spreading in theaters and homes allowing observation of stereoscopic images and movies, becoming affordable even for home users. However there are some golden rules that users should follow to ensure a better enjoyment of stereoscopic images, first of all the viewing condition should not be too different from the ideal ones, which were assumed during the production process. To allow the user to perceive stereo depth instead of a flat image, two different views of the same scene are shown to the subject, one is seen just through his left eye and the other just through the right one; the vision process is making the work of merging the two images in a virtual three-dimensional scene, giving to the user the perception of depth. The two images presented to the user were created, either from image synthesis or from more traditional techniques, following the rules of perspective. These rules need some boundary conditions to be explicit, such as eye separation, field of view, parallax distance, viewer position and orientation. In this paper we are interested in studying how the variation of the viewer position and orientation from the ideal ones expressed as specified parameters in the image creation process, is affecting the correctness of the reconstruction of the three-dimensional virtual scene.

  10. Calculation of 3D Coordinates of a Point on the Basis of a Stereoscopic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussabayev, R. R.; Kalimoldayev, M. N.; Amirgaliyev, Ye. N.; Tairova, A. T.; Mussabayev, T. R.

    2018-05-01

    The solution of three-dimensional (3D) coordinate calculation task for a material point is considered. Two flat images (a stereopair) which correspond to the left and to the right viewpoints of a 3D scene are used for this purpose. The stereopair is obtained using two cameras with parallel optical axes. The analytical formulas for calculating 3D coordinates of a material point in the scene were obtained on the basis of analysis of the stereoscopic system optical and geometrical schemes. The detailed presentation of the algorithmic and hardware realization of the given method was discussed with the the practical. The practical module was recommended for the determination of the optical system unknown parameters. The series of experimental investigations were conducted for verification of theoretical results. During these experiments the minor inaccuracies were occurred by space distortions in the optical system and by it discrecity. While using the high quality stereoscopic system, the existing calculation inaccuracy enables to apply the given method for the wide range of practical tasks.

  11. Stereoscopic Visual Attention-Based Regional Bit Allocation Optimization for Multiview Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Qionghai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a Stereoscopic Visual Attention- (SVA- based regional bit allocation optimization for Multiview Video Coding (MVC by the exploiting visual redundancies from human perceptions. We propose a novel SVA model, where multiple perceptual stimuli including depth, motion, intensity, color, and orientation contrast are utilized, to simulate the visual attention mechanisms of human visual system with stereoscopic perception. Then, a semantic region-of-interest (ROI is extracted based on the saliency maps of SVA. Both objective and subjective evaluations of extracted ROIs indicated that the proposed SVA model based on ROI extraction scheme outperforms the schemes only using spatial or/and temporal visual attention clues. Finally, by using the extracted SVA-based ROIs, a regional bit allocation optimization scheme is presented to allocate more bits on SVA-based ROIs for high image quality and fewer bits on background regions for efficient compression purpose. Experimental results on MVC show that the proposed regional bit allocation algorithm can achieve over % bit-rate saving while maintaining the subjective image quality. Meanwhile, the image quality of ROIs is improved by  dB at the cost of insensitive image quality degradation of the background image.

  12. A foreground object features-based stereoscopic image visual comfort assessment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Jiang, G.; Ying, H.; Yu, M.; Ding, S.; Peng, Z.; Shao, F.

    2014-11-01

    Since stereoscopic images provide observers with both realistic and discomfort viewing experience, it is necessary to investigate the determinants of visual discomfort. By considering that foreground object draws most attention when human observing stereoscopic images. This paper proposes a new foreground object based visual comfort assessment (VCA) metric. In the first place, a suitable segmentation method is applied to disparity map and then the foreground object is ascertained as the one having the biggest average disparity. In the second place, three visual features being average disparity, average width and spatial complexity of foreground object are computed from the perspective of visual attention. Nevertheless, object's width and complexity do not consistently influence the perception of visual comfort in comparison with disparity. In accordance with this psychological phenomenon, we divide the whole images into four categories on the basis of different disparity and width, and exert four different models to more precisely predict its visual comfort in the third place. Experimental results show that the proposed VCA metric outperformance other existing metrics and can achieve a high consistency between objective and subjective visual comfort scores. The Pearson Linear Correlation Coefficient (PLCC) and Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (SROCC) are over 0.84 and 0.82, respectively.

  13. Matching methods evaluation framework for stereoscopic breast x-ray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousson, Johanna; Naudin, Mathieu; Marchessoux, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) imaging has been intensively studied in the past few decades. Depth information is an important added value of 3-D systems over two-dimensional systems. Special focuses were devoted to the development of stereo matching methods for the generation of disparity maps (i.e., depth information within a 3-D scene). Dedicated frameworks were designed to evaluate and rank the performance of different stereo matching methods but never considering x-ray medical images. Yet, 3-D x-ray acquisition systems and 3-D medical displays have already been introduced into the diagnostic market. To access the depth information within x-ray stereoscopic images, computing accurate disparity maps is essential. We aimed at developing a framework dedicated to x-ray stereoscopic breast images used to evaluate and rank several stereo matching methods. A multiresolution pyramid optimization approach was integrated to the framework to increase the accuracy and the efficiency of the stereo matching techniques. Finally, a metric was designed to score the results of the stereo matching compared with the ground truth. Eight methods were evaluated and four of them [locally scaled sum of absolute differences (LSAD), zero mean sum of absolute differences, zero mean sum of squared differences, and locally scaled mean sum of squared differences] appeared to perform equally good with an average error score of 0.04 (0 is the perfect matching). LSAD was selected for generating the disparity maps.

  14. Optoelectronic stereoscopic device for diagnostics, treatment, and developing of binocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautova, Larisa; Elkhov, Victor A.; Ovechkis, Yuri N.

    2003-08-01

    Operation of the device is based on alternative generation of pictures for left and right eyes on the monitor screen. Controller gives pulses on LCG so that shutter for left or right eye opens synchronously with pictures. The device provides frequency of switching more than 100 Hz, and that is why the flickering is absent. Thus, a separate demonstration of images to the left eye or to the right one in turn is obtained for patients being unaware and creates the conditions of binocular perception clsoe to natural ones without any additional separation of vision fields. LC-cell transfer characteristic coodination with time parameters of monitor screen has enabled to improve stereo image quality. Complicated problem of computer stereo images with LC-glasses is so called 'ghosts' - noise images that come to blocked eye. We reduced its influence by adapting stereo images to phosphor and LC-cells characteristics. The device is intended for diagnostics and treatment of stabismus, amblyopia and other binocular and stereoscopic vision impairments, for cultivating, training and developing of stereoscopic vision, for measurements of horizontal and vertical phoria, phusion reserves, the stereovision acuity and some else, for fixing central scotoma borders, as well as suppression scotoma in strabismus too.

  15. Employing WebGL to develop interactive stereoscopic 3D content for use in biomedical visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Semay; Renambot, Luc; Sauter, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Web Graphics Library (WebGL), the forthcoming web standard for rendering native 3D graphics in a browser, represents an important addition to the biomedical visualization toolset. It is projected to become a mainstream method of delivering 3D online content due to shrinking support for third-party plug-ins. Additionally, it provides a virtual reality (VR) experience to web users accommodated by the growing availability of stereoscopic displays (3D TV, desktop, and mobile). WebGL's value in biomedical visualization has been demonstrated by applications for interactive anatomical models, chemical and molecular visualization, and web-based volume rendering. However, a lack of instructional literature specific to the field prevents many from utilizing this technology. This project defines a WebGL design methodology for a target audience of biomedical artists with a basic understanding of web languages and 3D graphics. The methodology was informed by the development of an interactive web application depicting the anatomy and various pathologies of the human eye. The application supports several modes of stereoscopic displays for a better understanding of 3D anatomical structures.

  16. Passive method of eliminating accommodation/convergence disparity in stereoscopic head-mounted displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub, Jesse B.

    2005-03-01

    The difference in accommodation and convergence distance experienced when viewing stereoscopic displays has long been recognized as a source of visual discomfort. It is especially problematic in head mounted virtual reality and enhanced reality displays, where images must often be displayed across a large depth range or superimposed on real objects. DTI has demonstrated a novel method of creating stereoscopic images in which the focus and fixation distances are closely matched for all parts of the scene from close distances to infinity. The method is passive in the sense that it does not rely on eye tracking, moving parts, variable focus optics, vibrating optics, or feedback loops. The method uses a rapidly changing illumination pattern in combination with a high speed microdisplay to create cones of light that converge at different distances to form the voxels of a high resolution space filling image. A bench model display was built and a series of visual tests were performed in order to demonstrate the concept and investigate both its capabilities and limitations. Results proved conclusively that real optical images were being formed and that observers had to change their focus to read text or see objects at different distances

  17. Assessing the precision of gaze following using a stereoscopic 3D virtual reality setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Artin; Marciniak, Karolina; Dicke, Peter W; Thier, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Despite the ecological importance of gaze following, little is known about the underlying neuronal processes, which allow us to extract gaze direction from the geometric features of the eye and head of a conspecific. In order to understand the neuronal mechanisms underlying this ability, a careful description of the capacity and the limitations of gaze following at the behavioral level is needed. Previous studies of gaze following, which relied on naturalistic settings have the disadvantage of allowing only very limited control of potentially relevant visual features guiding gaze following, such as the contrast of iris and sclera, the shape of the eyelids and--in the case of photographs--they lack depth. Hence, in order to get full control of potentially relevant features we decided to study gaze following of human observers guided by the gaze of a human avatar seen stereoscopically. To this end we established a stereoscopic 3D virtual reality setup, in which we tested human subjects' abilities to detect at which target a human avatar was looking at. Following the gaze of the avatar showed all the features of the gaze following of a natural person, namely a substantial degree of precision associated with a consistent pattern of systematic deviations from the target. Poor stereo vision affected performance surprisingly little (only in certain experimental conditions). Only gaze following guided by targets at larger downward eccentricities exhibited a differential effect of the presence or absence of accompanying movements of the avatar's eyelids and eyebrows. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of stereoscopic optic disc images using an autostereoscopic screen – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaideanu Daniella

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereoscopic assessment of the optic disc morphology is an important part of the care of patients with glaucoma. The aim of this study was to assess stereoviewing of stereoscopic optic disc images using an example of the new technology of autostereoscopic screens compared to the liquid shutter goggles. Methods Independent assessment of glaucomatous disc characteristics and measurement of optic disc and cup parameters whilst using either an autostereoscopic screen or liquid crystal shutter goggles synchronized with a view switching display. The main outcome measures were inter-modality agreements between the two used modalities as evaluated by the weighted kappa test and Bland Altman plots. Results Inter-modality agreement for measuring optic disc parameters was good [Average kappa coefficient for vertical Cup/Disc ratio was 0.78 (95% CI 0.62–0.91 and 0.81 (95% CI 0.6–0.92 for observer 1 and 2 respectively]. Agreement between modalities for assessing optic disc characteristics for glaucoma on a five-point scale was very good with a kappa value of 0.97. Conclusion This study compared two different methods of stereo viewing. The results of assessment of the different optic disc and cup parameters were comparable using an example of the newly developing autostereoscopic display technologies as compared to the shutter goggles system used. The Inter-modality agreement was high. This new technology carries potential clinical usability benefits in different areas of ophthalmic practice.

  19. Stereoscopic Three-Dimensional Neuroanatomy Lectures Enhance Neurosurgical Training: Prospective Comparison with Traditional Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anna D; Guilfoyle, Mathew R; Candy, Nicholas G; Budohoski, Karol P; Hofmann, Riikka; Barone, Damiano G; Santarius, Thomas; Kirollos, Ramez W; Trivedi, Rikin A

    2017-12-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging is increasingly used in the teaching of neuroanatomy and although this is mainly aimed at undergraduate medical students, it has enormous potential for enhancing the training of neurosurgeons. This study aims to assess whether 3D lecturing is an effective method of enhancing the knowledge and confidence of neurosurgeons and how it compares with traditional two-dimensional (2D) lecturing and cadaveric training. Three separate teaching sessions for neurosurgical trainees were organized: 1) 2D course (2D lecture + cadaveric session), 2) 3D lecture alone, and 3) 3D course (3D lecture + cadaveric session). Before and after each session, delegates were asked to complete questionnaires containing questions relating to surgical experience, anatomic knowledge, confidence in performing procedures, and perceived value of 3D, 2D, and cadaveric teaching. Although both 2D and 3D lectures and courses were similarly effective at improving self-rated knowledge and understanding, the 3D lecture and course were associated with significantly greater gains in confidence reported by the delegates for performing a subfrontal approach and sylvian fissure dissection. Stereoscopic 3D lectures provide neurosurgical trainees with greater confidence for performing standard operative approaches and enhances the benefit of subsequent practical experience in developing technical skills in cadaveric dissection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A 3-D mixed-reality system for stereoscopic visualization of medical dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vincenzo; Megali, Giuseppe; Troia, Elena; Pietrabissa, Andrea; Mosca, Franco

    2009-11-01

    We developed a simple, light, and cheap 3-D visualization device based on mixed reality that can be used by physicians to see preoperative radiological exams in a natural way. The system allows the user to see stereoscopic "augmented images," which are created by mixing 3-D virtual models of anatomies obtained by processing preoperative volumetric radiological images (computed tomography or MRI) with real patient live images, grabbed by means of cameras. The interface of the system consists of a head-mounted display equipped with two high-definition cameras. Cameras are mounted in correspondence of the user's eyes and allow one to grab live images of the patient with the same point of view of the user. The system does not use any external tracker to detect movements of the user or the patient. The movements of the user's head and the alignment of virtual patient with the real one are done using machine vision methods applied on pairs of live images. Experimental results, concerning frame rate and alignment precision between virtual and real patient, demonstrate that machine vision methods used for localization are appropriate for the specific application and that systems based on stereoscopic mixed reality are feasible and can be proficiently adopted in clinical practice.

  1. Figure and ground in the visual cortex: v2 combines stereoscopic cues with gestalt rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fangtu T; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2005-07-07

    Figure-ground organization is a process by which the visual system identifies some image regions as foreground and others as background, inferring 3D layout from 2D displays. A recent study reported that edge responses of neurons in area V2 are selective for side-of-figure, suggesting that figure-ground organization is encoded in the contour signals (border ownership coding). Here, we show that area V2 combines two strategies of computation, one that exploits binocular stereoscopic information for the definition of local depth order, and another that exploits the global configuration of contours (Gestalt factors). These are combined in single neurons so that the "near" side of the preferred 3D edge generally coincides with the preferred side-of-figure in 2D displays. Thus, area V2 represents the borders of 2D figures as edges of surfaces, as if the figures were objects in 3D space. Even in 3D displays, Gestalt factors influence the responses and can enhance or null the stereoscopic depth information.

  2. The Influence of Manifest Strabismus and Stereoscopic Vision on Non-Verbal Abilities of Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorovic, Milica; Vucinic, Vesna; Eskirovic, Branka; Jablan, Branka

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to examine the influence of manifest strabismus and stereoscopic vision on non-verbal abilities of visually impaired children aged between 7 and 15. The sample included 55 visually impaired children from the 1st to the 6th grade of elementary schools for visually impaired children in Belgrade. RANDOT stereotest…

  3. Quantitative Measurement of Eyestrain on 3D Stereoscopic Display Considering the Eye Foveation Model and Edge Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan Heo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for measuring the degree of eyestrain on 3D stereoscopic displays using a glasses-type of eye tracking device. Our study is novel in the following four ways: first, the circular area where a user’s gaze position exists is defined based on the calculated gaze position and gaze estimation error. Within this circular area, the position where edge strength is maximized can be detected, and we determine this position as the gaze position that has a higher probability of being the correct one. Based on this gaze point, the eye foveation model is defined. Second, we quantitatively evaluate the correlation between the degree of eyestrain and the causal factors of visual fatigue, such as the degree of change of stereoscopic disparity (CSD, stereoscopic disparity (SD, frame cancellation effect (FCE, and edge component (EC of the 3D stereoscopic display using the eye foveation model. Third, by comparing the eyestrain in conventional 3D video and experimental 3D sample video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to various factors and types of 3D video. Fourth, by comparing the eyestrain with or without the compensation of eye saccades movement in 3D video, we analyze the characteristics of eyestrain according to the types of eye movements in 3D video. Experimental results show that the degree of CSD causes more eyestrain than other factors.

  4. Evaluation of the Performance of Vortex Generators on the DU 91-W2-250 Profile using Stereoscopic PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    Stereoscopic PIV measurements investigating the effect of Vortex Generators on the lift force near stall and on glide ratio at best aerodynamic performance have been carried out in the LM Glasfiber wind tunnel on a DU 91-W2-250 profile. Measurements at two Reynolds numbers were analyzed; Re=0...

  5. Evaluation of the Performance of Vortex Generators on the DU 91-W2-250 Profile using Stereoscopic PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2008-01-01

    Stereoscopic PIV measurements investigating the effect of Vortex Generators on the lift force near stall and on glide ratio at best aerodynamic performance have been carried out in the LM Glasfiber wind tunnel on a DU 91-W2-250 profile. Measurements at two Reynolds numbers were analyzed; Re=0...

  6. 3D pressure imaging of an aircraft propeller blade-tip flow by phase-locked stereoscopic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ragni, D.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.; Scarano, F.

    2011-01-01

    The flow field at the tip region of a scaled DHC Beaver aircraft propeller, running at transonic speed, has been investigated by means of a multi-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup. Velocity fields, phase-locked with the blade rotational motion, are acquired across several planes

  7. An interactive, stereoscopic virtual environment for medical imaging visualization, simulation and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Evan; Messier, Erik; Linte, Cristian A.; Diaz, Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    Recent advances in medical image acquisition allow for the reconstruction of anatomies with 3D, 4D, and 5D renderings. Nevertheless, standard anatomical and medical data visualization still relies heavily on the use of traditional 2D didactic tools (i.e., textbooks and slides), which restrict the presentation of image data to a 2D slice format. While these approaches have their merits beyond being cost effective and easy to disseminate, anatomy is inherently three-dimensional. By using 2D visualizations to illustrate more complex morphologies, important interactions between structures can be missed. In practice, such as in the planning and execution of surgical interventions, professionals require intricate knowledge of anatomical complexities, which can be more clearly communicated and understood through intuitive interaction with 3D volumetric datasets, such as those extracted from high-resolution CT or MRI scans. Open source, high quality, 3D medical imaging datasets are freely available, and with the emerging popularity of 3D display technologies, affordable and consistent 3D anatomical visualizations can be created. In this study we describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of one such interactive, stereoscopic visualization paradigm for human anatomy extracted from 3D medical images. A stereoscopic display was created by projecting the scene onto the lab floor using sequential frame stereo projection and viewed through active shutter glasses. By incorporating a PhaseSpace motion tracking system, a single viewer can navigate an augmented reality environment and directly manipulate virtual objects in 3D. While this paradigm is sufficiently versatile to enable a wide variety of applications in need of 3D visualization, we designed our study to work as an interactive game, which allows users to explore the anatomy of various organs and systems. In this study we describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of an interactive and stereoscopic

  8. Streaming video-based 3D reconstruction method compatible with existing monoscopic and stereoscopic endoscopy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; van der Mark, Wannes; Eendebak, Pieter T.; Landsmeer, Sander H.; van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; ter Haar, Frank B.; Wieringa, F. Pieter; van Basten, Jean-Paul

    2012-06-01

    Compared to open surgery, minimal invasive surgery offers reduced trauma and faster recovery. However, lack of direct view limits space perception. Stereo-endoscopy improves depth perception, but is still restricted to the direct endoscopic field-of-view. We describe a novel technology that reconstructs 3D-panoramas from endoscopic video streams providing a much wider cumulative overview. The method is compatible with any endoscope. We demonstrate that it is possible to generate photorealistic 3D-environments from mono- and stereoscopic endoscopy. The resulting 3D-reconstructions can be directly applied in simulators and e-learning. Extended to real-time processing, the method looks promising for telesurgery or other remote vision-guided tasks.

  9. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry investigations of the mixed convection exchange flow through a horizontal vent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrall, Kevin; Pretrel, Hugues; Vaux, Samuel; Vauquelin, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    The exchange flow through a horizontal vent linking two compartments (one above the other) is studied experimentally. This exchange is here governed by both the buoyant natural effect due to the temperature difference of the fluids in both compartments, and the effect of a (forced) mechanical ventilation applied in the lower compartment. Such a configuration leads to uni- or bi-directional flows through the vent. In the experiments, buoyancy is induced in the lower compartment thanks to an electrical resistor. The forced ventilation is applied in exhaust or supply modes and three different values of the vent area. To estimate both velocity fields and flow rates at the vent, measurements are realized at thermal steady state, flush the vent in the upper compartment using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV), which is original for this kind of flow. The SPIV measurements allows the area occupied by both upward and downward flows to be determined.

  10. Stereoscopic visualization in curved spacetime: seeing deep inside a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Andrew J S; Polhemus, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    Stereoscopic visualization adds an additional dimension to the viewer's experience, giving them a sense of distance. In a general relativistic visualization, distance can be measured in a variety of ways. We argue that the affine distance, which matches the usual notion of distance in flat spacetime, is a natural distance to use in curved spacetime. As an example, we apply affine distance to the visualization of the interior of a black hole. Affine distance is not the distance perceived with normal binocular vision in curved spacetime. However, the failure of binocular vision is simply a limitation of animals that have evolved in flat spacetime, not a fundamental obstacle to depth perception in curved spacetime. Trinocular vision would provide superior depth perception.

  11. Stereoscopic Augmented Reality System for Supervised Training on Minimal Invasive Surgery Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matu, Florin-Octavian; Thøgersen, Mikkel; Galsgaard, Bo

    2014-01-01

    the need for efficient training. When training with the robot, the communication between the trainer and the trainee is limited, since the trainee often cannot see the trainer. To overcome this issue, this paper proposes an Augmented Reality (AR) system where the trainer is controlling two virtual robotic...... arms. These arms are virtually superimposed on the video feed to the trainee, and can therefore be used to demonstrate and perform various tasks for the trainee. Furthermore, the trainer is presented with a 3D image through a stereoscopic display. Because of the added depth perception, this enables...... the procedure, and thereby enhances the training experience. The virtual overlay was also found to work as a good and illustrative approach for enhanced communication. However, the delay of the prototype made it difficult to use for actual training....

  12. Stereoscopic neuroanatomy lectures using a three-dimensional virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockro, Ralf A; Amaxopoulou, Christina; Killeen, Tim; Wagner, Wolfgang; Reisch, Robert; Schwandt, Eike; Gutenberg, Angelika; Giese, Alf; Stofft, Eckart; Stadie, Axel T

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics are increasingly used to supplement the teaching of anatomy. While most systems consist of a program which produces 3D renderings on a workstation with a standard screen, the Dextrobeam virtual reality VR environment allows the presentation of spatial neuroanatomical models to larger groups of students through a stereoscopic projection system. Second-year medical students (n=169) were randomly allocated to receive a standardised pre-recorded audio lecture detailing the anatomy of the third ventricle accompanied by either a two-dimensional (2D) PowerPoint presentation (n=80) or a 3D animated tour of the third ventricle with the DextroBeam. Students completed a 10-question multiple-choice exam based on the content learned and a subjective evaluation of the teaching method immediately after the lecture. Students in the 2D group achieved a mean score of 5.19 (±2.12) compared to 5.45 (±2.16) in the 3D group, with the results in the 3D group statistically non-inferior to those of the 2D group (p<0.0001). The students rated the 3D method superior to 2D teaching in four domains (spatial understanding, application in future anatomy classes, effectiveness, enjoyableness) (p<0.01). Stereoscopically enhanced 3D lectures are valid methods of imparting neuroanatomical knowledge and are well received by students. More research is required to define and develop the role of large-group VR systems in modern neuroanatomy curricula. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Remote stereoscopic video play platform for naked eyes based on the Android system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Changxin; Sang, Xinzhu; Liu, Jing; Cheng, Mingsheng

    2014-11-01

    As people's life quality have been improved significantly, the traditional 2D video technology can not meet people's urgent desire for a better video quality, which leads to the rapid development of 3D video technology. Simultaneously people want to watch 3D video in portable devices,. For achieving the above purpose, we set up a remote stereoscopic video play platform. The platform consists of a server and clients. The server is used for transmission of different formats of video and the client is responsible for receiving remote video for the next decoding and pixel restructuring. We utilize and improve Live555 as video transmission server. Live555 is a cross-platform open source project which provides solutions for streaming media such as RTSP protocol and supports transmission of multiple video formats. At the receiving end, we use our laboratory own player. The player for Android, which is with all the basic functions as the ordinary players do and able to play normal 2D video, is the basic structure for redevelopment. Also RTSP is implemented into this structure for telecommunication. In order to achieve stereoscopic display, we need to make pixel rearrangement in this player's decoding part. The decoding part is the local code which JNI interface calls so that we can extract video frames more effectively. The video formats that we process are left and right, up and down and nine grids. In the design and development, a large number of key technologies from Android application development have been employed, including a variety of wireless transmission, pixel restructuring and JNI call. By employing these key technologies, the design plan has been finally completed. After some updates and optimizations, the video player can play remote 3D video well anytime and anywhere and meet people's requirement.

  14. Alternation Frequency Thresholds for Stereopsis as a Technique for Exploring Stereoscopic Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Rychkova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When stereoscopic images are presented alternately to the two eyes, stereopsis occurs at F ⩾ 1 Hz full-cycle frequencies for very simple stimuli, and F ⩾ 3 Hz full-cycle frequencies for random-dot stereograms (eg Ludwig I, Pieper W, Lachnit H, 2007 “Temporal integration of monocular images separated in time: stereopsis, stereoacuity, and binocular luster” Perception & Psychophysics 69 92–102. Using twenty different stereograms presented through liquid crystal shutters, we studied the transition to stereopsis with fifteen subjects. The onset of stereopsis was observed during a stepwise increase of the alternation frequency, and its disappearance was observed during a stepwise decrease in frequency. The lowest F values (around 2.5 Hz were observed with stimuli involving two to four simple disjoint elements (circles, arcs, rectangles. Higher F values were needed for stimuli containing slanted elements or curved surfaces (about 1 Hz increment, overlapping elements at two different depths (about 2.5 Hz increment, or camouflaged overlapping surfaces (> 7 Hz increment. A textured cylindrical surface with a horizontal axis appeared easier to interpret (5.7 Hz than a pair of slanted segments separated in depth but forming a cross in projection (8 Hz. Training effects were minimal, and F usually increased as disparities were reduced. The hierarchy of difficulties revealed in the study may shed light on various problems that the brain needs to solve during stereoscopic interpretation. During the construction of the three-dimensional percept, the loss of information due to natural decay of the stimuli traces must be compensated by refreshes of visual input. In the discussion an attempt is made to link our results with recent advances in the comprehension of visual scene memory.

  15. Stereoscopic Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging at 500 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Taylor L.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Jiang, N.; Webster, M.; Lempert, Walter; Miller, J.; Meyer, T.

    2011-01-01

    A new measurement technique for obtaining time- and spatially-resolved image sequences in hypersonic flows is developed. Nitric-oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) has previously been used to investigate transition from laminar to turbulent flow in hypersonic boundary layers using both planar and volumetric imaging capabilities. Low flow rates of NO were typically seeded into the flow, minimally perturbing the flow. The volumetric imaging was performed at a measurement rate of 10 Hz using a thick planar laser sheet that excited NO fluorescence. The fluorescence was captured by a pair of cameras having slightly different views of the flow. Subsequent stereoscopic reconstruction of these images allowed the three-dimensional flow structures to be viewed. In the current paper, this approach has been extended to 50,000 times higher repetition rates. A laser operating at 500 kHz excites the seeded NO molecules, and a camera, synchronized with the laser and fitted with a beam-splitting assembly, acquires two separate images of the flow. The resulting stereoscopic images provide three-dimensional flow visualizations at 500 kHz for the first time. The 200 ns exposure time in each frame is fast enough to freeze the flow while the 500 kHz repetition rate is fast enough to time-resolve changes in the flow being studied. This method is applied to visualize the evolving hypersonic flow structures that propagate downstream of a discrete protuberance attached to a flat plate. The technique was demonstrated in the NASA Langley Research Center s 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel facility. Different tunnel Reynolds number conditions, NO flow rates and two different cylindrical protuberance heights were investigated. The location of the onset of flow unsteadiness, an indicator of transition, was observed to move downstream during the tunnel runs, coinciding with an increase in the model temperature.

