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Sample records for stereoisomers

  1. Chromatographic separations of stereoisomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souter, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This text covers both diastereomers and enantiomers; describes techniques for GC, HPLC, and other chromatographic methods; and tabulates results of various applications by both techniques and compound class. It provides current knowledge about separation mechanisms and interactions of asymmetric molecules, as well as experimental and commercial materials such as columns, instruments, and derivatization reagents. The contents also include stereoisomer separations by gas chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by other chromatographic techniques.

  2. Comparative Anticonvulsant Study of Epoxycarvone Stereoisomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Rodrigues Salgado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stereoisomers of the monoterpene epoxycarvone (EC, namely (+-cis-EC, (−-cis-EC, (+-trans-EC, and (−-trans-EC, were comparatively evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in specific methodologies. In the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced anticonvulsant test, all of the stereoisomers (at 300 mg/kg increased the latency to seizure onset, and afforded 100% protection against the death of the animals. In the maximal electroshock-induced seizures (MES test, prevention of tonic seizures was also verified for all of the isomers tested. However, the isomeric forms (+ and (−-trans-EC showed 25% and 12.5% inhibition of convulsions, respectively. In the pilocarpine-induced seizures test, all stereoisomers demonstrated an anticonvulsant profile, yet the stereoisomers (+ and (−-trans-EC (at 300 mg/kg showed a more pronounced effect. A strychnine-induced anticonvulsant test was performed, and none of the stereoisomers significantly increased the latency to onset of convulsions; the stereoisomers probably do not act in this pathway. However, the stereoisomers (+-cis-EC and (+-trans-EC greatly increased the latency to death of the animals, thus presenting some protection. The four EC stereoisomers show promise for anticonvulsant activity, an effect emphasized in the isomers (+-cis-EC, (+-trans-EC, and (−-trans-EC for certain parameters of the tested methodologies. These results serve as support for further research and development of antiepileptic drugs from monoterpenes.

  3. Binding of Fidarestat Stereoisomers with Aldose Reductase

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    Dae-Sil Lee

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The stereospecificity in binding to aldose reductase (ALR2 of two fidarestat {6-fluoro-2',5'-dioxospiro[chroman-4,4'-imidazolidine]-2-carboxamide} stereoisomers [(2S,4Sand (2R,4S] has been investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations using freeenergy integration techniques. The difference in the free energy of binding was found to be2.0 ± 1.7 kJ/mol in favour of the (2S,4S-form, in agreement with the experimentalinhibition data. The relative mobilities of the fidarestats complexed with ALR2 indicate alarger entropic penalty for hydrophobic binding of (2R,4S-fidarestat compared to (2S,4S-fidarestat, partially explaining its lower binding affinity. The two stereoisomers differmainly in the orientation of the carbamoyl moiety with respect to the active site and rotationof the bond joining the carbamoyl substituent to the ring. The detailed structural andenergetic insights obtained from out simulations allow for a better understanding of thefactors determining stereospecific inhibitor-ALR2 binding in the EPF charges model.

  4. Comparative Time Course Profiles of Phthalate Stereoisomers in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT More efficient models are needed to assess potential carcinogenicity hazard of environmental chemicals. Here we evaluated time course profiles for two reference phthalates, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its stereoisomer di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), to identify...

  5. Stereoisomers of Saponins in Panax notoginseng (Sanqi): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ming; Yi, Ya X.; Zhang, Tong; Ding, Yue; Le, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Panax notoginseng (Sanqi), a traditional Chinese medical drug which has been applied to medical use for over four centuries, contains high content of dammarane-type tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins. A number of stereoisomeric dammarane-type saponins exist in this precious herb, and some are particularly regarded as “biomarkers” in processed notoginseng. Contemporary researches have indicated that some saponin stereoisomers may show stereospecific pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, antioxidative, anti-photoaging, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and neuro-protective activities, as well as stereoselective effects on ion channel current regulation, cardiovascular system, and immune system. The current review provides a comprehensive overview of chemical compositions of raw and processed P. notoginseng with a particular emphasis on saponin stereoisomers. Besides, the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic researches, as well as determination and biotechnological preparation methods of stereoisomeric saponins in notoginseng are discussed extensively. PMID:29593531

  6. A new and expeditious synthesis of all enantiomerically pure stereoisomers of rosaprostol, an antiulcer drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Perlikowska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Four enantiomerically pure stereoisomers of rosaprostol (1, an antiulcer drug, were efficiently synthesized from the enantiomers of 2-(dimethoxyphosphoryl-3-hexylcyclopentanone (3 as chiral substrates. The latter were obtained by resolution of racemic 3 with (+-(R-1-(1-naphthylethylamine. The conversion of (+-3 into rosaprostol stereoisomer (−-1a was accomplished in four steps in 56% overall yield. According to the same protocol, the second stereoisomer (+-1c was obtained from (−-3 in 55% overall yield. A slightly improved procedure of the last two steps of the transformation of (+-3 into (−-1a allowed an increase in the overall yield to 64%. The remaining two stereoisomers, (−-1b and (+-1d, were obtained from (−-1a and (+-1c in 71 and 68% yield, respectively, by a two-reaction sequence, in which a Mitsunobu inversion of configuration at C-5 was the key step.

  7. Liquid chromatographic separation of zalcitabine and its stereoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scypinski, S; Ross, A J

    1994-10-01

    A liquid chromatographic method capable of separating and quantitating the stereoisomers of zalcitabine has been developed and validated. The separation was achieved with an Astec Cyclobond I--RSP column and a mobile phase of 0.25% triethylamine in water adjusted to a pH of 6.5 with glacial acetic acid. All enantiomers were found to exhibit a linear response in the range of 0.1-10% in the presence of 100% zalcitabine. Precision of analysis was found to be less than 1.5% at a level of 1% relative to zalcitabine. The limit of detection for two of the three enantiomeric impurities was determined to be 0.05% relative to zalcitabine. The detection limit for the third was found to be 0.1%. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of reference standards and several production scale batches. All of these materials were found to be stereochemically pure to a level of 99.8% or better.

  8. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Four Stereoisomers of the Sex Pheromone of the Western Corn Rootworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Feng Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A convergent synthesis of four stereoisomers of the sex pheromone of the western corn rootworm (8-methyldecan-2-yl propionate, 1 from commercially available chiral starting materials is reported. The key step was Julia–Kocienski olefination between chiral BT-sulfone and chiral aldehyde. This synthetic route provided the four stereoisomers of 1 in 24–29% total yield via a six-step sequence. The simple scale-up strategy provides a new way to achieve the asymmetric synthesis of the sex pheromone.

  9. The naturally occurring α-tocopherol stereoisomer RRR-α-tocopherol is predominant in the human infant brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuchan, J M; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Johnson, E J

    2016-01-01

    α-Tocopherol is the principal source of vitamin E, an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy brain function. Infant formula is routinely supplemented with synthetic α-tocopherol, a racaemic mixture of eight stereoisomers with less bioactivity than the natural...... stereoisomer RRR-α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol stereoisomer profiles have not been previously reported in the human brain. In the present study, we analysed total α-tocopherol and α-tocopherol stereoisomers in the frontal cortex (FC), hippocampus (HPC) and visual cortex (VC) of infants (n 36) who died of sudden...... infant death syndrome or other conditions. RRR-α-tocopherol was the predominant stereoisomer in all brain regions (Ptocopherol (5–17 μg/g). Mean RRR-α-tocopherol concentrations in FC, HPC and VC were 10·5, 6·8 and 5·5 μg...

  10. Synthesis of [triazole-3(5)-14C]-propiconazole stereoisomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidemetriou, D.; Loeffler, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    A preparation of all four stereoisomers of the fungicide and sterol biosynthesis inhibitor propiconazole (1-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-ylmethyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole), labelled with [ 14 C] in the triazole ring, is described. (author)

  11. Intravenous and inhalation toxicokinetics of sarin stereoisomers in atropinized guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, W.E.T.; Langenberg, J.P.; Trap, H.C.; Wiel, H.J. van der; Helmich, R.B.; Helden, H.P.M. van; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    We report the first toxicokinetic studies of (±)-sarin. The toxicokinetics of the stereoisomers of this nerve agent were studied in anesthetized, atropinized, and restrained guinea pigs after intravenous bolus administration of a dose corresponding to 0.8 LD50 and after nose-only exposure to vapor

  12. Total synthesis of all stereoisomers of eudesm-II-en-4-ol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesselmans, R.P.W.

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis the total synthesis of all stereoisomers of eudesm-11-en-4-ol e.g. selin-11-en-4α-ol I , intermedeol II , neointermedeol III , paradisiol IV , amiteol

  13. Alkyl Bromides as Mechanistic Probes of Reductive Dehalogenation: Reactions of Vicinal Dibromide Stereoisomers with Zero-Valent Metals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Totten, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism through which zero-valent metals (most notably iron and zinc) reduce alkyl polyhalides in aqueous solution at room temperature was investigated using several stereoisomers of vicinal dibromides as probe compounds...

  14. Effect of low concentration sodium dodecyl sulfate on the electromigration of palonosetron hydrochloride stereoisomers in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-Qiang; Wang, Gui-Xia; Guo, Wen-Bo; Guo, Xu-Ming; Zhao, Min

    2014-05-16

    The effect of low concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the separation of palonosetron hydrochloride (PALO) stereoisomers by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) has been investigated. It was found that the addition of SDS prolongs the migration time and the migration order of four stereoisomers changes regularly with the SDS concentration. Good separations for all the four stereoisomers were achieved at appropriate SDS concentration. The effect of SDS on the electromigration (mobilities) of PALO stereoisomers has been studied, in order to explain its effect on the separation by MEKC. It was found that low concentrations of SDS added into the separation media forms negatively charged complexes with PALO stereoisomers and hence reverses their electromigration direction. Furthermore, the migration order between two enantiomeric pairs is also reversed because the enantiomeric pair with a bigger positive mobility than that of another pair turns to have a bigger negative mobility when bound with SDS. Based on these results, the effect of SDS on the MEKC separation of PALO stereoisomers was elucidated reasonably. The performance of the developed chiral MEKC method was validated by the analysis of a real sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bio-discrimination of a-tocopherol stereoisomers in rearing and veal calves fed milk replacer supplemented with all-rac-a-tocopheryl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Bos, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    were taken at slaughter of the six veal calves in experiment 2. The distribution of different alpha-tocopherol stereoisomers in feed, plasma, and tissues was analyzed. In both experiments, it was observed that RRR-alpha-tocopherol was the dominant stereoisomer in plasma and tissues. The average...... vitamin E intake. Other 2R-alpha-tocopherol stereoisomers had lower utilization efficiency than RRR-alpha-tocopherol stereoisomer. 2S-alpha-tocopherol stereoisomers were basically not utilized by calves.......This study evaluated the biological discrimination of different alpha-tocopherol stereoisomers (i. e. RRR-, RRS-, RSR-, RSS- and the four 2S-alpha-tocopherols) from all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation in milk replacer for rearing and veal calves respectively, in practical farming...

  16. Verapamil stereoisomers induce antiproliferative effects in vascular smooth muscle cells via autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salabei, Joshua K. [Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Balakumaran, Arun [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555‐0438 (United States); Frey, Justin C. [Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI 54702 (United States); Boor, Paul J. [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555‐0438 (United States); Treinen-Moslen, Mary [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555‐0609 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555‐0438 (United States); Conklin, Daniel J., E-mail: dj.conklin@louisville.edu [Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI 54702 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555‐0438 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are important in the management of hypertension and limit restenosis. Although CCB efficacy could derive from decreased blood pressure, other mechanisms independent of CCB activity also can contribute to antiproliferative action. To understand mechanisms of CCB-mediated antiproliferation, we studied two structurally dissimilar CCBs, diltiazem and verapamil, in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). To elucidate CCB-independent effects, pure stereoisomers of verapamil (R-verapamil, inactive VR; S-verapamil, active, VS) were used. The effects of CCB exposure on cell viability (MTT reduction), cell proliferation ({sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation), VSMC morphology by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and autophagy (LC3I/II, ATG5) were measured. In general, verapamil, VR or VS treatment alone (80 μM) appreciably enhanced MTT absorbance although higher concentrations (VR or VS) slightly decreased MTT absorbance. Diltiazem (140 μM) markedly decreased MTT absorbance (40%) at 120 h. VR or VS treatment inhibited {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation (24 h) and induced cytological alterations (i.e., karyokinesis, enhanced perinuclear MTT deposition, accumulated perinuclear “vacuoles”). TEM revealed perinuclear “vacuoles” to be aggregates of highly laminated and electron-dense vesicles resembling autophagosomes and lysosomes, respectively. Increased autophagosome activity was confirmed by a concentration-dependent increase in LC3-II formation by Western blotting and by increased perinuclear LC3-GFP{sup +} puncta in verapamil-treated VSMC. Verapamil stereoisomers appeared to decrease perinuclear mitochondrial density. These observations indicate that antiproliferative effects of verapamil stereoisomers are produced by enhanced mitochondrial damage and upregulated autophagy in VSMC. These effects are independent of CCB activity indicating a distinct mechanism of action that could be targeted for more efficacious anti

  17. Distributions of the Stereoisomers of β-Mercaptoheptanones and β-Mercaptoheptanols in Cooked Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nörenberg, Svenja; Kiske, Christiane; Burmann, Andrea; Poplacean, Iulia; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2017-11-29

    2-Mercapto-4-heptanone, 4-mercapto-2-heptanone, and the corresponding mercaptoalcohols, previously identified in cooked red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum), were used as examples to determine the distributions of stereoisomers of naturally occurring polyfunctional thiols. The thiols were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction and enriched by affinity chromatography. Enantioselective analysis was performed via multidimensional gas chromatography. For the studied cultivar California Wonder, the investigation of different batches of cooked red bell pepper revealed consistent ratios of the stereoisomers independent of origin and date of purchase. Quantitative estimations showed that the stereoisomers were present in cooked red bell peppers at concentrations in the range of 0.04-10.2 μg/kg. Lower concentrations were observed in cooked green bell peppers. The change from green to red color was also accompanied by shifts in the proportions of stereoisomers in favor of the (S)-enantiomers of the mercaptoheptanones and of the (4S)-configured stereoisomers of 4-mercapto-2-heptanol.

  18. The stereoselective sulfate conjugation of 4'-methoxyfenoterol stereoisomers by sulfotransferase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Lalitha V; Ramamoorthy, Anuradha; Rutkowska, Ewelina; Furimsky, Anna M; Tang, Liang; Catz, Paul; Green, Carol E; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Wainer, Irving W

    2012-10-01

    The presystemic sulfate conjugation of the stereoisomers of 4'-methoxyfenoterol, (R,R')-MF, (S,S')-MF, (R,S')-MF, and (S,R')-MF, was investigated using commercially available human intestinal S9 fractions, a mixture of sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes. The results indicate that the sulfation was stereospecific and that an S-configuration at the β-OH carbon of the MF molecule enhanced the maximal formation rates with (S,R')-MF  (S,S')-MF  (R,S')-MF ≈ (R,R')-MF, and competition studies demonstrated that (S,R')-MF is an effective inhibitor of (R,R')-MF sulfation (IC(50) = 60 μM). In addition, the results from a cDNA-expressed human SULT isoform screen indicated that SULT1A1, SULT1A3, and SULT1E1 can mediate the sulfation of all four MF stereoisomers. Previously published molecular models of SULT1A3 and SULT1A1 were used in docking simulations of the MF stereoisomers using Molegro Virtual Docker. The models of the MF-SULT1A3 and MF-SULT1A1 complexes indicate that each of the two chiral centers of MF molecule plays a role in the observed relative stabilities. The observed stereoselectivity is the result of multiple hydrogen bonding interactions and induced conformational changes within the substrate-enzyme complex. In conclusion, the results suggest that a formulation developed from a mixture of (R,R')-MF and (S,R')-MF may increase the oral bioavailability of (R,R')-MF. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Weak affinity chromatography for evaluation of stereoisomers in early drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong-Thi, Minh-Dao; Bergström, Maria; Fex, Tomas; Svensson, Susanne; Ohlson, Sten; Isaksson, Roland

    2013-07-01

    In early drug discovery (e.g., in fragment screening), recognition of stereoisomeric structures is valuable and guides medicinal chemists to focus only on useful configurations. In this work, we concurrently screened mixtures of stereoisomers and estimated their affinities to a protein target (thrombin) using weak affinity chromatography-mass spectrometry (WAC-MS). Affinity determinations by WAC showed that minor changes in stereoisomeric configuration could have a major impact on affinity. The ability of WAC-MS to provide instant information about stereoselectivity and binding affinities directly from analyte mixtures is a great advantage in fragment library screening and drug lead development.

  20. High-performance liquid chromatographic separations of stereoisomers of chiral basic agrochemicals with polysaccharide-based chiral columns and polar organic mobile phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarashvili, Iza; Shvangiradze, Iamze; Chankvetadze, Lali; Sidamonidze, Shota; Takaishvili, Nino; Farkas, Tivadar; Chankvetadze, Bezhan

    2015-12-01

    The separation of the stereoisomers of 23 chiral basic agrochemicals was studied on six different polysaccharide-based chiral columns in high-performance liquid chromatography with various polar organic mobile phases. Along with the successful separation of analyte stereoisomers, emphasis was placed on the effect of the chiral selector and mobile phase composition on the elution order of stereoisomers. The interesting phenomenon of reversal of enantiomer/stereoisomer elution order function of the polysaccharide backbone (cellulose or amylose), type of derivative (carbamate or benzoate), nature, and position of the substituent(s) in the phenylcarbamate moiety (methyl or chloro) and the nature of the mobile phase was observed. For several of the analytes containing two chiral centers all four stereoisomers were resolved with at least one chiral selector/mobile phase combination. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Synthesis of Phosphatidylserine and Its Stereoisomers: Their Role in Activation of Blood Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Suman; Prasad, Ramesh; Bhattacharya, Anindita; Sen, Prosenjit

    2018-05-10

    Natural phosphatidylserine (PS), which contains two chiral centers, enhances blood coagulation. However, the process by which PS enhanced blood coagulation is not completely understood. An efficient and flexible synthetic route has been developed to synthesize all of the possible stereoisomers of PS. In this study, we examined the role of PS chiral centers in modulating the activity of the tissue factor (TF)-factor VIIa coagulation initiation complex. Full length TF was relipidated with phosphatidylcholine, and the synthesized PS isomers were individually used to estimate the procoagulant activity of the TF-FVIIa complex via a FXa generation assay. The results revealed that the initiation complex activity was stereoselective and had increased sensitivity to the configuration of the PS glycerol backbone due to optimal protein-lipid interactions.

