WorldWideScience

Sample records for stereomicroscopically defined stages

  1. Confinement and clearance of OCT4 in the porcine embryo at stereomicroscopically defined stages around gastrulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlsted, Morten; Offenberg, Hanne Kjær; Thorup, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    was selectively observed in the epiblast. A prominent crescent-shaped thickening at the posterior region of the embryonic disk marked the first polarization within this structure reflecting incipient cell ingression. Following differentiation of the epiblast, clearance of OCT4 from the three germ layers......In the areas of developmental biology and embryonic stem cell research, reliable molecular markers of pluripotency and early lineage commitment are sparse in large animal species. In this study, we present morphological and immunohistochemical findings on the porcine embryo in the period around...... gastrulation, days 8-17 postinsemination, introducing a steromicroscopical staging system in this species. In embryos at the expanding hatched blastocyst stage, OCT4 is confined to the inner cell mass. Following detachment of the hypoblast, and formation of the embryonic disk, this marker of pluripotency...

  2. An essential malaria protein defines the architecture of blood-stage and transmission-stage parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalon, Sabrina; Robbins, Jonathan A; Dvorin, Jeffrey D

    2016-04-28

    Blood-stage replication of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum occurs via schizogony, wherein daughter parasites are formed by a specialized cytokinesis known as segmentation. Here we identify a parasite protein, which we name P. falciparum Merozoite Organizing Protein (PfMOP), as essential for cytokinesis of blood-stage parasites. We show that, following PfMOP knockdown, parasites undergo incomplete segmentation resulting in a residual agglomerate of partially divided cells. While organelles develop normally, the structural scaffold of daughter parasites, the inner membrane complex (IMC), fails to form in this agglomerate causing flawed segmentation. In PfMOP-deficient gametocytes, the IMC formation defect causes maturation arrest with aberrant morphology and death. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms of replication and maturation of malaria parasites.

  3. Identification of differentiation-stage specific markers that define the ex vivo osteoblastic phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twine, Natalie A; Chen, Li; Pang, Chi N

    2014-01-01

    The phenotype of osteoblastic (OB) cells in culture is currently defined using a limited number of markers of low sensitivity and specificity. For the clinical use of human skeletal (stromal, mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) in therapy, there is also a need to identify a set of gene markers...... clustering and Pearson's correlation generated 4 groups of genes: early stage differentiation genes (peak expression: 0-24h, n=28) which were enriched for extracellular matrix organisation, e.g. COL1A1, LOX, and SERPINH1; middle stage differentiating genes (peak expression days: 3 and 6, n=20) which were...

  4. Defining an abnormal first stage of labor based on maternal and neonatal outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lorie M.; Caughey, Aaron B.; Roehl, Kimberly A.; Odibo, Anthony O.; Cahill, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to determine the threshold for defining abnormal labor that is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN This study consisted of a retrospective cohort of all consecutive women admitted at a gestation of 37.0 weeks or longer from 2004 to 2008 who reached the second stage of labor. The 90th, 95th, and 97th percentiles for progress in the first stage of labor were determined specific for parity and labor onset. Women with a first stage above and below each centile were compared. Maternal outcomes were cesarean delivery in the second stage, operative delivery, prolonged second stage, postpartum hemorrhage, and maternal fever. Neonatal outcomes were a composite of the following: admission to level 2 or 3 nursery, 5 minute Apgar less than 3, shoulder dystocia, arterial cord pH of less than 7.0, and a cord base excess of −12 or less. RESULTS Of the 5030 women, 4534 experienced first stage of less than the 90th percentile, 251 between the 90th and 94th percentiles, 102 between the 95th and 96th percentiles, and 143 at the 97th percentile or greater. Longer labors were associated with an increased risk of a prolonged second stage, maternal fever, the composite neonatal outcome, shoulder dystocia, and admission to a level 2 or 3 nursery (P dystocia. CONCLUSION Although women who experience labor dystocia may ultimately deliver vaginally, a longer first stage of labor is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, in particular shoulder dystocia. This risk must be balanced against the risks of cesarean delivery for labor arrest. PMID:24361789

  5. Software-Defined Networks as a Stage of the Network Technology Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Krasotin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the article focus on the concept of a software defined network. In the beginning, the brief historical account is given concerning software defined networks as a scientific concept, its formation and technological and scientific meaning. The software defined network concept is treated in the article not as the final state-of-the-art in networking, but rather as a possible step and direction in the development of a networking paradigm. The article touches on pros and cons as well of the software defined networking and gives an account of possible stages of development of this technology in the context of other technologies, considering its hybrid with MPLS, as an example. OpenFlow protocol constitutes the main part of the article. The authors further discuss various kinds of existing libraries realizing programmable management routines for a software defined network using OpenFlow. All of these libraries provide API for building modular applications for software defined network management. Touching on practical side of implementation the results of comparative tests of throughput and latency, achieved with these libraries are shown.

  6. Monoclonal Antibodies to Intracellular Stages of Cryptosporidium parvum Define Life Cycle Progression In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Georgia; Ravindran, Soumya; Funkhouser-Jones, Lisa; Barks, Jennifer; Wang, Qiuling; VanDussen, Kelli L; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Sibley, L David

    2018-06-27

    Among the obstacles hindering Cryptosporidium research is the lack of an in vitro culture system that supports complete life development and propagation. This major barrier has led to a shortage of widely available anti- Cryptosporidium antibodies and a lack of markers for staging developmental progression. Previously developed antibodies against Cryptosporidium were raised against extracellular stages or recombinant proteins, leading to antibodies with limited reactivity across the parasite life cycle. Here we sought to create antibodies that recognize novel epitopes that could be used to define intracellular development. We identified a mouse epithelial cell line that supported C. parvum growth, enabling immunization of mice with infected cells to create a bank of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against intracellular parasite stages while avoiding the development of host-specific antibodies. From this bank, we identified 12 antibodies with a range of reactivities across the parasite life cycle. Importantly, we identified specific MAbs that can distinguish different life cycle stages, such as trophozoites, merozoites, type I versus II meronts, and macrogamonts. These MAbs provide valuable tools for the Cryptosporidium research community and will facilitate future investigation into parasite biology. IMPORTANCE Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that causes gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals. Currently, there is a limited array of antibodies available against the parasite, which hinders imaging studies and makes it difficult to visualize the parasite life cycle in different culture systems. In order to alleviate this reagent gap, we created a library of novel antibodies against the intracellular life cycle stages of Cryptosporidium We identified antibodies that recognize specific life cycle stages in distinctive ways, enabling unambiguous description of the parasite life cycle. These MAbs will aid future investigation into Cryptosporidium biology and

  7. Field Detection of Microcracks to Define the Nucleation Stage of Earthquake Occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fujinawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Main shocks of natural earthquakes are known to be accompanied by preshocks which evolve following the modified Ohmori’s law in average over many samples. Individual preshock activity, however, is far less systematic for predictive purposes. On the other hand, the microcracks in laboratory rock experiments are always preceded to final rupture. And, previous investigations of field acoustic emissions showed that the activity increases prominently before and after the main shock. But there is no detection of any phenomena to identify the nucleation stage. Here we show that a special underground electric field measurement could detect microcracks. Pulse-like variations were classified into three groups (A, B, C by frequency. The B-type is suggested to define the nucleation period: activity increases sharply following the modified Omori’s law before the main shock and there is no activity afterward. The B-type is subgrouped into three types possibly corresponding to crack-rupture modes. The variations are supposed to be induced by crack occurrence through electrokinetic effects in the elastic-porous medium. The detection distance is suggested to be several orders larger than that of the acoustic emission due to the effective smallness of dissipation rate, and the waveform can be used to infer the rupture mode.

  8. PKH26 staining defines distinct subsets of normal human colon epithelial cells at different maturation stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pastò

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colon crypts are characterized by a hierarchy of cells distributed along the crypt axis. Aim of this paper was to develop an in vitro system for separation of epithelial cell subsets in different maturation stages from normal human colon. METHODOLOGY AND MAJOR FINDINGS: Dissociated colonic epithelial cells were stained with PKH26, which allows identification of distinct populations based on their proliferation rate, and cultured in vitro in the absence of serum. The cytofluorimetric expression of CK20, Msi-1 and Lgr5 was studied. The mRNA levels of several stemness-associated genes were also compared in cultured cell populations and in three colon crypt populations isolated by microdissection. A PKH(pos population survived in culture and formed spheroids; this population included subsets with slow (PKH(high and rapid (PKH(low replicative rates. Molecular analysis revealed higher mRNA levels of both Msi-1 and Lgr-5 in PKH(high cells; by cytofluorimetric analysis, Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells were only found within PKH(high cells, whereas Msi-1(+/Lgr5(- cells were also observed in the PKH(low population. As judged by qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of several stemness-associated markers (Bmi-1, EphB2, EpCAM, ALDH1 was highly enriched in Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells. While CK20 expression was mainly found in PKH(low and PKH(neg cells, a small PKH(high subset co-expressed both CK20 and Msi-1, but not Lgr5; cells with these properties also expressed Mucin, and could be identified in vivo in colon crypts. These results mirrored those found in cells isolated from different crypt portions by microdissection, and based on proliferation rates and marker expression they allowed to define several subsets at different maturation stages: PKH(high/Lgr5(+/Msi-1(+/CK20(-, PKH(high/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/CK20(+, PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/Ck20(-, and PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(-/CK20(+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show the possibility of deriving in vitro, without any

  9. Pre-defined and optional staging for the deployment of enterprise systems: a case study and a framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Yossi; Cucuy, Shy; Fink, Lior

    2017-03-01

    The effective deployment of enterprise systems has been a major challenge for many organisations. Customising the new system, changing business processes, and integrating multiple information sources are all difficult tasks. As such, they are typically done in carefully planned stages in a process known as phased implementation. Using ideas from Option Theory, this article critiques aspects of phased implementation. One customer relationship management (CRM) project and its phased implementation are described in detail and ten other enterprise system deployments are summarised as a basis for the observation that almost all deployment stages are pre-defined operational steps rather than decision points. However, Option Theory suggests that optional stages, to be used only when risk materialises, should be integral parts of project plans. Although such optional stages are often more valuable than pre-defined stages, the evidence presented in this article shows that they are only rarely utilised. Therefore, a simple framework is presented; it first identifies risks related to the deployment of enterprise systems, then identifies optional stages that can mitigate these risks, and finally compares the costs and benefits of both pre-defined and optional stages.

  10. A simple method to compare firing pin marks using stereomicroscope and Microsoft office (Windows 8) tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, R

    2017-08-01

    Pertinent marks of fired cartridge cases such as firing pin, breech face, extractor, ejector, etc. are used for firearm identification. A non-standard semiautomatic pistol and four .22rim fire cartridges (head stamp KF) is used for known source comparison study. Two test fired cartridge cases are examined under stereomicroscope. The characteristic marks are captured by digital camera and comparative analysis of striation marks is done by using different tools available in the Microsoft word (Windows 8) of a computer system. The similarities of striation marks thus obtained are highly convincing to identify the firearm. In this paper, an effort has been made to study and compare the striation marks of two fired cartridge cases using stereomicroscope, digital camera and computer system. Comparison microscope is not used in this study. The method described in this study is simple, cost effective, transport to field study and can be equipped in a crime scene vehicle to facilitate immediate on spot examination. The findings may be highly helpful to the forensic community, law enforcement agencies and students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Defining and managing career challenges for mid-career and senior stage pediatric hematologist/oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frugé, Ernest; Margolin, Judith; Horton, Terzah; Venkateswaran, Lakshmi; Lee, Dean; Yee, Donald L; Mahoney, Donald

    2010-12-01

    A workshop at the 2008 ASPHO Annual Meeting functioned as the first step in a systematic needs assessment of the particular challenges to satisfaction and success in the middle and senior phases of career development for pediatric hematologist/oncologists (PHOs). The 61 ASPHO members who attended were randomly distributed to small discussion groups based on self-identified career stage. Groups completed challenge forms for each issue identified as pertinent to their own stage of professional development. A total of 71 forms with useable data were generated by the groups. The largest number of challenges described (26) clustered around themes of Work-Life Balance followed by Transition and Succession (18), Management and Finances (15), and Keeping up to Date (13). Mid-career groups were more likely to identify Work-Life Balance challenges while senior stage groups were more likely to articulate Succession and Management challenges. The article describes the demographics of the workshop participants, summarizes the content of challenge themes and the associated suggestions for management. It is hoped that this effort will assist educational and career planning efforts by individuals, institutions, and ASPHO as a professional society.

  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase defines critical prognostic genes of stage I lung adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Yamauchi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To identify stage I lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis who will benefit from adjuvant therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Whole gene expression profiles were obtained at 19 time points over a 48-hour time course from human primary lung epithelial cells that were stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF in the presence or absence of a clinically used EGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK-specific inhibitor, gefitinib. The data were subjected to a mathematical simulation using the State Space Model (SSM. "Gefitinib-sensitive" genes, the expressional dynamics of which were altered by addition of gefitinib, were identified. A risk scoring model was constructed to classify high- or low-risk patients based on expression signatures of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes in lung cancer using a training data set of 253 lung adenocarcinomas of North American cohort. The predictive ability of the risk scoring model was examined in independent cohorts of surgical specimens of lung cancer. RESULTS: The risk scoring model enabled the identification of high-risk stage IA and IB cases in another North American cohort for overall survival (OS with a hazard ratio (HR of 7.16 (P = 0.029 and 3.26 (P = 0.0072, respectively. It also enabled the identification of high-risk stage I cases without bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC histology in a Japanese cohort for OS and recurrence-free survival (RFS with HRs of 8.79 (P = 0.001 and 3.72 (P = 0.0049, respectively. CONCLUSION: The set of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes includes many genes known to be involved in biological aspects of cancer phenotypes, but not known to be involved in EGF signaling. The present result strongly re-emphasizes that EGF signaling status in cancer cells underlies an aggressive phenotype of cancer cells, which is useful for the selection of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO GSE31210.

  13. Defining progressive stages in the commitment process leading to embryonic lens formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong; Fisher, Marilyn; Grainger, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The commitment of regions of the embryo to form particular tissues or organs is a central concept in development, but the mechanisms controlling this process remain elusive. The well-studied model of lens induction is ideal for dissecting key phases of the commitment process. We find in Xenopus tropicalis, at the time of specification of the lens, i.e. when presumptive lens ectoderm (PLE) can be isolated, cultured and will differentiate into a lens, that the PLE is not yet irreversibly committed, or determined, to form a lens. When transplanted into the posterior of a host embryo lens development is prevented at this stage, while approximately 3 hr later, using the same assay, determination is complete. Interestingly, we find that specified lens ectoderm, when cultured, acquires the ability to become determined without further tissue interactions. Further, we show that specified PLE has a different gene expression pattern than determined PLE, and that determined PLE can maintain expression of essential regulatory genes (e.g. foxe3, mafB) in an ectopic environment while specified PLE cannot. These observations set the stage for a detailed mechanistic study of the genes and signals controlling tissue commitment. PMID:22566346

  14. Endothelial Cells Control Pancreatic Cell Fate at Defined Stages through EGFL7 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-I Kao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although endothelial cells have been shown to affect mouse pancreatic development, their precise function in human development remains unclear. Using a coculture system containing human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived progenitors and endothelial cells, we found that endothelial cells play a stage-dependent role in pancreatic development, in which they maintain pancreatic progenitor (PP self-renewal and impair further differentiation into hormone-expressing cells. The mechanistic studies suggest that the endothelial cells act through the secretion of EGFL7. Consistently, endothelial overexpression of EGFL7 in vivo using a transgenic mouse model resulted in an increase of PP proliferation rate and a decrease of differentiation toward endocrine cells. These studies not only identified the role of EGFL7 as the molecular handle involved in the crosstalk between endothelium and pancreatic epithelium, but also provide a paradigm for using hESC stepwise differentiation to dissect the stage-dependent roles of signals controlling organogenesis.

  15. Stereomicroscopic evaluation of dentinal defects induced by new rotary system: "ProTaper NEXT".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shori, Deepa Deepak; Shenoi, Pratima Ramakrishna; Baig, Arshia R; Kubde, Rajesh; Makade, Chetana; Pandey, Swapnil

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate dentinal defects formed by new rotary system - Protaper next™ (PTN). Sixty single-rooted premolars were selected. All specimens were decoronated and divided into four groups, each group having 15 specimens. Group I specimens were prepared by Hand K-files (Mani), Group II with ProTaper Universal (PT; Dentsply Maillefer), Group III with Hero Shaper (HS; Micro-Mega, Besancon, France), and Group IV with PTN (Dentsply Maillefer). Roots of each specimen were sectioned at 3, 6, and 9mm from the apex and were then viewed under a stereomicroscope to evaluate presence or absence of dentinal defects. In roots prepared with hand files (HFs) showed lowest percentage of dentinal defects (6.7%); whereas in roots prepared with PT, HS, and PTN it was 40, 66.7, and 26.7%, respectively. There was significant difference between the HS group and the PTN group (P hand instruments induced minimal defects.

  16. Life-stage-specific physiology defines invasion extent of a riverine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Beauchamp, David A.; Olden, Julian D.

    2015-01-01

    -history stage that likely sets the distributional limits of all other life-history stages. We anticipate the framework developed here could be employed to identify how similar stage-specific environmental sensitivity determines distribution in many other ectothermic species.

  17. Development of novel monoclonal antibodies that define differentiation stages of human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Kortesidis, Angela; Zannettino, Andrew C W

    2011-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are currently being introduced for cell therapy, yet, antibodies specific for native and differentiated MSCs are required for their identification prior to clinical use. Herein, high quality antibodies against MSC surface proteins were developed by immunizing...... fewer differentiated alkaline phosphatase(+) cells compared to STRO-1(+/-)/Collagen VI(+) hMSC, suggesting that Collagen VI on the cell membrane exclusively defines differentiated MSCs. In conclusion, we have generated a panel of high quality antibodies to be used for characterization of MSCs...... mice with hMSC, and by using a panel of subsequent screening methods. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that 83.5, 1.1, and 8.5% of primary cultures of hMSC were double positive for STRO-1 and either of DJ 3, 9, and 18, respectively. However, none of the three DJ antibodies allowed enrichment...

  18. Defining Brugia malayi and Wolbachia symbiosis by stage-specific dual RNA-seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Grote

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Filarial nematodes currently infect up to 54 million people worldwide, with millions more at risk for infection, representing the leading cause of disability in the developing world. Brugia malayi is one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis and remains the only human filarial parasite that can be maintained in small laboratory animals. Many filarial nematode species, including B. malayi, carry an obligate endosymbiont, the alpha-proteobacteria Wolbachia, which can be eliminated through antibiotic treatment. Elimination of the endosymbiont interferes with development, reproduction, and survival of the worms within the mamalian host, a clear indicator that the Wolbachia are crucial for survival of the parasite. Little is understood about the mechanism underlying this symbiosis.To better understand the molecular interplay between these two organisms we profiled the transcriptomes of B. malayi and Wolbachia by dual RNA-seq across the life cycle of the parasite. This helped identify functional pathways involved in this essential symbiotic relationship provided by the co-expression of nematode and bacterial genes. We have identified significant stage-specific and gender-specific differential expression in Wolbachia during the nematode's development. For example, during female worm development we find that Wolbachia upregulate genes involved in ATP production and purine biosynthesis, as well as genes involved in the oxidative stress response.This global transcriptional analysis has highlighted specific pathways to which both Wolbachia and B. malayi contribute concurrently over the life cycle of the parasite, paving the way for the development of novel intervention strategies.

  19. Development of Novel Monoclonal Antibodies that Define Differentiation Stages of Human Stromal (Mesenchymal) Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ditte C.; Kortesidis, Angela; Zannettino, Andrew C.W.; Kratchmarova, Irina; Chen, Li; Jensen, Ole N.; Teisner, Børge; Gronthos, Stan; Jensen, Charlotte H.; Kassem, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are currently being introduced for cell therapy, yet, antibodies specific for native and differentiated MSCs are required for their identification prior to clinical use. Herein, high quality antibodies against MSC surface proteins were developed by immunizing mice with hMSC, and by using a panel of subsequent screening methods. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that 83.5, 1.1, and 8.5% of primary cultures of hMSC were double positive for STRO-1 and either of DJ 3, 9, and 18, respectively. However, none of the three DJ antibodies allowed enrichment of clonogenic hMSC from BMMNCs as single reagents. Using mass-spectrometric analysis, we identified the antigen recognised by DJ3 as CD44, whereas DJ9 and DJ18 recognized HLA-DRB1 and Collagen VI, respectively. The identified proteins were highly expressed throughout in vitro osteogenic- and adipogenic differentiation. Interestingly, undifferentiated cells revealed a sole cytoplasmic distribution pattern of Collagen VI, which however changed to an extracellular matrix appearance upon osteogenic- and adipogenic differentiation. In relation to this, we found that STRO-1+/-/Collagen VI- sorted hMSC contained fewer differentiated alkaline phosphatase + cells compared to STRO-1+/-/Collagen VI+ hMSC, suggesting that Collagen VI on the cell membrane exclusively defines differentiated MSCs. In conclusion, we have generated a panel of high quality antibodies to be used for characterization of MSCs, and in addition our results may suggest that the DJ18 generated antibody against Collagen VI can be used for negative selection of cultured undifferentiated MSCs. PMID:21614487

  20. Stereomicroscopic evaluation of defects caused by torsional fatigue in used hand and rotary nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Geeta; Kapadwala, Marsrat I; Parmar, Girish J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate defects caused by torsional fatigue in used hand and rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments by stereomicroscopic examination. One hundred five greater taper Ni-Ti instruments were used including Protaper universal hand (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), Protaper universal rotary (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), and Revo-S rotary (MicroMega, Besançon, France) files. Files were used on lower anterior teeth. After every use, the files were observed with both naked eyes and stereomicroscope at 20× magnification (Olympus, Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan) to evaluate defects caused by torsional fatigue. Scoring was assigned to each file according to the degree of damage. The results were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. A greater number of defects were seen under the stereomicroscope than on examining with naked eyes. However, the difference in methods of evaluation was not statistically significant. Revo-S files showed minimum defects, while Protaper universal hand showed maximum defects. The intergroup comparison of defects showed that the bend in Protaper universal hand instruments was statistically significant. Visible defects in Ni-Ti files due to torsional fatigue were seen by naked eyes as well as by stereomicroscope. This study emphasizes that all the files should be observed before and after every instrument cycle to minimize the risk of separation.

  1. Stereomicroscopic evaluation of dentinal defects induced by new rotary system: “ProTaper NEXT”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shori, Deepa Deepak; Shenoi, Pratima Ramakrishna; Baig, Arshia R; Kubde, Rajesh; Makade, Chetana; Pandey, Swapnil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate dentinal defects formed by new rotary system — Protaper next™ (PTN). Materials and Methods: Sixty single-rooted premolars were selected. All specimens were decoronated and divided into four groups, each group having 15 specimens. Group I specimens were prepared by Hand K-files (Mani), Group II with ProTaper Universal (PT; Dentsply Maillefer), Group III with Hero Shaper (HS; Micro-Mega, Besancon, France), and Group IV with PTN (Dentsply Maillefer). Roots of each specimen were sectioned at 3, 6, and 9mm from the apex and were then viewed under a stereomicroscope to evaluate presence or absence of dentinal defects. Results: In roots prepared with hand files (HFs) showed lowest percentage of dentinal defects (6.7%); whereas in roots prepared with PT, HS, and PTN it was 40, 66.7, and 26.7%, respectively. There was significant difference between the HS group and the PTN group (P hand instruments induced minimal defects. PMID:26069406

  2. Stereomicroscopic study of the human tooth caries: clinical and morphological correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oancea, Roxana; Vasile, Liliana; Marchese, Cristian; Sava-Rosianu, Ruxandra

    2012-06-01

    loss that is very useful in grading the progression of the carious lesion. Conclusions: The stereomicroscopic study correlated with clinical and morphological data allowed to appreciate the extent of tissue involved in the carious process, but also the understanding of the enamel, dentine and cement matrix demineralization process, in proximity with the morpho-embryological markings of the human tooth structure.

  3. Post-hatching development of the porcine and bovine embryo-defining criteria for expected development in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlsted, Morten; Du, Yutao; Vajta, Gábor

    2006-01-01

    without the need for transfer to recipient animals. Such a system would require (1) definition of milestones of expected post-hatching embryonic development in vivo; and (2) development of adequate culture systems. We propose a stereomicroscopical staging system for post-hatching embryos defining......Particular attention has been paid to the pre-hatching period of embryonic development although blastocyst development is a poor indicator of embryo viability. Post-hatching embryonic dev elopment in vitro would allow for establishment of more accurate tools for evaluating developmental potential...

  4. Inadequate Iodine Intake in Population Groups Defined by Age, Life Stage and Vegetarian Dietary Practice in a Norwegian Convenience Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Johansen, Nina Cathrine; Nyheim, Kristine Aastad; Erlund, Iris; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Henjum, Sigrun

    2018-02-17

    Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children ( n = 47), adolescents ( n = 46), adults ( n = 71), the elderly ( n = 23), pregnant women ( n = 45), ovo-lacto vegetarians ( n = 25), and vegans ( n = 19). In all participants combined, the median (95% CI) UIC was 101 (90, 110) µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile) calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175) µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile) estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150) µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82%) and vegans the lowest (14%) probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway.

  5. Post-hatching development of the porcine and bovine embryo-defining criteria for expected development in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlsted, Morten; Du, Yutao; Vajta, Gábor

    2006-01-01

    ) Somite stage(s) where paraxial mesoderm gradually condensates to form somites. Post-hatching development of bovine embryos in vitro is compromised and although hatching occurs and elongation can be physically provoked by culture in agarose tunnels, the embryonic disk characterizing the pre-streak stage 1......Particular attention has been paid to the pre-hatching period of embryonic development although blastocyst development is a poor indicator of embryo viability. Post-hatching embryonic dev elopment in vitro would allow for establishment of more accurate tools for evaluating developmental potential...... without the need for transfer to recipient animals. Such a system would require (1) definition of milestones of expected post-hatching embryonic development in vivo; and (2) development of adequate culture systems. We propose a stereomicroscopical staging system for post-hatching embryos defining...

  6. Optimization of soaking stage in technological process of wheat germination by hydroponic method when objective function is defined implicitly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneva, M. S.; Rudenko, O. V.; Usatikov, S. V.; Bugayets, N. A.; Tamova, M. Yu; Fedorova, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    The increase in the efficiency of the "numerical" technology for solving computational problems of parametric optimization of the technological process of hydroponic germination of wheat grains is considered. In this situation, the quality criteria are contradictory and a part of them is given by implicit functions of many variables. One of the main stages, soaking, determining the time and quality of germinated wheat grain is studied, when grain receives the required amount of moisture and air oxygen for germination and subsequently accumulates enzymes. A solution algorithm for this problem is suggested implemented by means of software packages Statistica v.10 and MathCAD v.15. The use of the proposed mathematical models describing the processes of hydroponic soaking of spring soft wheat varieties made it possible to determine optimal conditions of germination. The results of investigations show that the type of aquatic environment used for soaking has a great influence on the process of water absorption, especially the chemical composition of the germinated material. The use of the anolyte of electrochemically activated water (ECHA-water) intensifies the process from 5.83 to 4 hours for wheat variety «Altayskaya 105» and from 13 to 8.8 hours - for «Pobla Runo».

  7. Differentiation between primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon: a prospective study comparing nailfold capillaroscopy using an ophthalmoscope or stereomicroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, H; Sigl, T; Schattenkirchner, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Nailfold capillary microscopy is a routine procedure in the investigation of patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). As a standard method, nailfold capillary morphology is inspected with a stereomicroscope to look for capillary abnormalities such as giant loops, avascular areas, and bushy capillaries, which have all been found to be associated with certain connective tissue diseases.
AIM—To investigate prospectively whether nailfold capillary inspection using an ophthalmoscope is of equivalent diagnostic value to standard nailfold capillary microscopy.
METHOD—All the fingers of 26 patients with RP were examined in a blinded fashion and compared with the final diagnosis one month later.
RESULTS—All giant loops, large avascular areas, and bushy capillaries were identified by both methods. The correlation for moderate avascular areas and crossed capillaries was 0.93 and 0.955 respectively. The correlation for minor abnormalities that do not contribute to the differentiation between primary and secondary RP was 0.837 and 0.861 respectively. All patients were classified identically by the two methods.
CONCLUSION—For the evaluation of patients with RP, nailfold capillary morphology can reliably be assessed with an ophthalmoscope.

 PMID:11247874

  8. Stereomicroscopic imaging technique for the quantification of cold flow in drug-in-adhesive type of transdermal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Katragadda, Usha; Khan, Mansoor A

    2014-05-01

    Cold flow is a phenomenon occurring in drug-in-adhesive type of transdermal drug delivery systems (DIA-TDDS) because of the migration of DIA coat beyond the edge. Excessive cold flow can affect their therapeutic effectiveness, make removal of DIA-TDDS difficult from the pouch, and potentially decrease available dose if any drug remains adhered to pouch. There are no compendial or noncompendial methods available for quantification of this critical quality attribute. The objective was to develop a method for quantification of cold flow using stereomicroscopic imaging technique. Cold flow was induced by applying 1 kg force on punched-out samples of marketed estradiol DIA-TDDS (model product) stored at 25°C, 32°C, and 40°C/60% relative humidity (RH) for 1, 2, or 3 days. At the end of testing period, dimensional change in the area of DIA-TDDS samples was measured using image analysis software, and expressed as percent of cold flow. The percent of cold flow significantly decreased (p < 0.001) with increase in size of punched-out DIA-TDDS samples and increased (p < 0.001) with increase in cold flow induction temperature and time. This first ever report suggests that dimensional change in the area of punched-out samples stored at 32°C/60%RH for 2 days applied with 1 kg force could be used for quantification of cold flow in DIA-TDDS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  9. Establishing the accuracy and acceptability of abdominal ultrasound to define the foetal head position in the second stage of labour: a validation study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramphul, Meenakshi

    2012-09-01

    To compare the diagnosis of the foetal head position in the second stage of labour by ultrasound scan performed by a novice sonographer and by clinical assessment, to that of an expert sonographer (gold standard); and to evaluate the acceptability of ultrasound in the second stage of labour to women and clinicians.

  10. Shades of white : diffusion properties of T1- and FLAIR-defined white matter signal abnormalities differ in stages from cognitively normal to dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, Joost M.; Gronenschild, Ed HBM; Salat, David H.; Freeze, Whitney M.; Ivanov, Dimo; Clerx, Lies; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Aalten, Pauline; Jacobs, Heidi I. L.

    The underlying pathology of white matter signal abnormalities (WMSAs) is heterogeneous and may vary dependent on the magnetic resonance imaging contrast used to define them. We investigated differences in white matter diffusivity as an indicator for white matter integrity underlying WMSA based on

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of the WHO clinical staging system for defining eligibility for ART in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthali, Chigomezgo; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Garner, Paul G; Lalloo, David G; Squire, S Bertel; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Ford, Nathan; MacPherson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that HIV-positive adults with CD4 count ≤500 cells/mm(3) initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART). In many countries of sub-Saharan Africa, CD4 count is not widely available or consistently used and instead the WHO clinical staging system is used to determine ART eligibility. However, concerns have been raised regarding its discriminatory ability to identify patients eligible to start ART. We therefore reviewed the accuracy of WHO stage 3 or 4 assessment in identifying ART eligibility according to CD4 count thresholds for ART initiation. We systematically searched PubMed and Global Health databases and conference abstracts using a comprehensive strategy for studies that compared the results of WHO clinical staging with CD4 count thresholds. Studies performed in sub-Saharan Africa and published in English between 1998 and 2013 were eligible for inclusion according to our predefined study protocol. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality and risk of bias using the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. Summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity were derived for each CD4 count threshold and hierarchical summary receiver operator characteristic curves were plotted. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria, including 25,032 participants from 14 countries. Most studies assessed individuals attending ART clinics prior to treatment initiation. WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 disease had a sensitivity of 60% (95% CI: 45-73%, Q=914.26, p<0.001) and specificity of 73% (95% CI: 60-83%, Q=1439.43, p<0.001) for a CD4 threshold of ≤200 cells/mm(3) (11 studies); sensitivity and specificity for a threshold of CD4 count ≤350 cells/mm(3) were 45% (95% CI: 26-66%, Q=1607.31, p<0.001) and 85% (95% CI: 69-93%, Q=896.70, p<0.001), respectively (six studies). For the threshold of CD4 count ≤500 cells/mm(3) sensitivity was 14% (95% CI: 13-15%) and specificity was 95

  12. Development of a methodology for defining whole-building energy design targets for commercial buildings: Phase 2, Development concept stage report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.W. (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA (USA)); Deringer, J.J. (Deringer Group, Riva, MD (USA)); Hall, J.D. (American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC (USA)) (comps.)

    1990-09-01

    The Whole-Building Energy Design Targets project is being conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The objective of the project is to develop a flexible methodology for setting energy performance guidelines with which architects, engineers, planners, and owners can assess energy efficiency in commercial building design. This volume, the third in the four-volume report on the Targets project concept stage, contains the minutes of the workshops as well as summaries of the expert's written comments prepared at the close of each workshop. In Section 2, the building energy simulation workshop is summarized. Section 3 provides a summary of the building cost workshop.

  13. Comparative evaluation of dentinal defects induced by hand files, hyflex, protaper next and one shape during canal preparation: A stereomicroscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Garg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to evaluate and compare the incidence of dentinal defects induced by Hand Files, HyFlex CM, ProTaper Next (PTN, and One Shape during canal preparation. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty extracted mandibular premolar teeth with single root canal were selected. Specimens were then divided into five groups with thirty specimens each. Group I: Specimens were prepared with hand instruments. Group II: Specimens were prepared with HyFlex CM rotary files (Coltene using a crown-down technique according to the manufacturer's instructions. Group III: Specimens were prepared with PTN rotary files (Dentsply using a crown-down technique according to the manufacturer's instructions. Group IV: Specimens were prepared with One Shape Single file rotary system (MicroMega using a crown-down technique according to the manufacturer's instructions. Group V: Specimens were used as a control and left unprepared. All roots were cut horizontally at 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex. Sections were then viewed under stereomicroscope and dentinal defects were registered as “no defect,” “fracture,” and “other defects.” Statistical Analysis: Results of the study were subjected to Chi-square test. Results: Results were expressed as the number and percentage of defected, partially defected and roots with no defects in each groups. Conclusion: Hand files and One Shape file system caused less root defects compared to PTN and HyFlex file systems.

  14. Two-Stage System Based on a Software-Defined Radio for Stabilizing of Optical Frequency Combs in Long-Term Experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, Martin; Hucl, Václav; Hrabina, Jan; Šmíd, Radek; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2014), s. 1757-1770 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP102/11/P819; GA ČR GAP102/10/1813; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk EE2.4.31.0016 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : optical frequency combs * digital signal processing * software-defined radio * beat note * stabilization * long-term operation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.245, year: 2014

  15. Laminin binding protein, 34/67 laminin receptor, carries stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 epitope defined by monoclonal antibody Raft.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Yohko U.; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Nakamura, Kyoko; Takenouchi, Hisami; Taguchi, Tomoko; Okita, Hajime; Umezawa, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Junichiro

    2005-01-01

    We previously produced monoclonal antibodies against the detergent-insoluble microdomain, i.e., the raft microdomain, of the human renal cancer cell line ACHN. Raft.2, one of these monoclonal antibodies, recognizes sialosyl globopentaosylceramide, which has the stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-4 epitope. Although the mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line F9 does not express SSEA-4, some F9 cells stained with Raft.2. Western analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry identified the Raft.2 binding molecule as laminin binding protein (LBP), i.e., 34/67 laminin receptor. Weak acid treatment or digestion with Clostridium perfringens sialidase reduced Raft.2 binding to LBP on nitrocellulose sheets and [ 14 C]galactose was incorporated into LBP, indicating LBP to have a sialylated carbohydrate moiety. Subcellular localization analysis by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and examination by confocal microscopy revealed LBP to be localized on the outer surface of the plasma membrane. An SSEA-4-positive human EC cell line, NCR-G3 cells, also expressed Raft.2-binding LBP

  16. Comprehensive Evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii VEG and Neospora caninum LIV Genomes with Tachyzoite Stage Transcriptome and Proteome Defines Novel Transcript Features

    KAUST Repository

    Ramaprasad, Abhinay

    2015-04-13

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important protozoan parasite that infects all warm-blooded animals and causes opportunistic infections in immuno-compromised humans. Its closest relative, Neospora caninum, is an important veterinary pathogen that causes spontaneous abortion in livestock. Comparative genomics of these two closely related coccidians has been of particular interest to identify genes that contribute to varied host cell specificity and disease. Here, we describe a manual evaluation of these genomes based on strand-specific RNA sequencing and shotgun proteomics from the invasive tachyzoite stages of these two parasites. We have corrected predicted structures of over one third of the previously annotated gene models and have annotated untranslated regions (UTRs) in over half of the predicted protein-coding genes. We observe distinctly long UTRs in both the organisms, almost four times longer than other model eukaryotes. We have also identified a putative set of cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) and long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs). We have significantly improved the annotation quality in these genomes that would serve as a manually curated dataset for Toxoplasma and Neospora research communities.

  17. Two-Stage System Based on a Software-Defined Radio for Stabilizing of Optical Frequency Combs in Long-Term Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Čížek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A passive optical resonator is a special sensor used for measurement of lengths on the nanometer and sub-nanometer scale. A stabilized optical frequency comb can provide an ultimate reference for measuring the wavelength of a tunable laser locked to the optical resonator. If we lock the repetition and offset frequencies of the comb to a high-grade radiofrequency (RF oscillator its relative frequency stability is transferred from the RF to the optical frequency domain. Experiments in the field of precise length metrology of low-expansion materials are usually of long-term nature so it is required that the optical frequency comb stay in operation for an extended period of time. The optoelectronic closed-loop systems used for stabilization of combs are usually based on traditional analog electronic circuits processing signals from photodetectors. From an experimental point of view, these setups are very complicated and sensitive to ambient conditions, especially in the optical part, therefore maintaining long-time operation is not easy. The research presented in this paper deals with a novel approach based on digital signal processing and a software-defined radio. We describe digital signal processing algorithms intended for keeping the femtosecond optical comb in a long-time stable operation. This need arose during specialized experiments involving measurements of optical frequencies of tunable continuous-wave lasers. The resulting system is capable of keeping the comb in lock for an extensive period of time (8 days or more with the relative stability better than 1.6 × 10−11.

  18. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  19. "Dermatitis" defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Suzanne M; Nedorost, Susan T

    2010-01-01

    The term "dermatitis" can be defined narrowly or broadly, clinically or histologically. A common and costly condition, dermatitis is underresourced compared to other chronic skin conditions. The lack of a collectively understood definition of dermatitis and its subcategories could be the primary barrier. To investigate how dermatologists define the term "dermatitis" and determine if a consensus on the definition of this term and other related terms exists. A seven-question survey of dermatologists nationwide was conducted. Of respondents (n  =  122), half consider dermatitis to be any inflammation of the skin. Nearly half (47.5%) use the term interchangeably with "eczema." Virtually all (> 96%) endorse the subcategory "atopic" under the terms "dermatitis" and "eczema," but the subcategories "contact," "drug hypersensitivity," and "occupational" are more highly endorsed under the term "dermatitis" than under the term "eczema." Over half (55.7%) personally consider "dermatitis" to have a broad meaning, and even more (62.3%) believe that dermatologists as a whole define the term broadly. There is a lack of consensus among experts in defining dermatitis, eczema, and their related subcategories.

  20. Defining chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brian R; Ott, Edward

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we propose, discuss, and illustrate a computationally feasible definition of chaos which can be applied very generally to situations that are commonly encountered, including attractors, repellers, and non-periodically forced systems. This definition is based on an entropy-like quantity, which we call "expansion entropy," and we define chaos as occurring when this quantity is positive. We relate and compare expansion entropy to the well-known concept of topological entropy to which it is equivalent under appropriate conditions. We also present example illustrations, discuss computational implementations, and point out issues arising from attempts at giving definitions of chaos that are not entropy-based.