  16. Objective quality assessment of stereoscopic images with vertical disparity using EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi Avarvand, Forooz; Bosse, Sebastian; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Schäfer, Ralf; Nolte, Guido; Wiegand, Thomas; Curio, Gabriel; Samek, Wojciech

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Neurophysiological correlates of vertical disparity in 3D images are studied in an objective approach using EEG technique. These disparities are known to negatively affect the quality of experience and to cause visual discomfort in stereoscopic visualizations. Approach. We have presented four conditions to subjects: one in 2D and three conditions in 3D, one without vertical disparity and two with different vertical disparity levels. Event related potentials (ERPs) are measured for each condition and the differences between ERP components are studied. Analysis is also performed on the induced potentials in the time frequency domain. Main results. Results show that there is a significant increase in the amplitude of P1 components in 3D conditions in comparison to 2D. These results are consistent with previous studies which have shown that P1 amplitude increases due to the depth perception in 3D compared to 2D. However the amplitude is significantly smaller for maximum vertical disparity (3D-3) in comparison to 3D with no vertical disparity. Our results therefore suggest that the vertical disparity in 3D-3 condition decreases the perception of depth compared to other 3D conditions and the amplitude of P1 component can be used as a discriminative feature. Significance. The results show that the P1 component increases in amplitude due to the depth perception in the 3D stimuli compared to the 2D stimulus. On the other hand the vertical disparity in the stereoscopic images is studied here. We suggest that the amplitude of P1 component is modulated with this parameter and decreases due to the decrease in the perception of depth.

  17. Use of the stereoscopic virtual reality display system for the detection and characterization of intracranial aneurysms: A Icomparison with conventional computed tomography workstation and 3D rotational angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiujuan; Tao, Haiquan; Xiao, Xigang; Guo, Binbin; Xu, Shangcai; Sun, Na; Li, Maotong; Xie, Li; Wu, Changjun

    2018-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of the stereoscopic virtual reality display system with the conventional computed tomography (CT) workstation and three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) for intracranial aneurysm detection and characterization, with a focus on small aneurysms and those near the bone. First, 42 patients with suspected intracranial aneurysms underwent both 256-row CT angiography (CTA) and 3DRA. Volume rendering (VR) images were captured using the conventional CT workstation. Next, VR images were transferred to the stereoscopic virtual reality display system. Two radiologists independently assessed the results that were obtained using the conventional CT workstation and stereoscopic virtual reality display system. The 3DRA results were considered as the ultimate reference standard. Based on 3DRA images, 38 aneurysms were confirmed in 42 patients. Two cases were misdiagnosed and 1 was missed when the traditional CT workstation was used. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of the conventional CT workstation were 94.7%, 85.7%, 97.3%, 75%, and99.3%, respectively, on a per-aneurysm basis. The stereoscopic virtual reality display system missed a case. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of the stereoscopic virtual reality display system were 100%, 85.7%, 97.4%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. No difference was observed in the accuracy of the traditional CT workstation, stereoscopic virtual reality display system, and 3DRA in detecting aneurysms. The stereoscopic virtual reality display system has some advantages in detecting small aneurysms and those near the bone. The virtual reality stereoscopic vision obtained through the system was found as a useful tool in intracranial aneurysm diagnosis and pre-operative 3D imaging. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Toward 3D-IPTV: design and implementation of a stereoscopic and multiple-perspective video streaming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Goran; Farin, Dirk; de With, Peter H. N.

    2008-02-01

    3D-Video systems allow a user to perceive depth in the viewed scene and to display the scene from arbitrary viewpoints interactively and on-demand. This paper presents a prototype implementation of a 3D-video streaming system using an IP network. The architecture of our streaming system is layered, where each information layer conveys a single coded video signal or coded scene-description data. We demonstrate the benefits of a layered architecture with two examples: (a) stereoscopic video streaming, (b) monoscopic video streaming with remote multiple-perspective rendering. Our implementation experiments confirm that prototyping 3D-video streaming systems is possible with today's software and hardware. Furthermore, our current operational prototype demonstrates that highly heterogeneous clients can coexist in the system, ranging from auto-stereoscopic 3D displays to resource-constrained mobile devices.

  19. Tissue feature-based intra-fractional motion tracking for stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yaoqin; Xing, Lei; Gu, Jia; Liu, Wu

    2013-06-01

    Real-time knowledge of tumor position during radiation therapy is essential to overcome the adverse effect of intra-fractional organ motion. The goal of this work is to develop a tumor tracking strategy by effectively utilizing the inherent image features of stereoscopic x-ray images acquired during dose delivery. In stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiation delivery, two orthogonal x-ray images are acquired either simultaneously or sequentially. The essence of markerless tumor tracking is the reliable identification of inherent points with distinct tissue features on each projection image and their association between two images. The identification of the feature points on a planar x-ray image is realized by searching for points with high intensity gradient. The feature points are associated by using the scale invariance features transform descriptor. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by using images of a motion phantom and four archived clinical cases acquired using either a CyberKnife equipped with a stereoscopic x-ray imaging system, or a LINAC equipped with an onboard kV imager and an electronic portal imaging device. In the phantom study, the results obtained using the proposed method agree with the measurements to within 2 mm in all three directions. In the clinical study, the mean error is 0.48 ± 0.46 mm for four patient data with 144 sequential images. In this work, a tissue feature-based tracking method for stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiation therapy is developed. The technique avoids the invasive procedure of fiducial implantation and may greatly facilitate the clinical workflow.

  20. Tissue feature-based intra-fractional motion tracking for stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yaoqin; Gu Jia; Xing Lei; Liu Wu

    2013-01-01

    Real-time knowledge of tumor position during radiation therapy is essential to overcome the adverse effect of intra-fractional organ motion. The goal of this work is to develop a tumor tracking strategy by effectively utilizing the inherent image features of stereoscopic x-ray images acquired during dose delivery. In stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiation delivery, two orthogonal x-ray images are acquired either simultaneously or sequentially. The essence of markerless tumor tracking is the reliable identification of inherent points with distinct tissue features on each projection image and their association between two images. The identification of the feature points on a planar x-ray image is realized by searching for points with high intensity gradient. The feature points are associated by using the scale invariance features transform descriptor. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by using images of a motion phantom and four archived clinical cases acquired using either a CyberKnife equipped with a stereoscopic x-ray imaging system, or a LINAC equipped with an onboard kV imager and an electronic portal imaging device. In the phantom study, the results obtained using the proposed method agree with the measurements to within 2 mm in all three directions. In the clinical study, the mean error is 0.48 ± 0.46 mm for four patient data with 144 sequential images. In this work, a tissue feature-based tracking method for stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiation therapy is developed. The technique avoids the invasive procedure of fiducial implantation and may greatly facilitate the clinical workflow. (paper)

  1. Effect of Stereoscopic Anaglyphic 3-Dimensional Video Didactics on Learning Neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Amir; Monti, Sara; Lee, Darrin; Girgis, Fady

    2017-11-01

    The teaching of neuroanatomy in medical education has historically been based on didactic instruction, cadaveric dissections, and intraoperative experience for students. Multiple novel 3-dimensional (3D) modalities have recently emerged. Among these, stereoscopic anaglyphic video is easily accessible and affordable, however, its effects have not yet formally been investigated. This study aimed to investigate if 3D stereoscopic anaglyphic video instruction in neuroanatomy could improve learning for content-naive students, as compared with 2-dimensional (2D) video instruction. A single-site controlled prospective case control study was conducted at the School of Education. Content knowledge was assessed at baseline, followed by the presentation of an instructional neuroanatomy video. Participants viewed the video in either 2D or 3D format and then completed a written test of skull base neuroanatomy. Pretest and post-test performances were analyzed with independent Student's t-tests and analysis of covariance. Our study was completed by 249 subjects. At baseline, the 2D (n = 124, F = 97) and 3D groups (n = 125, F = 96) were similar, although the 3D group was older by 1.7 years (P = 0.0355) and the curricula of participating classes differed (P < 0.0001). Average scores for the 3D group were higher for both pretest (2D, M = 19.9%, standard deviation [SD] = 12.5% vs. 3D, M = 23.9%, SD = 14.9%, P = 0.0234) and post-test performances (2D, M = 68.5%, SD = 18.6% vs. 3D, M = 77.3%, SD = 18.8%, P = 0.003), but the magnitude of improvement across groups did not reach statistical significance (2D, M = 48.7%, SD = 21.3%, vs. 3D, M = 53.5%, SD = 22.7%, P = 0.0855). Incorporation of 3D video instruction into curricula without careful integration is insufficient to promote learning over 2D video. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Real Time Stereoscopic Array Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, K.; Anderson, J.; Buckley, J.; Cundiff, T.; Dawson, J.; Drake, G.; Duke, C.; Haberichter, B.; Krawzcynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Madhavan, A.; Schroedter, M.; Smith, A.

    2009-05-01

    Future large arrays of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) such as AGIS and CTA are conceived to comprise of 50 - 100 individual telescopes each having a camera with 10**3 to 10**4 pixels. To maximize the capabilities of such IACT arrays with a low energy threshold, a wide field of view and a low background rate, a sophisticated array trigger is required. We describe the design of a stereoscopic array trigger that calculates image parameters and then correlates them across a subset of telescopes. Fast Field Programmable Gate Array technology allows to use lookup tables at the array trigger level to form a real-time pattern recognition trigger tht capitalizes on the multiple view points of the shower at different shower core distances. A proof of principle system is currently under construction. It is based on 400 MHz FPGAs and the goal is for camera trigger rates of up to 10 MHz and a tunable cosmic-ray background suppression at the array level.

  3. Time Dependence of Intrafraction Patient Motion Assessed by Repeat Stereoscopic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Nuyttens, Joost J.; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify intrafraction patient motion and its time dependence in immobilized intracranial and extracranial patients. The data can be used to optimize the intrafraction imaging frequency and consequent patient setup correction with an image guidance and tracking system, and to establish the required safety margins in the absence of such a system. Method and Materials: The intrafraction motion of 32 intracranial patients, immobilized with a thermoplastic mask, and 11 supine- and 14 prone-treated extracranial spine patients, immobilized with a vacuum bag, were analyzed. The motion was recorded by an X-ray, stereoscopic, image-guidance system. For each group, we calculated separately the systematic (overall mean and SD) and the random displacement as a function of elapsed intrafraction time. Results: The SD of the systematic intrafraction displacements increased linearly over time for all three patient groups. For intracranial-, supine-, and prone-treated patients, the SD increased to 0.8, 1.2, and 2.2 mm, respectively, in a period of 15 min. The random displacements for the prone-treated patients were significantly higher than for the other groups, namely 1.6 mm (1 SD), probably caused by respiratory motion. Conclusions: Despite the applied immobilization devices, patients drift away from their initial position during a treatment fraction. These drifts are in general small if compared with conventional treatment margins, but will significantly contribute to the margin for high-precision radiation treatments with treatment times of 15 min or longer

  4. Visual fatigue modeling for stereoscopic video shot based on camera motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guozhong; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Liu, Yangdong; Liu, Jing

    2014-11-01

    As three-dimensional television (3-DTV) and 3-D movie become popular, the discomfort of visual feeling limits further applications of 3D display technology. The cause of visual discomfort from stereoscopic video conflicts between accommodation and convergence, excessive binocular parallax, fast motion of objects and so on. Here, a novel method for evaluating visual fatigue is demonstrated. Influence factors including spatial structure, motion scale and comfortable zone are analyzed. According to the human visual system (HVS), people only need to converge their eyes to the specific objects for static cameras and background. Relative motion should be considered for different camera conditions determining different factor coefficients and weights. Compared with the traditional visual fatigue prediction model, a novel visual fatigue predicting model is presented. Visual fatigue degree is predicted using multiple linear regression method combining with the subjective evaluation. Consequently, each factor can reflect the characteristics of the scene, and the total visual fatigue score can be indicated according to the proposed algorithm. Compared with conventional algorithms which ignored the status of the camera, our approach exhibits reliable performance in terms of correlation with subjective test results.

  5. Real-time Stereoscopic 3D for E-Robotics Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Y. Chiou

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the design and testing of a successful 3-Dimensional surveillance system, this 3D scheme has been implemented into online robotics learning at Drexel University. A real-time application, utilizing robot controllers, programmable logic controllers and sensors, has been developed in the “MET 205 Robotics and Mechatronics” class to provide the students with a better robotic education. The integration of the 3D system allows the students to precisely program the robot and execute functions remotely. Upon the students’ recommendation, polarization has been chosen to be the main platform behind the 3D robotic system. Stereoscopic calculations are carried out for calibration purposes to display the images with the highest possible comfort-level and 3D effect. The calculations are further validated by comparing the results with students’ evaluations. Due to the Internet-based feature, multiple clients have the opportunity to perform the online automation development. In the future, students, in different universities, will be able to cross-control robotic components of different types around the world. With the development of this 3D ERobotics interface, automation resources and robotic learning can be shared and enriched regardless of location.

  6. Lie group model neuromorphic geometric engine for real-time terrain reconstruction from stereoscopic aerial photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Thomas R.; Tsao, Doris

    1997-04-01

    In the 1980's, neurobiologist suggested a simple mechanism in primate visual cortex for maintaining a stable and invariant representation of a moving object. The receptive field of visual neurons has real-time transforms in response to motion, to maintain a stable representation. When the visual stimulus is changed due to motion, the geometric transform of the stimulus triggers a dual transform of the receptive field. This dual transform in the receptive fields compensates geometric variation in the stimulus. This process can be modelled using a Lie group method. The massive array of affine parameter sensing circuits will function as a smart sensor tightly coupled to the passive imaging sensor (retina). Neural geometric engine is a neuromorphic computing device simulating our Lie group model of spatial perception of primate's primal visual cortex. We have developed the computer simulation and experimented on realistic and synthetic image data, and performed a preliminary research of using analog VLSI technology for implementation of the neural geometric engine. We have benchmark tested on DMA's terrain data with their result and have built an analog integrated circuit to verify the computational structure of the engine. When fully implemented on ANALOG VLSI chip, we will be able to accurately reconstruct a 3D terrain surface in real-time from stereoscopic imagery.

  7. Stereoscopic virtual reality models for planning tumor resection in the sellar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shou-sen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is difficult for neurosurgeons to perceive the complex three-dimensional anatomical relationships in the sellar region. Methods To investigate the value of using a virtual reality system for planning resection of sellar region tumors. The study included 60 patients with sellar tumors. All patients underwent computed tomography angiography, MRI-T1W1, and contrast enhanced MRI-T1W1 image sequence scanning. The CT and MRI scanning data were collected and then imported into a Dextroscope imaging workstation, a virtual reality system that allows structures to be viewed stereoscopically. During preoperative assessment, typical images for each patient were chosen and printed out for use by the surgeons as references during surgery. Results All sellar tumor models clearly displayed bone, the internal carotid artery, circle of Willis and its branches, the optic nerve and chiasm, ventricular system, tumor, brain, soft tissue and adjacent structures. Depending on the location of the tumors, we simulated the transmononasal sphenoid sinus approach, transpterional approach, and other approaches. Eleven surgeons who used virtual reality models completed a survey questionnaire. Nine of the participants said that the virtual reality images were superior to other images but that other images needed to be used in combination with the virtual reality images. Conclusions The three-dimensional virtual reality models were helpful for individualized planning of surgery in the sellar region. Virtual reality appears to be promising as a valuable tool for sellar region surgery in the future.

  8. Robust and Accurate Algorithm for Wearable Stereoscopic Augmented Reality with Three Indistinguishable Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Cutolo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of surgical navigation systems based on augmented reality (AR, the key challenge is to ensure the highest degree of realism in merging computer-generated elements with live views of the surgical scene. This paper presents an algorithm suited for wearable stereoscopic augmented reality video see-through systems for use in a clinical scenario. A video-based tracking solution is proposed that relies on stereo localization of three monochromatic markers rigidly constrained to the scene. A PnP-based optimization step is introduced to refine separately the pose of the two cameras. Video-based tracking methods using monochromatic markers are robust to non-controllable and/or inconsistent lighting conditions. The two-stage camera pose estimation algorithm provides sub-pixel registration accuracy. From a technological and an ergonomic standpoint, the proposed approach represents an effective solution to the implementation of wearable AR-based surgical navigation systems wherever rigid anatomies are involved.

  9. 3-D Digitization of Stereoscopic Jet-in-Crossflow Vortex Structure Images via Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Lorenz; Strand, Christopher; Watson, Graeme; Nault, Joshua; Tucker, Ryan

    2006-11-01

    Stereoscopic images of smoke-laden vortex flows have proven useful for understanding the topology of the embedded 3-D vortex structures. Images from two cameras allow a perception of the 3-D structure via the use of red/blue eye glasses. The human brain has an astonishing capacity to calculate and present to the observer the complex turbulent smoke volume. We have developed a technique whereby a virtual cursor is introduced to the perception, which creates an ``augmented reality.'' The perceived position of this cursor in the 3-D field can be precisely controlled by the observer. It can be brought near a characteristic vortex structure in order to digitally estimate the spatial coordinates of that feature. A calibration procedure accounts for camera positioning. Vortex tubes can be traced and recorded for later or real time supersposition of tube skeleton models. These models can be readily digitally obtained for display in graphics systems to allow complete exploration from any location or perspective. A unique feature of this technology is the use of the human brain to naturally perform the difficult computation of the shape of the translucent smoke volume. Examples are given of application to low velocity ratio and Reynolds number elevated jets-in-crossflow.

  10. Formalizing the potential of stereoscopic 3D user experience in interactive entertainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Masuch, Maic

    2015-03-01

    The use of stereoscopic 3D vision affects how interactive entertainment has to be developed as well as how it is experienced by the audience. The large amount of possibly impacting factors and variety as well as a certain subtlety of measured effects on user experience make it difficult to grasp the overall potential of using S3D vision. In a comprehensive approach, we (a) present a development framework which summarizes possible variables in display technology, content creation and human factors, and (b) list a scheme of S3D user experience effects concerning initial fascination, emotions, performance, and behavior as well as negative feelings of discomfort and complexity. As a major contribution we propose a qualitative formalization which derives dependencies between development factors and user effects. The argumentation is based on several previously published user studies. We further show how to apply this formula to identify possible opportunities and threats in content creation as well as how to pursue future steps for a possible quantification.

  11. Full-reference quality assessment of stereoscopic images by learning binocular receptive field properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Li, Kemeng; Lin, Weisi; Jiang, Gangyi; Yu, Mei; Dai, Qionghai

    2015-10-01

    Quality assessment of 3D images encounters more challenges than its 2D counterparts. Directly applying 2D image quality metrics is not the solution. In this paper, we propose a new full-reference quality assessment for stereoscopic images by learning binocular receptive field properties to be more in line with human visual perception. To be more specific, in the training phase, we learn a multiscale dictionary from the training database, so that the latent structure of images can be represented as a set of basis vectors. In the quality estimation phase, we compute sparse feature similarity index based on the estimated sparse coefficient vectors by considering their phase difference and amplitude difference, and compute global luminance similarity index by considering luminance changes. The final quality score is obtained by incorporating binocular combination based on sparse energy and sparse complexity. Experimental results on five public 3D image quality assessment databases demonstrate that in comparison with the most related existing methods, the devised algorithm achieves high consistency with subjective assessment.

  12. Volume Attenuation and High Frequency Loss as Auditory Depth Cues in Stereoscopic 3D Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolas, Christos; Pauletto, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    Assisted by the technological advances of the past decades, stereoscopic 3D (S3D) cinema is currently in the process of being established as a mainstream form of entertainment. The main focus of this collaborative effort is placed on the creation of immersive S3D visuals. However, with few exceptions, little attention has been given so far to the potential effect of the soundtrack on such environments. The potential of sound both as a means to enhance the impact of the S3D visual information and to expand the S3D cinematic world beyond the boundaries of the visuals is large. This article reports on our research into the possibilities of using auditory depth cues within the soundtrack as a means of affecting the perception of depth within cinematic S3D scenes. We study two main distance-related auditory cues: high-end frequency loss and overall volume attenuation. A series of experiments explored the effectiveness of these auditory cues. Results, although not conclusive, indicate that the studied auditory cues can influence the audience judgement of depth in cinematic 3D scenes, sometimes in unexpected ways. We conclude that 3D filmmaking can benefit from further studies on the effectiveness of specific sound design techniques to enhance S3D cinema.

  13. Parts-based stereoscopic image assessment by learning binocular manifold color visual properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyong; Yu, Mei; Luo, Ting; Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Gangyi

    2016-11-01

    Existing stereoscopic image quality assessment (SIQA) methods are mostly based on the luminance information, in which color information is not sufficiently considered. Actually, color is part of the important factors that affect human visual perception, and nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and manifold learning are in line with human visual perception. We propose an SIQA method based on learning binocular manifold color visual properties. To be more specific, in the training phase, a feature detector is created based on NMF with manifold regularization by considering color information, which not only allows parts-based manifold representation of an image, but also manifests localized color visual properties. In the quality estimation phase, visually important regions are selected by considering different human visual attention, and feature vectors are extracted by using the feature detector. Then the feature similarity index is calculated and the parts-based manifold color feature energy (PMCFE) for each view is defined based on the color feature vectors. The final quality score is obtained by considering a binocular combination based on PMCFE. The experimental results on LIVE I and LIVE Π 3-D IQA databases demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve much higher consistency with subjective evaluations than the state-of-the-art SIQA methods.

  14. Measurements of steady flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve using stereoscopic PIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Chris; Sullivan, Pierre; Ethier, C Ross

    2011-03-01

    Computational modeling of bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BiMHV) flow requires experimentally validated datasets and improved knowledge of BiMHV fluid mechanics. In this study, flow was studied downstream of a model BiMHV in an axisymmetric aortic sinus using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. The inlet flow was steady and the Reynolds number based on the aortic diameter was 7600. Results showed the out-of-plane velocity was of similar magnitude as the transverse velocity. Although additional studies are needed for confirmation, analysis of the out-of-plane velocity showed the possible presence of a four-cell streamwise vortex structure in the mean velocity field. Spatial data for all six Reynolds stress components were obtained. Reynolds normal stress profiles revealed similarities between the central jet and free jets. These findings are important to BiMHV flow modeling, though clinical relevance is limited due to the idealized conditions chosen. To this end, the dataset is publicly available for CFD validation purposes.

  15. Integrating multi-view transmission system into MPEG-21 stereoscopic and multi-view DIA (digital item adaptation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon; Park, Ilkwon; Kim, Manbae; Byun, Hyeran

    2006-10-01

    As digital broadcasting technologies have been rapidly progressed, users' expectations for realistic and interactive broadcasting services also have been increased. As one of such services, 3D multi-view broadcasting has received much attention recently. In general, all the view sequences acquired at the server are transmitted to the client. Then, the user can select a part of views or all the views according to display capabilities. However, this kind of system requires high processing power of the server as well as the client, thus posing a difficulty in practical applications. To overcome this problem, a relatively simple method is to transmit only two view-sequences requested by the client in order to deliver a stereoscopic video. In this system, effective communication between the server and the client is one of important aspects. In this paper, we propose an efficient multi-view system that transmits two view-sequences and their depth maps according to user's request. The view selection process is integrated into MPEG-21 DIA (Digital Item Adaptation) so that our system is compatible to MPEG-21 multimedia framework. DIA is generally composed of resource adaptation and descriptor adaptation. It is one of merits that SVA (stereoscopic video adaptation) descriptors defined in DIA standard are used to deliver users' preferences and device capabilities. Furthermore, multi-view descriptions related to multi-view camera and system are newly introduced. The syntax of the descriptions and their elements is represented in XML (eXtensible Markup Language) schema. If the client requests an adapted descriptor (e.g., view numbers) to the server, then the server sends its associated view sequences. Finally, we present a method which can reduce user's visual discomfort that might occur while viewing stereoscopic video. This phenomenon happens when view changes as well as when a stereoscopic image produces excessive disparity caused by a large baseline between two cameras. To

  16. Film Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Larry M.; Atwater, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Reviews four Human Sexuality films and videos. These are: "Personal Decisions" (Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1985); "The Touch Film" (Sterling Production, 1986); "Rethinking Rape" (Film Distribution Center, 1985); "Not A Love Story" (National Film Board of Canada, 1981). (AEM)

  17. A pilot study on pupillary and cardiovascular changes induced by stereoscopic video movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugita Norihiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taking advantage of developed image technology, it is expected that image presentation would be utilized to promote health in the field of medical care and public health. To accumulate knowledge on biomedical effects induced by image presentation, an essential prerequisite for these purposes, studies on autonomic responses in more than one physiological system would be necessary. In this study, changes in parameters of the pupillary light reflex and cardiovascular reflex evoked by motion pictures were examined, which would be utilized to evaluate the effects of images, and to avoid side effects. Methods Three stereoscopic video movies with different properties were field-sequentially rear-projected through two LCD projectors on an 80-inch screen. Seven healthy young subjects watched movies in a dark room. Pupillary parameters were measured before and after presentation of movies by an infrared pupillometer. ECG and radial blood pressure were continuously monitored. The maximum cross-correlation coefficient between heart rate and blood pressure, ρmax, was used as an index to evaluate changes in the cardiovascular reflex. Results Parameters of pupillary and cardiovascular reflexes changed differently after subjects watched three different video movies. Amplitudes of the pupillary light reflex, CR, increased when subjects watched two CG movies (movies A and D, while they did not change after watching a movie with the real scenery (movie R. The ρmax was significantly larger after presentation of the movie D. Scores of the questionnaire for subjective evaluation of physical condition increased after presentation of all movies, but their relationship with changes in CR and ρmax was different in three movies. Possible causes of these biomedical differences are discussed. Conclusion The autonomic responses were effective to monitor biomedical effects induced by image presentation. Further accumulation of data on multiple autonomic

  18. Potential hazards of viewing 3-D stereoscopic television, cinema and computer games: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Peter A

    2011-03-01

    The visual stimulus provided by a 3-D stereoscopic display differs from that of the real world because the image provided to each eye is produced on a flat surface. The distance from the screen to the eye remains fixed, providing a single focal distance, but the introduction of disparity between the images allows objects to be located geometrically in front of, or behind, the screen. Unlike in the real world, the stimulus to accommodation and the stimulus to convergence do not match. Although this mismatch is used positively in some forms of Orthoptic treatment, a number of authors have suggested that it could negatively lead to the development of asthenopic symptoms. From knowledge of the zone of clear, comfortable, single binocular vision one can predict that, for people with normal binocular vision, adverse symptoms will not be present if the discrepancy is small, but are likely if it is large, and that what constitutes 'large' and 'small' are idiosyncratic to the individual. The accommodation-convergence mismatch is not, however, the only difference between the natural and the artificial stimuli. In the former case, an object located in front of, or behind, a fixated object will not only be perceived as double if the images fall outside Panum's fusional areas, but it will also be defocused and blurred. In the latter case, however, it is usual for the producers of cinema, TV or computer game content to provide an image that is in focus over the whole of the display, and as a consequence diplopic images will be sharply in focus. The size of Panum's fusional area is spatial frequency-dependent, and because of this the high spatial frequencies present in the diplopic 3-D image will provide a different stimulus to the fusion system from that found naturally. © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  19. Holistic processing for bodies and body parts: New evidence from stereoscopic depth manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alison; Vyas, Daivik B; Reed, Catherine L

    2016-10-01

    Although holistic processing has been documented extensively for upright faces, it is unclear whether it occurs for other visual categories with more extensive substructure, such as body postures. Like faces, body postures have high social relevance, but they differ in having fine-grain organization not only of basic parts (e.g., arm) but also subparts (e.g., elbow, wrist, hand). To compare holistic processing for whole bodies and body parts, we employed a novel stereoscopic depth manipulation that creates either the percept of a whole body occluded by a set of bars, or of segments of a body floating in front of a background. Despite sharing low-level visual properties, only the stimulus perceived as being behind bars should be holistically "filled in" via amodal completion. In two experiments, we tested for better identification of individual body parts within the context of a body versus in isolation. Consistent with previous findings, recognition of body parts was better in the context of a whole body when the body was amodally completed behind occluders. However, when the same bodies were perceived as floating in strips, performance was significantly worse, and not significantly different, from that for amodally completed parts, supporting holistic processing of body postures. Intriguingly, performance was worst for parts in the frontal depth condition, suggesting that these effects may extend from gross body organization to a more local level. These results provide suggestive evidence that holistic representations may not be "all-or-none," but rather also operate on body regions of more limited spatial extent.

  20. Turbulent Structure of a Simplified Urban Fluid Flow Studied Through Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Bruno; Goudarzi, Sepehr A.; Vinuesa, Ricardo; Wark, Candace

    2018-02-01

    Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry was used to provide a three-dimensional characterization of the flow around a simplified urban model defined by a 5 by 7 array of blocks, forming four parallel streets, perpendicular to the incoming wind direction corresponding to a zero angle of incidence. Channeling of the flow through the array under consideration was observed, and its effect increased as the incoming wind direction, or angle of incidence ( AOI), was changed from 0° to 15°, 30°, and 45°. The flow between blocks can be divided into two regions: a region of low turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) levels close to the leeward side of the upstream block, and a high TKE area close to the downstream block. The centre of the arch vortex is located in the low TKE area, and two regions of large streamwise velocity fluctuation bound the vortex in the spanwise direction. Moreover, a region of large spanwise velocity fluctuation on the downstream block is found between the vortex legs. Our results indicate that the reorientation of the arch vortex at increasing AOI is produced by the displacement of the different TKE regions and their interaction with the shear layers on the sides and top of the upstream and downstream blocks, respectively. There is also a close connection between the turbulent structure between the blocks and the wind gusts. The correlations among gust components were also studied, and it was found that in the near-wall region of the street the correlations between the streamwise and spanwise gusts R_{uv} were dominant for all four AOI cases. At higher wall-normal positions in the array, the R_{uw} correlation decreased with increasing AOI, whereas the R_{uv} coefficient increased as AOI increased, and at {it{AOI}}=45° all three correlations exhibited relatively high values of around 0.4.