  2. General amyloid inhibitors? A critical examination of the inhibition of IAPP amyloid formation by inositol stereoisomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP or amylin forms amyloid deposits in the islets of Langerhans; a process that is believed to contribute to the progression of type 2 diabetes and to the failure of islet transplants. An emerging theme in amyloid research is the hypothesis that the toxic species produced during amyloid formation by different polypeptides share common features and exert their effects by common mechanisms. If correct, this suggests that inhibitors of amyloid formation by one polypeptide might be effective against other amyloidogenic sequences. IAPP and Aβ, the peptide responsible for amyloid formation in Alzheimer's disease, are particularly interesting in this regard as they are both natively unfolded in their monomeric states and share some common characteristics. Comparatively little effort has been expended on the design of IAPP amyloid inhibitors, thus it is natural to inquire if Aβ inhibitors are effective against IAPP, especially since no IAPP inhibitors have been clinically approved. A range of compounds inhibit Aβ amyloid formation, including various stereoisomers of inositol. Myo-, scyllo-, and epi-inositol have been shown to induce conformational changes in Aβ and prevent Aβ amyloid fibril formation by stabilizing non-fibrillar β-sheet structures. We investigate the ability of inositol stereoisomers to inhibit amyloid formation by IAPP. The compounds do not induce a conformational change in IAPP and are ineffective inhibitors of IAPP amyloid formation, although some do lead to modest apparent changes in IAPP amyloid fibril morphology. Thus not all classes of Aβ inhibitors are effective against IAPP. This work provides a basis of comparison to work on polyphenol based inhibitors of IAPP amyloid formation and helps provide clues as to the features which render them effective. The study also helps provide information for further efforts in rational inhibitor design.

  3. Specific binding component of the 'inactive' stereoisomer (S,S)-[125I]IQNB to rat brain muscarinic receptors in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulay, Sheila F.; McRee, R. Carter; Cohen, Victor I.; Sood, Virendar K.; Zeeberg, Barry R.; Reba, Richard C.

    1996-01-01

    In vivo nonspecific binding can be estimated using the inactive stereoisomer of a receptor radioligand. However, the binding of the inactive stereoisomer may be partially specific. Specific binding of the inactive (S,S)-[ 125 I]IQNB was estimated from the inhibition induced by a competing nonradioactive ligand. This technique differed from the usual approach, since it was used to study the inactive rather than the active stereoisomer. The results indicate that there is substantial specific binding for (S,S)-[ 125 I]IQNB

  4. GCMS/MS Analyses of Biological Samples in Support of Evaluation of Toxicity Associated with Intravenous Exposure to VX Stereoisomers in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    ASSOCIATED WITH INTRAVENOUS EXPOSURE TO VX STEREOISOMERS IN GUINEA PIGS ECBC-TR-1465 Disclaimer The findings in this report are not to be...VX Stereoisomers in Guinea Pigs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) McGuire, Jeffrey M.; Wright...lung, liver, kidney, and brain) that were obtained from guinea pigs intravenously exposed to various concentrations of O-ethyl S-(2

  5. How stereochemistry influences the taste of wine: Isolation, characterization and sensory evaluation of lyoniresinol stereoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretin, Blandine N; Sallembien, Quentin; Sindt, Lauriane; Daugey, Nicolas; Buffeteau, Thierry; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Dubourdieu, Denis; Marchal, Axel

    2015-08-12

    Wine expresses its beauty by sending a sensory message to the taster through molecules coming from grapes, yeast metabolism or oak wood. Among the compounds released during barrel aging, lyoniresinol has been recently reported as a relevant contributor to wine bitterness. As this lignan contains three stereogenic carbons, this work aimed at investigating the influence of stereochemistry on wine taste by combining analytical and sensorial techniques. First, an oak wood extract was screened by Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry to target isomers separable in a symmetric environment and a diastereoisomer called epi-lyoniresinol was isolated for the first time. Then, an original racemic resolution based on natural xylose-derivatives was carried out to obtain lyoniresinol enantiomers. Chiroptical spectroscopic measurements associated with theoretical calculations allowed the unambiguous determination of their absolute configuration. The taste properties of all these stereoisomers revealed that only one lyoniresinol enantiomer is strongly bitter whereas the other one is tasteless and the diastereoisomer is slightly sweet. The presence of these three compounds was established in an oaked Bordeaux wine by chiral and non-chiral chromatography, suggesting the significant influence of stereochemistry on wine taste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. D-tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, increases blood uric acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Toubro, S; Holst, J J; Rehfeld, J F; Bibby, B M; Astrup, A

    2000-08-01

    D-Fructose has been found to increase uric acid production by accelerating the degradation of purine nucleotides, probably due to hepatocellular depletion of inorganic phosphate (Pi) by an accumulation of ketohexose-1-phosphate. The hyperuricemic effect of D-tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, may be greater than that of D-fructose, as the subsequent degradation of D-tagatose-1-phosphate is slower than the degradation of D-fructose-1-phosphate. We tested the effect of 30 g oral D-tagatose versus D-fructose on plasma uric acid and other metabolic parameters in 8 male subjects by a double-blind crossover design. Both the peak concentration and 4-hour area under the curve (AUC) of serum uric acid were significantly higher after D-tagatose compared with either 30 g D-fructose or plain water. The decline in serum Pi concentration was greater at 50 minutes after D-tagatose versus D-fructose. The thermogenic and lactacidemic responses to D-tagatose were blunted compared with D-fructose. D-Tagatose attenuated the glycemic and insulinemic responses to a meal that was consumed 255 minutes after its administration. Moreover, both fructose and D-tagatose increased plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The metabolic effects of D-tagatose occurred despite its putative poor absorption.

  7. A fast isocratic liquid chromatography method for the quantification of xanthophylls and their stereoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Lopes-Lutz, Daise; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    A fast isocratic liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of eight xanthophylls (13-Z-lutein, 13'-Z-lutein, 13-Z-zeaxanthin, all-E-lutein, all-E-zeaxanthin, all-E-canthaxanthin, all-E-β-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester and all-E-β-apo-8'-carotenal) within 12 min, compared to 90 min by the conventional high-performance liquid chromatography method. The separation was achieved on a YMC C30 reversed-phase column (100 mm x 2.0 mm; 3 μm) operated at 20°C using a methanol/tert-butyl methyl ether/water solvent system at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The method was successfully applied to quantify lutein and zeaxanthin stereoisomers in egg yolk, raw and cooked spinach, and a dietary supplement. The method can be used for the rapid analysis of xanthophyll isomers in different food products and for quality control purposes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Enantioselective Analytical- and Preparative-Scale Separation of Hexabromocyclododecane Stereoisomers Using Packed Column Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Riddell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD is an additive brominated flame retardant which has been listed in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention for elimination of production and use. It has been reported to persist in the environment and has the potential for enantiomer-specific degradation, accumulation, or both, making enantioselective analyses increasingly important. The six main stereoisomers of technical HBCDD (i.e., the (+ and (− enantiomers of α-, β-, and γ-HBCDD were separated and isolated for the first time using enantioselective packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC separation methods on a preparative scale. Characterization was completed using published chiral liquid chromatography (LC methods and elution profiles, as well as X-ray crystallography, and the isolated fractions were definitively identified. Additionally, the resolution of the enantiomers, along with two minor components of the technical product (δ- and ε-HBCDD, was investigated on an analytical scale using both LC and pSFC separation techniques, and changes in elution order were highlighted. Baseline separation of all HBCDD enantiomers was achieved by pSFC on an analytical scale using a cellulose-based column. The described method emphasizes the potential associated with pSFC as a green method of isolating and analyzing environmental contaminants of concern.

  9. Enantioselective Analytical- and Preparative-Scale Separation of Hexabromocyclododecane Stereoisomers Using Packed Column Supercritical Fluid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Nicole; Mullin, Lauren Gayle; van Bavel, Bert; Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid; McAlees, Alan; Brazeau, Allison; Synnott, Scott; Lough, Alan; McCrindle, Robert; Chittim, Brock

    2016-11-10

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is an additive brominated flame retardant which has been listed in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention for elimination of production and use. It has been reported to persist in the environment and has the potential for enantiomer-specific degradation, accumulation, or both, making enantioselective analyses increasingly important. The six main stereoisomers of technical HBCDD (i.e., the (+) and (-) enantiomers of α-, β-, and γ-HBCDD) were separated and isolated for the first time using enantioselective packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC) separation methods on a preparative scale. Characterization was completed using published chiral liquid chromatography (LC) methods and elution profiles, as well as X-ray crystallography, and the isolated fractions were definitively identified. Additionally, the resolution of the enantiomers, along with two minor components of the technical product (δ- and ε-HBCDD), was investigated on an analytical scale using both LC and pSFC separation techniques, and changes in elution order were highlighted. Baseline separation of all HBCDD enantiomers was achieved by pSFC on an analytical scale using a cellulose-based column. The described method emphasizes the potential associated with pSFC as a green method of isolating and analyzing environmental contaminants of concern.

  10. Supplementation with RRR- or all-rac-α-Tocopherol Differentially Affects the α-Tocopherol Stereoisomer Profile in the Milk and Plasma of Lactating Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Shashank; Kuchan, Matthew J; Lai, Chron-Si; Jensen, Soren K; Sherry, Christina L

    2017-07-01

    Background: The naturally occurring α-tocopherol stereoisomer RRR- α-tocopherol is known to be more bioactive than synthetic α-tocopherol ( all-rac -α-tocopherol). However, the influence of this difference on the α-tocopherol stereoisomer profile of human milk is not understood. Objective: We investigated whether supplemental RRR- α-tocopherol or all-rac -α-tocopherol differentially affected the distribution of α-tocopherol stereoisomers in milk and plasma from lactating women. Methods: Eighty-nine lactating women aged 19-40 y and with a body mass index (in kg/m 2 ) ≤30 were randomly assigned at 4-6 wk postpartum to receive a daily supplement containing 45.5 mg all-rac -α-tocopherol acetate (ARAC), 22.8 mg all-rac -α-tocopherol acetate + 20.1 mg RRR -α-tocopherol (MIX), or 40.2 mg RRR- α-tocopherol (RRR). Milk and plasma were analyzed for α-tocopherol structural isomers and α-tocopherol stereoisomers at baseline and after 6 wk supplementation with the use of chiral HPLC. Results: There were no significant treatment group or time-dependent changes in milk or plasma α, γ, or δ-tocopherol. RRR- α-tocopherol was the most abundant stereoisomer in both milk and plasma in each group. Supplementation changed both milk and plasma percentage RRR- α-tocopherol (RRR > MIX > ARAC) ( P tocopherol (ARAC > MIX > RRR) ( P tocopherol increased in milk (mean ± SEM: 78% ± 2.3% compared with 82% ± 1.7%) ( P tocopherol decreased in the MIX and ARAC groups (MIX, P tocopherol stereoisomers increased (MIX, P tocopherol stereoisomers ( P tocopherol was positively correlated at baseline ( r = 0.67; P tocopherol supplementation strategy differentially affected the α-tocopherol milk and plasma stereoisomer profile in lactating women. RRR- α-tocopherol increased milk and plasma percentage RRR- α-tocopherol, whereas all-rac -α-tocopherol acetate reduced these percentages. Because RRR- α-tocopherol is the most bioactive stereoisomer, investigating the impact of

  11. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of the individual stereoisomers of 3- [methyl(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthalenyl)amino]-1-indanone, a potent mast cell stabilising agent

    OpenAIRE

    WALSH, JOHN JARLATH

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED Each stereoisomer of 3-[methyl(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthalenyl)amino]-1-indanone, 1a-d, was prepared and evaluated in vitro for its ability to prevent mediator release induced by different degranulating agents from rodent mast cells and also in vivo against passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. The manner in which the stereoisomers prevented direct membrane activation was found to be highly dependent on the stereochemistry of the individual isomers. Stereoisomer 1b was the most active...

  12. Spectroscopy and crystal structures of natural stereoisomers of neoclerodane diterpenoids from Teucrium yemense of Saudi medicinal plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur-e-Alam, Mohammad; Kanthasamy, Gopikkaa; Yousaf, Muhammad; Alqahtani, Ali S.; Ghabbour, Hazem A.; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J.

    2017-11-01

    3-O-deacetylteugracilin (1) and teugracilin B (2), two natural stereoisomers, are isolated from Teucrium yemense (Defl). These two compounds are almost identical to each other, differing only at the C6 stereocenter. We now crystallise these two compounds and for the first time, determine the crystal structure through single crystal X-ray diffraction, and the stereochemistry for all positions using spectroscopic data. These techniques enable us to establish the difference between the two compounds. Careful interpretation of the results indicates that HRMS and 1 and 2D NMR spectroscopy, are in agreement with single crystal X-ray diffraction data.

  13. Mechanism of 2,3-butanediol stereoisomers formation in a newly isolated Serratia sp. T241.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liaoyuan; Guo, Zewang; Chen, Jiebo; Xu, Quanming; Lin, Hui; Hu, Kaihui; Guan, Xiong; Shen, Yaling

    2016-01-12

    Serratia sp. T241, a newly isolated xylose-utilizing strain, produced three 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) stereoisomers. In this study, three 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (BDH1-3) and one glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) involved in 2,3-BD isomers formation by Serratia sp. T241 were identified. In vitro conversion showed BDH1 and BDH2 could catalyzed (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin into (2S,3S)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD, while BDH3 and GDH exhibited the activities from (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin to meso-2,3-BD and (2R,3R)-2,3-BD. Four encoding genes were assembled into E. coli with budA (acetolactate decarboxylase) and budB (acetolactate synthase), responsible for converting pyruvate into acetoin. E. coli expressing budAB-bdh1/2 produced meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD. Correspondingly, (2R,3R)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD were obtained by E. coli expressing budAB-bdh3/gdh. These results suggested four enzymes might contribute to 2,3-BD isomers formation. Mutants of four genes were developed in Serratia sp. T241. Δbdh1 led to reduced concentration of meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD by 97.7% and 87.9%. (2R,3R)-2,3-BD with a loss of 73.3% was produced by Δbdh3. Enzyme activity assays showed the decrease of 98.4% and 22.4% by Δbdh1 and Δbdh3 compared with the wild strain. It suggested BDH1 and BDH3 played important roles in 2,3-BD formation, BDH2 and GDH have small effects on 2,3-BD production by Serratia sp. T241.

  14. Separation of hydroxynorketamine stereoisomers using capillary electrophoresis with sulfated β-cyclodextrin and highly sulfated γ-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbaumhüter, Friederike A; Theurillat, Regula; Thormann, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    The racemic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine is used in anesthesia, analgesia and the treatment of depressive disorders. It is known that interactions of hydroxylated norketamine metabolites and 5,6-dehydronorketamine (DHNK) with the α 7 -nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor are responsible for the antidepressive effects. Ketamine and its first metabolite norketamine are not active on these receptors. As stereoselectivity plays a role in ketamine metabolism, a cationic capillary electrophoresis based method capable of resolving and analyzing the stereoisomers of four hydroxylated norketamine metabolites, norketamine and DHNK was developed. The assay is based on liquid/liquid extraction of the analytes from the biological matrix, electrokinetic sample injection across a buffer plug and analysis of the stereoisomers in a phosphate background electrolyte (BGE) at pH 3 comprising a mixture of sulfated β-cyclodextrin (5 mg/mL) and highly sulfated γ-cyclodextrin (0.1%). The method was used to analyze samples of an in vitro study in which ketamine was incubated with equine liver microsomes and in plasma samples of dogs and horses that were collected after an i.v. bolus injection of racemic ketamine. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Loss of Propiconazole and Its Four Stereoisomers from the Water Phase of Two Soil-Water Slurries as Measured by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca D. Miller

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Propiconazole is a chiral fungicide used in agriculture for control of many fungal diseases on a variety of crops. This use provides opportunities for pollution of soil and, subsequently, groundwater. The rate of loss of propiconazole from the water phase of two different soil-water slurries spiked with the fungicide at 50 mg/L was followed under aerobic conditions over five months; the t1/2 was 45 and 51 days for the two soil slurries. To accurately assess environmental and human risk, it is necessary to analyze the separate stereoisomers of chiral pollutants, because it is known that for most such pollutants, both biotransformation and toxicity are likely to be stereoselective. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC, the mode of capillary electrophoresis used for analysis of neutral chemicals, was used for analysis of the four propiconazole stereoisomers with time in the water phase of the slurries. MEKC resulted in baseline separation of all stereoisomers, while GC-MS using a chiral column gave only partial separation. The four stereoisomers of propiconazole were lost from the aqueous phase of the slurries at experimentally equivalent rates, i.e., there was very little, if any, stereoselectivity. No loss of propiconazole was observed from the autoclaved controls of either soil, indicating that the loss from active samples was most likely caused by aerobic biotansformation, with a possible contribution by sorption to the non-autoclaved active soils. MEKC is a powerful tool for separation of stereoisomers and can be used to study the fate and transformation kinetics of chiral pesticides in water and soil.

  16. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of the individual stereoisomers of 3-[methyl(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthalenyl)amino]-1-indanone, a potent mast cell stabilising agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Adam J; Barlow, James W; Walsh, John J

    2011-02-15

    Each stereoisomer of 3-[methyl(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthalenyl)amino]-1-indanone, 1a-d, was prepared and evaluated in vitro for its ability to prevent mediator release induced by different degranulating agents from rodent mast cells and also in vivo against passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. The manner in which the stereoisomers prevented direct membrane activation was found to be highly dependent on the stereochemistry of the individual isomers. Stereoisomer 1b was the most active isomer in vivo, exhibiting superior activity to disodium cromoglycate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stereoisomerism and muscarinic receptor agonists: Synthesis and effects of the stereoisomers of 3-[5-(3-amino-1,2,4-oxadizol)yl]-1-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pombo-Villar, E.; Wiederhold, K.-H.; Mengod, G.; Palacios, J.M.; Supavilai, P.; Boddeke, H.W.G.M.