  1. Defining Cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Elizabeth; Donnerstein, Edward; Kowalski, Robin; Lin, Carolyn A; Parti, Katalin

    2017-11-01

    Is cyberbullying essentially the same as bullying, or is it a qualitatively different activity? The lack of a consensual, nuanced definition has limited the field's ability to examine these issues. Evidence suggests that being a perpetrator of one is related to being a perpetrator of the other; furthermore, strong relationships can also be noted between being a victim of either type of attack. It also seems that both types of social cruelty have a psychological impact, although the effects of being cyberbullied may be worse than those of being bullied in a traditional sense (evidence here is by no means definitive). A complicating factor is that the 3 characteristics that define bullying (intent, repetition, and power imbalance) do not always translate well into digital behaviors. Qualities specific to digital environments often render cyberbullying and bullying different in circumstances, motivations, and outcomes. To make significant progress in addressing cyberbullying, certain key research questions need to be addressed. These are as follows: How can we define, distinguish between, and understand the nature of cyberbullying and other forms of digital conflict and cruelty, including online harassment and sexual harassment? Once we have a functional taxonomy of the different types of digital cruelty, what are the short- and long-term effects of exposure to or participation in these social behaviors? What are the idiosyncratic characteristics of digital communication that users can be taught? Finally, how can we apply this information to develop and evaluate effective prevention programs? Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Molecular subtypes in stage II-III colon cancer defined by genomic instability: early recurrence-risk associated with a high copy-number variation and loss of RUNX3 and CDKN2A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Berg

    Full Text Available We sought to investigate various molecular subtypes defined by genomic instability that may be related to early death and recurrence in colon cancer.We sought to investigate various molecular subtypes defined by instability at microsatellites (MSI, changes in methylation patterns (CpG island methylator phenotype, CIMP or copy number variation (CNV in 8 genes. Stage II-III colon cancers (n = 64 were investigated by methylation-specific multiplex ligated probe amplification (MS-MLPA. Correlation of CNV, CIMP and MSI, with mutations in KRAS and BRAFV600E were assessed for overlap in molecular subtypes and early recurrence risk by uni- and multivariate regression.The CIMP phenotype occurred in 34% (22/64 and MSI in 27% (16/60 of the tumors, with noted CIMP/MSI overlap. Among the molecular subtypes, a high CNV phenotype had an associated odds ratio (OR for recurrence of 3.2 (95% CI 1.1-9.3; P = 0.026. Losses of CACNA1G (OR of 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-6.0; P = 0.001, IGF2 (OR of 4.3, 95% CI 1.1-15.8; P = 0.007, CDKN2A (p16 (OR of 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.6; P = 0.024, and RUNX3 (OR of 3.4, 95% CI 1.3-8.7; P = 0.002 were associated with early recurrence, while MSI, CIMP, KRAS or BRAF V600E mutations were not. The CNV was significantly higher in deceased patients (CNV in 6 of 8 compared to survivors (CNV in 3 of 8. Only stage and loss of RUNX3 and CDKN2A were significant in the multivariable risk-model for early recurrence.A high copy number variation phenotype is a strong predictor of early recurrence and death, and may indicate a dose-dependent relationship between genetic instability and outcome. Loss of tumor suppressors RUNX3 and CDKN2A were related to recurrence-risk and warrants further investigation.

  3. The study for defining the best technical and economical alternatives for the associated substation to the Tucurui hydraulic power plant - second stage; Estudo para definicao da melhor alternativa tecnico-economica para a subestacao elevadora-secionadora associada a Usina Hidroeletrica Tucurui - segunda etapa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado Junior, Camilo; Fukuoka, Nita; Rose, Eber Havila [ELETRONORTE, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: eber@eln.gov.br; Martinez, Manuel Luis Barreira [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Energia Eletrica. Dept. de Eletrotecnica; Violin, Airton

    2001-07-01

    This document presents a synthesis of the developed study for defining the switching scheme of the associated substation to the Tucurui hydraulic power plant second stage which is being constructed. In order to reduce the short circuit level in the first stage substation (in operation) to suitable values and, at the same time, to maintain the flexibility in the generator and transmission systems, it has been decided to install some series reactors between the substations in 550 Kv. The used methodology to define the suitable alternative is also discussed and the substation final configuration involving the first and second stages of the substation enlargement is presented through a illustration.

  4. Onset of white striping and progression into wooden breast as defined by myopathic changes underlying Pectoralis major growth. Estimation of growth parameters as predictors for stage of myopathy progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jacqueline Reedy; Moraes, Luis; Wick, Macdonald; Lilburn, Michael Snell

    2018-02-01

    The broiler industry has incurred significant economic losses due to two muscle myopathies, white striping (WS) and wooden breast (WB), affecting the Pectoralis major (P. major) of commercial broilers. The present study documented macroscopic changes occurring with age/growth in the P. major and P. minor muscles of commercial broilers from day 2 through day 46 (n = 27/day). Distinct myopathic aberrations observed in both breast muscles corresponded to the onset of WB. These distinct morphological changes were used as determinants in developing a ranking system, defining the ontogeny of WB as the following four stages: (1) WS, (2) petechial epimysium haemorrhages, (3) intramuscular haemorrhages and (4) ischaemia. A cumulative logit proportional odds model was used to relate the rank probabilities with the following growth parameters: body weight, P. major and P. minor weight/yield/length/width/depth. The best-fit model included P. major length/width/depth, P. minor width, P. major and P. minor yield as predictors for rank. Increasing P. major depth, P. minor width and P. major yield increased the odds of falling into higher ranks (more severe myopathy). Conversely, increasing P. major length, P. major width and P. minor yield increased the odds of falling into smaller ranks (less severe myopathy). This study describes the macroscopic changes associated with WB ontogeny in the development of a ranking system and the contribution of growth parameters in the determination of rank (WB severity). Results suggest that physical measurements inherent to selection for high-yielding broiler genotypes are contributing to the occurrence and severity of WS and WB.

  5. Accuracy of the One-Stage and Two-Stage Impression Techniques: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidy, Ladan; Mozaffari, Hamid Reza; Faraji, Payam; Sharifi, Roohollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction . One of the main steps of impression is the selection and preparation of an appropriate tray. Hence, the present study aimed to analyze and compare the accuracy of one- and two-stage impression techniques. Materials and Methods . A resin laboratory-made model, as the first molar, was prepared by standard method for full crowns with processed preparation finish line of 1 mm depth and convergence angle of 3-4°. Impression was made 20 times with one-stage technique and 20 times with two-stage technique using an appropriate tray. To measure the marginal gap, the distance between the restoration margin and preparation finish line of plaster dies was vertically determined in mid mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual (MDBL) regions by a stereomicroscope using a standard method. Results . The results of independent test showed that the mean value of the marginal gap obtained by one-stage impression technique was higher than that of two-stage impression technique. Further, there was no significant difference between one- and two-stage impression techniques in mid buccal region, but a significant difference was reported between the two impression techniques in MDL regions and in general. Conclusion . The findings of the present study indicated higher accuracy for two-stage impression technique than for the one-stage impression technique.

  6. Accuracy of the One-Stage and Two-Stage Impression Techniques: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Jamshidy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the main steps of impression is the selection and preparation of an appropriate tray. Hence, the present study aimed to analyze and compare the accuracy of one- and two-stage impression techniques. Materials and Methods. A resin laboratory-made model, as the first molar, was prepared by standard method for full crowns with processed preparation finish line of 1 mm depth and convergence angle of 3-4°. Impression was made 20 times with one-stage technique and 20 times with two-stage technique using an appropriate tray. To measure the marginal gap, the distance between the restoration margin and preparation finish line of plaster dies was vertically determined in mid mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual (MDBL regions by a stereomicroscope using a standard method. Results. The results of independent test showed that the mean value of the marginal gap obtained by one-stage impression technique was higher than that of two-stage impression technique. Further, there was no significant difference between one- and two-stage impression techniques in mid buccal region, but a significant difference was reported between the two impression techniques in MDL regions and in general. Conclusion. The findings of the present study indicated higher accuracy for two-stage impression technique than for the one-stage impression technique.

  7. A volumetric analysis of GTVD and CTVHR as defined by the GEC ESTRO recommendations in FIGO stage IIB and IIIB cervical cancer patients treated with IGABT in a prospective multicentric trial (EMBRACE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jastaniyah, Noha; Yoshida, Kenji; Tanderup, Kari

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To quantify the gross tumor volume at diagnosis (GTVD) and high-risk clinical target volume (CTVHR) at brachytherapy (BT) and describe subgroups of patients with different patterns of response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with FIGO stage IIB and IIIB cervical cancer treated wit...

  8. Defining Quantum Control Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable difference between quantum and classical programs is that the control flow of the former can be either classical or quantum. One of the key issues in the theory of quantum programming languages is defining and understanding quantum control flow. A functional language with quantum control flow was defined by Altenkirch and Grattage [\\textit{Proc. LICS'05}, pp. 249-258]. This paper extends their work, and we introduce a general quantum control structure by defining three new quantu...

  9. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it....

  10. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  11. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  12. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... weight for a given height is described as overweight or obese. Body Mass Index, or BMI, is ...

  13. Drinking Levels Defined

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): For women, low-risk drinking is defined ...

  14. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  15. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields. I

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We study definably compact definably connected groups definable in a sufficiently saturated real closed field $R$. We introduce the notion of group-generic point for $\\bigvee$-definable groups and show the existence of group-generic points for definably compact groups definable in a sufficiently saturated o-minimal expansion of a real closed field. We use this notion along with some properties of generic sets to prove that for every definably compact definably connected group $G$ definable in...

  16. Optimum Criteria for Developing Defined Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic aspects concerning distributed applications are presented: definition, particularities and importance. For distributed applications linear, arborescent, graph structures are defined with different versions and aggregation methods. Distributed applications have associated structures which through their characteristics influence the costs of the stages in the development cycle and the exploitation costs transferred to each user. The complexity of the defined structures is analyzed. The minimum and maximum criteria are enumerated for optimizing distributed application structures.

  17. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  18. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  19. Modal Logics and Definability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusisto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research into the mathematical foundations of modal logic has become increasingly popular. One of the main reasons for this is the fact that modal logic seems to adapt well to the requirements of a wide range of different fields of application. This paper is a summary of some of the author’s contributions to the understanding of modal definability theory.

  20. Software Defined Cyberinfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ian; Blaiszik, Ben; Chard, Kyle; Chard, Ryan

    2017-07-17

    Within and across thousands of science labs, researchers and students struggle to manage data produced in experiments, simulations, and analyses. Largely manual research data lifecycle management processes mean that much time is wasted, research results are often irreproducible, and data sharing and reuse remain rare. In response, we propose a new approach to data lifecycle management in which researchers are empowered to define the actions to be performed at individual storage systems when data are created or modified: actions such as analysis, transformation, copying, and publication. We term this approach software-defined cyberinfrastructure because users can implement powerful data management policies by deploying rules to local storage systems, much as software-defined networking allows users to configure networks by deploying rules to switches.We argue that this approach can enable a new class of responsive distributed storage infrastructure that will accelerate research innovation by allowing any researcher to associate data workflows with data sources, whether local or remote, for such purposes as data ingest, characterization, indexing, and sharing. We report on early experiments with this approach in the context of experimental science, in which a simple if-trigger-then-action (IFTA) notation is used to define rules.

  1. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  2. Software Defined Coded Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Carla; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Palazzo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    the quality of each link and even across neighbouring links and using simulations to show that an additional reduction of packet transmission in the order of 40% is possible. Second, to advocate for the use of network coding (NC) jointly with software defined networking (SDN) providing an implementation...

  3. Defining depth of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, S L; Stanski, D R

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, drawn largely from the synthesis of material that we first presented in the sixth edition of Miller's Anesthesia, Chap 31 (Stanski and Shafer 2005; used by permission of the publisher), we have defined anesthetic depth as the probability of non-response to stimulation, calibrated against the strength of the stimulus, the difficulty of suppressing the response, and the drug-induced probability of non-responsiveness at defined effect site concentrations. This definition requires measurement of multiple different stimuli and responses at well-defined drug concentrations. There is no one stimulus and response measurement that will capture depth of anesthesia in a clinically or scientifically meaningful manner. The "clinical art" of anesthesia requires calibration of these observations of stimuli and responses (verbal responses, movement, tachycardia) against the dose and concentration of anesthetic drugs used to reduce the probability of response, constantly adjusting the administered dose to achieve the desired anesthetic depth. In our definition of "depth of anesthesia" we define the need for two components to create the anesthetic state: hypnosis created with drugs such as propofol or the inhalational anesthetics and analgesia created with the opioids or nitrous oxide. We demonstrate the scientific evidence that profound degrees of hypnosis in the absence of analgesia will not prevent the hemodynamic responses to profoundly noxious stimuli. Also, profound degrees of analgesia do not guarantee unconsciousness. However, the combination of hypnosis and analgesia suppresses hemodynamic response to noxious stimuli and guarantees unconsciousness.

  4. Defining and classifying syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Roland D.; Wieling, Wouter; Kaufmann, Horacio; van Dijk, Gert

    2004-01-01

    There is no widely adopted definition or classification of syncope and related disorders. This lack of uniformity harms patient care, research, and medical education. In this article, syncope is defined as a form of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) due to cerebral hypoperfusion. Differences

  5. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  6. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  7. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  8. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Staging piles. 264.554 Section 264.554... for Cleanup § 264.554 Staging piles. This section is written in a special format to make it easier to... staging pile? A staging pile is an accumulation of solid, non-flowing remediation waste (as defined in...

  9. Defined contribution health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    2001-03-01

    This Issue Brief discusses the emerging issue of "defined contribution" (DC) health benefits. The term "defined contribution" is used to describe a wide variety of approaches to the provision of health benefits, all of which have in common a shift in the responsibility for payment and selection of health care services from employers to employees. DC health benefits often are mentioned in the context of enabling employers to control their outlay for health benefits by avoiding increases in health care costs. DC health benefits may also shift responsibility for choosing a health plan and the associated risks of choosing a plan from employers to employees. There are three primary reasons why some employers currently are considering some sort of DC approach. First, they are once again looking for ways to keep their health care cost increases in line with overall inflation. Second, some employers are concerned that the public "backlash" against managed care will result in new legislation, regulations, and litigation that will further increase their health care costs if they do not distance themselves from health care decisions. Third, employers have modified not only most employee benefit plans, but labor market practices in general, by giving workers more choice, control, and flexibility. DC-type health benefits have existed as cafeteria plans since the 1980s. A cafeteria plan gives each employee the opportunity to determine the allocation of his or her total compensation (within employer-defined limits) among various employee benefits (primarily retirement or health). Most types of DC health benefits currently being discussed could be provided within the existing employment-based health insurance system, with or without the use of cafeteria plans. They could also allow employees to purchase health insurance directly from insurers, or they could drive new technologies and new forms of risk pooling through which health care services are provided and financed. DC health

  10. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement surrounding the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is associated with discovering the mechanism responsible for the masses of the elementary particles. This paper will first briefly examine the leading definitions, pointing out their shortcomings. Then, utilizing relativity theory, it will propose—for consideration by the community of physicists—a conceptual definition of mass predicated on the more fundamental concept of energy, more fundamental in that everything that has mass has energy, yet not everything that has energy has mass.

  11. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  12. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  13. Defining the mobilome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Janet L

    2009-01-01

    This chapter defines the agents that provide for the movement of genetic material which fuels the adaptive potential of life on our planet. The chapter has been structured to be broadly comprehensive, arbitrarily categorizing the mobilome into four classes: (1) transposons, (2) plasmids, (3) bacteriophage, and (4) self-splicing molecular parasites.Our increasing understanding of the mobilome is as dynamic as the mobilome itself. With continuing discovery, it is clear that nature has not confined these genomic agents of change to neat categories, but rather the classification categories overlap and intertwine. Massive sequencing efforts and their published analyses are continuing to refine our understanding of the extent of the mobilome. This chapter provides a framework to describe our current understanding of the mobilome and a foundation on which appreciation of its impact on genome evolution can be understood.

  14. Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    Network Service Providers (NSP) often choose to overprovision their networks instead of deploying proper Quality of Services (QoS) mechanisms that allow for traffic differentiation and predictable quality. This tendency of overprovisioning is not sustainable for the simple reason that network...... resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...... generic perspective (e.g. service provisioning speed, resources availability). As a result, new mechanisms for providing QoS are proposed, solutions for SDN-specific QoS challenges are designed and tested, and new network management concepts are prototyped, all aiming to improve QoS for network services...

  15. Defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  16. Teleology and Defining Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Nathan K; Pruski, Michal

    2018-07-01

    Disorders of sexual differentiation lead to what is often referred to as an intersex state. This state has medical, as well as some legal, recognition. Nevertheless, the question remains whether intersex persons occupy a state in between maleness and femaleness or whether they are truly men or women. To answer this question, another important conundrum needs to be first solved: what defines sex? The answer seems rather simple to most people, yet when morphology does not coincide with haplotypes, and genetics might not correlate with physiology the issue becomes more complex. This paper tackles both issues by establishing where the essence of sex is located and by superimposing that framework onto the issue of the intersex. This is achieved through giving due consideration to the biology of sexual development, as well as through the use of a teleological framework of the meaning of sex. Using a range of examples, the paper establishes that sex cannot be pinpointed to one biological variable but is rather determined by how the totality of one's biology is oriented towards biological reproduction. A brief consideration is also given to the way this situation could be comprehended from a Christian understanding of sex and suffering.

  17. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  18. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields.II

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We continue the analysis of definably compact groups definable in a real closed field $\\mathcal{R}$. In [3], we proved that for every definably compact definably connected semialgebraic group $G$ over $\\mathcal{R}$ there are a connected $R$-algebraic group $H$, a definable injective map $\\phi$ from a generic definable neighborhood of the identity of $G$ into the group $H\\left(R\\right)$ of $R$-points of $H$ such that $\\phi$ acts as a group homomorphism inside its domain. The above result and o...

  19. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  20. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  1. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  2. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  3. Defining Plagiarism: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism has repeatedly occurred in Indonesia, resulting in focusing on such academic misbehavior as a “central issue” in Indonesian higher education. One of the issues of addressing plagiarism in higher education is that there is a confusion of defining plagiarism. It seems that Indonesian academics had different perception when defining plagiarism. This article aims at exploring the issue of plagiarism by helping define plagiarism to address confusion among Indonesian academics. This article applies literature review by firs finding relevant articles after identifying databases for literature searching. After the collection of required articles for review, the articles were synthesized before presenting the findings. This study has explored the definition of plagiarism in the context of higher education. This research found that plagiarism is defined in the relation of criminal acts. The huge numbers of discursive features used position plagiaristic acts as an illegal deed. This study also found that cultural backgrounds and exposure to plagiarism were influential in defining plagiarism.

  4. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  5. Defining and Selecting Independent Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pichet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the Enlightened Shareholder Theory that the author first developed in 2011, this theoretical paper with practical and normative ambitions achieves a better definition of independent director, while improving the understanding of the roles he fulfils on boards of directors. The first part defines constructs like firms, Governance system and Corporate governance, offering a clear distinction between the latter two concepts before explaining the four main missions of a board. The second part defines the ideal independent director by outlining the objective qualities that are necessary and adding those subjective aspects that have turned this into a veritable profession. The third part defines the ideal process for selecting independent directors, based on nominating committees that should themselves be independent. It also includes ways of assessing directors who are currently in function, as well as modalities for renewing their mandates. The paper’s conclusion presents the Paradox of the Independent Director.

  6. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...... in the organizational attributes of specific interest group types. As expected, our comparison of coding schemes reveals a closer link between group attributes and group type in narrower classification schemes based on group organizational characteristics than those based on a behavioral definition of lobbying....

  7. ON DEFINING S-SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Strati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work is intended to be an introduction to the Superposition Theory of David Carfì. In particular I shall depict the meaning of his brand new theory, on the one hand in an informal fashion and on the other hand by giving a formal approach of the algebraic structure of the theory: the S-linear algebra. This kind of structure underpins the notion of S-spaces (or Carfì-spaces by defining both its properties and its nature. Thus I shall define the S-triple as the fundamental principle upon which the S-linear algebra is built up.

  8. Defining and Differentiating the Makerspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousay, Tonia A.

    2017-01-01

    Many resources now punctuate the maker movement landscape. However, some schools and communities still struggle to understand this burgeoning movement. How do we define these spaces and differentiate them from previous labs and shops? Through a multidimensional framework, stakeholders should consider how the structure, access, staffing, and tools…

  9. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to define the programme of a conference in Indico. The program of your conference is divided in different “tracks”. Tracks represent the subject matter of the conference, such as “Online Computing”, “Offline Computing”, and so on.

  10. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  11. How do people define moderation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Delose, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  13. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  14. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  15. (Re)Defining Salesperson Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Rushana; de Jong, Ad; Lee, Nick

    2018-01-01

    The construct of motivation is one of the central themes in selling and sales management research. Yet, to-date no review article exists that surveys the construct (both from an extrinsic and intrinsic motivation context), critically evaluates its current status, examines various key challenges...... apparent from the extant research, and suggests new research opportunities based on a thorough review of past work. The authors explore how motivation is defined, major theories underpinning motivation, how motivation has historically been measured, and key methodologies used over time. In addition......, attention is given to principal drivers and outcomes of salesperson motivation. A summarizing appendix of key articles in salesperson motivation is provided....

  16. Defining Usability of PN Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Ahola, Titta; Fleury, Alexandre

    In this deliverable usability and user experience are defined in relation to MAGNET Beyond technologies, and it is described how the main MAGNET Beyond concepts can be evaluated through the involvement of users. The concepts include the new "Activity based communication approach" for interacting...... with the MAGNET Beyond system, as well as the core concepts: Personal Network, Personal Network-Federation, Service Discovery, User Profile Management, Personal Network Management, Privacy and Security and Context Awareness. The overall plans for the final usability evaluation are documented based on the present...

  17. Expressiveness and definability in circumscription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francicleber Martins Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate expressiveness and definability issues with respect to minimal models, particularly in the scope of Circumscription. First, we give a proof of the failure of the Löwenheim-Skolem Theorem for Circumscription. Then we show that, if the class of P; Z-minimal models of a first-order sentence is Δ-elementary, then it is elementary. That is, whenever the circumscription of a first-order sentence is equivalent to a first-order theory, then it is equivalent to a finitely axiomatizable one. This means that classes of models of circumscribed theories are either elementary or not Δ-elementary. Finally, using the previous result, we prove that, whenever a relation Pi is defined in the class of P; Z-minimal models of a first-order sentence Φ and whenever such class of P; Z-minimal models is Δ-elementary, then there is an explicit definition ψ for Pi such that the class of P; Z-minimal models of Φ is the class of models of Φ ∧ ψ. In order words, the circumscription of P in Φ with Z varied can be replaced by Φ plus this explicit definition ψ for Pi.

  18. Defining Quality in Undergraduate Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. Bowers

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research brief explores the literature addressing quality in undergraduate education to identify what previous research has said about quality and to offer future directions for research on quality in undergraduate education. Method: We conducted a scoping review to provide a broad overview of existing research. Using targeted search terms in academic databases, we identified and reviewed relevant academic literature to develop emergent themes and implications for future research. Results: The exploratory review of the literature revealed a range of thoughtful discussions and empirical studies attempting to define quality in undergraduate education. Many publications highlighted the importance of including different stakeholder perspectives and presented some of the varying perceptions of quality among different stakeholders. Conclusions: While a number of researchers have explored and written about how to define quality in undergraduate education, there is not a general consensus regarding a definition of quality in undergraduate education. Past research offers a range of insights, models, and data to inform future research. Implication for Theory and/or Practice: We provide four recommendations for future research to contribute to a high quality undergraduate educational experience. We suggest more comprehensive systematic reviews of the literature as a next step.

  19. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio

  20. Summary Stage 2018 - SEER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access this manual of codes and coding instructions for the summary stage field for cases diagnosed January 1, 2018 and forward. 2018 version applies to every site and/or histology combination, including lymphomas and leukemias. Historically, also called General Staging, California Staging, and SEER Staging.

  1. Defining the "normal" postejaculate urinalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Akanksha; Jarow, Jonathan P; Maples, Pat; Sigman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Although sperm have been shown to be present in the postejaculate urinalysis (PEU) of both fertile and infertile men, the number of sperm present in the PEU of the general population has never been well defined. The objective of this study was to describe the semen and PEU findings in both the general and infertile population, in order to develop a better appreciation for "normal." Infertile men (n = 77) and control subjects (n = 71) were prospectively recruited. Exclusion criteria included azoospermia and medications known to affect ejaculation. All men underwent a history, physical examination, semen analysis, and PEU. The urine was split into 2 containers: PEU1, the initial voided urine, and PEU2, the remaining voided urine. Parametric statistical methods were applied for data analysis to compare sperm concentrations in each sample of semen and urine between the 2 groups of men. Controls had higher average semen volume (3.3 ± 1.6 vs 2.0 ± 1.4 mL, P sperm concentrations (112 million vs 56.2 million, P = .011), compared with infertile men. The presence of sperm in urine was common in both groups, but more prevalent among infertile men (98.7% vs 88.7%, P = .012), in whom it comprised a greater proportion of the total sperm count (46% vs 24%, P = .022). The majority of sperm present in PEU were seen in PEU1 of both controls (69%) and infertile men (88%). An association was noted between severe oligospermia (sperm counts in PEU (sperm in the urine compared with control, there is a large degree of overlap between the 2 populations, making it difficult to identify a specific threshold to define a positive test. Interpretation of a PEU should be directed by whether the number of sperm in the urine could affect subsequent management.

  2. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  3. [How to define Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, Michel

    2011-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease, which was considered to be a rare disease in subjects aged under 65 until the seventies/eighties, has become a very common disease affecting mostly older subjects. Many consider that it is important to review the meaning of the eponym "Alzheimer's disease", and a revolution, quite literally, is likely to occur. The role of vascular lesions in the onset of dementias among older subjects is widely acknowledged; considering those dementias as Alzheimer's disease may have negative consequences for patient management. Indeed, vascular lesions can be prevented and treated, while Alzheimer's lesions cannot. It may be justified to use "Alzheimer syndrome" instead of "Alzheimer's disease" when vascular risk factors and, all the more so, vascular lesions are present. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of the pathological proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease, as well as their effects on neurons and synapses. However, the etiology of the disease is still unknown, except in the rare hereditary cases, and there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease at present. Clinical research is progressing, and diagnostic criteria for the pre-dementia stage of Alzheimer's disease were suggested. In France, the outstanding Alzheimer plan 2008-2012 should play an important role in enhancing the understanding of Alzheimer's disease, Alzheimer's syndromes and related disorders.

  4. The benefits of defining "snacks".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie M; Slavin, Joanne L

    2018-04-18

    Whether eating a "snack" is considered a beneficial or detrimental behavior is largely based on how "snack" is defined. The term "snack food" tends to connote energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods high in nutrients to limit (sugar, sodium, and/or saturated fat) like cakes, cookies, chips and other salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Eating a "snack food" is often conflated with eating a "snack," however, leading to an overall perception of snacks as a dietary negative. Yet the term "snack" can also refer simply to an eating occasion outside of breakfast, lunch, or dinner. With this definition, the evidence to support health benefits or detriments to eating a "snack" remains unclear, in part because relatively few well-designed studies that specifically focus on the impact of eating frequency on health have been conducted. Despite these inconsistencies and research gaps, in much of the nutrition literature, "snacking" is still referred to as detrimental to health. As discussed in this review, however, there are multiple factors that influence the health impacts of snacking, including the definition of "snack" itself, the motivation to snack, body mass index of snack eaters, and the food selected as a snack. Without a definition of "snack" and a body of research using methodologically rigorous protocols, determining the health impact of eating a "snack" will continue to elude the nutrition research community and prevent the development of evidence-based policies about snacking that support public health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Roentgenological criteria od assessment of stages of hydronephrosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlova, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    A new parenchymatous index was proposed in order to raise the resolving power of excretory urography, and 3 stages of hydronephrosis were defined on the basis of quantitative indices. X-ray criteria were defined to prevent surgery in a group of children with the initial stage of disease. A group of patients with the terminal stage of hydronephrosis was subdivided into 2 groups: 1) sparing operation, 2) nephrectomy

  6. Research Productivity by Career Stage among Korean Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jisun

    2014-01-01

    This study explores Korean academics' changes in research productivity by career stage. Career stage in this study is defined as a specific cohort based on one's length of job experience, with those in the same stage sharing similar interests, values, needs, and tasks; it is categorized into fledglings, maturing academics, established academics,…

  7. Defining safety goals. 2. Basic Consideration on Defining Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakata, T.

    2001-01-01

    cancer and severe hereditary effects are 10 x 10 -2 /Sv and 1.3 x10 -2 /Sv, respectively. The basic safety goals can be expressed by the complementary accumulative distribution function (CCDF) of dose versus frequencies of events: Pc(C > Cp) 5 (Cp/Co) -α . The aversion factor a is here expressed by the following arbitrary equation, which gives a polynomial curve of the order of m on a logarithmic plane: α = a+b(log(Cp/Co)) m , where: Pc = CCDF frequency for Cp (/yr), Cp = dose (mSv), Co = Cp for Pc =1, a, b, m = constants. Figure 1 shows a typical tolerable risk profile (risk limit curve), which is drawn so that all the points obtained in the previous discussions are above the curve (Co=1, a=1, b=0.0772, and m = 2). Safety criteria by ANS (Ref. 2) and SHE (Ref. 3) are shown in Fig. 1 for comparison. An aversion of a factor of 2 is resulted between 1 mSv and 1 Sv. No ALARA is included, which must be considered in defining specific safety goals. The frequency of a single class of events must be lower than the CCDF profile, and a curve lower by a factor of 10 is drawn in Fig. 1. The doses referenced in the current Japanese safety guidelines and site criteria are shown in Fig. 1. The referenced doses seem reasonable, considering the conservatism in the analysis of design-basis accidents. Specific safety goals for each sort of facility can be defined based on the basic safety goals, reflecting the characteristics of the facilities and considering ALARA. The indexes of engineering terms, such as CMF and LERF, are preferable for nuclear power plants, although interpretation from dose to the engineering terms is needed. Other indexes may be used (such as frequency of criticality accidents, etc.) for facilities except for power plants. The applicability of safety goals will thus be improved. Figure 2 shows the relative risk factors (1, 1%, and 0.1%) versus the severity of radiation effects. This might indicate the adequacy of the risk factors. The absolute risk limits, which

  8. Defining Tobacco Regulatory Science Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather L; Berman, Micah; Hanson, Kacey; Kelder, Steven; Solis, Amy; Villanti, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Meissner, Helen I; Anderson, Roger

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015. The final proposed list included a total of 51 competencies across six core domains and 28 competencies across five specialized domains. There is a need for continued discussion to establish the utility of the proposed set of competencies for emerging TRS curricula and to identify the best strategies for incorporating these competencies into TRS training programs. Given the field's broad multidisciplinary nature, further experience is needed to refine the core domains that should be covered in TRS training programs versus knowledge obtained in more specialized programs. Regulatory science to inform the regulation of tobacco products is an emerging field. The paper provides an initial list of core and specialized domains and competencies to be used in developing curricula for new and emerging training programs aimed at preparing a new cohort of scientists to conduct critical TRS research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Seven Stages of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease > Stages Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: An Interactive Tour Risk Factors Diagnosis Treatments Myths Clinical Studies Research Brain Donation ...

  10. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peritoneal cancer; the first panel (stage IIA) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the uterus and fallopian tube. The second panel (stage IIB) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the colon. The third ...

  11. Late-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  12. Stages and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  13. Early-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  14. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the cancer. This blockage can cause the kidney to enlarge or stop working. Stage IIIB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  15. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  16. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  17. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  18. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the omentum. The cancer ... lymph nodes behind the peritoneum. In stage IIIC, cancer is found in one or both ovaries or fallopian tubes and has spread to the ...

  19. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  20. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  1. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  2. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  3. Multiple stage railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaland, K.; Hawke, R.S.; Scudder, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage

  4. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe, and if successful, these therapies should efficiently obtain regulatory approval and widespread clinical application. In late 2009 and 2010 the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC), convened an "Immunotherapy Summit" with representatives from immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed in this report. Some of the identified hurdles impede all investigators; others hinder investigators only in certain regions or institutions or are more relevant to specific types of immunotherapy or first-in-humans studies. Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances in immunotherapy yet if overcome, have the potential to improve outcomes of patients with cancer. PMID:22168571

  5. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Bernard A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe, and if successful, these therapies should efficiently obtain regulatory approval and widespread clinical application. In late 2009 and 2010 the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC, convened an "Immunotherapy Summit" with representatives from immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed in this report. Some of the identified hurdles impede all investigators; others hinder investigators only in certain regions or institutions or are more relevant to specific types of immunotherapy or first-in-humans studies. Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances in immunotherapy yet if overcome, have the potential to improve outcomes of patients with cancer.

  6. Turbine stage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantsev, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of turbine stage for calculations of NPP turbine department dynamics in real time was developed. The simulation results were compared with manufacturer calculations for NPP low-speed and fast turbines. The comparison results have shown that the model is valid for real time simulation of all modes of turbines operation. The model allows calculating turbine stage parameters with 1% accuracy. It was shown that the developed turbine stage model meets the accuracy requirements if the data of turbine blades setting angles for all turbine stages are available [ru

  7. MR staging of endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innocenti, P.; Agostini, S.; Erroi, C.; Ambrogetti, D.; Cellerini, A.; Nori, J.

    1991-01-01

    Biopsy is the technique of choice for the definitive diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma. Since lymphatic tumor spread has been demonstrated to depend on the degree of myometrial involvement, the definition of the latter with imaging techniques may significantly affect both pfognosis and therapy. We investigated, by means of MR imaging at 0.5 T, 14 patients with endometrial carcinoma, to assess both tumor stage and myometrial involvement. FIGO staging system was employed, and M parameter evaluated (M0= no myometrial involvement; M1involvement confined to the inner third; M2= Involvement confined to the middle third; M3= involvement of the whole myometrium). Another parameter was the characteristic high signal of the tumor on PD and T2W images. The patients were then operated and MR information was correlated with surgical findings. Overall diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging was 85.7% in tumor staging, and 92.2% in defining M parameter. Tumor spread into adnexa and into cervical canal was poorly demonstrated by MR imaging

  8. Non-AIDS-defining cancers in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marco; Johnson, Daniel; Reske, Tom; Cefalu, Charles; Estrada, John

    2013-01-01

    Non-AIDS-defining cancers in HIV-infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era have increased. To our knowledge a comprehensive review of non-AIDS-related malignancies in New Orleans has not yet been conducted. Databases from main institutions in New Orleans were queried retrospectively for the years 2001 to 2011. The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes were used to search for HIV infection and cancer comorbidity. A total of 16 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer (mean age 50 years) with 81% of the patients presenting with advanced stages. In all, 20 (mean age 47 years) were diagnosed with anal cancer, and 35% presented in late stages. In all, 14 patients (mean age 42 years) were diagnosed with Hodgkin Lymphoma, and 64% were diagnosed at late stage. A total of 5 women (mean age 44 years) were diagnosed with breast cancer with 40% of them presenting at late stage. Malignancies were diagnosed at late stages in the majority of the cases, presented with worse outcomes, and had higher recurrence rates. The role of HIV and other viruses (Epstein Barr virus, human papillomavirus) and the potential mechanisms or pathways of oncogene activation also need to be clarified.

  9. deep-orange and carnation define distinct stages in late endosomal biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, V; Krishnan, K S; Mayor, Satyajit

    2003-05-12

    Endosomal degradation is severely impaired in primary hemocytes from larvae of eye color mutants of Drosophila. Using high resolution imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy in these cells, products of eye color genes, deep-orange (dor) and carnation (car), are localized to large multivesicular Rab7-positive late endosomes containing Golgi-derived enzymes. These structures mature into small sized Dor-negative, Car-positive structures, which subsequently fuse to form tubular lysosomes. Defective endosomal degradation in mutant alleles of dor results from a failure of Golgi-derived vesicles to fuse with morphologically arrested Rab7-positive large sized endosomes, which are, however, normally acidified and mature with wild-type kinetics. This locates the site of Dor function to fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles with the large Rab7-positive endocytic compartments. In contrast, endosomal degradation is not considerably affected in car1 mutant; fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles and maturation of large sized endosomes is normal. However, removal of Dor from small sized Car-positive endosomes is slowed, and subsequent fusion with tubular lysosomes is abolished. Overexpression of Dor in car1 mutant aggravates this defect, implicating Car in the removal of Dor from endosomes. This suggests that, in addition to an independent role in fusion with tubular lysosomes, the Sec1p homologue, Car, regulates Dor function.

  10. deep-orange and carnation define distinct stages in late endosomal biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, V.; Krishnan, K.S.; Mayor, Satyajit

    2003-01-01

    Endosomal degradation is severely impaired in primary hemocytes from larvae of eye color mutants of Drosophila. Using high resolution imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy in these cells, products of eye color genes, deep-orange (dor) and carnation (car), are localized to large multivesicular Rab7-positive late endosomes containing Golgi-derived enzymes. These structures mature into small sized Dor-negative, Car-positive structures, which subsequently fuse to form tubular lysosomes. Defec...

  11. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Call for Abstracts

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial, you will learn how to define and open a call for abstracts. When defining a call for abstracts, you will be able to define settings related to the type of questions asked during a review of an abstract, select the users who will review the abstracts, decide when to open the call for abstracts, and more.

  12. On defining semantics of extended attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    Knuth has introduced attribute grammars (AGs) as a tool to define the semanitcs of context-free languages. The use of AGs in connection with programming language definitions has mostly been to define the context-sensitive syntax of the language and to define a translation in code for a hypothetic...

  13. Languages for Software-Defined Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    switches, firewalls, and middleboxes) with closed and proprietary configuration inter- faces. Software - Defined Networks ( SDN ) are poised to change...how- ever, have seen growing interest in software - defined networks ( SDNs ), in which a logically-centralized controller manages the packet-processing...switches, firewalls, and middleboxes) with closed and proprietary configuration interfaces. Software - Defined Networks ( SDN ) are poised to change this

  14. Stages of Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... under a microscope . Stage II In stage II , cancer has spread: to connective tissue just under the skin of the penis . Also, ... spread to one lymph node in the groin . Cancer has also spread: to connective tissue just under the skin of the penis . Also, ...

  15. Single-stage-to-orbit versus two-stage-two-orbit: A cost perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, Joseph W.

    1996-03-01

    This paper considers the possible life-cycle costs of single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) and two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) reusable launch vehicles (RLV's). The analysis parametrically addresses the issue such that the preferred economic choice comes down to the relative complexity of the TSTO compared to the SSTO. The analysis defines the boundary complexity conditions at which the two configurations have equal life-cycle costs, and finally, makes a case for the economic preference of SSTO over TSTO.

  16. Staging for vulvar cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Neville F; Barlow, Ellen L

    2015-08-01

    Vulvar cancer has been staged by the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) since 1969, and the original staging system was based on clinical findings only. This system provided a very good spread of prognostic groupings. Because vulvar cancer is virtually always treated surgically, the status of the lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor and this can only be determined with certainty by histological examination of resected lymph nodes, FIGO introduced a surgical staging system in 1988. This was modified in 1994 to include a category of microinvasive vulvar cancer (stage IA), because such patients have virtually no risk of lymph node metastases. This system did not give a reasonably even spread of prognostic groupings. In addition, patients with stage III disease were shown to be a heterogeneous group prognostically, and the number of positive nodes and the morphology of those nodes were not taken into account. A new surgical staging system for vulvar cancer was introduced by FIGO in 2009. Initial retrospective analyses have suggested that this new staging system has overcome the major deficiencies in the 1994 system. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Staged bilateral carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Engell, Hans Christian

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 56 staged bilateral carotid endarterectomies, new neurologic symptoms developed in 5% and 20% following the first and second procedure, respectively. All complications were transient or minor. The incidence of postendarterectomy hypertension was significantly higher following...... the second procedure, when operations were staged less than 3 weeks apart. A correlation between these hypertensive episodes and the occurrence of new neurologic symptoms could not be shown. However, as this correlation has been proved in several other reports, bilateral carotid endarterectomy is advised...... to be staged at least 3 weeks apart. In addition, a conservative attitude towards contralateral asymptomatic lesions is proposed....

  18. Staging of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-06-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Thorough clinical staging of patients with lung cancer is important, because therapeutic options and management are to a considerable degree dependent on stage at presentation. Radiologic imaging is an essential component of clinical staging, including chest radiography in some cases, computed tomography, MRI, and PET. Multiplanar imaging modalities allow assessment of features that are important for surgical, oncologic, and radiation therapy planning, including size of the primary tumor, location and relationship to normal anatomic structures in the thorax, and existence of nodal and/or metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stages of Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ultrasound monitor . The picture can be printed to be looked at later. MRI (magnetic resonance ... procedures may be used in the staging process: Bone scan : A procedure to check if there are ...

  20. Multiple Stages 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  1. A second stage homogenization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makai, M.

    1981-01-01

    A second homogenization is needed before the diffusion calculation of the core of large reactors. Such a second stage homogenization is outlined here. Our starting point is the Floquet theorem for it states that the diffusion equation for a periodic core always has a particular solution of the form esup(j)sup(B)sup(x) u (x). It is pointed out that the perturbation series expansion of function u can be derived by solving eigenvalue problems and the eigenvalues serve to define homogenized cross sections. With the help of these eigenvalues a homogenized diffusion equation can be derived the solution of which is cos Bx, the macroflux. It is shown that the flux can be expressed as a series of buckling. The leading term in this series is the well known Wigner-Seitz formula. Finally three examples are given: periodic absorption, a cell with an absorber pin in the cell centre, and a cell of three regions. (orig.)