  1. Calibration grooming and alignment for LDUA High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System (HRSVS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System (HRSVS) was designed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to provide routine and troubleshooting views of tank interiors during characterization and remediation phases of underground storage tank (UST) processing. The HRSVS is a dual color camera system designed to provide stereo viewing of the interior of the tanks including the tank wall in a Class 1, Division 1, flammable atmosphere. The HRSVS was designed with a modular philosophy for easy maintenance and configuration modifications. During operation of the system with the LDUA, the control of the camera system will be performed by the LDUA supervisory data acquisition system (SDAS). Video and control status 1458 will be displayed on monitors within the LDUA control center. All control functions are accessible from the front panel of the control box located within the Operations Control Trailer (OCT). The LDUA will provide all positioning functions within the waste tank for the end effector. Various electronic measurement instruments will be used to perform CG and A activities. The instruments may include a digital volt meter, oscilloscope, signal generator, and other electronic repair equipment. None of these instruments will need to be calibrated beyond what comes from the manufacturer. During CG and A a temperature indicating device will be used to measure the temperature of the outside of the HRSVS from initial startup until the temperature has stabilized. This device will not need to be in calibration during CG and A but will have to have a current calibration sticker from the Standards Laboratory during any acceptance testing. This sensor will not need to be in calibration during CG and A but will have to have a current calibration sticker from the Standards Laboratory during any acceptance testing

  2. Study of high-definition and stereoscopic head-aimed vision for improved teleoperation of an unmanned ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyczka, Dale R.; Wright, Robert; Janiszewski, Brian; Chatten, Martha Jane; Bowen, Thomas A.; Skibba, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Nearly all explosive ordnance disposal robots in use today employ monoscopic standard-definition video cameras to relay live imagery from the robot to the operator. With this approach, operators must rely on shadows and other monoscopic depth cues in order to judge distances and object depths. Alternatively, they can contact an object with the robot's manipulator to determine its position, but that approach carries with it the risk of detonation from unintentionally disturbing the target or nearby objects. We recently completed a study in which high-definition (HD) and stereoscopic video cameras were used in addition to conventional standard-definition (SD) cameras in order to determine if higher resolutions and/or stereoscopic depth cues improve operators' overall performance of various unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) tasks. We also studied the effect that the different vision modes had on operator comfort. A total of six different head-aimed vision modes were used including normal-separation HD stereo, SD stereo, "micro" (reduced separation) SD stereo, HD mono, and SD mono (two types). In general, the study results support the expectation that higher resolution and stereoscopic vision aid UGV teleoperation, but the degree of improvement was found to depend on the specific task being performed; certain tasks derived notably more benefit from improved depth perception than others. This effort was sponsored by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise under Robotics Technology Consortium Agreement #69-200902 T01. Technical management was provided by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Robotics Research and Development Group at Tyndall AFB, Florida.

  3. Partially converted stereoscopic images and the effects on visual attention and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghyun; Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Mitsuya, Reiko; Kawai, Takashi; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-03-01

    This study contained two experimental examinations of the cognitive activities such as visual attention and memory in viewing stereoscopic (3D) images. For this study, partially converted 3D images were used with binocular parallax added to a specific region of the image. In Experiment 1, change blindness was used as a presented stimulus. The visual attention and impact on memory were investigated by measuring the response time to accomplish the given task. In the change blindness task, an 80 ms blank was intersected between the original and altered images, and the two images were presented alternatingly for 240 ms each. Subjects were asked to temporarily memorize the two switching images and to compare them, visually recognizing the difference between the two. The stimuli for four conditions (2D, 3D, Partially converted 3D, distracted partially converted 3D) were randomly displayed for 20 subjects. The results of Experiment 1 showed that partially converted 3D images tend to attract visual attention and are prone to remain in viewer's memory in the area where moderate negative parallax has been added. In order to examine the impact of a dynamic binocular disparity on partially converted 3D images, an evaluation experiment was conducted that applied learning, distraction, and recognition tasks for 33 subjects. The learning task involved memorizing the location of cells in a 5 × 5 matrix pattern using two different colors. Two cells were positioned with alternating colors, and one of the gray cells was moved up, down, left, or right by one cell width. Experimental conditions was set as a partially converted 3D condition in which a gray cell moved diagonally for a certain period of time with a dynamic binocular disparity added, a 3D condition in which binocular disparity was added to all gray cells, and a 2D condition. The correct response rates for recognition of each task after the distraction task were compared. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the correct

  4. Subjective evaluation of two stereoscopic imaging systems exploiting visual attention to improve 3D quality of experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2014-03-01

    Crosstalk and vergence-accommodation rivalry negatively impact the quality of experience (QoE) provided by stereoscopic displays. However, exploiting visual attention and adapting the 3D rendering process on the fly can reduce these drawbacks. In this paper, we propose and evaluate two different approaches that exploit visual attention to improve 3D QoE on stereoscopic displays: an offline system, which uses a saliency map to predict gaze position, and an online system, which uses a remote eye tracking system to measure real time gaze positions. The gaze points were used in conjunction with the disparity map to extract the disparity of the object-of-interest. Horizontal image translation was performed to bring the fixated object on the screen plane. The user preference between standard 3D mode and the two proposed systems was evaluated through a subjective evaluation. Results show that exploiting visual attention significantly improves image quality and visual comfort, with a slight advantage for real time gaze determination. Depth quality is also improved, but the difference is not significant.

  5. Ultra-fast movies of thin-film laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Matthias; Rapp, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael; Huber, Heinz P.

    2012-11-01

    Ultra-short-pulse laser irradiation of thin molybdenum films from the glass substrate side initiates an intact Mo disk lift off free from thermal effects. For the investigation of the underlying physical effects, ultra-fast pump-probe microscopy is used to produce stop-motion movies of the single-pulse ablation process, initiated by a 660-fs laser pulse. The ultra-fast dynamics in the femtosecond and picosecond ranges are captured by stroboscopic illumination of the sample with an optically delayed probe pulse of 510-fs duration. The nanosecond and microsecond delay ranges of the probe pulse are covered by an electronically triggered 600-ps laser. Thus, the setup enables an observation of general laser ablation processes from the femtosecond delay range up to the final state. A comparison of time- and space-resolved observations of film and glass substrate side irradiation of a 470-nm molybdenum layer reveals the driving mechanisms of the Mo disk lift off initiated by glass-side irradiation. Observations suggest that a phase explosion generates a liquid-gas mixture in the molybdenum/glass interface about 10 ps after the impact of the pump laser pulse. Then, a shock wave and gas expansion cause the molybdenum layer to bulge, while the enclosed liquid-gas mixture cools and condenses at delay times in the 100-ps range. The bulging continues for approximately 20 ns, when an intact Mo disk shears and lifts off at a velocity of above 70 m/s. As a result, the remaining hole is free from thermal effects.

  6. Engaging a Prosumer: Preservice Teachers Interrogate Popular Toys through Stop-Motion Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashkevich, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Today's global digital culture not only engages young people in daily consumption of visual images, texts, and artifacts, but also provides them with the tools to actively participate in the production of imagery and narratives. Whether they post a picture on Facebook, create a blog, or make a YouTube video with their peers, they engage in what…

  7. [3-D reconstruction of the breast implants from isocentric stereoscopic x-ray images for the application monitoring and irradiation planning of a remote-controlled interstitial afterloading method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, E; Sauer, O

    1988-01-01

    An individual irradiation planning and application monitoring by ISXP is presented for a remote-controlled interstitial afterloading technique using 192Ir wires which is applied in breast-preserving radiotherapy. The errors of reconstruction of the implants are discussed. The consideration of errors for ISXP can be extended to other stereoscopic methods. In this case the quality considerations made by other authors have to be enlarged. The maximum reconstruction error was investigated for a given digitalization precision, focus size, and object blur by patient's movements in dependence on the deviation angle. The optimum deviation angle is about 45 degrees, depending on the importance given to the individual parts and almost without being influenced by the relation between the isocenter-film and the focus-isocenter distances. In case of an optimized deviation angle, a displacement of an implant point of 1 mm leads to a maximum reconstruction error of 2 mm. The dosage is made according to the Paris system. If the circumcircle radius of the application triangle is modified by 1 mm, a dosage modification of 14% will be the consequence in case of very short wires and a small side length. A verification in a phantom showed a positioning error below 0.5 mm. The dosage error is 2% due to the mutual compensation of the direction-isotropic reconstruction errors of the needles the number of which is between seven and nine.

  8. Three-dimensional reconstruction of breast implants based on isocentric stereoscopic X-ray pictures (ISXP) for application monitoring and irradiation planning of a remote-controlled interstitial afterloading method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, E.; Sauer, O.

    1988-01-01

    An individual irradiation planning and application monitoring by ISXP is presented for a remote-controlled interstitial afterloading technique using /sup 192/Ir wires which is applied in breast-preserving radiotherapy. The errors of reconstruction of the implants are discussed. The consideration of errors for ISXP can be extended to other stereoscopic methods. In this case the quality considerations made by other authors have to be enlarged. The maximum reconstruction error was investigated for a given digitalization precision, focus size, and object blur by patient's movements in dependence on the deviation angle. The optimum deviation angle is about 45/sup 0/, depending on the importance given to the individual parts and almost without being influenced by the relation between the distance isocenter-film and the distance focus-isocenter. In case of an optimized deviation angle, a displacement of an implant point of 1 mm leads to a maximum reconstruction error of 2 mm. The dosage is made according to the Paris system. If the circumcircle radius of the application triangle is modified by 1 mm, a dosage modification of 14% will be the consequence in case of very short wires and a small side length. A verification in a phantom showed a positioning error below 0.5 mm. The dosage error is 2% due to the mutual compensation of the direction-isotropic reconstruction errors of the needles the number of which is between seven and nine.

  9. Accuracy of cranial coplanar beam therapy using an oblique, stereoscopic x-ray image guidance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinci, Justin P.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Neck, Daniel W.

    2008-01-01

    A system for measuring two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions in orthogonal anatomical planes in the cranium was developed and used to evaluate the accuracy of coplanar conformal therapy using ExacTrac image guidance. Dose distributions were measured in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes using a CIRS (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc.) anthropomorphic head phantom with a custom internal film cassette. Sections of radiographic Kodak EDR2 film were cut, processed, and digitized using custom templates. Spatial and dosimetric accuracy and precision of the film system were assessed. BrainScan planned a coplanar-beam treatment to conformally irradiate a 2-cm-diameterx2-cm-long cylindrical planning target volume. Prior to delivery, phantom misalignments were imposed in combinations of ±8 mm offsets in each of the principal directions. ExacTrac x-ray correction was applied until the phantom was within an acceptance criteria of 1 mm/1 deg. (first two measurement sets) or 0.4 mm/0.4 deg. (last two measurement sets). Measured dose distributions from film were registered to the treatment plan dose calculations and compared. Alignment errors, displacement between midpoints of planned and measured 70% isodose contours (Δc), and positional errors of the 80% isodose line were evaluated using 49 2D film measurements (98 profiles). Comparison of common, but independent measurements of Δc showed that systematic errors in the measurement technique were 0.2 mm or less along all three anatomical axes and that random error averaged (σ±σ σ ) 0.29±0.06 mm for the acceptance criteria of 1 mm/1 deg. and 0.15±0.02 mm for the acceptance criteria of 0.4 mm/0.4 deg. . The latter was consistent with independent estimates that showed the precision of the measurement system was 0.3 mm (2σ). Values of Δc were as great as 0.9, 0.3, and 1.0 mm along the P-A, R-L, and I-S axes, respectively. Variations in Δc along the P-A axis were correlated to misalignments between laser

  10. Improving maps of ice-sheet surface elevation change using combined laser altimeter and stereoscopic elevation model data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Howat, I. M.; Tscherning, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    We combine the complementary characteristics of laser altimeter data and stereoscopic digital elevation models (DEMs) to construct high-resolution (_100 m) maps of surface elevations and elevation changes over rapidly changing outlet glaciers in Greenland. Measurements from spaceborne and airborne...... laser altimeters have relatively low errors but are spatially limited to the ground tracks, while DEMs have larger errors but provide spatially continuous surfaces. The principle of our method is to fit the DEM surface to the altimeter point clouds in time and space to minimize the DEM errors and use...... that surface to extrapolate elevations away from altimeter flight lines. This reduces the DEM registration errors and fills the gap between the altimeter paths. We use data from ICESat and ATM as well as SPOT 5 DEMs from 2007 and 2008 and apply them to the outlet glaciers Jakobshavn Isbræ (JI...

  11. GEOMETRIC AND REFLECTANCE SIGNATURE CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPLEX CANOPIES USING HYPERSPECTRAL STEREOSCOPIC IMAGES FROM UAV AND TERRESTRIAL PLATFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Honkavaara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Light-weight hyperspectral frame cameras represent novel developments in remote sensing technology. With frame camera technology, when capturing images with stereoscopic overlaps, it is possible to derive 3D hyperspectral reflectance information and 3D geometric data of targets of interest, which enables detailed geometric and radiometric characterization of the object. These technologies are expected to provide efficient tools in various environmental remote sensing applications, such as canopy classification, canopy stress analysis, precision agriculture, and urban material classification. Furthermore, these data sets enable advanced quantitative, physical based retrieval of biophysical and biochemical parameters by model inversion technologies. Objective of this investigation was to study the aspects of capturing hyperspectral reflectance data from unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV and terrestrial platform with novel hyperspectral frame cameras in complex, forested environment.

  12. 3-D flow characterization and shear stress in a stenosed carotid artery bifurcation model using stereoscopic PIV technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefayati, Sarah; Poepping, Tamie L

    2010-01-01

    The carotid artery bifurcation is a common site of atherosclerosis which is a major leading cause of ischemic stroke. The impact of stenosis in the atherosclerotic carotid artery is to disturb the flow pattern and produce regions with high shear rate, turbulence, and recirculation, which are key hemodynamic factors associated with plaque rupture, clot formation, and embolism. In order to characterize the disturbed flow in the stenosed carotid artery, stereoscopic PIV measurements were performed in a transparent model with 50% stenosis under pulsatile flow conditions. Simulated ECG gating of the flowrate waveform provides external triggering required for volumetric reconstruction of the complex flow patterns. Based on the three-component velocity data in the lumen region, volumetric shear-stress patterns were derived.

  13. Stereoscopic three-dimensional images of an anatomical dissection of the eyeball and orbit for educational purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Takeda, Yoshimasa; Ohtsuka, Aiji

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a series of stereoscopic anatomical images of the eye and orbit for use in the curricula of medical schools and residency programs in ophthalmology and other specialties. Layer-by-layer dissection of the eyelid, eyeball, and orbit of a cadaver was performed by an ophthalmologist. A stereoscopic camera system was used to capture a series of anatomical views that were scanned in a panoramic three-dimensional manner around the center of the lid fissure. The images could be rotated 360 degrees in the frontal plane and the angle of views could be tilted up to 90 degrees along the anteroposterior axis perpendicular to the frontal plane around the 360 degrees. The skin, orbicularis oculi muscle, and upper and lower tarsus were sequentially observed. The upper and lower eyelids were removed to expose the bulbar conjunctiva and to insert three 25-gauge trocars for vitrectomy at the location of the pars plana. The cornea was cut at the limbus, and the lens with mature cataract was dislocated. The sclera was cut to observe the trocars from inside the eyeball. The sclera was further cut to visualize the superior oblique muscle with the trochlea and the inferior oblique muscle. The eyeball was dissected completely to observe the optic nerve and the ophthalmic artery. The thin bones of the medial and inferior orbital wall were cracked with a forceps to expose the ethmoid and maxillary sinus, respectively. In conclusion, the serial dissection images visualized aspects of the local anatomy specific to various procedures, including the levator muscle and tarsus for blepharoptosis surgery, 25-gauge trocars as viewed from inside the eye globe for vitrectomy, the oblique muscles for strabismus surgery, and the thin medial and inferior orbital bony walls for orbital bone fractures.

  14. Stereoscopic motion analysis in densely packed clusters: 3D analysis of the shimmering behaviour in Giant honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Maurer, Michael; Weihmann, Frank; Ruether, Matthias; Hoetzl, Thomas; Kranner, Ilse; Bischof, Horst

    2011-02-08

    The detailed interpretation of mass phenomena such as human escape panic or swarm behaviour in birds, fish and insects requires detailed analysis of the 3D movements of individual participants. Here, we describe the adaptation of a 3D stereoscopic imaging method to measure the positional coordinates of individual agents in densely packed clusters. The method was applied to study behavioural aspects of shimmering in Giant honeybees, a collective defence behaviour that deters predatory wasps by visual cues, whereby individual bees flip their abdomen upwards in a split second, producing Mexican wave-like patterns. Stereoscopic imaging provided non-invasive, automated, simultaneous, in-situ 3D measurements of hundreds of bees on the nest surface regarding their thoracic position and orientation of the body length axis. Segmentation was the basis for the stereo matching, which defined correspondences of individual bees in pairs of stereo images. Stereo-matched "agent bees" were re-identified in subsequent frames by the tracking procedure and triangulated into real-world coordinates. These algorithms were required to calculate the three spatial motion components (dx: horizontal, dy: vertical and dz: towards and from the comb) of individual bees over time. The method enables the assessment of the 3D positions of individual Giant honeybees, which is not possible with single-view cameras. The method can be applied to distinguish at the individual bee level active movements of the thoraces produced by abdominal flipping from passive motions generated by the moving bee curtain. The data provide evidence that the z-deflections of thoraces are potential cues for colony-intrinsic communication. The method helps to understand the phenomenon of collective decision-making through mechanoceptive synchronization and to associate shimmering with the principles of wave propagation. With further, minor modifications, the method could be used to study aspects of other mass phenomena that

  15. Stereoscopic motion analysis in densely packed clusters: 3D analysis of the shimmering behaviour in Giant honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoetzl Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detailed interpretation of mass phenomena such as human escape panic or swarm behaviour in birds, fish and insects requires detailed analysis of the 3D movements of individual participants. Here, we describe the adaptation of a 3D stereoscopic imaging method to measure the positional coordinates of individual agents in densely packed clusters. The method was applied to study behavioural aspects of shimmering in Giant honeybees, a collective defence behaviour that deters predatory wasps by visual cues, whereby individual bees flip their abdomen upwards in a split second, producing Mexican wave-like patterns. Results Stereoscopic imaging provided non-invasive, automated, simultaneous, in-situ 3D measurements of hundreds of bees on the nest surface regarding their thoracic position and orientation of the body length axis. Segmentation was the basis for the stereo matching, which defined correspondences of individual bees in pairs of stereo images. Stereo-matched "agent bees" were re-identified in subsequent frames by the tracking procedure and triangulated into real-world coordinates. These algorithms were required to calculate the three spatial motion components (dx: horizontal, dy: vertical and dz: towards and from the comb of individual bees over time. Conclusions The method enables the assessment of the 3D positions of individual Giant honeybees, which is not possible with single-view cameras. The method can be applied to distinguish at the individual bee level active movements of the thoraces produced by abdominal flipping from passive motions generated by the moving bee curtain. The data provide evidence that the z-deflections of thoraces are potential cues for colony-intrinsic communication. The method helps to understand the phenomenon of collective decision-making through mechanoceptive synchronization and to associate shimmering with the principles of wave propagation. With further, minor modifications, the method

  16. Thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongin, M.; Miller, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    This article reviews the phenomena that occur in films from the point of view of a solid state physicist. Films form the basis for many established and developing technologies. Metal layers have always been important for optical coatings and as protective coatings. In the most sophisticated cases, films and their interaction on silicon surfaces form the basis of modern electronic technology. Films of silicon, GaAs and composites of these materials promise to lead to practical photovoltaic devices

  17. Nuclear films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Peter.

    1985-01-01

    This booklet is a resource for the study of feature films that highlight the theme of nuclear war. It provides basic credits and brief indication of the theme, treatment, quality and particular notable aspects; and a series of questions raised by the film. Seventy feature films and thirty documentaries are examined

  18. Attack of the S. Mutans!: a stereoscopic-3D multiplayer direct-manipulation behavior-modification serious game for improving oral health in pre-teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Ari; Rose, Howard; Kollin, Joel; Moss, William

    2011-03-01

    Attack! of the S. Mutans is a multi-player game designed to harness the immersion and appeal possible with wide-fieldof- view stereoscopic 3D to combat the tooth decay epidemic. Tooth decay is one of the leading causes of school absences and costs more than $100B annually in the U.S. In 2008 the authors received a grant from the National Institutes of Health to build a science museum exhibit that included a suite of serious games involving the behaviors and bacteria that cause cavities. The centerpiece is an adventure game where five simultaneous players use modified Wii controllers to battle biofilms and bacteria while immersed in environments generated within a 11-foot stereoscopic WUXGA display. The authors describe the system and interface used in this prototype application and some of the ways they attempted to use the power of immersion and the appeal of S3D revolution to change health attitudes and self-care habits.

  19. Surgical approaches to complex vascular lesions: the use of virtual reality and stereoscopic analysis as a tool for resident and student education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Schmitt, Paul J; Sukul, Vishad; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2012-08-01

    Virtual reality training for complex tasks has been shown to be of benefit in fields involving highly technical and demanding skill sets. The use of a stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) virtual reality environment to teach a patient-specific analysis of the microsurgical treatment modalities of a complex basilar aneurysm is presented. Three different surgical approaches were evaluated in a virtual environment and then compared to elucidate the best surgical approach. These approaches were assessed with regard to the line-of-sight, skull base anatomy and visualisation of the relevant anatomy at the level of the basilar artery and surrounding structures. Overall, the stereoscopic 3D virtual reality environment with fusion of multimodality imaging affords an excellent teaching tool for residents and medical students to learn surgical approaches to vascular lesions. Future studies will assess the educational benefits of this modality and develop a series of metrics for student assessments.

  20. Setup accuracy of stereoscopic X-ray positioning with automated correction for rotational errors in patients treated with conformal arc radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soete, Guy; Verellen, Dirk; Tournel, Koen; Storme, Guy

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated setup accuracy of NovalisBody stereoscopic X-ray positioning with automated correction for rotational errors with the Robotics Tilt Module in patients treated with conformal arc radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The correction of rotational errors was shown to reduce random and systematic errors in all directions. (NovalisBody TM and Robotics Tilt Module TM are products of BrainLAB A.G., Heimstetten, Germany)

  1. A comparison of cup-to-disc ratio estimates by fundus biomicroscopy and stereoscopic optic disc photography in the Tema Eye Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanza, J C; Grover, D S; Budenz, D L; Herndon, L W; Nolan, W; Whiteside-de Vos, J; Hay-Smith, G; Bandi, J R; Bhansali, K A; Forbes, L A; Feuer, W J; Barton, K

    2017-08-01

    PurposeTo determine if there are systematic differences in cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) grading using fundus biomicroscopy compared to stereoscopic disc photograph reading.MethodsThe vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) and horizontal cup-to-disc ratio (HCDR) of 2200 eyes (testing set) were graded by glaucoma subspecialists through fundus biomicroscopy and by a reading center using stereoscopic disc photos. For validation, the glaucoma experts also estimated VCDR and HCDR using stereoscopic disc photos in a subset of 505 eyes that they had assessed biomicroscopically. Agreement between grading methods was assessed with Bland-Altman plots.ResultsIn both sets, photo reading tended to yield small CDRs marginally larger, but read large CDRs marginally smaller than fundus biomicroscopy. The mean differences in VCDR and HCDR were 0.006±0.18 and 0.05±0.18 (testing set), and -0.053±0.23 and -0.028±0.21 (validation set), respectively. The limits of agreement were ~0.4, which is twice as large as the cutoff of clinically significant CDR difference between methods. CDR estimates differed by 0.2 or more in 33.8-48.7% between methods.ConclusionsThe differences in CDR estimates between fundus biomicroscopy and stereoscopic optic disc photo reading showed a wide variation, and reached clinically significance threshold in a large proportion of patients, suggesting a poor agreement. Thus, glaucoma should be monitored by comparing baseline and subsequent CDR estimates using the same method rather than comparing photographs to fundus biomicroscopy.

  2. Relationship between Stereoscopic Vision, Visual Perception, and Microstructure Changes of Corpus Callosum and Occipital White Matter in the 4-Year-Old Very Low Birth Weight Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemko Kwinta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the relationship between stereoscopic vision, visual perception, and microstructure of the corpus callosum (CC and occipital white matter, 61 children born with a mean birth weight of 1024 g (SD 270 g were subjected to detailed ophthalmologic evaluation, Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP-3, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI at the age of 4. Results. Abnormal stereoscopic vision was detected in 16 children. Children with abnormal stereoscopic vision had smaller CC (CC length: 53±6 mm versus 61±4 mm; p<0.01; estimated CC area: 314±106 mm2 versus 446±79 mm2; p<0.01 and lower fractional anisotropy (FA values in CC (FA value of rostrum/genu: 0.7±0.09 versus 0.79±0.07; p<0.01; FA value of CC body: 0.74±0.13 versus 0.82±0.09; p=0.03. We found a significant correlation between DTVP-3 scores, CC size, and FA values in rostrum and body. This correlation was unrelated to retinopathy of prematurity. Conclusions. Visual perceptive dysfunction in ex-preterm children without major sequelae of prematurity depends on more subtle changes in the brain microstructure, including CC. Role of interhemispheric connections in visual perception might be more complex than previously anticipated.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of a prototype stereoscopic a-Si:H-based X-ray imaging system for full-field digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darambara, D.G.; Speller, R.D.; Horrocks, J.A.; Godber, S.; Wilson, R.; Hanby, A.

    2001-01-01

    In a pre-clinical study, we have been investigating the potential of a-Si:H active matrix, flat panel imagers for X-ray full-field digital mammography through the development of an advanced 3D X-ray imaging system and have measured a number of their important imaging characteristics. To enhance the information embodied into the digital images produced by the a-Si array, stereoscopic images, created by viewing the object under examination from two angles and recombining the images, were obtained. This method provided us with a full 3D X-ray image of the test object as well as left and right perspective 2D images all at the same time. Within this scope, images of fresh, small human breast tissue specimens--normal and diseased--were obtained at ±2 deg., processed and stereoscopically displayed for a pre-clinical evaluation by radiologists. It was demonstrated that the stereoscopic presentation of the images provides important additional information and has potential benefits over the more traditional 2D data

  4. Stereoscopic displays for virtual reality in the car manufacturing industry: application to design review and ergonomic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Guillaume; Fuchs, Philippe

    2002-05-01

    In the car manufacturing industry the trend is to drastically reduce the time-to-market by increasing the use of the Digital Mock-up instead of physical prototypes. Design review and ergonomic studies are specific tasks because they involve qualitative or even subjective judgements. In this paper, we present IMAVE (IMmersion Adapted to a VEhicle) designed for immersive styling review, gaps visualization and simple ergonomic studies. We show that stereoscopic displays are necessary and must fulfill several constraints due to the proximity and size of the car dashboard. The duration fo the work sessions forces us to eliminate all vertical parallax, and 1:1 scale is obviously required for a valid immersion. Two demonstrators were realized allowing us to have a large set of testers (over 100). More than 80% of the testers saw an immediate use of the IMAVE system. We discuss the good and bad marks awarded to the system. Future work include being able to use several rear-projected stereo screens for doors and central console visualization, but without the parallax presently visible in some CAVE-like environments.

  5. Three-dimensional temporally resolved measurements of turbulence-flame interactions using orthogonal-plane cinema-stereoscopic PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Adam Michael; Driscoll, James F. [University of Michigan, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ceccio, Steven L. [University of Michigan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2009-09-15

    A new orthogonal-plane cinema-stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (OPCS-PIV) diagnostic has been used to measure the dynamics of three-dimensional turbulence-flame interactions. The diagnostic employed two orthogonal PIV planes, with one aligned perpendicular and one aligned parallel to the streamwise flow direction. In the plane normal to the flow, temporally resolved slices of the nine-component velocity gradient tensor were determined using Taylor's hypothesis. Volumetric reconstruction of the 3D turbulence was performed using these slices. The PIV plane parallel to the streamwise flow direction was then used to measure the evolution of the turbulence; the path and strength of 3D turbulent structures as they interacted with the flame were determined from their image in this second plane. Structures of both vorticity and strain-rate magnitude were extracted from the flow. The geometry of these structures agreed well with predictions from direct numerical simulations. The interaction of turbulent structures with the flame also was observed. In three dimensions, these interactions had complex geometries that could not be reflected in either planar measurements or simple flame-vortex configurations. (orig.)