    1992-01-01

    The preparation and the biological activities of the four stereoisomers of 3-[5-(3-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol)yl]-1-azabicyclo [2.2.1]heptane are described. The most potent stereoisomer, 3a, has the 3R,4R configuration, and in vitro activities in (pD2(% efficacy): ileum 8.8 (87%), hippocampus 9.8 (116%)

  18. STEREOISOMERISM AND MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR AGONISTS - SYNTHESIS AND EFFECTS OF THE STEREOISOMERS OF 3-[5-(3-AMINO-1,2,4-OXADIAZOL)YL]-1-AZABICYCLO[2.2.1]HEPTANE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POMBOVILLAR, E; WIEDERHOLD, KH; MENGOD, G; PALACIOS, JM; SUPAVILAI, P; BODDEKE, HWGM

    1992-01-01

    The preparation and the biological activities of the four stereoisomers of 3-[5-(3-amino-1,2,4-oxadiazol)yl]-1-azabicyclo [2.2.1]heptane are described. The most potent stereoisomer, 3a, has the 3R,4R configuration, and in vitro activities in (pD2(% efficacy): ileum 8.8 (87%), hippocampus 9.8 (116%)

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of the inhibitory activity of the four stereoisomers of the potent and selective human γ-glutamyl transpeptidase inhibitor GGsTop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Bunta; Tabuchi, Yukiko; Wada, Kei; Hiratake, Jun

    2017-11-01

    2-Amino-4-{[3-(carboxymethyl)phenoxy](methoxy)phosphoryl}butanoic acid (GGsTop) is a potent, highly selective, nontoxic, and irreversible inhibitor of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). GGsTop has been widely used in academic and medicinal research, and also as an active ingredient (Nahlsgen) in commercial anti-aging cosmetics. GGsTop consists of four stereoisomers due to the presence of two stereogenic centers, i.e., the α-carbon atom of the glutamate mimic (l/d) and the phosphorus atom (R P /S P ). In this study, each stereoisomer of GGsTop was synthesized stereoselectively and their inhibitory activity against human GGT was evaluated. The l- and d-configurations of each stereoisomer were determined by a combination of a chiral pool synthesis and chiral HPLC analysis. The synthesis of the four stereoisomers of GGsTop used chiral synthetic precursors that were separated by chiral HPLC on a preparative scale. With respect to the configuration of the α-carbon atom of the glutamate mimic, the l-isomer (k on =174M -1 s -1 ) was ca. 8-fold more potent than the d-isomer (k on =21.5M -1 s -1 ). In contrast, the configuration of the phosphorus atom is critical for GGT inhibitory activity. Based on a molecular modeling approach, the absolute configuration of the phosphorus atom of the active GGsTop isomers was postulated to be S P . The S P -isomers inhibited human GGT (k on =21.5-174M -1 s -1 ), while the R P -isomers were inactive even at concentrations of 0.1mM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Collision-induced dissociation of noncovalent complexes between vancomycin antibiotics and peptide ligand stereoisomers: evidence for molecular recognition in the gas phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.; Delforge, D; Remacle, J

    1999-01-01

    In solution, the antibiotics of the vancomycin group bind stereospecifically to peptides with the C-terminal sequence: -L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala, Substitution by a L-Ala at either of the two C-terminal residues causes a dramatic decrease in the binding affinity to the antibiotics. This solution behavior...... is clearly reflected in electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra obtained from equimolar mixtures of an antibiotic, an isotopically labelled peptide ligand and an unlabelled peptide stereoisomer. Using collision-induced dissociation (CID) we have probed the gas phase stability of isomeric (1:1) noncovalent...

  1. Stereoselective chemoenzymatic synthesis of the four stereoisomers of l-2-(2-carboxycyclobutyl)glycine and pharmacological characterization at human excitatory amino acid transporter subtypes 1, 2, and 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Sophie; Jensen, Anders A.; Maurat, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    The four stereoisomers of l-2-(2-carboxycyclobutyl)glycine, l-CBG-I, l-CBG-II, l-CBG-III, and l-CBG-IV, were synthesized in good yield and high enantiomeric excess, from the corresponding cis and trans-2-oxalylcyclobutanecarboxylic acids 5 and 6 using the enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AAT......) and branched chain aminotransferase (BCAT) from Escherichia coli. The four stereoisomeric compounds were evaluated as potential ligands for the human excitatory amino acid transporters, subtypes 1, 2, and 3 (EAAT1, EAAT2, and EAAT3) in the FLIPR membrane potential assay. While the one trans-stereoisomer, l...

  2. Separation of the stereoisomers of the main metabolite of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, flobufen, by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wsól, V; Fell, A F; Kvasnicková, E; Hais, I M

    1997-02-07

    The major metabolite of a novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, DL-4-(2',4'-difluorobiphenyl-4-yl)-2-oxo-2-methylbutanoic acid (flobufen, I), namely 4-(2',4'-difluorobiphenyl-4-yl)-2-methyl-gamma-butyrolactone (4-dihydroflobufen lactone, III), has four stereoisomers consisting of two racemic pairs of enantiomers. Of three chiral stationary phases tested, Cyclobond I beta-RSP (Astec) (beta-cylodextrin derivatized with R,S-hydroxypropyl) was best able to separate the (+2)(--) racemate, with a liquid phase containing acetonitrile as modifier and triethylamine acetate as buffer. Using the Box-Wilson Central Composite Design for three factors, an optimum combination of pH and concentrations of the modifier and buffer was eventually obtained. A chromatographic response function based on a combination of the Kaiser peak separation function, Pi, and retention time of the second eluting enantiomer, tRL, served as a response criterion for the process of optimization. The optimum conditions developed for the (+2)(--) racemate were also found to be suitable for separating the (+-)(-+) racemate, for which earlier studies had shown the separation to be more facile. Separation of the four stereoisomers of III, for which the chiral chromatographic system optimized in this study is proposed as the second stage, is targeted at a biochemical study of the stereoisomeric metabolism of I.

  3. Synthesis of All Stereoisomers of Eudesm-11-en-4-ol. 2. Total Synthesis of Selin-11-en-4α-ol, Intermedeol, Neointermedeol, and Paradisiol. First Total Synthesis of Amiteol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesselmans, Ronald P.W.; Wijnberg, Joannes B.P.A.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Walinga, Robert E.; Groot, Aede de

    1991-01-01

    The syntheses of (±)-selin-11-en-4α-ol (5), (±)-intermedeol (6), (±)-neointermedeol (7), (±)-amiteol (9), and the four remaining unnatural stereoisomers (±)-paradisiol (8), (±)-7-epi-amiteol (10), (±)-5-epi-neointermedeol (11), and (±)-5-epi-paradisiol (12) are described. In addition, the related

  4. Study of new interactions of glitazone's stereoisomers and the endogenous ligand 15d-PGJ2 on six different PPAR gamma proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Almazán, Samuel; Bello, Martiniano; Tamay-Cach, Feliciano; Martínez-Archundia, Marlet; Alemán-González-Duhart, Diana; Correa-Basurto, José; Mendieta-Wejebe, Jessica Elena

    2017-10-15

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Glitazones or thiazolidinediones (TZD) are drugs that act as insulin-sensitizing agents whose molecular target is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The euglycemic action of TZD has been linked with the induction of type 4 glucose transporter. However, it has been shown that the effect of TZD depends on the specific stereoisomer that interacts with PPARγ. Therefore, this work is focused on exploring the interactions and geometry adopted by glitazone's stereoisomers and one endogenous ligand on different conformations of the six crystals of the PPARγ protein using molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations accompanied by the MMGBSA approach. Specifically, the 2,4-thiazolidinedione ring, pioglitazone (PIO), rosiglitazone (ROSI) and troglitazone (TRO) stereoisomers (exogenous ligands), as well as the endogenous ligand 15d-PGJ2, were evaluated. The six crystallographic structures of PPARγ are available at Protein Data Bank as the PDB entries 2PRG, 4PRG, 3T03, 1I7I, 1FM6, and 4EMA. According to the results, a boomerang shape and a particular location of ligands were found with low variations according to the protein conformations. The 15d-PGJ2, TZD, PIO, ROSI and (S,S)-TRO enantiomers were mostly stabilized by twenty hydrophobic residues: Phe226, Pro227, Leu228, Ile281, Phe282, Cys285, Ala292, Ile296, Ile326, Tyr327, Met329, Leu330, Leu333, Met334, Val339, Ile341, Met348, Leu353, Phe363 and Met364. Most hydrogen bond interactions were found between the polar groups of ligands with Arg288, Ser289, Lys367, Gln286, His323, Glu343 and His449 residues. An energetic analysis revealed binding free energy trends that supported known experimental findings of other authors describing better binding properties for PIO, ROSI and (S,S)-TRO than for 15d-PGJ2 and the TZD ring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime (BATO) complexes derived from quinuclidine benzilate (QNB) boronic acid stereoisomers: Syntheses and studies of their binding to the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurisson, Silvia S.; Pirro, John; DiRocco, Richard J.; Rosenspire, Karen C.; Jagoda, Elaine; Nanjappan, Palaniappa; Eckelman, William C.; Nowotnik, David P.; Nunn, Adrian D.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of using BATO complexes derivatized with the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist, quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), for mAChR imaging. The BATO complexes, TcCl(DMG) 3 B-QNB, were prepared using QNB derivatives containing a 4'-boronic acid substituent on one of the benzilic benzene rings (QNB-boronic acid). The QNB-boronic acid molecule has two chiral centers, and all four QNB-BATO stereoisomers were made and evaluated. When studied using in vitro receptor binding assays based on tissue from rat brain caudate-putamen (which contains primarily M 1 and M 4 mAChR) and rat heart (M 2 mAChR), the QNB-boronic acid stereoisomers had binding affinities (K A ) in the range 2 x 10 5 -1 x 10 8 , at least 10-fold lower than theK A for QNB (ca 2 x 10 9 ). The stereochemistry of both centers had some influence on the affinity constant. When the TcCl(DMG) 3 B-QNB complexes were studied, none of the stereoisomeric complexes displayed measurable specific binding (K A 6 ), but all showed high non-specific binding. In vitro autoradiography with rat brain slices confirmed the absence of specific binding in these tracers. In vivo, the 99m TcCl(DMG) 3 B-QNB complexes displayed minimal brain uptake, and modest heart uptake; the latter was unlikely to be related to uptake by the mAChR. In light of these findings, we conclude that the interaction between the TcCl(DMG) 3 B-QNB complexes and biological membranes is dominated by the hydrophobicity of the BATO moiety. The TcCl(DMG) 3 B-QNB complexes, therefore, have little potential for mAChR imaging

  6. MDMA (N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine) and its stereoisomers: Similarities and differences in behavioral effects in an automated activity apparatus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard; Glennon, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Racemic MDMA (0.3-30 mg/kg), S(+)-MDMA (0.3-30 mg/kg), R(-)-MDMA (0.3-50 mg/kg) and saline vehicle (10 ml/kg) were comprehensively evaluated in fully automated and computer-integrated activity chambers, which were designed for mice, and provided a detailed analysis of the frequency, location, and/or duration of 18 different activities. The results indicated that MDMA and its isomers produced stimulation of motor actions, with S(+)-MDMA and (+/-)-MDMA usually being more potent than R(-)-MDMA in measures such as movement (time, distance, velocity), margin distance, rotation (clockwise and counterclockwise), and retraced activities. Interestingly, racemic MDMA appeared to exert a greater than expected potency and/or an enhanced effect on measures such as movement episodes, center actions (entries and distance), clockwise rotations, and jumps; actions that might be explained by additive or synergistic (i.e. potentiation) effects of the stereoisomers. In other measures, the enantiomers displayed different effects: S(+)-MDMA produced a preference to induce counterclockwise (versus clockwise) rotations, and each isomer exerted a different profile of effect on vertical activities and jumps. Furthermore, each isomer of MDMA appeared to attenuate the effect of its opposite enantiomer on some behaviors; antagonism effects that were surmised from a lack of expected activities by racemic MDMA. S(+)-MDMA (but not R(-)-MDMA), for example, produced an increase in vertical entries (rearing) and a preference to increase counterclockwise (versus clockwise) rotations; (+/-)-MDMA also should have induced such effects but did not. Apparently, R(-)-MDMA, when combined with S(+)-MDMA to form (+/-)-MDMA, prevented the appearance of those increases (from control) in activities. Similarly, R(-)-MDMA (but not S(+)-MDMA) produced increases in episodes (i.e. jumps) and vertical distance that racemic MDMA also should have, but were not, exhibited. Evidently, the presence of S(+)-MDMA in the

  7. Synthesis of All Stereoisomers of 1-(4-Methoxyphenyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-N-methyl-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoko Onda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, all four stereoisomers of tryptoline or tetrahydro-β-carboline were synthesized in high yields by the catalyst-free amidation of methyl ester using methylamine under mild conditions. All isomers of the obtained amide and the precursor methyl ester were subjected to cell viability measurements on HeLa cells. The results indicated that the stereochemistry of the derivatives is clearly related to cell viability.

  8. Effects of oral D-tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, on liver metabolism in man as examined by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Gesmar, H; Astrup, A; Quistorff, B

    2000-10-01

    D-tagatose, which is a stereoisomer of D-fructose, is phosphorylated to D-tagatose-1-phosphate by fructokinase in the liver. Because of a slow degradation rate of D-tagatose-1-phosphate, this substance may accumulate, and ingested D-tagatose may therefore cause a longer lasting reduction in inorganic phosphate (Pi) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in the liver compared with D-fructose. Similar to what is seen in patients with hereditary fructose intolerance, this may increase purine nucleotide degradation and thereby increase uric acid production. The effect of 30 g D-tagatose or D-fructose administered orally on ketohexose-1-phosphates, ATP, and Pi levels in the liver was studied by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PMRS) in 5 young male volunteers. Blood and urine were collected to detect a possible increased uric acid production. A peak at 5.2 ppm assigned as D-tagatose-1-phosphate equivalent to about 1 mmol/L was found in the spectrum within 30 minutes after D-tagatose was administered in all subjects. Concomitantly, ATP was reduced by about 12% (P effects had vanished after 150 minutes. Serum uric acid concentration was increased by 17% 50 minutes after D-tagatose (P effect of D-tagatose. No changes in 31PMRS spectra or serum uric acid concentration were found after D-fructose. These results suggest that a moderate intake of D-tagatose may affect liver metabolism by phosphate trapping despite the fact that the sugar may only be incompletely absorbed in the gut.

  9. Scalable synthesis and isolation of the four stereoisomers of methyl 1-amino-3-(4-bromophenyl)cyclopentanecarboxylate, useful intermediates for the synthesis of S1P1 receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Grier A; Gordon, Thomas D; Hayes, Martin E; Konopacki, Donald B; Fix-Stenzel, Shannon R; Zhang, Xiaolei; Grongsaard, Pintipa; Cusack, Kevin P; Schaffter, Lisa M; Henry, Rodger F; Stoffel, Robert H

    2009-07-03

    The individual isomers of methyl 1-amino-3-(4-bromophenyl)cyclopentanecarboxylate are useful intermediates for the synthesis of S1P1 receptor agonists. Herein we describe a scalable synthesis and isolation of each of the four stereoisomers of this compound in gram quantities with >98% ee and de. The utility of this approach is demonstrated by the synthesis of ((1R,3R)-1-amino-3-(4-octylphenyl)cyclopentyl)methanol in 7 steps, 11% overall yield, and >98% ee and de.

  10. Effects of oral micellized natural vitamin E (D-α-tocopherol) v. syntheric vitamin E (DL-α-tocopherol) in feed on α-tocopherol levels, stereoisomer distribution, oxidative stress and the immune response in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amazan, D; Cordero, G; López-Bote, C J

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the strategy of supplementing oral micellized natural vitamin E (d-α-tocopherol) to either piglets and/or sows on α-tocopherol concentrations in piglets serum and tissues after weaning. One first experiment tested the influence of the vitamin E supplementation source (natural...... supplementation on some of these parameters in piglets. Oral supplementation to sows with natural vitamin E as a micellized form (d-α-tocopherol) at the lowest dose produced a similar concentration of α-tocopherol in serum at days 2, 14 and 28 postpartum to those supplemented with threefold higher dose.......001) and lower (Pimportance of sow over piglet vitamin E supplementation was observed on stereoisomer distribution in piglets. Low doses of oral natural vitamin E supplementation...

  11. Preparation and configurational analysis of the stereoisomers of β,γ-bidentate Rh(H2O)4ATP and α,β,γ-tridentate Rh(H2O)3ATP. A new class of enzyme active site probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.; Shorter, A.L.; Lin, I.; Dunaway-Mariano, D.

    1988-01-01

    Exchange-inert Co(III) and Cr(III) complexes of polyphosphates have proved to be useful probes of the structural and biochemical properties of naturally occurring Mg II (polyphosphate) complexes. However, applications of these complexes are not without limitations. The Cr III (polyphosphate) probes or their enzymatic products cannot be used in NMR methods because of the paramagnetic nature of the Cr(III) metal. The redox properties of the metal in the Co III (polyphosphate) complexes require that they also be coordinated to a nitrogen-containing ligand. This requirement is not always convenient. This work reported herein was undertaken to create a new class of exchange-inert metal polyphosphate complexes that contain a metal that is both diamagnetic and redox stable. The preparation, properties, and configurational analysis of the stereoisomers of β, γ-bidentate Rh(H 2 O) 4 ATP (ATP = adenosine 5'-triphosphate) and α,β,γ-tridentate Rh(H 2 O) 3 ATP are described. 12 refs., 5 figs

  12. Total Synthesis of Four Stereoisomers of (4Z,7Z,10Z,12E,16Z,18E)-14,20-Dihydroxy-4,7,10,12,16,18-docosahexaenoic Acid and Their Anti-inflammatory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tomomi; Urabe, Daisuke; Masuda, Koji; Isobe, Yosuke; Arita, Makoto; Inoue, Masayuki

    2015-08-07

    A novel anti-inflammatory lipid mediator, (4Z,7Z,10Z,12E,14S,16Z,18E,20R)-14,20-dihydroxy-4,7,10,12,16,18-docosahexaenoic acid (1aa), and its three C14,C20 stereoisomers (1ab,ba,bb) were synthesized in a convergent fashion. The carbon backbone of the target compounds was assembled from seven simple fragments by employing two Sonogashira coupling and three SN2 alkynylation reactions. The thus constructed four internal alkynes were chemoselectively reduced to the corresponding (Z)-alkenes by applying a newly developed stepwise protocol: (i) hydrogenation of the three alkynes using Lindlar catalyst and (ii) formation of the dicobalt hexacarbonyl complex from the remaining alkyne and subsequent reductive decomplexation. The synthetic preparation of the stereochemically defined four isomers 1aa,ab,ba,bb permitted determination of the absolute structure of the isolated natural product to be 1aa. Biological testing of the four synthetic 14,20-dihydroxydocosahexaenoic acids disclosed similar anti-inflammatory activities of the non-natural isomers (1ab,ba,bb) and the natural form (1aa).

  13. Conformations of cyclopentasilane stereoisomers control molecular junction conductance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Haixing; Garner, Marc Hamilton; Shangguan, Zhichun

    2016-01-01

    ,3-position with methylthiomethyl electrode binding groups using both the scanning tunneling microscope-based break junction technique and density functional theory based ab initio calculations. In contrast with the linear ones, these cyclic silanes yield lower conductance values; calculations reveal...