  2. Second Stage Turbine Bucket Airfoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liming; Ahmadi, Majid; Humanchuk, David John; Moretto, Nicholas; Delehanty, Richard Edward

    2003-05-06

    The second-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in inches in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinate values defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X, Y and Z values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket.

  3. Stages of ores formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Deposit formation (especially endogenous) is the complicated, multi-stage and long process. Establishment of deposit formation succession, age-specific correlations of minerals and aggregates have a high importance at solving genetic questions. Studying of minerals correlations and mineral aggregates, succession of their crystallization and other observations let restore the history of deposit formation, pick up in it different on duration and physical and chemical conditions stages

  4. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  5. Staging with spatial filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.

    1974-01-01

    It is known that small scale beam instabilities limit the focusable energy that can be achieved from a terawatt laser chain. Spatial filters are currently being used on CYCLOPS to ameliorate this problem. Realizing the full advantage of such a filter, however, may require certain staging modifications. A staging methodology is discussed that should be applicable to the CYCLOPS, 381, and SHIVA systems. Experiments are in progress on CYCLOPS that will address directly the utility of the proposed approach

  6. First Stage Acceptance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-01-01

    This photograph shows the intense smoke and fire created by the five F-1 engines from a test firing of the Saturn V first stage (S-1C) in the S-1C test stand at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  7. Updated guidelines on the preoperative staging of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Recent studies have provided prognostic information and recommendations for staging thyroid cancers that have changed the staging and management guidelines for the disease. Consequently, minimal extrathyroidal extension (ETE) was removed from the T3 stage classification in the eighth edition of the TNM staging system by the American Joint Committee on Cancer. New T categories have been subsequently added, including T3a, defined as a tumor >4 cm in its greatest dimension, limited to the thyroid gland, and T3b, defined as a tumor of any size with gross ETE invading only the strap muscles. In this article, the author reviews the changes in the TNM staging system for thyroid cancer, with an emphasis on ultrasonography in preoperative staging.

  8. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  9. 22 CFR 92.36 - Authentication defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authentication defined. 92.36 Section 92.36... Notarial Acts § 92.36 Authentication defined. An authentication is a certification of the genuineness of... recognized in another jurisdiction. Documents which may require authentication include legal instruments...

  10. A definability theorem for first order logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butz, C.; Moerdijk, I.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we will present a definability theorem for first order logic This theorem is very easy to state and its proof only uses elementary tools To explain the theorem let us first observe that if M is a model of a theory T in a language L then clearly any definable subset S M ie a subset S

  11. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  12. Defining Hardwood Veneer Log Quality Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Michael Wiemann; Delton Alderman; John Baumgras; William Luppold

    2004-01-01

    This publication provides a broad spectrum of information on the hardwood veneer industry in North America. Veneer manufacturers and their customers impose guidelines in specifying wood quality attributes that are very discriminating but poorly defined (e.g., exceptional color, texture, and/or figure characteristics). To better understand and begin to define the most...

  13. Composers on stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    A trend on the scene of contemporary music is composers going on stage, performing their pieces themselves. Within a discourse of popular music, this is more the rule than exception, but when it comes to the context of contemporary scored music, the historical and aesthetic context differs......, and something quite different is undergoing. This paper intends to discuss three examples of performances in which the composer’s appearance on stage was an important part of the piece, - both when it came to the role as a performer and as an individual person – as representer and presenter. The paper intends...

  14. Are stage IV vestibular schwannomas preoperatively different from other stages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Stéphane; Dubreuil, Christian; Zaouche, Sandra; Ferber-Viart, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to focus on the clinical and paraclinical symptoms of patients suffering from Stage IV vestibular schwannomas (VSs). In this prospective study, we included 734 patients who have VS and candidates for operation. Patients were classified as having Stage I, II, III, or IV tumors according to Tos criteria as evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. PREOPERATIVE CLINICAL EVALUATION: We recorded the occurrence of complaints (%) and duration (yr) of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorder. Preoperative paraclinical evaluation included pure-tone (PTA) and speech audiometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR) patterns, and vestibular deficit at videonystamography (VNG). Continuous variables were compared between Stage IV and other stages using analysis of variance. Qualitative variables expressed as a percentage of presence were compared between Stage IV and other stages using percentage comparison. Quantitative Parameters. Patients with Stage IV VS were significantly younger as compared with patients with other stages. Stage IV hearing loss was greater compared with other stages at 250 and 500 Hz but smaller at 2,000 and 8,000 Hz. We found no difference in the loss of PTA between Stage IV and the other stages. Speech discriminancy score was smaller in Stage IV. The durations of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorders were similar whatever the tumor stage. Auditory brainstem response patterns showed no difference in Wave III latency between Stage IV VS and other stages, whereas Wave V latency and V-I interval were higher in Stage IV. Both ABR threshold and VNG caloric deficit were higher in Stage IV VS compared with other stages. Qualitative Parameters. The percentage of patients with Stage IV was lower than that with Stages II and III. The percentage of men and women was similar in all stages. The occurrence of hearing loss was similar in all stages, whereas that of tinnitus was lower in Stage IV compared with Stages I and II. In

  15. Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, André; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W., E-mail: hans.w.schumacher@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-06-21

    We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

  16. A Novel Inflammation-Based Stage (I Stage in Patients with Resectable Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Cheng Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation plays a key role in cancer. In the current study, we proposed a novel inflammation-based stage, named I stage, for patients with resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Methods. Three hundred and twenty-three patients with resectable ESCC were enrolled in the current study. The I stage was calculated as follows: patients with high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP (>10 mg/L, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR (>3.5, and platelet-count-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR (>150 were defined as I3. Patients with two, one, or no abnormal value were defined as I2, I1, or I0, respectively. The prognostic factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. There were 112 patients for I0, 97 patients for I1, 66 patients for I2, and 48 patients for I3, respectively. The 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS in patients with I0, I1, I2, and I3 was 50.0%, 30.9%, 18.2%, and 8.3%, respectively (I0 versus I1, P=0.002; I1 versus I2, P=0.012; I2 versus I3, P=0.020. Multivariate analyses revealed that I stage was an independent prognostic factor in patients with resectable ESCC (P<0.001. Conclusion. The inflammation-based stage (I stage is a novel and useful predictive factor for CSS in patients with resectable ESCC.

  17. Linac project - actual stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin Filho, N.

    1990-01-01

    The actual development stage of Pelletron accelerator to study heavy ion reactions, nuclear structures and applied nuclear physics is presented. The construction of acceleration systems able to provide beams of several mass and energies up to 20 MeV/A, is discussed, describing acceleration structures and implemented systems. (M.C.K.)

  18. Stagings of Divine Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Based on a combination of performativity and historicity royal Danish ceremonilality is analysed with a special regard to coronation ceremonies as a manifestation of the idea of godgiven royal power. Point of departure is the coronation of Christian 4. in 1596 and the theme of stagings of power...

  19. "Stage 40" Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill River Union High School, North Clarendon, VT.

    The policies, purposes, and guidelines of "Stage 40," an educational repertory company for students, are presented in this paper, which also explains how the company functions. The paper discusses the company's history, the relationship between the company and academics, and the responsibilities of a company member. Letters by the board…

  20. Stage theta pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Downing, J.N.; Gribble, R.F.; Jacobson, A.R.; Platts, D.A.; Thomas, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    The Staged Theta Pinch program is designed to study the technological and physics problems associated with producing fat plasmas and separating the implosion heating from the adiabatic compression. Several methods of implosion heating are discussed. Circuit diagrams and theoretical magnetic field behavior are described for the STP and resonant heating experiments. (MOW)

  1. World Stage Design

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    12-19. III Torontos rahvusvaheline lavakujunduse, kostüümi ning valgus- ja helikujunduse näitus, mis toimub samaaegselt OISTATi (International Organization of Scenographers, Theatre Architects and Technicians) maailmakongressiga ja USITT (United States Institute for Theatre Technology) üritustega (konverents, Stage Expo). Eestit esindab lavakujunduse kategoorias Lilja Blumenfeld-Luhse

  2. stage/page/play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    context. Contributors: Per Brask, Dario Fo, Jette Barnholdt Hansen, Pil Hansen, Sven Åke Heed, Ulla Kallenbach, Sofie Kluge, Annelis Kuhlmann, Kela Kvam, Anna Lawaetz, Bent Flemming Nielsen, Franco Perrelli, Magnus Tessing Schneider, Antonio Scuderi. stage/page/play is published as a festschrift...

  3. Application-Defined Decentralized Access Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Dunn, Alan M.; Hofmann, Owen S.; Lee, Michael Z.; Mehdi, Syed Akbar; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    DCAC is a practical OS-level access control system that supports application-defined principals. It allows normal users to perform administrative operations within their privilege, enabling isolation and privilege separation for applications. It does not require centralized policy specification or management, giving applications freedom to manage their principals while the policies are still enforced by the OS. DCAC uses hierarchically-named attributes as a generic framework for user-defined policies such as groups defined by normal users. For both local and networked file systems, its execution time overhead is between 0%–9% on file system microbenchmarks, and under 1% on applications. This paper shows the design and implementation of DCAC, as well as several real-world use cases, including sandboxing applications, enforcing server applications’ security policies, supporting NFS, and authenticating user-defined sub-principals in SSH, all with minimal code changes. PMID:25426493

  4. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this research is to propose a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-band, multi-mode, miniaturized frequency-agile EVA software defined radio...

  5. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI is actively developing Software Defined Radio platforms that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation by modifying both transmit waveforms and...

  6. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of Phase 2 is to build a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-mode, miniaturized EVA Software Defined Radio (SDR) that supports data telemetry,...

  7. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation Inc, (IAI) is currently developing a software defined radio (SDR) platform that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation for...

  8. Stages in the Formation of the Romanian Mental Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POMPEI COCEAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the evolution of the Romanian mental space, four distinct stages can be emphasized, each of them bringing its specific contribution to its defining and structuring. These stages are the following: the forerunning, Dacian stage, the 2nd century B.C. - 106 A.D.; the incipient, Dacian-Roman stage, 105 – 275 A.D.; the structuring, proto-Romanian stage, 275 – the 6th and 7th centuries; the Romanian stage of completion and affirmation, the 8th century – nowadays. Each stage is characterized by different forms, in continuous affirmation and improvement, of interrelations between the human communities and the site, of spiritually sublimation of the physical-geographical substratum features, of the territory inhabited by them.

  9. Deficient motion-defined and texture-defined figure-ground segregation in amblyopic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jane; Ho, Cindy S; Giaschi, Deborah E

    2007-01-01

    Motion-defined form deficits in the fellow eye and the amblyopic eye of children with amblyopia implicate possible direction-selective motion processing or static figure-ground segregation deficits. Deficient motion-defined form perception in the fellow eye of amblyopic children may not be fully accounted for by a general motion processing deficit. This study investigates the contribution of figure-ground segregation deficits to the motion-defined form perception deficits in amblyopia. Performances of 6 amblyopic children (5 anisometropic, 1 anisostrabismic) and 32 control children with normal vision were assessed on motion-defined form, texture-defined form, and global motion tasks. Performance on motion-defined and texture-defined form tasks was significantly worse in amblyopic children than in control children. Performance on global motion tasks was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Faulty figure-ground segregation mechanisms are likely responsible for the observed motion-defined form perception deficits in amblyopia.

  10. Calibration of Nanopositioning Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy is one of the most important criteria for the performance evaluation of micro- and nanorobots or systems. Nanopositioning stages are used to achieve the high positioning resolution and accuracy for a wide and growing scope of applications. However, their positioning accuracy and repeatability are not well known and difficult to guarantee, which induces many drawbacks for many applications. For example, in the mechanical characterisation of biological samples, it is difficult to perform several cycles in a repeatable way so as not to induce negative influences on the study. It also prevents one from controlling accurately a tool with respect to a sample without adding additional sensors for closed loop control. This paper aims at quantifying the positioning repeatability and accuracy based on the ISO 9283:1998 standard, and analyzing factors influencing positioning accuracy onto a case study of 1-DoF (Degree-of-Freedom nanopositioning stage. The influence of thermal drift is notably quantified. Performances improvement of the nanopositioning stage are then investigated through robot calibration (i.e., open-loop approach. Two models (static and adaptive models are proposed to compensate for both geometric errors and thermal drift. Validation experiments are conducted over a long period (several days showing that the accuracy of the stage is improved from typical micrometer range to 400 nm using the static model and even down to 100 nm using the adaptive model. In addition, we extend the 1-DoF calibration to multi-DoF with a case study of a 2-DoF nanopositioning robot. Results demonstrate that the model efficiently improved the 2D accuracy from 1400 nm to 200 nm.

  11. Defining the public, defining sociology: hybrid science-public relations and boundary-work in early American sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I examine how scientific disciplines define their boundaries by defining the publics with whom they engage. The case study is an episode in the development of early American sociology. In response to the dual challenge of credibility set up by the conflict between religious Baconian science and secular positivist science, key actors engaged in specific strategies of boundary-work to create their desired "sociological public"--a hybrid form of science-public relations that appealed to hostile university scientists while excluding a supportive religious audience from participation in the production of scientific knowledge. Using this case, I offer two specific insights. First I illustrate how, in the pursuit of scientific credibility, actors engage in boundary-work to differentiate audiences, not just practitioners. Such defining of publics is constitutive of scientific disciplines in their formative stage. Second, I demonstrate how audience boundaries can be redefined through the capture of existing boundary objects. Specifically, the removal of informational content in key boundary objects creates durable boundaries that are difficult to overcome.

  12. Summary Staging Manual 2000 - SEER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access this manual of codes and coding instructions for the summary stage field for cases diagnosed 2001-2017. 2000 version applies to every anatomic site. It uses all information in the medical record. Also called General Staging, California Staging, and SEER Staging.

  13. Hanford defined waste model limitations and improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARMSEN, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan, Milestone 5,6.3.1.i requires issuance of this report which addresses ''updates to the tank contents model''. This report summarizes the review of the Hanford Defined Waste, Revision 4, model limitations and provides conclusions and recommendations for potential updates to the model

  14. Parallel Education and Defining the Fourth Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessell, Diana

    1996-01-01

    Parallel to the primary, secondary, postsecondary, and adult/community education sectors is education not associated with formal programs--learning in arts and cultural sites. The emergence of cultural and educational tourism is an opportunity for adult/community education to define itself by extending lifelong learning opportunities into parallel…

  15. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Glaros, A.G.; Kato, T.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G.J.; de Leeuw, R.; Manfredini, D.; Svensson, P.; Winocur, E.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined

  16. 7 CFR 28.950 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Definitions § 28.950 Terms defined. As used... Agricultural Marketing Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. (c) Administrator. The Administrator of...

  17. 47 CFR 54.401 - Lifeline defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.401 Lifeline defined. (a) As used in this subpart, Lifeline means a retail local service offering: (1) That is available only to qualifying low-income consumers; (2) For which qualifying low-income consumers pay reduced charges as a result of...

  18. How Should Energy Be Defined throughout Schooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächtold, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The question of how to teach energy has been renewed by recent studies focusing on the learning and teaching progressions for this concept. In this context, one question has been, for the most part, overlooked: how should energy be defined throughout schooling? This paper addresses this question in three steps. We first identify and discuss two…

  19. Big data and software defined networks

    CERN Document Server

    Taheri, Javid

    2018-01-01

    Big Data Analytics and Software Defined Networking (SDN) are helping to drive the management of data usage of the extraordinary increase of computer processing power provided by Cloud Data Centres (CDCs). This new book investigates areas where Big-Data and SDN can help each other in delivering more efficient services.

  20. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  1. Towards a Southern African English Defining Vocabulary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    of parameters, such as avoiding synonyms and antonyms, to determine which words are necessary to write definitions in a concise and simple way. It has been found that existing defining vocabularies lack certain words that would make definitions more accessible to southern African learners, and therefore there is a need ...

  2. Spaces defined by the Paley function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astashkin, S V [Samara State University, Samara (Russian Federation); Semenov, E M [Voronezh State University, Faculty of Mathematics, Voronezh (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-31

    The paper is concerned with Haar and Rademacher series in symmetric spaces, and also with the properties of spaces defined by the Paley function. In particular, the symmetric hull of the space of functions with uniformly bounded Paley function is found. Bibliography: 27 titles.

  3. Pointwise extensions of GSOS-defined operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, H.H.; Klin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Final coalgebras capture system behaviours such as streams, infinite trees and processes. Algebraic operations on a final coalgebra can be defined by distributive laws (of a syntax functor S over a behaviour functor F). Such distributive laws correspond to abstract specification formats. One such

  4. Pointwise Extensions of GSOS-Defined Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Hansen (Helle); B. Klin

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFinal coalgebras capture system behaviours such as streams, infinite trees and processes. Algebraic operations on a final coalgebra can be defined by distributive laws (of a syntax functor $\\FSig$ over a behaviour functor $F$). Such distributive laws correspond to abstract specification

  5. Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Jonathan

    1992-01-01

    Defines virtual reality as a particular type of experience (in terms of "presence" and "telepresence") rather than as a collection of hardware. Maintains that media technologies can be classified and studied in terms of vividness and interactivity, two attributes on which virtual reality ranks very high. (SR)

  6. A self-defining hierarchical data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Self-Defining Data System (SDS) is a system which allows the creation of self-defining hierarchical data structures in a form which allows the data to be moved between different machine architectures. Because the structures are self-defining they can be used for communication between independent modules in a distributed system. Unlike disk-based hierarchical data systems such as Starlink's HDS, SDS works entirely in memory and is very fast. Data structures are created and manipulated as internal dynamic structures in memory managed by SDS itself. A structure may then be exported into a caller supplied memory buffer in a defined external format. This structure can be written as a file or sent as a message to another machine. It remains static in structure until it is reimported into SDS. SDS is written in portable C and has been run on a number of different machine architectures. Structures are portable between machines with SDS looking after conversion of byte order, floating point format, and alignment. A Fortran callable version is also available for some machines.

  7. Staging in local endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorvinger, B.; Gudmundsson, T.; Horvath, G.; Forsberg, L.; Holtaas, S.; Lund Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Possible deep (more than an inner third of the uterine wall) myometrial invasion and cervical extension of endometrial carcinoma were evaluated prospectively using magnetic resonance (MR) and transabdominal real-time sonography (US) in 20 and 10 patients, respectively. The data obtained from these examinations were compared with hysterosalpingography (HSG) and clinical modalities including hysteroscopy, sounding and histopathologic findings after surgery. The concordance of outlining cervical extension was between MR and hysteroscopy 85 per cent, and between US and hysteroscopy 50 per cent. Deep myometrial tumor invasion was suggested in 4/10 patients by US and in 6/20 by MR, and was confirmed in all but one in each group at histologic examination of the resected uterus. There were no false negative US or MR examinations. Transabdominal US did not prove accurate in defining local endometrial carcinoma (distinguishing between stages I and II), but it may be used as an additional tool in revealing myometrial invasion. MR, however, seems to refine the delineation of uterine tumor growth. (orig.)

  8. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  9. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    , and systems 'hosting' these multiple and complex mobilities are designed and how they are staging these in terms of their physical layout. By analysing specific cases of ‘mobilities design’ related to the four modes of moving; Walk, Bike, Train, and Car, the book uncover important and until now neglected...... is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments, the project...

  10. Stages of chaotic synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D. Y.; Dykstra, R.; Hamilton, M. W.; Heckenberg, N. R.

    1998-09-01

    In an experimental investigation of the response of a chaotic system to a chaotic driving force, we have observed synchronization of chaos of the response system in the forms of generalized synchronization, phase synchronization, and lag synchronization to the driving signal. In this paper we compare the features of these forms of synchronized chaos and study their relations and physical origins. We found that different forms of chaotic synchronization could be interpreted as different stages of nonlinear interaction between the coupled chaotic systems. (c) 1998 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Staging Collaborative Innovation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Clausen, Christian

    Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation ...... the diverse matters of concern into a coherent product or service concept, and 2) in the same process move these diverse holders of the matters of concern into a translated actor network which carry or support the concept.......Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation...... and public private innovation partnerships. Based on a case study of a collaborative design process in a large electronics company the paper points to the key importance of staging and navigation of collaborative innovation process. Staging and navigation is presented as a combined activity: 1) to translate...

  12. Fire on Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Daly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The nineteenth century theatre was fire-prone, to say the least. Across the century there were more than 1,100 major conflagrations in the world’s theatres, and countless smaller fires. In Great Britain almost every theatre seems to have burned down at some point. And yet, despite, or perhaps in part because of, this appalling record, fires were a staple feature of stage spectacle. Some plays placed them at the very centre of the entertainment, and as the century went on stage fires became more and more elaborate. Actual or simulated conflagrations were conjured up using a diverse array of technologies, some of them very simple, some depending on the most recent scientific discoveries. Here, I give a short tour of these technologies and their use in the plays of the period, and suggest some of the pleasures that they offered. While onstage flames could draw people in, offering an experience of immersive suspense, for instance, they also interrupted the dramatic flow, reminding audiences that they were seeing a performance, getting something for their money. To this extent, we are reminded that nineteenth-century drama provided something of a mixed and spectacular ‘theatre of attractions’, closer at times to the circus than to the novel.

  13. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2013-09-01

    "Tiger" parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua's own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents.

  14. Defining enthesitis in spondyloarthritis by ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terslev, Lene; Naredo, E; Iagnocco, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To standardize ultrasound (US) in enthesitis. Methods: An Initial Delphi exercise was undertaken to define US detected enthesitis and its core components. These definitions were subsequently tested on static images taken from Spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients in order to evaluate...... elementary component. On static images the intra-observer reliability showed a high degree of variability for the detection of elementary lesions with kappa coefficients ranging from 0.14 - 1. The inter-observer kappa value was variable with the lowest kappa for enthesophytes (0.24) and the best for Doppler...... activity at the enthesis (0.63). Conclusion: This is the first consensus based definition of US enthesitis and its elementary components and the first step performed to ensure a higher degree of homogeneity and comparability of results between studies and in daily clinical work. Defining Enthesitis...

  15. Control of System with Defined Risk Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Tomasov

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper the basic requirements for system control with defined risk level is presented. The paper should be an introduction to describe of theoretical apparatus, which was created during some years of research work in the Department of information and safety systems in this area. It a modification or creation of new parts of Information theory, System theory, and Control theory means. This parts are necessary for the analysis and synthesis tasks in the systems where dominant attribute of control is defined risk level. The basic problem is the creation of protect mechanism again the threats from inside and from controlled system environs. For each risk reduction mechanism is needed some redundancy which should be into control algorithm to put by exactly determined way.

  16. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING QUALITY AND ITS DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra M. ACHIM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance ofhigh-quality financial statements is highlighted by the main standard-setting institutions activating in the field of accounting and reporting. These have issued Conceptual Frameworks which state and describe the qualitative characteristics of accounting information. In this qualitative study, the research methodology consists of reviewing the literature related to the definition of accounting quality and striving for understanding how it can be explained. The main objective of the study is to identify the characteristics information should possess in order to be of high quality. These characteristics also contribute to the way of defining financial accounting quality. The main conclusions that arise from this research are represented by the facts that indeed financial accounting quality cannot be uniquely defined and that financial information is of good quality when it enhances the characteristics incorporated in the conceptual frameworks issued by both International Accounting Standards Board and Financial Accounting Standards Board.

  17. Exploring self-defining memories in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stéphane; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Lardi, Claudia; Bayard, Sophie; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Van Der Linden, Martial

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in recalling specific events from their personal past. However, the relationship between autobiographical memory impairments and disturbance of the sense of identity in schizophrenia has not been investigated in detail. In this study the authors investigated schizophrenic patients' ability to recall self-defining memories; that is, memories that play an important role in building and maintaining the self-concept. Results showed that patients recalled as many specific self-defining memories as healthy participants. However, patients with schizophrenia exhibited an abnormal reminiscence bump and reported different types of thematic content (i.e., they recalled less memories about past achievements and more memories regarding hospitalisation and stigmatisation of illness). Furthermore, the findings suggest that impairments in extracting meaning from personal memories could represent a core disturbance of autobiographical memory in patients with schizophrenia.

  18. A trait based approach to defining valued mentoring qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendall, E.

    2012-12-01

    Graduate training in the sciences requires strong personal interactions among faculty, senior lab members and more junior members. Within the lab-group setting we learn to frame problems, to conduct research and to communicate findings. The result is that individual scientists are partly shaped by a few influential mentors. We have all been influenced by special relationships with mentors, and on reflection we may find that certain qualities have been especially influential in our career choices. In this presentation I will discuss favorable mentoring traits as determined from an informal survey of scientists in varying stages of careers and from diverse backgrounds. Respondents addressed questions about traits they value in their mentors in several categories: 1) personal qualities such as approachability, humor and encouragement; background including gender, ethnicity, and family status; 2) scientific qualities including discipline or specialization, perceived stature in discipline, seniority, breadth of perspective, and level of expectations; and 3) community-oriented qualities promoted by mentors, such as encouraging service contributions and peer-mentoring within the lab group. The results will be compared among respondents by gender, ethnicity, stage of career, type of work, and subdiscipline within the broadly defined Biogeoscience community. We hope to contribute to the growing discussion on building a diverse and balanced scientific workforce.

  19. Improving network management with Software Defined Networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhunev, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Software-defined networking (SDN) is developed as an alternative to closed networks in centers for data processing by providing a means to separate the control layer data layer switches, and routers. SDN introduces new possibilities for network management and configuration methods. In this article, we identify problems with the current state-of-the-art network configuration and management mechanisms and introduce mechanisms to improve various aspects of network management

  20. Stateless multicast switching in software defined networks

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Martin J.; Al-Naday, Mays; Thomos, Nikolaos; Trossen, Dirk; Petropoulos, George; Spirou, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    Multicast data delivery can significantly reduce traffic in operators' networks, but has been limited in deployment due to concerns such as the scalability of state management. This paper shows how multicast can be implemented in contemporary software defined networking (SDN) switches, with less state than existing unicast switching strategies, by utilising a Bloom Filter (BF) based switching technique. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism uses only proactive rule insertion, and thus, is not l...

  1. Defining and Distinguishing Traditional and Religious Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, Heather S.

    2014-01-01

    The article of record may be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23296151.2016.1239978 thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from tr...

  2. Defining Trust Using Expected Utility Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Trust has been discussed in many social sciences including economics, psychology, and sociology. However, there is no widely accepted definition of trust. Inparticular, there is no definition that can be used for economic analysis. This paper regards trust as expectation and defines it using expected utility theory together with concepts such as betrayal premium. In doing so, it rejects the widely accepted black-and-white view that (un) trustworthy people are always (un)trustworthy. This pape...

  3. On Undefined and Meaningless in Lambda Definability

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, Fer-Jan

    2016-01-01

    We distinguish between undefined terms as used in lambda definability of partial recursive functions and meaningless terms as used in infinite lambda calculus for the infinitary terms models that generalise the Bohm model. While there are uncountable many known sets of meaningless terms, there are four known sets of undefined terms. Two of these four are sets of meaningless terms. In this paper we first present set of sufficient conditions for a set of lambda terms to se...

  4. Defining School Readiness in Maryland: A Multi-Dimensional Perspective. Publication #2012-44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forry, Nicole; Wessel, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Increased emphasis has been placed on children's ability to enter kindergarten ready to learn, a concept referred to as "school readiness." School readiness has been defined by the Maryland State Department of Education as "the stage of human development that enables a child to engage in, and benefit from, primary learning…

  5. How Should Energy Be Defined Throughout Schooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächtold, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    The question of how to teach energy has been renewed by recent studies focusing on the learning and teaching progressions for this concept. In this context, one question has been, for the most part, overlooked: how should energy be defined throughout schooling? This paper addresses this question in three steps. We first identify and discuss two main approaches in physics concerning the definition of energy, one claiming there is no satisfactory definition and taking conservation as a fundamental property, and the other based on Rankine's definition of energy as the capacity of a system to produce changes. We then present a study concerning how energy is actually defined throughout schooling in the case of France by analyzing national programs, physics textbooks, and the answers of teachers to a questionnaire. This study brings to light a consistency problem in the way energy is defined across school years: in primary school, an adapted version of Rankine's definition is introduced and conservation is ignored; in high school, conservation is introduced and Rankine's definition is ignored. Finally, we address this consistency problem by discussing possible teaching progressions. We argue in favor of the use of Rankine's definition throughout schooling: at primary school, it is a possible substitute to students' erroneous conceptions; at secondary school, it might help students become aware of the unifying role of energy and thereby overcome the compartmentalization problem.

  6. Defining functional distances over Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Pozo Angela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental problem when trying to define the functional relationships between proteins is the difficulty in quantifying functional similarities, even when well-structured ontologies exist regarding the activity of proteins (i.e. 'gene ontology' -GO-. However, functional metrics can overcome the problems in the comparing and evaluating functional assignments and predictions. As a reference of proximity, previous approaches to compare GO terms considered linkage in terms of ontology weighted by a probability distribution that balances the non-uniform 'richness' of different parts of the Direct Acyclic Graph. Here, we have followed a different approach to quantify functional similarities between GO terms. Results We propose a new method to derive 'functional distances' between GO terms that is based on the simultaneous occurrence of terms in the same set of Interpro entries, instead of relying on the structure of the GO. The coincidence of GO terms reveals natural biological links between the GO functions and defines a distance model Df which fulfils the properties of a Metric Space. The distances obtained in this way can be represented as a hierarchical 'Functional Tree'. Conclusion The method proposed provides a new definition of distance that enables the similarity between GO terms to be quantified. Additionally, the 'Functional Tree' defines groups with biological meaning enhancing its utility for protein function comparison and prediction. Finally, this approach could be for function-based protein searches in databases, and for analysing the gene clusters produced by DNA array experiments.

  7. Early stage cervical cancer of the uterine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneyasu, Yuuko; Fujiwara, Hisaya

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the present state of radiotherapy (RT) of early stage cervical cancer involving the history, outcomes of clinical trials, procedure for each stage, irradiation methods, concurrent chemo-RT (CCRT), late adverse events, and QOL after RT. It has a history of >100 years from the brachytherapy with radium, but is not yet completely established even now. There are many RT trials hitherto. Retrospectively, no significant difference is seen in outcomes of radical RT and surgery: 80-90% efficacy for stage I and 60-80% for II in the former, respectively, and 80-96% and 65-80%, in the latter. Between RT and surgery, there is a report of randomized comparative study in Italy. In Japan, reported are comparative outcomes based on patients' choice for therapy, retrospective studies including authors' one, prospective multi-institutional cooperative trials by Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group, and Treatment Guidelines for Cervical Cancer (2007). RT procedure depends on the stage defined by FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) and at stages I-II, intracavitary RT is major with optimal dose 29 Gy/5 fractions for I, and 23/4 Gy with external total pelvic radiation 50 Gy for II. In external radiation, the planning target volume includes the whole pelvic field with 1.8-2 Gy/5 weeks and optionally, the extended field when metastasis suspicious. Intracavitary RT with application device in the uterine is of significance for the cancer as 50% complete cure even in stage III is reported. CCRT brings about good prognosis, which is shown in a Japanese trial to compare postoperative RT alone and CCRT with CDDP and 5-FU. The late adverse events are seen mainly in the large bowel and studies of QOL, an important factor for choice of treatment, are now in progress. (T.T.)

  8. Defining care products to finance health care in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdijk, Machiel; Zuurbier, Joost; Ludwig, Martijn; Prins, Sarah

    2012-04-01

    A case-mix project started in the Netherlands with the primary goal to define a complete set of health care products for hospitals. The definition of the product structure was completed 4 years later. The results are currently being used for billing purposes. This paper focuses on the methodology and techniques that were developed and applied in order to define the casemix product structure. The central research question was how to develop a manageable product structure, i.e., a limited set of hospital products, with acceptable cost homogeneity. For this purpose, a data warehouse with approximately 1.5 million patient records from 27 hospitals was build up over a period of 3 years. The data associated with each patient consist of a large number of a priori independent parameters describing the resource utilization in different stages of the treatment process, e.g., activities in the operating theatre, the lab and the radiology department. Because of the complexity of the database, it was necessary to apply advanced data analysis techniques. The full analyses process that starts from the database and ends up with a product definition consists of four basic analyses steps. Each of these steps has revealed interesting insights. This paper describes each step in some detail and presents the major results of each step. The result consists of 687 product groups for 24 medical specialties used for billing purposes.

  9. Staging Lung Cancer: Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Girish S; Viswanathan, Chitra; Carter, Brett W; Benveniste, Marcelo F; Truong, Mylene T; Sabloff, Bradley S

    2018-05-01

    The updated eighth edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer includes revisions to T and M descriptors. In terms of the M descriptor, the classification of intrathoracic metastatic disease as M1a is unchanged from TNM-7. Extrathoracic metastatic disease, which was classified as M1b in TNM-7, is now subdivided into M1b (single metastasis, single organ) and M1c (multiple metastases in one or multiple organs) descriptors. In this article, the rationale for changes in the M descriptors, the utility of preoperative staging with PET/computed tomography, and the treatment options available for patients with oligometastatic disease are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Waste glass melting stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1994-01-01

    Three simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600 degrees C to 1000 degrees C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentru Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. The behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied. 2 refs., 8 tabs

  11. Waste glass melting stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1993-04-01

    Three different simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600 degrees C--1000 degrees C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin-sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. Behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied

  12. Staging Sociotechnical Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    The management of innovation and product development is increasingly facing complex challenges of staging design processes across heterogeneous organisational spaces, with multiple actor-concerns and sources of knowledge. This paper addresses how insights from the Actor-Network Theory and political...... is elaborated as being an occasioning as well as a result of socio-technical choices and processes, and points to the role of socio-material as well as discursive practices, which frame and render particular spaces open to management and to the coordination of knowledge flows and ideas in early phases...... of product development. The concept of socio-technical spaces is further illustrated through actual examples from industry dealing with early conceptualisation in product development and the role played by management concepts in the configuration of spaces....

  13. Stage II Seminoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagerman, R.H.; Kotlove, D.J.; Regine, W.; Chung, C.T.; King, G.A.; Dalai, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1966 and 1985, 32 patients with stage II (21 A,11 B) testicular seminoma were treated with postorchiectomy irradiation to the retroperitoneal and ipsilateral iliac nodes; 28 received elective mediastinal-supraclavicular irradiation. The median follow-up was 8 1/2 years; 29 patients were followed up for over 3 years and 24 for over 5 years. Twenty-eight patients remain alive and well and four have die, two of a second primary cancer. Two patients developed recurrent seminoma in the mediastinum; these patients showed a variant lymphangiographic pattern. Both remain well after further irradiation or irradiation plus chemotherapy. A third patient developed nonseminomatous ''recurrence'' in the radiation field and is well after chemotherapy

  14. Timing and Stages of Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and stages of puberty Timing and stages of puberty Adolescence and puberty can be so confusing! Here’s some info on what to expect and when: Puberty in girls usually starts between the ages of ...

  15. End-stage kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage; Kidney failure - end stage; ESRD; ESKD Images Kidney anatomy References Fogarty DG, Taal MW. A stepped care approach to the management of chronic kidney disease. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, ...

  16. Second-stage turbine bucket airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John Zhiqiang; By, Robert Romany; Sims, Calvin L.; Hyde, Susan Marie

    2002-01-01

    The second-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in inches in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinate values defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X and Y values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket. The second-stage wheel has sixty buckets.

  17. COOLING STAGES OF CRYOGENIC SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Троценко, А. В.

    2011-01-01

    The formalized definition for cooling stage of low temperature system is done. Based on existing information about the known cryogenic unit cycles the possible types of cooling stages are single out. From analyses of these stages their classification by various characteristics is suggested. The results of thermodynamic optimization of final throttle stage of cooling, which are used as working fluids helium, hydrogen and nitrogen, are shown.

  18. Multi-stage wake-field accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, Wei.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we propose a multi-stage wake field acceleration scheme to overcome the low transformer ratio problem and still provide high accelerating gradients. The idea is very simple. We use a train of several electron bunches from a linear accelerator (main linac) with well defined separations between the bunches (tens of ns) to drive wake field devices. Here we have made the assumption that the wake field devices are available, whether plasma, iris-loaded metallic or dielectric wake field structures. 10 refs

  19. Defining Multiple Chronic Conditions for Quality Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drye, Elizabeth E; Altaf, Faseeha K; Lipska, Kasia J; Spatz, Erica S; Montague, Julia A; Bao, Haikun; Parzynski, Craig S; Ross, Joseph S; Bernheim, Susannah M; Krumholz, Harlan M; Lin, Zhenqiu

    2018-02-01

    Patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs) are a critical but undefined group for quality measurement. We present a generally applicable systematic approach to defining an MCC cohort of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries that we developed for a national quality measure, risk-standardized rates of unplanned admissions for Accountable Care Organizations. To define the MCC cohort we: (1) identified potential chronic conditions; (2) set criteria for cohort conditions based on MCC framework and measure concept; (3) applied the criteria informed by empirical analysis, experts, and the public; (4) described "broader" and "narrower" cohorts; and (5) selected final cohort with stakeholder input. Subjects were patients with chronic conditions. Participants included 21.8 million Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries in 2012 aged 65 years and above with ≥1 of 27 Medicare Chronic Condition Warehouse condition(s). In total, 10 chronic conditions were identified based on our criteria; 8 of these 10 were associated with notably increased admission risk when co-occurring. A broader cohort (2+ of the 8 conditions) included 4.9 million beneficiaries (23% of total cohort) with an admission rate of 70 per 100 person-years. It captured 53% of total admissions. The narrower cohort (3+ conditions) had 2.2 million beneficiaries (10%) with 100 admissions per 100 person-years and captured 32% of admissions. Most stakeholders viewed the broader cohort as best aligned with the measure concept. By systematically narrowing chronic conditions to those most relevant to the outcome and incorporating stakeholder input, we defined an MCC admission measure cohort supported by stakeholders. This approach can be used as a model for other MCC outcome measures.

  20. How do pediatric anesthesiologists define intraoperative hypotension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafiu, Olubukola O; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Morris, Michelle; Chimbira, Wilson T; Malviya, Shobha; Reynolds, Paul I; Tremper, Kevin K

    2009-11-01

    Although blood pressure (BP) monitoring is a recommended standard of care by the ASA, and pediatric anesthesiologists routinely monitor the BP of their patients and when appropriate treat deviations from 'normal', there is no robust definition of hypotension in any of the pediatric anesthesia texts or journals. Consequently, what constitutes hypotension in pediatric anesthesia is currently unknown. We designed a questionnaire-based survey of pediatric anesthesiologists to determine the BP ranges and thresholds used to define intraoperative hypotension (IOH). Members of the Society of Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) and the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists (APA) of Great Britain and Ireland were contacted through e-mail to participate in this survey. We asked a few demographic questions and five questions about specific definitions of hypotension for different age groups of patients undergoing inguinal herniorraphy, a common pediatric surgical procedure. The overall response rate was 56% (483/860), of which 76% were SPA members. Majority of the respondents (72%) work in academic institutions, while 8.9% work in institutions with fewer than 1000 annual pediatric surgical caseload. About 76% of respondents indicated that a 20-30% reduction in baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) indicates significant hypotension in children under anesthesia. Most responders (86.7%) indicated that they use mean arterial pressure or SBP (72%) to define IOH. The mean SBP values for hypotension quoted by SPA members was about 5-7% lower across all pediatric age groups compared to values quoted by APA members (P = 0.001 for all age groups). There is great variability in the BP parameters used and the threshold used for defining and treating IOH among pediatric anesthesiologists. The majority of respondents considered a 20-30% reduction from baseline in SBP as indicative of significant hypotension. Lack of a consensus definition for a common clinical condition like IOH could have

  1. Defining recovery in adult bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jessica; Agras, W Stewart; Bryson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    To examine how different definitions of recovery lead to varying rates of recovery, maintenance of recovery, and relapse in bulimia nervosa (BN), end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up data were obtained from 96 adults with BN. Combining behavioral, physical, and psychological criteria led to recovery rates between 15.5% and 34.4% at EOT, though relapse was approximately 50%. Combining these criteria and requiring abstinence from binge eating and purging when defining recovery may lead to lower recovery rates than those found in previous studies; however, a strength of this definition is that individuals who meet this criteria have no remaining disordered behaviors or symptoms.

  2. Defining Marriage: Classification, Interpretation, and Definitional Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Macagno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The classification of a state of affairs under a legal category can be considered as a kind of con- densed decision that can be made explicit, analyzed, and assessed us- ing argumentation schemes. In this paper, the controversial conflict of opinions concerning the nature of “marriage” in Obergefell v. Hodges is analyzed pointing out the dialecti- cal strategies used for addressing the interpretive doubts. The dispute about the same-sex couples’ right to marry hides a much deeper disa- greement not only about what mar- riage is, but more importantly about the dialectical rules for defining it.