  6. Stereoscopic-3D display design: a new paradigm with Intel Adaptive Stable Image Technology [IA-SIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sunil

    2012-03-01

    Stereoscopic-3D (S3D) proliferation on personal computers (PC) is mired by several technical and business challenges: a) viewing discomfort due to cross-talk amongst stereo images; b) high system cost; and c) restricted content availability. Users expect S3D visual quality to be better than, or at least equal to, what they are used to enjoying on 2D in terms of resolution, pixel density, color, and interactivity. Intel Adaptive Stable Image Technology (IA-SIT) is a foundational technology, successfully developed to resolve S3D system design challenges and deliver high quality 3D visualization at PC price points. Optimizations in display driver, panel timing firmware, backlight hardware, eyewear optical stack, and synch mechanism combined can help accomplish this goal. Agnostic to refresh rate, IA-SIT will scale with shrinking of display transistors and improvements in liquid crystal and LED materials. Industry could profusely benefit from the following calls to action:- 1) Adopt 'IA-SIT S3D Mode' in panel specs (via VESA) to help panel makers monetize S3D; 2) Adopt 'IA-SIT Eyewear Universal Optical Stack' and algorithm (via CEA) to help PC peripheral makers develop stylish glasses; 3) Adopt 'IA-SIT Real Time Profile' for sub-100uS latency control (via BT Sig) to extend BT into S3D; and 4) Adopt 'IA-SIT Architecture' for Monitors and TVs to monetize via PC attach.

  7. Extended two-photon microscopy in live samples with Bessel beams: steadier focus, faster volume scans, and simpler stereoscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Gabrielle; Cottet, Martin; Castonguay, Annie; McCarthy, Nathalie; De Koninck, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Two-photon microscopy has revolutionized functional cellular imaging in tissue, but although the highly confined depth of field (DOF) of standard set-ups yields great optical sectioning, it also limits imaging speed in volume samples and ease of use. For this reason, we recently presented a simple and retrofittable modification to the two-photon laser-scanning microscope which extends the DOF through the use of an axicon (conical lens). Here we demonstrate three significant benefits of this technique using biological samples commonly employed in the field of neuroscience. First, we use a sample of neurons grown in culture and move it along the z-axis, showing that a more stable focus is achieved without compromise on transverse resolution. Second, we monitor 3D population dynamics in an acute slice of live mouse cortex, demonstrating that faster volumetric scans can be conducted. Third, we acquire a stereoscopic image of neurons and their dendrites in a fixed sample of mouse cortex, using only two scans instead of the complete stack and calculations required by standard systems. Taken together, these advantages, combined with the ease of integration into pre-existing systems, make the extended depth-of-field imaging based on Bessel beams a strong asset for the field of microscopy and life sciences in general.

  8. 3D pressure imaging of an aircraft propeller blade-tip flow by phase-locked stereoscopic PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragni, D.; Oudheusden, B.W. van; Scarano, F. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The flow field at the tip region of a scaled DHC Beaver aircraft propeller, running at transonic speed, has been investigated by means of a multi-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup. Velocity fields, phase-locked with the blade rotational motion, are acquired across several planes perpendicular to the blade axis and merged to form a 3D measurement volume. Transonic conditions have been reached at the tip region, with a revolution frequency of 19,800 rpm and a relative free-stream Mach number of 0.73 at the tip. The pressure field and the surface pressure distribution are inferred from the 3D velocity data through integration of the momentum Navier-Stokes equation in differential form, allowing for the simultaneous flow visualization and the aerodynamic loads computation, with respect to a reference frame moving with the blade. The momentum and pressure data are further integrated by means of a contour-approach to yield the aerodynamic sectional force components as well as the blade torsional moment. A steady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulation of the entire propeller model has been used for comparison to the measurement data. (orig.)

  9. 3D pressure imaging of an aircraft propeller blade-tip flow by phase-locked stereoscopic PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, D.; van Oudheusden, B. W.; Scarano, F.

    2012-02-01

    The flow field at the tip region of a scaled DHC Beaver aircraft propeller, running at transonic speed, has been investigated by means of a multi-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup. Velocity fields, phase-locked with the blade rotational motion, are acquired across several planes perpendicular to the blade axis and merged to form a 3D measurement volume. Transonic conditions have been reached at the tip region, with a revolution frequency of 19,800 rpm and a relative free-stream Mach number of 0.73 at the tip. The pressure field and the surface pressure distribution are inferred from the 3D velocity data through integration of the momentum Navier-Stokes equation in differential form, allowing for the simultaneous flow visualization and the aerodynamic loads computation, with respect to a reference frame moving with the blade. The momentum and pressure data are further integrated by means of a contour-approach to yield the aerodynamic sectional force components as well as the blade torsional moment. A steady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulation of the entire propeller model has been used for comparison to the measurement data.

  10. Film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The processing was made not only to show what are in the film but also to produce radiograph with high quality where the information gathered really presented level of the quality of the object inspected. Besides that, good procedure will make the film with good quality can keep the film in long time for reference. Here, more detailed on how the dark room functioned and its design. So, the good procedure while processed the film will be discussed detailed in this chapter from entering the dark room to exit from there.

  11. Demens Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Møller

    2012-01-01

    Vi vil skabe film til mennesker med demens – ikke film om demens sygdommen eller beretninger om livet og hverdagen med en kronisk lidelse. Filmene skal medvirke til at frembringe en behagelig stemning omkring og hos mennesker med demens, så hverdagen bliver så tryg som mulig. Filmene skal samtidig...... var at afgrænse og prioritere projektet, samt komme med anbefalinger omkring hvad der er vigtigt, i forbindelse med produktion af film målrettet mennesker med demens. Resultat af ekspertgruppen sammenfattes i denne rapport. Projektet gennemføres som et samarbejde mellem Retrospect Film...

  12. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  13. Into films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Ed S.; Doicaru, Miruna M.; Hakemulder, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Most film viewers know the experience of being deeply absorbed in the story of a popular film. It seems that at such moments they lose awareness of watching a movie. And yet it is highly unlikely that they completely ignore the fact that they watch a narrative and technological construction. Perh...

  14. Stereoscopy in diagnostic radiology and procedure planning: does stereoscopic assessment of volume-rendered CT angiograms lead to more accurate characterisation of cerebral aneurysms compared with traditional monoscopic viewing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Nikolas; Lock, Gregory; Coucher, John; Hopcraft, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Stereoscopic vision is a critical part of the human visual system, conveying more information than two-dimensional, monoscopic observation alone. This study aimed to quantify the contribution of stereoscopy in assessment of radiographic data, using widely available three-dimensional (3D)-capable display monitors by assessing whether stereoscopic viewing improved the characterisation of cerebral aneurysms. Nine radiology registrars were shown 40 different volume-rendered (VR) models of cerebral computed tomography angiograms (CTAs), each in both monoscopic and stereoscopic format and then asked to record aneurysm characteristics on short multiple-choice answer sheets. The monitor used was a current model commercially available 3D television. Responses were marked against a gold standard of assessments made by a consultant radiologist, using the original CT planar images on a diagnostic radiology computer workstation. The participants' results were fairly homogenous, with most showing no difference in diagnosis using stereoscopic VR models. One participant performed better on the monoscopic VR models. On average, monoscopic VRs achieved a slightly better diagnosis by 2.0%. Stereoscopy has a long history, but it has only recently become technically feasible for stored cross-sectional data to be adequately reformatted and displayed in this format. Scant literature exists to quantify the technology's possible contribution to medical imaging - this study attempts to build on this limited knowledge base and promote discussion within the field. Stereoscopic viewing of images should be further investigated and may well eventually find a permanent place in procedural and diagnostic medical imaging.

  15. Demens Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2012-01-01

    I forbindelse med opstarten af Demens Film projektet har der været nedsat en ekspertgruppe, som er kommet med en række anbefalinger omkring film til mennesker med demens. Anbefalingerne skal bruges i de næste faser af projektet. Deltagerne i ekspertgruppen var sammensat af en bred gruppe...... fagpersoner inde for forskellige fagområder. Læs mere om gruppens anbefalinger og sammensætning af ekspertgruppen i den kort rapport som er offentlig tilgængelig. Læs Ekspertgruppe anbefalingerne til Demens Film projekt....

  16. Augmented reality to the rescue of the minimally invasive surgeon. The usefulness of the interposition of stereoscopic images in the Da Vinci™ robotic console.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonté, Francesco; Buchs, Nicolas C; Pugin, François; Spaltenstein, Joël; Schiltz, Boris; Jung, Minoa; Hagen, Monika; Ratib, Osman; Morel, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    Computerized management of medical information and 3D imaging has become the norm in everyday medical practice. Surgeons exploit these emerging technologies and bring information previously confined to the radiology rooms into the operating theatre. The paper reports the authors' experience with integrated stereoscopic 3D-rendered images in the da Vinci surgeon console. Volume-rendered images were obtained from a standard computed tomography dataset using the OsiriX DICOM workstation. A custom OsiriX plugin was created that permitted the 3D-rendered images to be displayed in the da Vinci surgeon console and to appear stereoscopic. These rendered images were displayed in the robotic console using the TilePro multi-input display. The upper part of the screen shows the real endoscopic surgical field and the bottom shows the stereoscopic 3D-rendered images. These are controlled by a 3D joystick installed on the console, and are updated in real time. Five patients underwent a robotic augmented reality-enhanced procedure. The surgeon was able to switch between the classical endoscopic view and a combined virtual view during the procedure. Subjectively, the addition of the rendered images was considered to be an undeniable help during the dissection phase. With the rapid evolution of robotics, computer-aided surgery is receiving increasing interest. This paper details the authors' experience with 3D-rendered images projected inside the surgical console. The use of this intra-operative mixed reality technology is considered very useful by the surgeon. It has been shown that the usefulness of this technique is a step toward computer-aided surgery that will progress very quickly over the next few years. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. ESTABLISHING A STEREOSCOPIC TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING THE KINEMATIC PROPERTIES OF SOLAR WIND TRANSIENTS BASED ON A GENERALIZED SELF-SIMILARLY EXPANDING CIRCULAR GEOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J. A.; Perry, C. H.; Harrison, R. A.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Lugaz, N.; Möstl, C.; Liu, Y. D.; Steed, K.

    2013-01-01

    The twin-spacecraft STEREO mission has enabled simultaneous white-light imaging of the solar corona and inner heliosphere from multiple vantage points. This has led to the development of numerous stereoscopic techniques to investigate the three-dimensional structure and kinematics of solar wind transients such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Two such methods—triangulation and the tangent to a sphere—can be used to determine time profiles of the propagation direction and radial distance (and thereby radial speed) of a solar wind transient as it travels through the inner heliosphere, based on its time-elongation profile viewed by two observers. These techniques are founded on the assumption that the transient can be characterized as a point source (fixed φ, FP, approximation) or a circle attached to Sun-center (harmonic mean, HM, approximation), respectively. These geometries constitute extreme descriptions of solar wind transients, in terms of their cross-sectional extent. Here, we present the stereoscopic expressions necessary to derive propagation direction and radial distance/speed profiles of such transients based on the more generalized self-similar expansion (SSE) geometry, for which the FP and HM geometries form the limiting cases; our implementation of these equations is termed the stereoscopic SSE method. We apply the technique to two Earth-directed CMEs from different phases of the STEREO mission, the well-studied event of 2008 December and a more recent event from 2012 March. The latter CME was fast, with an initial speed exceeding 2000 km s –1 , and highly geoeffective, in stark contrast to the slow and ineffectual 2008 December CME

  18. Diffuse nitrogen loss simulation and impact assessment of stereoscopic agriculture pattern by integrated water system model and consideration of multiple existence forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Gao, Yang; Yu, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    Agricultural nitrogen loss becomes an increasingly important source of water quality deterioration and eutrophication, even threatens water safety for humanity. Nitrogen dynamic mechanism is still too complicated to be well captured at watershed scale due to its multiple existence forms and instability, disturbance of agricultural management practices. Stereoscopic agriculture is a novel agricultural planting pattern to efficiently use local natural resources (e.g., water, land, sunshine, heat and fertilizer). It is widely promoted as a high yield system and can obtain considerable economic benefits, particularly in China. However, its environmental quality implication is not clear. In our study, Qianyanzhou station is famous for its stereoscopic agriculture pattern of Southern China, and an experimental watershed was selected as our study area. Regional characteristics of runoff and nitrogen losses were simulated by an integrated water system model (HEQM) with multi-objective calibration, and multiple agriculture practices were assessed to find the effective approach for the reduction of diffuse nitrogen losses. Results showed that daily variations of runoff and nitrogen forms were well reproduced throughout watershed, i.e., satisfactory performances for ammonium and nitrate nitrogen (NH4-N and NO3-N) loads, good performances for runoff and organic nitrogen (ON) load, and very good performance for total nitrogen (TN) load. The average loss coefficient was 62.74 kg/ha for NH4-N, 0.98 kg/ha for NO3-N, 0.0004 kg/ha for ON and 63.80 kg/ha for TN. The dominating form of nitrogen losses was NH4-N due to the applied fertilizers, and the most dramatic zones aggregated in the middle and downstream regions covered by paddy and orange orchard. In order to control diffuse nitrogen losses, the most effective practices for Qianyanzhou stereoscopic agriculture pattern were to reduce farmland planting scale in the valley by afforestation, particularly for orchard in the

  19. Effects of Intraluminal Thrombus on Patient-Specific Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Hemodynamics via Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocity and Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Yuan; Antón, Raúl; Hung, Ming-yang; Menon, Prahlad; Finol, Ender A.; Pekkan, Kerem

    2014-01-01

    The pathology of the human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and its relationship to the later complication of intraluminal thrombus (ILT) formation remains unclear. The hemodynamics in the diseased abdominal aorta are hypothesized to be a key contributor to the formation and growth of ILT. The objective of this investigation is to establish a reliable 3D flow visualization method with corresponding validation tests with high confidence in order to provide insight into the basic hemodynamic features for a better understanding of hemodynamics in AAA pathology and seek potential treatment for AAA diseases. A stereoscopic particle image velocity (PIV) experiment was conducted using transparent patient-specific experimental AAA models (with and without ILT) at three axial planes. Results show that before ILT formation, a 3D vortex was generated in the AAA phantom. This geometry-related vortex was not observed after the formation of ILT, indicating its possible role in the subsequent appearance of ILT in this patient. It may indicate that a longer residence time of recirculated blood flow in the aortic lumen due to this vortex caused sufficient shear-induced platelet activation to develop ILT and maintain uniform flow conditions. Additionally, two computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling codes (Fluent and an in-house cardiovascular CFD code) were compared with the two-dimensional, three-component velocity stereoscopic PIV data. Results showed that correlation coefficients of the out-of-plane velocity data between PIV and both CFD methods are greater than 0.85, demonstrating good quantitative agreement. The stereoscopic PIV study can be utilized as test case templates for ongoing efforts in cardiovascular CFD solver development. Likewise, it is envisaged that the patient-specific data may provide a benchmark for further studying hemodynamics of actual AAA, ILT, and their convolution effects under physiological conditions for clinical applications. PMID:24316984

  20. Polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  1. Stereoscopic (3D) versus monoscopic (2D) laparoscopy: comparative study of performance using advanced HD optical systems in a surgical simulator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Martin; Schnell, Daniel; Wilhelm, Konrad; Schlager, Daniel; Adams, Fabian; Hein, Simon; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Miernik, Arkadiusz

    2016-04-01

    To compare task performances of novices and experts using advanced high-definition 3D versus 2D optical systems in a surgical simulator model. Fifty medical students (novices in laparoscopy) were randomly assigned to perform five standardized tasks adopted from the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) curriculum in either a 2D or 3D laparoscopy simulator system. In addition, eight experts performed the same tasks. Task performances were evaluated using a validated scoring system of the SAGES/FLS program. Participants were asked to rate 16 items in a questionnaire. Overall task performance of novices was significantly better using stereoscopic visualization. Superiority of performances in 3D reached a level of significance for tasks peg transfer and precision cutting. No significant differences were noted in performances of experts when using either 2D or 3D. Overall performances of experts compared to novices were better in both 2D and 3D. Scorings in the questionnaires showed a tendency toward lower scores in the group of novices using 3D. Stereoscopic imaging significantly improves performance of laparoscopic phantom tasks of novices. The current study confirms earlier data based on a large number of participants and a standardized task and scoring system. Participants felt more confident and comfortable when using a 3D laparoscopic system. However, the question remains open whether these findings translate into faster and safer operations in a clinical setting.

  2. iCAVE: an open source tool for visualizing biomolecular networks in 3D, stereoscopic 3D and immersive 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liluashvili, Vaja; Kalayci, Selim; Fluder, Eugene; Wilson, Manda; Gabow, Aaron; Gümüs, Zeynep H

    2017-08-01

    Visualizations of biomolecular networks assist in systems-level data exploration in many cellular processes. Data generated from high-throughput experiments increasingly inform these networks, yet current tools do not adequately scale with concomitant increase in their size and complexity. We present an open source software platform, interactome-CAVE (iCAVE), for visualizing large and complex biomolecular interaction networks in 3D. Users can explore networks (i) in 3D using a desktop, (ii) in stereoscopic 3D using 3D-vision glasses and a desktop, or (iii) in immersive 3D within a CAVE environment. iCAVE introduces 3D extensions of known 2D network layout, clustering, and edge-bundling algorithms, as well as new 3D network layout algorithms. Furthermore, users can simultaneously query several built-in databases within iCAVE for network generation or visualize their own networks (e.g., disease, drug, protein, metabolite). iCAVE has modular structure that allows rapid development by addition of algorithms, datasets, or features without affecting other parts of the code. Overall, iCAVE is the first freely available open source tool that enables 3D (optionally stereoscopic or immersive) visualizations of complex, dense, or multi-layered biomolecular networks. While primarily designed for researchers utilizing biomolecular networks, iCAVE can assist researchers in any field. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Science Fiction on Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, David

    1985-01-01

    Reviews science fiction films used in a science fiction class. Discusses feature films, short science fiction films, short story adaptations, original science fiction pieces and factual science films that enrich literature. (EL)

  4. Black Films and Film-Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Lindsay, Ed.

    The development of black films and the attitudes of the film industry toward black films and black actors are some of the topics examined in this anthology of essays. Section 1, "Nigger to Supernigger," contains such articles as "The Death of Rastus: Negroes in American Films" by Thomas R. Cripps and "Folk Values in a New Medium" by Alain Locke…

  5. Analysis of the three-dimensional trajectories of dusts observed with a stereoscopic fast framing camera in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, M., E-mail: shoji@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Masuzaki, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Tanaka, Y. [Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Pigarov, A.Yu.; Smirnov, R.D. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Kawamura, G.; Uesugi, Y.; Yamada, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    The three-dimensional trajectories of dusts have been observed with two stereoscopic fast framing cameras installed in upper and outer viewports in the Large Helical Device (LHD). It shows that the dust trajectories locate in divertor legs and an ergodic layer around the main plasma confinement region. While it is found that most of the dusts approximately move along the magnetic field lines with acceleration, there are some dusts which have sharply curved trajectories crossing over the magnetic field lines. A dust transport simulation code was modified to investigate the dust trajectories in fully three dimensional geometries such as LHD plasmas. It can explain the general trend of most of observed dust trajectories by the effect of the plasma flow in the peripheral plasma. However, the behavior of the some dusts with sharply curved trajectories is not consistent with the simulations.

  6. Differences in Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment of Bruch Membrane Opening Compared to Stereoscopic Photography for Estimating Cup-to-Disc Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanza, Jean-Claude; Huang, Linda Y; Budenz, Donald L; Shi, Wei; Huang, Gintien; Lee, Richard K

    2017-12-01

    To compare the vertical and horizontal cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR, HCDR) by an updated optical coherence tomography (OCT) Bruch membrane opening (BMO) algorithm and stereoscopic optic disc photograph readings by glaucoma specialists. Reliability analysis. A total of 195 eyes (116 glaucoma and 79 glaucoma suspect) of 99 patients with stereoscopic photographs and OCT scans of the optic discs taken during the same visit were compared. Optic disc photographs were read by 2 masked glaucoma specialists for VCDR and HCDR estimation. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the agreement between photograph reading and OCT in estimating CDR. OCT images computed significantly larger VCDR and HCDR than photograph reading before and after stratifying eyes based on disc size (P < .001). The difference in CDR estimates between the 2 methods was equal to or greater than 0.2 in 29% and 35% of the eyes for VCDR and HCDR, respectively, with a mean difference of 0.3 in each case. The ICCs between the readers and OCT ranged between 0.50 and 0.63. The size of disagreement in VCDR correlated weakly with cup area in eyes with medium (r 2  = 0.10, P = .008) and large (r 2  = 0.09, P = .007) discs. OCT and photograph reading by clinicians agree poorly in CDR assessment. The difference in VCDR between the 2 methods was depended on cup area in medium and large discs. These differences should be considered when making conclusions regarding CDRs in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Film: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, John L.

    "Understanding Film," the opening section of this book, discusses perceptions of and responses to film and the way in which experiences with and knowledge of other media affect film viewing. The second section, "Film Elements," analyzes the basic elements of film: the use of space and time, the impact of editing, sound and color, and the effects…

  8. Film and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Robin L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on using film to teach history. Includes Web sites in five areas: (1) film and education; (2) history of cinema; (3) film and history resources; (4) film and women; and (5) film organizations. (CMK)

  9. Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

    2013-12-10

    Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

  10. Film Noir Style Genealogy

    OpenAIRE

    Rietuma, Dita

    2012-01-01

    Annotation for the Doctoral Work Film Noir Style Genealogy (The Genealogy of the Film Noir Style) The doctoral work topic Film Noir Style Genealogy encompasses traditionally approved world film theory views on the concept of film noir and its related cinematographic heritage, and an exploration of its evolution and distinctive style, including – the development of film noir in the USA, Europe, and also in Latvia, within the context of both socio-political progression and the paradigm of m...

  11. Contemporary Films' Mini Course on Film Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Peter

    This minicourse on film study can be a unit in English, in arts, or in the humanities. It can help to launch a film study course or complement an introduction to theater. Whatever form it takes, it helps to build a bridge to the student's media environment. Part one, the language of images, utilizes four films which demonstrate the basic elements…

  12. The Evolution of Film: Rethinking Film Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Harbord, Janet P.

    2007-01-01

    How is film changing? What does it do, and what do we do with it? This book examines the reasons why we should be studying film in the twenty-first century, connecting debates from philosophy, anthropology and new media with historical concerns of film studies.

  13. Film quality in film mammography. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.; Weskamp, P.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    1976-01-01

    During consideration of three film mammographic systems, the concept of signal/noise ratio is developed as a quantitative measure of film quality. The ability to recognise detail related to detail size, film blackening and exposure geometry was studied for various systems, and the quality profiles are discussed. There is a considerable difference in quality between industrial films without screens and film-screen combinations; however, exposure geometry during mammography has a considerable effect which tends to reduce the difference. Consequently, detail sizes of 200 μ to 1,000 μ (including the majority of mammographic micro-calcifications) are shown about equally well. Contrast for the lo-dose system is somewhat less than for adequately exposed industrial film. Over-exposure with the lo-dose system, contrary to industrial film, rapidly leads to unsatisfactory results. On the other hand it is often not possible to obtain an adequate exposure when using industrial film. For these reasons it is often an advantage to examine large breasts and the dense breasts of young women with a film-screen combination which requires approximately one eighth of the dose necessary for industrial film. For small or easily compressable breasts best results are obtained, using an adequate exposure by employing industril film; radiation dose it then acceptable. (orig./ORU) [de

  14. Uniformly irradiated polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiated film having substantial uniformity in the radiation dosage profile is produced by irradiating the film within a trough having lateral deflection blocks disposed adjacent the film edges for deflecting electrons toward the surface of the trough bottom for further deflecting the electrons toward the film edge

  15. Films and dark room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    After we know where the radiographic come from, then we must know about the film and also dark room. So, this chapter 5 discusses the two main components for radiography work that is film and dark room, places to process the film. Film are structured with three structured that are basic structured, emulsion and protection structured. So, this film can be classified either with their speed, screen and standard that used. The process to wash the film must be done in dark room otherwise the radiographer cannot get what are they inspected. The processing of film will be discussed briefly in next chapter.

  16. Liquid film characterization in horizontal, annular, two-phase, gas-liquid flow using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, P.S.C.; Martins, F.J.W.A.; Azevedo, L.F.A. [PUC-Rio, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sampaio, L.E.B. [LMTA/PGMEC, UFF, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Serfaty, R. [Petrobras R and D Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    A non-intrusive optical technique was developed to provide time-resolved longitudinal and cross-sectional images of the liquid film in horizontal annular pipe flow of air and water, revealing the interfacial wave behavior. Quantitative information on the liquid film dynamics was extracted from the time-resolved images. The planar laser-induced fluorescence technique was utilized to allow for optical separation of the light emitted by the film from that scattered by the air-water interface. The visualization test section was fabricated from a tube presenting nearly the same refractive index as water, which allowed the visualization of the liquid film at regions very close to the pipe wall. Longitudinal images of the liquid film were captured using a high-frame-rate digital video camera synchronized with a high-repetition-rate laser. An image processing algorithm was developed to automatically detect the position of the air-water interface in each image frame. The thickness of the liquid film was measured at two axial stations in each processed image frame, providing time history records of the film thickness at two different positions. Wave frequency information was obtained by analyzing the time-dependent signals of film thickness for each of the two axial positions recorded. Wave velocities were measured by cross-correlating the amplitude signals from the two axial positions. For the film cross-section observations, two high-speed digital video cameras were used in a stereoscopic arrangement. Comparisons with results from different techniques available in literature indicate that the technique developed presents equivalent accuracy in measuring the liquid film properties. Time-resolved images of longitudinal and cross-section views of the film were recorded, which constitute valuable information provided by the technique implemented. (orig.)

  17. Digital versus film stereo-photography for assessment of the optic nerve head in glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanreisoglu, Murat; Priel, Ethan; Naveh, Lili; Lusky, Moshe; Weinberger, Dov; Benjamini, Yoav; Gaton, Dan D

    2013-03-01

    One of the leading methods for optic nerve head assessment in glaucoma remains stereoscopic photography. This study compared conventional film and digital stereoscopy in the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the optic nerve head in glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients. Fifty patients with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma underwent stereoscopic photography of the optic nerve head with a 35-mm color slide film and a digital camera. Photographs/images were presented in random order to 3 glaucoma specialists for independent analysis using a standardized assessment form. Findings for the following parameters were compared among assessors and between techniques: cup/disc (C/D) ratio, state of the optic rim, presence of peripapillary atrophy and appearance of the retinal nerve fiber layer, blood vessels, and lamina cribrosa. The film-based and image-based diagnoses (glaucoma yes/no) were compared as well. Despite high level of agreement across graders using the same method for the horizontal and vertical C/D ratio, (intraclass correlations 0.80 to 0.83), the agreement across graders was much lower for the other parameters using the same method. Similarly the agreement between the findings of the same grader using either method was high for horizontal and vertical C/D ratio, but low for the other parameters. The latter differences were reflected in the disagreement regarding the final diagnosis: The diagnoses differed by technique for each grader in 18% to 46% of eyes, resulting in 38.5% of eyes diagnosed with glaucoma by film photography that "lost" their diagnosis on the digital images, whereas 18.7% of eyes diagnosed as nonglaucomatous by film photography were considered to have glaucoma on the digital images. Although there is consistency between 35-mm film stereoscopy and digital stereoscopy in determining the cup/disc (C/D) ratio, in all other parameters large differences exist, leading to differences in diagnosis. Differences in capturing images between

  18. PLOT3D (version-5): a computer code for drawing three dimensional graphs, maps and histograms, in single or multiple colours, for mono or stereoscopic viewing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaswal, Balhans

    1987-01-01

    PLOT3D series of graphic codes (version 1 to 5) have been developed for drawing three dimensional graphs, maps, histograms and simple layout diagrams on monochrome or colour raster graphic terminal and plotter. Of these, PLOT3D Version-5 is an advanced code, equipped with several features that make it specially suitable for drawing 3D maps, multicolour 3D and contour graphs, and 3D layout diagrams, in axonometric or perspective projection. Prior to drawing, graphic parameters that define orientation, magnification, smoothening, shading, colour-map, etc. of the figure can be selected interactively by means of simple commands on the user terminal, or by reading those commands from an input data file. This code requires linking with any one of three supporting libraries: PLOT 10 TCS, PLOT 10 IGL, and CALCOMP, and the figure can be plotted in single colour, or displayed in single or multiple colours depending upon the type of library support and output device. Furthermore, this code can also be used to plot left and right eye view projections of 3D figure for composing a stereoscopic image from them with the aid of a viewer. 14 figures. (author)

  19. Project NANO (nanoscience and nanotechnology outreach): a STEM training program that brings SEM's and stereoscopes into high-school and middle-school classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Sherry L.; Blok, Mikel; Grosse, Keith; Wells, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    The program Project NANO (Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Outreach) enables middle and high school students to discover and research submicroscopic phenomena in a new and exciting way with the use of optical and scanning electron microscopes in the familiar surroundings of their middle or high school classrooms. Project NANO provides secondary level professional development workshops, support for classroom instruction and teacher curriculum development, and the means to deliver Project NANO toolkits (SEM, stereoscope, computer, supplies) to classrooms with Project NANO trained teachers. Evaluation surveys document the impact of the program on student's attitudes toward science and technology and on the learning outcomes for secondary level teachers. Project NANO workshops (offered for professional development credit) enable teachers to gain familiarity using and teaching with the SEM. Teachers also learn to integrate new content knowledge and skills into topic-driven, standards-based units of instruction specifically designed to support the development of students' higher order thinking skills that include problem solving and evidence-based thinking. The Project NANO management team includes a former university science faculty, two high school science teachers, and an educational researcher. To date, over 7500 students have experienced the impact of the Project NANO program, which provides an exciting and effective model for engaging students in the discovery of nanoscale phenomena and concepts in a fun and engaging way.