  14. Density functional theory study of spirodienone stereoisomers in lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; Laura Berstis; Gregg T. Beckham; Michael F. Crowley

    2017-01-01

    The spirodienone structure in lignin is a relatively recent discovery, and it has been found to occur in lignin of various plant species at concentrations of ∼3%, which is sufficiently high to be important for better understanding of its properties and reactivity. The cyclic structure, with a β-1 bond, has been proposed to be a precursor for acyclic β-1 linkages in...

  15. Identifying stereoisomers by ab-initio calculation of secondary isotope shifts on NMR chemical shieldings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Karl-Heinz; Banert, Klaus; Auer, Alexander A

    2014-04-23

    We present ab-initio calculations of secondary isotope effects on NMR chemical shieldings. The change of the NMR chemical shift of a certain nucleus that is observed if another nucleus is replaced by a different isotope can be calculated by computing vibrational corrections on the NMR parameters using electronic structure methods. We demonstrate that the accuracy of the computational results is sufficient to even distinguish different conformers. For this purpose, benchmark calculations for fluoro(2-2H)ethane in gauche and antiperiplanar conformation are carried out at the HF, MP2 and CCSD(T) level of theory using basis sets ranging from double- to quadruple-zeta quality. The methodology is applied to the secondary isotope shifts for 2-fluoronorbornane in order to resolve an ambiguity in the literature on the assignment of endo- and exo-2-fluoronorbornanes with deuterium substituents in endo-3 and exo-3 positions, also yielding insight into mechanistic details of the corresponding synthesis.

  16. Resolution of the stereoisomers of baclofen by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherby, R.P.; Allan, R.D.; Johnston, G.A.R.

    1984-01-01

    The GABA analogue baclofen [3-(p-chlorophenyl)-4-aminobutanoic acid] has stereospecific actions on the peripheral and central nervous systems. This paper describes the resolution of tritium-labelled baclofen by high performance liquid chromatography on a reverse-phase C18 column using a chiral mobile phase. The method, which may have general application to certain other GABA analogues, affords optically pure (+)- and (-)-baclofen labelled with tritium to high specific activity suitable for ligand binding and other neurochemical studies. (Auth.)

  17. Identifying Stereoisomers by ab-initio Calculation of Secondary Isotope Shifts on NMR Chemical Shieldings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Böhm

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present ab-initio calculations of secondary isotope effects on NMR chemical shieldings. The change of the NMR chemical shift of a certain nucleus that is observed if another nucleus is replaced by a different isotope can be calculated by computing vibrational corrections on the NMR parameters using electronic structure methods. We demonstrate that the accuracy of the computational results is sufficient to even distinguish different conformers. For this purpose, benchmark calculations for fluoro(2-2Hethane in gauche and antiperiplanar conformation are carried out at the HF, MP2 and CCSD(T level of theory using basis sets ranging from double- to quadruple-zeta quality. The methodology is applied to the secondary isotope shifts for 2-fluoronorbornane in order to resolve an ambiguity in the literature on the assignment of endo- and exo-2-fluoronorbornanes with deuterium substituents in endo-3 and exo-3 positions, also yielding insight into mechanistic details of the corresponding synthesis.

  18. Chiral gas chromatography for the determination of 1,2-O-isopropylidene-sn-glycerol stereoisomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dröge, M.J; Bos, R.; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Quax, Wim; Droge, MJ

    2003-01-01

    A stereospecific gas chromatography (GC) method using a (6-O-tButyldimethylsilyl-2,3-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin as the chiral stationary phase has been developed and validated for the determination of the enantiomers of 1,2-O-isopropylidene-sn-glycerol (IPG), an important chiral synthon, in

  19. Assessment of flavanol stereoisomers and caffeine and theobromine content in commercial chocolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alañón, M E; Castle, S M; Siswanto, P J; Cifuentes-Gómez, T; Spencer, J P E

    2016-10-01

    Assessment of the flavanol composition of 41 commercial chocolates was by HPLC-DAD. Among individual flavonols ranged from 0.095 to 3.264mgg(-1), epicatechin was the predominant flavanol accounting for 32.9%. Contrary to catechin, epicatechin was a reliable predictive value of the polyphenol content. Conversely the percentage of theobromine used as a proxy measure for nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) was not a good predictor of epicatechin or flavanol content. In a further chiral analysis, the naturally occurring forms of cocoa flavanols, (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, was determined joint the occurrence of (+)-epicatechin and (-)-catechin due to the epimerization reactions produced in chocolate manufacture. (-)-Epicatechin, the most bioactive compound and predominant form accounted of 93%. However, no positive correlation was found with% cocoa solids, the most significant quality parameter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Difluorothromboxane A2 and stereoisomers: Stable derivatives of thromboxane A2 with differential effects on platelets and blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morinelli, T.A.; Okwu, A.K.; Mais, D.E.; Halushka, P.V.; John, V.; Chen, Chienkuang; Fried, J.

    1989-01-01

    The present study reports on the selective effects on human platelets and canine saphenous veins of four stable difluorinated analogues and thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ), in which the characteristic 2,6-dioxa[3.1.1]bicycloheptane structure of TXA 2 has been retained. The four compounds differ in their stereochemistry of the 5,6 double bond and/or the 15-hydroxyl group. Only 10,10-difluoro-TXA 2 (compound I) with the natural stereochemistry of TXA 2 was an agonist in both platelets and canine saphenous veins. (15R)-10,10-Difluoro-TXA 2 (compound II), (5E)-10,10-difluoro-TXA 2 (compound III), and (5E,15R)-10,10-difluoro-TXA 2 (compound IV) were antagonists of platelet aggregation stimulated by compound I. However, compounds II, III, and IV stimulated contraction of canine saphenous veins. All four compounds could displace the TXA 2 /prostaglandin H 2 antagonist 9,11-dimethylmethano-11,12-methano-16-(3- 125 I-4-hydroxyphenyl)-13,14-dihydro-13-aza-15αβ-ω-tetranor-TXA 2 from its platelet receptor. These results support the existence of two subtypes of TXA 2 /prostaglandin H 2 receptors and emphasize the importance of the stereochemical requirements of these TXA 2 analogues for interaction with these receptors. These stable fluorinated TXA 2 analogues should prove useful tools for the further characterization of these and other TXA 2 /prostaglandin H 2 receptors

  1. Analogues of arginine vasopressin (AVP) modified inthe N-terminal part of the molecule with stereoisomers of 4-aminopyroglutamic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobolewski, D.; Kowalczyk, W.; Derdowska, I.; Slaninová, Jiřina; Zabrocki, J.; Lammek, B.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2005), 731-737 ISSN 0137- 5083 Grant - others:PSCSR(PL) KBN6P05F01021; PSCSR(PL) BW8000-5-0222-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : arginine vasopressin (AVP) * oxytocin * 4-aminopyroglutamic acid Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.513, year: 2005

  2. Loss of Propiconazole and its Four Stereoisomers from the Water Phase of Two Soil-Water Slurries as Measured by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propiconazole is a chiral fungicide used in agriculture for control of many fungal diseases on a variety of crops. This use provides opportunities for pollution of soil and, subsequently, groundwater. The rate of loss of propiconazole from the water phase of two different soil-wa...

  3. MDMA (N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine) and its Stereoisomers: Similarities and Differences in Behavioral Effects in an Automated Activity Apparatus in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Richard; Glennon, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Racemic MDMA (0.3 – 30 mg/kg), S(+)-MDMA (0.3 – 30 mg/kg), R(-)-MDMA (0.3 – 50 mg/kg) and saline vehicle (10 ml/kg) were comprehensively evaluated in fully automated and computer-integrated activity chambers, which were designed for mice, and provided a detailed analysis of the frequency, location, and/or duration of 18 different activities. The results indicated that MDMA and its isomers produced stimulation of motor actions, with S(+)-MDMA and (±)-MDMA usually being more potent than R(-)-MD...

  4. Butane-1,2,3,4-tetraol-based amphiphilic stereoisomers for membrane protein study: importance of chirality in the linker region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Manabendra; Du, Yang; Mortensen, Jonas S.

    2017-01-01

    of the targeted membrane proteins depending on the chirality of the linker region. These findings indicate an important role for detergent stereochemistry in membrane protein stabilization. In addition, we generally observed enhanced detergent efficacy with increasing alkyl chain length, reinforcing...

  5. D-Tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, increases hydrogen production in humans without affecting 24-hour energy expenditure or respiratory exchange ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1998-09-01

    In growth studies on rats, the ketohexose D-tagatose has been shown to contribute no net metabolizable energy, and a pronounced thermic effect of the sugar has been suggested to account for the absence of energy. In a double-blind and balanced cross-over design, we measured 24-h energy expenditure in eight normal weight humans in a respiration chamber during the consumption of 30 g D-tagatose or 30 g sucrose/d. Metabolic measurements were performed before and after a 2-wk adaptation period with a 30-g daily intake of the test sugar. Total 24-h energy expenditure and hour-by-hour profile were unaffected by the test sugar. The nonprotein respiratory exchange ratio (RERnp) was similar during consumption of D-tagatose and sucrose. However, the effect on RERnp due to CO2 produced by fermentation of D-tagatose could not be quantified in this study. A significant increase in 24-h H2 production (35%) during D-tagatose administration suggests a substantial malabsorption of the sugar. We found no effects of the 2-wk adaptation period on the measured gas exchange variables. Significantly lower fasting plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations were observed during D-tagatose administration compared with the sucrose period. No effects of D-tagatose on body weight and composition were seen, but the perception of fullness 2.5 h after the sugar load was greater with D-tagatose. In conclusion, this study does not suggest a pronounced thermic effect of D-tagatose, and other mechanisms seem to be required to explain its lack of net energy.

  6. Effects of oral-D-tagatose, A stereoisomer of D-fructose, on liver metabolism in man as examined by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buemann, B.; Toubro, S.; Gesmar, H.

    2000-01-01

    in inorganic phosphate (Pi) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in the liver compared with D-fructose. Similar to what is seen in patients with hereditary fructose intolerance, this may increase purine nucleotide degradation and thereby increase uric acid production. The effect of 30 g D-tagatose or D...... equivalent to about 1 mmol/L was found in the spectrum within 30 minutes after D-tagatose was administered in all subjects. Concomitantly, ATP was reduced by about 12% (P effects had vanished after 150 minutes. Serum uric acid concentration was increased by 17% 50 minutes after D-tagatose (P...... effect of D-tagatose. No changes in 31PMRS spectra or serum uric acid...

  7. Chiral Pesticide Pharmacokinetics: A Range of Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 30% of pesticides are chiral and used as mixtures of two or more stereoisomers. In biological systems, these stereoisomers can exhibit significantly different pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination). In spite of these differences, th...

  8. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mivacurium in young adult and elderly patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Doris; Viby-Mogensen, Jørgen; Pedersen, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    age factors; butyrylcholinesterase; cholinesterase; dose-response curves; enzymes; metabolites; mivacurium; neuromuscular relaxants; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics; pharmacology; pseudocholinesterase; stereoisomers......age factors; butyrylcholinesterase; cholinesterase; dose-response curves; enzymes; metabolites; mivacurium; neuromuscular relaxants; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics; pharmacology; pseudocholinesterase; stereoisomers...

  9. Synthesis and biological characterization of (3R,4R)-4-(2-(benzhydryloxy)ethyl)-1-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-piperidin-3-ol and its stereoisomers for activity toward monoamine transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkar, Prashant S; Batman, Angela M; Zhen, Juan; Beardsley, Patrick M; Reith, Maarten E A; Dutta, Aloke K

    2009-07-01

    A novel series of optically active molecules based on a 4-(2-(benzhydryloxy)ethyl)-1-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-piperidin-3-ol template were developed. Depending on stereochemistry, the compounds exhibit various degrees of affinity for three dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters. These molecules have the potential for treating several neurological disorders such as drug abuse, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Herein we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of asymmetric 4-(2-(benzhydryloxy)ethyl)-1-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-piperidin-3-ol-based dihydroxy compounds in which the hydroxy groups are located on both the piperidine ring and the N-phenylethyl side chain. In vitro uptake inhibition data of these molecules indicate high affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT) in addition to moderate to high affinity for the norepinephrine transporter (NET). Interestingly, compounds 9 b and 9 d exhibit affinities for all three monoamine transporters, with highest potency at DAT and NET, and moderate potency at the serotonin transporter (SERT) (K(i): 2.29, 78.4, and 155 nM for 9 b and 1.55, 14.1, and 259 nM for 9 d, respectively). Selected compounds 9 a, 9 d, and 9 d' were tested for their locomotor activity effects in mice and for their ability to occasion the cocaine-discriminative stimulus in rats. These test compounds generally exhibit a much longer duration of action than cocaine for elevating locomotor activity, and completely generalize the cocaine-discriminative stimulus in a dose-dependent manner.

  10. Synthesis and biological characterization of (3R,4R)-4-(2-(benzhydryloxy)ethyl)-1-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-piperidin-3-ol and its stereoisomers for monoamine transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkar, Prashant S.; Batman, Angela M.; Zhen, Juan; Beardsley, Patrick M.; Reith, Maarten E. A.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we describe synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of asymmetric 4-(2-(benzhydryloxy)ethyl)-1-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-piperidin-3-ol based dihydroxy compounds where the hydroxy groups are located both on the piperidine ring and also on the N-phenylethyl side chain exo-cyclically. In vitro uptake inhibition data indicates high affinity of these molecules for the dopamine transporter (DAT) in addition to their moderate to high affinity for the norepinephrine transporter (NET). Interestingly, compounds 9b and 9d exhibited affinities for all three monoamine transporters with highest potency at DAT and NET and moderate potency at the serotonin transporter (SERT) (Ki 2.29, 78.4 and 155 nM for 9b and 1.55, 14.1 and 259 nM for 9d, respectively). Selected compounds, 9a, 9d and 9d’ were tested for their locomotor activity effects in mice, and for their ability to occasion the cocaine discriminative stimulus in rats. These test compounds generally exhibited a much longer duration of action than cocaine for elevating locomotor activity, and dose-dependently completely generalized the cocaine discriminative stimulus. PMID:19449323

  11. A parallel chiral-achiral liquid chromatographic method for the determination of the stereoisomers of ketamine and ketamine metabolites in the plasma and urine of patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddel, Ruin; Venkata, Swarajya Lakshmi Vattem; Tanga, Mary J; Bupp, James E; Green, Carol E; Iyer, Lalitha; Furimsky, Anna; Goldberg, Michael E; Torjman, Marc C; Wainer, Irving W

    2010-10-15

    A parallel chiral/achiral LC-MS/MS assay has been developed and validated to measure the plasma and urine concentrations of the enantiomers of ketamine, (R)- and (S)-Ket, in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients receiving a 5-day continuous infusion of a sub-anesthetic dose of (R,S)-Ket. The method was also validated for the determination of the enantiomers of the Ket metabolites norketamine, (R)- and (S)-norKet and dehydronorketamine, (R)- and (S)-DHNK, as well as the diastereomeric metabolites hydroxynorketamine, (2S,6S)-/(2R,6R)-HNK and two hydroxyketamines, (2S,6S)-HKet and (2S,6R)-Hket. In this method, (R,S)-Ket, (R,S)-norKet and (R,S)-DHNK and the diastereomeric hydroxyl-metabolites were separated and quantified using a C(18) stationary phase and the relative enantiomeric concentrations of (R,S)-Ket, (R,S)-norKet and (R,S)-DHNK were determined using an AGP-CSP. The analysis of the results of microsomal incubations of (R)- and (S)-Ket and a plasma and urine sample from a CRPS patient indicated the presence of 10 additional compounds and glucuronides. The data from the analysis of the patient sample also demonstrated that a series of HNK metabolites were the primary metabolites in plasma and (R)- and (S)-DHNK were the major metabolites found in urine. The results suggest that norKet is the initial, but not the primary metabolite and that downstream norKet metabolites play a role in (R,S)-Ket-related pain relief in CRPS patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. A parallel chiral-achiral liquid chromatographic method for the determination of the stereoisomers of ketamine and ketamine metabolites in the plasma and urine of patients with complex regional pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Moaddel, Ruin; Venkata, Swarajya Lakshmi Vattem; Tanga, Mary J.; Bupp, James E.; Green, Carol E.; Iyer, Lalitha; Furimsky, Anna; Goldberg, Michael E.; Torjman, Marc C.; Wainer, Irving W.

    2010-01-01

    A parallel chiral/achiral LC-MS/MS assay has been developed and validated to measure the plasma and urine concentrations of the enantiomers of ketamine, (R)- and (S)-Ket, in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) patients receiving a 5-day continuous infusion of a sub-anesthetic dose of (R,S)-Ket. The method was also validated for the determination of the enantiomers of the Ket metabolites norketamine, (R)-and (S)-norKet and dehydronorketamine, (R)- and (S)-DHNK, as well as the diastereomeric ...

  13. Rational Design, Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of the (2R)- and (2S)-Stereoisomers of 3-(2-Carboxypyrrolidinyl)-2-methyl Acetic Acid as Ligands for the Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Julie; Storgaard, Morten; Pickering, Darryl S

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the rational design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of two new stereoisomeric (S)-glutamate (Glu) analogues. The rational design was based on hybrid structures of the natural product kainic acid, a synthetic analogue CPAA and the high-affinity Glu analogue SYM...

  14. Evaluation of stereoisomers of 4-fluoroalkyl analogues of 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate in in vivo competition studies for the M1, M2, and M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Eckelman, William C.; Jaetae, Lee; Paik, Chang H.; Park, Seok G.

    1995-01-01

    To develop a subtype selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist for PET, fluorine-19 labeled alkyl analogues of quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) were synthesized by stereoselective reactions. To investigate these analogues for tissue subtype specificity, in vivo competitive binding studies were performed in rat brain using (R)-3-quinuclidinyl (R)-4-[ 125 I]Iodobenzilate (IQNB). Five, fifty, or five-hundred nmol of the non-radioactive ligands were coinjected intravenously with 8 pmol of the radioligand. Cold (R,R)-IQNB blocked (R,R)-[ 125 I]IQNB in a dose-dependent manner, without showing regional specificity. For the (R,S)-fluoromethyl, -fluoroethyl, and -fluoropropyl derivatives, a higher percent blockade was seen at 5 and 50 nmol levels in M2 predominant tissues (medulla, pons, and cerebellum) than in M1 predominant tissues (cortex, striatum and hippocampus). The blockade pattern of the radioligand also correlated qualitatively with the percentage of M2 receptors in the region. The S-quinuclidinyl analogues showed M2 selectivity but less efficient blockade of the radioligand, indicating lower affinities. Radioligand bound to the medulla was inversely correlated to the M2 relative binding affinity of the fluoroalkyl analogues. These results indicate that the nonradioactive ligand blocks the radioligand based on the affinity of the nonradioactive ligand for a particular receptor subtype compared to the affinity of the radioligand for the same receptor subtype. Of the seven compounds evaluated, (R,S)-fluoromethyl-QNB appears to show the most selectivity for the M2 subtypes in competition studies in vivo

  15. Antimalarial activity of the bisquinoline trans-N1,N2-bis (7- chloroquinolin-4-yl)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine: Comparison of two stereoisomers and detailed evaluation of the S,S enantiomer, Ro 47-7737

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridley, R.G.; Matile, H.; Jaquet, C.; Dorn, A.; Hofheinz, W.; Leupin, W.; Masciadri, R.; Theil, F.P.; Richter, W.F.; Girometta, M.A.; Guenzi, A.; Urwyler, H.; Gocke, E.; Potthast, J.M.; Csato, M.; Thomas, A.; Peters, W.