  3. Software defined networks a comprehensive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Goransson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Software Defined Networks discusses the historical networking environment that gave rise to SDN, as well as the latest advances in SDN technology. The book gives you the state of the art knowledge needed for successful deployment of an SDN, including: How to explain to the non-technical business decision makers in your organization the potential benefits, as well as the risks, in shifting parts of a network to the SDN modelHow to make intelligent decisions about when to integrate SDN technologies in a networkHow to decide if your organization should be developing its own SDN applications or

  4. Software Defined Radio: Basic Principles and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Machado-Fernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author makes a review of the SDR (Software Defined Radio technology, including hardware schemes and application fields. A low performance device is presented and several tests are executed with it using free software. With the acquired experience, SDR employment opportunities are identified for low-cost solutions that can solve significant problems. In addition, a list of the most important frameworks related to the technology developed in the last years is offered, recommending the use of three of them.

  5. Defining the Strategy of Nuclear Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racana, R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents nuclear activity as defined within the field of the nuclear industry, which is studied from its capacity to generate electric power to its application in industry and medicine as well as a source for weapons of mass destruction. These fields of analysis introduce some problems that the nuclear activity itself must know how to confront employing action strategies aimed at becoming an activity to be kept in mind when making use of the benefits that its peaceful use contributes to human life. (Author)

  6. Animal bioavailability of defined xenobiotic lignin metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandermann, H. Jr.; Arjmand, M.; Gennity, I.; Winkler, R.; Struble, C.B.; Aschbacher, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    Lignin has been recognized as a major component of bound pesticide residues in plants and is thought to be undigestible in animals. Two defined ring-U- 14 C-labeled chloroaniline/lignin metabolites have now been fed to rats, where a release of ∼66% of the bound xenobiotic occurred in the form of simple chloroaniline derivatives. The observed high degree of bioavailability indicates that bound pesticidal residues may possess ecotoxicological significance. In parallel studies, the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was more efficient, and a soil system was much less efficient, in the degradation of the [ring-U- 14 C]chloroaniline/lignin metabolites

  7. DEFINING THE CHEMICAL SPACE OF PUBLIC GENOMIC ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current project aims to chemically index the genomics content of public genomic databases to make these data accessible in relation to other publicly available, chemically-indexed toxicological information. By defining the chemical space of public genomic data, it is possible to identify classes of chemicals on which to develop methodologies for the integration of chemogenomic data into predictive toxicology. The chemical space of public genomic data will be presented as well as the methodologies and tools developed to identify this chemical space.

  8. Healthcare Engineering Defined: A White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; Austin, Tony; Calisir, Fethi; Chanjaplammootil, Samuel; Davis, Mark J; Favela, Jesus; Gan, Heng; Gefen, Amit; Haddas, Ram; Hahn-Goldberg, Shoshana; Hornero, Roberto; Huang, Yu-Li; Jensen, Øystein; Jiang, Zhongwei; Katsanis, J S; Lee, Jeong-A; Lewis, Gladius; Lovell, Nigel H; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo; Morales, George G; Matis, Timothy; Matthews, Judith T; Mazur, Lukasz; Ng, Eddie Yin-Kwee; Oommen, K J; Ormand, Kevin; Rohde, Tarald; Sánchez-Morillo, Daniel; Sanz-Calcedo, Justo García; Sawan, Mohamad; Shen, Chwan-Li; Shieh, Jiann-Shing; Su, Chao-Ton; Sun, Lilly; Sun, Mingui; Sun, Yi; Tewolde, Senay N; Williams, Eric A; Yan, Chongjun; Zhang, Jiajie; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Engineering has been playing an important role in serving and advancing healthcare. The term "Healthcare Engineering" has been used by professional societies, universities, scientific authors, and the healthcare industry for decades. However, the definition of "Healthcare Engineering" remains ambiguous. The purpose of this position paper is to present a definition of Healthcare Engineering as an academic discipline, an area of research, a field of specialty, and a profession. Healthcare Engineering is defined in terms of what it is, who performs it, where it is performed, and how it is performed, including its purpose, scope, topics, synergy, education/training, contributions, and prospects.

  9. Software defined networking applications in distributed datacenters

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Heng

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides essential insights on the SDN application designing and deployment in distributed datacenters. In this book, three key problems are discussed: SDN application designing, SDN deployment and SDN management. This book demonstrates how to design the SDN-based request allocation application in distributed datacenters. It also presents solutions for SDN controller placement to deploy SDN in distributed datacenters. Finally, an SDN management system is proposed to guarantee the performance of datacenter networks which are covered and controlled by many heterogeneous controllers. Researchers and practitioners alike will find this book a valuable resource for further study on Software Defined Networking. .

  10. Defining Starch Binding by Glucan Phosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Kyle; Raththagala, Madushi; Wilkens, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Starch is a vital energy molecule in plants that has a wide variety of uses in industry, such as feedstock for biomaterial processing and biofuel production. Plants employ a three enzyme cyclic process utilizing kinases, amylases, and phosphatases to degrade starch in a diurnal manner. Starch...... is comprised of the branched glucan amylopectin and the more linear glucan amylose. Our lab has determined the first structures of these glucan phosphatases and we have defined their enzymatic action. Despite this progress, we lacked a means to quickly and efficiently quantify starch binding to glucan...

  11. Healthcare Engineering Defined: A White Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chien Chyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering has been playing an important role in serving and advancing healthcare. The term “Healthcare Engineering” has been used by professional societies, universities, scientific authors, and the healthcare industry for decades. However, the definition of “Healthcare Engineering” remains ambiguous. The purpose of this position paper is to present a definition of Healthcare Engineering as an academic discipline, an area of research, a field of specialty, and a profession. Healthcare Engineering is defined in terms of what it is, who performs it, where it is performed, and how it is performed, including its purpose, scope, topics, synergy, education/training, contributions, and prospects.

  12. Software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José

    2015-06-01

    We propose, for the first time to our knowledge, a software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics signal processor architecture that can be integrated on a chip and is capable of performing all the main functionalities by suitable programming of its control signals. The basic configuration is presented and a thorough end-to-end design model derived that accounts for the performance of the overall processor taking into consideration the impact and interdependencies of both its photonic and RF parts. We demonstrate the model versatility by applying it to several relevant application examples.

  13. Fingerprinting Software Defined Networks and Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    rps requests per second RTT Round-Trip Time SDN Software Defined Networking SOM Self-Organizing Map STP Spanning Tree Protocol TRW-CB Threshold Random...Protocol ( STP ) updates), in which case the frame will be “punted” from the forwarding lookup process and processed by the route processor [9]. The act of...environment 20 to accomplish the needs of B4. In addition to Google, the SDN market is expected to grow beyond $35 billion by April 2018 [31]. The rate

  14. Dilemmas in Lung Cancer Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Ioannis

    2018-05-01

    The advent of the 8th edition of the lung cancer staging system reflects a further meticulous evidence-based advance in the stratification of the survival of patients with lung cancer. Although addressing many limitations of earlier staging systems, several limitations in staging remain. This article reviews from a radiological perspective the limitations of the current staging system, highlighting the process of TNM restructuring, the residual issues with regards to the assignment of T, N, M descriptors, and their associated stage groupings and how these dilemmas impact guidance of multidisciplinary teams taking care of patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Science on stage

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    During the opening ceremony, the audience was dazzled by a juggling show involving dramatic light effects. They also took away with them a teacher's sheet explaining some of the scientific concepts involved in juggling. Science teachers can sometimes be quite humorous when it comes to explaining serious matters, as those who took part in the 'Science on Stage' festival held at CERN from 21 to 25 November were able to see for themselves. The 500 or so participants from 27 different countries, mostly science teachers but also some university lecturers, science outreach specialists and students, had the opportunity to share their experience of the teaching of science. They also attended presentations and shows, took part in workshops and visited a fair with stands offering ideas on how to make school science lessons more appealing. The festival, organised by the EIROforum (a partnership between CERN, EFDA, ESA, ESO, EMBL, ESRF and ILL), marked the end of two years of projects for the promotion of science in vir...

  16. Staged theta pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Downing, J.N.; Gribble, R.F.; Jacobson, A.R.; Platts, D.A.; Thomas, K.S.

    1976-01-01

    Two implosion heating circuits are being experimentally tested. The principal experiment in the program is the 4.5-m-long Staged Theta Pinch (STP). It uses two relatively low energy (50kJ and 100 kJ), high voltage (125 kV) capacitor banks to produce the theta pinch plasma inside the 20 cm i.d. quartz discharge tube. A lower voltage (50 kV), higher energy (750 kJ) capacitor bank is used to contain the plasma and provide a variable amount of adiabatic compression. Because the experiment produces a higher ratio of implosion heating to compressional heating than conventional theta pinches, it should be capable of producing high temperature plasmas with a much larger ratio of plasma radius to discharge tube radius than has been possible in the past. The Resonant Heating Experiment (RHX) in its initial configuration is the same as a 0.9-m-long section of the high voltage part of the STP experiment and all the plasma results here were obtained with the experiment in that configuration. Part of the implosion bank will be removed and a low inductance crowbar added to convert it to the resonant heating configuration. (U.K.)

  17. Defining clogging potential for permeable concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Alalea; Wong, Hong S; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2018-08-15

    Permeable concrete is used to reduce urban flooding as it allows water to flow through normally impermeable infrastructure. It is prone to clogging by particulate matter and predicting the long-term performance of permeable concrete is challenging as there is currently no reliable means of characterising clogging potential. This paper reports on the performance of a range of laboratory-prepared and commercial permeable concretes, close packed glass spheres and aggregate particles of varying size, exposed to different clogging methods to understand this phenomena. New methods were developed to study clogging and define clogging potential. The tests involved applying flowing water containing sand and/or clay in cycles, and measuring the change in permeability. Substantial permeability reductions were observed in all samples, particularly when exposed to sand and clay simultaneously. Three methods were used to define clogging potential based on measuring the initial permeability decay, half-life cycle and number of cycles to full clogging. We show for the first time strong linear correlations between these parameters for a wide range of samples, indicating their use for service-life prediction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Defining an Open Source Strategy for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattmann, C. A.; Crichton, D. J.; Lindsay, F.; Berrick, S. W.; Marshall, J. J.; Downs, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    Over the course of the past year, we have worked to help frame a strategy for NASA and open source software. This includes defining information processes to understand open source licensing, attribution, commerciality, redistribution, communities, architectures, and interactions within the agency. Specifically we held a training session at the NASA Earth Science Data Systems Working Group meeting in Open Source software as it relates to the NASA Earth Science data systems enterprise, including EOSDIS, the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), ACCESS proposals, and the MEASURES communities, and efforts to understand how open source software can be both consumed and produced within that ecosystem. In addition, we presented at the 1st NASA Open Source Summit (OSS) and helped to define an agency-level strategy, a set of recommendations and paths forward for how to identify healthy open source communities, how to deal with issues such as contributions originating from other agencies, and how to search out talent with the right skills to develop software for NASA in the modern age. This talk will review our current recommendations for open source at NASA, and will cover the set of thirteen recommendations output from the NASA Open Source Summit and discuss some of their implications for the agency.

  19. How Do You Define an Internship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C.

    2017-12-01

    According to the American Geosciences Institute's Geoscience Student Exit Survey, internship participation rates over the past four years have been low, particularly among bachelor's and doctoral graduates. In 2016, 65% of bachelor's graduates, 44% of master's graduates, and 57% of doctoral graduates did not participate in an internship while working on their degree. When asked if they submitted applications for internship opportunities, 42% of bachelor's graduates, 23% of master's graduates, and 46% of doctoral graduates claimed to not submit any applications. These statistics have raised concern at AGI because internships provide experiences that help develop critical professional skills and industry connections that can lead to jobs after graduation. However, when internships are discussed among various representatives in geoscience industries, there are disagreements in how an internship experience is defined. For example, opinions differ on whether REUs or other research experiences count as an internship. Clear definitions of internship opportunities may help academic faculty and advisors direct students towards these opportunities and help develop a collection of resources for finding future internships. This presentation will present some of the recent statistics on internship participation among geoscience graduates and present a series of questions to ascertain defining features of internships among AGU attendees and where help is needed to increase participation in internships among current geoscience students.

  20. Defining Medical Capabilities for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, M.; Antonsen, E.; Blue, R.; Reyes, D.; Mulcahy, R.; Kerstman, E.; Bayuse, T.

    2018-01-01

    Exploration-class missions to the moon, Mars and beyond will require a significant change in medical capability from today's low earth orbit centric paradigm. Significant increases in autonomy will be required due to differences in duration, distance and orbital mechanics. Aerospace medicine and systems engineering teams are working together within ExMC to meet these challenges. Identifying exploration medical system needs requires accounting for planned and unplanned medical care as defined in the concept of operations. In 2017, the ExMC Clinicians group identified medical capabilities to feed into the Systems Engineering process, including: determining what and how to address planned and preventive medical care; defining an Accepted Medical Condition List (AMCL) of conditions that may occur and a subset of those that can be treated effectively within the exploration environment; and listing the medical capabilities needed to treat those conditions in the AMCL. This presentation will discuss the team's approach to addressing these issues, as well as how the outputs of the clinical process impact the systems engineering effort.

  1. Distributed controller clustering in software defined networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelaziz

    Full Text Available Software Defined Networking (SDN is an emerging promising paradigm for network management because of its centralized network intelligence. However, the centralized control architecture of the software-defined networks (SDNs brings novel challenges of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance and interoperability. In this paper, we proposed a novel clustered distributed controller architecture in the real setting of SDNs. The distributed cluster implementation comprises of multiple popular SDN controllers. The proposed mechanism is evaluated using a real world network topology running on top of an emulated SDN environment. The result shows that the proposed distributed controller clustering mechanism is able to significantly reduce the average latency from 8.1% to 1.6%, the packet loss from 5.22% to 4.15%, compared to distributed controller without clustering running on HP Virtual Application Network (VAN SDN and Open Network Operating System (ONOS controllers respectively. Moreover, proposed method also shows reasonable CPU utilization results. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism makes possible to handle unexpected load fluctuations while maintaining a continuous network operation, even when there is a controller failure. The paper is a potential contribution stepping towards addressing the issues of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance, and inter-operability.

  2. Distributed controller clustering in software defined networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Fong, Ang Tan; Gani, Abdullah; Garba, Usman; Khan, Suleman; Akhunzada, Adnan; Talebian, Hamid; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is an emerging promising paradigm for network management because of its centralized network intelligence. However, the centralized control architecture of the software-defined networks (SDNs) brings novel challenges of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance and interoperability. In this paper, we proposed a novel clustered distributed controller architecture in the real setting of SDNs. The distributed cluster implementation comprises of multiple popular SDN controllers. The proposed mechanism is evaluated using a real world network topology running on top of an emulated SDN environment. The result shows that the proposed distributed controller clustering mechanism is able to significantly reduce the average latency from 8.1% to 1.6%, the packet loss from 5.22% to 4.15%, compared to distributed controller without clustering running on HP Virtual Application Network (VAN) SDN and Open Network Operating System (ONOS) controllers respectively. Moreover, proposed method also shows reasonable CPU utilization results. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism makes possible to handle unexpected load fluctuations while maintaining a continuous network operation, even when there is a controller failure. The paper is a potential contribution stepping towards addressing the issues of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance, and inter-operability.

  3. DIFFICULTIES IN DETERMINING THE STAGE OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Lukianov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a technique of treatment of prostate cancer depends on the age of the patient, accompanying diseases and prevalence of tumoral process. The basic methods at an inspection stage at which the cancer stage is defined are: definition of prostate specific membrane antigen, rectal examination, results of the rectal ultrasound guided biopsy, prostate imaging methods and an estimation of a grade of a tumor. Nowadays one of the main directions of determining the treatment for various stages of tumor is the development of prognostic models based on the analysis of predictors for tumor expansion.

  4. Stage control of tablets manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko

    2014-08-01

    have been defined. Results and discussion.While developing HPLC method we checked five series of tablet mass. According to the analysis results it has been revealed that all series met the requirements of State pharmacopeia of Ukraine for the content of active substances. Isoniazid content is within the values of 0,2005 g -0,2117g, and thiotriazolin - 0,0487g - 0,0550 g. It is the reason to state that in the result of our investigations we have worked out the method of tablet mass analysis which is accurate and reproducible. It gives the right to recommend it for use in stage control of “Triathiosid” tablets quality. Conclusion. During our investigations on the development of analysis methods of tablet mass of isoniazid and thiotriazolinsensitive, accurate,objective,valid, reproducible HPLC method has been worked out which is planned to be used in stage control of “Triathiosid” tablets quality.

  5. Computerized tomography for diagnosis and staging of renal pelvic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Goto, Akihiko; Kitamura, Hajime

    1985-01-01

    Although we have no definite criteria available yet for clinical staging of renal pelvic tumor, the preoperative staging of this disease is nevertheless important in view of the current tendency that the necessity for renal conservative operation is considered. CT is now a routine work also for diagnosing renal pelvic tumor. The present study was performed in order to validate its usefulness for diagnosing and staging the disease. Our series consisted of 8 patients with renal pelvic tumor, in 6 of whom a definite diagnosis was established after demonstrating filling defect on pyelogram, but in the remaining two with extensive infiltration, and squamous cell carcinoma associated with staghorn calculus respectively, CT failed to provide a definite diagnosis. CT findings of an extension of the mass in the renal pelvis or renal calyces into adipose tissue of the renal sinus or renal parenchyma were judged to indicate an invasive type (Stage III), while a non-invasive type (Stage I or II) was defined on the basis of otherwise CT findings. Consistency with pathological stages was noted in 7 of the 8 cases (87.5 %). It was difficult to differentiate Stage I and Stage II on CT findings. CT was considered to be extremely useful tool for preoperative staging of renal pelvic tumor. (author)

  6. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software-Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Software-defined radio (SDR) technology allows radios to be reconfigured to perform different communication functions without using multiple radios to accomplish each task. Intelligent Automation, Inc., has developed SDR platforms that switch adaptively between different operation modes. The innovation works by modifying both transmit waveforms and receiver signal processing tasks. In Phase I of the project, the company developed SDR cognitive capabilities, including adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), automatic modulation recognition (AMR), and spectrum sensing. In Phase II, these capabilities were integrated into SDR platforms. The reconfigurable transceiver design employs high-speed field-programmable gate arrays, enabling multimode operation and scalable architecture. Designs are based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and are modular in nature, making it easier to upgrade individual components rather than redesigning the entire SDR platform as technology advances.

  7. Nurse leader resilience: career defining moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is an essential component of effective nursing leadership. It is defined as the ability to survive and thrive in the face of adversity. Resilience can be developed and internalized as a measure to improve retention and reduce burnout. Nurse leaders at all levels should develop these competencies to survive and thrive in an increasingly complex health care environment. Building positive relationships, maintaining positivity, developing emotional insight, creating work-life balance, and reflecting on successes and challenges are effective strategies for resilience building. Nurse leaders have a professional obligation to develop resilience in themselves, the teams they supervise, and the organization as a whole. Additional benefits include reduced turnover, reduced cost, and improved quality outcomes through organizational mindfulness.

  8. Defining and testing a granular continuum element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2007-12-03

    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of amesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discreteparticles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granularmaterials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealinginhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cagebreaking. Here, we analyze large-scale Discrete-Element Method (DEM)simulations of different granular flows and show that a "granularelement" can indeed be defined at the scale of dynamical correlations,roughly three to five particle diameters. Its rheology is rather subtle,combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-likedependence on strain. Our results confirm some aspects of classicalplasticity theory (e.g., coaxiality of stress and deformation rate),while contradicting others (i.e., incipient yield), and can guide thedevelopment of more realistic continuum models.

  9. Defining and Distinguishing Secular and Religious Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather S. Gregg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from traditional terrorism; investigate three goals of religious terrorism (fomenting the apocalypse, creating a religious government, and establishing a religiously pure state; consider the role of leadership and target selection of religious terrorists; and, finally, suggest a range of counterterrorism strategies based on these observations.

  10. "Defining Computer 'Speed': An Unsolved Challenge"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The reason we use computers is their speed, and the reason we use parallel computers is that they're faster than single-processor computers. Yet, after 70 years of electronic digital computing, we still do not have a solid definition of what computer 'speed' means, or even what it means to be 'faster'. Unlike measures in physics, where the definition of speed is rigorous and unequivocal, in computing there is no definition of speed that is universally accepted. As a result, computer customers have made purchases misguided by dubious information, computer designers have optimized their designs for the wrong goals, and computer programmers have chosen methods that optimize the wrong things. This talk describes why some of the obvious and historical ways of defining 'speed' haven't served us well, and the things we've learned in the struggle to find a definition that works. Biography: Dr. John Gustafson is a Director ...

  11. Using archetypes for defining CDA templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moner, David; Moreno, Alberto; Maldonado, José A; Robles, Montserrat; Parra, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    While HL7 CDA is a widely adopted standard for the documentation of clinical information, the archetype approach proposed by CEN/ISO 13606 and openEHR is gaining recognition as a means of describing domain models and medical knowledge. This paper describes our efforts in combining both standards. Using archetypes as an alternative for defining CDA templates permit new possibilities all based on the formal nature of archetypes and their ability to merge into the same artifact medical knowledge and technical requirements for semantic interoperability of electronic health records. We describe the process followed for the normalization of existing legacy data in a hospital environment, from the importation of the HL7 CDA model into an archetype editor, the definition of CDA archetypes and the application of those archetypes to obtain normalized CDA data instances.

  12. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Bernard A; Schendel, Dolores J; Butterfield, Lisa H

    2011-01-01

    of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical...... immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation...... companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed...

  13. Just caring: defining a basic benefit package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Leonard M

    2011-12-01

    What should be the content of a package of health care services that we would want to guarantee to all Americans? This question cannot be answered adequately apart from also addressing the issue of fair health care rationing. Consequently, as I argue in this essay, appeal to the language of "basic," "essential," "adequate," "minimally decent," or "medically necessary" for purposes of answering our question is unhelpful. All these notions are too vague to be useful. Cost matters. Effectiveness matters. The clinical circumstances of a patient matters. But what we must ultimately determine is what we mutually agree are the just claims to needed health care of each American in a relatively complex range of clinical circumstances. Answering this question will require a public moral conversation, a fair process of rational democratic deliberation aimed at defining both just claims to needed health care and just limits.

  14. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Glaros, A G; Kato, T; Koyano, K; Lavigne, G J; de Leeuw, R; Manfredini, D; Svensson, P; Winocur, E

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined bruxism as a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible. Bruxism has two distinct circadian manifestations: it can occur during sleep (indicated as sleep bruxism) or during wakefulness (indicated as awake bruxism). For the operationalisation of this definition, the expert group proposes a diagnostic grading system of 'possible', 'probable' and 'definite' sleep or awake bruxism. The proposed definition and grading system are suggested for clinical and research purposes in all relevant dental and medical domains. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Defining and Supporting Narrative-driven Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Koolen, Marijn

    2017-01-01

    Research into recommendation algorithms has made great strides in recent years. However, these algorithms are typically applied in relatively straightforward scenarios: given information about a user's past preferences, what will they like in the future? Recommendation is often more complex......: evaluating recommended items never takes place in a vacuum, and it is often a single step in the user's more complex background task. In this paper, we define a specific type of recommendation scenario called narrative-driven recommendation, where the recommendation process is driven by both a log...... of the user's past transactions as well as a narrative description of their current interest(s). Through an analysis of a set of real-world recommendation narratives from the LibraryThing forums, we demonstrate the uniqueness and richness of this scenario and highlight common patterns and properties...

  16. Defining Service and Education in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Debra; Gagne, Josh; Kesselheim, Jennifer C

    2017-11-01

    Program directors (PDs) and trainees are often queried regarding the balance of service and education during pediatric residency training. We aimed to use qualitative methods to learn how pediatric residents and PDs define service and education and to identify activities that exemplify these concepts. Focus groups of pediatric residents and PDs were performed and the data qualitatively analyzed. Thematic analysis revealed 4 themes from focus group data: (1) misalignment of the perceived definition of service; (2) agreement about the definition of education; (3) overlapping perceptions of the value of service to training; and (4) additional suggestions for improved integration of education and service. Pediatric residents hold positive definitions of service and believe that service adds value to their education. Importantly, the discovery of heterogeneous definitions of service between pediatric residents and PDs warrants further investigation and may have ramifications for Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and those responsible for residency curricula.

  17. Quantum computing. Defining and detecting quantum speedup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnow, Troels F; Wang, Zhihui; Job, Joshua; Boixo, Sergio; Isakov, Sergei V; Wecker, David; Martinis, John M; Lidar, Daniel A; Troyer, Matthias

    2014-07-25

    The development of small-scale quantum devices raises the question of how to fairly assess and detect quantum speedup. Here, we show how to define and measure quantum speedup and how to avoid pitfalls that might mask or fake such a speedup. We illustrate our discussion with data from tests run on a D-Wave Two device with up to 503 qubits. By using random spin glass instances as a benchmark, we found no evidence of quantum speedup when the entire data set is considered and obtained inconclusive results when comparing subsets of instances on an instance-by-instance basis. Our results do not rule out the possibility of speedup for other classes of problems and illustrate the subtle nature of the quantum speedup question. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Software Defined Networking Demands on Software Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galinac Grbac, T.; Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a networking approach based on a centralized control plane architecture with standardised interfaces between control and data planes. SDN enables fast configuration and reconfiguration of the network to enhance resource utilization and service performances....... This new approach enables a more dynamic and flexible network, which may adapt to user needs and application requirements. To this end, systemized solutions must be implemented in network software, aiming to provide secure network services that meet the required service performance levels. In this paper......, we review this new approach to networking from an architectural point of view, and identify and discuss some critical quality issues that require new developments in software technologies. These issues we discuss along with use case scenarios. Here in this paper we aim to identify challenges...

  19. Computing platforms for software-defined radio

    CERN Document Server

    Nurmi, Jari; Isoaho, Jouni; Garzia, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses Software-Defined Radio (SDR) baseband processing from the computer architecture point of view, providing a detailed exploration of different computing platforms by classifying different approaches, highlighting the common features related to SDR requirements and by showing pros and cons of the proposed solutions. Coverage includes architectures exploiting parallelism by extending single-processor environment (such as VLIW, SIMD, TTA approaches), multi-core platforms distributing the computation to either a homogeneous array or a set of specialized heterogeneous processors, and architectures exploiting fine-grained, coarse-grained, or hybrid reconfigurability. Describes a computer engineering approach to SDR baseband processing hardware; Discusses implementation of numerous compute-intensive signal processing algorithms on single and multicore platforms; Enables deep understanding of optimization techniques related to power and energy consumption of multicore platforms using several basic a...

  20. Environmentally acceptable thread compounds: Requirements defined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfellow, W.D.; Hendriks, R.V.; Jacobs, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    New environmental regulations on thread compounds are now being enforced in several areas with strong maritime tradition and a sensitive environment. These areas include Indonesia, Alaska and portions of Norway. The industry generally recognizes the environmental concerns but, with wider enforcement of regulations imminent, has not been able to define clearly the requirements for environmental compliance. This paper, written in collaboration with The Netherlands State Supervision of Mines, is based on the National Policy on Thread Compounds of The Netherlands. This national policy is representative of policies being followed by other North Sea governments. Similar policies might well be adopted by other governments worldwide. These policies will affect the operator, drilling contractor, and supplier. This paper provides a specific and detailed definition of thread compound requirements by addressing four relevant categories. The categories of interest are regulatory approval, environmental, health, and performance

  1. Defining nodes in complex brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lawrence Stanley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Network science holds great promise for expanding our understanding of the human brain in health, disease, development, and aging. Network analyses are quickly becoming the method of choice for analyzing functional MRI data. However, many technical issues have yet to be confronted in order to optimize results. One particular issue that remains controversial in functional brain network analyses is the definition of a network node. In functional brain networks a node represents some predefined collection of brain tissue, and an edge measures the functional connectivity between pairs of nodes. The characteristics of a node, chosen by the researcher, vary considerably in the literature. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art based on published manuscripts and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of three main methods for defining nodes. Voxel-wise networks are constructed by assigning a node to each, equally sized brain area (voxel. The fMRI time-series recorded from each voxel is then used to create the functional network. Anatomical methods utilize atlases to define the nodes based on brain structure. The fMRI time-series from all voxels within the anatomical area are averaged and subsequently used to generate the network. Functional activation methods rely on data from traditional fMRI activation studies, often from databases, to identify network nodes. Such methods identify the peaks or centers of mass from activation maps to determine the location of the nodes. Small (~10-20 millimeter diameter spheres located at the coordinates of the activation foci are then applied to the data being used in the network analysis. The fMRI time-series from all voxels in the sphere are then averaged, and the resultant time series is used to generate the network. We attempt to clarify the discussion and move the study of complex brain networks forward. While the correct method to be used remains an open, possibly unsolvable question that

  2. Exposing the Myths, Defining the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavov, S.

    2013-01-01

    With this official statement, the WEC calls for policymakers and industry leaders to ''get real'' as the World Energy Council as a global energy body exposes the myths by informing the energy debate and defines a path to a more sustainable energy future. The World Energy Council urged stakeholders to take urgent and incisive actions, to develop and transform the global energy system. Failure to do so could put aspirations on the triple challenge of WEC Energy Trilemma defined by affordability, accessibility and environmental sustainability at serious risk. Through its multi-year in-depth global studies and issue-mapping the WEC has found that challenges that energy sector is facing today are much more crucial than previously envisaged. The WEC's analysis has exposed a number of myths which influence our understanding of important aspects of the global energy landscape. If not challenged, these misconceptions will lead us down a path of complacency and missed opportunities. Much has, and still is, being done to secure energy future, but the WEC' s studies reveal that current pathways fall short of delivering on global aspirations of energy access, energy security and environmental improvements. If we are to derive the full economic and social benefits from energy resources, then we must take incisive and urgent action to modify our steps to energy solutions. The usual business approaches are not effective, the business as usual is not longer a solution. The focus has moved from large universal solutions to an appreciation of regional and national contexts and sharply differentiated consumer expectations.(author)

  3. Radiotherapy for brain metastases: defining palliative response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezjak, Andrea; Adam, Janice; Panzarella, Tony; Levin, Wilfred; Barton, Rachael; Kirkbride, Peter; McLean, Michael; Mason, Warren; Wong, Chong Shun; Laperriere, Normand

    2001-01-01

    Background and purpose: Most patients with brain metastases are treated with palliative whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). There is no established definition of palliative response. The aim of this study was to develop and test clinically useful criteria for response following palliative WBRT. Materials and methods: A prospective study was conducted of patients with symptomatic brain metastases treated with WBRT (20 Gy/5 fractions) and standardised steroid tapering. Assessments included observer rating of neurological symptoms, patient-completed symptom checklist and performance status (PS). Response criteria were operationally defined based on a combination of neurological symptoms, PS and steroid dose. Results: Seventy-five patients were accrued. At 1 month, presenting neurological symptoms were improved in 14 patients, stable in 17, and worse in 21; 23 patients were not assessed, mainly due to death or frailty. Using response criteria defined a priori, 15% (95% CI 7-23%) of patients were classified as having a response to RT, 25% no response, and 29% progression; 27% were deceased at or soon after 1 month. A revised set of criteria was tested, with less emphasis on complete tapering of steroids: they increased the proportion of patients responding to 39% (95% CI 27-50%) but didn't change the large proportion who did not benefit (44%). Conclusions: Clinical response to RT of patients with brain metastases is multifactorial, comprising symptoms, PS and other factors. Assessment of degree of palliation depend on the exact definition used. More research is needed in this important area, to help validate criteria for assessing palliation after WBRT

  4. Defining Future Directions for Endometriosis Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Hooghe, Thomas M.; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.1 A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:23427182

  5. Revised National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Pressure Injury Staging System: Revised Pressure Injury Staging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsberg, Laura E; Black, Joyce M; Goldberg, Margaret; McNichol, Laurie; Moore, Lynn; Sieggreen, Mary

    Our understanding of pressure injury etiology and development has grown in recent years through research, clinical expertise, and global interdisciplinary expert collaboration. Therefore, the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) has revised the definition and stages of pressure injury. The revision was undertaken to incorporate the current understanding of the etiology of pressure injuries, as well as to clarify the anatomical features present or absent in each stage of injury. An NPUAP-appointed Task Force reviewed the literature and created drafts of definitions, which were then reviewed by stakeholders and the public, including clinicians, educators, and researchers around the world. Using a consensus-building methodology, these revised definitions were the focus of a multidisciplinary consensus conference held in April 2016. As a result of stakeholder and public input, along with the consensus conference, important changes were made and incorporated into the new staging definitions. The revised staging system uses the term injury instead of ulcer and denotes stages using Arabic numerals rather than Roman numerals. The revised definition of a pressure injury now describes the injuries as usually occurring over a bony prominence or under a medical or other device. The revised definition of a Stage 2 pressure injury seeks to clarify the difference between moisture-associated skin damage and injury caused by pressure and/or shear. The term suspected has been removed from the Deep Tissue Pressure Injury diagnostic label. Each definition now describes the extent of tissue loss present and the anatomical features that may or may not be present in the stage of injury. These important revisions reflect the methodical and collaborative approach used to examine the available evidence and incorporate current interdisciplinary clinical expertise into better defining the important phenomenon of pressure injury etiology and development.

  6. A Novel Inflammation-Based Stage (I Stage Predicts Overall Survival of Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Pei Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that inflammation-based prognostic scores, such as the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS, modified GPS (mGPS and C-reactive protein/Albumin (CRP/Alb ratio, platelet–lymphocyte ratio (PLR, and neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR, have been reported to have prognostic value in patients with many types of cancer, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. In this study, we proposed a novel inflammation-based stage, named I stage, for patients with NPC. A retrospective study of 409 newly-diagnosed cases of NPC was conducted. The prognostic factors (GPS, mGPS, CRP/Alb ratios, PLR, and NLR were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Then, according to the results of the multivariate analyses, we proposed a I stage combination of independent risk factors (CRP/Alb ratio and PLR. The I stage was calculated as follows: patients with high levels of CRP/Alb ratio (>0.03 and PLR (>146.2 were defined as I2; patients with one or no abnormal values were defined as I1 or I0, respectively. The relationships between the I stage and clinicopathological variables and overall survival (OS were evaluated. In addition, the discriminatory ability of the I stage with other inflammation-based prognostic scores was assessed using the AUCs (areas under the curves analyzed by receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves. The p value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. A total of 409 patients with NPC were enrolled in this study. Multivariate analyses revealed that only the CRP/Alb ratio (Hazard ratio (HR = 2.093; 95% Confidence interval (CI: 1.222–3.587; p = 0.007 and PLR (HR: 2.003; 95% CI: 1.177–3.410; p = 0.010 were independent prognostic factors in patients with NPC. The five-year overall survival rates for patients with I0, I1, and I2 were 92.1% ± 2.9%, 83.3% ± 2.6%, and 63.1% ± 4.6%, respectively (p < 0.001. The I stage had a higher area under the curve value (0.670 compared with other systemic inflammation

  7. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  8. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  9. Defining a radiotherapy target with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Quinten C.; Grills, Inga S.; Kestin, Larry L.; Wong, Ching-Yee O.; Wong, John W.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Yan Di

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging is now considered the most accurate clinical staging study for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and is also important in the staging of multiple other malignancies. Gross tumor volume (GTV) definition for radiotherapy, however, is typically based entirely on computed tomographic data. We performed a series of phantom studies to determine an accurate and uniformly applicable method for defining a GTV with FDG-PET. Methods and materials: A model-based method was tested by a phantom study to determine a threshold, or unique cutoff of standardized uptake value based on body weight (standardized uptake value [SUV]) for FDG-PET based GTV definition. The degree to which mean target SUV, background FDG concentration, and target volume influenced that GTV definition were evaluated. A phantom was constructed consisting of a 9.0-L cylindrical tank. Glass spheres with volumes ranging from 12.2 to 291.0 cc were suspended within the tank, with a minimum separation of 4 cm between the edges of the spheres. The sphere volumes were selected based on the range of NSCLC patient tumor volumes seen in our clinic. The tank and spheres were filled with a variety of known concentrations of FDG in several experiments and then scanned using a General Electric Advance PET scanner. In the initial experiment, six spheres with identical volumes were filled with varying concentrations of FDG (mean SUV 1.85 ∼ 9.68) and suspended within a background bath of FDG at a similar concentration to that used in clinical practice (0.144 μCi/mL). The second experiment was identical to the first, but was performed at 0.144 and 0.036 μCi/mL background concentrations to determine the effect of background FDG concentration on sphere definition. In the third experiment, six spheres with volumes of 12.2 to 291.0 cc were filled with equal concentrations of FDG and suspended in a standard background FDG concentration of 0.144

  10. Writing a Book from Your Dissertation: Seven Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, Debra M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this Writer's Forum is to share seven stages for writing a book from your dissertation: relinquishing control of your dissertation; selecting and working with your publisher; defining and writing for your audience; revising and drafting your dissertation into a book; securing and using feedback; including front matter, back matter,…

  11. Social Marketing, Stages of Change, and Public Health Smoking Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehr, Paula; Hannon, Peggy; Pizacani, Barbara; Forehand, Mark; Meischke, Hendrika; Curry, Susan; Martin, Diane P.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Harris, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    As a "thought experiment," the authors used a modified stages of change model for smoking to define homogeneous segments within various hypothetical populations. The authors then estimated the population effect of public health interventions that targeted the different segments. Under most assumptions, interventions that emphasized primary and…

  12. Stripa Project - Summary of defined programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, L.; Olsson, T.; Pusch, R.

    1980-11-01

    An international cooperation project, the Stripa Project, in the field of nuclear waste management has been established as an autonomous OECH/NEA project. The management of the project has been entrusted to the Divsion Nuclear Fuel Safety (KBS) of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Supply Company (SKBF). Technical input and contribution of funds are given by the following countries: Canada, Finland, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. The report summarizes the programs for investigations funded at this stage. A number of investigations of a geophysical, geochemical and hydraulic nature will be carried out in the boreholes and the drill cores will be mapped and analysed. Another experiment is with various tracers which represent all important types of radionuclides and will be introduced in the naturally flowing water in a single fissure in granite. The experiment will show how well sorption data from the laboratory can be used to predict radionuclide migration in the field with real surfaces and waters. The third project aims at the verification of the suitability of the buffer materials at real conditions on site. Highly compacted bentonite and mixtures of bentonite and quartz sand are proposed as buffer materials in final repositories for high-level radioactive wastes. (GB)

  13. Locally advanced breast cancer (stage III and stage IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baracat, F.F.; Grabert, H.; Lima, G.R. de; Pontes, M.; Ferraro, O.; Santana, A.; Brook, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    The results concerning to the treatment of 193 patients with locally advanced breast cancer-stage III and stage IV are analysed. All the patients were treated with radical radiotherapy plus total mastectomy about 6 weeks later; 53 pacients received also chemotherapy (CMF - 12 courses) and 52 were oophorectomized. (M.A.C) [pt

  14. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  15. Defining Ecosystem Assets for Natural Capital Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Lars; Bagstad, Ken; Edens, Bram; Obst, Carl; de Jong, Rixt; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present value of the expected flow of ecosystem services. In this paper we argue that several additional conceptualisations of ecosystem assets are needed to understand ecosystems as assets, in support of ecosystem assessments, ecosystem accounting and ecosystem management. In particular, we define ecosystems' capacity and capability to supply ecosystem services, as well as the potential supply of ecosystem services. Capacity relates to sustainable use levels of multiple ecosystem services, capability involves prioritising the use of one ecosystem service over a basket of services, and potential supply considers the ability of ecosystems to generate services regardless of demand for these services. We ground our definitions in the ecosystem services and accounting literature, and illustrate and compare the concepts of flow, capacity, capability, and potential supply with a range of conceptual and real-world examples drawn from case studies in Europe and North America. Our paper contributes to the development of measurement frameworks for natural capital to support environmental accounting and other assessment frameworks.

  16. Defining meridians: a modern basis of understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, John C

    2010-06-01

    Acupuncture, one of the primary methods of treatment in traditional Oriental medicine, is based on a system of meridians. Along the meridians lie acupuncture points or acupoints, which are stimulated by needling, pressure or heat to resolve a clinical problem. A number of methods have been used to identify meridians and to explain them anatomically. Thus, tendinomuscular structures, primo-vessels (Bonghan ducts), regions of increased temperature and low skin resistance have been suggested to represent meridians or as methods to identify them. However, none of these methods have met the criteria for a meridian, an entity that, when stimulated by acupuncture can result in clinical improvement. More recently, modern physiologists have put forward the "neural hypothesis" stating that the clinical influence of acupuncture is transmitted primarily through stimulation of sensory nerves that provide signals to the brain, which processes this information and then causes clinical changes associated with treatment. Although additional research is warranted to investigate the role of some of the structures identified, it seems clear that the peripheral and central nervous system can now be considered to be the most rational basis for defining meridians. The meridian maps and associated acupoints located along them are best viewed as road maps that can guide practitioners towards applying acupuncture to achieve optimal clinical results. Copyright 2010 Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  17. Software Defined Networks in Wireless Sensor Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Antonio Puente Fernández

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, different protocols coexist in Internet that provides services to users. Unfortunately, control decisions and distributed management make it hard to control networks. These problems result in an inefficient and unpredictable network behaviour. Software Defined Networks (SDN is a new concept of network architecture. It intends to be more flexible and to simplify the management in networks with respect to traditional architectures. Each of these aspects are possible because of the separation of control plane (controller and data plane (switches in network devices. OpenFlow is the most common protocol for SDN networks that provides the communication between control and data planes. Moreover, the advantage of decoupling control and data planes enables a quick evolution of protocols and also its deployment without replacing data plane switches. In this survey, we review the SDN technology and the OpenFlow protocol and their related works. Specifically, we describe some technologies as Wireless Sensor Networks and Wireless Cellular Networks and how SDN can be included within them in order to solve their challenges. We classify different solutions for each technology attending to the problem that is being fixed.