  20. Retinopathy screening in patients with type 1 diabetes diagnosed in young age using a non-mydriatic digital stereoscopic retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuto, N; Emmanuele, V; Vannati, M; Russo, C; Rebora, C; Panarello, S; Pistorio, A; Lorini, R; d'Annunzio, G

    2012-04-01

    Diabetic retinopathy seriously impairs patients' quality of life, since it represents the first cause of blindness in industrialized countries. To estimate prevalence of retinopathy in young Type 1 diabetes patients using a non-mydriatic digital stereoscopic retinal imaging (NMDSRI), and to evaluate the impact of socio-demographic, clinical, and metabolic variables. In 247 young patients glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), gender, age, pubertal stage, presence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), HLA-DQ heterodimers of susceptibility for Type 1 diabetes, and β-cell autoimmunity at clinical onset were considered. At retinopathy screening, we evaluated age, disease duration, pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI-SDS), insulin requirement, HbA1c levels, other autoimmune diseases, diabetes-related complications, serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Retinopathy was found in 26/247 patients: 25 showed background retinopathy, and 1 had a sight-threatening retinopathy. A significant relationship between retinopathy and female gender (p=0.01), duration of disease ≥15 yr (p65 mg/dl (p=0.012) and mean HbA1c ≥7.5% or >9% (p=0.0014) were found at the multivariate logistic analysis. Metabolic control is the most important modifiable factor and promotion of continuous educational process to reach a good metabolic control is a cornerstone to prevent microangiopathic complications. Symptoms appear when the complication is already established; a screening program with an early diagnosis is mandatory to prevent an irreversible damage.

  1. Film som kunst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2013-01-01

    Films by artists induce scholars to work across art, film and cultural history. Accordingly, this article adopts an interdisciplinary approach to the British-Nigerian artist Yinka Shonibare’s film Un Ballo in Maschera (2004). The film is grounded in Shonibare’s unique use of African-print fabric...... in conjunction with references to European cultural and political history, but the film is also – it is alleged – rooted in Black British cinema and the transnational postcolonialism which emerged in the UK of the 1980s. The article starts with a general introduction to Shonibare’s art and the colonial...... connotations of the African-print fabric, which are also central to the critique of power in Un Ballo in Maschera. Its critical agenda is then analysed and put into historical perspective by relating the film to Black British film. A comparison with the Black Audio Film Collective’s key work Handsworth Songs...

  2. The Educational Film Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Vincent R.; Schillaci, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Increased dialog is needed among educational film producers, distributors, and consumers in order to be sure that what is being produced meets educators' needs and also to help solve the financial problems of the film industry. (LS)

  3. Electrochromic nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Delia; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2018-04-10

    The present invention provides an electrochromic nanocomposite film. In an exemplary embodiment, the electrochromic nanocomposite film, includes (1) a solid matrix of oxide based material and (2) transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures embedded in the matrix. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic nanocomposite film farther includes a substrate upon which the matrix is deposited. The present invention also provides a method of preparing an electrochromic nanocomposite film.

  4. Lars von Triers film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Overgaard

    2007-01-01

    Afhandlingen undersøger Lars von Triers filmæstetik, som den kommer til udtryk i spillefilmene fra perioden 1984-2007. Afhandlingen analyserer de enkelte films stil, virkningsstrategi og betydningsdannelse.......Afhandlingen undersøger Lars von Triers filmæstetik, som den kommer til udtryk i spillefilmene fra perioden 1984-2007. Afhandlingen analyserer de enkelte films stil, virkningsstrategi og betydningsdannelse....

  5. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  6. Personnel photographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    Technology of personnel photographic film dosimetry (PPD) based on the photographic effect of ionizing radiation is described briefly. Kinds of roentgen films used in PPD method are enumerated, compositions of a developer and fixing agents for these films are given [ru

  7. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhiyong

    2002-01-01

    Radiochromic film dosimetry was developed to measure ionization irradiation dose for industry and medicine. At this time, there are no comprehensive guideline on the medical application, calibration method and densitometer system for medicine. The review gives update on Radiochromic film dosimetry used for medicine, including principles, film model and material, characteristics, calibration method, scanning densitometer system and medical application

  8. Australian Film Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  9. Getting into Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Mel

    This book describes the various aspects of the film industry and the many jobs related to filmmaking, stressing that no "formula" exists for finding a successful career in the film industry. Chapters provide information on production, writing for film, cinematography, editing, music, sound, animation and graphics, acting and modeling, the "unsung…

  10. The Sponsored Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Walter J.

    For public relations professionals and would-be sponsors of films, this book provides guidelines for understanding the film medium and its potential as a persuasive force in industry, government, organizations, and religious orders. For filmmakers, it brings together practical information needed to survive in the sponsored-film industry and to…

  11. Introduction to Film Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert E.

    This booklet is intended for teachers who are now teaching units in film production as part of a program in communication or who wish to begin work with filmmaking in such a program. The first section is intended to serve as a brief introduction to film theory, while a major portion of the rest of the booklet is devoted to film projects which may…

  12. Teaching Culture Through Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐婷

    2016-01-01

    Cultural teaching is an issue which is associated with complexity and paradox and also it is a big challenge for faculty. Teaching culture through films has become an important way of cross-cultural teaching This paper focuses on the reasons for teaching culture through films, the value and how it works. And finally it leads out the prospects of cultural teaching through films.

  13. Quality assurance of a system for improved target localization and patient set-up that combines real-time infrared tracking and stereoscopic X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verellen, Dirk; Soete, Guy; Linthout, Nadine; Van Acker, Swana; De Roover, Patsy; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Van de Steene, Jan; Storme, Guy

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the positional accuracy of a prototype X-ray imaging tool in combination with a real-time infrared tracking device allowing automated patient set-up in three dimensions. A prototype X-ray imaging tool has been integrated with a commercially released real-time infrared tracking device. The system, consisting of two X-ray tubes mounted to the ceiling and a centrally located amorphous silicon detector has been developed for automated patient positioning from outside the treatment room prior to treatment. Two major functions are supported: (a) automated fusion of the actual treatment images with digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) representing the desired position; (b) matching of implanted radio opaque markers. Measurements of known translational (up to 30.0mm) and rotational (up to 4.0 degrees ) set-up errors in three dimensions as well as hidden target tests have been performed on anthropomorphic phantoms. The system's accuracy can be represented with the mean three-dimensional displacement vector, which yielded 0.6mm (with an overall SD of 0.9mm) for the fusion of DRRs and X-ray images. Average deviations between known translational errors and calculations varied from -0.3 to 0.6mm with a standard deviation in the range of 0.6-1.2mm. The marker matching algorithm yielded a three-dimensional uncertainty of 0.3mm (overall SD: 0.4mm), with averages ranging from 0.0 to 0.3mm and a standard deviation in the range between 0.3 and 0.4mm. The stereoscopic X-ray imaging device integrated with the real-time infrared tracking device represents a positioning tool allowing for the geometrical accuracy that is required for conformal radiation therapy of abdominal and pelvic lesions, within an acceptable time-frame.

  14. 2D and 3D stereoscopic videos used as pre-anatomy lab tools improve students' examination performance in a veterinary gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalili, Sereen M; Coppoc, Gordon L

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis for the research described in this article was that viewing an interactive two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic pre-laboratory video would improve efficiency and learning in the laboratory. A first-year DVM class was divided into 21 dissection teams of four students each. Primary variables were method of preparation (2D, 3D, or laboratory manual) and dissection region (thorax, abdomen, or pelvis). Teams were randomly assigned to a group (A, B, or C) in a crossover design experiment so that all students experienced each of the modes of preparation, but with different regions of the canine anatomy. All students were instructed to study normal course materials and the laboratory manual, the Guide, before coming to the laboratory session and to use them during the actual dissection as usual. Video groups were given a DVD with an interactive 10-12 minute video to view for the first 30 minutes of the laboratory session, while non-video groups were instructed to review the Guide. All groups were allowed 45 minutes to dissect the assigned section and find a list of assigned structures, after which all groups took a post-dissection quiz and attitudinal survey. The 2D groups performed better than the Guide groups (p=.028) on the post-dissection quiz, despite the fact that only a minority of the 2D-group students studied the Guide as instructed. There was no significant difference (p>.05) between 2D and 3D groups on the post-dissection quiz. Students preferred videos over the Guide.

  15. Augmented reality during robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: toward real-time 3D-CT to stereoscopic video registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li-Ming; Vagvolgyi, Balazs P; Agarwal, Rahul; Reiley, Carol E; Taylor, Russell H; Hager, Gregory D

    2009-04-01

    To investigate a markerless tracking system for real-time stereo-endoscopic visualization of preoperative computed tomographic imaging as an augmented display during robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. Stereoscopic video segments of a patient undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for tumor and another for a partial staghorn renal calculus were processed to evaluate the performance of a three-dimensional (3D)-to-3D registration algorithm. After both cases, we registered a segment of the video recording to the corresponding preoperative 3D-computed tomography image. After calibrating the camera and overlay, 3D-to-3D registration was created between the model and the surgical recording using a modified iterative closest point technique. Image-based tracking technology tracked selected fixed points on the kidney surface to augment the image-to-model registration. Our investigation has demonstrated that we can identify and track the kidney surface in real time when applied to intraoperative video recordings and overlay the 3D models of the kidney, tumor (or stone), and collecting system semitransparently. Using a basic computer research platform, we achieved an update rate of 10 Hz and an overlay latency of 4 frames. The accuracy of the 3D registration was 1 mm. Augmented reality overlay of reconstructed 3D-computed tomography images onto real-time stereo video footage is possible using iterative closest point and image-based surface tracking technology that does not use external navigation tracking systems or preplaced surface markers. Additional studies are needed to assess the precision and to achieve fully automated registration and display for intraoperative use.

  16. Film studies the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Villarejo, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Film Studies: The Basics is a compelling guide to the study of cinema in all its forms. This second edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to take account of recent scholarship, the latest developments in the industry and the explosive impact of new technologies. Core topics covered include:   The history, technology and art of cinema Theories of stardom, genre and film-making The movie industry from Hollywood to Bollywood Who does what on a film set   Complete with film stills, end-of-chapter summaries and a substantial glossary, Film Studies: The Basics is the ideal introduction to those new to the study of cinema.

  17. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  18. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  19. Screen-film mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, W.W.; Janus, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The development of screen-film mammography has resulted in the re-emergence of confidence, rather than fear, in mammography. When screen-film mammography is performed with state-of-the-art dedicated equipment utilizing vigorous breast compression and a ''soft'' x-ray beam for improved contrast, screen-film images are equivalent or superior to those of reduced-dose xeromammography and superior to those of nonscreen film mammography. Technological aids for conversion from xeromammographic or nonscreen film mammographic techniques to screen-film techniques have been described. Screen-film mammography should not be attempted until dedicated equipment has been obtained and the importance of vigorous compression has been understood

  20. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  1. Film: Genres and Genre Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Genre is a concept used in film studies and film theory to describe similarities between groups of films based on aesthetic or broader social, institutional, cultural, and psychological aspects. Film genre shares similarities in form and style, theme, and communicative function. A film genre...

  2. Film Music. Factfile No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, Diana, Ed.; And Others

    Organizations listed here with descriptive information include film music clubs and music guilds and associations. These are followed by a representative list of schools offering film music and/or film sound courses. Sources are listed for soundtrack recordings, sound effects/production music, films on film music, and oral history programs. The…

  3. Demagnetization in photomagnetic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajerowski, Daniel M., E-mail: daniel@pajerowski.com [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Hallock, Scott J. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Winston Churchill High School, Potomac, Maryland 20854 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    We present a model for demagnetization in photomagnetic films, and investigate different regimes for the magnetizing process using finite element analysis. It is found that the demagnetizing factor may depend strongly upon the high-spin fraction of the film, and the specifics of the dependence are dictated by the microscopic morphology of the photomagnetic domains. This picture allows for facile interpretation of existing data on photomagnetic films, and can even explain an observed photoinduced decrease in low-field magnetization concurrent with increase in high-spin fraction. As a whole, these results reiterate the need to consider demagnetizing effects in photomagnetic films. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finite element methods are used to examine demagnetization in photomagnetic films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Under the right conditions, photomagnetic films may show a photoinduced decrease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demagnetization in photomagnets will be important to consider in possible devices.

  4. Superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebard, A.F.; Vandenberg, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to granular metal and metal oxide superconducting films formed by ion beam sputter deposition. Illustratively, the films comprise irregularly shaped, randomly oriented, small lead grains interspersed in an insulating lead oxide matrix. The films are hillock-resistant when subjected to thermal cycling and exhibit unusual josephson-type switching characteristics. Depending on the oxygen content, a film may behave in a manner similar to that of a plurality of series connected josephson junctions, or the film may have a voltage difference in a direction parallel to a major surface of the film that is capable of being switched from zero voltage difference to a finite voltage difference in response to a current larger than the critical current

  5. Underwater 3D filming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  6. Den danske independent film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2014-01-01

    at producere film, og derved er filmproduktion potentielt gjort tilgængelig for en større gruppe personer som både afsender og modtager. For det fjerde implicerer diskussionen af de to film også genre- og stilmæssige spørgsmål om dansk filmkultur, fordi indiefilmen både i film og uden for filmene italesætter...

  7. Religion og film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvithamar, Annika; Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen søger at stipulere en ramme for analyse af religion og film. Dels ved at række ud over den blotte konstatering af tilstedeværelse af religiøse elementer i film, dels ved at anslå en række temaer, der kan anvendes til analyse af sådanne film (individualisering, (de-)sekularisering, banal...

  8. Horror films and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Forcen, Fernando Espi; Shand, John Preston

    2014-10-01

    Horror films have been popular for generations. The purpose of this article is to illustrate psychiatric conditions, themes and practice seen in horror films. Horror films often either include psychiatrists as characters or depict (Hollywood's dangerous version of) serious mental illness. Demonic possession, zombies, and 'slasher' killers are described, as well as the horror genre's characterizations of psychiatrists. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  9. Renaissance of the Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellone, Julius, Ed.

    The post-World War II period was one of the liveliest in the history of the cinema. This is a collection of 33 critical articles on some of the best films of the perd. Most of the essays explicate the themes and symbols of the films. The essays deal with these films: "The Apu Trilogy,""L'Avventura,""Balthazar,""Blow-Up,""Bonnie and Clyde," Citizen…

  10. Film in concert

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    From the very beginning of cinema, music always played an important role in the history of filmmaking. Nonetheless, film music is judged by critics as a kind of low-grade art form. However, the majority of film score composers enjoyed a classical education and composed as well for the silver screen as for the concert hall. Film music also has its roots in the musical era of romanticism. Therefore, symphonic film scores can be regarded as program music in a broader sense. These scores were inf...

  11. Film, Neuroaesthetics, and Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh; Kramer, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the link between film viewing and human 'ultra-sociality' (Boyd and Richardson 1998), describing how empathy is supported by mirror resonances but also modified by appraisal mechanisms and how emotions are communicated, It further discusses how 'attainment' to film builds...... on mother-child communication and also how film genres of attachment use such attainment, especially by means of close-ups of human faces and shot-reverse shots. Finally it deals with how films boost development of cognitive and emotional intelligence...

  12. The Possibility of Film Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poague, Leland; Cadbury, William

    1989-01-01

    Examines the role of critical language in film criticism. Compares and contrasts Monroe Beardsley's philosophy on film aesthetics with the New Criticism. Outlines some of the contributions Beardsley has made to the study of film criticism. (KM)

  13. Virtual reality and stereoscopic telepresence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, E.P.

    1994-12-01

    Virtual reality technology is commonly thought to have few, if any, applications beyond the national research laboratories, the aerospace industry, and the entertainment world. A team at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is developing applications for virtual reality technology that make it a practical, viable, portable, and cost-effective business and training tool. The technology transfer is particularly applicable to the waste management industry and has become a tool that can serve the entire work force spectrum, from industrial sites to business offices. For three and a half years, a small team of WHC personnel has been developing an effective and practical method of bringing virtual reality technology to the job site. The applications are practical, the results are repeatable, and the equipment costs are within the range of present-day office machines. That combination can evolve into a competitive advantage for commercial business interests. The WHC team has contained system costs by using commercially available equipment and personal computers to create effective virtual reality work stations for less than $20,000

  14. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  15. FAA Film Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Some 75 films from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration are listed in this catalog. Topics dealt with include aerodynamics, airports, aviation history and careers, flying clubs, navigation and weather. Most of the films are 16mm sound and color productions. Filmstrips requiring a 35mm projector and phonograph or…

  16. What Is Film Phenomenology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian; Ferencz-Flatz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In this article Christian Ferencz-Flatz and I try to give an answer to the question what film phenomenology actually is. We proceed in three steps. First, we provide a survey of five different research practices within current film phenomenological writing: We call them excavation, explanation,

  17. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwin, Edward L.; Nyaiesh, Ali R.

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  18. On Teaching Ethnographic Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarfield, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article, a developmental anthropologist, illustrates how the instructor can use ethnographic films to enhance the study of anthropology and override notions about the scope and efficacy of Western intervention in the Third World, provided the instructor places such films in their proper historical and cultural context. He…

  19. Determining Film Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Roger

    1974-01-01

    The criteria by which films can and should be analyzed as art are discussed in this paper. A triangular model of theme-form-content is presented with form given greater significance than is usually the case in film criticism. The form-content-theme synthesis is the process in which theme is made clear by means of form and content within an…

  20. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  1. "Fate: The short film"

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Quintana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    "Fate: The Short Film" is a four minute short film which reflects the idea that nobody can escape from the fate. It has a good picture and sound quality with an understandable message for all public and with the collaboration of actors, filmmaker, stylist, script advisor and media technician.

  2. Malaysian Cinema, Asian Film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der William

    2002-01-01

    This title series departs from traditional studies of national cinema by accentuating the intercultural and intertextual links between Malaysian films and Asian (as well as European and American) film practices. Using cross-cultural analysis, the author characterizes Malaysia as a pluralist society

  3. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  4. Protolytic carbon film technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

  5. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  6. Conceiving Landscape through Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsø, Mads; Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    This article shows how the media of film can be integrated, explored and can add value to architectural design studios and practice. It elucidates how film may offer an alternative position in architecture, where landscapes and cities are thought, planned and developed in closer relation...... to their spatial and sensory effects on humans. It underscores that the film camera can work as a kind of amplifier of how we, with our bodies, perceive space and project space. In the “Landscape Film” Studio at University of Copenhagen the film medium was tested as a combined registration and design tool...... for a new Nature Park south of Copenhagen. The final studio films and designs show how resonate recordings of sound, time and a bodily presence may simulate an Einfühling that inspires an alternative architecture of relations: the ambient, the changeable and the volatile. They also emphasize that an ability...

  7. Film sheet cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A novel film sheet cassette is described for handling CAT photographic films under daylight conditions and facilitating their imaging. A detailed description of the design and operation of the cassette is given together with appropriate illustrations. The resulting cassette is a low-cost unit which is easily constructed and yet provides a sure light-tight seal for the interior contents of the cassette. The individual resilient fingers on the light-trap permit the ready removal of the slide plate for taking pictures. The stippled, non-electrostatic surface of the pressure plate ensures an air layer and free slidability of the film for removal and withdrawal of the film sheet. The advantage of the daylight system is that a darkroom need not be used for inserting and removing the film in and out of the cassette resulting in a considerable time saving. (U.K.)

  8. IAEA film library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-01-15

    Most of the scientific and technical films shown during the Second Geneva Conference for the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy were donated to IAEA by the producing countries at the end of the Conference. They will form the basic stock for the Agency's loan service intended to provide atomic energy institutions in Member States with film material. A detailed catalogue of the films, classified according to subject and giving conditions of loan or purchase, is now being prepared. In addition to this, information on all films produced in Member Countries dealing with the peaceful uses cf atomic energy is being assembled. The documentary information contained in the films in IAEA's possession relates to the following subjects: national programmes; nuclear physics; accelerators; plasma and fusion; reactors (power, research, material testing and experimental); prospecting and mining; ore dressing; metallurgy; production of fuel elements; treatment of irradiated fuel elements; protection against radiation; detection and counting; uses of radiation in medicine, biochemistry, agriculture and industry; industrial application of nuclear explosions. Most of the commentaries are in the language of the producing country. A few films are available in a choice of two languages. The films donated to the Agency total 82, two of which have been produced in Canada, 13 in France, one in India, one in Romania, one in Spain, 14 in the United Kingdom, one in the Union of South Africa, 47 in the United States of America and two in the USSR: they are mostly illustrations of papers presented at the Second Geneva Conference. In arranging for the circulation of scientific and technical films IAEA wishes to help meet some of the training and information needs of Member States. It is hoped that all organizations producing films on the peaceful uses of atomic energy will entrust copies to the IAEA with a view to their widest possible circulation. In the meantime, the Agency's films have been given

  9. IAEA film library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Most of the scientific and technical films shown during the Second Geneva Conference for the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy were donated to IAEA by the producing countries at the end of the Conference. They will form the basic stock for the Agency's loan service intended to provide atomic energy institutions in Member States with film material. A detailed catalogue of the films, classified according to subject and giving conditions of loan or purchase, is now being prepared. In addition to this, information on all films produced in Member Countries dealing with the peaceful uses cf atomic energy is being assembled. The documentary information contained in the films in IAEA's possession relates to the following subjects: national programmes; nuclear physics; accelerators; plasma and fusion; reactors (power, research, material testing and experimental); prospecting and mining; ore dressing; metallurgy; production of fuel elements; treatment of irradiated fuel elements; protection against radiation; detection and counting; uses of radiation in medicine, biochemistry, agriculture and industry; industrial application of nuclear explosions. Most of the commentaries are in the language of the producing country. A few films are available in a choice of two languages. The films donated to the Agency total 82, two of which have been produced in Canada, 13 in France, one in India, one in Romania, one in Spain, 14 in the United Kingdom, one in the Union of South Africa, 47 in the United States of America and two in the USSR: they are mostly illustrations of papers presented at the Second Geneva Conference. In arranging for the circulation of scientific and technical films IAEA wishes to help meet some of the training and information needs of Member States. It is hoped that all organizations producing films on the peaceful uses of atomic energy will entrust copies to the IAEA with a view to their widest possible circulation. In the meantime, the Agency's films have been given

  10. The TeV γ-ray binary PSR B1259-63. Observations with the high energy stereoscopic system in the years 2005-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerschhaggl, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    PSR B1259-63/SS2883 is a binary system where a 48 ms pulsar orbits a massive Be star with a period of 3.4 years. The system exhibits variable, non-thermal radiation around periastron on the highly eccentric orbit (e=0.87) visible from radio to very high energies (VHE; E>100 GeV). When being detected in TeV γ-rays with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in 2004 it became known as the first variable galactic VHE source. This thesis presents VHE data from PSR B1259-63 as taken during the years 2005, 2006 and before as well as shortly after the 2007 periastron passage. These data extend the knowledge of the lightcurve of this object to all phases of the binary orbit. The lightcurve constrains physical mechanisms present in this TeV source. Observations of VHE γ-rays with the H.E.S.S. telescope array using the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique were performed. The H.E.S.S. instrument features an angular resolution of stat ±0.2 sys and flux normalisation Φ 0 =(1.1±0.1 stat ±0.2 sys ) x 10 -12 TeV -1 cm -2 s -1 . PSR B1259-63 was also monitored in 2005 and 2006, far from periastron passage, comprising 8.9 h and 7.5 h of exposure, respectively. No significant excess of γ-rays is seen in those observations. PSR B1259-63 has been re-confirmed as a variable TeV γ-ray emitter. The firm detection of VHE photons emitted at a true anomaly θ∼0.35 of the pulsar orbit, i.e. already ∝50 days prior to the periastron passage, disfavors the stellar disc target scenario as a primary emission mechanism, based on current knowledge about the companion star's disc inclination, extension, and density profile. In a phenomenological study indirect evidence that PSR B1259-63 could in fact be a periodical VHE emitter is presented using the TeV data discussed in this work. While the TeV energy flux level seems to be only dependent on the binary separation this behavior is not seen in X-rays. Moreover, model calculations based on inverse compton (IC) scattering of

  11. The TeV {gamma}-ray binary PSR B1259-63. Observations with the high energy stereoscopic system in the years 2005-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerschhaggl, Matthias

    2010-04-06

    PSR B1259-63/SS2883 is a binary system where a 48 ms pulsar orbits a massive Be star with a period of 3.4 years. The system exhibits variable, non-thermal radiation around periastron on the highly eccentric orbit (e=0.87) visible from radio to very high energies (VHE; E>100 GeV). When being detected in TeV {gamma}-rays with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in 2004 it became known as the first variable galactic VHE source. This thesis presents VHE data from PSR B1259-63 as taken during the years 2005, 2006 and before as well as shortly after the 2007 periastron passage. These data extend the knowledge of the lightcurve of this object to all phases of the binary orbit. The lightcurve constrains physical mechanisms present in this TeV source. Observations of VHE {gamma}-rays with the H.E.S.S. telescope array using the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique were performed. The H.E.S.S. instrument features an angular resolution of < 0.1 and an energy resolution of < 20%. Gamma-ray events in an energy range of 0.5-70 TeV were recorded. From these data, energy spectra and lightcurve with a monthly time sampling were extracted. VHE {gamma}-ray emission from PSRB1259-63 was detected with an overall significance of 9.5 standard deviations using 55 h of exposure, obtained from April to August 2007. The monthly flux of -rays during the observation period was measured, yielding VHE lightcurve data for the early pre-periastron phase of the system for the first time. No spectral variability was found on timescales of months. The spectrum is described by a power law with a photon index of {gamma}=2.8{+-}0.2{sub stat}{+-}0.2{sub sys} and flux normalisation {phi}{sub 0}=(1.1{+-}0.1{sub stat}{+-}0.2{sub sys}) x 10{sup -12} TeV{sup -1}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. PSR B1259-63 was also monitored in 2005 and 2006, far from periastron passage, comprising 8.9 h and 7.5 h of exposure, respectively. No significant excess of {gamma}-rays is seen in those observations. PSR B1259-63 has

  12. Six dimensional analysis with daily stereoscopic x-ray imaging of intrafraction patient motion in head and neck treatments using five points fixation masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linthout, Nadine; Verellen, Dirk; Tournel, Koen; Storme, Guy

    2006-01-01

    The safety margins used to define the Planning Target Volume (PTV) should reflect the accuracy of the target localization during treatment that comprises both the reproducibility of the patient positioning and the positional uncertainty of the target, so both the inter- and intrafraction motion of the target. Our first aim in this study was to determine the intrafraction motion of patients immobilized with a five-point thermoplastic mask for head and neck treatments. The five-point masks have the advantage that the patient's shoulders as well as the cranial part of the patient's head is covered with the thermoplastic material that improves the overall immobilization of the head and neck region of the patient. Thirteen patients were consecutively assigned to use a five-point thermoplastic mask. The patients were positioned by tracking of infrared markers (IR) fixed to the immobilization device and stereoscopic x-ray images were used for daily on-line setup verification. Repositioning was carried out prior to treatment as needed; rotations were not corrected. Movements during treatment were monitored by real-time IR tracking. Intrafraction motion and rotation was supplementary assessed by a six-degree-of-freedom (6-D) fusion of x-ray images, taken before and after all 385 treatments, with DRR images generated from the planning CT data. The latter evaluates the movement of the patient within the thermoplastic mask independent from the mask movement, where IR tracking evaluates the movement of the mask caused by patient movement in the mask. These two movements are not necessarily equal to each other. The maximum intrafraction movement detected by IR tracking showed a shift [mean (SD; range)] of -0.1(0.7; 6.0), 0.1(0.6; 3.6), -0.2(0.8;5.5) mm in the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral direction, respectively, and rotations of 0.0(0.2; 1.6), 0.0(0.2; 1.7) and 0.2(0.2; 2.4) degrees about the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral axis, respectively. The standard deviations

  13. The TeV {gamma}-ray binary PSR B1259-63. Observations with the high energy stereoscopic system in the years 2005-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerschhaggl, Matthias

    2010-04-06

    PSR B1259-63/SS2883 is a binary system where a 48 ms pulsar orbits a massive Be star with a period of 3.4 years. The system exhibits variable, non-thermal radiation around periastron on the highly eccentric orbit (e=0.87) visible from radio to very high energies (VHE; E>100 GeV). When being detected in TeV {gamma}-rays with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in 2004 it became known as the first variable galactic VHE source. This thesis presents VHE data from PSR B1259-63 as taken during the years 2005, 2006 and before as well as shortly after the 2007 periastron passage. These data extend the knowledge of the lightcurve of this object to all phases of the binary orbit. The lightcurve constrains physical mechanisms present in this TeV source. Observations of VHE {gamma}-rays with the H.E.S.S. telescope array using the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique were performed. The H.E.S.S. instrument features an angular resolution of < 0.1 and an energy resolution of < 20%. Gamma-ray events in an energy range of 0.5-70 TeV were recorded. From these data, energy spectra and lightcurve with a monthly time sampling were extracted. VHE {gamma}-ray emission from PSRB1259-63 was detected with an overall significance of 9.5 standard deviations using 55 h of exposure, obtained from April to August 2007. The monthly flux of -rays during the observation period was measured, yielding VHE lightcurve data for the early pre-periastron phase of the system for the first time. No spectral variability was found on timescales of months. The spectrum is described by a power law with a photon index of {gamma}=2.8{+-}0.2{sub stat}{+-}0.2{sub sys} and flux normalisation {phi}{sub 0}=(1.1{+-}0.1{sub stat}{+-}0.2{sub sys}) x 10{sup -12} TeV{sup -1}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. PSR B1259-63 was also monitored in 2005 and 2006, far from periastron passage, comprising 8.9 h and 7.5 h of exposure, respectively. No significant excess of {gamma}-rays is seen in those observations. PSR B1259-63 has

  14. Resultados preliminares de um sistema computadorizado e estereoscópico para pupilometria in vivo Preliminary results of a computerized and stereoscopic system for in vivo pupillometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Vieira de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    ophthalmoscope helmet and a typical diving mask as support for a high-resolution and sensitivity CCD. Using an IBM compatible computer sequences of video in AVI format were digitized for several seconds at a mean rate of 30 Hz. Algorithms using principles of image processing were implemented for detection of the pupil edges. RESULTS: We present preliminary results of this system for a voluntary patient. Data for the horizontal (x and vertical (y central position and for the diameter of the pupil were then exported to files that could be read by typical spread sheet programs (Excel. CONCLUSIONS: In this manner, precise data can be obtained stereoscopically (for both pupils at the same time for any patient, given that the accommodation process is guaranteed by using a white LED virtual mire located 6 meters from the patient's eye. An electronic board precisely controls the level of illumination. We believe here developed instrument may be useful in certain ophthalmic practices where precise pupil geometric data are needed.