    1997-01-01

    The S,S enantiomer of the bisquinoline trans-N1,N2-bis(7- chloroquinolin-4-yl)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine, Ro 47-7737, is significantly more potent against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum than the R,R enantiomer and the previously described racemate. Both the enantiomers and the racemate are

  16. A Modular Approach to Aryl-C-ribonucleosides via the Allylic Substitution and Ring-Closing Metathesis Sequence. A Stereocontrolled Synthesis of All Four alpha-/beta- and D-/L-C-Nucleoside Stereoisomers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štambaský, J.; Kapras, V.; Štefko, Martin; Kysilka, O.; Hocek, Michal; Malkov, A. V.; Kočovský, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 19 (2011), s. 7781-7803 ISSN 0022-3263 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : C-nucleosides * allylic substitution * metathesis * dihydroxylation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.450, year: 2011

  17. Synthesis of the (1R,2S)-stereoisomers of the respective E- and Z-isomers of ethyl 4-[(2-hydroxycyclohexyl)methyl]phenoxy-3-methyl-2-butenoate using yeast whole cell bioreduction of the parent ketones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wimmer, Zdeněk; Šaman, David; Zarevúcka, Marie; Wimmerová, Martina

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 16 (2005), s. 2810-2815 ISSN 0957-4166 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC D29.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Saccharomyces cerevisiae * reduction * enantioselectivity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.429, year: 2005

  18. Studies in the stereoselective synthesis of 1,1-disubstituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Michael Arthur George

    1992-01-01

    Isoquinoline alkaloids and analogs play an important role in today's pharmaceutical industry. The need to synthesize single stereoisomers of these alkaloids is important. Many times only a single stereoisomer exhibits the desired activity, while other stereoisomers of the alkaloid exhibit undesired side effects. The stereoselective synthesis of 1, 1-disubstituted 1,2,3,4- tetrahydroisoquinolines using Reissert compound chemistry containing chiral acyl auxiliaries was studied with the ultimate...

  19. Discovery of the Aggregation Pheromone of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys) through the Creation of Stereoisomeric Libraries of 1-Bisabolen-3-ols

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric addition of trimethylaluminum to diastereomeric mixtures of 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ones 1 and 2 provided a straightforward and novel route to all eight stereoisomers of 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol and six of the sixteen stereoisomers of 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol. Relativ...

  20. Analytical and semipreparative chiral separation of cis-itraconazole on cellulose stationary phases by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurka, Ondřej; Kučera, Lukáš; Bednář, Petr

    2016-07-01

    cis-Itraconazole is a chiral antifungal drug administered as a racemate. The knowledge of properties of individual cis-itraconazole stereoisomers is vital information for medicine and biosciences as different stereoisomers of cis-itraconazole may possess different affinity to certain biological pathways in the human body. For this purpose, either chiral synthesis of enantiomers or chiral separation of racemate can be used. This paper presents a two-step high-performance liquid chromatography approach for the semipreparative isolation of four stereoisomers (two enantiomeric pairs) of itraconazole using polysaccharide stationary phases and volatile organic mobile phases without additives in isocratic mode. The approach used involves the separation of the racemate into three fractions (i.e. two pure stereoisomers and one mixed fraction containing the remaining two stereoisomers) in the first run and consequent separation of the collected mixed fraction in the second one. For this purpose, combination of cellulose tris-(4-methylbenzoate) and cellulose tris-(3,5-dimehylphenylcarbamate) columns with complementary selectivity for cis-itraconazole provided full separation of all four stereoisomers (with purity of each isomer > 97%). The stereoisomers were collected, their optical rotation determined and their identity confirmed based on the results of a previously published study. Pure separated stereoisomers are subjected to further biological studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. 1,2-Dichlorohexafluoro-Cyclobutane (1,2-c-C4F6Cl2, R-316c) a Potent Ozone Depleting Substance and Greenhouse Gas: Atmospheric Loss Processes, Lifetimes, and Ozone Depletion and Global Warming Potentials for the (E) and (Z) stereoisomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C.; McGillen, Max R.; Smith, Shona C.; Jubb, Aaron M.; Portmann, Robert W.; Hall, Bradley D.; Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Burkholder, James B.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric processing of (E)- and (Z)-1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane (1,2-c-C4F6Cl2, R-316c) was examined in this work as the ozone depleting (ODP) and global warming (GWP) potentials of this proposed replacement compound are presently unknown. The predominant atmospheric loss processes and infrared absorption spectra of the R-316c isomers were measured to provide a basis to evaluate their atmospheric lifetimes and, thus, ODPs and GWPs. UV absorption spectra were measured between 184.95 to 230 nm at temperatures between 214 and 296 K and a parametrization for use in atmospheric modeling is presented. The Cl atom quantum yield in the 193 nm photolysis of R- 316c was measured to be 1.90 +/- 0.27. Hexafluorocyclobutene (c-C4F6) was determined to be a photolysis co-product with molar yields of 0.7 and 1.0 (+/-10%) for (E)- and (Z)-R-316c, respectively. The 296 K total rate coefficient for the O(1D) + R-316c reaction, i.e., O(1D) loss, was measured to be (1.56 +/- 0.11) × 10(exp -10)cu cm/ molecule/s and the reactive rate coefficient, i.e., R-316c loss, was measured to be (1.36 +/- 0.20) × 10(exp -10)cu cm/molecule/s corresponding to a approx. 88% reactive yield. Rate coefficient upper-limits for the OH and O3 reaction with R-316c were determined to be model to be 74.6 +/- 3 and 114.1 +/-10 years, respectively, where the estimated uncertainties are due solely to the uncertainty in the UV absorption spectra. Stratospheric photolysis is the predominant atmospheric loss process for both isomers with the O(1D) reaction making a minor, approx. 2% for the (E) isomer and 7% for the (Z) isomer, contribution to the total atmospheric loss. Ozone depletion potentials for (E)- and (Z)-R-316c were calculated using the 2-D model to be 0.46 and 0.54, respectively. Infrared absorption spectra for (E)- and (Z)-R-316c were measured at 296 K and used to estimate their radiative efficiencies (REs) and GWPs; 100-year time-horizon GWPs of 4160 and 5400 were obtained for (E)- and (Z)-R-316c, respectively. Both isomers of R-316c are shown in this work to be long-lived ozone depleting substances and potent greenhouse gases.

  2. Synthesis, binding affinity at glutamic acid receptors, neuroprotective effects, and molecular modeling investigation of novel dihydroisoxazole amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    stereoisomers of the bicyclic analogue 5-amino-4,5,6,6a-tetrahydro-3aH-cyclopenta[d]isoxazole-3,5-dicarboxylic acid (+)-2, (-)-2, (+)-3, and (-)-3 were tested at ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes. The most potent NMDA receptor antagonists [(+)-2, (-)-4, and (+)-5] showed a significant......The four stereoisomers of 5-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-4,5-dihydroisoxazole-3-carboxylic acid(+)-4, (-)-4, (+)-5, and (-)-5 were prepared by stereoselective synthesis of two pairs of enantiomers, which were subsequently resolved by enzymatic procedures. These four stereoisomers and the four...

  3. Use of prolines for improving growth and/or yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Martinez, Rodolfo A; Knight, Thomas J

    2013-10-08

    The present invention describes a composition including a mixture of L- and D-pyroglutamate stereoisomers in a ratio of L to D of from about 80:20 to about 97:3, and, a carrier medium for application of the L- and D-pyroglutamate stereoisomers to a target plant. The composition can also be used as a germination medium and may be incorporated into a seed coat for assisting in germination. The present invention further describes a method of increasing the agronomic performance of a target plant by treating a target plant with a composition including a mixture of L- and D-pyroglutamate stereoisomers in a ratio of L to D of from about 80:20 to about 97:3 and a carrier medium for said L- and D-pyroglutamate stereoisomers.

  4. Chemical constituents from Tribulus terrestris and screening of their antioxidant activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammoda, Hala M; Ghazy, Nabila M; Harraz, Fathalla M; Radwan, Mohamed M; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Abdallah, Ingy I

    Two oligosaccharides (1,2) and a stereoisomer of di-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3) were isolated from the aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris along with five known compounds (4-8). The structures of the compounds were established as

  5. Antidepressant Effects of (+)-MK-801 and (-)-MK-801 in the Social Defeat Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bangkun; Ren, Qian; Ma, Min; Chen, Qian-Xue

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current data on antidepressant action of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, (+)-MK-801, is inconsistent. This study was conducted to examine the effects of (+)-MK-801 and its less potent stereoisomer, (-)-MK-801, in the social defeat stress model of depression. Methods: The antidepressant effects of (+)-MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) and (-)-MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) in the social defeat stress model were examined. Results: In the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, both stereoisomers significantly attenuated increased immobility time in susceptible mice. In the sucrose preference test, (+)-MK-801, but not (-)-MK-801, significantly enhanced reduced sucrose consumption 2 or 4 days after a single dose. However, no antianhedonia effects were detected 7 days after a single dose of either stereoisomer. Conclusions: Both stereoisomers of MK-801 induced rapid antidepressant effects in the social defeat stress model, although neither produced a long-lasting effect (7 days). PMID:27608811

  6. Chirality in the absence of rigid stereogenic elements: steric and electronic effects on the configurational stability of C3 symmetric residual tris-aryl phosphanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Simona; Cirilli, Roberto; Pierini, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Residual stereoisomers result whenever closed subsets of appropriately substituted interconverting isomers (the residual stereoisomers) are generated from a full set of stereoisomers under the operation of a favored stereomerization mechanism. In the case of the three-bladed propellers, differentiation of the edges of the blades and strict correlation in the motion of the rings are the prerequisites for the existence of residual stereoisomers. In these systems, the two-ring flip mechanism is the lowest energy process. It does not interconvert all possible conformational stereoisomers generated by helicity and the three-blade-hub rotors. In the case of C3 symmetric systems, two noninterconverting subgroups (the residual stereoisomers) are generated, each one constituted of quickly interconverting diastereoisomers. A series of tris-aryl phosphanes, structurally designed for existing as residual enantiomers or diastereoisomers, bearing substituents differing in size and electronic properties on the aryl rings, were synthesized and characterized. The configurational stability of residual phosphanes, evaluated by dynamic (1) H- and (31) P-NMR analysis and by dynamic enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was found 10 kcal mol(-1) lower than that shown by the corresponding phosphane-oxides. In accordance with the calculations, an unexpectedly low barrier for phosphorus pyramidal inversion was invoked as responsible for the scarce configurational stability of the residual tris-arylphosphanes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Thermodynamic models to elucidate the enantioseparation of drugs with two stereogenic centers by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuming; Liu, Qiuxia; Hu, Shaoqiang; Guo, Wenbo; Yang, Zhuo; Zhang, Yonghua

    2017-08-25

    An equilibrium model depicting the simultaneous protonation of chiral drugs and partitioning of protonated ions and neutral molecules into chiral micelles in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) has been introduced. It was used for the prediction and elucidation of complex changes in migration order patterns with experimental conditions in the enantioseparation of drugs with two stereogenic centers. Palonosetron hydrochloride (PALO), a weakly basic drug with two stereogenic centers, was selected as a model drug. Its four stereoisomers were separated by MEKC using sodium cholate (SC) as chiral selector and surfactant. Based on the equilibrium model, equations were derived for a calculation of the effective mobility and migration time of each stereoisomer at a certain pH. The migration times of four stereoisomers at different pHs were calculated and then the migration order patterns were constructed with derived equations. The results were in accord with the experiment. And the contribution of each mechanism to the separation and its influence on the migration order pattern was analyzed separately by introducing virtual isomers, i.e., hypothetical stereoisomers with only one parameter changed relative to a real PALO stereoisomer. A thermodynamic model for a judgment of the correlation of interactions between two stereogenic centers of stereoisomers and chiral selector was also proposed. According to this model, the interactions of two stereogenic centers of PALO stereoisomers in both neutral molecules and protonated ions with chiral selector are not independent, so the chiral recognition in each pair of enantiomers as well as the recognition for diastereomers is not simply the algebraic sum of the contributions of two stereogenic centers due to their correlation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of the electroluminescence of highly stereoregular poly(N-pentenyl-carbazole) for blue and white OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, R.; Botta, A.; Pragliola, S.; Rubino, A.; Venditto, V.; Velardo, A.; Aprano, S.; Maglione, M. G.; Prontera, C. T.; De Girolamo Del Mauro, A.; Fasolino, T.; Minarini, C.

    2017-06-01

    The electroluminescence (EL) of isotactic and syndiotactic poly(N-pentenyl-carbazole) (PPK), achieved by coordination polymerization, is studied in order to investigate the interrelation between the polymer tacticity and their physical-chemical properties. The use of these polymers in organic light-emitting diode (OLED) fabrication is also explored. Thermal and x-ray diffraction analyses of PPKs show that the isotactic stereoisomer is semicrystalline, whereas the syndiotactic one is amorphous. Optical analysis of both stereoisomers, carried out on film samples, reveals the presence of two different excimers: ‘sandwich-like’ and ‘partially overlapping’. Nevertheless, the emission intensity ratio between ‘sandwich-like’ and ‘partially overlapping’ excimers is higher in the isotactic than in the syndiotactic stereoisomer. Using the synthesized polymers as OLED emitting layers, the influence of the polymer tacticity on the EL properties of the device is highlighted. In detail, while blue OLEDs are obtained by using the syndiotactic stereoisomer, OLEDs with a multilayer structure fabricated with the isotactic stereoisomer emit white light. The contribution of three different emissions (fluorescence, phosphorescence and electromer emissions) with comparable intensities to the detected white light is discussed.

  9. Lobatamide C: total synthesis, stereochemical assignment, preparation of simplified analogues, and V-ATPase inhibition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ruichao; Lin, Cheng Ting; Bowman, Emma Jean; Bowman, Barry J; Porco, John A

    2003-07-02

    The total synthesis and stereochemical assignment of the potent antitumor macrolide lobatamide C, as well as synthesis of simplified lobatamide analogues, is reported. Cu(I)-mediated enamide formation methodology has been developed to prepare the highly unsaturated enamide side chain of the natural product and analogues. A key fragment coupling employs base-mediated esterification of a beta-hydroxy acid and a salicylate cyanomethyl ester. Three additional stereoisomers of lobatamide C have been prepared using related synthetic routes. The stereochemistry at C8, C11, and C15 of lobatamide C was assigned by comparison of stereoisomers and X-ray analysis of a crystalline derivative. Synthetic lobatamide C, stereoisomers, and simplified analogues have been evaluated for inhibition of bovine chromaffin granule membrane V-ATPase. The salicylate phenol, enamide NH, and ortho-substitution of the salicylate ester have been shown to be important for V-ATPase inhibitory activity.

  10. Fluorinated cyclohexanes: Synthesis of amine building blocks of the all-cis 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorocyclohexylamine motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Bykova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the synthesis of three amine stereoisomers 5a–c of the tetrafluorocyclohexyl ring system, as building blocks for discovery chemistry programmes. The synthesis starts from a Birch reduction of benzonitrile, followed by an in situ methyl iodide quench. The resultant 2,5-cyclohexadiene was progressed via double epoxidations and then hydrofluorination ring opening reactions. The resultant fluorohydrin moieties were then converted to different stereoisomers of the tetrafluorocyclohexyl ring system, and then reductive hydrogenation of the nitrile delivered three amine stereoisomers. It proved necessary to place a methyl group on the cyclohexane ring in order to stabilise the compound against subsequent HF elimination. The two all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexyl isomers 5a and 5b constitute facially polarized cyclohexane rings, with fluorines on the electronegative face and hydrogens on the electropositive face.

  11. Enantioseparation of palonosetron hydrochloride by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with sodium cholate as chiral selector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kan; Chen, Hongli; Tang, Jianghong; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2006-11-03

    The enantioseparation of four stereoisomers of palonosetron hydrochloride by micellar electrokinetic chromatography using sodium cholate as chiral surfactant was described. Sodium cholate was shown to be effective in separating palonosetron hydrochloride stereoisomers. For method optimization, several parameters such as sodium cholate concentration, buffer pH and concentration, the types and concentration of organic modifiers and applied voltage, on the enantioseparation were evaluated and the optimum conditions were obtained as follows: 30 mM borate buffer (pH 9.40) containing 70 mM sodium cholate and 20% (v/v) methanol with an applied voltage of 20 kV. Under these conditions, baseline separation of palonosetron hydrochloride stereoisomers was achieved within 18 min.

  12. Comparison of column chromatographic and precipitation methods for the purification of a macrocyclic polyether extractant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, M.L.; Felinto, C.; Rhoads, S.; Clapper, M.; Finch, J.W.; Hay, B.P.

    1999-11-01

    Column chromatography on aminopropyl-derivatized silica and precipitation of a complex with perchloric acid have been evaluated as methods for the purification of di-tert-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), a compound frequently employed for the selective extraction of strontium from acidic nitrate media. Both methods are shown to provide a simple and effective means of eliminating inactive sample components (i.e., impurities or stereoisomers incapable of extracting strontium) from the crown ether and enriching the material in 4(z),4{prime}(z) cis-syn-cis DtBuCH18C6, a stereoisomer capable of highly efficient strontium extraction.

  13. Comparison of column chromatographic and precipitation methods for the purification of a macrocyclic polyether extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, M.L.; Felinto, C.; Rhoads, S.; Clapper, M.; Finch, J.W.; Hay, B.P.

    1999-01-01

    Column chromatography on aminopropyl-derivatized silica and precipitation of a complex with perchloric acid have been evaluated as methods for the purification of di-tert-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), a compound frequently employed for the selective extraction of strontium from acidic nitrate media. Both methods are shown to provide a simple and effective means of eliminating inactive sample components (i.e., impurities or stereoisomers incapable of extracting strontium) from the crown ether and enriching the material in 4(z),4 prime(z) cis-syn-cis DtBuCH18C6, a stereoisomer capable of highly efficient strontium extraction

  14. Bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane as a Core Structure for Conformational Locking of 1,3-Bis-Pharmacophores, Exemplified by GABA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorberg, Raffael; Trapp, Nils; Carreira, Erick M

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis and X-ray crystal structures of syn and anti 4-N-Boc-aminobicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-1-carboxylic acids are described. The placement of the N-Boc-amino groups in the two stereoisomers in either pseudo-equatorial or pseudo-axial positions renders the molecules conformationally locked......, with N-Boc-protected γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) embedded within the bicyclic core. Despite the different conformations of the urethane and distinct crystal packing, the bicyclic core units of the two stereoisomers adopt virtually identical structures. They correspond to in silico models of the parent...