  18. Defining the landscape of adaptive genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Andrew J; Dyer, Rodney J

    2012-06-01

    Whether they are used to describe fitness, genome architecture or the spatial distribution of environmental variables, the concept of a landscape has figured prominently in our collective reasoning. The tradition of landscapes in evolutionary biology is one of fitness mapped onto axes defined by phenotypes or molecular sequence states. The characteristics of these landscapes depend on natural selection, which is structured across both genomic and environmental landscapes, and thus, the bridge among differing uses of the landscape concept (i.e. metaphorically or literally) is that of an adaptive phenotype and its distribution across geographical landscapes in relation to selective pressures. One of the ultimate goals of evolutionary biology should thus be to construct fitness landscapes in geographical space. Natural plant populations are ideal systems with which to explore the feasibility of attaining this goal, because much is known about the quantitative genetic architecture of complex traits for many different plant species. What is less known are the molecular components of this architecture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Parchman et al. (2012) pioneer one of the first truly genome-wide association studies in a tree that moves us closer to this form of mechanistic understanding for an adaptive phenotype in natural populations of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Defining a standard metric for electricity savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Brown, Marilyn; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B; Greenberg, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70% capacity factor with 7% T and D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kWh/year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO 2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question-Dr Arthur H Rosenfeld.

  20. Defining a standard metric for electricity savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, Jonathan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Stanford University, PO Box 20313, Oakland, CA 94620-0313 (United States); Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Brown, Marilyn; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B; Greenberg, Steve, E-mail: JGKoomey@stanford.ed

    2010-01-15

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70% capacity factor with 7% T and D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kWh/year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question-Dr Arthur H Rosenfeld.

  1. Defining the bacteroides ribosomal binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Udo; Horn, Nikki; Carding, Simon R

    2013-03-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract, in particular the colon, hosts a vast number of commensal microorganisms. Representatives of the genus Bacteroides are among the most abundant bacterial species in the human colon. Bacteroidetes diverged from the common line of eubacterial descent before other eubacterial groups. As a result, they employ unique transcription initiation signals and, because of this uniqueness, they require specific genetic tools. Although some tools exist, they are not optimal for studying the roles and functions of these bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract. Focusing on translation initiation signals in Bacteroides, we created a series of expression vectors allowing for different levels of protein expression in this genus, and we describe the use of pepI from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis as a novel reporter gene for Bacteroides. Furthermore, we report the identification of the 3' end of the 16S rRNA of Bacteroides ovatus and analyze in detail its ribosomal binding site, thus defining a core region necessary for efficient translation, which we have incorporated into the design of our expression vectors. Based on the sequence logo information from the 5' untranslated region of other Bacteroidales ribosomal protein genes, we conclude that our findings are relevant to all members of this order.

  2. Defining functional dyspepsia Definiendo la dispepsia funcional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Mearin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia and functional dyspepsia represent a highly significant public health issue. A good definition of dyspepsia is key for helping us to better approach symptoms, decision making, and therapy indications. During the last few years many attempts were made at establishing a definition of dyspepsia. Results were little successful on most occasions, and clear discrepancies arose on whether symptoms should be associated with digestion, which types of symptoms were to be included, which anatomic location should symptoms have, etc. The Rome III Committee defined dyspepsia as "a symptom or set of symptoms that most physicians consider to originate from the gastroduodenal area", including the following: postprandial heaviness, early satiety, and epigastric pain or burning. Two new entities were defined: a food-induced dyspeptic symptoms (postprandial distress syndrome; and b epigastric pain (epigastric pain syndrome. These and other definitions have shown both strengths and weaknesses. At times they have been much too complex, at times much too simple; furthermore, they have commonly erred on the side of being inaccurate and impractical. On the other hand, some (the most recent ones are difficult to translate into the Spanish language. In a meeting of gastroenterologists with a special interest in digestive functional disorders, the various aspects of dyspepsia definition were discussed and put to the vote, and the following conclusions were arrived at: dyspepsia is defined as a set of symptoms, either related or unrelated to food ingestion, localized on the upper half of the abdomen. They include: a epigastric discomfort (as a category of severity or pain; b postprandial heaviness; and c early satiety. Associated complaints include: nausea, belching, bloating, and epigastric burn (heartburn. All these must be scored according to severity and frequency. Furthermore, psychological factors may be involved in the origin of functional dyspepsia. On the

  3. [Defining AIDS terminology. A practical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locutura, Jaime; Almirante, Benito; Berenguer, Juan; Muñoz, Agustín; Peña, José María

    2003-01-01

    Since the appearance of AIDS, the study of this disease has generated a large amount of information and an extensive related vocabulary comprised of new terms or terms borrowed from other scientific fields. The urgent need to provide names for newly described phenomena and concepts in this field has resulted in the application of terms that are not always appropriate from the linguistic and scientific points of view. We discuss the difficulties in attempting to create adequate AIDS terminology in the Spanish language, considering both the general problems involved in building any scientific vocabulary and the specific problems inherent to this activity in a field whose defining illness has important social connotations. The pressure exerted by the predominance of the English language in reporting scientific knowledge is considered, and the inappropriate words most often found in a review of current literature are examined. Finally, attending to the two most important criteria for the creation of new scientific terms, accuracy and linguistic correction, we propose some well thought-out alternatives that conform to the essence of the Spanish language.

  4. Defining Ecosystem Assets for Natural Capital Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Lars; Bagstad, Ken; Edens, Bram; Obst, Carl; de Jong, Rixt; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present value of the expected flow of ecosystem services. In this paper we argue that several additional conceptualisations of ecosystem assets are needed to understand ecosystems as assets, in support of ecosystem assessments, ecosystem accounting and ecosystem management. In particular, we define ecosystems’ capacity and capability to supply ecosystem services, as well as the potential supply of ecosystem services. Capacity relates to sustainable use levels of multiple ecosystem services, capability involves prioritising the use of one ecosystem service over a basket of services, and potential supply considers the ability of ecosystems to generate services regardless of demand for these services. We ground our definitions in the ecosystem services and accounting literature, and illustrate and compare the concepts of flow, capacity, capability, and potential supply with a range of conceptual and real-world examples drawn from case studies in Europe and North America. Our paper contributes to the development of measurement frameworks for natural capital to support environmental accounting and other assessment frameworks. PMID:27828969

  5. Medical device software: defining key terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Gutorova, Nataliya; Harkusha, Andrii

    one of the areas of significant growth in medical devices has been the role of software - as an integral component of a medical device, as a standalone device and more recently as applications on mobile devices. The risk related to a malfunction of the standalone software used within healthcare is in itself not a criterion for its qualification or not as a medical device. It is therefore, necessary to clarify some criteria for the qualification of stand-alone software as medical devices Materials and methods: Ukrainian, European Union, United States of America legislation, Guidelines developed by European Commission and Food and Drug Administration's, recommendations represented by international voluntary group and scientific works. This article is based on dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive research methods. the legal regulation of software which is used for medical purpose in Ukraine limited to one definition. In European Union and United States of America were developed and applying special guidelines that help developers, manufactures and end users to difference software on types standing on medical purpose criteria. Software becomes more and more incorporated into medical devices. Developers and manufacturers may not have initially appreciated potential risks to patients and users such situation could have dangerous results for patients or users. It is necessary to develop and adopt the legislation that will intend to define the criteria for the qualification of medical device software and the application of the classification criteria to such software, provide some illustrative examples and step by step recommendations to qualify software as medical device.

  6. Software-defined Quantum Networking Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The software enables a user to perform modeling and simulation of software-defined quantum networks. The software addresses the problem of how to synchronize transmission of quantum and classical signals through multi-node networks and to demonstrate quantum information protocols such as quantum teleportation. The software approaches this problem by generating a graphical model of the underlying network and attributing properties to each node and link in the graph. The graphical model is then simulated using a combination of discrete-event simulators to calculate the expected state of each node and link in the graph at a future time. A user interacts with the software by providing an initial network model and instantiating methods for the nodes to transmit information with each other. This includes writing application scripts in python that make use of the software library interfaces. A user then initiates the application scripts, which invokes the software simulation. The user then uses the built-in diagnostic tools to query the state of the simulation and to collect statistics on synchronization.

  7. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  8. Defining ecosystem assets for natural capital accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Lars; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Edens, Bram; Obst, Carl; de Jong, Rixt; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present value of the expected flow of ecosystem services. In this paper we argue that several additional conceptualisations of ecosystem assets are needed to understand ecosystems as assets, in support of ecosystem assessments, ecosystem accounting and ecosystem management. In particular, we define ecosystems’ capacity and capability to supply ecosystem services, as well as the potential supply of ecosystem services. Capacity relates to sustainable use levels of multiple ecosystem services, capability involves prioritising the use of one ecosystem service over a basket of services, and potential supply considers the ability of ecosystems to generate services regardless of demand for these services. We ground our definitions in the ecosystem services and accounting literature, and illustrate and compare the concepts of flow, capacity, capability, and potential supply with a range of conceptual and real-world examples drawn from case studies in Europe and North America. Our paper contributes to the development of measurement frameworks for natural capital to support environmental accounting and other assessment frameworks.

  9. Methodologies for defining quality of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glicken, J. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-10

    Quality of life as a concept has been used in many ways in the public policy arena. It can be used in summative evaluations to assess the impacts of policies or programs. Alternatively, it can be applied to formative evaluations to provide input to the formation of new policies. In short, it provides the context for the understanding needed to evaluate the results of choices that have been made in the public policy arena, or the potential of choices yet to be made. In either case, the public policy question revolves around the positive or negative impact the choice will have on quality of life, and the magnitude of that impact. This discussion will develop a conceptual framework that proposes that an assessment of quality of life is based on a comparison of expectations with experience. The framework defines four basic components from which these expectations arise: natural conditions, social conditions, the body, and the mind. Each one of these components is generally described, and associated with a general policy or rhetorical category which gives it its policy vocabulary--environmental quality, economic well-being, human health, and self-fulfillment.

  10. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  11. HIV-induced immunodeficiency and mortality from AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Abrams, Donald; Pradier, Christian

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate deaths from AIDS-defining malignancies (ADM) and non-AIDS-defining malignancies (nADM) in the D:A:D Study and to investigate the relationship between these deaths and immunodeficiency. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHODS: Patients (23 437) were followed prospectively......-fold higher latest CD4 cell count was associated with a halving of the risk of ADM mortality. Other predictors of an increased risk of ADM mortality were homosexual risk group, older age, a previous (non-malignancy) AIDS diagnosis and earlier calendar years. Predictors of an increased risk of nADM mortality...

  12. A stage is a stage is a stage: a direct comparison of two scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Theo L

    2003-09-01

    L. Kohlberg (1969) argued that his moral stages captured a developmental sequence specific to the moral domain. To explore that contention, the author compared stage assignments obtained with the Standard Issue Scoring System (A. Colby & L. Kohlberg, 1987a, 1987b) and those obtained with a generalized content-independent stage-scoring system called the Hierarchical Complexity Scoring System (T. L. Dawson, 2002a), on 637 moral judgment interviews (participants' ages ranged from 5 to 86 years). The correlation between stage scores produced with the 2 systems was .88. Although standard issue scoring and hierarchical complexity scoring often awarded different scores up to Kohlberg's Moral Stage 2/3, from his Moral Stage 3 onward, scores awarded with the two systems predominantly agreed. The author explores the implications for developmental research.

  13. How to define responders in osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Cyrus; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Bardin, Thomas; Berenbaum, Francis; Flamion, Bruno; Jonsson, Helgi; Kanis, John A.; Pelousse, Franz; Lems, Willem F.; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Reiter, Susanne; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Rizzoli, René; Bruyère, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a clinical syndrome of failure of the joint accompanied by varying degrees of joint pain, functional limitation, and reduced quality of life due to deterioration of articular cartilage and involvement of other joint structures. Scope Regulatory agencies require relevant clinical benefit on symptoms and structure modification for registration of a new therapy as a disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD). An international Working Group of the European Society on Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) and International Osteoporosis Foundation was convened to explore the current burden of osteoarthritis, review current regulatory guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials, and examine the concept of responder analyses for improving drug evaluation in osteoarthritis. Findings The ESCEO considers that the major challenges in DMOAD development are the absence of a precise definition of the disease, particularly in the early stages, and the lack of consensus on how to detect structural changes and link them to clinically meaningful endpoints. Responder criteria should help identify progression of disease and be clinically meaningful. The ideal criterion should be sensitive to change over time and should predict disease progression and outcomes such as joint replacement. Conclusion The ESCEO considers that, for knee osteoarthritis, clinical trial data indicate that radiographic joint space narrowing >0.5 mm over 2 or 3 years might be a reliable surrogate measure for total joint replacement. On-going research using techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and biochemical markers may allow the identification of these patients earlier in the disease process. PMID:23557069

  14. Problem solving stages in the five square problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eFedor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviourally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. 101 participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and 67 of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We have found that 49% (19 out of 39 of the solvers and 13% (8 out of 62 of the non-solvers followed the classic four-stage model of insight. The rest of the participants had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model must be extended to explain variability on the individual level. We provide a model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviourally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behaviour to verify insight theory.

  15. Problem solving stages in the five square problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory.

  16. The ability of conservation and seriation in the transition from the pre-operational stage to the stage of concrete logical operations

    OpenAIRE

    Zadnikar Rupnik, Daša

    2016-01-01

    In the theoretical part of the thesis I closely addressed the Piaget's theory from the field of children's thinking. I described four stages of cognitive development as defined by Piaget. I focused on cognitive operations which are characteristic of the transition from the pre-operational stage to the stage of concrete logical operations, namely conservation and seriation. I summarized certain reviews of the Piaget's theory and described the use of the Piaget's theory in education. A part of ...

  17. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated proposes the Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) program to facilitate the development of a Software Defined Radio...

  18. Antigen Uptake during Different Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio Using a GFP-Tagged Yersinia ruckeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalia Korbut

    Full Text Available Immersion-vaccines (bacterins are routinely used for aquacultured rainbow trout to protect against Yersinia ruckeri (Yr. During immersion vaccination, rainbow trout take up and process the antigens, which induce protection. The zebrafish was used as a model organism to study uptake mechanisms and subsequent antigen transport in fish. A genetically modified Yr was developed to constitutively express green fluorescent protein (GFP and was used for bacterin production. Larval, juvenile and adult transparent zebrafish (tra:nac mutant received a bath in the bacterin for up to 30 minutes. Samples were taken after 1 min, 15 min, 30 min, 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. At each sampling point fish were used for live imaging of the uptake using a fluorescence stereomicroscope and for immunohistochemistry (IHC. In adult fish, the bacterin could be traced within 30 min in scale pockets, skin, oesophagus, intestine and fins. Within two hours post bath (pb Yr-antigens were visible in the spleen and at 24 h in liver and kidney. Bacteria were associated with the gills, but uptake at this location was limited. Antigens were rarely detected in the blood and never in the nares. In juvenile fish uptake of the bacterin was seen in the intestine 30 min pb and in the nares 2 hpb but never in scale pockets. Antigens were detected in the spleen 12 hpb. Zebrafish larvae exhibited major Yr uptake only in the mid-intestine enterocytes 24 hpb. The different life stages of zebrafish varied with regard to uptake locations, however the gut was consistently a major uptake site. Zebrafish and rainbow trout tend to have similar uptake mechanisms following immersion or bath vaccination, which points towards zebrafish as a suitable model organism for this aquacultured species.

  19. Adolescent thinking ála Piaget: The formal stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulit, E

    1972-12-01

    Two of the formal-stage experiments of Piaget and Inhelder, selected largely for their closeness to the concepts defining the stage, were replicated with groups of average and gifted adolescents. This report describes the relevant Piagetian concepts (formal stage, concrete stage) in context, gives the methods and findings of this study, and concludes with a section discussing implications and making some reformulations which generally support but significantly qualify some of the central themes of the Piaget-Inhelder work. Fully developed formal-stage thinking emerges as far from commonplace among normal or average adolescents (by marked contrast with the impression created by the Piaget-Inhelder text, which chooses to report no middle or older adolescents who function at less than fully formal levels). In this respect, the formal stage differs appreciably from the earlier Piagetian stages, and early adolescence emerges as the age for which a "single path" model of cognitive development becomes seriously inadequate and a more complex model becomes essential. Formal-stage thinking seems best conceptualized, like most other aspects of psychological maturity, as a potentiality only partially attained by most and fully attained only by some.

  20. Imaging defined risk factors in neuroblastoma -guidelines for optimising imaging interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valchev, G.; Balev, B.

    2017-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most frequent extracranial tumor in children, arising from the primitive sympathetic cells and the adrenal medulla. Two separate mutually complementing staging systems exist - INSS and INRGSS - one is based on post-operative findings, the other - on pre-treatment imaging. INRGSS consists of a list of 20 separate imaging defined risk factors (IDRF), the presence of which could alter the treatment plan. Radiologists need to be aware of certain intricacies in interpreting the individual IDRFs in order to optimise clinical decision-making. Key words: neuroblastoma. imaging defined risk factors (IDRF). interpretation guidelines [bg

  1. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood resilience has become an internationally used term with an ever-increasing number of entries on the Internet. The SMARTeST Project is looking at approaches to flood resilience through case studies at cities in various countries, including Washington D.C. in the United States. In light of U.S. experiences a methodology is being proposed by the author that is intended to meet ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. It concludes that: "Flood resilience combines (1) spatial, (2) structural, (3) social, and (4) risk management levels of flood preparedness." Flood resilience should incorporate all four levels, but not necessarily with equal emphasis. Stakeholders can assign priorities within different flood resilience levels and the considerations they contain, dividing 100% emphasis into four levels. This evaluation would be applied to planned and completed projects, considering existing conditions, goals and concepts. We have long known that the "road to market" for the implementation of flood resilience is linked to capacity building of stakeholders. It is a multidisciplinary enterprise, involving the integration of all the above aspects into the decision-making process. Traditional flood management has largely been influenced by what in the UK has been called "Silo Thinking", involving constituent organizations that are responsible for different elements, and are interested only in their defined part of the system. This barrier to innovation also has been called the "entrapment effect". Flood resilience is being defined as (1) SPATIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE implying the management of land by floodplain zoning, urban greening and management to reduce storm runoff through depression storage and by practicing Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUD's), Best Management Practices (BMP's, or Low Impact Development (LID). Ecologic processes and cultural elements are included. (2) STRUCTURAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to permanent flood defense

  2. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niven, W.A.; Shikany, S.D.; Shira, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed

  3. Lernpunkt Deutsch--Stage 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Elvira

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the first stage of "Lernpunkt Deutsch," a new three-stage German course designed for upper elementary and early secondary school. Describes the publisher's package of materials and the appropriateness of the course, utility of the different package elements, format of the materials, and assesses whether the course provides pedagogically…

  4. Ramifications of defining high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Campbell, M.H.; Shupe, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering rule making to provide a concentration-based definition of high-level waste (HLW) under authority derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the Low Level Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. The Department of Energy (DOE), which has the responsibility to dispose of certain kinds of commercial waste, is supporting development of a risk-based classification system by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist in developing and implementing the NRC rule. The system is two dimensional, with the axes based on the phrases highly radioactive and requires permanent isolation in the definition of HLW in the NWPA. Defining HLW will reduce the ambiguity in the present source-based definition by providing concentration limits to establish which materials are to be called HLW. The system allows the possibility of greater-confinement disposal for some wastes which do not require the degree of isolation provided by a repository. The definition of HLW will provide a firm basis for waste processing options which involve partitioning of waste into a high-activity stream for repository disposal, and a low-activity stream for disposal elsewhere. Several possible classification systems have been derived and the characteristics of each are discussed. The Defense High Level Waste Technology Lead Office at DOE - Richland Operations Office, supported by Rockwell Hanford Operations, has coordinated reviews of the ORNL work by a technical peer review group and other DOE offices. The reviews produced several recommendations and identified several issues to be addressed in the NRC rule making. 10 references, 3 figures

  5. Defining malnutrition: A plea to rethink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeters, P; Bozzetti, F; Cynober, L; Forbes, A; Shenkin, A; Sobotka, L

    2017-06-01

    In a recent consensus report in Clinical Nutrition the undernourished category of malnutrition was proposed to be defined and diagnosed on the basis of a low BMI or unintentional weight loss combined with low BMI or FFMI with certain cut off points. The definition was endorsed by ESPEN despite recent endorsement of a very different definition. The approach aims to assess whether nutritional intake is sufficient but is imprecise because a low BMI does not always indicate malnutrition and individuals with increasing BMI's may have decreasing FFM's. The pathophysiology of individuals, considered to be malnourished in rich countries and in areas with endemic malnutrition, results predominantly from deficient nutrition combined with infection/inflammation. Both elements jointly determine body composition and function and consequently outcome of disease, trauma or treatment. When following the consensus statement only an imprecise estimate is acquired of nutritional intake without knowing the impact of inflammation. Most importantly, functional abilities are not assessed. Consequently it will remain uncertain how well the individual can overcome stressful events, what the causes are of dysfunction, how to set priorities for treatment and how to predict the effect of nutritional support. We therefore advise to consider the pathophysiology of malnourished individuals leading to inclusion of the following elements in the definition of malnutrition: a disordered nutritional state resulting from a combination of inflammation and a negative nutrient balance, leading to changes in body composition, function and outcome. A precise diagnosis of malnutrition should be based on assessment of these elements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards defining restlessness in individuals with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Natalie G; Gitlin, Laura N

    2017-05-01

    Most individuals with dementia develop significant behavioral problems. Restlessness is a behavioral symptom frequently endorsed by caregivers as distressing, yet is variably defined and measured. Lack of conceptual and operational clarity hinders an understanding of this common behavioral type, its prevalence, and development of effective interventions. We advance a systematic definition and understanding of restlessness from which to enhance reporting and intervention development. We reviewed the literature for existing definitions and measures of restlessness, identified common elements across existing definitions, assessed fit with relevant theoretical frameworks, and explored the relationship between restlessness and other behavioral symptoms in a data set of 272 community-dwelling persons with dementia. Twenty-five scales assessing restlessness were identified. Shared components included motor/neurological, psychiatric, and needs-based features. Exploratory analyses suggest that restlessness may co-occur primarily with argumentation, anxiety, waking the caregiver, delusions/hallucinations, and wandering. We propose that restlessness consists of three key attributes: diffuse motor activity or motion subject to limited control, non-productive or disorganized behavior, and subjective distress. Restlessness should be differentiated from and not confused with wandering or elopement, pharmacological side effects, a (non-dementia) mental or movement disorder, or behaviors occurring in the context of a delirium or at end-of-life. Restlessness appears to denote a distinct set of behaviors that have overlapping but non-equivalent features with other behavioral symptoms. We propose that it reflects a complex behavior involving three key characteristics. Understanding its specific manifestations and which components are present can enhance tailoring interventions to specific contexts of this multicomponent behavioral type.

  7. Defining food literacy: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truman, Emily; Lane, Daniel; Elliott, Charlene

    2017-09-01

    The term "food literacy" describes the idea of proficiency in food related skills and knowledge. This prevalent term is broadly applied, although its core elements vary from initiative to initiative. In light of its ubiquitous use-but varying definitions-this article establishes the scope of food literacy research by identifying all articles that define 'food literacy', analysing its key conceptualizations, and reporting outcomes/measures of this concept. A scoping review was conducted to identify all articles (academic and grey literature) using the term "food literacy". Databases included Medline, Pubmed, Embase, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Scopus, JSTOR, and Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Of 1049 abstracts, 67 studies were included. From these, data was extracted on country of origin, study type (methodological approach), primary target population, and the primary outcomes relating to food literacy. The majority of definitions of food literacy emphasize the acquisition of critical knowledge (information and understanding) (55%) over functional knowledge (skills, abilities and choices) (8%), although some incorporate both (37%). Thematic analysis of 38 novel definitions of food literacy reveals the prevalence of six themes: skills and behaviours, food/health choices, culture, knowledge, emotions, and food systems. Study outcomes largely focus on knowledge generating measures, with very few focusing on health related outcome measures. Current definitions of food literacy incorporate components of six key themes or domains and attributes of both critical and functional knowledge. Despite this broad definition of the term, most studies aiming to improve food literacy focus on knowledge related outcomes. Few articles address health outcomes, leaving an important gap (and opportunity) for future research in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fetal liver T2* values: defining a standardized scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goitein, Orly; Eshet, Yael; Hoffmann, Chen; Raviv-Zilka, Lisa; Salem, Yishay; Hamdan, Ashraf; Goitein, David; Kushnir, Tamar; Eshed, Iris; Di-Segni, Elio; Konen, Eli

    2013-12-01

    To define the normal T2* values of liver in the third trimester of pregnancy in normal fetuses. Multi-echo gradient echo T2* sequence was applied to the fetal abdomen in the axial plane in women undergoing a fetal MRI (1.5 Tesla [T], MRI system). A region of interest, best visualizing in the liver parenchyma was used for measurements. Studies were independently read by two experienced readers to assess intra- and interobserver variability. The study cohort included 46 pregnant women undergoing fetal MRI for any indication other than liver pathology evaluation. Three scans were excluded due to fetal motion. Average maternal and gestational age were 33 ± 4 years and 31.9 ± 3 weeks, respectively. Average T2* values were found to be 19.7 ± 7.4 ms. The intra- and interobserver agreement were very good: 0.93 and 0.8-0.084, respectively. T2* MRI allows noninvasive evaluation liver iron content in the third trimester fetus. Measured values at this stage of pregnancy are significantly lower compared with values cited in the literature for adults. This is of major importance in the correct diagnosis of fetal iron overload states. We propose this as the standard reference when evaluating fetal iron overload pathology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Fault-Tolerant Software-Defined Radio on Manycore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Software-defined radio (SDR) platforms generally rely on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and digital signal processors (DSPs), but such architectures require significant software development. In addition, application demands for radiation mitigation and fault tolerance exacerbate programming challenges. MaXentric Technologies, LLC, has developed a manycore-based SDR technology that provides 100 times the throughput of conventional radiationhardened general purpose processors. Manycore systems (30-100 cores and beyond) have the potential to provide high processing performance at error rates that are equivalent to current space-deployed uniprocessor systems. MaXentric's innovation is a highly flexible radio, providing over-the-air reconfiguration; adaptability; and uninterrupted, real-time, multimode operation. The technology is also compliant with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture. In addition to its many uses within NASA communications, the SDR can also serve as a highly programmable research-stage prototyping device for new waveforms and other communications technologies. It can also support noncommunication codes on its multicore processor, collocated with the communications workload-reducing the size, weight, and power of the overall system by aggregating processing jobs to a single board computer.

  10. Future Scenarios for Software-Defined Metro and Access Networks and Software-Defined Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Muciaccia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, architectures, devices, and components in telecommunication networks have been challenged by evolutionary and revolutionary factors which are drastically changing the traffic features. Most of these changes imply the need for major re-configurability and programmability not only in data-centers and core networks, but also in the metro-access segment. In a wide variety of contexts, this necessity has been addressed by the proposed introduction of the innovative paradigm of software-defined networks (SDNs. Several solutions inspired by the SDN model have been recently proposed also for metro and access networks, where the adoption of a new generation of software-defined reconfigurable integrated photonic devices is highly desirable. In this paper, we review the possible future application scenarios for software-defined metro and access networks and software-defined photonics (SDP, on the base of analytics, statistics, and surveys. This work describes the reasons underpinning the presented radical change of paradigm and summarizes the most significant solutions proposed in literature, with a specific emphasis to physical-layer reconfigurable networks and a focus on both architectures and devices.

  11. Radiologic techniques in staging malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strijk, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The main subject of this thesis is the evaluation of radiologic techniques in staging patients with newly diagnosed and untreated malignant lymphoma, or restaging patients with recurrent disease after a period of complete remission. Lymphography and, more recently, CT are available to examine the infradiaphragmatic nodes. CT also offers the possibility to examine other organ systems in the abdomen, and to visualize more lymph-node regions than lymphography. In ch. 2 and 4 the diagnostic performance of CT and lymphography in HD and NHL respectively are discussed. Literature data are summarized, and own results are given. The main goal is to determine whether the two methods are overlapping, competitive or complementary, and to answer the question what would be required for optimal staging. Staging laparotomy showed the unreliability of non-invasive examination methods for determining the presence or absence of lymphoma in the spleen. In ch. 3 and 5 the results of CT-based estimations of size of the spleen in relation to its histologic state, in patients with HD and NHL respectively are presented. The chest can be examined for lymphoma by conventional radiography, conventional tomography or computed tomography (CT). In ch. 6 the literature is reviewed, and the results with our patients are presented. The diagnostic performance of each examination is evaluated, and the results are analysed to define the most desirable approach in the examination of the chest for staging purposes. In ch. 7 the uncommon radiologic observation of calcification in lymph nodes, afflicted with HD and NHL is described. The literature is reviewed, and the clinical significance is indicated. 180 refs.; 22 figs.; 24 tabs

  12. Esophageal Resection for End-Stage Achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiolfi, Alberto; Asti, Emanuele; Bonitta, Gianluca; Siboni, Stefano; Bonavina, Luigi

    2018-04-01

    Achalasia is a rare disease characterized by impaired lower esophageal sphincter relaxation loss and of peristalsis in the esophageal body. Endoscopic balloon dilation and laparoscopic surgical myotomy have been established as initial treatment modalities. Indications and outcomes of esophagectomy in the management of end-stage achalasia are less defined. A literature search was conducted to identify all reports on esophagectomy for end-stage achalasia between 1987 and 2017. MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were consulted matching the terms "achalasia," "end-stage achalasia," "esophagectomy," and "esophageal resection." Seventeen articles met the inclusion criteria and 1422 patients were included in this narrative review. Most of the patients had previous multiple endoscopic and/or surgical treatments. Esophagectomy was performed through a transthoracic (74%) or a transhiatal (26%) approach. A thoracoscopic approach was used in a minority of patients and seemed to be safe and effective. In 95 per cent of patients, the stomach was used as an esophageal substitute. The mean postoperative morbidity rate was 27.1 per cent and the mortality rate 2.1 per cent. Symptom resolution was reported in 75 to 100 per cent of patients over a mean follow-up of 43 months. Only five series including 195 patients assessed the long-term follow-up (>5 years) after reconstruction with gastric or colon conduits, and the results seem similar. Esophagectomy for end-stage achalasia is safe and effective in tertiary referral centers. A thoracoscopic approach is a feasible and safe alternative to thoracotomy and may replace the transhiatal route in the future.

  13. Stage measurement at gaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Vernon B.; Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2010-01-01

    Stream and reservoir stage are critical parameters in the computation of stream discharge and reservoir volume, respectively. In addition, a record of stream stage is useful in the design of structures that may be affected by stream elevation, as well as for the planning for various uses of flood plains. This report describes equipment and methodology for the observation, sensing, and recording of stage in streams and reservoirs. Although the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) still uses the traditional, basic stilling-well float system as a predominant gaging station, modern electronic stage sensors and water-level recorders are now commonly used. Bubble gages coupled with nonsubmersible pressure transducers eliminate the need for stilling wells. Submersible pressure transducers have become common in use for the measurement of stage in both rivers and lakes. Furthermore, noncontact methods, such as radar, acoustic, and laser methods of sensing water levels, are being developed and tested, and in the case of radar, are commonly used for the measurement of stage. This report describes commonly used gaging-station structures, as well as the design and operation of gaging stations. Almost all of the equipment and instruments described in this report will meet the accuracy standard set by the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) for the measurement of stage for most applications, which is ±0.01 foot (ft) or 0.2 percent of the effective stage. Several telemetry systems are used to transmit stage data from the gaging station to the office, although satellite telemetry has become the standard. These telemetry systems provide near real-time stage data, as well as other information that alerts the hydrographer to extreme or abnormal events, and instrument malfunctions.

  14. CT staging of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spina, Juan C.; Garcia, Adriana T.; Rogondino, Jose; Spina, Juan C. h; Vidales, Valeria; Troiani, Guillermo; Iotti, Alejandro; Venditti, Julio

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of computerized tomography (CT) in the characterization of renal masses, in order to stage them, determine their prognosis and their appropriate clinical and/or surgical management. Material and Methods: Between 1988 and 2001, we selected 63 patients with renal tumors that had been examined by pathology. Patient's ages ranged from 16 to 88 years (25 women, 38 men). The studies were performed with a sequential helical CT, using 5 mm thickness sections every 5mm evaluating the cortico medullar and nephrographic phases. Renal tumors were characterized and staged without any knowledge about the pathological findings; subsequently the tomographic characteristics were compared to such findings. The following characteristics were evaluated: 1) mixed solid-cystic nature; 2) size; 3) borders; 4) enhancement; 5) necrosis; 6) hemorrhage; 7) central scar; 8) presence of fat; 9) collecting system; 10) capsular invasion; 11) perirenal fat invasion; 12) vessels; 13) Gerota's fascia; 14) lymph nodes; and 15) local and/or distant metastases. Results: Of the 63 tumors, 2 were complicated cysts; of the 61 remaining tumors, 10 were angiomyolipomas, 1 was a renal lymphoma, 1 was a focal xantogranulomatose pyelonephritis, 1 was a metanephric adenoma, 3 papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 4 transitional cell tumors, 4 oncocytomas, 37 clear cell renal carcinoma. The CT could correctly characterize the 2 cystic tumors as such, as well as the 9 angiomyolipomas and the 4 transitional cell tumors. The 48 other tumors (1 angiomyolipoma, 1 lymphoma, 1 focal xantogranulomatose pyelonephritis, 1 metanephric adenoma, 3 papillary RCC, 4 oncocytomas, and 37 cell renal carcinomas) remaining were characterized as renal adenocarcinomas and CT staged. Conclusion: CT is a useful method to characterize renal masses since it determines their solid-cystic or fatty structure; aiding in many cases to define a surgical treatment. For the CT staging of renal tumors, the

  15. Defining Compensable Injury in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Megan E

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research provides a core social good by enabling medical progress. In the twenty-first century alone, this includes reducing transmission of HIV/AIDS, developing innovative therapies for cancer patients, and exploring the possibilities of personalized medicine. In order to continue to advance medical science, research relies on the voluntary participation of human subjects. Because research is inherently uncertain, unintended harm is an inevitable part of the research enterprise. Currently, injured research participants in the United States must turn to the “litigation lottery” of the tort system in search of compensation. This state of affairs fails research participants, who are too often left uncompensated for devastating losses, and makes the United States an outlier in the international community. In spite of forty years’ worth of Presidential Commissions and other respected voices calling for the development of a no-fault compensation system, no progress has been made to date. One of the reasons for this lack of progress is the failure to develop a coherent ethical basis for an obligation to provide compensation for research related injuries. This problem is exacerbated by the lack of a clear definition of “compensable injury” in the biomedical research context. This article makes a number of important contributions to the scholarship in this growing field. To begin, it examines compensation systems already in existence and concludes that there are four main definitional elements that must be used to define “compensable injury.” Next, it examines the justifications that have been put forth as the basis for an ethical obligation to provide compensation, and settles on retrospective nonmaleficence and distributive and compensatory justice as the most salient and persuasive. Finally, it uses the regulatory elements and the justifications discussed in the first two sections to develop a well-rounded definition of “compensable injury

  16. Understanding and defining bullying - adolescents' own views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Lisa; Persson, Louise; Hagquist, Curt

    2015-01-01

    The negative consequences of peer-victimization on children and adolescents are major public health concerns which have been subjected to extensive research. Given all efforts made to analyze and estimate the social and health consequences of peer-victimization, the adolescents' own experiences and understandings have had surprisingly little impact on the definition of bullying. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to explore adolescents' definitions of bullying. A questionnaire study (n = 128) and four focus group interviews (n = 21) were conducted among students aged 13 and 15. First, gender and age differences were analyzed with respect to what behaviors are considered bullying (questionnaire data). Second, analysis of what bullying is (focus group interviews) was conducted using qualitative content analysis. The adolescents own understanding and definition of bullying didn't just include the traditional criteria of repetition and power imbalance, but also a criterion based on the health consequences of bullying. The results showed that a single but hurtful or harmful incident also could be considered bullying irrespective of whether the traditional criteria were fulfilled or not. Further, girls and older students had a more inclusive view of bullying and reported more types of behaviors as bullying compared to boys and younger students. The results of the current study adds to the existing literature by showing that adolescents consider the victim's experience of hurt and harm as a criterion for defining bullying and not only as consequences of bullying. This may be of special relevance for the identification and classification of bullying incidents on the internet where devastating consequences have been reported from single incidents and the use of the traditional criteria of intent, repetition and power imbalance may not be as relevant as for traditional bullying. It implies that the traditional criteria included in most definitions of bullying

  17. One-stage versus two-stage exchange arthroplasty for infected total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Navraj S; Hamilton, Thomas W; Ganatra, Sameer; Murray, David W; Pandit, Hemant

    2016-10-01

    Infection complicating total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has serious implications. Traditionally the debate on whether one- or two-stage exchange arthroplasty is the optimum management of infected TKA has favoured two-stage procedures; however, a paradigm shift in opinion is emerging. This study aimed to establish whether current evidence supports one-stage revision for managing infected TKA based on reinfection rates and functional outcomes post-surgery. MEDLINE/PubMed and CENTRAL databases were reviewed for studies that compared one- and two-stage exchange arthroplasty TKA in more than ten patients with a minimum 2-year follow-up. From an initial sample of 796, five cohort studies with a total of 231 patients (46 single-stage/185 two-stage; median patient age 66 years, range 61-71 years) met inclusion criteria. Overall, there were no significant differences in risk of reinfection following one- or two-stage exchange arthroplasty (OR -0.06, 95 % confidence interval -0.13, 0.01). Subgroup analysis revealed that in studies published since 2000, one-stage procedures have a significantly lower reinfection rate. One study investigated functional outcomes and reported that one-stage surgery was associated with superior functional outcomes. Scarcity of data, inconsistent study designs, surgical technique and antibiotic regime disparities limit recommendations that can be made. Recent studies suggest one-stage exchange arthroplasty may provide superior outcomes, including lower reinfection rates and superior function, in select patients. Clinically, for some patients, one-stage exchange arthroplasty may represent optimum treatment; however, patient selection criteria and key components of surgical and post-operative anti-microbial management remain to be defined. III.

  18. Macroscopic and stereomicroscopic comparison of hacking trauma of bones before and after carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunni, Véronique; Nogueira, Luísa; Quatrehomme, Gérald

    2018-03-01

    This experimental study examined lesions produced by a hatchet on pig femurs before and after carbonization. A total of 30 lesions were produced and analyzed using stereomicroscopy and then reexamined after carbonization. Not only was the sharp-blunt mechanism of the hacking trauma (V-shape, regularity of one edge, irregularity of the other edge, upraising, lateral pushing back, fossae dug laterally to the edge) still recognizable after carbonization; in some instances, the carbonization actually enhanced the features observed. Carbonization also did not significantly alter the measurements of the lesions. Carbonization tends to alter the structure of the bone especially in areas weakened by the blunt trauma.

  19. Stereomicroscopic and histologic changes in the colon of guinea pigs fed degraded carrageenan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1980-01-01

    A colitis-like state induced in Guinea Pigs fed degraded carrageenan orally. By means of a combined semimacroscopic and histologic technique the course of the disease was followed during 28 days. The changes were primarily seen and became most prominent in the caecum. The first lesions were...... observed following 24 hours of treatment as small rounded foci initially with degenerative changes and inflammation in the surface epithelium, later forming superficial focal ulcerations. Ulcerative changes gradually progressed during the experiment, forming linear and later large, geographical ulcerations...

  20. Stereomicroscopic and ultrastructural characterization of propionitrile-induced duodenal ulcer in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1978-01-01

    Acute duodenal ulcer produced by subcutaneous injection of propionitrile in rats was studied by stereo, light, and electron microscopy in order to gain insight into the localization and mechanism of initial cell injury. Stereomicroscopy revealed an initial fissuring and splitting of the tips...... of the villus folds within 4 hours after two injections of propionitrile. This was followed by sloughing of the epithelium, shortening and effacement of the villus folds, and within 24 hours the appearance of discrete ulcers in the mucosa of the proximal duodenum. In most of the rats, two ulcers developed......: the first and larger ulcer was on the antimesenteric side of the duodenum, and the other, a small and more superficial one, was on the opposite wall. Ultrastructural lesions appeared in the absorptive epithelial cells of the proximal duodenum within 5 hours following a single dose of propionitrile...