  15. Films Deliver: Teaching Creatively with Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Anthony, Ed.; Culkin, John M., Ed.

    The fifteen papers in this resource guide are grouped into four sections. Section one contains formulations of the basic rationale for screen education and descriptions of new concepts and approaches to film study. Section two presents a definition of the elements involved in filmmaking and viewing, and it describes several model programs which…

  16. Process and apparatus for irradiating film, and irradiated film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A process for irradiating film is described, which consists of passing the film through an electron irradiation zone having an electron reflection surface disposed behind and generally parallel to the film; and disposing within the irradiation zone adjacent the edges of the film a lateral reflection member for reflecting the electrons toward the reflection surface to further reflect the reflected electrons towards the adjacent edges of the film. (author)

  17. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  18. Intermetallic semiconducting films

    CERN Document Server

    Wieder, H H

    1970-01-01

    Intermetallic Semiconducting Films introduces the physics and technology of AшВv compound films. This material is a type of a polycrystalline semiconductor that is used for galvanomagnetic device applications. Such material has a high electron mobility that is ideal for generators and magnetoresistors. The book discusses the available references on the preparation and identification of the material. An assessment of its device applications and other possible use is also enumerated. The book describes the structures and physical parts of different films. A section of the book covers the three t

  19. X-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.; Wonacott, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of film as an X-ray detector is discussed and its behaviour is compared with that of a perfect Poissonian detector. The efficiency of microdensitometry as a method of extracting the information recorded on the film is discussed. More emphasis is placed in the precision of microdensitometric measurements than on the more obvious characteristic of film speed. The effects of chemical fog and background on the precision of the measurements is considered and it is concluded that the final limit to precision is set by the chemical fog. (B.D.)

  20. Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Tallant, D. R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Provencio, P. N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Overmyer, D. L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Simpson, R. L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Martinez-Miranda, L. J. [Department of Materials and Nuclear Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2000-05-22

    Modest thermal annealing to 600 degree sign C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5%-10%. We report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approx}15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.

    2000-01-27

    Modest thermal annealing to 600 C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5--10%. The authors report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approximately} 15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure.

  2. FEMINIST FILM THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Haris

    2015-01-01

    The developing of film industry has brought us into a complexity of art and business. If the first movie audiences were delighted to see that it was possible to record a moving scene on film; today we debate the desirability behind every movie, rather than just the possibility of capturing an image. Film has already become entertainment tool and communication media with quite powerful effect to influence people at the early 20th century. The problem that happens now is there are not many wome...

  3. Nopal cactus film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Conde-Cuatzo, María. G.

    2017-03-01

    Nopal mucilage potentially has certain properties required for the preparation biofilms which can be used as holographic replication recording medium. In this study, mucilage from nopal was extracted and characterized by its ability to form films under different concentration with polyvinyl alcohol. The transmission holographic diffraction gratings (master) were replicated into nopal films. The results showed good diffraction efficiencies. Mucilage from nopal could represent a good option for the development of films to replication holographic, owing to; its low cost and its compatibility with the environmental.

  4. Underwater 3D filming

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” ) and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Unde...

  5. Radiographic film digitizing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Until recently, all film digitizing devices for use with teleradiology or picture archiving and communication systems used a video camera to capture an image of the radiograph for subsequent digitization. The development of film digitizers that use a laser beam to scan the film represents a significant advancement in digital technology, resulting in improved image quality compared with video scanners. This paper discusses differences in resolution, efficiency, reliability, and the cost between these two types of devices. The results of a modified receiver operating characteristic comparison study of a video scanner and a laser scanner manufactured by the same company are also discussed

  6. Film Scriptwriting: A Practical Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Dwight V.

    Dealing with both documentary and feature films, this book is a guide to using particular tools and procedures in developing ideas and concepts for writing film scripts. Part one deals with the factual, or documentary, film and discusses the proposal outline, film treatment, sequence outline, shooting script, and narration writing. Part two…

  7. Discovery in Film, Book Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Malcolm W.

    Approximately 80 16 millimeter (16mm) short films are reviewed in this introduction and guide which attempts to be comprehensive in touching the major areas and styles of 16mm films now being produced. An attempt is made to describe as carefully as possible the style and content of each film and suggest ways in which the films might be used. Films…

  8. Thin films for precision optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.F.; Maurici, N.; Castro, J.C. de

    1983-01-01

    The technology of producing dielectric and/or metallic thin films for high precision optical components is discussed. Computer programs were developed in order to calculate and register, graphically, reflectance and transmittance spectra of multi-layer films. The technology of vacuum evaporation of several materials was implemented in our thin-films laboratory; various films for optics were then developed. The possibility of first calculate film characteristics and then produce the film is of great advantage since it reduces the time required to produce a new type of film and also reduces the cost of the project. (C.L.B.) [pt

  9. Film and Visual Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltrow, David

    1978-01-01

    One practical method which development film makers can adopt to increase comprehension of important scenes is to eliminate extraneous background information by putting it out of focus, or by shooting against plain backgrounds. (Author/STS)

  10. Film documentaire, lecture documentarisante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Odin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Réfléchir sur la relation entre le cinéma et la réalité n’est pas, bien sûr, tenter de distinguer l’espace du documentaire de celui de la fiction, au point que l’opposition avec le film de fiction est devenu le critère de définition privilégié du film documentaire. Prenant acte l’existence, dans le espace de la lecture des films, d’une lecture documentaire ou, plus exactement, d’une lecture documentarisante, nous pensons qu’il y a un ensemble de films que s’affiche comme documentaire (tout le problème est précisément étudier comment s’effetue cet affichage.

  11. Fra bog til film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepelern, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Efter en historisk oversigt over samspillet mellem film og litteratur i dansk film, opstilles en råkke begreber, som filmatiseringer kan analyseres ud fra. Der ses pa det litteråre vårks status — evt. som klassiker eller bestseller. Der ses pa de centrale filmatiseringsproblemer, forhold som pråger...... adaptionsprocessen fra bog til film. De kan opdeles dels i forhold, der udspringer af filmsprogets specifikke sys- tem, dels forhold, der udspringer af filmens status som massemedium. Den färste kategori er pråget af, at filmsproget generelt fremstiller handling snarere end refleksion, noget konkret snarere end...... noget abstrakt, en scene snarere end et resume og det ydre snarere det indre. Den anden kategori kan forklare filmens tilbäjelighed til åndring af forlågget, til forkortelse, forenkling og modernisering. Eksemplerne er en råkke centrale danske film/romaner...

  12. Thin Film Microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Thin film batteries are built layer by layer by vapor deposition. The resulting battery is formed of parallel plates, much as an ordinary battery construction, just much thinner. The figure (Fig. 1) shows an example of a thin film battery layout where films are deposited symmetrically onto both sides of a supporting substrate. The full stack of films is only 10 to 15 (micro)m thick, but including the support at least doubles the overall battery thickness. When the support is thin, the entire battery can be flexible. At least six companies have commercialized or are very close to commercializing such all-solid-state thin film batteries and market research predicts a growing market and a variety of applications including sensors, RFID tags, and smarter cards. In principle with a large deposition system, a thin film battery might cover a square meter, but in practice, most development is targeting individual cells with active areas less than 25 cm 2 . For very small battery areas, 2 , microfabrication processes have been developed. Typically the assembled batteries have capacities from 0.1 to 5 mAh. The operation of a thin film battery is depicted in the schematic diagram (Fig. 2). Very simply, when the battery is allowed to discharge, a Li + ion migrates from the anode to the cathode film by diffusing through the solid electrolyte. When the anode and cathode reactions are reversible, as for an intercalation compound or alloy, the battery can be recharged by reversing the current. The difference in the electrochemical potential of the lithium determines the cell voltage. Most of the thin films used in current commercial variations of this thin film battery are deposited in vacuum chambers by RF and DC magnetron sputtering and by thermal evaporation onto unheated substrates. In addition, many publications report exploring a variety of other physical and chemical vapor deposition processes, such as pulsed laser deposition, electron cyclotron resonance sputtering, and

  13. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  14. Quantitative film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects

  15. Min Morfars Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1957-01-01

    Reflektioner over filmhistoriebegrebet og gennemgang af konkrete filmoplevelser i 1957 og i nutiden med udgangspunkt i mødet med en gammel familiefilm. Reflektioner over valg af motiver i en social- og personhistorisk dateret film.......Reflektioner over filmhistoriebegrebet og gennemgang af konkrete filmoplevelser i 1957 og i nutiden med udgangspunkt i mødet med en gammel familiefilm. Reflektioner over valg af motiver i en social- og personhistorisk dateret film....

  16. Architecture and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javaheri, Saharnaz

    2016-01-01

    Film does not exist without architecture. In every movie that has ever been made throughout history, the cinematic image of architecture is embedded within the picture. Throughout my studies and research, I began to see that there is no director who can consciously or unconsciously deny the use of architectural elements in his or her movies. Architecture offers a strong profile to distinguish characters and story. In the early days, films were shot in streets surrounde...

  17. Anthropology of Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The second volume of the journal in 2017, which is part of the thematic issue, includes foreign films, and five of the eight papers contribute analyses of dystopian films. These are: A Clockwork Orange (1971, Westworld (1973, Gattaca (1997 The Lobster (2015 and Man and Chicken (2015. Aside from this thematic block, the first part of the thematic issue comprises the analyses of Miracolo a Milano (1951, Happiness (1998 and American Gangster (2007.

  18. Isodose curves through films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, A.M.S.; Campos, J.C.F. de; Scaff, L.A.M.; Val Kopacek, A.B. do

    1985-01-01

    Information about the beam profile of 4 MV X-rays through irradiation of radiographic films is presented. The films were irradiated in parallel to the central axis, within tissue-like phantom and in conditions of clinical application. The conclusion is that the method does not supply absolute values of percentage depth dose over points outside of beam bounds, but throughout the corrections it may be of great utility in radiation dosimetry. (Author) [pt

  19. Isodose curves through films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, A.M.S.; Campos, J.C.F. de; Scaff, L.A.M.; Val Kopacek, A.B. do

    Information about the beam profile of 4 MV X-rays through irradiation of radiographic films is presented. The films were irradiated in parallel to the central axis, within tissue-like phantom and in conditions of clinical application. The conclusion is that the method does not supply absolute values of percentage depth dose over points outside of beam bounds, but throughout the corrections it may be of great utility in radiation dosimetry. (Author).

  20. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  1. Innovative polyimide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaro, L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on a new type of polyimide film with a unique chemical structure. Developed using proprietary technology, Upilex features outstanding properties over a wide range of temperatures, and offers the following advantages over previously available polyimide film: ultra-high heat resistance, excellent cryogenic properties, high tensile strength and modulus, excellent radiation resistance, excellent weather resistance (ultraviolet), superior dimensional stability, excellent chemical resistance, low water absorption, and low gas permeability

  2. Equilibrium helium film in the thick film limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klier, J.; Schletterer, F.; Leiderer, P.; Shikin, V.

    2003-01-01

    For the thickness of a liquid or solid quantum film, like liquid helium or solid hydrogen, there exist still open questions about how the film thickness develops in certain limits. One of these is the thick film limit, i.e., the crossover from the thick film to bulk. We have performed measurements in this range using the surface plasmon resonance technique and an evaporated Ag film deposited on glass as substrate. The thickness of the adsorbed helium film is varied by changing the distance h of the bulk reservoir to the surface of the substrate. In the limiting case, when h > 0, the film thickness approaches about 100 nm following the van der Waals law in the retarded regime. The film thickness and its dependence on h is precisely determined and theoretically modeled. The equilibrium film thickness behaviour is discussed in detail. The agreement between theory and experiment is very good

  3. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Christopher G.

    2006-01-01

    The object of this paper is to give a new user some practical information on the use of radiochromic films for medical applications. While various aspects of radiochromic film dosimetry for medical applications have been covered in some detail in several other excellent review articles which have appeared in the last few years [Niroomand-Rad, A., Blackwell, C.R., Coursey, B.M., Gall, K.P., McLaughlin, W.L., Meigooni, A.S., Nath, R., Rodgers, J.E., Soares, C.G., 1998. Radiochromic dosimetry: recommendations of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 55. Med. Phys. 25, 2093-2115; Dempsey, J.F., Low, D.A., Mutic, S., Markman, J., Kirov, A.S., Nussbaum, G.H., Williamson, J.F., 2000. Validation of a precision radiochromic film dosimetry system for quantitative two-dimensional imaging of acute exposure dose distributions. Med. Phys. 27, 2462-2475; Butson, M.J., Yu, P.K.N., Cheung, T., Metcalfe, P., 2003. Radiochromic film for medical radiation dosimetry. Mater. Sci. Eng. R41, 61-120], it is the intent of the present author to present material from a more user-oriented and practical standpoint. That is, how the films work will be stressed much less than how to make the films work well. The strength of radiochromic films is most evident in applications where there is a very high dose gradient and relatively high absorbed dose rates. These conditions are associated with brachytherapy applications, measurement of small fields, and at the edges (penumbra regions) of larger fields

  4. Thin films and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in Thin Films, Nanomaterials, Corrosion and Metallurgy presented at the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2011) held in PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during 12-16 December 2011. The book is a compilation of 113 chapters written by active researchers providing information and critical insights into the recent advancements that have taken place. Important new applications are possible today in the fields of microelectronics, opto-electronics, metallurgy and energy by the application of thin films on solid surfaces. Recent progress in high vacuum technology and new materials has a remarkable effect in thin film quality and cost. This has led to the development of new single or multi-layered thin film devices with diverse applications in a multitude of production areas, such as optics, thermal barrier coatings and wear protections, enhancing service life of tools and to protect materials against thermal and atmospheric influence. On the other hand, thin film process techniques and research are strongly related to the basic research activities in nano technology, an increasingly important field with countless opportunities for applications due to the emergence of new properties at the nanoscale level. Materials and structures that are designed and fabricated at the nano scale level, offer the potential to produce new devices and processes that may enhance efficiencies and reduce costs in many areas, as photovoltaic systems, hydrogen storage, fuel cells and solar thermal systems. In the book, the contributed papers are classified under two sections i) thin films and ii) nanomaterials. The thin film section includes single or multi layer conducting, insulating or semiconducting films synthesized by a wide variety of physical or chemical techniques and characterized or analyzed for different applications. The nanomaterials section deals with novel or exciting materials

  5. Film beyond boundaries: film, migrant narratives and other media

    OpenAIRE

    Anelise Reich Corseuil

    2006-01-01

    The articles here presented are representative of the debates about the various transformational aspects of film studies, fostering the discussion about the transformations and interactions between national and international narrative forms, the interrelations between film and literature, and film with other media. The critical perspectives here presented range from an emphasis on cultural materialism, dialogism, reception theory, deconstructionism, narrative studies to film aesthetics or fil...

  6. Filming eugenics: teaching the history of eugenics through film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooten, Melissa; Trembanis, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    In teaching eugenics to undergraduate students and general public audiences, film should he considered as a provocative and fruitful medium that can generate important discussions about the intersections among eugenics, gender, class, race, and sexuality. This paper considers the use of two films, A Bill of Divorcement and The Lynchburg Story, as pedagogical tools for the history of eugenics. The authors provide background information on the films and suggestions for using the films to foster an active engagement with the historical eugenics movement.

  7. Gammel Sherlock Holmes-film fundet - igen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2017-01-01

    Om genfunden af en forsvundet Sherlock Holmes-film fra 1911, produceret af Nordisk Films Kompagni......Om genfunden af en forsvundet Sherlock Holmes-film fra 1911, produceret af Nordisk Films Kompagni...

  8. Film Propaganda: Ikonografi Kekuasaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Irawanto

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available As a modern technological invention cinema has numerous potentialities such as economic, social and political power. Fascist regimes as well as film corporations have employed cinema as a tool of propaganda to control and mobilize the masses for the sake of their power longevity. Moreover, the character of film itself is a perfect fascist medium which came from the network of proto-fascism of the twentieth century civilization. By using various genres of Indonesian cinema from different eras as a case study, this article argues that Indonesian propaganda films have monolithic representation which can be described as a cult of "bapakisme" (patronism, "kultur komando" (command culture, marginalisation of women' role in Indonesian revolutionary movement and demonization of progressive women organisation, and glorification of the role of Soeharto in Indonesian revolutionary movement.

  9. Influence of film dimensions on film droplet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Helene; Ljungström, Evert

    2012-02-01

    Aerosol particles may be generated from rupturing liquid films through a droplet formation mechanism. The present work was undertaken with the aim to throw some light on the influence of film dimensions on droplet formation with possible consequences for exhaled breath aerosol formation. The film droplet formation process was mimicked by using a purpose-built device, where fluid films were spanned across holes of known diameters. As the films burst, droplets were formed and the number and size distributions of the resulting droplets were determined. No general relation could be found between hole diameter and the number of droplets generated per unit surface area of fluid film. Averaged over all film sizes, a higher surface tension yielded higher concentrations of droplets. Surface tension did not influence the resulting droplet diameter, but it was found that smaller films generated smaller droplets. This study shows that small fluid films generate droplets as efficiently as large films, and that droplets may well be generated from films with diameters below 1 mm. This has implications for the formation of film droplets from reopening of closed airways because human terminal bronchioles are of similar dimensions. Thus, the results provide support for the earlier proposed mechanism where reopening of closed airways is one origin of exhaled particles.

  10. Buy, Borrow, or Steal? Film Access for Film Studies Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Libraries offer a mix of options to serve the film studies curriculum: streaming video, DVDs on Reserve, and streaming DVDs through online classrooms. Some professors screen films and lend DVDs to students. But how do students obtain the films required for their courses? How would they prefer to do so? These are among the questions explored using…

  11. Radiographic film cassette unloading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stievenart, E.F.; Plessers, H.S.; Neujens, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for unloading cassettes, containing exposed radiographic films, has means for unfastening the cassettes, an inclined pathway for gravity feeding and rotating feed members (rollers or belts) to propel the films into the processor. (UK)

  12. Partnervalg på film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Mette

    2006-01-01

    Nye kognitions- og evolutionspsykologiske aspekter på kvinders filmpræferencer for romantiske film og melodramer......Nye kognitions- og evolutionspsykologiske aspekter på kvinders filmpræferencer for romantiske film og melodramer...

  13. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  14. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  15. Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    1998-11-19

    The motivation to develop thin film technologies dates back to the inception of photovoltaics. It is an idea based on achieving truly low-cost photovoltaics appropriate for mass production and energy significant markets. The key to the idea is the use of pennies worth of active materials. Since sunlight carries relatively little energy in comparison with combustion-based energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) modules must be cheap to produce energy that can be competitive. Thin films are presumed to be the answer to that low-cost requirement. But how cheap do they have to be? The following is an oversimplified analysis that allows some insight into this question.

  16. Oxidation films morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paidassi, J.

    1960-01-01

    After studying the oxidation of several pure polyvalent metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, U) and of their oxides at high temperature and atmospheric pressure, the author suggests how to modify the usual representation of the oxide film (a piling of different oxide layers, homogeneous on a micrographic scale with a equi-axial crystallisation, free of mechanical tensions, with flat boundary surfaces) to have it nearer to reality. In this first part, the author exposes the study of the real micrographic structure of the oxidation film and gives examples of precipitation in the oxides during the cooling of the oxidised sample. (author) [fr

  17. Films and nursing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María GABRIELA FELIPPA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide some ideas about the importance of film, with it’s audiovisual narrative, in the nursing education. The use of films during teaching gives the posibility to increase the construction of a professional view.The nursing carreer of Isalud University of Argentina is founded a sistematic work with cinematographic support. In this case are presented different ways of work with cinematographic support in a curricular space of Fundamentals of Nursing of the career of a professional Nurse of the Isalud University.

  18. Superconducting Electronic Film Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-14

    Segmuller, A., Cooper, E.I., Chisholm, M.F., Gupta, A. Shinde, S., and Laibowitz, R.B. Lanthanum gallate substrates for epitaxial high-T superconducting thin...M. F. Chisholm, A. Gupta, S. Shinde, and R. B. Laibowitz, " Lanthanum Gallate Substrates for Epitaxial High-T c Superconducting Thin Films," Appl...G. Forrester and J. Talvacchio, " Lanthanum Copper Oxide Buffer Layers for Growth of High-T c Superconductor Films," Disclosure No. RDS 90-065, filed

  19. Storyboarding an Animated Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies notions of transformation to the analysis of data on semiotic processes related to making an animated film. The data derives from a study conducted in an upper secondary school in Copenhagen with students (18 years old) participating in a week-long workshop. The paper applies...... the concept of transduction with a focus on film storyboards: how students transform ideas when working with different modes (audio, visual) of representation. Data includes discourse analysis of semiotic processes and texts, referring to Social Semiotics and the methodology of Mediated Discourse Analysis...

  20. Intellectual Video Filming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    in favour of worthy causes. However, it is also very rewarding to draw on the creativity, enthusiasm and rapidly improving technical skills of young students, and to guide them to use video equipment themselves for documentary, for philosophical film essays and intellectual debate. In the digital era......Like everyone else university students of the humanities are quite used to watching Hollywood productions and professional TV. It requires some didactic effort to redirect their eyes and ears away from the conventional mainstream style and on to new and challenging ways of using the film media...

  1. Superconducting oxypnictide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisner, Andreas; Kidszun, Martin; Reich, Elke; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Schultz, Ludwig; Haindl, Silvia [IFW Dresden, Institute of Metallic Materials (Germany); Thersleff, Thomas [Uppsala University, Angstrom Laboratory (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    We present an overview on the oxypnictide thin film preparation. So far, only LaAlO{sub 3} (001) single crystalline substrates provided a successful growth using pulsed laser deposition in combination with a post annealing process. Further experiments on the in-situ deposition will be reported. The structure of the films was investigated by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. Transport properties were measured with different applied fields to obtain a magnetic phase diagram for this new type of superconductor.

  2. Mechanics of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-06

    and the second geometry was that of squat cylinders (diameter 6.4 mm, height 6.4 mm). These two geometries were tested in thermal shock tests, and a...milder [13]. More recently, Lau, Rahman and stressa nce ntrati, tha n films of lmalla rat ve spc Delale calculated the free edge singularity for stress...thickness of 3 mm); the second geometry was that As an example of the shielding effect of thin films, we of squat cylinders (diameter 6.4 mm, height 6.4

  3. Den umulige film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Steffen Damkjær

    2014-01-01

    Den smertelige Sorg og Glæde fuldender en lang og glorværdig karriere for danske Nils Malmros. Den er en yderst vellykket film, fordi den forbliver usentimental om en skæbnesvanger dag i instruktørens liv.......Den smertelige Sorg og Glæde fuldender en lang og glorværdig karriere for danske Nils Malmros. Den er en yderst vellykket film, fordi den forbliver usentimental om en skæbnesvanger dag i instruktørens liv....

  4. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  5. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  6. Film beyond boundaries: film, migrant narratives and other media Film beyond boundaries: film, migrant narratives and other media

    OpenAIRE

    Anelise Reich Corseuil

    2008-01-01

    The articles here presented are representative of the debates about the various transformational aspects of film studies, fostering the discussion about the transformations and interactions between national and international narrative forms, the interrelations between film and literature, and film with other media. The critical perspectives here presented range from an emphasis on cultural materialism, dialogism, reception theory, deconstructionism, narrative studies to film aesthetics or fil...

  7. Antikken på film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasilnikoff, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Review af forskning om den græsk-romerske oldtid på film. Dertil en skitse til videre arbejde med antikken på film ud fra et historiefagligt og kulturhistorisk udgangspunkt.......Review af forskning om den græsk-romerske oldtid på film. Dertil en skitse til videre arbejde med antikken på film ud fra et historiefagligt og kulturhistorisk udgangspunkt....

  8. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  9. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  10. Film in Education: This Worked For Me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Myles P.

    Several techniques for teaching film appreciation to adults are discussed, including the use of audio cassettes, instructional films, silent films, and film dissection. Included are the techniques, philosophy, and content of a seminar on the short film, in which the short film is viewed as a variant of a short story, a pop song, a joke, and a…

  11. The Relationship Between Microscopic Grain Surface Structure and the Dynamic Capillary-Driven Advance of Water Films over Individual Dry Natural Sand Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbey, T. C. G.; Adegbule, A.; Yan, S.