  15. New analogues of ACPD with selective activity for group II metabotropic glutamate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Madsen, U; Mikiciuk-Olasik, E

    1997-01-01

    In this study we have determined the pharmacology of a series of 1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (1,3-ACPD) analogues at cloned metabotropic glutamic acid (mGlu) receptors. The new analogues comprise the four possible stereoisomers of 1-amino-1-carboxycyclopentane-3-acetic acid (1,3-hom...

  16. Effect of D-tagatose on liver weight and glycogen content of rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bär, A.; Lina, B.A.R.; Groot, D.M.G. de; Bie, B. de; Appel, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    D-Tagatose is an incompletely absorbed ketohexose (stereoisomer of D-fructose) which has potential as an energy-reduced alternative sweetener. In an earlier 90-day toxicity study, rats fed diets with 10, 15 and 20% D-tagatose exhibited increased liver weights, but no histopathological alterations.

  17. The effect of stereochemistry on carbohydrate hydration in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Saskia Alexandra

    1992-01-01

    Although-carbohydrates are widely used, not much is known about the stereochemical aspects of hydration of carbohydrates. For D-aldohexoses, for example, there are eight different stereoisomers. Just how the hydroxy topology of a carbohydrate molecule influences the hydration behaviour in water is

  18. The Z-isomer of 11 beta-methoxy-17 alpha-[123I]iodovinylestradiol is a promising radioligand for estrogen receptor imaging in human breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijks, L. J.; Boer, G. J.; Endert, E.; de Bruin, K.; Janssen, A. G.; van Royen, E. A.

    1997-01-01

    The potential of both stereoisomers of 11 beta-methoxy-17 alpha-[123I] iodovinylestradiol (E- and Z-[123I]MIVE) as suitable radioligands for imaging of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human breast tumours was studied. The 17 alpha-[123I]iodovinylestradiol derivatives were prepared stereospecifically

  19. A Computational Experiment of the Endo versus Exo Preference in a Diels-Alder Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Christopher N.; Woo, Tom K.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed and tested a computational laboratory that investigates an endo versus exo Diels-Alder cycloaddition. This laboratory employed density functional theory (DFT) calculations to study the cycloaddition of N-phenylmaleimide to furan. The endo and exo stereoisomers of the product were distinguished by building the two isomers in a…

  20. Synthesis and pharmacological characterization at glutamate receptors of the four enantiopure isomers of tricholomic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Andrea; Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco

    2008-01-01

    of the studied amino acids reflect the relationship between the activity/selectivity and the stereochemistry of the two stereogenic centers: while the (2 S,5' S) stereoisomer is an agonist at the AMPA and KA receptors, its (2 R,5' R) enantiomer interacts selectively with the NMDA receptors; the (2 S,5' R...

  1. [{sup 18}F]norchlorofluorohomoepibatidine. Synthesis, radiosynthesis, evaluation in vitro and comparison with 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-A-85380 in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, J.T.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Brust, P.; Steinbach, J. [Institut fuer Interdisziplinaere Isotopenforschung, Leipzig (Germany); Patt, M.; Schildan, A.; Sabri, O. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Leipzig (Germany); Feuerbach, D. [Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    In this abstract we describe synthesis, radiosynthesis and biological evalution of both stereoisomers of NCFHEB (norchlorofluorohomoepibatidine) and compare the biodistribution data with 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-A-85380, a tracer currently used for imaging nicotinic receptors with PET. (orig.)

  2. Pharmacological characterization and binding modes of novel racemic and optically active phenylalanine-based antagonists of AMPA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymańska, Ewa; Nielsen, Birgitte; Johansen, Tommy Nørskov

    2017-01-01

    affinity and preference for AMPA receptors. Individual stereoisomers of selected compounds were further evaluated at recombinant homomeric rat GluA2 and GluA3 receptors. The most potent compound, (–)-2-amino-3-(6-chloro-2',5'-dihydroxy-5-nitro-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)propanoic acid, the expected R...

  3. Supramolecular Structure, Physical Properties, and Langmuir-Blodgett Film Formation of an Optically Active Liquid-Crystalline Phthalocyanine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nostrum, Cornelus F. van; Bosman, Anton W.; Gelinck, Gerwin H.; Schouten, Pieter G.; Warman, John M.; Devillers, Marinus A.C.; Meijerink, Andries; Picken, Stephen J.; Sohling, Ulrich; Schouten, Arend-Jan; Nolte, Roeland J.M.

    The structure and physical properties of optically active, metal-free 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octa(S-3,7-dimethyloctoxy)phthalocyanine ((S)-Pc(8,2)) are reported and compared with those of the phthalocyanine with (R,S) side chains (mixture of 43 stereoisomers). Unlike the latter compound, (S)-Pc(8,2)

  4. Graphene oxide as a catalyst for the diastereoselective transfer hydrogenation in the synthesis of prostaglandin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Simona M; Podolean, Iunia; Tudorache, Madalina; Cojocaru, Bogdan; Parvulescu, Vasile I; Puche, Marta; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2017-09-14

    Modification of GO by organic molecules changes its catalytic activity in the hydrogen transfer from i-propanol to enones, affecting the selectivity to allyl alcohol and diastereoselectivity to the resulting stereoisomers. It is noteworthy the system does not contain metals and is recyclable.

  5. Analysis of CYP3A inhibitory components of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Shinzo; Shimizu, Eri; Arimori, Kazuhiko; Okumura, Manabu; Hidaka, Muneaki; Yamada, Mitsuko; Sakushima, Akiyo

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed the CYP3A inhibitory components of star fruit Averrhoa carambola L., using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The stereoisomer of procyanidin B1 and B2 and/or the trimer consisting of catechin and/or epicatechin were suggested to be potent inhibitory components.

  6. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB/PK) model for multiple exposure routes for soman in multiple species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweeney, R.E.; Langenberg, J.P.; Maxwell, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB/PK) model has been developed in advanced computer simulation language (ACSL) to describe blood and tissue concentration-time profiles of the C(±)P(-) stereoisomers of soman after inhalation, subcutaneous and intravenous exposures at low (0.8-1.0 × LD50),

  7. Recycling of plastic waste: Screening for brominated flame retardants (BFRs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Granby, Kit; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    ,4,6-TBP)), hexabromocyclododecane stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), as well as selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples of household waste plastics, virgin and recycled plastics. A considerable number of samples contained BFRs, with highest concentrations associated with acrylonitrile...

  8. Isolation of symlandine from the roots of common comfrey (Symphytum officinale) using countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N C; Oberlies, N H; Brine, D R; Handy, R W; Wani, M C; Wall, M E

    2001-02-01

    Three pyrrolizidine alkaloids, symlandine, symphytine, and echimidine (1-3), were isolated from the roots of Symphytum officinale using a one-step countercurrent chromatography procedure. The structures of 1-3 were confirmed by several spectroscopic techniques including 2D NMR methods. This is the first description of the separation of symlandine (1) from its stereoisomer, symphytine (2).

  9. Beyond the Drake Equation: On the Probability of the Nature of Extraterrestrial Life Forms in Our Galaxy Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Harold A.

    2014-01-01

    I will discuss my research into the issues associated with the nature of any extraterrestrials that may be encountered in the future in our galaxy. This research was sparked by statements made by Stephen Hawking in 2010 regarding his fear of emitting radiation from our Earth so that an extraterrestrial intelligent civilization may be alerted to our existence in the galaxy today. While addressing issues of extraterrestrial altruism, a probabilistic equation was developed which addresses the number of extraterrestrial intelligent life forms that may exist in our galaxy today, who could use our bodies for nourishment or reproductive purposes. The equation begins with the results from a Drake Equation calculation, and proceeds by addressing such biochemical parameters as the fraction of ETIs with: dextro sugar stereo-isomers; levo amino acid stereo-isomers; similar codon interpretation; chromosomal length and, similar cell membrane structure to allow egg penetration.

  10. Chemistry and biology of Tc-99m renal function agents. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzberg, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    A major aim of the project was to develop a Tc-99m renal tubular function radiopharmaceutical. Progress was made in synthesizing and evaluating Tc-99m 2,3-dimercaptoaceta-midoprepanoate (CO 2 DADS). In animals and clinical studies the A epimer (early component on reversed phase HPLC) demonstrated high efficiency and specificity for renal tubular secretion. We were unable to obtain only the desired stereoisomer. Synthesis of about twenty diamide dimercaptide N 2 S 2 ligand analogs suggested two others that were of comparable efficiency in humans, but with less difference between stereoisomers; Tc-99m 1,3-dimercaptoacetamide-2-hydroxypropane (HoDADS) and 1,8-dithiol- 2,7-dioxo-3,6-diazanonanoate (α -S-CO 2 DADS). 15 refs

  11. Biomimetic synthesis and HPLC–ECD analysis of the isomers of dracocephins A and B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Ilkei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from racemic naringenin ((±-1, a mixture of dracocephin A stereoisomers 6-(2”-pyrrolidinone-5”-ylnaringenin (±-2a–d and its regioisomer, dracocephin B 8-(2”-pyrrolidinone-5”-ylnaringenin (±-3a–d originally isolated from Dracocephalum rupestre, have been synthesized in a one-pot reaction. The separation of 2a–d and 3a–d was achieved by preparative HPLC. The four stereoisomers of each natural product were separated by analytical chiral HPLC and their absolute configuration was studied by the combination of HPLC–ECD measurements and TDDFT–ECD calculations. The synthesized flavonoid alkaloids were further characterized by physicochemical and in vitro pharmacological studies.

  12. Synthesis of symmetrical 2,2',4,4'-tetrasubstituted [4,4'-bithiazole]-5,5'(4H,4'H)-diones and their reactions with some nucleophiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth K.; Bray, Diana D.; Kjær, Anders

    1997-01-01

    steric factors. X-Ray crystallography established the structure of the dehydrodimer (4R*,4R'*)-2,2'-diethoxy-4,4'-dibenzyl-[4,4'-bithiazole]-5,5'(4H,4 'H)-dione. One stereoisomer of 2,2'-diphenyl-4,4'-dimethyl-[4,4'-bithiazole]-5,5'(4H,4'H)-dione and a mixture of the stereoisomers 2,2'-diphenyl-4......-carboxylic acid and piperidylamide, was established by X-ray crystallography. Treatment of stereoisomeric mixtures of 2,2'-diethoxy-4,4'-bithiazolones with HCl in benzene gave the corresponding racemic and meso bis-(N-carboxythioanhydride)s. A stereoisomeric mixture of the bis...

  13. Stereodivergent synthesis of jaspine B and its isomers using a carbohydrate-derived alkoxyallene as C3-building block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker M. Schmiedel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Herein we present the synthesis of the anhydrophytosphingosine jaspine B and three of its stereoisomers using a carbohydrate-derived alkoxyallene in order to obtain the products in enantiopure form. Key step of the reaction sequence is the addition of the lithiated alkoxyallene to pentadecanal, setting the configuration at the later C-2 of the ring system. This reaction step proceeds with moderate selectivity and therefore leads to a stereodivergent approach to the natural product and its enantiomer. The gold-catalyzed 5-endo-cyclization affords the corresponding dihydrofurans, which after separation, azidation of the enol ether moiety and two subsequent reduction steps give the natural product and its stereoisomers.

  14. Behavioral and neurogenomic transcriptome changes in wild-derived zebrafish with fluoxetine treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Ryan Y; Oxendine, Sarah E; Godwin, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and anxiety-related behaviors are seen in many organisms. Studies have shown that in humans and other animals, treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g. fluoxetine) can reduce anxiety and anxiety-related behaviors. The efficacies and side effects, however, can vary between individuals. Fluoxetine can modulate anxiety in a stereospecific manner or with equal efficacy regardless of stereoisomer depending on the mechanism of action (e.g. serotonergic or GABAe...

  15. Synthesis of Enantiomerically Pure 6-Substituted-Piperazine-2-Acetic Acid Esters as Intermediates for Library Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamakuri, Srinivas; Jain, Prashi; Guduru, Shiva Krishna Reddy; Arney, Joseph Winston; MacKenzie, Kevin; Santini, Conrad; Young, Damian W

    2018-05-11

    Amino acids from the chiral pool have been used to produce a 24-member branch of 2,6-disubstituted piperazine scaffolds suitable for use in compound library production. Each scaffold was obtained as a single absolute stereoisomer in multi-gram quantities. Stereochemistry was confirmed by 2D NMR protocols and enantiomeric purity was determined by chiral HPLC. The scaffolds are intended for use as intermediates in parallel synthesis of small-molecule libraries.

  16. Spirocyclic character of ixazomib citrate revealed by comprehensive XRD, NMR and DFT study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skořepová, E.; Čerňa, I.; Vlasáková, R.; Zvoníček, V.; Tkadlecová, M.; Dušek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1148, Nov (2017), s. 22-27 ISSN 0022-2860 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ixazomib citrate * molecular structure * stereoisomers * crystal structure * NMR * DFT Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.753, year: 2016

  17. Condensed tannins: Base-catalysed reactions of polymeric procyanidins with toluene-α-thiol, liability of the interflavanoid bond and pyran ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter E. Laks; Richard W. Hemingway

    1987-01-01

    Reaction of polymeric procyanidins (condensed tannins) with toluene-α-thiol at pH 12.0 and 23°C gave predominantly one stereoisomer of 1.3-bisbenzylthio-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl) propan-2-ol (10) by stereoselective reaction at C-4 and C-2 of the Quinone methide derived from the upper 2,3-cis procyanidin units....

  18. Total synthesis and stereochemical assignment of the salicylate antitumor macrolide lobatamide C(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ruichao; Lin, Cheng Ting; Porco, John A

    2002-05-22

    The total synthesis and stereochemical assignment of the potent antitumor macrolide lobatamide C is reported. The synthesis involves Cu(I)-mediated enamide formation and Na(2)CO(3)-mediated esterification of a beta-hydroxy acid and a salicylate cyanomethyl ester. Macrolactonization was accomplished using a Mitsunobu protocol. The stereochemical assignment of lobatamide C was achieved by Mosher ester analysis and comparison with prepared stereoisomers.

  19. Olefin Metathesis in Peptidomimetics, Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry, and Molecular Imprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    organic, and biochemistry, lectured in chemistry of weapons, and researched on ionic liquids and nucleic acid derivatives. She discovered her joy of...Products from oligomerization of the dimer scaffold or olefin isomerization are excluded from these projected numbers.97,98 The number of...Figure 3-8). This is excluding any olefin isomerization products or oligomerization of the cyclic scaffold. If stereoisomers are considered, then

  20. Stereospecific Synthesis of Two Isomers of (4,8 - Dimethyldecanal: The Aggregation Pheromone of Tribolium spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarbin Paulo H.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A straightforward stereospecific synthesis of two stereoisomers, (4R, 8S and (4S, 8S, of 4,8-dimethyldecanal (1, out of four possible isomers, is described. The key step employs the coupling reaction of tosylates (3 and (3a, which are obtained from (R- and (S- citronellol, with the chiral Grignard reagent prepared from comercial (S-(+-1-bromo-2-methylbutane (4.

  1. Total synthesis of haterumalides NA and NC via a chromium-mediated macrocyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Jennifer M; Borhan, Babak

    2008-09-17

    The syntheses of haterumalides NA and NC were accomplished via the macrocyclization of a chlorovinylidene chromium carbenoid onto a pendant aldehyde to generate the C8-C9 bond with the desired stereoisomer as the major product. Utilizing the latter chemistry enables access to both C9 hydroxylated (haterumalides NC and ND) and C9 deoxygenated forms (haterumalides NA, NB, and NE; via deoxygenation of the C9-hydroxyl).

  2. STITCH 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Szklarczyk, Damian; Franceschini, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate the study of interactions between proteins and chemicals, we have created STITCH, an aggregated database of interactions connecting over 300,000 chemicals and 2.6 million proteins from 1133 organisms. Compared to the previous version, the number of chemicals with interactions and th...... the coverage, as interaction databases and publications found through text mining will often refer to compounds without specifying the stereoisomer. The database is accessible at http://stitch.embl.de/....

  3. Determination of Parameters for Development of a Physiologically Based Model for the Toxicokinetics of C(+)P(+)-Soman

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    In conducting research utilizing recombinant DNA technology , the investigator(s) adhered to current guidelines promulgated by the National...zur Rtickstandanalyse), saponin (BDH, Poole, UK), aluminium sulfate.16 H2 0 (BDH Analar, Ž 98%), sodium bicarbonate (Lamens en Indemans, ’s...isopropanol). The mixture was extracted with 3 ml ethyl acetate. Gas chromatographic analysis of the soman stereoisomers in the ethyl acetate phase was

  4. Structure determination of cyclo pentane terpene derivatives by crossed NMR and MS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pianet, I.; Bourgeois, G. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France); Dolatkhani, M.; Cramail, H.; Deffieux, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 33 - Talence (France)

    1995-10-01

    3 of the 4 stereoisomers of the 1-isopropenyl 2,3-dimethylcyclopentane, obtained from the cracking of 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-diene, were purified and characterized. Dihedral angles, between the protons of the substituted carbons, have been determined by molecular modelling. Analysis of the NMR and mass spectra allowed us to access to the structure of the different isomers. (authors). 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Stereochemical insignificance discovered in Acinetobacter baumannii quorum sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Garner

    Full Text Available Stereochemistry is a key aspect of molecular recognition for biological systems. As such, receptors and enzymes are often highly stereospecific, only recognizing one stereoisomer of a ligand. Recently, the quorum sensing signaling molecules used by the nosocomial opportunistic pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii, were identified, and the primary signaling molecule isolated from this species was N-(3-hydroxydodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. A plethora of bacterial species have been demonstrated to utilize 3-hydroxy-acylhomoserine lactone autoinducers, and in virtually all cases, the (R-stereoisomer was identified as the natural ligand and exhibited greater autoinducer activity than the corresponding (S-stereoisomer. Using chemical synthesis and biochemical assays, we have uncovered a case of stereochemical insignificance in A. baumannii and provide a unique example where stereochemistry appears nonessential for acylhomoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing signaling. Based on previously reported phylogenetic studies, we suggest that A. baumannii has evolutionarily adopted this unique, yet promiscuous quorum sensing system to ensure its survival, particularly in the presence of other proteobacteria.