  1. DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLANS, DEFINED BENEFIT PLANS, AND THE ACCUMULATION OF RETIREMENT WEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poterba, James; Rauh, Joshua; Venti, Steven; Wise, David

    2010-01-01

    The private pension structure in the United States, once dominated by defined benefit (DB) plans, is currently divided between defined contribution (DC) and DB plans. Wealth accumulation in DC plans depends on the participant's contribution behavior and on financial market returns, while accumulation in DB plans is sensitive to a participant's labor market experience and to plan parameters. This paper simulates the distribution of retirement wealth under representative DB and DC plans. It uses data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to explore how asset returns, earnings histories, and retirement plan characteristics contribute to the variation in retirement wealth outcomes. We simulate DC plan accumulation by randomly assigning individuals a share of wages that they and their employer contribute to the plan. We consider several possible asset allocation strategies, with asset returns drawn from the historical return distribution. Our DB plan simulations draw earnings histories from the HRS, and randomly assign each individual a pension plan drawn from a sample of large private and public defined benefit plans. The simulations yield distributions of both DC and DB wealth at retirement. Average retirement wealth accruals under current DC plans exceed average accruals under private sector DB plans, although DC plans are also more likely to generate very low retirement wealth outcomes. The comparison of current DC plans with more generous public sector DB plans is less definitive, because public sector DB plans are more generous on average than their private sector counterparts. PMID:21057597

  2. The theatrical stage as accident site in professional dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Eileen M; Arendt, Michael; Mill, Helmgard; Koch, Franziska; Davenport, Jacqueline; Fischer, Axel; Groneberg, David A

    2014-03-01

    Reducing work-related health hazards at the different theatre workplaces is one aspect of preventive options in professional dance. This also applies to hazards on the highly variable theatrical stage areas. However, detailed information on these stages and their risks is not available. The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate work-related traumatic injuries in the stage area. The basis for the evaluation was accident reports, from the German National Statutory Insurance, of work-related traumatic injuries occurring on stage in professional dancers (n=790: 407 males, 383 females) over a 17-year period (1995-2011). Most (79.4%) of the accidents on stage occurred during an ongoing performance (frequency: 10.1/100 performances), with only 19.7% occurring during rehearsals on stage (p<0.001). Due to the sustained injury, 30.2% of the dancers sustained a time-loss injury. Most (57.7%) of the injured dancers were older than 25 years. Of the accidents, 59.3% were initiated by a definably extrinsic cause, with 40.7% caused by intrinsic factors (p<0.001). Injuries were most commonly caused by the "partner" (21.7%) or "floor" (21.0%). The lower extremity was the most commonly affected body region (63.6%) (p<0.001). Stage performances seem to carry an increased injury risk compared to rehearsals. The "risk" of on-stage work is spread across various factors that seem to be stage-specific. There is a need for further qualitative and quantitative research to be able to classify the stage as workplace more precisely.

  3. Evaluating the Stage Learning Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hoben

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for evaluating the Genevan stage learning hypothesis is illustrated by analyzing Inhelder, Sinclair, and Bovet's guided learning experiments (in "Learning and the Development of Cognition." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974). (Author/MP)

  4. Staged deployment of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, H.; Sugimoto, M.; Nakamura, H.

    2001-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) employs an accelerator based D-Li intense neutron source as defined in the 1995-96 Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) study. In 1999, IEA mandated a review of the CDA IFMIF design for cost reduction without change to its original mission. This objective was accomplished by eliminating the previously assumed possibility of potential upgrade of IFMIF beyond the user requirements. The total estimated cost was reduced from $797.2 M to $487.8 M. An option of deployment in 3 stages was also examined to reduce the initial investment and annual expenditures during construction. In this scenario, full performance is achieved gradually with each interim stage as follows. 1st Stage: 20% operation for material selection for ITER breeding blanket, 2nd Stage: 50% operation to demonstrate materials performance of a reference alloy for DEMO, 3rd Stage: full performance operation ( 2MW/m 2 at 500cm 3 ) to obtain engineering data for potential DEMO materials under irradiation up to 100-200 dpa. In summary, the new, reduced cost IFMIF design and staged deployment still satisfies the original mission. The estimated cost of the 1st Stage facility is only $303.6 M making it financially much more attractive. Currently, IFMIF Key Element Technology Phase (KEP) is underway to reduce the key technology risk factors. (author)

  5. Functioning in early and late stages of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gazzi Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is frequently associated with a debilitating course and prominent impairment in social and occupational functioning. Although the criteria for classification into stages have not been defined in the literature, illness duration and functioning seem to be good candidates.OBJECTIVE:To compare functioning of patients with schizophrenia at different stages of the disease (early vs. late and healthy sex- and age-matched controls.METHODS: This double-blinded, case-controlled study included 79 individuals: 23 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed up to 5 years earlier; 19 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed at least 20 years earlier; and healthy matched controls. Diagnoses were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV Axis I Disorder. Functioning was assessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST.RESULTS: Patients in the early stage had significantly higher scores than healthy controls in total FAST and in autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning and interpersonal relationships. Individuals in the late stage had significantly poorer functioning than controls in all domains. The comparison of functioning between the two groups of patients revealed no significant differences, except in occupational functioning, in which late stage patients had a poorer performance.CONCLUSION: Functioning impairment in schizophrenia tends to remain stable despite illness duration. Therefore, functioning should be effectively assessed at an early stage, as illness duration alone may not be the most reliable criterion to stage patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Coexistence of competing stage-structured populations.

    KAUST Repository

    Fujiwara, Masami

    2011-10-05

    This paper analyzes the stability of a coexistence equilibrium point of a model for competition between two stage-structured populations. In this model, for each population, competition for resources may affect any one of the following population parameters: reproduction, juvenile survival, maturation rate, or adult survival. The results show that the competitive strength of a population is affected by (1) the ratio of the population parameter influenced by competition under no resource limitation (maximum compensatory capacity) over the same parameter under a resource limitation due to competition (equilibrium rate) and (2) the ratio of interspecific competition over intraspecific competition; this ratio was previously shown to depend on resource-use overlap. The former ratio, which we define as fitness, can be equalized by adjusting organisms\\' life history strategies, thereby promoting coexistence. We conclude that in addition to niche differentiation among populations, the life history strategies of organisms play an important role in coexistence.

  7. Third-stage turbine bucket airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirolla, Peter Paul; Siden, Gunnar Leif; Humanchuk, David John; Brassfield, Steven Robert; Wilson, Paul Stuart

    2002-01-01

    The third-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in inches in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinates defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X, Y and Z values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket.

  8. The Staging of the Turk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    2013-01-01

    An analytical and contextualized presentation of the figure of the Turk on the Danish stage in the 18. century with a specific focus on the interaction between the actual commercial and military circumstances on the one hand and the performative representations on the other hand. How far did the ...... the staged image reflect the actual circumstances and how far was it an internal self-reflection?...

  9. Two stages of economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests that the development process of a less-developed country can be divided into two stages, which demonstrate significantly different properties in areas such as structural endowments, production modes, income distribution, and the forces that drive economic growth. The two stages of economic development have been indicated in the growth theory of macroeconomics and in the various "turning point" theories in development economics, including Lewis's dual economy theory, Kuznet...

  10. Staged regenerative sorption heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system for cooling and heating a space. A sorbent is confined in a plurality of compressors of which at least four are first stage and at least four are second stage. The first stage operates over a first pressure region and the second stage over a second pressure region which is higher than the first. Sorbate from the first stage enters the second stage. The sorbate loop includes a condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the compressors. A single sorbate loop can be employed for single-temperature-control such as air conditioning and heating. Two sorbate loops can be used for two-temperature-control as in a refrigerator and freezer. The evaporator temperatures control the freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Alternatively the refrigerator temperature can be cooled by the freezer with one sorbate loop. A heat transfer fluid is circulated in a closed loop which includes a radiator and the compressors. Low temperature heat is exhausted by the radiator. High temperature heat is added to the heat transfer fluid entering the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Heat is transferred from compressors which are sorbing vapor to the heat transfer fluid, and from the heat transfer fluid to the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Each compressor is subjected to the following phases, heating to its highest temperature, cooling down from its highest temperature, cooling to its lowest temperature, and warming up from its lowest temperature. The phases are repeated to complete a cycle and regenerate heat.

  11. Self-defining memories during exposure to music in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean Louis; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Raffard, Stéphane

    2015-10-01

    Research suggests that exposure to music may enhance autobiographical recall in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients. This study investigated whether exposure to music could enhance the production of self-defining memories, that is, memories that contribute to self-discovery, self-understanding, and identity in AD patients. Twenty-two mild-stage AD patients and 24 healthy controls were asked to produce autobiographical memories in silence, while listening to researcher-chosen music, and to their own-chosen music. AD patients showed better autobiographical recall when listening to their own-chosen music than to researcher-chosen music or than in silence. More precisely, they produced more self-defining memories during exposure to their own-chosen music than to researcher-chosen music or during silence. Additionally, AD patients produced more self-defining memories than autobiographical episodes or personal-semantics during exposure to their own-chosen music. This pattern contrasted with the poor production of self-defining memories during silence or during exposure to researcher-chosen music. Healthy controls did not seem to enjoy the same autobiographical benefits nor the same self-defining memory enhancement in the self-chosen music condition. Poor production of self-defining memories, as observed in AD, may somehow be alleviated by exposure to self-chosen music.

  12. A research on the application of software defined networking in satellite network architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huan; Chen, Jinqiang; Cao, Suzhi; Cui, Dandan; Li, Tong; Su, Yuxing

    2017-10-01

    Software defined network is a new type of network architecture, which decouples control plane and data plane of traditional network, has the feature of flexible configurations and is a direction of the next generation terrestrial Internet development. Satellite network is an important part of the space-ground integrated information network, while the traditional satellite network has the disadvantages of difficult network topology maintenance and slow configuration. The application of SDN technology in satellite network can solve these problems that traditional satellite network faces. At present, the research on the application of SDN technology in satellite network is still in the stage of preliminary study. In this paper, we start with introducing the SDN technology and satellite network architecture. Then we mainly introduce software defined satellite network architecture, as well as the comparison of different software defined satellite network architecture and satellite network virtualization. Finally, the present research status and development trend of SDN technology in satellite network are analyzed.

  13. Overt hypoadrenalism is uncommon in patients with stage 3 and 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of primary hypoadrenalism, as defined by a subnormal cortisol response to the 250 µg adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test, in patients with stage 3 and 4 lung cancer. Methods. Thirty patients with stage 3 and 4 bronchogenic carcinoma were prospectively ...

  14. Neglect of lactation stage leads to naive assessment of residual feed intake in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingjie; Berglund, B.; Fikse, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a candidate trait for feed efficiency in dairy cattle. We investigated the influence of lactation stage on the effect of energy sinks in defining RFI and the genetic parameters for RFI across lactation stages for primiparous dairy cattle. Our analysis included 747 pr...

  15. Cycle Commuting and Perceptions of Barriers: Stages of Change, Gender and Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bekkum, Jennifer E.; Williams, Joanne M.; Morris, Paul Graham

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate perceptions of cycle commuting barriers in relation to stage of change, gender and occupational role. Stage of change is a key construct of the transtheoretical model of behaviour change that defines behavioural readiness (intentions and actions) into five distinct categories.…

  16. Critical path analysis in early stage of nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Ahai

    2009-01-01

    The technical program and contract model as well as project management system and preliminary design defined in the early stage of nuclear power project are the key condition impact on the quality, schedule and cost of the nuclear power project. This paper, taking the CPR1000 coastal nuclear power station as an example, analyzes the critical path in the early stage of nuclear power project for five fields, i.e. licensing, design and procurement, site preparation, tender of construction contracts and construction preparation, and organization. (authors)

  17. The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) staging system: an INRG Task Force report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclair, Tom; Brodeur, Garrett M; Ambros, Peter F; Brisse, Hervé J; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Holmes, Keith; Kaneko, Michio; London, Wendy B; Matthay, Katherine K; Nuchtern, Jed G; von Schweinitz, Dietrich; Simon, Thorsten; Cohn, Susan L; Pearson, Andrew D J

    2009-01-10

    The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) classification system was developed to establish a consensus approach for pretreatment risk stratification. Because the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) is a postsurgical staging system, a new clinical staging system was required for the INRG pretreatment risk classification system. To stage patients before any treatment, the INRG Task Force, consisting of neuroblastoma experts from Australia/New Zealand, China, Europe, Japan, and North America, developed a new INRG staging system (INRGSS) based on clinical criteria and image-defined risk factors (IDRFs). To investigate the impact of IDRFs on outcome, survival analyses were performed on 661 European patients with INSS stages 1, 2, or 3 disease for whom IDRFs were known. In the INGRSS, locoregional tumors are staged L1 or L2 based on the absence or presence of one or more of 20 IDRFs, respectively. Metastatic tumors are defined as stage M, except for stage MS, in which metastases are confined to the skin, liver, and/or bone marrow in children younger than 18 months of age. Within the 661-patient cohort, IDRFs were present (ie, stage L2) in 21% of patients with stage 1, 45% of patients with stage 2, and 94% of patients with stage 3 disease. Patients with INRGSS stage L2 disease had significantly lower 5-year event-free survival than those with INRGSS stage L1 disease (78% +/- 4% v 90% +/- 3%; P = .0010). Use of the new staging (INRGSS) and risk classification (INRG) of neuroblastoma will greatly facilitate the comparison of risk-based clinical trials conducted in different regions of the world.

  18. Colorectal cancer stages transcriptome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyao Huo

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression differences in different stages of CRC. Gene expression data on 433 CRC patient samples were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. Gene expression differences were evaluated across CRC stages using linear regression. Genes with p≤0.001 in expression differences were evaluated further in principal component analysis and genes with p≤0.0001 were evaluated further in gene set enrichment analysis. A total of 377 patients with gene expression data in 20,532 genes were included in the final analysis. The numbers of patients in stage I through IV were 59, 147, 116 and 55, respectively. NEK4 gene, which encodes for NIMA related kinase 4, was differentially expressed across the four stages of CRC. The stage I patients had the highest expression of NEK4 genes, while the stage IV patients had the lowest expressions (p = 9*10-6. Ten other genes (RNF34, HIST3H2BB, NUDT6, LRCh4, GLB1L, HIST2H4A, TMEM79, AMIGO2, C20orf135 and SPSB3 had p value of 0.0001 in the differential expression analysis. Principal component analysis indicated that the patients from the 4 clinical stages do not appear to have distinct gene expression pattern. Network-based and pathway-based gene set enrichment analyses showed that these 11 genes map to multiple pathways such as meiotic synapsis and packaging of telomere ends, etc. Ten of these 11 genes were linked to Gene Ontology terms such as nucleosome, DNA packaging complex and protein-DNA interactions. The protein complex-based gene set analysis showed that four genes were involved in H2AX complex II. This study identified a small number of genes that might be associated with clinical stages of CRC. Our analysis was not able to find a molecular basis for the current clinical staging for CRC based on the gene expression patterns.

  19. Two-Stage Centrifugal Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, David

    2011-01-01

    Fan designs are often constrained by envelope, rotational speed, weight, and power. Aerodynamic performance and motor electrical performance are heavily influenced by rotational speed. The fan used in this work is at a practical limit for rotational speed due to motor performance characteristics, and there is no more space available in the packaging for a larger fan. The pressure rise requirements keep growing. The way to ordinarily accommodate a higher DP is to spin faster or grow the fan rotor diameter. The invention is to put two radially oriented stages on a single disk. Flow enters the first stage from the center; energy is imparted to the flow in the first stage blades, the flow is redirected some amount opposite to the direction of rotation in the fixed stators, and more energy is imparted to the flow in the second- stage blades. Without increasing either rotational speed or disk diameter, it is believed that as much as 50 percent more DP can be achieved with this design than with an ordinary, single-stage centrifugal design. This invention is useful primarily for fans having relatively low flow rates with relatively high pressure rise requirements.

  20. Utilising artificial intelligence in software defined wireless sensor network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matlou, OG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Wireless Sensor Network (SDWSN) is realised by infusing Software Defined Network (SDN) model in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Reason for that is to overcome the challenges of WSN. Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning...

  1. Using CUDA Technology for Defining the Stiffness Matrix in the Subspace of Eigenvectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Berchun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to improve the performance of solving a problem of deformable solid mechanics through the use of GPGPU. The paper describes technologies for computing systems using both a central and a graphics processor and provides motivation for using CUDA technology as the efficient one.The paper also analyses methods to solve the problem of defining natural frequencies and design waveforms, i.e. an iteration method in the subspace. The method includes several stages. The paper considers the most resource-hungry stage, which defines the stiffness matrix in the subspace of eigenforms and gives the mathematical interpretation of this stage.The GPU choice as a computing device is justified. The paper presents an algorithm for calculating the stiffness matrix in the subspace of eigenforms taking into consideration the features of input data. The global stiffness matrix is very sparse, and its size can reach tens of millions. Therefore, it is represented as a set of the stiffness matrices of the single elements of a model. The paper analyses methods of data representation in the software and selects the best practices for GPU computing.It describes the software implementation using CUDA technology to calculate the stiffness matrix in the subspace of eigenforms. Due to the input data nature, it is impossible to use the universal libraries of matrix computations (cuSPARSE and cuBLAS for loading the GPU. For efficient use of GPU resources in the software implementation, the stiffness matrices of elements are built in the block matrices of a special form. The advantages of using shared memory in GPU calculations are described.The transfer to the GPU computations allowed a twentyfold increase in performance (as compared to the multithreaded CPU-implementation on the model of middle dimensions (degrees of freedom about 2 million. Such an acceleration of one stage speeds up defining the natural frequencies and waveforms by the iteration method in a subspace

  2. 48 CFR 311.7000 - Defining electronic information technology requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defining electronic information technology requirements. 311.7000 Section 311.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH... Accessibility Standards 311.7000 Defining electronic information technology requirements. HHS staff that define...

  3. Variable Bandwidth Analog Channel Filters for Software Defined Radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteijn, V.J.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2001-01-01

    An important aspect of Software Defined Radio is the ability to define the bandwidth of the filter that selects the desired channel. This paper first explains the importance of channel filtering. Then the advantage of analog channel filtering with a variable bandwidth in a Software Defined Radio is

  4. Defining Generic Architecture for Cloud Infrastructure as a Service model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; de Laat, C.

    2011-01-01

    Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is one of the provisioning models for Clouds as defined in the NIST Clouds definition. Although widely used, current IaaS implementations and solutions doesn’t have common and well defined architecture model. The paper attempts to define a generic architecture for

  5. Defining generic architecture for Cloud IaaS provisioning model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; de Laat, C.; Mavrin, A.; Leymann, F.; Ivanov, I.; van Sinderen, M.; Shishkov, B.

    2011-01-01

    Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is one of the provisioning models for Clouds as defined in the NIST Clouds definition. Although widely used, current IaaS implementations and solutions doesn’t have common and well defined architecture model. The paper attempts to define a generic architecture for

  6. A model to compare a defined benefit pension fund with a defined contribution provident fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Nevin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1994 universities and certain other institutions were given the option of setting up private retirement funds as an alternative to the AIPF. Because of the underfundedness of the AIPF only a substantially reduced Actuarial Reserve Value could be transferred to the new fund on behalf of each member. Employees at these institutions had to make the difficult decision of whether to remain a member of the AIPF or to join a new fund. Several institutions created defined contribution funds as an alternative to the AIPF. In such funds the member carries the investment risk and most institutions felt the need to provide some form of top-up of the Transfer Value. A simple mathematical model is formulated to aid in the comparison of expected retirement benefits under the AIPF and a private fund and to investigate the management problem of distributing additional top-up funds in a fair manner amongst the various age groups within the fund.

  7. Schistosoma mansoni: host cell adhesion to the different stages of the parasite, in vivo Schistosoma mansoni: adesão de células do hospedeiro aos diferentes estádios do parasito, in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan L. Melo

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The peritoneal cavity of laboratory mice was used to study the phenomenon of host cell adhesion to different evolutive stages of the Schistosoma mansoni (cercaria, adult worm, developing and mature eggs, miracidium, young and mature daughter sporocysts. Material recovered from the peritoneal cavity 30 and 180 min after the inoculation of each evolutive form was examined with the help of a stereomicroscope. The free swimming larvae (cercaria and miracidium, and the evolutive forms producing such larvae (mature egg and mature daughter sporocyst elicited the host cell adhesion phenomenon. In all forms but cercariae the adherent cells remained as so till 180 minutes after inoculationA cavidade peritoneal de camundongos foi utilizada para estudos de adesão celular a diferentes estádios evolutivos do Schistosoma mansoni (cercária, verme adulto, ovos imaturos e maduros, miracídio, esporocisto jovem e esporocisto maduro. O material recuperado da cavidade peritoneal 30 e 180 min após o inóculo, foi examinado com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. As formas livres (cercária e miracídio e as formas evolutivas que produzem tais larvas (ovo maduro e esporocisto maduro apresentam células do hospedeiro aderidas à superfície. Em todas as formas, exceto cercária, as células permanecem aderidas pelo menos até 180 min após o inóculo

  8. Staging N0 oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Grupe, Peter

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare sentinel lymph node biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Doppler ultrasonography, and palpation as staging tools in patients with T1/T2 N0 cancer of the oral cavity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty consecutive patients were enrolled (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90 years), 24 T1......%, but the sensitivity of MRI 36% was low. The specificities were 100%, 85%, and 93%, respectively. By combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography the overall sensitivity could have been 100%. CONCLUSION: Sentinel lymph node biopsy improved staging of patients with small N0 oral cancers. Combined sentinel...

  9. On the lower boundary of the Floian Stage in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helje Pärnaste

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The lower boundary of the Second Stage of the Lower Ordovician Series, the Floian Stage, is defined by the first appearance of the graptolite Tetragraptus approximatus. In the stratotype section of Diabasbrottet at Hunneberg, southern Sweden, the boundary falls within the Megistaspis planilimbata trilobite Zone and within the Oelandodus elongatus–Acodus deltatus deltatus conodont Subzone of the Paroistodus proteus Zone, and within the Hunneberg Regional Stage. Graptolites, including the index species T. approximatus, are missing in the terrigenous sediment of Estonia. The earliest trilobites are poorly preserved in this terrigenous succession. They represent an interval older than the Megalaspides dalecarlicus Zone but probably younger than the M. planilimbata Zone, and are correlative to the Prioniodus elegans conodont Zone. Thus the lower boundary of the Second Stage can be detected using mainly conodonts. In accordance with conodont occurrence, the base of the Floian (i.e. somewhat higher than the base of the O. elongatus–A. d. deltatus Subzone falls within the Joa Member of the Leetse Formation. Probable levels have been suggested in some localities. Thus the lower part of the Leetse Formation belongs to the Tremadoc Stage, and to the Hunneberg Regional Stage.

  10. Metabolomics Identifies Multiple Candidate Biomarkers to Diagnose and Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M Vincent

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatment for human African trypanosomiasis is dependent on the species of trypanosome causing the disease and the stage of the disease (stage 1 defined by parasites being present in blood and lymphatics whilst for stage 2, parasites are found beyond the blood-brain barrier in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Currently, staging relies upon detecting the very low number of parasites or elevated white blood cell numbers in CSF. Improved staging is desirable, as is the elimination of the need for lumbar puncture. Here we use metabolomics to probe samples of CSF, plasma and urine from 40 Angolan patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, at different disease stages. Urine samples provided no robust markers indicative of infection or stage of infection due to inherent variability in urine concentrations. Biomarkers in CSF were able to distinguish patients at stage 1 or advanced stage 2 with absolute specificity. Eleven metabolites clearly distinguished the stage in most patients and two of these (neopterin and 5-hydroxytryptophan showed 100% specificity and sensitivity between our stage 1 and advanced stage 2 samples. Neopterin is an inflammatory biomarker previously shown in CSF of stage 2 but not stage 1 patients. 5-hydroxytryptophan is an important metabolite in the serotonin synthetic pathway, the key pathway in determining somnolence, thus offering a possible link to the eponymous symptoms of "sleeping sickness". Plasma also yielded several biomarkers clearly indicative of the presence (87% sensitivity and 95% specificity and stage of disease (92% sensitivity and 81% specificity. A logistic regression model including these metabolites showed clear separation of patients being either at stage 1 or advanced stage 2 or indeed diseased (both stages versus control.

  11. Stages in the energetics of baroclinic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlanski, Isidoro; Sheldon, John P.

    1995-10-01

    The results from several idealized and case studies are drawn together to form a comprehensive picture of "downstream baroclinic evolution" using local energetics. This new viewpoint offers a complementary alternative to the more conventional descriptions of cyclone development. These additional insights are made possible largely because the local energetics approach permits one to define an energy flux vector which accurately describes the direction of energy dispersion and quantifies the role of neighboring systems in local development. In this view, the development of a system's energetics is divided into three stages. In Stage 1, a pre-existing disturbance well upstream of an incipient trough loses energy via ageostrophic geopotential fluxes directed downstream through the intervening ridge, generating a new energy center there. In Stage 2, this new energy center grows vigorously, at first due to the convergence of these fluxes, and later by baroclinic conversion as well. As the center matures, it begins to export energy via geopotential fluxes to the eastern side of the trough, initiating yet another energy center. In Stage 3, this new energy center continues to grow while that on the western side of the trough decays due to a dwinding supply of energy via fluxes from the older upstream system and also as a consequence of its own export of energy downstream. As the eastern energy center matures, it exports energy further downstream, and the sequence begins anew. The USA "Blizzard of'93" is used as a new case study to test the limits to which this conceptual sequence might apply, as well as to augment the current limited set of case studies. It is shown that, despite the extraordinary magnitude of the event, the evolution of the trough associated with the Blizzard fits the conceptual picture of downstream baroclinic evolution quite well, with geopotential fluxes playing a critical rôle in three respects. First, fluxes from an old, decaying system in the

  12. When science takes centre stage

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The teachers at 'Science on stage' are not emotionally attached to their chalk. Neither are they are weary old men who sport tweed jackets with elbow-patches and enter into conversation with their blackboards. Actually, 'Science on stage' teachers are far from the cliché of the boring physics teacher who can only inspire yawns from his pupils. Some present the basic principles of mechanics using a bicycle, others explain chemistry with examples from everyday life. The most audacious of them go so far as to explain the Doppler effect by means of a play in which Einstein dreams about jumping cows... These are but a few of the activities and plays that will be shown during the EIROforum1 Science on Stage Festival (organised by 7 European scientific organisations including CERN), to be held from 21 to 25 November at CERN, Geneva. This festival is dedicated to the teaching science in order to make it more attractive. After the first edition 'Physics on Stage' which was held in 2000 at CERN, the laboratory agai...

  13. Early stage fuel cell funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Early stage venture funding requires an in depth understanding of both current and future markets as well as the key technical hurdles that need to be overcome for new technology to commercialize into successful products for mass markets. As the leading fuel cell and hydrogen investor, Chrysalix continuously reviews global trends and new technologies, evaluates them with industry leaders worldwide and tries to match them up with the best possible management teams when selecting its early stage investments. Chrysalix Energy Limited Partnership is an early-stage venture capital firm focusing on fuel cell and related fueling technology companies and is a private equity joint venture between Ballard Power Systems, BASF Venture Capital, The BOC Group, The Boeing Company, Duke Energy, Mitsubishi Corporation and Shell Hydrogen. Operating independently, Chrysalix offers a unique value proposition to its clients throughout the business planning, start-up and operations phases of development. Chrysalix provides early-stage funding to new companies as well as management assistance, technological knowledge, organized networking with industry players and experience in the management of intellectual property. (author)

  14. Stages of neuronal network formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woiterski, Lydia; Käs, Josef A; Claudepierre, Thomas; Luxenhofer, Robert; Jordan, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Graph theoretical approaches have become a powerful tool for investigating the architecture and dynamics of complex networks. The topology of network graphs revealed small-world properties for very different real systems among these neuronal networks. In this study, we observed the early development of mouse retinal ganglion cell (RGC) networks in vitro using time-lapse video microscopy. By means of a time-resolved graph theoretical analysis of the connectivity, shortest path length and the edge length, we were able to discover the different stages during the network formation. Starting from single cells, at the first stage neurons connected to each other ending up in a network with maximum complexity. In the further course, we observed a simplification of the network which manifested in a change of relevant network parameters such as the minimization of the path length. Moreover, we found that RGC networks self-organized as small-world networks at both stages; however, the optimization occurred only in the second stage. (paper)

  15. Status of lymph node staging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieweg, O. E.; Estourgie, S. H.; Deurloo, E. E.; Rutgers, E. J. Th; Kroon, B. B. R.

    2002-01-01

    Sentinel node biopsy has the potential to provide more accurate staging information than axillary node dissection. Given the considerable morbidity of axillary node dissection this less invasive approach is attractive. However, there are a number of issues to be resolved before the best technique of

  16. All the World's a Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Open Stages is Britain's biggest amateur theatre project, a hugely ambitious scheme to bring the professional and amateur theatre worlds together. It is a learning project but, as the Royal Shakespeare Company's Ian Wainwright tells this author, it is not only the amateurs who are learning. Wainwright states that the amateur and professional…

  17. A staged service innovation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, L.Z.; Song, Michael; Benedetto, Di A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from the new product development (NPD) literature, service quality literature (SERVQUAL), and empirically grounded research with 53 service innovation decision makers, we develop a staged service innovation model (SIM) for decision makers. We tested the model using empirical data from 329

  18. The second stage of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, Helen

    2004-03-01

    This is the third 'midwifery basics' series aimed at student midwives, and focuses on midwifery care during labour. This month, we look at care during the second stage of labour. Students are encouraged to seek further information through a series of activities, and to link theory with practice by considering the issues relating to the care of the woman described in the vignette.

  19. Staging Urban Experiences in Suburbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Urban design provides props, requisites and decors for staging the users' performances in space. Design may facilitate or impede specific ways of moving around, interacting with objects and other people, feeling, learning and sense making.The actual design may very well contradict the explicit...

  20. Hepatic imaging in stage IV-S neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, E.A. Jr.; Smith, W.L.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City; Cohen, M.D.; Kisker, C.T.; Platz, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Stage IV-S neuroblastoma describes a group of infants with tumor spread limited to liver, skin, or bone marrow. Such patients, who constitute about 25% of affected infants with neuroblastoma, may expect spontaneous tumor remission. We report 18 infants with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma, 83% of whom had liver involvement. Imaging investigations included Technetium 99m sulfur colloid scan, ultrasound, and CT. Two patterns of liver metastasis were noted: ill-defined nodules or diffuse tumor throughout the liver. Distinction of normal and abnormal liver with diffuse type metastasis could be quite difficult, particularly with liver scans. We conclude that patients with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma have ultrasound or CT examination as an initial workup, with nuclear medicine scans reserved for followup studies. (orig.)

  1. A novel three-stage distance-based consensus ranking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghayi, Nazila; Tavana, Madjid

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we propose a three-stage weighted sum method for identifying the group ranks of alternatives. In the first stage, a rank matrix, similar to the cross-efficiency matrix, is obtained by computing the individual rank position of each alternative based on importance weights. In the second stage, a secondary goal is defined to limit the vector of weights since the vector of weights obtained in the first stage is not unique. Finally, in the third stage, the group rank position of alternatives is obtained based on a distance of individual rank positions. The third stage determines a consensus solution for the group so that the ranks obtained have a minimum distance from the ranks acquired by each alternative in the previous stage. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the applicability and exhibit the efficacy of the proposed method and algorithms.

  2. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer; Praeoperatives Staging des Rektumkarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A.O.; Baumann, T.; Pache, G.; Langer, M. [Abt. Roentgendiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Wiech, T. [Inst. fuer Pathologie, Universitaetsklinik Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Accurate preoperative staging of rectal cancer is crucial for therapeutic decision making, as local tumor extent, nodal status, and patterns of metastatic spread are directly associated with different treatment strategies. Recently, treatment approaches have been widely standardized according to large studies and consensus guidelines. Introduced by Heald, total mesorectal excision (TME) is widely accepted as the surgical procedure of choice to remove the rectum together with its enveloping tissues and the mesorectal fascia. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy also plays a key role in the treatment of locally advanced stages, while the use of new drugs will lead to a further improvement in oncological outcome. Visualization of the circumferential resection margin is the hallmark of any preoperative imaging and a prerequisite for high-quality TME surgery. The aim of this article is to present an overview on current cross-sectional imaging with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging. Future perspectives in rectal cancer imaging are addressed. (orig.)

  3. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  4. Fusing Multiple Satellite Datasets Toward Defining and Understanding Organized Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaesser, G.; Del Genio, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    How do we differentiate unorganized from organized convection? We might think of organized convection as being long lasting (at least longer than the lifetime of any individual cumulus cell), clustered at larger spatial scales (>100 km), and responsible for substantial rainfall accumulation. Organized convection is sustained on such scales due to the arrangement of moist/dry and buoyant/non-buoyant mesoscale circulations. The nature of these circulations is tied to system diabatic heating profiles; in particular, the 2nd baroclinic (top-heavy), stratiform heating mode is thought to be important for organized convection maintenance/propagation. We investigate the extent to which these characteristics are jointly found in propagating convective systems. Lifecycle information comes from hi-res IR data. Diabatic heating profiles, convective fractions and rainfall are provided by GPM retrievals mapped to convective system tracks. Moisture is provided by AIRS/AMSU and passive microwave retrievals. Instead of compositing heating profile information along a system track, where information is smoothed out, we sort system heating profile structures according to their "top heaviness" and then analyze PDFs of system rainfall, system sizes, durations, convective/stratiform ratios, etc. as a function of diabatic heating structure. Perhaps contrary to expectation, we find only small differences in PDFs of rainfall rates, system sizes, and system duration for different heating profile structures. If organization is defined according to heating structures, then one possible interpretation of these results is that organization is independent of system size, duration, and many times, even lifecycle stage. Is it possible that most systems "hobble" along and exhibit varying degrees of organization, dependent on local environment moisture/buoyancy variations, unlike the archetypical MCS paradigm? This presentation will also discuss the questions posed above within the context of

  5. Survival Advantage Associated with Decrease in Stage at Detection from Stage IIIC to Stage IIIA Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefringhouse, Jason; Pavlik, Edward; Miller, Rachel; DeSimone, Christopher; Ueland, Frederick; Kryscio, Richard; van Nagell, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to document the survival advantage of lowering stage at detection from Stage IIIC to Stage IIIA epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods. Treatment outcomes and survival were evaluated in patients with Stage IIIA and Stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer treated from 2000 to 2009 at the University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center (UKMCC) and SEER institutions. Results. Cytoreduction to no visible disease (P < 0.0001) and complete response to platinum-based chemotherapy (P < 0.025) occurred more frequently in Stage IIIA than in Stage IIIC cases. Time to progression was shorter in patients with Stage IIIC ovarian cancer (17 ± 1 months) than in those with Stage II1A disease (36 ± 8 months). Five-year overall survival (OS) improved from 41% in Stage IIIC patients to 60% in Stage IIIA patients treated at UKMCC and from 37% to 56% in patients treated at SEER institutions for a survival advantage of 19% in both data sets. 53% of Stage IIIA and 14% of Stage IIIC patients had NED at last followup. Conclusions. Decreasing stage at detection from Stage IIIC to stage IIIA epithelial ovarian cancer is associated with a 5-year survival advantage of nearly 20% in patients treated by surgical tumor cytoreduction and platinum-based chemotherapy. PMID:25254047

  6. Optimization of multi-stage dynamic treatment regimes utilizing accumulated data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuelin; Choi, Sangbum; Wang, Lu; Thall, Peter F

    2015-11-20

    In medical therapies involving multiple stages, a physician's choice of a subject's treatment at each stage depends on the subject's history of previous treatments and outcomes. The sequence of decisions is known as a dynamic treatment regime or treatment policy. We consider dynamic treatment regimes in settings where each subject's final outcome can be defined as the sum of longitudinally observed values, each corresponding to a stage of the regime. Q-learning, which is a backward induction method, is used to first optimize the last stage treatment then sequentially optimize each previous stage treatment until the first stage treatment is optimized. During this process, model-based expectations of outcomes of late stages are used in the optimization of earlier stages. When the outcome models are misspecified, bias can accumulate from stage to stage and become severe, especially when the number of treatment stages is large. We demonstrate that a modification of standard Q-learning can help reduce the accumulated bias. We provide a computational algorithm, estimators, and closed-form variance formulas. Simulation studies show that the modified Q-learning method has a higher probability of identifying the optimal treatment regime even in settings with misspecified models for outcomes. It is applied to identify optimal treatment regimes in a study for advanced prostate cancer and to estimate and compare the final mean rewards of all the possible discrete two-stage treatment sequences. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The Landscape of microRNA Targeting in Prostate Cancer Defined by AGO-PAR-CLIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Hamilton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA deregulation in prostate cancer (PCa contributes to PCa initiation and metastatic progression. To comprehensively define the cancer-associated changes in miRNA targeting and function in commonly studied models of PCa, we performed photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced cross-linking immunoprecipitation of the Argonaute protein in a panel of PCa cell lines modeling different stages of PCa progression. Using this comprehensive catalogue of miRNA targets, we analyzed miRNA targeting on known drivers of PCa and examined tissue-specific and stage-specific pathway targeting by miRNAs. We found that androgen receptor is the most frequently targeted PCa oncogene and that miR-148a targets the largest number of known PCa drivers. Globally, tissue-specific and stage-specific changes in miRNA targeting are driven by homeostatic response to active oncogenic pathways. Our findings indicate that, even in advanced PCa, the miRNA pool adapts to regulate continuing alterations in the cancer genome to balance oncogenic molecular changes. These findings are important because they are the first to globally characterize miRNA changes in PCa and demonstrate how the miRNA target spectrum responds to staged tumorigenesis.

  8. Defining the Timing of Action of Antimalarial Drugs against Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Christine; Goodman, Christopher D.; McFadden, Geoffrey I.

    2013-01-01

    Most current antimalarials for treatment of clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria fall into two broad drug families and target the food vacuole of the trophozoite stage. No antimalarials have been shown to target the brief extracellular merozoite form of blood-stage malaria. We studied a panel of 12 drugs, 10 of which have been used extensively clinically, for their invasion, schizont rupture, and growth-inhibitory activity using high-throughput flow cytometry and new approaches for the study of merozoite invasion and early intraerythrocytic development. Not surprisingly, given reported mechanisms of action, none of the drugs inhibited merozoite invasion in vitro. Pretreatment of erythrocytes with drugs suggested that halofantrine, lumefantrine, piperaquine, amodiaquine, and mefloquine diffuse into and remain within the erythrocyte and inhibit downstream growth of parasites. Studying the inhibitory activity of the drugs on intraerythrocytic development, schizont rupture, and reinvasion enabled several different inhibitory phenotypes to be defined. All drugs inhibited parasite replication when added at ring stages, but only artesunate, artemisinin, cycloheximide, and trichostatin A appeared to have substantial activity against ring stages, whereas the other drugs acted later during intraerythrocytic development. When drugs were added to late schizonts, only artemisinin, cycloheximide, and trichostatin A were able to inhibit rupture and subsequent replication. Flow cytometry proved valuable for in vitro assays of antimalarial activity, with the free merozoite population acting as a clear marker for parasite growth inhibition. These studies have important implications for further understanding the mechanisms of action of antimalarials, studying and evaluating drug resistance, and developing new antimalarials. PMID:23318799

  9. Sleep stages, memory and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, L

    1996-04-15

    Learning and memory can be impaired by sleep loss during specific vulnerable "windows" for several days after new tasks have been learned. Different types of tasks are differentially vulnerable to the loss of different stages of sleep. Memory required to perform cognitive procedural tasks is affected by the loss of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep on the first night after learning occurs and again on the third night after learning. REM-sleep deprivation on the second night after learning does not produce memory deficits. Declarative memory, which is used for the recall of specific facts, is not similarly affected by REM-sleep loss. The learning of procedural motor tasks, including those required in many sports, is impaired by the loss of stage 2 sleep, which occurs primarily in the early hours of the morning. These findings have implications for the academic and athletic performance of students and for anyone whose work involves ongoing learning and demands high standards of performance.

  10. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, A.O.; Baumann, T.; Pache, G.; Langer, M.; Wiech, T.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate preoperative staging of rectal cancer is crucial for therapeutic decision making, as local tumor extent, nodal status, and patterns of metastatic spread are directly associated with different treatment strategies. Recently, treatment approaches have been widely standardized according to large studies and consensus guidelines. Introduced by Heald, total mesorectal excision (TME) is widely accepted as the surgical procedure of choice to remove the rectum together with its enveloping tissues and the mesorectal fascia. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy also plays a key role in the treatment of locally advanced stages, while the use of new drugs will lead to a further improvement in oncological outcome. Visualization of the circumferential resection margin is the hallmark of any preoperative imaging and a prerequisite for high-quality TME surgery. The aim of this article is to present an overview on current cross-sectional imaging with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging. Future perspectives in rectal cancer imaging are addressed. (orig.)