    2017-12-01

    The movement of nonvolatile solutes in unsaturated porous media at low water contents depends on transport in surface-associated water films. The focus of the work described here was on studying solute movement in water films advancing by capillary forces over initially-dry grain surfaces, to understand how microscopic surface roughness features influence the initial velocity of water film advance. For this work, water containing a non-adsorbing conservative tracer was used to track the movement of advancing water films. A stainless steel capillary tube connected to an external reservoir a fixed distance below the grain surface was used to transmit solution to the grain surface under negative pressure (positive capillary pressure), consistent with conditions that might be expected in the unsaturated zone. The small internal diameter of the capillary prevents solution from draining out of the capillary back into the reservoir. When the capillary is contacted with a grain surface, capillary forces that result from contact between the fluid and the rough grain surface cause water films to wick across the grain surface. Multiple experiments were conducted on the same grain, rotating the grain and varying the capillary contact point around the circumference of the grain. Imaging was conducted at fixed intervals using an automated Extended Depth of Field (EDF) imaging system, and images were analyzed to determine initial velocity. Grain surfaces were then characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, using a hybrid stereoscopic reconstruction method designed to extract maximum detail in creating elevation maps of geologic surfaces from tilted pairs of SEM images. The resulting elevation maps were used to relate surface roughness profiles around the grain with initial velocities. Results suggest that velocity varies significant with contact point around an individual grain, and correlates quantitatively with the local grain surface structure

  12. Radical Pedagogy, Prison, and Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Dierdre

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the work of The Inside Film project. Inside Film works with a specific group of people (prisoners and ex-prisoners) in a particular set of circumstances (in prison or on parole) exploring how film making can be used within prison education or with people who have been to prison as a means of fostering a critical engagement…

  13. Film Analysis through Linguistic Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Belgin

    2007-01-01

    Studies made in the last few years show that using films in language classrooms is an effective way in teaching a foreign language. Well-chosen films can serve as a valuable pedagogical aid, both for classroom use and self-study. This article is about using films in language classrooms through a specially designed course, whose outline description…

  14. Diamond films: Historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

  15. The magnetohydrodynamic squeeze film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, E.A.

    1987-06-01

    The motion of an electrically conducting fluid film squeezed between two parallel disks in the presence of a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the disks is studied. Analytic solutions through use of a regular perturbation scheme are obtained. The results show that the electromagnetic forces increase the load carrying capacity considerably. (author). 5 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  16. A Film Canister Colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, James; James, Alan; Harman, Stephanie; Weiss, Kristen

    2002-01-01

    A low-cost, low-tech colorimeter was constructed from a film canister. The student-constructed colorimeter was used to show the Beer-Lambert relationship between absorbance and concentration and to calculate the value of the molar absorptivity for permanganate at the wavelength emission maximum for an LED. Makes comparisons between this instrument…

  17. FILM I KUFFERTEN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Hansen, Adriana Maria

    2013-01-01

    kulturen, medierne er i kulturen – også i legekulturen. Denne rapport beskriver og undersøger et særligt eksempel på medialiseret leg. På baggrund af feltstudier i fem danske børnehaver, hvor et nyt filmpædagogisk materiale – Film i Kufferten - introduceres, er det rapportens formål at eksemplificere...

  18. Filmens krop, kroppens film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Steffen Damkjær

    2014-01-01

    Vi har i nyere tid set en lind strøm af dokumentarfilm, der iscenesætter afvigende kroppe. Det gælder film som Shape of the Shapeless (2010), Herbstgold (2010), Beating Time (2010), Planet of Snail (2011), Whole (2003) og Kinbaku – the Art of Bondage (2009). Fælles for filmene er, at de dels...

  19. History, Memory and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    In this paper I discuss history and memory from a theoretical and philosophical point of view and the non-fiction and fiction aspects of historical representation. I use Edgar Reitz’ monumental work Heimat 1-3 (and his recent film Die Andere Heimat) as examples of very different transformative...

  20. Our Favorite Film Shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Rane; Suhr, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The modern medium of film has long been hailed for its capacity for producing shocks of an entertaining, thought-provoking, or even politically emancipative nature. But what is a shock, how and when does it occur, how long does it last, and are there particular techniques for producing cinematic...

  1. Intercultural Training with Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roell, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Films are a great medium to use not only to practice English, but also to facilitate intercultural learning. Today English is a global language spoken by people from many countries and cultural backgrounds. Since culture greatly impacts communication, it is helpful for teachers to introduce lessons and activities that reveal how different…

  2. "Gudbai, Lenin!" - film goda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Euroopa Filmiakadeemia tänavused auhinnasaajad : Saksa film "Good bye, Lenin!" võitis 6 auhinda, kaasaarvatud parima filmi tiitel. Parim režissöör - Lars von Trier "Dogville'i" eest, aasta üllatus - Andrei Zvjagintsevi "Tagasitulek"

  3. Introduction to Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gary

    There are numerous ways to structure the introduction to film course so as to meet the needs of the different types of students who typically enroll. Assuming there is no production component in the course, the teacher is left with two major approaches to choose from--historical and aesthetic. The units in the course will typically be built around…

  4. Korupsi dalam Film Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhafidilla Vebrynda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Corruption has been rooted and institutionalized in our smallest environment. The campaign to fight corruption comes from various organizations through numerous varieties of means. This study looks at the Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK campaign through a film entitled “Kita Versus Korupsi”. This study uses narrative analysis by looking at the elements of narrative, narrative structure, the analysis model of aktan and the Greimas’ semiotic square. It is found that the film narrates corruption as trouble and resistor. The various forms of corruption are narrated using the combination of techniques scene, dialogue and flashback. Abstrak: Korupsi sudah mengakar dan melembaga hingga lingkungan terkecil kita. Kampanye untuk melawannya datang dari berbagai pihak melalui beragam sarana. Penelitian ini melihat kampanye Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK melalui film “Kita Versus Korupsi”. Menggunakan metode analisis naratif dengan melihat unsur naratif, struktur naratif, analisis model aktan dan oposisi segi empat Algirdas Greimas, penelitian ini menemukan bahwa korupsi dinarasikan sebagai gangguan dan penghambat. Film tersebut selalu menghadapkan pelaku korupsi dengan pihak yang tidak korupsi secara langsung. Latar belakang pengetahuan tokoh utama tentang korupsi berpengaruh dalam pengambilan keputusannya. Berbagai bentuk korupsi dinarasikan dengan teknik penggabungan scene, dialog dan flashback.

  5. Film o Heraklicie

    OpenAIRE

    Tytko, Marek Mariusz

    1987-01-01

    Tekst jest wierszem metafizycznym o relacji człowieka ze światem na przykładzie filozofii Heraklita i manipulacji filmowej. The text is a metaphysical verse on relationship a man and the world for example philosophy of Heraclitus and film manipulation.

  6. Film selection in medical radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor, Dogan

    1988-01-01

    Importing of medical imaging films is the responsibility of Turkish Red Croscend, but some institutions have currently started to import their own films. Because of the different resources in individual departments throughout Turkey, a general purpose medical film is imported by Turkish Red Croscend. This kind of film has the advantage to tolerate some technical faults related to the exposure, dark room and processing conditions and still reveals the necessary image quality. In addition to general purpose film, many companies produce special used films which improve some film characteristics in order to have a better image. The initial results of a project already started by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority showed that some other technical reasons prevent obtaining films with optimum quality. The film is the last step of diagnostic procedure and not only gives necessary clinical information, but also visualizes all the problems related to the lock of the calibration of X-ray system and dark room processing conditions. Because of these reasons, many people hold the film responsible for every technical problem. During the selection of the best film among the different companies, institutions have to fulfill some prerequisites at the beginning and than evaluate the quantitative results obtained from measurements according to their clinical purposes. It is the subject of this paper to show how to use film parameter as a comparison to different types of films measured with light sensitometry method. The dark room and processing problems which adversely effect the results are also given. The requirements for the best film selection both for general and special purposes are also evaluated. The extent of this paper is limited only to films using radiology and does not cover the types used in other imaging areas

  7. Ion beam assisted film growth

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, T

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides up to date information on the experimental, theoretical and technological aspects of film growth assisted by ion beams.Ion beam assisted film growth is one of the most effective techniques in aiding the growth of high-quality thin solid films in a controlled way. Moreover, ion beams play a dominant role in the reduction of the growth temperature of thin films of high melting point materials. In this way, ion beams make a considerable and complex contribution to film growth. The volume will be essential reading for scientists, engineers and students working in thi

  8. Handbook of thin film technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    “Handbook of Thin Film Technology” covers all aspects of coatings preparation, characterization and applications. Different deposition techniques based on vacuum and plasma processes are presented. Methods of surface and thin film analysis including coating thickness, structural, optical, electrical, mechanical and magnetic properties of films are detailed described. The several applications of thin coatings and a special chapter focusing on nanoparticle-based films can be found in this handbook. A complete reference for students and professionals interested in the science and technology of thin films.

  9. Professor Camillo Negro's Neuropathological Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiò, Adriano; Gianetto, Claudia; Dagna, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Camillo Negro, Professor in Neurology at the University of Torino, was a pioneer of scientific film. From 1906 to 1908, with the help of his assistant Giuseppe Roasenda and in collaboration with Roberto Omegna, one of the most experienced cinematographers in Italy, he filmed some of his patients for scientific and educational purposes. During the war years, he continued his scientific film project at the Military Hospital in Torino, filming shell-shocked soldiers. In autumn 2011, the Museo Nazionale del Cinema, in partnership with the Faculty of Neurosciences of the University of Torino, presented a new critical edition of the neuropathological films directed by Negro. The Museum's collection also includes 16 mm footage probably filmed in 1930 by Doctor Fedele Negro, Camillo's son. One of these films is devoted to celebrating the effects of the so-called "Bulgarian cure" on Parkinson's disease.

  10. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  11. Morphometric Optic Nerve Head Analysis in Glaucoma Patients: A Comparison between the Simultaneous Nonmydriatic Stereoscopic Fundus Camera (Kowa Nonmyd WX3D and the Heidelberg Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (HRT III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Mariacher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the agreement between morphometric optic nerve head parameters assessed with the confocal laser ophthalmoscope HRT III and the stereoscopic fundus camera Kowa nonmyd WX3D retrospectively. Methods. Morphometric optic nerve head parameters of 40 eyes of 40 patients with primary open angle glaucoma were analyzed regarding their vertical cup-to-disc-ratio (CDR. Vertical CDR, disc area, cup volume, rim volume, and maximum cup depth were assessed with both devices by one examiner. Mean bias and limits of agreement (95% CI were obtained using scatter plots and Bland-Altman analysis. Results. Overall vertical CDR comparison between HRT III and Kowa nonmyd WX3D measurements showed a mean difference (limits of agreement of −0.06 (−0.36 to 0.24. For the CDR < 0.5 group (n=24 mean difference in vertical CDR was −0.14 (−0.34 to 0.06 and for the CDR ≥ 0.5 group (n=16 0.06 (−0.21 to 0.34. Conclusion. This study showed a good agreement between Kowa nonmyd WX3D and HRT III with regard to widely used optic nerve head parameters in patients with glaucomatous optic neuropathy. However, data from Kowa nonmyd WX3D exhibited the tendency to measure larger CDR values than HRT III in the group with CDR < 0.5 group and lower CDR values in the group with CDR ≥ 0.5.

  12. Silk Film Embossing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Mark S.

    New tools are often required to facilitate new discoveries and test new methods. Commercial offerings can be prohibitively expensive and difficult to customize. The development of ad-hoc tools provides the most flexibility and provides an opportunity to modify and refine a technology. An embossing system was developed for silk film imprinting and stamping in order to facilitate and add versatility to the efforts involving micro- and nanoscale device manufacturing in biopolymers. This system features temperature controlled embossing surfaces, adjustable embossing pressures, and variable embossing times. The device can also be fitted with interchangeable temperature controlled embossing and stamping tools. The design, development, fabrication, applications, and future improvements are explored for the system. This device may facilitate new discoveries in the realm of biopolymer micro- and nanomanufacturing and may provide a path towards high volume production of silk film based technologies.

  13. Reading through Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Gayathri Raman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper captures the design of a comprehensive curriculum incorporating the four skills based exclusively on the use of parallel audio-visual and written texts. We discuss the use of authentic materials to teach English to Indian undergraduates aged 18 to 20 years. Specifically, we talk about the use of parallel reading (screen-play and audio-visual texts (Shawshank Redemption, and Life is Beautiful, A Few Good Men and Lion King drawn from popular culture in the classroom as an effective teaching medium. Students were gradually introduced to films based on novels with extracts from the original texts (Schindler’s List, Beautiful Mind for extended reading and writing practice. We found that students began to pay more attention to aspects such as pronunciation, intonational variations, discourse markers and vocabulary items (phrasal verbs, synonyms, homophones, and puns. Keywords: Reading, films, popular culture, ESL classroom, language skills

  14. Strategic Talk in Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payr, Sabine; Skowron, Marcin; Dobrosovestnova, Anna; Trapp, Martin; Trappl, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Conversational robots and agents are being designed for educational and/or persuasive tasks, e.g., health or fitness coaching. To pursue such tasks over a long time, they will need a complex model of the strategic goal, a variety of strategies to implement it in interaction, and the capability of strategic talk. Strategic talk is incipient ongoing conversation in which at least one participant has the objective of changing the other participant's attitudes or goals. The paper is based on the observation that strategic talk can stretch over considerable periods of time and a number of conversational segments. Film dialogues are taken as a source to develop a model of the strategic talk of mentor characters. A corpus of film mentor utterances is annotated on the basis of the model, and the data are interpreted to arrive at insights into mentor behavior, especially into the realization and sequencing of strategies.

  15. Polyether ether ketone film. Polyether ether ketone film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S. (Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-07-05

    The characteristics and the film making process of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) resin, and the characteristics and the applications of PEEK film, are described. PEEK is aromatic polyketone with super thermal resistance. Though it is a crystalline polymer of which the crystallinity is controlled to 48% in a highest degree, it has also amorphous property, thus it shows unique property. The characteristics of PEEK resin are found in thermal resistance, incombusti-bility, transparency, chemical resistance, light resistance and radiation resistance. As for the film making process, casting method by T-die is generally adopted. The general properties of PEEK film are excellent in high thermal resistance, good electrical properties, chemical resistance, hydrolysis resistance, radiation resistance and imcombusti-bility. In the application of PEEK film, new development is expected in following fields; a high performance composite, flexible print substrate with high thermal resistance, insulating tape with thermal resistance, and a general film in the nuclear energy industry. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  17. Darwinisme, film og filmteori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen giver først en oversigt over evolutionshistorisk baseret kulturanalyse og dennes tilknytning til neuropsykologi, herunder evolutionsteoretiske studier af religion og andre overnaturlige forestillingssystemer. Derefter redegøres der kort for, hvorledes Darwinismen har  stødt på modstand, ...... kulturhistoriske baggrund for retssag og film.   Keywords: evolutionsteori, filmteori, evolutionær religionsanalyse, Inherit the wind.     Udgivelsesdato: april 2010...

  18. Ellipsometry of anodic film growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.G.

    1978-08-01

    An automated computer interpretation of ellisometer measurements of anodic film growth was developed. Continuous mass and charge balances were used to utilize more fully the time dependence of the ellipsometer data and the current and potential measurements. A multiple-film model was used to characterize the growth of films which proceeds via a dissolution--precipitation mechanism; the model also applies to film growth by adsorption and nucleation mechanisms. The characteristic parameters for film growth describe homogeneous and heterogeneous crystallization rates, film porosities and degree of hydration, and the supersaturation of ionic species in the electrolyte. Additional descriptions which may be chosen are patchwise film formation, nonstoichiometry of the anodic film, and statistical variations in the size and orientation of secondary crystals. Theories were developed to describe the optical effects of these processes. An automatic, self-compensating ellipsometer was used to study the growth in alkaline solution of anodic films on silver, cadmium, and zinc. Mass-transport conditions included stagnant electrolyte and forced convection in a flow channel. Multiple films were needed to characterize the optical properties of these films. Anodic films grew from an electrolyte supersatuated in the solution-phase dissolution product. The degree of supersaturation depended on transport conditions and had a major effect on the structure of the film. Anodic reaction rates were limited by the transport of charge carriers through a primary surface layer. The primary layers on silver, zinc, and cadmium all appeared to be nonstoichiometric, containing excess metal. Diffusion coefficients, transference numbers, and the free energy of adsorption of zinc oxide were derived from ellipsometer measurements. 97 figures, 13 tables, 198 references.

  19. Polymer Thin Film Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A. C.; Oslanec, R.; Composto, R. J.; Vlcek, P.

    1998-03-01

    We study the dewetting dynamics of thin polystyrene (PS) films deposited on silicon oxide surfaces using optical (OM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopes. Quantitative analysis of the hole diameter as a function of annealing time at 175^oC shows that blending poly(styrene-block-methyl-methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) with PS acts to dramatically slow down the dewetting rate and even stops holes growth before they impinge. AFM studies show that the hole floor is smooth for a pure PS film but contains residual polymer for the blend. At 5% vol., a PS-b-PMMA with high molar mass and low PMMA is a more effective stabilizing agent than a low molar mass/high PMMA additive. The optimum copolymer concentration is 3% vol. beyond which film stability doesn't improve. Although dewetting is slowed down relative to pure PS, PS/PS-b-PMMA bilayers dewet at a faster rate than blends having the same overall additive concentration.

  20. Automatic film loader for X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A light tight tunnel extends over the top of a diagnostic X-ray table. A film cassette is mounted for reciprocating in the tunnel between an X-ray exposure position and a position in which the cassette is unloaded or loaded with film automatically. Unexposed films are dispensed one at a time into the cassette from a feed magazine at one end of the tunnel. After exposure, the film is ejected from the cassette into a receiving magazine at the same end of the tunnel. (Auth.)

  1. FOREIGN LANGUAGE FILMS IN LOUISIANA DEPOSITORIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BABINEAUX, AUDREY

    THIS MANUAL IS AN ANNOTATED LIST OF 16-MILLIMETER EDUCATIONAL FOREIGN LANGUAGE FILMS (BOTH LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL) WHICH WERE PURCHASED WITH STATE AND FEDERAL FUNDS AND PLACED IN LOUISIANA'S NINE FILM LIBRARIES. FILMS ARE ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY BY LANGUAGES. FILMS IN THE TARGET LANGUAGE ARE LISTED SEPARATELY FROM FILMS WITH ENGLISH NARRATION. A…

  2. Olympic Training Film Profiles. Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971

    Approximately 250 instructional films are described in Volume Three (1970-1971) of this review. After an introduction which considers film discussions from the instructor's point of view and offers some ideas for conducting a film showing and ordering the films, profiles of the films are presented grouped under such areas as management…

  3. Silent Film in the German Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, David

    In addition to using films in the German classroom to introduce students to German culture and history, it is important to show and study the film as film. This procedure emphasizes the importance of the film as a part of creative arts in Germany and demands student participation in observation and discussion. Many German silent films are…

  4. Film-screen digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenker, R.P.; Eger, H.

    1985-01-01

    The excellent performance of the digital film-screen system as a receptor for projection radiographic data is discussed. An experimental system for obtaining high quality digital radiographic data by laser scanning radiographic films is described. This system is being used to evaluate the clinical utility of various digital image processing algorithms. Future plans include an investigation of quantitative analysis of projection radiographic data. Digital data obtained by film scanning can be used with digital image archiving and communications systems. (author)

  5. Thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, Armin G.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid progress that is being made with inorganic thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies, both in the laboratory and in industry, is reviewed. While amorphous silicon based PV modules have been around for more than 20 years, recent industrial developments include the first polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass and the first tandem solar cells based on stacks of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films ('micromorph cells'). Significant thin-film PV production levels are also being set up for cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide.

  6. Film Editing Handbook; Technique of 16mm Film Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Hugh B.

    Designed to help the film student with the complexities of 16mm film cutting, this handbook catalogs the mechanical procedures of both picture and sound cutting and supplies step-by-step explanations of these procedures. Because the handbook was organized so that it could be used while working at the cutting bench, common cutting problems and…

  7. "Kuleshov on Film": A Spectator-Centered Film Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Trisha

    This paper describes some of the theories of cinematography of Soviet film theorist and filmmaker Lev Kuleshov. It points out that for him, film was communication portraying people's activities emanating from the environment. It explains that he was especially interested in audience response, particularly that of the proletariat, and that he felt…

  8. Nuclear power in films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, H.

    1977-01-01

    The model film seminar consists of 4 parts: the first one deals with the technology of NPPs, the various reactor types and their fuel cycles; based on this, safety problems and environmental effects of NPPs during routine operation and in incidents as well as the working conditions in the atomic industry are dealt with. The second field of topics covers the 'Atomic industry complex' with the aim of illustrating governmental atomic energy promotion and the economic interests of the atomic industry; in this context, the role played by atomic energy in energy supply and economic growth are reflected on critically, too. In the third complex of topics resistance against NPPs is reported on; this includes the various forms of resistance, the motives of the people concerned, and the perspectives of the anti-NPP-movement. Alternatives to atomic energy are dealt with in the fourth group of topics. Here, ways to save energy and to use it in a more rational way are presented, as well as non-nuclear alternatives (solar, wind, geothermal energy etc.) and the fusion reactor as an alternative to the present fission reactors. Chapter 5 contains didactics-methodical information on the use of the various media and on planning and organizing events of this kind. This chapter was afterwards taken into the brochure. It deals with the experiences and impulses of the first model film seminar in Berlin. The filmography with comments contains the most important films on atomic energy problems as far as they are available easily. (orig./HP) [de

  9. [Oral films as perspective dosage form].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicová, Veronika; Gajdziok, Jan

    Oral films, namely buccal mucoadhesive films and orodispersible films represent innovative formulations for administration of a wide range of drugs. Oral films show many advantageous properties and are intended for systemic drug delivery or for local treatment of the oral mucosa. In both cases, the film represents a thin layer, which could be intended to adhere to the oral mucosa by means of mucoadhesion; or to rapid dissolution and subsequent swallowing without the need of liquid intake, in the case of orodispersible films. Main constitutive excipients are film-forming polymers, which must in the case of mucoadhesive forms remain on the mucosa within the required time interval. Oral films are currently available on the pharmaceutical market and could compete with conventional oral dosage forms in the future. oral cavity oral films buccal mucoadhesive films orodispersible films film-forming polymers.

  10. Film scoring today - Theory, practice and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Flach, Paula Sophie

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers film scoring by taking a closer look at the theoretical discourse throughout the last decades, examining current production practice of film music and showcasing a musical analysis of the film Inception (2010).

  11. Microstructure of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-07

    Proceedings, Thin film Technologies II, 652, 256-263, (1986) B. Schmitt, J.P. Borgogno, G. Albrand and E. Pelletier, "In situ and air index measurements...34 SPIE Proceedings, "Optical Components and Systems", 805, 128 (1987) 11 B. Schmitt, J.P. Borgogno, G. Albrand and E. Pelletier. "In situ and air index...aT , m..a, lot,, o ,,f,02,d I4 k -1-1..... autocovariance lengths, less than 0.5 um, indicate that , 514n, ob0 o p’,Ofclllc....,,o,,oy0,1- agua sblrt

  12. Towards the Possible Film

    OpenAIRE

    Dawood, S.

    2014-01-01

    Towards the Possible Film is a study in parallel universes – and the sparks that fly when worlds collide. As much of a projection into a far-off future as a flashback to a long-forgotten past, Dawood’s vivid 20-minute tableau combines the resonance of a mythic fable with the hallucinatory haziness of a waking dream. Emerging from the waves, as if transported from another dimension, two blue-skinned astronauts materialise on a red-rocked shoreline (Sidi Ifni in Southern Morocco). Blinking into...

  13. Falling Liquid Films

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, S; Scheid, B

    2012-01-01

    This research monograph gives a detailed review of the state-of-the-art theoretical methodologies for the analysis of dissipative wave dynamics and pattern formation on the surface of a film falling down a planar, inclined substrate. This prototype is an open-flow hydrodynamic instability representing an excellent paradigm for the study of complexity in active nonlinear media with energy supply, dissipation and dispersion. Whenever possible, the link between theory and experiments is illustrated and the development of order-of-magnitude estimates and scaling arguments is used to facilitate the

  14. Radiation grafting on natural films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Khan, R.; Senna, M.; Sharmin, N.; Salmieri, S.; Safrany, A.

    2014-01-01

    Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37-40 N mm-1) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5-9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282-296 N mm-1 and PD of 5.0-5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films.

  15. Fire resistant films for aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester.

  16. Predicting film genres with implicit ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McGregor Olney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories.

  17. Organized organic ultrathin films fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    This handy reference is the first comprehensive book covering both fundamentals and recent developments in the field with an emphasis on nanotechnology. Written by a highly regarded author in the field, the book details state-of-the-art preparation, characterization and applications of thin films of organic molecules and biomaterials fabricated by wet processes and also highlights applications in nanotechnology The categories of films covered include monomolecular films (monolayers) both on a water surface and on a solid plate, Langmuir-Blodgett films (transferred multilayer films on a solid plate from a water surface), layer-by-layer films (adsorbed multilayer films on a solid support), and spontaneously assembled films in solution.

  18. Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringe, Joseph W.; Gash, Alexander E.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    2010-03-30

    A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, and initiating the energetic nanolaminate film by directing an electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature.

  19. More than films and dragon awards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redvall, Eva Novrup

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how the largest film festival in the Nordic countries, the Göteborg International Film Festival (GIFF), is much more than a setting for bringing quality films to local audiences.With retrospectives, an extensive programme of seminars and master classes, a film lab for upcom......This article discusses how the largest film festival in the Nordic countries, the Göteborg International Film Festival (GIFF), is much more than a setting for bringing quality films to local audiences.With retrospectives, an extensive programme of seminars and master classes, a film lab...

  20. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  1. Predicting film genres with implicit ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Andrew McGregor

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories.

  2. Radiographic film orientation in radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchowerska, N.; Davison, A.; Drew, J.; Metcalfe, P.

    1996-01-01

    Since the discovery of x-rays, film has been used as a detection medium for radiation. More recently radiographic film has become established as a practical tool for the measurement of dose distribution in radiotherapy. The accuracy and reproducibility of film dosimetry depends on photon energy, processing conditions and film plane orientation. The relationship between photon energy, processing conditions and film dosimetry accuracy has been studied. The role of film plane orientation is still controversial. The current work aims to clarify the effects film plane orientation has on film dosimetry. Poster 205. (author)

  3. Feminist Film Theory and Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Judith

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Laura Mulvey's 1975 essay, "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema," and the ideas about feminist film theory and psychoanalysis as a critical tool which it raises. Suggests contradiction is the central issue in feminist film theory. Explores definitions of women's cinema. (SA)

  4. Thin films: Past, present, future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the thin film photovoltaic modules necessary for an acceptable rate of return for rural areas and underdeveloped countries. The topics of the paper include a development of goals of cost and performance for an acceptable PV system, a review of current technologies for meeting these goals, issues and opportunities in thin film technologies.

  5. Light scattering by soap films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrij, A.

    A theory is constructed describing the scattering from a liquid film (e.g., a soap film) of a light beam polarized normal to the plane of incidence. This scattering is due to the small irregular corrugations caused by thermal motion. The interference of the reflected incident beam with its multiple

  6. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  7. Thin-film photovoltaic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.N. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The high material and processing costs associated with single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon wafers that are commonly used in photovoltaic cells render these modules expensive. This presentation described thin-film solar cell technology as a promising alternative to silicon solar cell technology. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films along with copper, indium, gallium, and selenium (CIGS) thin films have become the leaders in this field. Their large optical absorption coefficient can be attributed to a direct energy gap that allows the use of thin layers (1-2 {mu}m) of active material. The efficiency of thin-film solar cell devices based on CIGS is 20 per cent, compared to 16.7 per cent for thin-film solar cell devices based on CdTe. IBM recently reported an efficiency of 9.7 per cent for a new type of inorganic thin-film solar cell based on a Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S, Se){sub 4} compound. The efficiency of an organic thin-film solar cell is 7.9 per cent. This presentation included a graph of PV device efficiencies and discussed technological advances in non-vacuum deposited, CIGS-based thin-film solar cells. 1 fig.

  8. Size effects in thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Tellier, CR; Siddall, G

    1982-01-01

    A complete and comprehensive study of transport phenomena in thin continuous metal films, this book reviews work carried out on external-surface and grain-boundary electron scattering and proposes new theoretical equations for transport properties of these films. It presents a complete theoretical view of the field, and considers imperfection and impurity effects.

  9. On almost inviscid film flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, H.K.

    1970-01-01

    This study is concerned with flow of liquid films down inclined plates, which carry an increasing amount of fluid in the downstream direction. It is supposed that by some mechanism, e.g. condensation, the fluid enters the film at its outer edge. The rate at which this mass-addition occurs is

  10. The Public Library Film Redefined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Euclid

    1978-01-01

    An historical discussion of three types of film--teaching, information, and entertainment--is presented. The numbers of films in each category, especially the last, which includes the animated, unnarrated, iconographic, underground, and avant-garde, has grown substantially. Libraries have quickly accepted all except the revolutionary philosophies…

  11. Improved Dielectric Films For Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Lewis, Carol R.; Cygan, Peter J.; Jow, T. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Dielectric films made from blends of some commercially available high-dielectric-constant cyanoresins with each other and with cellulose triacetate (CTA) have both high dielectric constants and high breakdown strengths. Dielectric constants as high as 16.2. Films used to produce high-energy-density capacitors.

  12. Partner selection and Hollywood Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh; Kramer, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Based on cognitive, neurological and evolutionary based film theory the article describes the representation of partner selection in Hollywood films. It analyses paradigm scenarios of partner selection and love, It further describes some of those mechanisms that regulate the relation between...