  6. Conformations of stereoisomeric base adducts to 4-hydroxyequilenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shuang; Shapiro, Robert; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Broyde, Suse

    2003-06-01

    Exposure to estrogen through estrogen replacement therapy increases the risk of women developing cancer in hormone sensitive tissues. Premarin (Wyeth), which has been the most frequent choice for estrogen replacement therapy in the United States, contains the equine estrogens equilin and equilenin as major components. 4-Hydroxyequilenin (4-OHEN) is a phase I metabolite of both of these substances. This catechol estrogen autoxidizes to potent cytotoxic quinoids that can react with dG, dA, and dC to form unusual stereoisomeric cyclic adducts (Bolton, J. L., et al. (1998) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 11, 1113-1127). Like other bulky DNA adducts, these lesions may exhibit different susceptibilities to DNA repair and mutagenic potential, if not repaired in a structure-dependent manner. To ultimately gain insights into structure-function relationships, we computed conformations of stereoisomeric guanine, adenine, and cytosine base adducts using density functional theory. We find near mirror image conformations in stereoisomer adduct pairs for each modified base, suggesting opposite orientations with respect to the 5' --> 3' direction of the modified strand when the stereoisomer pairs are incorporated into duplex DNA. Such opposite orientations could cause stereoisomer pairs of lesions to respond differently to DNA replication and repair enzymes.

  7. Chiral separation of G-type chemical warfare nerve agents via analytical supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten, Shane A; Zulli, Steven; Jones, Jonathan L; Dephillipo, Thomas; Cerasoli, Douglas M

    2014-12-01

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are extremely toxic organophosphorus compounds that contain a chiral phosphorus center. Undirected synthesis of G-type CWNAs produces stereoisomers of tabun, sarin, soman, and cyclosarin (GA, GB, GD, and GF, respectively). Analytical-scale methods were developed using a supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) system in tandem with a mass spectrometer for the separation, quantitation, and isolation of individual stereoisomers of GA, GB, GD, and GF. Screening various chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for the capacity to provide full baseline separation of the CWNAs revealed that a Regis WhelkO1 (SS) column was capable of separating the enantiomers of GA, GB, and GF, with elution of the P(+) enantiomer preceding elution of the corresponding P(-) enantiomer; two WhelkO1 (SS) columns had to be connected in series to achieve complete baseline resolution. The four diastereomers of GD were also resolved using two tandem WhelkO1 (SS) columns, with complete baseline separation of the two P(+) epimers. A single WhelkO1 (RR) column with inverse stereochemistry resulted in baseline separation of the GD P(-) epimers. The analytical methods described can be scaled to allow isolation of individual stereoisomers to assist in screening and development of countermeasures to organophosphorus nerve agents. © 2014 The Authors. Chirality published by John Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers (CH3OC7F13): measured OH radical reaction rate coefficients for several isomers and enantiomers and their atmospheric lifetimes and global warming potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubb, Aaron M; Gierczak, Tomasz; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Waterland, Robert L; Burkholder, James B

    2014-05-06

    Mixtures of methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers (CH3OC7F13, MPHEs) are currently in use as replacements for perfluorinated alkanes (PFCs) and poly-ether heat transfer fluids, which are persistent greenhouse gases with lifetimes >1000 years. At present, the atmospheric processing and environmental impact from the use of MPHEs is unknown. In this work, rate coefficients at 296 K for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with six key isomers (including stereoisomers and enantiomers) of MPHEs used commercially were measured using a relative rate method. Rate coefficients for the six MPHE isomers ranged from ∼ 0.1 to 2.9 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with a strong stereoisomer and -OCH3 group position dependence; the (E)-stereoisomers with the -OCH3 group in an α- position relative to the double bond had the greatest reactivity. Rate coefficients measured for the d3-MPHE isomer analogues showed decreased reactivity consistent with a minor contribution of H atom abstraction from the -OCH3 group to the overall reactivity. Estimated atmospheric lifetimes for the MPHE isomers range from days to months. Atmospheric lifetimes, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials for these short-lived MPHE isomers were estimated based on the measured OH rate coefficients along with measured and theoretically calculated MPHE infrared absorption spectra. Our results highlight the importance of quantifying the atmospheric impact of individual components in an isomeric mixture.

  9. 1-cyclohexyl-x-methoxybenzene derivatives, novel psychoactive substances seized on the internet market. Synthesis and in vivo pharmacological studies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantinati, Anna; Ossato, Andrea; Bianco, Sara; Canazza, Isabella; De Giorgio, Fabio; Trapella, Claudio; Marti, Matteo

    2017-05-01

    Among novel psychoactive substances notified to EMCDDA and Europol were 1-cyclohexyl-x-methoxybenzene stereoisomers (ortho, meta, and para). These substances share some structural characteristics with phencyclidine and tramadol. Nowadays, no information on the pharmacological and toxicological effects evoked by 1-cyclohexyl-x-methoxybenzene are reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect evoked by each one stereoisomer on visual stimulation, body temperature, acute thermal pain, and motor activity in mice. Mice were evaluated in behavioral tests carried out in a consecutive manner according to the following time scheme: observation of visual placing response, measures of core body temperature, determination of acute thermal pain, and stimulated motor activity. All three stereoisomers dose-dependent inhibit visual placing response (rank order: meta > ortho > para), induce hyperthermia at lower and hypothermia at higher doses (meta > ortho > para) and cause analgesia to thermal stimuli (para > meta = ortho), while they do not alter motor activity. For the first time, this study demonstrates that systemic administration of 1-cyclohexyl-x-methoxybenzene compounds markedly inhibit visual response, promote analgesia, and induce core temperature alterations in mice. This data, although obtained in animal model, suggest their possible hazard for human health (i.e., hyperthermia and sensorimotor alterations). In particular, these novel psychoactive substances may have a negative impact in many daily activities, greatly increasing the risk factors for workplace accidents and traffic injuries. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-01-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)–TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. PMID:26327690

  11. Stereoselective uptake and distribution of chiral neoniconoid insecticide paichongding in chinese pak choi (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinenesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiyan; Yang Zhen; Liu Ruyang; Fu Qiuguo; Zhang Sufen; Li Juying; Zhao Xiaojun; Ye Qingfu; Wang Wei; Li Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Paichongding, a neonicotinoid chiral insecticide containing two chiral centers, is a promising substitute for the widely used imidacloprid because it is effective against many imidacloprid-resistant insects. In this study, four optically-pure stereoisomers of Paichongding with 5R, 7R, 5S, 7S, 5S, 7R, and 5R, 7S were employed in both foliar and root of Chinese pak choi to investigate the stereoselective uptake and distribution of the insecticide in pak choi. The results showed, after foliar application, total absorption of individual "1"4C-Paichongding stereoisomers into pak-choi plants demonstrated no stereoselectivity between the enantiomers. The translocation of the four absorbed stereoisomers within pak choi occurred in both acropetal and basipetal directions and the transport of "1"4C from enantiomers 5R, 7R and 5S, 7S were significantly higher than enantiomers 5R, 7S and 5S, 7R. The statistically significant stereoselective translocation inside plants was observed between Paichongding epimers. Root treatment revealed that enantioselective and diastereoselective root uptake into pak-choi plants were both found between the four enantiomers. The enantiomers of 5R, 7S and 5S, 7R were more readily taken up by roots, and more readily accumulated in edible leaves than 5R, 7R and 5S, 7S. These results will help to develop an understanding of the proper application of Paichongding isomers in vegetables, and give useful information for food and environmental assessments of chiral pesticides. (authors)

  12. Impact of Cytochrome P450 2D6 Function on the Chiral Blood Plasma Pharmacokinetics of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Its Phase I and II Metabolites in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Andrea E; Schmidhauser, Corina; Tingelhoff, Eva H; Schmid, Yasmin; Rickli, Anna; Kraemer, Thomas; Liechti, Matthias E

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) metabolism is known to be stereoselective, with preference for S-stereoisomers. Its major metabolic step involves CYP2D6-catalyzed demethylenation to 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (DHMA), followed by methylation and conjugation. Alterations in CYP2D6 genotype and/or phenotype have been associated with higher toxicity. Therefore, the impact of CYP2D6 function on the plasma pharmacokinetics of MDMA and its phase I and II metabolites was tested by comparing extensive metabolizers (EMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs), and EMs that were pretreated with bupropion as a metabolic inhibitor in a controlled MDMA administration study. Blood plasma samples were collected from 16 healthy participants (13 EMs and three IMs) up to 24 h after MDMA administration in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-period, cross-over design, with subjects receiving 1 week placebo or bupropion pretreatment followed by a single placebo or MDMA (125 mg) dose. Bupropion pretreatment increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC24) of R-MDMA (9% and 25%, respectively) and S-MDMA (16% and 38%, respectively). Bupropion reduced the Cmax and AUC24 of the CYP2D6-dependently formed metabolite stereoisomers of DHMA 3-sulfate, DHMA 4-sulfate, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA sulfate and HMMA glucuronide) by approximately 40%. The changes that were observed in IMs were generally comparable to bupropion-pretreated EMs. Although changes in stereoselectivity based on CYP2D6 activity were observed, these likely have low clinical relevance. Bupropion and hydroxybupropion stereoisomer pharmacokinetics were unaltered by MDMA co-administration. The present data might aid further interpretations of toxicity based on CYP2D6-dependent MDMA metabolism.

  13. Impact of Cytochrome P450 2D6 Function on the Chiral Blood Plasma Pharmacokinetics of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA and Its Phase I and II Metabolites in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Steuer

    Full Text Available 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy metabolism is known to be stereoselective, with preference for S-stereoisomers. Its major metabolic step involves CYP2D6-catalyzed demethylenation to 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (DHMA, followed by methylation and conjugation. Alterations in CYP2D6 genotype and/or phenotype have been associated with higher toxicity. Therefore, the impact of CYP2D6 function on the plasma pharmacokinetics of MDMA and its phase I and II metabolites was tested by comparing extensive metabolizers (EMs, intermediate metabolizers (IMs, and EMs that were pretreated with bupropion as a metabolic inhibitor in a controlled MDMA administration study. Blood plasma samples were collected from 16 healthy participants (13 EMs and three IMs up to 24 h after MDMA administration in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-period, cross-over design, with subjects receiving 1 week placebo or bupropion pretreatment followed by a single placebo or MDMA (125 mg dose. Bupropion pretreatment increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC24 of R-MDMA (9% and 25%, respectively and S-MDMA (16% and 38%, respectively. Bupropion reduced the Cmax and AUC24 of the CYP2D6-dependently formed metabolite stereoisomers of DHMA 3-sulfate, DHMA 4-sulfate, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA sulfate and HMMA glucuronide by approximately 40%. The changes that were observed in IMs were generally comparable to bupropion-pretreated EMs. Although changes in stereoselectivity based on CYP2D6 activity were observed, these likely have low clinical relevance. Bupropion and hydroxybupropion stereoisomer pharmacokinetics were unaltered by MDMA co-administration. The present data might aid further interpretations of toxicity based on CYP2D6-dependent MDMA metabolism.

  14. Evidence that two stereochemically different alpha-2 adrenoceptors modulate norepinephrine release in rat cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harsing, L.G. Jr.; Vizi, E.S. (Institute of Experimental Medicine, Budapest (Hungary))

    1991-01-01

    Cerebral cortex slices from the rat were loaded with (3H)norepinephrine ((3H)NE) and superfused in order to measure the release of radioactivity at rest and in response to electrical stimulation. The (-)-isomer and the (+)-isomer of CH-38083 (7,8-(methylenedioxy)-14- alpha-hydroxyalloberbane HCl), a selective alpha-2-adrenoceptor antagonist with an alloberbane skeleton, increased the electrically induced release of (3H)NE in a concentration-dependent manner, and a similar effect was observed with racemic CH-38083 and idazoxan. The stereoisomers of CH-38083 applied in a concentration range of 10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/l were equipotent in facilitating stimulation-evoked (3H)NE release: concentrations needed to enhance tritium outflow by 50% were 1.3 X 10(-7) mol/l for (-)-CH-38083 and 1.4 X 10(-7) mol/l for (+)-CH-38083. Exogenous NE decreased the electrically stimulated release of (3H)NE, and the stereoisomers of CH-38083 antagonized this inhibition with different potencies: the dissociation constant (KB) values for (-)-isomer and for (+)-isomer of CH-38083 were 14.29 and 97.18 nmol/l. These data indicate that presynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors that are available for NE released from axon terminals do not show stereospecificity toward enantiomers of CH-38083, whereas those that are occupied by exogenous NE are much more sensitive toward (-)-CH-38083. The alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin also differentiated between the alpha-2 adrenoceptor subtypes: prazosin (10(-6) mol/l) did not alter the increase of electrically induced (3H)NE release evoked by (-)- and (+)-CH-38083; however, in its presence, the stereoisomers of CH-38083 failed to antagonize the inhibitory effect of exogenous NE on its own release.

  15. Total Syntheses of Polycyclic Polyprenylated Acylphloroglucinol Natural Products and Analogs Utilizing Alkylative Dearomatizations and Cationic Cyclizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jonathan H.

    Polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) are structurally complex natural products with promising biological activities. These compounds have interesting anticancer and anti-HIV properties as well as other biological activities making them highly attractive synthetic targets. We report a stereodivergent, asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-clusianone in six steps from commercial materials. We have implemented a challenging cationic cyclization forging a bond between two sterically encumbered quaternary carbon atoms. Mechanistic studies point to the unique ability of formic acid to mediate the cyclization forming the clusianone framework. We also present a biosynthesis-inspired, diversity-oriented synthesis approach for rapid construction of PPAP analogs via palladium-catalyzed dearomative conjunctive allylic alkylation (DCAA). These efficient palladium-catalyzed protocols construct the [3.3.1]-bicyclic PPAP core in a single step from their stable aromatic precursors. The first syntheses of 13,14-didehydroxyisogarcinol and garcimultiflorone A stereoisomers are reported in six steps from a commercially available phloroglucinol. Lewis acid-controlled, diastereoselective cationic oxycyclizations enabled asymmetric syntheses of (-)-6-epi-13,14-didehydroxyisogarcinol and (+)-30-epi-13,14-didehydroxyisogarcinol. A similar strategy enabled production of the meso-derived isomers (+/-)-6,30- epi-13,14-didehydroxyisogarcinol and (+/-)-6,30-epi -garcmultiflorone A. A convenient strategy for gram scale synthesis of these stereoisomers was developed utilizing diastereomer separation at a later stage in the synthesis that minimized the number of necessary synthetic operations to access all possible stereoisomers. Finally, we report cationic rearrangements of dearomatized acylphloroglucinols leading to the formation of unprecedented PPAP scaffolds. A novel type A [3.3.1]-bicyclic PPAP was produced as a major product and the structure confirmed by X-ray crystallographic

  16. 脊髄におけるプロスタグランジン

    OpenAIRE

    山本 登志子,

    2005-01-01

    In the spinal cord, prostaglandins participate in the pain transmission including hyperalgesia and allodynia. Prostaglandin D2 and E2 induce hyperalgesia, while prostaglandin E2 and F2α induce allodynia. PGF2α synthase (PGFS) produce two stereoisomers of PGF2, PGF2α and9α, 11β-PGF2 which are synthesized from PGH2 and PGD2, respectively, by the distinct reductions in the prostaglandin synthesis pathway. Because the two reduction are occurred in the different active sites, PGFS is a multifuncti...

  17. CuI/Pd0 cooperative dual catalysis: tunable stereoselective construction of tetra-substituted alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Sébastien; Cornelissen, Loïc; Nahra, Fady; Collard, Laurent; Riant, Olivier

    2014-02-10

    This paper describes a tunable and stereoselective dual catalytic system that uses copper and palladium reagents. This cooperative silylcupration and palladium-catalyzed allylation readily affords trisubstituted alkenylsilanes. Fine-tuning the reaction conditions allows selective access to one stereoisomer over the other. This new methodology tolerates different substituents on both coupling partners with high levels of stereoselectivity. The one-pot reaction involving a Cu(I)/Pd(0) cooperative dual catalyst directly addresses the need to develop more time-efficient and less-wasteful synthetic pathways. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Chemoselective construction of novel steroid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Luigino; Florio, Saverio; Granito, Catia

    2002-07-01

    Alpha-halo-alpha-heteroarylalkyllithiums, generated by deprotonation of the corresponding halides, when added promptly to steroids with C=O or C=NR groups, lead to epoxides and aziridines. The reactions are regio- and stereoselective; in fact, in the presence of more than one C=O group, the oxido or aziridino functions are formed uniquely at the C=O of C-17 (or C-20 depending on its position in the starting molecule), and the C-20(R) stereoisomer is often the only product isolated. Protection of the hydroxyl group present on several considered steroids was required, and it was accomplished through derivatization in acetyl, ether, or lactone.

  19. Further studies on 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol oxidation in humans: effect of pool expansion and stereochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardh, G.

    1983-08-01

    The in vivo oxidation of the norepinephrine metabolite 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol (HMPG) to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid was studied in man with two different doses of deuterium-labeled HMPG and a tracer dose of (/sup 14/C)HMPG. HMPG oxidation appeared to be dose-dependent with an oxidation of 62-70% for doses below or equal to 2.2 mumol. With the use of a capillary column coated with an optically active phase (Chirasil-Val) and gas chromatography mass-spectrometry the human urinary excretions of the two stereoisomers of deuterium-labelled HMPG (free + conjugates) were found to be equal.

  20. Trans-Selective Rhodium Catalysed Conjugate Addition of Organoboron Reagents to Dihydropyranones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah J. Edwards

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The selective synthesis of 2,6-trans-tetrahydropyran derivatives employing the rhodium catalysed addition of organoboron reagents to dihydropyranone templates, derived from a zinc-catalysed hetero-Diels-Alder reaction, is reported. The addition of both arylboronic acids and potassium alkenyltrifluoroborates have been accomplished in high yields using commercially-available [Rh(cod(OH]2 catalyst. The selective formation of the 2,6-trans-tetrahydropyran stereoisomer is consistent with a mechanism involving alkene association and carbometalation on the less hindered face of the dihydropyranone.