  11. Graphs for information security control in software defined networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusho, Alexander A.; Abaev, Pavel O.; Shorgin, Sergey Ya.; Timonina, Elena E.

    2017-07-01

    Information security control in software defined networks (SDN) is connected with execution of the security policy rules regulating information accesses and protection against distribution of the malicious code and harmful influences. The paper offers a representation of a security policy in the form of hierarchical structure which in case of distribution of resources for the solution of tasks defines graphs of admissible interactions in a networks. These graphs define commutation tables of switches via the SDN controller.

  12. Poster: A Software-Defined Multi-Camera Network

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Po-Yen; Chen, Chien; Selvaraj, Parthiban; Claesen, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The widespread popularity of OpenFlow leads to a significant increase in the number of applications developed in SoftwareDefined Networking (SDN). In this work, we propose the architecture of a Software-Defined Multi-Camera Network consisting of small, flexible, economic, and programmable cameras which combine the functions of the processor, switch, and camera. A Software-Defined Multi-Camera Network can effectively reduce the overall network bandwidth and reduce a large amount of the Capex a...

  13. Non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians defined by generalized Riesz bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, H., E-mail: h-inoue@math.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Takakura, M., E-mail: mayumi@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Mathematics, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Bagarello, Inoue, and Trapani [J. Math. Phys. 55, 033501 (2014)] investigated some operators defined by the Riesz bases. These operators connect with quasi-Hermitian quantum mechanics, and its relatives. In this paper, we introduce a notion of generalized Riesz bases which is a generalization of Riesz bases and investigate some operators defined by the generalized Riesz bases by changing the frameworks of the operators defined in the work of Bagarello, Inoue, and Trapani.

  14. Use of acoustic technology to define hydraulic characteristics of an estuary near the Mississippi Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wilson, K.

    2004-01-01

    An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) was used on the Jourdan River at Interstate Highway 10 near Kiln, Mississippi, in 1996 to measure three-dimensional velocity vectors and water depths and in 1998, in combination with a global positioning system, to define channel bathymetry in the vicinity of the bridge. During a 25-hour period on September 19-20, 1996, 117 consecutive measurements of stage and discharge were obtained throughout a complete tidal cycle. These measurements were obtained during the time of year when headwater flows were minimal, and, therefore, the tidal-affected flow conditions were noticeable. The stage ranged from only 0.7 to 2.8 ft above sea level, but discharge ranged from 3,980 ft3/s flowing upstream to 5,580 ft 3/s flowing downstream. The average discharge during the 25-hour period was only 80 ft3/s flowing downstream. By using the ADCP, full downstream flow, bi-directional flow, and full upstream flow conditions were identified. If conventional measurement techniques had been used, the bi-directional flow conditions could not have been detected since flow direction would have been based on what was seen at the water surface. These measurements were used to define the lower range of the stage-storage-volume relation inland of the highway. On June 10, 1998, the ADCP, in combination with a global positional system, was used to define channel bathymetry for the river reach from about 3,500 ft upstream to about 2,500 ft downstream of the bridge. The bathymetry was compared to past soundings obtained in the vicinity of the bridge; as much as 18 ft of total scour was indicated to have occurred at a bridge pier. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  15. Interatom results for stage 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coors, D.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains the Interatom results for Stage 2 of the ''IWGFR Programme on Intercomparison of LMFBR Core Mechanics Codes'' which was agreed upon on a Consultants Meeting in Vienna, 8-10 December, 1987. The calculations were performed with the 3D core mechanics code system DDT developed at Interatom and with the 2D core mechanics code FIAT. (author). 5 refs, 11 figs, 8 tabs

  16. Acute pancreatitis: staging with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gialeli, E.; Petrocheilou, G.; Georgaki, S.; Tzemailas, I.; Adraktas, A.; Charilas, G.; Patsiogiannis, V.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Computed Tomography (CT) is the imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis and staging of acute pancreatitis and its complications. Objectives and tasks: The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate the findings in CT images which are useful for staging acute pancreatitis according to Balthazar, their significance and restrictions. Materials and methods: CT images from patients who were referred to our Department for an abdominal CT scan for the diagnosis or/and staging of acute pancreatitis were retrospectively studied. Results: In acute pancreatitis, CT helps to stage the severity of inflammatory process, to detect pancreatic necrosis and to depict local complications. CT severity index (CTSI), which was proposed by Balthazar et al, combines the grade of pancreatitis with the extent of pancreatic necrosis assigning points to the patients in order to find the severity index which scales from 0-10. More points are given for a higher grade of pancreatitis and for more extensive necrosis. Types of pancreatitis according to CTSI are: interstitial (Balthazar grade A-C), exudative (Balthazar grade D or E), necrotising (Balthazar grade E, CTSI:10) and central gland necrotising. Patients with pancreatitis but no collections or necrosis have an interstitial (mild) pancreatitis. In exudative pancreatitis there is normal enhancement of the entire pancreas associated with extensive peripancreatic collections. Necrotizing (severe) pancreatitis is characterized by protacted clinical course, high incidence of local complications and high mortality rate. Central gland necrosis is a subtype of necrotizing pancreatitis. Conclusions: The combination of CT imaging and clinical and laboratory evaluation allows the early diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis may vary from a mild uneventful disease to a severe life-threatening illness with multisystemic organ failure. Thus, it is crucial to identify patients who are at high risk of severe

  17. Five-Axis Goniometric Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    are required, as in a thread type used for mechanical motion. Caster – is an un-driven wheel that is designed to be mounted to the bottom of a larger...89 Figure 96: XY Acme Shaft Modification ...20® frame and an anodized sheet metal plate. The entire stage is firmly attached to the base with 80/20® cross supports. Four casters support the

  18. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated (CLX) proposes the development of a Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) that leverages the inherent advantages of an...

  19. DEFINE: A Service-Oriented Dynamically Enabling Function Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Wei-Yi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an innovative Dynamically Enable Function In Network Equipment (DEFINE to allow tenant get the network service quickly. First, DEFINE decouples an application into different functional components, and connects these function components in a reconfigurable method. Second, DEFINE provides a programmable interface to the third party, who can develop their own processing modules according to their own needs. To verify the effectiveness of this model, we set up an evaluating network with a FPGA-based OpenFlow switch prototype, and deployed several applications on it. Our results show that DEFINE has excellent flexibility and performance.

  20. Images of gastric cancer stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Aragon, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The present work has the objective to review the importance of the images in the preoperating stage of the gastric cancer. It has been emphasized in the modalities of transabdominal ultrasound as much as endoscopic and TAC since they are most valuable in the stage. Certainly the importance of conventional radiology (gastroduodenal series) is also valuable in the stage of the tumor, specially in considering the depth of the same one. In order to make this overhaul, the recent bibliography was consulted but, specially the published one by Japaneses since they follow a classification and methodology different from the used one in most of the countries that belong to the World-wide Organization of the Health. They made an overhaul of approximately 200 cases of patients who have been diagnosed and treated in the Center of Detection of Gastric Cancer of Cartago. In each case review the file, radiological, sonographic and pathological studies, and the cases were chosen that better illustrated the exposed subjects. (Author) [es

  1. CT staging of colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dighe, S. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton SM5 2TT (United Kingdom); Swift, I. [Department of Surgery, Mayday University Hospital, Croydon CR7 7YE (United Kingdom); Brown, G. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton SM5 2TT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gina.brown@rmh.nhs.uk

    2008-12-15

    Computer tomography (CT) has been the principal investigation in the staging of colon cancers. The information obtained with routine CT has been limited to identifying the site of the tumour, size of the tumour, infiltration into surrounding structures and metastatic spread. The Foxtrot trial National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) has been specifically designed to evaluate the efficacy of neoadjuvant treatment in colon cancers by using preoperative chemotherapy with or without an anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody to improve outcome in high-risk operable colon cancer. Patients are selected based on their staging CT examination. The criteria for poor prognosis are T4 and T3 tumours with more than 5 mm extramural depth. Thus the success of the trial would depend upon the confidence of the radiologist to identify the patients that would receive the neoadjuvant treatment. The aim of this review is to explain the process of identifying high-risk features seen on the staging CT images. This will help to identify a cohort of patients that could truly benefit from neoadjuvant strategies.

  2. CT staging of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighe, S.; Swift, I.; Brown, G.

    2008-01-01

    Computer tomography (CT) has been the principal investigation in the staging of colon cancers. The information obtained with routine CT has been limited to identifying the site of the tumour, size of the tumour, infiltration into surrounding structures and metastatic spread. The Foxtrot trial National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) has been specifically designed to evaluate the efficacy of neoadjuvant treatment in colon cancers by using preoperative chemotherapy with or without an anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody to improve outcome in high-risk operable colon cancer. Patients are selected based on their staging CT examination. The criteria for poor prognosis are T4 and T3 tumours with more than 5 mm extramural depth. Thus the success of the trial would depend upon the confidence of the radiologist to identify the patients that would receive the neoadjuvant treatment. The aim of this review is to explain the process of identifying high-risk features seen on the staging CT images. This will help to identify a cohort of patients that could truly benefit from neoadjuvant strategies

  3. Two-stage implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, M E

    1999-06-01

    Since the advent of osseointegration approximately 20 years ago, there has been a great deal of scientific data developed on two-stage integrated implant systems. Although these implants were originally designed primarily for fixed prostheses in the mandibular arch, they have been used in partially dentate patients, in patients needing overdentures, and in single-tooth restorations. In addition, this implant system has been placed in extraction sites, in bone-grafted areas, and in maxillary sinus elevations. Often, the documentation of these procedures has lagged. In addition, most of the reports use survival criteria to describe results, often providing overly optimistic data. It can be said that the literature describes a true adhesion of the epithelium to the implant similar to adhesion to teeth, that two-stage implants appear to have direct contact somewhere between 50% and 70% of the implant surface, that the microbial flora of the two-stage implant system closely resembles that of the natural tooth, and that the microbiology of periodontitis appears to be closely related to peri-implantitis. In evaluations of the data from implant placement in all of the above-noted situations by means of meta-analysis, it appears that there is a strong case that two-stage dental implants are successful, usually showing a confidence interval of over 90%. It also appears that the mandibular implants are more successful than maxillary implants. Studies also show that overdenture therapy is valid, and that single-tooth implants and implants placed in partially dentate mouths have a success rate that is quite good, although not quite as high as in the fully edentulous dentition. It would also appear that the potential causes of failure in the two-stage dental implant systems are peri-implantitis, placement of implants in poor-quality bone, and improper loading of implants. There are now data addressing modifications of the implant surface to alter the percentage of

  4. Staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, J.S.; Halow, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    A staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system are described for substantially reducing the quantity of waste through the complete combustion into ash-type solids and gaseous products. The device has two fluidized-bed portions, the first primarily as a combustor/pyrolyzer bed, and the second as a combustor/filter bed. The two portions each have internal baffles to define stages so that material moving therein as fluidized beds travel in an extended route through those stages. Fluidization and movement is achieved by the introduction of gases into each stage through a directional nozzle. Gases produced in the combustor/pyrolyzer bed are permitted to travel into corresponding stages of the combustor/filter bed through screen filters that permit gas flow but inhibit solids flow. Any catalyst used in the combustor/filter bed is recycled. The two beds share a common wall to minimize total volume of the system. A slightly modified embodiment can be used for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Either side-by-side rectangular beds or concentric beds can be used. The system is particularly suited to the processing of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. 10 figures

  5. Developing social standards for wilderness encounters in Mount Rainier National Park: Manager-defined versus visitor-defined standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristopher J. Lah

    2000-01-01

    This research compared the differences found between manager-defined and visitor-defined social standards for wilderness encounters in Mount Rainier National Park. Social standards in recreation areas of public land are defined by what is acceptable to the public, in addition to the area’s management. Social standards for the encounter indicator in Mount Rainier’s...

  6. Preoperative Prolapse Stage as Predictor of Failure of Sacrocolpopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad F; Osmundsen, Blake; Edwards, Sharon R; Matthews, Catherine; Gregory, William T

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to determine if there was a correlation between the preoperative prolapse stage and postoperative recurrence of prolapse 1 year after sacrocolpopexy. Our null hypothesis is that the preoperative stage of prolapse does not increase the risk of recurrence. This is a multicenter cohort study from 3 centers. We included subjects who underwent robotic-assisted sacrocolpopexy and completed a standardized 1-year follow-up from 2009-2014. All subjects underwent a complete preoperative evaluation and completed 12 months of follow-up with the pelvic organ prolapse quantification examination. We compared those subjects who met the definition of recurrence with those who did not, analyzing the following covariates: stage of prolapse using International Continence Society (ICS) definitions, individual pelvic organ prolapse quantification points, age, body mass index, race, exogenous estrogen use, menopause, smoking, vaginal parity, cesarean section, and performance of concomitant procedures. We defined recurrence as any prolapse beyond the hymen. We had 125 women from 3 centers who met our criteria, with 23.2% of them having recurrence at 1 year. We found that recurrence increased as the preoperative ICS stage of prolapse increased (P = <0.001 in the univariate model). In the multivariate model, using logistic regression, we found that the risk of recurrence of pelvic organ prolapse increased as the presurgery clinical stage increased with an odds ratio of 3.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-9) when controlling for age, menopausal status, and genital hiatus (P = 0.004). Much like a higher stage of disease in oncology, we found that increasing stage of prolapse preoperatively increased the risk of recurrence at 1 year after sacrocolpopexy.

  7. 75 FR 27927 - Diversification Requirements for Certain Defined Contribution Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... section 414(l) with respect to any other defined benefit plan or defined contribution plan maintained by... disclosure of the fund's portfolio holdings (for example, Form N-CSR, ``Certified Shareholder Report of... securities, as well as a direct or indirect benefit that is conditioned on investment in employer securities...

  8. 47 CFR 2.801 - Radiofrequency device defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiofrequency device defined. 2.801 Section 2... MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Marketing of Radio-frequency Devices § 2.801 Radiofrequency device defined. As used in this part, a radiofrequency device is any device which in its operation is capable of...

  9. 33 CFR 211.1 - Real estate defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real estate defined. 211.1... DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.1 Real estate defined. The term real estate as used in this part includes land...

  10. 46 CFR 9.5 - Night, Sunday, and holiday defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Night, Sunday, and holiday defined. 9.5 Section 9.5... COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.5 Night, Sunday, and holiday defined. (a) For the purpose of this part... term holiday shall mean only national legal public holidays, viz., January 1, February 22, May 30, July...

  11. 12 CFR 914.1 - Regulatory Report defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Bank. (b) Examples. Regulatory Report includes: (1) Call reports and reports of instrument-level risk... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory Report defined. 914.1 Section 914.1... DATA AVAILABILITY AND REPORTING § 914.1 Regulatory Report defined. (a) Definition. Regulatory Report...

  12. Normal Functions As A New Way Of Defining Computable Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Dubiel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Report sets new method of defining computable functions. This is formalization of traditional function descriptions, so it allows to define functions in very intuitive way. Discovery of Ackermann function proved that not all functions that can be easily computed can be so easily described with Hilbert’s system of recursive functions. Normal functions lack this disadvantage.

  13. Normal Functions as a New Way of Defining Computable Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Dubiel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Report sets new method of defining computable functions. This is formalization of traditional function descriptions, so it allows to define functions in very intuitive way. Discovery of Ackermann function proved that not all functions that can be easily computed can be so easily described with Hilbert's system of recursive functions. Normal functions lack this disadvantage.

  14. Defined Contribution Pension Plans: Mutual Fund Asset Allocation Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Sialm; Laura Starks; Hanjiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we compare changes in asset allocations between mutual funds held in defined contribution pension plans and funds held by other investors. We investigate how flows into equity and fixed income mutual funds depend on macroeconomic conditions. We find that defined contribution plans react more sensitively to these conditions, suggesting effects on mutual fund managers and other investors.

  15. Defining nuclear medical file formal based on DICOM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Bin; Jin Yongjie; Li Yulan

    2001-01-01

    With the wide application of computer technology in medical area, DICOM is becoming the standard of digital imaging and communication. The author discusses how to define medical imaging file formal based on DICOM standard. It also introduces the format of ANMIS system the authors defined the validity and integrality of this format

  16. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0 Section... BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.0 Bait advertising defined. 1 1 For the purpose of this part “advertising” includes any form of public notice however disseminated or utilized. Bait advertising is an alluring but...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1250-2 - Additional depreciation defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional depreciation defined. 1.1250-2... Additional depreciation defined. (a) In general—(1) Definition for purposes of section 1250(b)(1). Except as... depreciation means: (i) In the case of property which at the time of disposition has a holding period under...

  18. Forward and backward dynamics in implicitly defined overlapping generations models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardini, L.; Hommes, C.; Tramontana, F.; de Vilder, R.

    2009-01-01

    In dynamic economic models derived from optimization principles, the forward equilibrium dynamics may not be uniquely defined, while the backward dynamics is well defined. We derive properties of the global forward equilibrium paths based on properties of the backward dynamics. We propose the

  19. User constraints for reliable user-defined smart home scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Nielsen, Michael Kvist; Pedersen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Defining control scenarios in a smart home is a difficult task for end users. In particular, one concern is that user-defined scenarios could lead to unsafe or undesired state of the system. To help them explore scenario specifications, we propose in this paper a system that enables specification...

  20. Defining and Assessing Team Skills of Business and Accountancy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghalith, Nabil; Blum, Michael; Medlock, Amanda; Weber, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the project are (1) to define the skills necessary for students to work effectively with others to achieve common goals, and (2) to develop an assessment instrument to measure student progress toward achieving these skills. The defined skill set will form a basis for common expectations related to team skills that will be shared…

  1. Defining Sustainable Universities Following Public Opinion Formation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaptcioglu Celikdemir, Deniz; Gunay, Gonca; Katrinli, Alev; Penbek Alpbaz, Sebnem

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to define the sustainable university in Turkey, by considering perspectives of various stakeholders such as experts, intellectual, public, political parties and media using public opinion formation analysis. The paper aims to re-define the "sustainable university" with all dimensions including…

  2. 26 CFR 1.761-1 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Definitions § 1.761-1 Terms defined. (a) Partnership. The term partnership means a partnership as... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terms defined. 1.761-1 Section 1.761-1 Internal... means a member of a partnership. (c) Partnership agreement. For the purposes of subchapter K, a...

  3. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  4. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neil; Brown, Gina

    2008-01-01

    Detailed preoperative staging using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the selection of patients that require preoperative therapy for tumour regression. This information can be used to instigate neoadjuvant therapy in those patients with poor prognostic features prior to disturbing the tumour bed and potentially disseminating disease. The design of trials incorporating MR assessment of prognostic factors prior to therapy has been found to be of value in assessing treatment modalities and outcomes that are targeted to these preoperative prognostic subgroups and in providing a quantifiable assessment of the efficacy of particular chemoradiation treatment protocols by comparing pre-treatment MR staging with post therapy histology assessment. At present, we are focused on achieving clear surgical margins of excision (CRM) to avoid local recurrence. We recommend that all patients with rectal cancer should undergo pre-operative MRI staging. Of these, about half will have good prognosis features (T1-T3b, N0, EMVI negative, CRM clear) and may safely undergo primary total mesorectal excision. Of the remainder, those with threatened or involved margins will certainly benefit from pre-operative chemoradiotherapy with the aim of downstaging to permit safe surgical excision. In the future, our ability to recognise features predicting distant failure, such as extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) may be used to stratify patients for neo-adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in an effort to prevent distant relapse. The optimal pre-operative treatment regimes for these patients (radiotherapy alone, systemic chemotherapy alone or combination chemo-radiotherapy) is the subject of current and future trials.

  5. Combined gold seed implantation and external radiotherapy for stage B2 or C prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, P.O.; Lippert, M.C.; Constable, W.C.; Jones, D.; Talton, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with clinical stage B2 or C prostatic carcinoma represent a group for which there are several treatment options. We followed the course and outcome of 72 patients with clinical stages B and C prostate cancer who were treated with surgical staging, insertion of gold grains and external radiation at our institutions between 1975 and 1984. Of the patients 44 (61 per cent) had clinical stage B disease and the majority (89 per cent) of these were stage B2 lesions. The remaining 28 patients (39 per cent) had clinical stage C tumors. In our series 27 per cent of the clinical stage B and 68 per cent of the clinical stage C cancer patients had positive lymph nodes. The 5-year survival free of disease was 52 per cent for patients with both stages of disease. The 7-year survival free of disease was 47 per cent for patients with clinical stage B and 14 per cent for those with clinical stage C cancer. Lymph node status did not have a statistically significant effect on total survival but survival free of disease correlated significantly with node status. Local treatment failures were defined as patients who required transurethral prostatic resection or orchiectomy for palliation of obstructive symptoms related to local tumor regrowth. By these criteria we prevented local progression in 78 per cent of the patients at 5 years

  6. Analysing growth and development of plants jointly using developmental growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambreville, Anaëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric; Guédon, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth, the increase of organ dimensions over time, and development, the change in plant structure, are often studied as two separate processes. However, there is structural and functional evidence that these two processes are strongly related. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-ordination between growth and development using mango trees, which have well-defined developmental stages. Developmental stages, determined in an expert way, and organ sizes, determined from objective measurements, were collected during the vegetative growth and flowering phases of two cultivars of mango, Mangifera indica. For a given cultivar and growth unit type (either vegetative or flowering), a multistage model based on absolute growth rate sequences deduced from the measurements was first built, and then growth stages deduced from the model were compared with developmental stages. Strong matches were obtained between growth stages and developmental stages, leading to a consistent definition of integrative developmental growth stages. The growth stages highlighted growth asynchronisms between two topologically connected organs, namely the vegetative axis and its leaves. Integrative developmental growth stages emphasize that developmental stages are closely related to organ growth rates. The results are discussed in terms of the possible physiological processes underlying these stages, including plant hydraulics, biomechanics and carbohydrate partitioning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Elizabethan madness: on London's stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, J T

    1997-12-01

    During the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603) a renaissance of both literary and political history occurred. The stage was transformed from primitive echoes of the morality plays to a vibrant and diverse exploration of human endeavor and man's place in the universe. The titanic literary figure of Shakespeare today veils a group of friends and challengers whose pens strove for the same goal. The depiction of madness was ubiquitous during plays of this time and reflection on the views of this group of men gives us a more reliable insight into mental illness then and today.

  8. [Initial stages of steel biocorrosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigletsova, S K; Rodin, V B; Kobelev, V S; Aleksandrova, N V; Rasulova, G E; Kholodenko, V P

    2000-01-01

    Initial stages of corrosion of mild steel induced by Klebsiela rhinoscleromatis BO2 were studied in various media. The effect of the microorganism was detected 8-10 h after inoculation. The number of viable cells were virtually unchanged within one month in all media, but the corrosive activity of the strain decreased. The corrosive activity of microorganisms can be determined by spectrophotometry even only after incubation for 24 h. At a low level of organic substrate, even strong colonization with microorganisms does not inevitably result in a significant damage to metals.

  9. Hypnagogic EEG stages and polysomnogram

    OpenAIRE

    HAYASHI, Mitsuo; HIBINO, Kenji; HORI, Tadao

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show the polysomnogram of hypnagogic period. Sixteen subjects slept for two nights. Their EEGs (Fz, Cz, Pz, Oz), horizontal and vertical EOGs, submentalis EMG, thoracic and abdominal respiration were recorded. They pressed a button when pip tones (1000Hz, 50dB, max duration : 5s, ISI : 30-90s) were presented, and reported their psychological experiences, According to Hori et al. (1994), the hypnagogic EEGs just 5s before the pip tones were classified into 9 stages,...

  10. Baseline characteristics of patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 and stage 4 in spain: the MERENA observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Rafael

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To obtain information on cardiovascular morbidity, hypertension control, anemia and mineral metabolism based on the analysis of the baseline characteristics of a large cohort of Spanish patients enrolled in an ongoing prospective, observational, multicenter study of patients with stages 3 and 4 chronic kidney diseases (CKD. Methods Multicenter study from Spanish government hospital-based Nephrology outpatient clinics involving 1129 patients with CKD stages 3 (n = 434 and 4 (n = 695 defined by GFR calculated by the MDRD formula. Additional analysis was performed with GFR calculated using the CKD-EPI and Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results In the cohort as a whole, median age 70.9 years, morbidity from all cardiovascular disease (CVD was very high (39.1%. In CKD stage 4, CVD prevalence was higher than in stage 3 (42.2 vs 35.6% p 300 mg/day was present in more than 60% of patients and there was no significant differences between stages 3 and 4 CKD (1.2 ± 1.8 and 1.3 ± 1.8 g/day, respectively. A majority of the patients had hemoglobin levels greater than 11 g/dL (91.1 and 85.5% in stages 3 and 4 CKD respectively p Conclusion This study provides an overview of key clinical parameters in patients with CKD Stages 3 and 4 where delivery or care was largely by nephrologists working in a network of hospital-based clinics of the Spanish National Healthcare System.

  11. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in stages I and II non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of Waldeyer's ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayabuchi, Naofumi; Jingu, Kenichi; Miyoshi, Makoto; Akasi, Yuko; Masuda, Koji; Komiyama, Sotaro; Kikuchi, Masahiro.

    1990-01-01

    Sixty-four patients with stages I and II non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) involving Waldeyer's ring treated between 1970 and 1987 were reviewed. Patients with stage II NHL were subdivided into stage II1 (limited type) and stage II2 (advanced type) from the state of neck nodes. Stage II1 was defined as involvement of unilateral cervical nodes less than 4 cm in diameter as well as Waldeyer's ring involvement. Other stage II cases were classified as stage II2. All 17 patients with stage I HNL were treated with radiation therapy alone. Their diseases were well controlled, and none of them died of causes related to the lymphoma. Among 14 patients with stage II1 NHL, the 5-year survival rate for the 9 patients treated with radiation therapy alone was 87.5%. Until 1982, 19 of 21 patients with stage II2 NHL treated with radiation therapy alone or radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy (VEMP or COPP) died within 5 years mainly of disseminated diseases. Since 1983, CHOP had been used as the main treatment as well as radiotherapy for the 12 stage II2 NHL patients. So far, only 3 of them relapsed and 2 of them died of causes related to the lymphoma. Only 1 of these 12 patients was T-cell lymphoma compared to 7 of 9 stage II2 patients before 1982. This suggests that patients with stage I and those with limited stage II can be safely treated with radiotherapy. Also aggressive chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy should be used for patients with advanced stage II HNL involving Waldeyer's ring. (author)

  12. Normal embryonic stages of the Longnose Gar, Lepisosteus osseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballard William W

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaps exist in the modern literature that describes patterns of development in living groups of actinopterygian fishes. Relatively recent descriptions of development exist for the teleost fishes, bowfin, sturgeon, paddlefish and bichirs. Such literature dealing with the gars is to be found in older work, done approximately a century ago. The present study concerns the gars, of which the garpike, Lepisosteus osseus, is a representative example. Results The embryonic period of life of this fish is divided, as required for experimentation, into 34 stages, from fertilization to exhaustion of the yolk supply. Diagnostic structural characteristics are cited for each stage, and the rate of development is indicated. Conclusions Three features of development are especially noted that compare or contrast with other members of the Neopterygii, and with the Chondrostei. These are meroblastic cleavage, a well-defined yolk syncytial layer (ysl, and a pit at the posterodorsal edge of the blastoderm, which defines an overhanging dorsal lip. Meroblastic cleavage and the ysl in the garpike show an affinity to those character states in the teleosts, though not with Amia, the other neopterygian fish. The posterodorsal pit and dorsal lip are reminiscent of similar features in the Chondrostei. Lepisosteus is unique among the Neopterygii with respect to this character state. Such comparisons set the stage for a broader understanding of the mechanisms for development in these organisms, and of the evolutionary relationships between them.

  13. Composites for Exploration Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, J. C.; Jackson, J. R.; Richardson, S. W.; Thomas, A. D.; Mann, T. O.; Miller, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Composites for Exploration Upper Stage (CEUS) was a 3-year, level III project within the Technology Demonstration Missions program of the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate. Studies have shown that composites provide important programmatic enhancements, including reduced weight to increase capability and accelerated expansion of exploration and science mission objectives. The CEUS project was focused on technologies that best advanced innovation, infusion, and broad applications for the inclusion of composites on future large human-rated launch vehicles and spacecraft. The benefits included near- and far-term opportunities for infusion (NASA, industry/commercial, Department of Defense), demonstrated critical technologies and technically implementable evolvable innovations, and sustained Agency experience. The initial scope of the project was to advance technologies for large composite structures applicable to the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) by focusing on the affordability and technical performance of the EUS forward and aft skirts. The project was tasked to develop and demonstrate critical composite technologies with a focus on full-scale materials, design, manufacturing, and test using NASA in-house capabilities. This would have demonstrated a major advancement in confidence and matured the large-scale composite technology to a Technology Readiness Level 6. This project would, therefore, have bridged the gap for providing composite application to SLS upgrades, enabling future exploration missions.

  14. CT staging of renal pelvis tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Soo Woong; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Lee, Jong Hwa; Ham, Su Yeon; Won, Yeong Cheol; Ji, Eun Kyung; Choi, Seong Hun; Shin, Byung Suck

    1999-01-01

    To assess the value of computed tomography (CT) in the preoperative staging of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the renal pelvis. We retrospectively evaluated the CT TNM staging of 38 patients with TCC of the renal pelvis who had undergone preoperative abdominal CT examination between January 1990 and January 1998. In CT staging for differentiation between early-stage (T0-2) and advanced-stage disease (T3-T4), three criteria were used, namely the presence or obliteration of the renal sinus fat layer, the smoothness or irregularity of margin between the tumor and renal parenchyma, and the presence or absence of hydronephrosis proximal to the tumor. CT staging was performed by two genitourinary radiologists blinded to the pathologic results, and was compared with pathologic staging. Pathologic results revealed 19 cases of early stage disease (T0=8, T1=9, T2=2) and 19 of advanced stage (T3=12, T4=7). Overall CT staging accuracy was 82%(31/38) ; four cases were overstaged and three were understaged. In early-stage disease, sensitivity and specificity were 79%, and 84%, and in advanced stage disease were 83% and 80%. Three of four overstaged cases showed hydronephrosis proximal to the tumor. In the second CT staging, using proximal hydronephrosis of the tumor as a criterion for early-stage disease, the sensitivity and specificity of early-stage disease were 95% and 75%, respectively, and the specificity of advanced-stage disease was 95%. When hydronephrosis proximal to a tumor was considered to be a sign of early stage disease, the CT staging of renal pelvic TCC was highly accurate

  15. A simplified staging system based on the radiological findings in different stages of ochronotic spondyloarthropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jebaraj, Isaac; Chacko, Binita Riya; Chiramel, George Koshy; Matthai, Thomas; Parameswaran, Apurve

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a group of 26 patients with ochronotic spondyloarthropathy who were on regular treatment and follow-up at a tertiary level hospital and proposes a simplified staging system for ochronotic spondyloarthropathy based on radiographic findings seen in the thoracolumbar spine. This proposed classification makes it easy to identify the stage of the disease and start the appropriate management at an early stage. Four progressive stages are described: an inflammatory stage (stage 1), the stage of early discal calcification (stage 2), the stage of fibrous ankylosis (stage 3), and the stage of bony ankylosis (stage 4). To our knowledge, this is the largest reported series of radiological description of spinal ochronosis, and emphasizes the contribution of the spine radiograph in the diagnosis and staging of the disease

  16. A simplified staging system based on the radiological findings in different stages of ochronotic spondyloarthropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Jebaraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a group of 26 patients with ochronotic spondyloarthropathy who were on regular treatment and follow-up at a tertiary level hospital and proposes a simplified staging system for ochronotic spondyloarthropathy based on radiographic findings seen in the thoracolumbar spine. This proposed classification makes it easy to identify the stage of the disease and start the appropriate management at an early stage. Four progressive stages are described: an inflammatory stage (stage 1, the stage of early discal calcification (stage 2, the stage of fibrous ankylosis (stage 3, and the stage of bony ankylosis (stage 4. To our knowledge, this is the largest reported series of radiological description of spinal ochronosis, and emphasizes the contribution of the spine radiograph in the diagnosis and staging of the disease.

  17. SARCOPENIA: DIAGNOSIS, STAGES AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasca Luminita Aurelia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and decline of function. The causes of sarcopenia are multi-factorial. The diagnosis of sarcopenia should be considered in all older patients who present with declines in physical function, because of potential consequences for the development of frailty and disability. There are numerous techniques to assess muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance. Treatment consists of nutritional (macro- and micronutrients and physical activity (resistance exercise regimens adapted to person. There is an emerging role for testosterone and anabolic steroids in severe sarcopenia.

  18. Service-oriented Software Defined Optical Networks for Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuze; Li, Hui; Ji, Yuefeng

    2017-10-01

    With the development of big data and cloud computing technology, the traditional software-defined network is facing new challenges (e.g., ubiquitous accessibility, higher bandwidth, more flexible management and greater security). This paper proposes a new service-oriented software defined optical network architecture, including a resource layer, a service abstract layer, a control layer and an application layer. We then dwell on the corresponding service providing method. Different service ID is used to identify the service a device can offer. Finally, we experimentally evaluate that proposed service providing method can be applied to transmit different services based on the service ID in the service-oriented software defined optical network.

  19. An Analysis of Kohlberg's "Stage 4 1/2" within an Enhanced Framework of Moral Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnameier, Gerhard

    This paper discusses a well-known problem of stage categorization within Kohlberg's theory of moral stages (L. Kohlberg, 1973), that of "Stage 4 1/2." Some subjects previously scored at stage 4 in Kohlberg's framework took on some characteristics of stage 2 reasoning, which suggested the possibility of regression. To reconcile this…

  20. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1998-01-01

    and routinely grouped according to the level of lamina propria invasion. Invasion of the tumor stalk was defined as stage T1a, invasion of the lamina propria proper superficial to the level of muscularis mucosa as stage T1b and into or deeper than the muscularis mucosa as stage T1c. The p53 nuclear...

  1. Software Defined Radio Datalink Implementation Using PC-Type Computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zafeiropoulos, Georgios

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to examine the feasibility of implementation and the performance of a Software Defined Radio datalink, using a common PC type host computer and a high level programming language...

  2. 29 CFR 779.247 - “Goods” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Interstate Inflow Test Under... Act is defined in section 3(i) of the Act. The statutory definition is quoted in § 779.14, and is...

  3. Defining Criteria for Handover to Civilian Officials in Relief Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bessler, John

    2008-01-01

    .... Department of Defense Directive (DoDD) 3000.05 directs that the military shall be prepared to accomplish 'all tasks necessary to establish or maintain order when civilians are unable to do so,' but the metrics which define success...

  4. Professional excellence : defining learning outcomes for honours higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuller, Melissa; Robbe, Patricia; Wolfensberger, Marca

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Honours programs prepare talented students to become future excellent professionals . However, competences defining an excellent professional have not been elucidated yet. We investigated how professionals characterize an excellent communication professional, aiming to develop a competence

  5. User defined function for transformation of ellipsoidal coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The topographic plane of the Earth has irregular shape, and for the purpose of mathematical defining, it is to be approximated by rotational ellipsoid. As local geodetic datum, rotational ellipsoids of various sizes are used in the world. More widely usage of the GPS while performing surveying tasks has resulted in the need to define global geodetic datum in order to obtain the best approximation the entire Earth. For this purpose, geocentric rotational ellipsoid WGS84 was defined and the results of the GPS measurements are shown in relation to it. By applying the appropriate equations, the ellipsoidal coordinates are being transformed from WGS84 into the coordinates on the local rotational ellipsoid, i.e. on the view plane. The paper shows User Defined Function created for Excel, by which the coordinates in the territory of Belgrade are being transformed from WGS84 of rotational ellipsoid into the Gauss-Krüger projection plane.

  6. Multi-channel software defined radio experimental evaluation and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, JR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel software-defined radios (SDRs) can be utilised as inexpensive prototyping platforms for transceiver arrays. The application for multi-channel prototyping is discussed and measured results of coherent channels for both receiver...

  7. Radiation Tolerant Software Defined Video Processor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MaXentric's is proposing a radiation tolerant Software Define Video Processor, codenamed SDVP, for the problem of advanced motion imaging in the space environment....

  8. Software defined radios from smart(er) to cognitive

    CERN Document Server

    Pollin, Sofie; Van der Perre, Liesbet

    2011-01-01

    Software Defined Radios presents a systematic approach to dealing with the complexity of wireless systems with varying standards. The text aims to enable smart operation of radios with impressive efficiency gains, without hampering the quality of service.

  9. Multiplexed Dosing Assays by Digitally Definable Hydrogel Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faralli, Adele; Melander, Fredrik; Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack

    2016-01-01

    Stable and low-cost multiplexed drug sensitivity assays using small volumes of cells or tissue are in demand for personalized medicine, including patientspecific combination chemotherapy. Spatially defined projected light photopolymerization of hydrogels with embedded active compounds is introduc...

  10. On the performance simulation of inter-stage turbine reheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, Alvise; Nikolaidis, Theoklis; Pachidis, Vassilios; Köhler, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative gas turbine performance simulation methodology is proposed. • It allows to perform DP and OD performance calculations for complex engines layouts. • It is essential for inter-turbine reheat (ITR) engine performance calculation. • A detailed description is provided for fast and flexible implementation. • The methodology is successfully verified against a commercial closed-source software. - Abstract: Several authors have suggested the implementation of reheat in high By-Pass Ratio (BPR) aero engines, to improve engine performance. In contrast to military afterburning, civil aero engines would aim at reducing Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) by introducing ‘Inter-stage Turbine Reheat’ (ITR). To maximise benefits, the second combustor should be placed at an early stage of the expansion process, e.g. between the first and second High-Pressure Turbine (HPT) stages. The aforementioned cycle design requires the accurate simulation of two or more turbine stages on the same shaft. The Design Point (DP) performance can be easily evaluated by defining a Turbine Work Split (TWS) ratio between the turbine stages. However, the performance simulation of Off-Design (OD) operating points requires the calculation of the TWS parameter for every OD step, by taking into account the thermodynamic behaviour of each turbine stage, represented by their respective maps. No analytical solution of the aforementioned problem is currently available in the public domain. This paper presents an analytical methodology by which ITR can be simulated at DP and OD. Results show excellent agreement with a commercial, closed-source performance code; discrepancies range from 0% to 3.48%, and are ascribed to the different gas models implemented in the codes.

  11. Staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma investigated by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jincheng; Wei Baoqing; Chen Wenzhan; Qian Pudong; Zhang Yiqin; Wei Qing; Cha Wenwu; Li Feng; Ni Ming

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) sixth edition staging system of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: One hundred and fifty-nine non-disseminated biopsy-proven NPC patients were studied with MRI before treatment. Retrieval of MRI information enabled us to restage all patients accurately according to the sixth edition of the AJCC staging system. Splitting the respective T and N stages by the significant defining factors identified, the cancer death hazard ratios were modeled by the Cox model in SPSS 10.0 for windows (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Results: Single site of skull base abnormality (HR=3.91, 95% CI: 0.74-20.56) has a superior result to others involved in T3 (HR=5.83, 95% CI: 1.24-27.29). Involvement of either anterior or posterior cranial nerves solely (HR=6.02, 95% CI: 1.55-35.60) was not found to be as a poor prognostic indicator as others involved in T4 (HR=7.81, 95% CI: 1.81-33.63). Less than or equal to 3 cm of N1 (HR=4.01, 95% CI: 0.48-33.83) and N2 (HR=4.72, 95% CI: 0.62-35.78) have a better result than >3 cm of N1 (HR=8.09, 95% CI: 0.95-68.97) and N2 (HR=10.58, 95% CI: 1.32-84.62), respectively. Conclusions: Perhaps, it is better to down-stage single site of skull base abnormality from T3 to T2, and involvement of either anterior or posterior cranial nerves solely from T4 to T3, meanwhile, ≤3 cm of N2 down-stage to N1, >3 cm of N1 up-stage to N2

  12. Defined Contribution Model: Definition, Theory and an Application for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Ercen; Deniz Gokce

    1998-01-01

    Based on a numerical application that employs social and economic parameters of the Turkish economy, this study attempts to demonstrate that the current collapse in the Turkish social security system is not unavoidable. The present social security system in Turkey is based on the defined benefit model of pension provision. On the other hand, recent proposals for reform in the social security system are based on a multipillar system, where one of the alternatives is a defined contribution pens...

  13. DEFINING SPATIAL VIOLENCE. BUCHAREST AS A STUDY CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia GHYKA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the spatial manifestations of violence, aiming to define the category of spatial violence by focusing on the recent urban history of Bucharest; it establishes links with the longer history of natural and inflicted disasters that defined the city, and it explores the spatial, urban, social and symbolical conflicts that occured during the last 25 years, pointing at their consequences on the social and urban substance of the city.