  13. Cinemabilia; Catalogue of Film Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinemabilia, New York, NY.

    The catalog lists and briefly annotates more than 3,500 current, second-hand, and out-of-print books about film that are available from Cinemabilia, New York City. The catalog is divided into 37 categories. The section on special genre lists works on horror, science fiction, Westerns, and Tarzan films, ranging from "Drums of Fu-Manchu" to "Movie…

  14. Cortical dynamics of figure-ground separation in response to 2D pictures and 3D scenes:How V2 combines border ownership, stereoscopic cues, and Gestalt grouping rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eGrossberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The FACADE model, and its laminar cortical realization and extension in the 3D LAMINART model, have explained, simulated, and predicted many perceptual and neurobiological data about how the visual cortex carries out 3D vision and figure-ground perception, and how these cortical mechanisms enable 2D pictures to generate 3D percepts of occluding and occluded objects. In particular, these models have proposed how border ownership occurs, but have not yet explicitly explained the correlation between multiple properties of border ownership neurons in cortical area V2 that were reported in a remarkable series of neurophysiological experiments by von der Heydt and his colleagues; namely, border ownership, contrast preference, binocular stereoscopic information, selectivity for side-of-figure, Gestalt rules, and strength of attentional modulation, as well as the time course during which such properties arise. This article shows how, by combining 3D LAMINART properties that were discovered in two parallel streams of research, a unified explanation of these properties emerges. This explanation proposes, moreover, how these properties contribute to the generation of consciously seen 3D surfaces. The first research stream models how processes like 3D boundary grouping and surface filling-in interact in multiple stages within and between the V1 interblob – V2 interstripe – V4 cortical stream and the V1 blob – V2 thin stripe – V4 cortical stream, respectively. Of particular importance for understanding figure-ground separation is how these cortical interactions convert computationally complementary boundary and surface mechanisms into a consistent conscious percept, including the critical use of surface contour feedback signals from surface representations in V2 thin stripes to boundary representations in V2 interstripes. Remarkably, key figure-ground properties emerge from these feedback interactions. The second research stream shows how cells that

  15. Radiation grafting on natural films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Khan, R.; Senna, M.; Sharmin, N.; Salmieri, S.; Safrany, A.

    2014-01-01

    Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37–40 N mm −1 ) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5–9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282–296 N mm −1 and PD of 5.0–5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films. - Highlights: • Irradiation of zein

  16. Film dosimetry in conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danciu, C; Proimos, B S [Patras Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Medical Physics

    1995-12-01

    Dosimetry, through a film sandwiched in a transverse cross-section of a solid phantom, is a method of choice in Conformal Radiotherapy because: (a) the blackness (density) of the film at each point offers a measure of the total dose received at that point, and (b) the film is easily calibrated by exposing a film strip in the same cross-section, through a stationary field. The film must therefore have the following properties: (a) it must be slow, in order not to be overexposed, even at a therapeutic dose of 200 cGy, and (b) the response of the film (density versus dose curve) must be independent of the photon energy spectrum. A few slow films were compared. It was found that the Kodak X-Omat V for therapy verification was the best choice. To investigate whether the film response was independent of the photon energy, response curves for six depths, starting from the depth of maximum dose to the depth of 25 cm, in solid phantom were derived. The vertical beam was perpendicular to the anterior surface of the phantom, which was at the distance of 100 cm from the source and the field was 15x15 cm at that distance. This procedure was repeated for photon beams emitted by a Cobalt-60 unit, two 6 MV and 15 MV Linear Accelerators, as well as a 45 MV Betatron. For each of those four different beams the film response was the same for all six depths. The results, as shown in the diagrams, are very satisfactory. The response curve under a geometry similar to that actually applied, when the film is irradiated in a transverse cross-section of the phantom, was derived. The horizontal beam was almost parallel (angle of 85) to the plane of the film. The same was repeated with the central ray parallel to the film (angle 90) and at a distance of 1.5 cm from the horizontal film. The field size was again 15x15 at the lateral entrance surface of the beam. The response curves remained the same, as when the beam was perpendicular to the films.

  17. Surface electrons of helium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studart, N.; Hipolito, O.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of some properties of two-dimensional electrons on a liquid helium film adsorbed on a solid substrate are reviewed. We describe the spectrum of electron bound states on bulk helium as well on helium films. The correlational properties, such as the structure factor and correlation energy, are determined as functions of the film thickness for different types of substrates in the framework of a Generalized Random-Phase Approximation. The collective excitations of this system are also described. The results for electrons on the surface of thin films and bulk helium are easily obtained. we examine the electron interaction with the excitations of the liquid helium surface resulting in a new polaron state, which was observed very recently. The ground state energy and the effective mass of this polaron are determined by using the path-integral formalism and unitary-transformation method. Recent speculations about the phase diagram of electrons on the helium film are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  18. Viscous bursting of suspended films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrégeas, G.; Martin, P.; Brochard-Wyart, F.

    1995-11-01

    Soap films break up by an inertial process. We present here the first observations on freely suspended films of long-chain polymers, where viscous effects are dominant and no surfactant is present. A hole is nucleated at time 0 and grows up to a radius R(t) at time t. A surprising feature is that the liquid from the hole is not collected into a rim (as it is in soap films): The liquid spreads out without any significant change of the film thickness. The radius R(t) grows exponentially with time, R~exp(t/τ) [while in soap films R(t) is linear]. The rise time τ~ηe/2γ where η is viscosity, e is thickness (in the micron range), and γ is surface tension. A simple model is developed to explain this growth law.

  19. A new radiochromic dosimeter film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, L. N.; Lynch, D. C.; Willet, P. S.

    By employing acid-sensitive leuco dyes in a chlorine-containing polymer matrix, a new radiochromic dosimeter film has been developed for gamma, electron beam, and ultraviolet radiation. These dosimeter films undergo a color change from colorless to royal blue, red fuchsia, or black, depending on dye selection, and have been characterized using a visible spectrophotometer over an absorbed dose range of 1 to 100 kGy. The primary features of the film are improved color stability before and after irradiation, whether stored in the dark or under artificial lights, and improved moisture resistance. The effects of absorbed dose, dose rate, and storage conditions on dosimeter performance are discussed. The dosimeter material may be produced as a free film or coated onto a transparent substrate and optionally backed with adhesive. Potential applications for these materials include gamma sterilization indicator films for food and medical products, electron beam dosimeters, and in-line radiation monitors for electron beam and ultraviolet processing.

  20. Characterization of organic thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham; Evans, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Thin films based upon organic materials are at the heart of much of the revolution in modern technology, from advanced electronics, to optics to sensors to biomedical engineering. This volume in the Materials Characterization series introduces the major common types of analysis used in characterizing of thin films and the various appropriate characterization technologies for each. Materials such as Langmuir-Blodgett films and self-assembled monolayers are first introduced, followed by analysis of surface properties and the various characterization technologies used for such. Readers will find detailed information on: -Various spectroscopic approaches to characterization of organic thin films, including infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy -X-Ray diffraction techniques, High Resolution EELS studies, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy -Concise Summaries of major characterization technologies for organic thin films, including Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, and Tra...

  1. Oxide ultrathin films science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Pacchioni, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of information in one accessible book. Written by international experts from multidisciplinary fields, this in-depth exploration of oxide ultrathin films covers all aspects of these systems, starting with preparation and characterization, and going on to geometrical and electronic structure, as well as applications in current and future systems and devices. From the Contents: Synthesis and Preparation of Oxide Ultrathin Films Characterization Tools of Oxide Ultrathin Films Ordered Oxide Nanostructures on Metal Surfaces Unusual Properties of Oxides and Other Insulators in the Ultrathin Limit Silica and High-K Dielectrics Thin Films in Microelectronics Oxide Passive Films and Corrosion Protection Oxide Films as Catalytic Materials and as Models of Real Catalysts Oxide Films in Spintronics Oxide Ultrathin Films in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Transparent Conducting and Chromogenic Oxide Films as Solar Energy Materials Oxide Ultrathin Films in Sensor Applications Ferroelectricity in Ultrathin Film Capacitors T...

  2. Contributions of Film Introductions and Film Summaries to Learning from Instructional Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, C. W., Jr.; Norford, C. A.

    An exploratory study of the contribution to learning of typical introductory and summarizing sequences in instructional films underlined the need for further experimental work to determine what kinds of introductory and concluding sequences are most useful in promoting learning from films. The first part of the study was concerned with film…

  3. Film Presentation: Die Urknallmaschine

    CERN Multimedia

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    Die Urknallmaschine, an Austrian film by Gerd Baldauf, narrated by Norbert Frischauf (Alpha Österreich - ORF, 2009).  In CERN’s gigantic complex particles are accelerated to almost the speed of light, brought to collision and made to divide into even smaller particles. Public opinion of CERN’s research is also divided. Sceptics fear that black holes may be created. Might the goal to study the origin of the world lead to its destruction? The Austrian researcher Norbert Frischauf worked at CERN for many years. With his guidance it is possible to explore the world’s largest research centre, get a glimpse of the fascinating work the scientists do there and take a crash course in particle physics. Die Urknallmaschine will be presented on Friday, 25 June from 13:00 to 14:00 in the Main Auditorium. Language: German

  4. Dispersed flow film boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, M.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1989-12-01

    Dispersed flow film boiling is the heat transfer regime that occurs at high void fractions in a heated channel. The way this transfer mode is modelled in the NRC computer codes (RELAP5 and TRAC) and the validity of the assumption and empirical correlations used is discussed. An extensive review of the theoretical and experimental work related with heat transfer to highly dispersed mixtures reveals the basic deficiencies of these models: the investigation refers mostly to the typical conditions of low rate bottom reflooding, since the simulation of this physical situation by the computer codes has often showed poor results. The alternative models that are available in the literature are reviewed, and their merits and limits are highlighted. The modification that could improve the physics of the models implemented in the codes are identified. (author) 13 figs., 123 refs

  5. Following and Filming Fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Maja; Blaakilde, Anne Leonora

    from FM comprises a very complex situation, difficult to grasp, and, unfit for the traditional Cartesian conceptualization. The reaction from the outside to the sufferer is therefore often: "But you look so good!" (Connotatively implying, how can you be in pain?) In response to the difficulties...... in at least 11 spots, she is diagnosed with FM. We will now show a video spot with a woman being tested by the tenderpoint-test. The woman performs pain reactions to 18 of the 18 tenderpoints and thereby suffers of Fibromyalgia at a severe level. Show film (2 min ca.) Method In order to study FM...... is to get both a sensitive and a discoursive knowledge about bodies in pain. The use of the video camera is the cinematic part of the fieldwork. During fieldwork the persons revealed that a most common reaction to having pain, being tired, or feeling dizzy or depressed, is to isolate and hide away from...

  6. Sputtered indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillery, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for depositing on a substrate multiple layer films comprising at least one primary layer of a metal oxide and at least one primary layer of a metal other than the metal of the oxide layer. The improvement described here comprises improving the adhesion between the metal oxide and metal layers by depositing between the layers an intermediate metal-containing layer having an affinity for both the metal and metal oxide layers. An article of manufacture is described comprising a nonmetallic substrate, and deposited thereon in any order: a. at least one coating layer of metal; b. at least one coating layer of an oxide of a metal other than the metal of the metal layer; and c. deposited between the metal and metal oxide layers an intermediate metal-containing layer having an affinity for both the metal and metal oxide layers

  7. Radiochromic film and polarization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.K.N.; Cheung, T.; Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, Wollongong, NSW; Inwood, D.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A new high sensitivity radiochromic film has been tested for its polarization properties. Gafchromic HS film has been shown to produce a relatively small (less than 3%) variation in measured optical density measured at 660nm wavelength when the light source is fully linear polarized and the film is rotated through 360 deg angle. Similar variations are seen when the detector is linearly polarized. If both light source and detector is linearly polarised variations in measured optical density can reach 15% when the film is rotated through 360 deg angle. This seems to be due to a phase shift in polarised light caused by the radiochromic film resulting in the polarised light source becoming out of phase with the polarised detector. Gafchromic HS radiochromic film produces a minimal polarization response with varying angle of rotation however we recommend that a polarization test be performed on a densitometry system to establish the extent of its polarization properties before accuracy dosimetry is performed with radiochromic HS film. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  8. Irradiation gamma on chitosan films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Luana Miranda Lopes de; Souza, Adriana Regia Marques de; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: lumilopes@hotmail.com, E-mail: drilavras@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Palmas,TO (Brazil). Departmento de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos; Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania (Brazil). Departmento de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos; Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Films are preformed structures, independent, that are used to wrap food after processing, increasing their shelf life and enhancing its bright and attractive appearance. They are prepared from biological materials as an alternative to the plastic synthetic containers to improve the quality of the environment. Chitosan is a biodegradable polymer composed of β-(1-4) linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D- glucosamine (acetylated unit). It is produced commercially by deacetylation of chitin, which is a structural component of the exoskeleton of crustaceans. She is able to form films and edible and/or biodegradable coatings. With the objective to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation (0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy) and chitosan concentrations (1 and 2%) in film properties, it was evaluated its optical, mechanical and morphological properties. The films were produced by casting. Irradiation did not affect the thickness of the films, but influenced its colors, increasing the tone of the film for a stronger yellowish color. This fact can be attributed to the increased concentration of C = O bonds of chitosan due to the breakdown of the chain reaction and the Maillard reaction. Irradiated films showed smoother surface and less rough, due to the degradation of the chitosan molecule and poor mechanical properties, not showing good flexibility and stretching. (author)

  9. Passive films at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, Vincent; Marcus, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanoscale data on growth, structure and local properties of passive films reviewed. ► Preferential role of defects of passive films on the corrosion resistance emphasized. ► Effect of grain boundaries on local electronic properties shown by new data. ► Use of atomistic modeling to test mechanistic hypotheses illustrated. - Abstract: The nanometer scale chemical and structural aspects of ultrathin oxide passive films providing self-protection against corrosion to metals and alloys in aqueous environments are reviewed. Data on the nucleation and growth of 2D anodic oxide films, details on the atomic structure and nanostructure of 3D passive films, the preferential role of surface step edges in dissolution in the passive state and the preferential role of grain boundaries of the passive films in passivity breakdown are presented. Future perspectives are discussed, and exemplified by new data obtained on the relationship between the nanostructure of oxide passive films and their local electronic properties. Atomistic corrosion modeling by ab initio density functional theory (DFT) is illustrated by the example of interactions of chloride ions with hydroxylated oxide surfaces, including the role of surface step edges. Data obtained on well-defined substrate surfaces with surface analytical techniques are emphasized.

  10. Film repeats in radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwan, A. Z.; Al-Shakharah, A. I

    1997-01-01

    During a one year period, 4910 radiographs of 55780 films were repeated. The objective of our study was to analyse and to classify the causes in order to minimize the repeats, cut the expenses and to provide optimal radiographs for accurate diagnosis. Analysis of the different factors revealed that, 43.6% of film repeats in our service were due to faults in exposure factors, centering comprises 15.9% of the repeats, while too much collimation was responsible for 7.6% of these repeats. All of which can be decreased by awareness and programmed training of technicians. Film blurring caused by patient motion was also responsible for 4.9% for radiographs reexamination, which can be minimized by detailed explanation to the patient and providing the necessary privacy. Fogging of X-Ray films by improper storage or inadequate handling or processing faults were responsible for 14.5% in repeats in our study. Methods and criteria for proper storage and handling of films were discussed. Recommendation for using modern day-light and laser processor has been high lighted. Artefacts are noticeably high in our cases, due to spinal dresses and frequent usage of precious metals for c osmotic purposes in this part of the world. The repeated films comprise 8.8% of all films We conclude that, the main factor responsible for repeats of up to 81.6% of cases was the technologists, thus emphasizing the importance of adequate training of the technologists. (authors). 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 table

  11. Irradiation gamma on chitosan films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, Luana Miranda Lopes de; Souza, Adriana Regia Marques de; Arthur, Valter

    2017-01-01

    Films are preformed structures, independent, that are used to wrap food after processing, increasing their shelf life and enhancing its bright and attractive appearance. They are prepared from biological materials as an alternative to the plastic synthetic containers to improve the quality of the environment. Chitosan is a biodegradable polymer composed of β-(1-4) linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D- glucosamine (acetylated unit). It is produced commercially by deacetylation of chitin, which is a structural component of the exoskeleton of crustaceans. She is able to form films and edible and/or biodegradable coatings. With the objective to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation (0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy) and chitosan concentrations (1 and 2%) in film properties, it was evaluated its optical, mechanical and morphological properties. The films were produced by casting. Irradiation did not affect the thickness of the films, but influenced its colors, increasing the tone of the film for a stronger yellowish color. This fact can be attributed to the increased concentration of C = O bonds of chitosan due to the breakdown of the chain reaction and the Maillard reaction. Irradiated films showed smoother surface and less rough, due to the degradation of the chitosan molecule and poor mechanical properties, not showing good flexibility and stretching. (author)

  12. Computational simulation of radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Elicardo A. de S.; Santos, Marcio H. dos; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Oliveira, Luis F. de

    2013-01-01

    The composition of a radiographic film gives its values of speed, spatial resolution and base density. The technical knowledge allows to predict how a film with a known composition works, and simulate how this film will work with changes in composition and exposure. In this paper, characterization of films composed by different emulsions was realized, in a way to know the characteristic curve, and to study how the format, organization and concentration of silver salt crystals set the radiographic film images.This work aims to increase an existing simulator, where parallel programming was used to simulate X-ray fluorescence processes. The setup of source and X-ray interactions with objects stills the same, and the detector constructed in this work was placed to form images. At first, considering the approach that the film is a square matrix where each element has a specific quantity of silver grains, that each grain fills a specific area, and that each interaction to radiation transforms a salt silver grain in to metallic silver grain (black grain), we have a blackening standard, and it should show how is the behavior of a optic density in a specific area of the film. Each matrix element has a degree of blackening, and it is proportional to the black grains area. (author)

  13. Electrostatic fluctuations in soap films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, D.S.; Horgan, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    A field theory to describe electrostatic interactions in soap films, described by electric multilayers with a generalized thermodynamic surface-charging mechanism, is studied. In the limit where the electrostatic interactions are weak, this theory is exactly soluble. The theory incorporates in a consistent way, the surface-charging mechanism and the fluctuations in the electrostatic field that correspond to the zero-frequency component of the van der Waals force. It is shown that these terms lead to a Casimir-like attraction that can be sufficiently large to explain the transition between the common black film to a Newton black film

  14. Interfaces and thin films physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Interfaces and Thin Film Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School France) is presented. The research program is focused on the thin films and on the interfaces of the amorphous semiconductor materials: silicon and silicon germanium, silicon-carbon and silicon-nitrogen alloys. In particular, the following topics are discussed: the basic processes and the kinetics of the reactive gas deposition, the amorphous materials manufacturing, the physico-chemical characterization of thin films and interfaces and the electron transport in amorphous semiconductors. The construction and optimization of experimental devices, as well as the activities concerning instrumentation, are also described [fr

  15. ZnO Film Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosi Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized high-quality, nanoscale ultrathin ZnO films at relatively low temperature using a facile and effective hydrothermal approach. ZnO films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The products demonstrated 95% photodegradation efficiency with Congo red (CR after 40 min irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation experiments of methyl orange (MO and eosin red also were carried out. The results indicate that the as-obtained ZnO films might be promising candidates as the excellent photocatalysts for elimination of waste water.

  16. Preparation of thin vyns films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.; Chedin, P.; Gizon, A.

    1965-01-01

    The fabrication of thin films of VYNS resin (copolymer of chloride and vinyl acetate) of superficial density from 3 to 50 μg/cm 2 with solutions in cyclohexanone is presented. Study and discussion of some properties compared with formvar film (polyvinyl formals). It appears that both can be used as source supports but formvar films are prepared more easily and more quickly, in addition they withstand higher temperatures. The main quality of VYNS is that they can be easily separated even several days after their preparation [fr

  17. Subjective Sexual Arousal to Films of Masturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Donald L.; Abramson, Paul R.

    1977-01-01

    A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 males and 102 females. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Females were sexually aroused by both films. (Author)

  18. Regional Film Culture: Challenges and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Alan

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between general film culture and state intervention through the formation of a regional film policy and the funding of film exhibition, film education, and filmmaking in Britain. Suggests ways in which intervention can perpetuate the dominant cultural ideology and ways to identify, resist, and challenge present…

  19. Film Handbook. Communication Manual. 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthner, Reginald, Comp.; And Others

    Reference material is provided in this book for editors, producers, camera and sound technicians, others working in film, and film students. Each chapter is a self-contained unit about specific aspects of film-making, designed to accompany film courses being offered by the University of the West Indies, the Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation, and…

  20. Historians and Film: Some Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, John E.

    1973-01-01

    The growing interest towards using film in history classes and by historians developing a methodology for research into film is discussed in this article. Problems of using films for teachers focus on cost and poor quality. Difficulties for historical researchers concern the treatment of historical documents in film medium -- recording,…

  1. 16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Camera film. 501.1 Section 501.1 Commercial... 500 § 501.1 Camera film. Camera film packaged and labeled for retail sale is exempt from the net... should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk still...

  2. Cultural Dependency in Canada's Feature Film Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendakur, Manjunath

    1981-01-01

    Examines the ownership and policies of the dominant firms in the Canadian film market to explain Canada's dependence on imported films. Demonstrates how the economic relations existing between Canadian and U.S. film industries limit the profitability of films made in Canada. (JMF)

  3. Are Wildlife Films Really "Nature Documentaries"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouse, Derek

    1998-01-01

    Examines origins of wildlife films. Outlines their tension between education and entertainment. Looks at how Disney codified wildlife films as a coherent genre by imposing conventionalized narrative frameworks upon them. Discusses factors influencing wildlife television in the 1990s. Concludes that wildlife films are a valid and distinct film and…

  4. The Harvard Project Physics Film Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, Alfred M.

    1970-01-01

    States the philosophy behind the Harvard Project Physics (HPP) film program. Describes the three long HPP films. Lists the 48 color film loops covering six broad topics, primarily motion and energy. The 8-mm silent loops are synchronized with the text materials. Explains some of the pedagogical possibilities of these film loops. (RR)

  5. A Long Look at the Short Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Franklin, Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The history of the short film and the single concept film loop is presented. Lists fourteen reasons why it may be necessary to make and use a film loop. Film loop projectors are analyzed according to present features and deficiencies with predictions on future improvements. (DS)

  6. Geoflicks Reviewed--Films about Hawaiian Volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 11 films on volcanic eruptions in the United States. Films are given a one- to five-star rating and the film's year, length, source and price are listed. Top films include "Inside Hawaiian Volcanoes" and "Kilauea: Close up of an Active Volcano." (AIM)

  7. "Space slitter" for film or tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Device cuts film or tape into strips by guiding film in channel under cutting blades. Device is operated by lifting pressure bar to insert blades into film. Film is then pulled through blades. Cutter has potential uses in advertising, commercial art, and publishing fields.

  8. American Film Genres: Approaches to a Critical Theory of Popular Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Stuart M.

    This book is divided into twelve sections and contains photographs from many of the films discussed. The introduction defines film genre and describes the general theories behind this book; "The Individual Film" analyzes the film "Little Caesar" as it relates to the genre of gangster films; "Comparative Forms"…

  9. Student film clinches top prize in film competition

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Tech senior Tim Leaton earned the top prize in the widely acclaimed Film Your Issue (FYI) competition - an eight-week paid internship at Disney Studios in Los Angeles. Leaton's one-minute film, "Orphans in Africa," won the nationwide contest, an initiative to encourage young Americans, age 18 to 26, to engage in social issues and add their voices to the public dialogue.

  10. Scoring an Abstract Contemporary Silent Film

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Crystal

    2014-01-01

    I composed an original digital audio film score with full sound design for a contemporary silent film called Apple Tree. The film is highly conceptual and interpretive and required a very involved, intricate score to successfully tell the story. In the process of scoring this film, I learned new ways to convey an array of contrasting emotions through music and sound. After analyzing the film's emotional journey, I determined that six defining emotions were the foundation on which to build an ...

  11. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  12. Testing Bonds Between Brittle And Ductile Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Donald R.; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    Simple uniaxial strain test devised to measure intrinsic shear strength. Brittle film deposited on ductile stubstrate film, and combination stretched until brittle film cracks, then separates from substrate. Dimensions of cracked segments related in known way to tensile strength of brittle film and shear strength of bond between two films. Despite approximations and limitations of technique, tests show it yields semiquantitative measures of bond strengths, independent of mechanical properties of substrates, with results reproducible with plus or minus 6 percent.

  13. Music as word: Film music - superlibretto?

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirić Marija

    2013-01-01

    The aim of his paper is to prove that film music can be understood as authentic narrative force: film music as word / discourse and its superlibretto status. Superlibretto is the status of music in a film which is constructing its own (aural) reality and is narrating, speaking its own text which creates a wholesome film meaning. The existence of superlibretto is substantiated by fundamental theoretic concepts of film music and practically proven by analyses...

  14. Silencing cinema: film censorship around the world

    OpenAIRE

    Biltereyst, Daniël; Vande Winkel, Roel

    2013-01-01

    Why does oppression by censorship affect the film industry far more frequently than any other mass media? "Silencing Cinema" brings together the key issues and authors to examine instances of film censorship throughout the world. Including essays by some of today's leading film historians, the book offers groundbreaking historical research on film censorship in major film production countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia/Soviet Union, India, China, and Nigeria, amo...

  15. Viscosity of particle laden films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timounay, Yousra; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-06-01

    We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational) of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.

  16. PTFE films with improved flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraca, R. F.; Koch, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    Development and application of flexible polytetrafluroethylene films for expulsion bladders in spacecraft propellant tanks are described. Flexibility of material is obtained by reducing crystallinity through annealing and quenching in water. Physical and mechanical properties of material are presented.

  17. Silver Films with Hierarchical Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liguo; Cao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Yingying; Han, Lu; Che, Shunai

    2017-07-17

    Physical fabrication of chiral metallic films usually results in singular or large-sized chirality, restricting the optical asymmetric responses to long electromagnetic wavelengths. The chiral molecule-induced formation of silver films prepared chemically on a copper substrate through a redox reaction is presented. Three levels of chirality were identified: primary twisted nanoflakes with atomic crystal lattices, secondary helical stacking of these nanoflakes to form nanoplates, and tertiary micrometer-sized circinates consisting of chiral arranged nanoplates. The chiral Ag films exhibited multiple plasmonic absorption- and scattering-based optical activities at UV/Vis wavelengths based on their hierarchical chirality. The Ag films showed chiral selectivity for amino acids in catalytic electrochemical reactions, which originated from their primary atomic crystal lattices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Laser deposition of HTSC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol', Eh.N.; Bagratashvili, V.N.; Zherikhin, A.N.; Sviridov, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) films fabrication by the laser deposition are reviewed. Physical and chemical processes taking place during laser deposition are considered, such as the target evaporation, the material transport from the target to the substrate, the film growth on the substrate, thermochemical reactions and mass transfer within the HTSC films and their stability. The experimental results on the laser deposition of different HTSC ceramics and their properties investigations are given. The major technological issues are discussed including the deposition schemes, the oxygen supply, the target compositions and structure, the substrates and interface layers selection, the deposition regimes and their impact on the HTSC films properties. 169 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. Engineering Graphene Films from Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijapur, Santosh H.

    Graphene is a unique material with remarkable properties suitable for a wide array of applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a simple technique for synthesis of large area and high quality graphene films on various metal substrates. Among the metal substrates, copper has been shown to be an excellent support for the growth of graphene films. Traditionally, hydrocarbon gases are used for the graphene synthesis via CVD. Unconventional solid carbon sources such as various polymers and food waste have also shown great potential for synthesis of graphene films. Coal is one such carbon enriched and abundantly available unconventional source. Utilization of coal as a carbon source to synthesize large area, transparent, and high quality few-layer graphene films via CVD has been demonstrated in the present work. Hydrocarbon gases are released as products of coal pyrolysis at temperatures ≥400 °C. This study hypothesized that, these hydrocarbon gases act as precursors for the synthesis of graphene films on the copper substrate. Hence, atmospheric pressure CVD and low temperature of 400 °C were utilized initially for the production of graphene films. These conditions were suitable for the formation of amorphous carbon (a-C) films but not crystalline graphene films that were the objective of this work. The synthesized a-C films on the copper substrate were shown to be uniform and transparent with large surface area. The thickness and surface roughness of the a-C films were determined to have typical values of 5 nm and 0.55 nm, respectively. The a-C film has >95 % optical transmittance and sheet resistivity of 0.6 MO sq-1. These values are comparable to other carbon thin films synthesized at higher temperatures. Further, the a-C films were transferred onto any type of substrate such as silicon wafer and titanium foil, and can be utilized for diverse applications. However, crystalline graphene films were not produced by implementing atmospheric pressure CVD and low

  20. Aasta Suurim Film? / Chili Palmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palmer, Chili

    2002-01-01

    Peter Jacksoni esimene film J.R.R. Tolkieni triloogia "Sõrmuste isand" alusel - "Sõrmuse vennaskond", ("The Lord of the Rings : The Fellowship of the Ring") : Uus-Meremaa, Ameerika Ühendriigid 2001