  14. Research Network of Tehran Defined Population: Methodology and Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Asghar Kolahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We need a defined population for determining prevalence and incidence of diseases, as well as conducting interventional, cohort and longitudinal studies, calculating correct and timely public health indicators, assessing actual health needs of community, performing educational programs and interventions to promote healthy lifestyle, and enhancing quality of primary health services.The objective of this project was to determine a defined population which is representative of Tehran, the Capital of Iran. This article reports the methodology and establishment of the research network of Tehran defined population.Methods: This project started by selecting two urban health centers from each of the five district health centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Inside each selected urban health center, one defined population research station was established. Two new centers have been added during 2013 and 2014. For the time being, the number of the covered population of the network has reached 40000 individuals. The most important criterion for the defined population has been to be representative of the population of Tehran. For this, we selected two urban health centers from 12 of 22 municipality districts and from each of the five different socioeconomic of Greater Tehran. Merely 80000 individuals in neighborhoods of each defined population research station were considered as control group of the project.Findings: Totally we selected 12 defined population research stations and their under-covered population developed a defined population which is representative of Tehran population.Conclusion: a population lab is ready now in metropolitan of Tehran.

  15. Employing Deceptive Dynamic Network Topology Through Software-Defined Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    actions. From [64] . . . . . 37 xi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xii List of Acronyms and Abbreviations ACL Access Control List API Application...can be extremely useful in topology mapping through various latency-based geolocation methods [35], [36], [37]. PING 1 7 2 . 2 0 . 5 . 2 ( 1 7 2 . 2 0...defined northbound Applica- tion Programming Interfaces ( APIs ). Figure 3.1: Software-Defined Network Architecture. From [8] 29 3.3 SDN OpenFlow

  16. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  17. Stages in the research process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelling, Leslie

    2015-03-04

    Research should be conducted in a systematic manner, allowing the researcher to progress from a general idea or clinical problem to scientifically rigorous research findings that enable new developments to improve clinical practice. Using a research process helps guide this process. This article is the first in a 26-part series on nursing research. It examines the process that is common to all research, and provides insights into ten different stages of this process: developing the research question, searching and evaluating the literature, selecting the research approach, selecting research methods, gaining access to the research site and data, pilot study, sampling and recruitment, data collection, data analysis, and dissemination of results and implementation of findings.

  18. Stage at diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maringe, Camille; Walters, Sarah; Butler, John

    2012-01-01

    We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival.......We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival....

  19. Interconnected Levels of Multi-Stage Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    different levels of multi-stage marketing and illustrates these stages with a case study. In addition, a triadic perspective is introduced as an analytical tool for multi-stage marketing research. The results from the case study indicate that multi-stage marketing exists on different levels. Thus, managers...... must not only decide in general on the merits of multi-stage marketing for their firm, but must also decide on which level they will engage in multi-stage marketing. The triadic perspective enables a rich and multi-dimensional understanding of how different business relationships influence each other...... in a multi-stage marketing context. This understanding assists managers in assessing and balancing different aspects of multi- stage marketing. The triadic perspective also offers avenues for further research....

  20. Treatment of stage III non-small cell lung cancer and limited-disease small-cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Sharouni, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis concerns the treatment of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and limited disease small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). We described a systematic review on the clinical results of radiotherapy, combined or not with chemotherapy, for inoperable NSCLC stage III with the aim to define the

  1. Maturation arrest of human oocytes at germinal vesicle stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Qin Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maturation arrest of human oocytes may occur at various stages of the cell cycle. A total failure of human oocytes to complete meiosis is rarely observed during assisted conception cycles. We describe here a case of infertile couples for whom all oocytes repeatedly failed to mature at germinal vesicle (GV stage during in vitro fertilization/Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. The patient underwent controlled ovarian stimulation followed by oocyte retrieval and IVF/ICSI. The oocytes were stripped off cumulus cells prior to the ICSI procedure and their maturity status was defined. The oocyte maturation was repeatedly arrested at the GV. Oocyte maturation arrest may be the cause of infertility in this couple. The recognition of oocyte maturation arrest as a specific medical condition may contribute to the characterization of the currently known as "oocyte factor." The cellular and genetic mechanisms causing oocyte maturation arrest should be the subject for further investigation.

  2. Role of cytology in screening, staging and follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischnaller, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cytology has become an integral component in the battery of diagnostic tools for a rational diagnosis of tumors. When all materials obtainable with sophisticated methods are utilized, almost every pulmonary lesion can be defined micromorphologically. In urgent cases instant staining techniques will permit a 'stat diagnosis'. The characterization of a tumor cell by cytology with accurate typing and grading offers preliminary information for subsequent staging efforts. Bronchial cancer may be both of the single-cell and of the mixed-cell type with the more aggressive cell elements determining the metastasising potential and prognosis. Sampling for cytology is devoid of risks and does not make any special demands on the patients; it can safely be repeated for follow-up studies; it helps to detect tumor regrowths or secondaries at an early stage during postoperative follow-up programs and to monitor treatment-related cellular changes. (Author)

  3. Early stages of technology intensive companies

    OpenAIRE

    Muhos, M. (Matti)

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to clarify the early development stages of technology intensive companies. The current literature does not offer an extensive review of stage perspectives for company growth – the overall picture of the field is somewhat vague. The evolution of this field remains unclear as well as the current state. Further, recent empirical stage models focusing on technology intensive companies have not been delineated. As companies move through their early stages, they face ev...

  4. Registrar Staging Assistant (SEER*RSA) - SEER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use this site for cases diagnosed 2018 and forward to code Extent of Disease 2018, Summary Stage 2018, Site-Specific Data Items, and Grade. Use it for 2016 and 2017 cases to determine UICC TNM 7th edition stage, Collaborative Stage v.02.05.50, and Site-Specific predictive and prognostic factors.

  5. Early-stage mantle cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabaja, B S; Zelenetz, A D; Ng, A K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) rarely presents as early-stage disease, but clinical observations suggest that patients who present with early-stage disease may have better outcomes than those with advanced-stage disease. Patients and methods: In this 13-institution study, we examined...

  6. Stages of tuberculous meningitis: a clinicoradiologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, K.; Firdaus, A.; Bullo, N.; Kumar, S.; Abbasi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequencies and percentages of various clinicoradiologic variables of tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) with reference to British Medical Research Council (BMRC) staging of the disease. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Neurology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from October 2010 to September 2011. Methodology: The study included 93 adult patients with the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) at the study place. Patients were divided in three groups according to British Medical Research Council (BMRC) staging of TBM. Different clinical and radiological findings were analyzed at different stages of the disease. Data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package of Social Sciences) version 11.0. Results: A majority of patients were found to be in stage-II disease at the time of admission. History of illness at the time of admission was more than 2 weeks in 50% of stage-I patients but around 80% in stage-II and stage-III patients. Neck stiffness was the most commonly reported finding in all stages. Cranial nerve palsies were higher in stage-III (75%) than in stage-II (43%) and in stage-I (24%) patients. Hydrocephalus and basal enhancement was the most frequently reported radiographic abnormalities. Conclusion: Duration of illness and cranial nerve palsies are important variables in the diagnosis of TBM stages and if TBM is suspected, empiric treatment should be started immediately without bacteriologic proof to prevent morbidity and mortality. (author)

  7. Radical surgery for early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, M.

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women worldwide. Due to an effective screening programme, in the Netherlands cervical cancer is often detected in early stages of disease. For early stage (International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB/IIA) cervical

  8. Two-Stage Series-Resonant Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Two-stage inverter includes variable-frequency, voltage-regulating first stage and fixed-frequency second stage. Lightweight circuit provides regulated power and is invulnerable to output short circuits. Does not require large capacitor across ac bus, like parallel resonant designs. Particularly suitable for use in ac-power-distribution system of aircraft.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of the defining characteristics of the excessive fluid volume diagnosis in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel da Conceição Dias Fernandes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the accuracy of the defining characteristics of the excess fluid volume nursing diagnosis of NANDA International, in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Method: this was a study of diagnostic accuracy, with a cross-sectional design, performed in two stages. The first, involving 100 patients from a dialysis clinic and a university hospital in northeastern Brazil, investigated the presence and absence of the defining characteristics of excess fluid volume. In the second step, these characteristics were evaluated by diagnostic nurses, who judged the presence or absence of the diagnosis. To analyze the measures of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Approval was given by the Research Ethics Committee under authorization No. 148.428. Results: the most sensitive indicator was edema and most specific were pulmonary congestion, adventitious breath sounds and restlessness. Conclusion: the more accurate defining characteristics, considered valid for the diagnostic inference of excess fluid volume in patients undergoing hemodialysis were edema, pulmonary congestion, adventitious breath sounds and restlessness. Thus, in the presence of these, the nurse may safely assume the presence of the diagnosis studied.

  10. A Two-Stage Layered Mixture Experiment Design for a Nuclear Waste Glass Application-Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, Scott K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Gan, Hao; Kot, Wing; Pegg, Ian L.

    2003-01-01

    Part 1 (Cooley and Piepel, 2003a) describes the first stage of a two-stage experimental design to support property-composition modeling for high-level waste (HLW) glass to be produced at the Hanford Site in Washington state. Each stage used a layered design having an outer layer, an inner layer, a center point, and some replicates. However, the design variables and constraints defining the layers of the experimental glass composition region (EGCR) were defined differently for the second stage than for the first. The first-stage initial design involved 15 components, all treated as mixture variables. The second-stage augmentation design involved 19 components, with 14 treated as mixture variables and 5 treated as non-mixture variables. For each second-stage layer, vertices were generated and optimal design software was used to select alternative subsets of vertices for the design and calculate design optimality measures. A model containing 29 partial quadratic mixture terms plus 5 linear terms for the non-mixture variables was the basis for the optimal design calculations. Predicted property values were plotted for the alternative subsets of second-stage vertices and the first-stage design points. Based on the optimality measures and the predicted property distributions, a ''best'' subset of vertices was selected for each layer of the second-stage to augment the first-stage design

  11. Use of antiretroviral therapy and risk of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; De Wit, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although several antiretroviral drugs, including the d-drugs stavudine (d4T) and didanosine (ddI), may cause biomarker-defined hepatotoxicity, their association with clinically defined end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. DESIGN: Prospective...

  12. Use of antiretroviral therapy and risk of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV-positive persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryom, Lene; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; de Wit, Stéphane; Kovari, Helen; Reiss, Peter; Law, Matthew; El-Sadr, Wafa; Monforte, Antonella D.'Arminio; Mocroft, Amanda; Smith, Colette; Fontas, Eric; Dabis, Francois; Phillips, Andrew; Sabin, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Although several antiretroviral drugs, including the d-drugs stavudine (d4T) and didanosine (ddI), may cause biomarker-defined hepatotoxicity, their association with clinically defined end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. Prospective cohort study. Data

  13. Towards individualised radiotherapy for Stage I seminoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jarad M.; Joon, Daryl Lim; Ng, Nicole; Grace, Michael; Gelderen, David van; Lawlor, Marita; Wada, Morikatsu; Joon, Michael Lim; Quong, George; Khoo, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy is currently standard treatment of Stage I seminoma (SOS). The use of computerised tomogram (CT) planning is compared with traditional planning for greater treatment individualisation. Material and methods: Two plans were generated for each of 10 patients: one using traditional rectangular para-aortic fields, and one using conformal fields. The primary target volume compared was the dosimetric coverage of the inferior vena cava and aorta. Results: The dosimetric analysis of traditional plans showed that they provided reasonable dosimetric coverage of the CTV. However, if 1 cm is used for uncertainty based on nodal coverage then the periphery of the PTV could be significantly under-dosed. The CT based plan delivered improved dosimetry to the vessel PTV compared with the traditional field (CT D95=24.7 Gy, traditional D95=23.6 Gy, P=0.002). CT-based plans were significantly wider than traditional plans (CT=11.8 cm, traditional=9 cm, P=0.002). The CT plan tended to irradiate relatively small volumes of the kidneys to higher doses. Conclusions: Traditional para-aortic fields may deliver suboptimal dosimetry to an anatomically defined PTV. Our CT-based fields tend to be wider than traditional fields, and provide improved dosimetry to vessels based target volumes. Given that traditional fields are often delivering significantly less than the prescribed dose to the target volume, and that marginal relapses cause a high proportion of treatment failure, there is a suggestion that CT-based plans may avoid underdosage and geographical miss sometimes seen with traditional plans

  14. Hemodynamic characteristics of early stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Masatoshi; Tomita, Shusuke; Tochio, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    Hemodynamic characteristics were studied by using in vivo vascular imaging techniques in 17 resected early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (e-HCC) by comparing them with 49 resected advanced HCCs (ad-HCC) less than 3 cm in diameter. In this study, e-HCC was defined as the nodule being uniformly composed of well-differentiated HCC or adenomatous hyperplastic nodule containing well-differentiated HCC foci within the nodule. In vivo vascular imaging techniques are as follows; US angiography with intraarterial CO 2 microbubbles were performed to assess the tumor arterial vascularity, and CT during arterial portography (CTAP) was performed to assess the portal perfusion within the nodule. Of 17 e-HCC nodules 5 were hypervascular, 5 were isovascular, 4 were hypovascular, and 3 were vascular spot in hypovascular pattern in contrast to 49 ad-HCC nodules, 43 of which were hypervascular and 6 were isovascular. Of 14 e-HCCs, 9 nodules showed perfusion defect and 5 did not on CTAP, whereas all 37 ad-HCCs on which CTAP was performed, showed perfusion defect. Forty-one percent (7/17) of e-HCC showed fatty metamorphosis in contrast to 8% (4/49) of ad-HCC. In conclusion, hemodynamic characteristics of e-HCC are summarized as follows. (1) Arterial tumor neovascularization is relatively low. (2) Portal perfusion is present in some of e-HCC cases. (3) Hypoperfusion state both from arterial and portal supply is present in some of e-HCC cases. (4) Vascular spot in hypovascular pattern is characteristic arterial pattern in AH containing HCC foci. (5) Fatty metamorphosis may be related with hypoperfusion state of the nodule in e-HCC. (author)

  15. Sleep Health: Can We Define It? Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysse, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Good sleep is essential to good health. Yet for most of its history, sleep medicine has focused on the definition, identification, and treatment of sleep problems. Sleep health is a term that is infrequently used and even less frequently defined. It is time for us to change this. Indeed, pressures in the research, clinical, and regulatory environments require that we do so. The health of populations is increasingly defined by positive attributes such as wellness, performance, and adaptation, and not merely by the absence of disease. Sleep health can be defined in such terms. Empirical data demonstrate several dimensions of sleep that are related to health outcomes, and that can be measured with self-report and objective methods. One suggested definition of sleep health and a description of self-report items for measuring it are provided as examples. The concept of sleep health synergizes with other health care agendas, such as empowering individuals and communities, improving population health, and reducing health care costs. Promoting sleep health also offers the field of sleep medicine new research and clinical opportunities. In this sense, defining sleep health is vital not only to the health of populations and individuals, but also to the health of sleep medicine itself. Citation: Buysse DJ. Sleep health: can we define it? Does it matter? SLEEP 2014;37(1):9-17. PMID:24470692

  16. Defining human death: an intersection of bioethics and metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Bertha Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    For many years now, bioethicists, physicians, and others in the medical field have disagreed concerning how to best define human death. Different theories range from the Harvard Criteria of Brain Death, which defines death as the cessation of all brain activity, to the Cognitive Criteria, which is based on the loss of almost all core mental properties, e.g., memory, self-consciousness, moral agency, and the capacity for reason. A middle ground is the Irreversibility Standard, which defines death as occurring when the capacity for consciousness is forever lost. Given all these different theories, how can we begin to approach solving the issue of how to define death? I propose that a necessary starting point is discussing an even more fundamental question that properly belongs in the philosophical field of metaphysics: we must first address the issue of diachronic identity over time, and the persistence conditions of personal identity. In this paper, I illustrate the interdependent relationship between this metaphysical question and questions concerning the definition of death. I also illustrate how it is necessary to antecedently attend to the metaphysical issue of defining death before addressing certain issues in medical ethics, e.g., whether it is morally permissible to euthanize patients in persistent vegetative states or procure organs from anencephalic infants.

  17. Positive facial expressions during retrieval of self-defining memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolphe, Marie Charlotte; Nandrino, Jean Louis; Delelis, Gérald; Ducro, Claire; Lavallee, Audrey; Saloppe, Xavier; Moustafa, Ahmed A; El Haj, Mohamad

    2017-11-14

    In this study, we investigated, for the first time, facial expressions during the retrieval of Self-defining memories (i.e., those vivid and emotionally intense memories of enduring concerns or unresolved conflicts). Participants self-rated the emotional valence of their Self-defining memories and autobiographical retrieval was analyzed with a facial analysis software. This software (Facereader) synthesizes the facial expression information (i.e., cheek, lips, muscles, eyebrow muscles) to describe and categorize facial expressions (i.e., neutral, happy, sad, surprised, angry, scared, and disgusted facial expressions). We found that participants showed more emotional than neutral facial expressions during the retrieval of Self-defining memories. We also found that participants showed more positive than negative facial expressions during the retrieval of Self-defining memories. Interestingly, participants attributed positive valence to the retrieved memories. These findings are the first to demonstrate the consistency between facial expressions and the emotional subjective experience of Self-defining memories. These findings provide valuable physiological information about the emotional experience of the past.

  18. Two stage turbine for rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

  19. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chansky, Kari; Detterbeck, Frank C; Nicholson, Andrew G

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Revisions to the TNM stage classifications for lung cancer, informed by the international database (N = 94,708) of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee, need external validation. The objective was to externally...... demonstrated consistent ability to discriminate TNM categories and stage groups for clinical and pathologic stage. CONCLUSIONS: The IASLC revisions made for the eighth edition of lung cancer staging are validated by this analysis of the NCDB database by the ordering, statistical differences, and homogeneity...... validate the revisions by using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) of the American College of Surgeons. METHODS: Cases presenting from 2000 through 2012 were drawn from the NCDB and reclassified according to the eighth edition stage classification. Clinically and pathologically staged subsets of NSCLC...

  20. An approach to defining the energy requirements of dairy sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susmel, P.; Cuzzit, R.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the interaction between nutrition and reproduction in Mediterranean sheep requires knowledge of the energy requirements of animals in different productive and reproductive stages. The available energy systems developed for temperate climates and genotypes are not directly applicable to Mediterranean breeds of dairy sheep. Using already available data, metabolizable energy requirements for these types of animals are proposed. (author). 59 refs, 9 tabs

  1. Diagnosis of clinical staging of bladder cancer by CT and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Isao; Igawa, Mikio; Ohnishi, Yoshio; Nakano, Hiroshi; Nihira, Hiromi; Mori, Masaki; Okada, Mitsuo.

    1984-01-01

    The preoperative staging of bladder cancer is of fundamental importance for prognostic evaluation and surgical indication. We studied the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) and angiography in defining the extent of local invasion in 16 patients with surgically proven carcinoma of the bladder. The overall accuracy of CT and angiographic staging in these cases was 75 % and 50 % respectively. In low stage, the accuracy was 90 % in CT and 70 % in angiography. In high stage, the accuracy was 50 % in CT and 16.7 % in angiography. Our results seems to indicate lower accuracy in high stage bladder cancer compared with other research. Data from a much larger series are required to ascertain whether the additional information provided by CT and angiography will produce any improvement in patient management. (author)

  2. Defining a caring hospital by using currently implemented survey tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Nancy

    2010-09-01

    Health care organizations are constantly striving to provide a more cost-effective and higher quality treatment within a caring environment. However, balancing the demands of regulatory agencies with the holistic needs of the patient is challenging. Further challenging is how to define those hospitals that provide an exceptional caring environment for their patients. By using survey tools that are already being administered in hospital settings, the opportunity exists to analyze the results obtained from these tools to define a hospital as a caring organization without the added burden of separate data collection.

  3. Software-Defined Radio Demonstrators: An Example and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Farrell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Software-defined radio requires the combination of software-based signal processing and the enabling hardware components. In this paper, we present an overview of the criteria for such platforms and the current state of development and future trends in this area. This paper will also provide details of a high-performance flexible radio platform called the maynooth adaptable radio system (MARS that was developed to explore the use of software-defined radio concepts in the provision of infrastructure elements in a telecommunications application, such as mobile phone basestations or multimedia broadcasters.

  4. A Formal Model and Verification Problems for Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zakharov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Software-defined networking (SDN is an approach to building computer networks that separate and abstract data planes and control planes of these systems. In a SDN a centralized controller manages a distributed set of switches. A set of open commands for packet forwarding and flow-table updating was defined in the form of a protocol known as OpenFlow. In this paper we describe an abstract formal model of SDN, introduce a tentative language for specification of SDN forwarding policies, and set up formally model-checking problems for SDN.

  5. Optimization of the Actuarial Model of Defined Contribution Pension Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the actuarial models of defined contribution pension plan. Through assumptions and calculations, the expected replacement ratios of three different defined contribution pension plans are compared. Specially, more significant considerable factors are put forward in the further cost and risk analyses. In order to get an assessment of current status, the paper finds a relationship between the replacement ratio and the pension investment rate using econometrics method. Based on an appropriate investment rate of 6%, an expected replacement ratio of 20% is reached.

  6. Defining a region of optimization based on engine usage data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-08-04

    Methods and systems for engine control optimization are provided. One or more operating conditions of a vehicle engine are detected. A value for each of a plurality of engine control parameters is determined based on the detected one or more operating conditions of the vehicle engine. A range of the most commonly detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine is identified and a region of optimization is defined based on the range of the most commonly detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine. The engine control optimization routine is initiated when the one or more operating conditions of the vehicle engine are within the defined region of optimization.

  7. Accuracy of the Defining Characteristics of the Nursing Diagnosis Hypothermia in Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Wislla Ketlly Menezes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; da Silva, Viviane Martins; Fróes, Nathaly Bianka Moraes; de Menezes, Angélica Paixão; Almeida, Aline de Aquino Peres; Sobreira, Bianca Alves

    2017-09-18

    To analyze the accuracy of the defining characteristics of hypothermia in newborns and to verify associations between defining characteristics and clinical variables. A cross-sectional accuracy study with statistical analysis. Slow capillary refill, decrease in ventilation, peripheral vasoconstriction, and insufficient weight gain were the defining characteristics with the highest specificity values, while slow gastric emptying, skin cool to touch, irritability, and bradycardia were the defining characteristics with the highest values for both sensitivity and specificity. Slow gastric emptying, skin cool to touch, irritability, and bradycardia are good clinical indicators to infer initial stages of hypothermia and to confirm its presence. Accuracy measures may contribute to the improvement of the diagnostic inferential process. Analisar acurácia das características definidoras de Hipotermia em recém-nascidos e identificar a associação delas com variáveis clínicas. MÉTODO: Estudo de acurácia transversal com análise estatística. Preenchimento capilar lento, diminuição da ventilação, vasoconstrição periférica e ganho de peso insuficiente apresentaram valores altos de especificidade enquanto esvaziamento gástrico lento, pele fria, irritabilidade e bradicardia apresentaram valores elevados de sensibilidade e especificidade. CONCLUSÃO: Esvaziamento gástrico lento, pele fria, irritabilidade e bradicardia são úteis para inferir estágios iniciais de hipotermia e para confirmação diagnóstica. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA PRÁTICA DE ENFERMAGEM: Medidas de acurácia podem contribuir para o processo de inferência do diagnóstico hipotermia. © 2017 NANDA International, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of Mass Housing at the Pre-Design Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozan UZUNOĞLU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, housing has been a central problem in the lives of human beings. Housing, which includes shelter for family and functional volumes that meet social needs, used to be built specifically for the family. The concept of “Mass Housing” entered the field of architecture as a result of the industrial revolution, when lavish Renaissance housing gradually turned into housing for workers. Today, the demand for housing cannot keep up with fast-growing populations. Besides the quantitative problems of housing production, there is the ever- growing problem of quality, the solution to which lies with designer architects. On this issue of quality, Post Occupation Evaluation (POE studies, conducted to provide data for upcoming designs, and certificate evaluations like LEED and BREEAM, aimed at measuring energy performance effectiveness of new buildings, mostly involve measurements of usage of the building envelope, environmental relations, facilities and usage of natural resources. None prioritize the form and function issues of spatial usage in architectural designs. This study proposes a method that enables spatial and functional measurement and assessment at the project stage. The suggested spatial performance measurement–assessment system has three stages. In the first stage, the standards and usage criteria to be used as reference in the assessment are defined. The second stage suggests using the SAR analysis approach, and the third stage is about conducting “Spatial Performance Assessment”. Here, the common denominator of “User System” and “Building System”, which shares characteristic design criteria “Form, Function,Construction” is established and by this way, testing and assessing the subject of study becomes possible. With these assessments, by providing digitalization of spatial performance with proportional values, it is believed that a database for the provision of statistical information may be established.

  9. Adjuvant Treatment after Surgery in Stage IIIA Endometrial Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mee Sun; Huh, Seung Jae; Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Yong Bae; Kim, Joo-Young; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Hun Jung; Cha, Jihye; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Juree; Yoon, Won Sup; Choi, Jin Hwa; Chun, Mison; Choi, Youngmin; Lee, Kang Kyoo; Kim, Myungsoo; Jeong, Jae-Uk; Chang, Sei Kyung; Park, Won

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the role of adjuvant therapy in stage IIIA endometrioid adenocarcinoma patients who underwent surgery followed by radiotherapy (RT) alone or chemoradiotherapy (CTRT) according to risk group. Materials and Methods A multicenter retrospective study was conducted including patients with surgical stage IIIA endometrial cancertreated by radical surgery and adjuvant RT or CTRT. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Results Ninety-three patients with stage IIIA disease were identified. Nineteen patients (20.4%) experienced recurrence, mostly distant metastasis (17.2%). Combined CTRT did not affect DFS (74.1% vs. 82.4%, p=0.130) or OS (96.3% vs. 91.9%, p=0.262) in stage IIIA disease compared with RT alone. Patients with age ≥ 60 years, grade G2/3, and lymphovascular space involvement had a significantly worse DFS and those variables were defined as risk factors. The high-risk group showed a significant reduction in 5-year DFS (≥ 2 risk factors) (49.0% vs. 88.0%, p < 0.001) compared with the low-risk group (< 2). Multivariate analysis confirmed that more than one risk factor was the only predictor of worse DFS (hazard ratio, 5.45; 95% confidence interval, 2.12 to 13.98; p < 0.001). Of patients with no risk factors, a subset treated with RT alone showed an excellent 5-year DFS and OS (93.8% and 100%, respectively). Conclusion We identified a low-risk subset of stage IIIA endometrioid adenocarcinoma patients who might be reasonable candidates for adjuvant RT alone. Further randomized studies are needed to determine which subset might benefit from combined CTRT. PMID:26511800

  10. Acting Antarctica: science on stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceri, Piera; Tizzoni, Paola; Pierro, Luigia

    2016-04-01

    Key-words: Polar science, Earth science, Theatre, Hands on activities The legendary Antarctic Expedition of sir E. Shackleton and his crew of 27 aboard the Endurance (1914/16) trapped in the Antarctic ice has become the starting point to learn about Polar Science and Climate Change. While the students were involved into this incredible adventure by the astonishing images of the Australian photographer Frank Hurley (who joined the crew), they discovered the world in which this story happened. Students were then involved in hands-on activities and role plays and have become the writers of the play "Uomini a scienza ai confini del mondo". They act the story of Shackelton's expedition and they tell at the same time to the audience about ice pack, ice cores and their role in understanding the past of the climate, physical and geographical characteristic of polar regions, thermal phenomena related to adaptations of polar animals, solar radiation at different latitude, day/night duration. The theater was the place to "stage" some scientific experiments and to explain the current research carried out in polar regions and their importance in climate change studies and to stress some similarities between Antarctica and space. The project was carried out from teachers of science, letters and geography and was born in collaboration with the "Piccolo Teatro di Milano" and the association "Science Under 18" with the support of a professional actor and director and was played for other schools at "EXPO 2015" in Milano (Italy). In our opinion drama activities improve reading comprehension, and both verbal and non-verbal communication skills. To be able to write and to act, students need a deep understanding of contents. Arts, including theatre, are a good key to involve emotionally students. To have an audience different from their own teachers and classmates offers a real task and the opportunity to play and let grow real skills.

  11. Single-Staged Compared With Multi-Staged PCI in Multivessel NSTEMI Patients: The SMILE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardella, Gennaro; Lucisano, Luigi; Garbo, Roberto; Pennacchi, Mauro; Cavallo, Erika; Stio, Rocco Edoardo; Calcagno, Simone; Ugo, Fabrizio; Boccuzzi, Giacomo; Fedele, Francesco; Mancone, Massimo

    2016-01-26

    A lack of clarity exists about the role of complete coronary revascularization in patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The aim of our study was to compare long-term outcomes in terms of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events of 2 different complete coronary revascularization strategies in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel coronary artery disease: 1-stage percutaneous coronary intervention (1S-PCI) during the index procedure versus multistage percutaneous coronary intervention (MS-PCI) complete coronary revascularization during the index hospitalization. In the SMILE (Impact of Different Treatment in Multivessel Non ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients: One Stage Versus Multistaged Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial, 584 patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 manner to 1S-PCI or MS-PCI. The primary study endpoint was the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, which were defined as cardiac death, death, reinfarction, rehospitalization for unstable angina, repeat coronary revascularization (target vessel revascularization), and stroke at 1 year. The occurrence of the primary endpoint was significantly lower in the 1-stage group (1S-PCI: n = 36 [13.63%] vs. MS-PCI: n = 61 [23.19%]; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.549 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.363 to 0.828]; p = 0.004). The 1-year rate of target vessel revascularization was significantly higher in the MS-PCI group (1S-PCI: n = 22 [8.33%] vs. MS-PCI: n = 40 [15.20%]; HR: 0.522 [95% CI: 0.310 to 0.878]; p = 0.01; p log-rank = 0.013). When the analyses were limited to cardiac death (1S-PCI: n = 9 [3.41%] vs. MS-PCI: n = 14 [5.32%]; HR: 0.624 [95% CI: 0.270 to 1.441]; p = 0.27) and myocardial infarction (1S-PCI: n = 7 [2.65%] vs. MS-PCI: n = 10 [3.80%]; HR: 0.678 [95% CI: 0.156 to 2.657]; p = 0.46), no significant differences were observed between groups. In multivessel

  12. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa | Cornelius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defining the concept 'plain language' has been hugely problematic since the origins of the socalled Plain Language Movement in the 1970s in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Definitions of 'plain language' abound, yet James (2008: 6) warns, in relation to plain language practitioners, that “we can't yet call ...

  13. Defining Success in Action Learning: An International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Hyeon-Cheol; Cho, Yonjoo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to explore how the two groups of action learning experts (Korean and non-Korean experts) define success of action learning to see whether there are any cultural differences. To this end, the authors conducted a total of 44 interviews with action learning experts around the world. Research questions guiding…

  14. 184 Compounding in Igala: Defining Criteria, Forms and Functions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    West Benue-Congo language spoken in north central Nigeria. Defining ..... argues, in Ígálà, ọ́ma 'child', for instance, can stand in for the noun phrase 'ọ́ma óko' 'Oko's .... e.g. 'in Pawnee it is mainly body part words which are incorporated' (c.f. ...

  15. Toward Edge-Defined Holey Boron Nitride Nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Liao, Yunlong; Chen, Zhongfan; Connell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    "Holey" two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets with well-defined holy morphology and edge chemistry are highly desirable for applications such as energy storage, catalysis, sensing, transistors, and molecular transport/separation. For example, holey grapheme is currently under extensive investigation for energy storage applications because of the improvement in ion transport due to through the thickness pathways provided by the holes. Without the holes, the 2D materials have significant limitations for such applications in which efficient ion transport is important. As part of an effort to apply this approach to other 2D nanomaterials, a method to etch geometrically defined pits or holes on the basal plane surface of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets has been developed. The etching, conducted via heating in ambient air using metal nanoparticles as catalysts, was facile, controllable, and scalable. Starting h-BN layered crystals were etched and subsequently exfoliated into boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs). The as-etched and exfoliated h-BN nanosheets possessed defined pit and hole shapes that were comprised of regulated nanostructures at the edges. The current finding are the first step toward the bulk preparation of holey BNNSs with defined holes and edges.

  16. Farm elders define health as the ability to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Deborah B; Rayens, Mary Kay; Conley, Christina K; Westneat, Susan; Adkins, Sarah M

    2012-08-01

    Thirty percent of America's 2.2 million farms are operated by individuals older than 65 years. This study examined how older farmers define health and determined whether demographic characteristics, farm work, and physical and mental health status predict health definition. Data were collected via telephone and mailed surveys during the baseline wave of data collection in a longitudinal study of family farmers residing in two southern states (n=1,288). Nearly 42% defined health as the "ability to work" compared to a physical health-related definition. Predictors of defining health as the ability to work included being White, performing more farm tasks in the past week, taking prescription medications daily, and having minimal health-related limitations to farm work. Health behaviors are centered on the individual's perception of health. Understanding the defining attributes of health can support better approaches to health care and health promotion, particularly among rural subcultures such as farmers, whose identity is rooted in their work. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Anger, hatred, or just heartlessness?: Defining gratuitous violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Violent crime in South Africa is sometimes said to be unusual, because it is perceived to frequently be gratuitous. This article engages with the question of how to define gratuitous violence. If the term gratuitous is understood to mean 'for nothing', gratuitous violence should be understood as violence that is 'low on ...

  18. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... “Vietnam conflict” for purposes of payment of interest on missing military service members' deposits in the... ending date for the Vietnam conflict for purposes of determining eligibility for compensation under 50 U...

  19. 40 CFR 68.33 - Defining offsite impacts-environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-environment. 68.33 Section 68.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—environment. (a) The owner or operator shall list in the RMP environmental receptors within a...

  20. Defining a Progress Metric for CERT RMM Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    REV-03.18.2016.0 Defining a Progress Metric for CERT-RMM Improvement Gregory Crabb Nader Mehravari David Tobar September 2017 TECHNICAL ...fendable resource allocation decisions. Technical metrics measure aspects of controls implemented through technology (systems, soft- ware, hardware...implementation metric would be the percentage of users who have received anti-phishing training . • Effectiveness/efficiency metrics measure whether

  1. On functions defined by sums of products of Bessel functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P A

    2008-01-01

    Various functions, defined as infinite series of products of Bessel functions of the first kind, are studied. Integral representations are obtained, and then used to deduce asymptotic approximations. Although several methods have been investigated (including power series expansions and integral transforms), methods based on Fourier series emerge as the most useful

  2. 29 CFR 779.221 - “Common control” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organizational units.” The meaning of “common control” is discussed comprehensively in part 776 of this chapter. ... Or Common Control § 779.221 “Common control” defined. Under the definition the “enterprise” includes all related activities performed through “common control” for a common business purpose. The word...

  3. 38 CFR 17.31 - Duty periods defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Definitions and Active Duty § 17.31 Duty periods defined. Full-time duty as a member of the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps, Women's Reserve of the Navy and Marine Corps and Women's Reserve of the Coast Guard. [34 FR..., 1996, § 17.31(b)(5) was redesignated as § 17.31. Protection of Patient Rights ...

  4. Properties of dual codes defined by nondegenerate forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Szabo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual codes are defined with respect to non-degenerate sesquilinear or bilinear forms over a finite Frobenius ring. These dual codes have the properties one expects from a dual code: they satisfy a double-dual property, they have cardinality complementary to that of the primal code, and they satisfy the MacWilliams identities for the Hamming weight.

  5. Defining, Developing, and Measuring "Proclivities for Teaching Mathematics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jennifer M.; Fischman, Davida; Riggs, Matt

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a form of teacher reasoning that we call "proclivities for teaching mathematics." We define proclivities for teaching mathematics as the beliefs, knowledge, and dispositions that are actionable in the flow of instruction, and we argue that growth in this area contributes to positive change in mathematics…

  6. 40 CFR 68.30 - Defining offsite impacts-population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-population. 68.30 Section 68.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—population. (a) The owner or operator shall estimate in the RMP the population within a circle...

  7. What Does "Apple" Mean? Learning To Define Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinellie, Sally A.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of learning to define a word. It provides a brief background on the contribution of the definitional skills to communication and school success, information on children's development of definitions, and teacher and family strategies for enhancing young children's definitions in relation to other skills.…

  8. Undergraduate Performance in Solving Ill-Defined Biochemistry Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensibaugh, Cheryl A.; Madrid, Nathaniel J.; Choi, Hye-Jeong; Anderson, William L.; Osgood, Marcy P.

    2017-01-01

    With growing interest in promoting skills related to the scientific process, we studied performance in solving ill-defined problems demonstrated by graduating biochemistry majors at a public, minority-serving university. As adoption of techniques for facilitating the attainment of higher-order learning objectives broadens, so too does the need to…

  9. PREPARATION OF CHEMICALLY WELL-DEFINED CARBOHYDRATE DENDRIMER CONJUGATES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A method for the synthesis of dendrimer conjugates having a well-defined chemical structure, comprising one or more carbohydrate moieties and one or more immunomodulating substances coupled to a dendrimer, is presented. First, the carbohydrate is bound to the dendrimer in a chemoselective manner...... conjugates and their use in vaccination, production of antibodies, high throughput screening, diagnostic assays and libraries....

  10. Responsibility for proving and defining in abstract algebra class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy

    2016-07-01

    There is considerable variety in inquiry-oriented instruction, but what is common is that students assume roles in mathematical activity that in a traditional, lecture-based class are either assumed by the teacher (or text) or are not visible at all in traditional math classrooms. This paper is a case study of the teaching of an inquiry-based undergraduate abstract algebra course. In particular, gives a theoretical account of the defining and proving processes. The study examines the intellectual responsibility for the processes of defining and proving that the professor devolved to the students. While the professor wanted the students to engage in all aspects of defining and proving, he was only successful at devolving responsibility for certain aspects and much more successful at devolving responsibility for proving than conjecturing or defining. This study suggests that even a well-intentioned instructor may not be able to devolve responsibility to students for some aspects of mathematical practice without using a research-based curriculum or further professional development.

  11. Towards an ontological model defining the social engineering domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, F

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available -1 ICT and Society IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology Volume 431, 2014, pp 266- 279 Towards an Ontological Model Defining the Social Engineering Domain Francois Mouton 1 , Louise Leenen 1 , Mercia M. Malan 2 , and H...

  12. Implementation of a user defined mine blast model in LSDYNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyler-Street, M.; Leerdam, P.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    A user defined mine blast model has been developed and implemented into the explicit finite element code LS-DYNA to provide a numerically efficient method for simulating an antivehicular mine blast. The objective is to provide a simple and robust numerical method which is able to represent both the

  13. A Generalized Approach to Defining Item Discrimination for DCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Robert; DiBello, Lou; Stout, Bill

    2018-01-01

    Diagnostic classification models (DCMs, also known as cognitive diagnosis models) hold the promise of providing detailed classroom information about the skills a student has or has not mastered. Specifically, DCMs are special cases of constrained latent class models where classes are defined based on mastery/nonmastery of a set of attributes (or…

  14. INTRODUCTION Dental care utilization can be defined as the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Dental care utilization can be defined as the percentage of the population who access dental services over a specified period of time1. Measures of actual dental care utilization describe the percentage of the population who have seen a dentist at different time intervals. Dental disease is a serious public ...

  15. Frameworks for defining and managing the wilderness experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Manning

    2012-01-01

    A large and growing body of research on outdoor recreation and the wilderness experience has been conducted over the nearly 50 years since passage of the Wilderness Act of 1964. A number of conceptual and empirical frameworks have emerged from this body of knowledge that can be used to help define and manage the wilderness experience.

  16. A Neurogenetics Approach to Defining Differential Susceptibility to Institutional Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Zoe H.; Sheridan, Margaret; Humphreys, Kate; Smyke, Anna; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fox, Nathan; Zeanah, Charles; Nelson, Charles; Drury, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    An individual's neurodevelopmental and cognitive sequelae to negative early experiences may, in part, be explained by genetic susceptibility. We examined whether extreme differences in the early caregiving environment, defined as exposure to severe psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional care compared to normative rearing,…

  17. Defining care products to finance health care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Westerdijk (MacHiel); J.J. Zuurbier (Joost); M. Ludwig (Martijn); S. Prins (Sarah)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractA case-mix project started in the Netherlands with the primary goal to define a complete set of health care products for hospitals. The definition of the product structure was completed 4 years later. The results are currently being used for billing purposes. This paper focuses on the

  18. 75 FR 70625 - Annual Funding Notice for Defined Benefit Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... model funding notices. Much of the guidance in FAB 2009-01 has been incorporated into the proposed... Annual Funding Notice for Defined Benefit Plans AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor... implement the annual funding notice requirement in the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974...

  19. Mitigating the controller performance bottlenecks in Software Defined Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2016-01-01

    The centralization of the control plane decision logic in Software Defined Networking (SDN) has raised concerns regarding the performance of the SDN Controller (SDNC) when the network scales up. A number of solutions have been proposed in the literature to address these concerns. This paper...

  20. Five-Star Schools: Defining Quality in Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    Hakeem, Emily, Jose, and Latisha are all entering preschool in the fall. Their mothers are looking for the highest quality early childhood program they can find. Is there a guide for them to find a five-star program? Are all certified or accredited programs of equal quality? How do these parents and guardians know what defines quality in early…