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel heterocyclic derivatives of combretastatin A-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Binh; Lomberget, Thierry; Tran, Ngoc Chau; Colomb, Evelyne; Nachtergaele, Lore; Thoret, Sylviane; Dubois, Joëlle; Guillaume, Joren; Abdayem, Rawad; Haftek, Marek; Barret, Roland

    2012-12-01

    A novel series of combretastatin A-4 heterocyclic analogues was prepared by replacement of the B ring with indole, benzofurane or benzothiophene, attached at the C2 position. These compounds were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit tubulin assembly: derivative cis3b, having a benzothiophene, showed an activity similar to those of colchicine or deoxypodophyllotoxine. The antiproliferative and antimitotic properties of cis3b against keratinocyte cancer cell lines were also evaluated and the intracellular organization of microtubules in the cells after treatment with both stereoisomers of 3b was also determined, using confocal microscopy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomimetic conformation-specific assembly of proteins at artificial binding sites nano-patterned on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rica, Roberto; Matsui, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Biomolecules such as enzymes and antibodies possess binding sites where the molecular architecture and the physicochemical properties are optimum for their interaction with a particular target, in some cases even differentiating between stereoisomers. Here, we mimic this exquisite specificity via the creation of a suitable chemical environment by fabricating artificial binding sites for the protein calmodulin (CaM). By downscaling well-known surface chemical modification methodologies to the nanometer scale via silicon nanopatterning, the Ca2+-CaM conformer was found to selectively bind the biomimetic binding sites. The methodology could be adapted to mimic other protein-receptor interactions for sensing and catalysis. PMID:19757782

  3. Nine of 16 stereoisomeric polyhydroxylated proline amides are potent β-N-acetylhexosaminidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Benjamin J; Glawar, Andreas F G; Martínez, R Fernando; Ngo, Nigel; Liu, Zilei; Fleet, George W J; Butters, Terry D; Nash, Robert J; Yu, Chu-Yi; Wormald, Mark R; Nakagawa, Shinpei; Adachi, Isao; Kato, Atsushi; Jenkinson, Sarah F

    2014-04-18

    All 16 stereoisomeric N-methyl 5-(hydroxymethyl)-3,4-dihydroxyproline amides have been synthesized from lactones accessible from the enantiomers of glucuronolactone. Nine stereoisomers, including all eight with a (3R)-hydroxyl configuration, are low to submicromolar inhibitors of β-N-acetylhexosaminidases. A structural correlation between the proline amides is found with the ADMDP-acetamide analogues bearing an acetamidomethylpyrrolidine motif. The proline amides are generally more potent than their ADMDP-acetamide equivalents. β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase inhibition by an azetidine ADMDP-acetamide analogue is compared to an azetidine carboxylic acid amide. None of the amides are good α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase inhibitors.

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Chemical Constituents Isolated from Pithecellobium clypearia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingzhi Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the aqueous extract of Pithecellobium clypearia afforded one n ovel compound, clypearoside A(1, and one new stereoisomer , (--(2S,3S-epigallocatechin-7-gallate(2 and four known ones (3-6. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, especially 2D NMR, HRESIMS and ECD spectra. Compounds 2-4 showed strong activity against DPPH (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl and ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate with an IC 50 value of 11.9-13.2 μg/mL (DPPH and 4.5-6.4 μg/mL (ABTS.

  5. Bimolecular reactions of carbenes: Proton transfer mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saleh, Abd Al-Aziz A.; Almatarneh, Mansour H.; Poirier, Raymond A.

    2018-04-01

    Here we report the bimolecular reaction of trifluoromethylhydroxycarbene conformers and the water-mediated mechanism of the 1,2-proton shift for the unimolecular trans-conformer by using quantum chemical calculations. The CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ//MP2/cc-pVDZ potential-energy profile of the bimolecular reaction of cis- and trans-trifluoromethylhydroxycarbene, shows the lowest gas-phase barrier height of 13 kJ mol-1 compared to the recently reported value of 128 kJ mol-1 for the unimolecular reaction. We expect bimolecular reactions of carbene's stereoisomers will open a valuable field for new and useful synthetic strategies.

  6. Short synthesis of 3-(hydroxymethyl)xylitol and structure revision of the anti-diabetic natural product from Casearia esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruomeng; Paddon-Row, Michael N; Sherburn, Michael S

    2013-11-01

    3-(Hydroxymethyl)xylitol, a compound reportedly isolated from the root of Casearia esculenta (Roxb.), along with its three possible stereoisomers, has been synthesized for the first time by way of a triple dihydroxylation reaction performed upon the simplest cross-conjugated hydrocarbon, [3]dendralene. The data for the natural product do not match any of the isomeric 3-(hydroxymethyl)pentitols. The structure of the natural product from the root of Casearia esculenta (Roxb.) has been corrected by reanalysis of the published data.

  7. Stereoselectivity in bioaccumulation and excretion of epoxiconazole by mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaotian; Liu, Chen; Li, Yaobin; Gao, Yongxin; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong; Guo, Baoyuan

    2014-09-01

    Stereoselectivity in bioaccumulation and excretion of stereoisomers of epoxiconazole by mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) larvae through dietary exposure was investigated. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method that use a ChiralcelOD-3R[cellulosetris-Tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] chromatography column was applied to carry out chiral separation of the stereoisomers. Wheat bran was spiked with racemic epoxiconazole at two dose levels of 20mg/kg and 2mg/kg (dry weight) to feed T. molitor larvae. The results showed that both the doses of epoxiconazole were taken up by Tenebrio molitor larvae rapidly at the initial stages. There was a significant trend of stereoselective bioaccumulation in the larvae with a preferential accumulation of (-)-epoxiconazole in the 20mg/kg dose. The stereoselectivity in bioaccumulation in the 2mg/kg dosage was not obvious compared to the 20mg/kg group. Results of excretion indicated an active excretion is an important pathway for the larvae to eliminate epoxiconazole which was a passive transport process with non stereoselectivity. The faster elimination might be the reason for the low accumulation of epoxiconazole, as measured by bioaccumulation factor (BAF). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Drying Process on the Composition of Black Pepper Ethanolic Extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography With Diode Array Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Hejazi, Hoda; Ramezani, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Background Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is one of the well-known spices extensively used worldwide especially in India, and Southeast Asia. The presence of alkaloids in the pepper, namely, piperine and its three stereoisomers, isopiperine, chavicine and isochavicine are well noticed. Objectives The current study evaluated the effect of lyophilization and oven drying on the stability and decomposition of constituents of black pepper ethanolic extract. Materials and Methods In the current study ethanolic extract of black pepper obtained by maceration method was dried using two methods. The effect of freeze and oven drying on the chemical composition of the extract especially piperine and its three isomers were evaluated by HPLC analysis of the ethanolic extract before and after drying processes using diode array detector. The UV Vis spectra of the peaks at piperine retention time before and after each drying methods indicated maximum absorbance at 341.2 nm corresponding to standard piperine. Results The results indicated a decrease in intensity of the chromatogram peaks at approximately all retention times after freeze drying, indicating a few percent loss of piperine and its isomers upon lyophilization. Two impurity peaks were completely removed from the extract. Conclusions In oven dried samples two of the piperine stereoisomers were completely removed from the extract and the intensity of piperine peak was increased. PMID:24624176

  9. Synthesis of the DDT metabolite 2,4-dichloro-1-[2-chloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl]benzene (o-Cl-DDMU) and its detection in abiotic and biotic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistl, Christoph; Proctor, Katie; Bader, Korinna; Vetter, Walter

    2017-07-01

    Technical dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used worldwide as a pesticide since the beginning of the 1940s. Due to its persistence, DDT residues are still ubiquitously distributed in the environment. Photochemical UV degradation has been shown to be a potent degradation path for DDT and most of the resulting photoproducts have been identified up to now. Nevertheless, in 2012, a new DDT metabolite, most likely formed photochemically from DDE, was detected in ray liver samples from Brazil, an area which is highly contaminated with DDT. This study includes photochemical generation, chemical synthesis and isolation of this compound which was verified to consist of both cis- and trans-2,4-dichloro-1-[2-chloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl]benzene. Both stereoisomers were resolved by gas chromatography on a polar capillary column and detected in more than 60 biotic (e.g. marine mammals, birds, human milk) and abiotic samples (fat deposits in kitchen hoods) from different areas all over the world. The stereoisomer distribution and concentrations (0.3-3.9% relative to corresponding 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDE) levels) were determined by means of the synthesized analytical standard, indicating the widespread occurrence of this compound as an additional minor metabolite of DDT.

  10. Vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of oil of catnip by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Daniel; Gobble, Chase; Chickos, James

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Vaporization enthalpies of the nepetalactones from oil of catnip have been evaluated. • Vapor pressures from T = (298.15 to 350) K have been evaluated. • Oil of catnip has a vapor pressure similar to DEET at T = 298.15 K. - Abstract: The vaporization enthalpy and vapor pressure of the two nepetalactones found in Nepeta cataria have been evaluated by correlation gas chromatography. Vaporization enthalpies at T = 298.15 K of {(68.0 ± 1.9) and (69.4 ± 1.9)} kJ ⋅ mol"−"1 have been derived for the minor diastereomer, (4aS,7S,7aS)-nepetalactone, and major one, (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone, respectively. Vapor pressures also at T = 298.15 K of p = (1.2 ± 0.04) Pa and (0.91 ± 0.03) Pa have been evaluated for the minor and the major stereoisomer. In addition to being of interest because of the remarkable effect it has on various felids, oil of catnip is also quite effective in repelling mosquitoes, comparable to diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). The vapor pressures evaluated in this work suggest that the two stereoisomers have similar volatility to DEET at ambient temperatures.

  11. Novel 1,3-dioxanes from apple juice and cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, D; Beuerle, T; Wein, M; Boss, B; König, T; Schwab, W

    1999-12-01

    Extracts obtained by XAD solid-phase extraction of apple juice and cider were separated by liquid chromatography on silica gel. Several new 1,3-dioxanes including the known 2-methyl-4-pentyl-1,3-dioxane and 2-methyl-4-[2'(Z)-pentenyl]-1,3-dioxane, were identified in the nonpolar fractions by GC/MS analysis and confirmed by chemical synthesis. The enantioselective synthesis of the stereoisomers of the 1,3-dioxanes was performed using (R)- and (R,S)-octane-1,3-diol and (R)- and (R,S)-5(Z)-octene-1,3-diol as starting material. Comparison with the isolated products indicated that the natural products consisted of a mixture of (2S,4R) and (2R,4R) stereoisomers in the ratio of approximately 10:1, except for 1,3-dioxanes generated from acetone and 2-butanone. It is assumed that the 1, 3-dioxanes are chemically formed in the apples and cider from the natural apple ingredients (R)-octane-1,3-diol, (R)-5(Z)-octene-1, 3-diol, (3R,7R)- and (3R,7S)-octane-1,3,7-triol, and the appropriate aldehydes and ketones, which are produced either by the apples or by yeast during fermentation of the apple juice.

  12. The influence of stereoisomerism on the pharmacokinetics of Tc radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.; Taylor, A. [Atlanta, Emory Univ. School of Medicine, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Marzilli, L.G. [Atlanta, Emory Univ. School of Medicine, GA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-12-01

    The influence of stereoisomerism on the pharmacokinetics of Tc mono-oxo complexes is reviewed. Tc(V) mono-oxo complexes formed with N/S ligands have four donor groups from the ligands in an equatorial plane; the oxo ligand coordinates in an axial position. Stereoisomerism in Tc(V) mono-oxo complexes can be centered within the ligand (carbon atom in the chelate ring of ligating nitrogen of amine donors) or at the Tc. The metal center becomes chiral when an equatorial ligand has a head and a tail (i.e. the two ends of the ligand differ). All types of stereocenter can produce significantly different pharmacokinetic profiles for individual isomers. Thus, biological evaluation of separated stereoisomers is necessary to identify the optimal stereochemical configuration, particularly for radiopharmaceuticals targeted to receptor molecules with low specificity. Because of inter species variation, there is ultimately no substitute for human testing. Although it is possible that the increase in nonspecific binding of agents incorporating L- vs D-amino acids may more than offset any increased receptor binding, much more information is needed. Stereochemical factors can also lead to unpredictable differences in coordination geometry and thermodynamic preference of a single isomer; thus chemical characterization of stereo-isomers continues to be an important component of radiopharmaceutical development.

  13. Studies on panax acetylenes: absolute structure of a new panax acetylene, and inhibitory effects of related acetylenes on the growth of L-1210 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Yoshio; Satoh, Mitsuru; Isobe, Kimiaki; Mohri, Kunihiko; Yoshida, Yuki; Fujimoto, Yasuo

    2007-04-01

    A new Panax acetylene, 3-oxo-PQ-1 (1), was isolated from Panax quinquefolium. The absolute configurations of 3-oxo-PQ-1 (1) and PQ-1 (2) were determined to be (9R,10R) and (3R,9R,10R), respectively, by synthesizing 1 and 2 starting from D-(-)-diethyl tartrate, and by synthesizing their stereoisomers from L-(+)-diethyl tartrate. The growth inhibitory effects of Panax acetylenes (1-8) and their stereoisomers against leukemia cells were tested. Unnatural acetylenes having the (3S)-configuration (2, 5, 6, 7, 8; IC(50)=0.01-0.1 microg/ml) were found to be approximately ten times more potent than natural acetylenes (IC(50)=0.1-1.0 microg/ml) with the (3R)-configuration. Potency differences due to the configuration at C-9 and C-10 were unrelated to this stereochemistry. The C(14)-polyacetylenes, PQ-8 (4) and its isomer (IC(50)=1.0-10.0 microg/ml), were found to exhibit weaker cytotoxicity than the C(17)-polyacetylenes.

  14. The Plant Decapeptide OSIP108 Can Alleviate Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by Cisplatin in Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Spincemaille

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of the Arabidopsis thaliana-derived decapeptide OSIP108 on human cell tolerance to the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin (Cp, which induces apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. We found that OSIP108 increases the tolerance of HepG2 cells to Cp and prevents Cp-induced changes in basic cellular metabolism. More specifically, we demonstrate that OSIP108 reduces Cp-induced inhibition of respiration, decreases glycolysis and prevents Cp-uptake in HepG2 cells. Apart from its protective action against Cp in human cells, OSIP108 also increases the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to Cp. A limited yeast-based study of OSIP108 analogs showed that cyclization does not severely affect its activity, which was further confirmed in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the similarity in the activity of the D-stereoisomer (mirror image form of OSIP108 with the L-stereoisomer suggests that its mode of action does not involve binding to a stereospecific receptor. In addition, as OSIP108 decreases Cp uptake in HepG2 cells and the anti-Cp activity of OSIP108 analogs without free cysteine is reduced, OSIP108 seems to protect against Cp-induced toxicity only partly via complexation. Taken together, our data indicate that OSIP108 and its cyclic derivatives can protect against Cp-induced toxicity and, thus, show potential as treatment options for mitochondrial dysfunction- and apoptosis-related conditions.

  15. Highly selective synthesis of conjugated dienoic and trienoic esters via alkyne elementometalation–Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangwei; Mohan, Swathi; Negishi, Ei-ichi

    2011-01-01

    All four stereoisomers (7–10) of ethyl undeca-2,4-dienoate were prepared in ≥98% isomeric purity by Pd-catalyzed alkenylation (Negishi coupling) using ethyl (E)- and (Z)-β-bromoacrylates. Although the stereoisomeric purity of the 2Z,4E-isomer (8) prepared by Suzuki coupling using conventional alkoxide and carbonate bases was ≤ 95%, as reported earlier, the use of CsF or nBu4NF as a promoter base has now been found to give all of 7–10 in ≥98% selectivity. Other widely known methods reveal considerable limitations. Heck alkenylation was satisfactory for the syntheses of the 2E,4E and 2E,4Z isomers of ≥98% purity, but the purity of the 2Z,4E isomer was ≤ 95%. Mutually complementary Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons and Still–Gennari (SG) olefinations are also of considerably limited scopes. Neither 2E,4Z nor 2Z,4Z isomer is readily prepared in ≥90% selectivity. In addition to (2Z,4E)-dienoic esters, some (2Z,4E,6E)- and (2Z,4E,6Z)-trienoic esters have been prepared in ≥98% selectivity by a newly devised Pd-catalyzed alkenylation–SG olefination tandem process. As models for conjugated higher oligoenoic esters, all eight stereoisomers for ethyl trideca-2,4,6-trienoate (23–30) have been prepared in ≥98% overall selectivity. PMID:21709262

  16. Toll-like receptor 4 mutant and null mice retain morphine-induced tolerance, hyperalgesia, and physical dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Alexandra Mattioli

    Full Text Available The innate immune system modulates opioid-induced effects within the central nervous system and one target that has received considerable attention is the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. Here, we examined the contribution of TLR4 in the development of morphine tolerance, hyperalgesia, and physical dependence in two inbred mouse strains: C3H/HeJ mice which have a dominant negative point mutation in the Tlr4 gene rendering the receptor non-functional, and B10ScNJ mice which are TLR4 null mutants. We found that neither acute antinociceptive response to a single dose of morphine, nor the development of analgesic tolerance to repeated morphine treatment, was affected by TLR4 genotype. Likewise, opioid induced hyperalgesia and opioid physical dependence (assessed by naloxone precipitated withdrawal were not altered in TLR4 mutant or null mice. We also examined the behavioural consequence of two stereoisomers of naloxone: (- naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, and (+ naloxone, a purported antagonist of TLR4. Both stereoisomers of naloxone suppressed opioid induced hyperalgesia in wild-type control, TLR4 mutant, and TLR4 null mice. Collectively, our data suggest that TLR4 is not required for opioid-induced analgesic tolerance, hyperalgesia, or physical dependence.

  17. Chromatographic Separation of Vitamin E Enantiomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Yen Fu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E is recognized as an essential vitamin since its discovery in 1922. Most vegetable oils contain a mixture of tocopherols and tocotrienols in the vitamin E composition. Structurally, tocopherols and tocotrienols share a similar chromanol ring and a side chain at the C-2 position. Owing to the three chiral centers in tocopherols, they can appear as eight different stereoisomers. Plant sources of tocopherol are naturally occurring in the form of RRR while synthetic tocopherols are usually in the form of all-racemic mixture. Similarly, with only one chiral center, natural tocotrienols occur as the R-isoform. In this review, we aim to discuss a few chromatographic methods that had been used to separate the stereoisomers of tocopherols and tocotrienols. These methods include high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and combination of both. The review will focus on method development including selection of chiral columns, detection method and choice of elution solvent in the context of separation efficiency, resolution and chiral purity. The applications for separation of enantiomers in vitamin E will also be discussed especially in terms of the distinctive biological potency among the stereoisoforms.

  18. Supercritical fluid chromatography approach for a sustainable manufacture of new stereoisomeric anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinet, Alina; Zehani, Yasmine; Lipka, Emmanuelle

    2017-10-25

    Two routes aimed at the manufacture of unprecedented stereoisomeric combretastatin A-4 analogue were described: flash chromatography vs supercritical fluid chromatography. The latter has many advantages over liquid chromatography and was therefore chosen for the small scale separation of methyl 1-[(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-5-oxo-l-prolinate 5, with potential antitumoral activity. After a screening of six different polysaccharide based chiral stationary phases and four co-solvents, the percentage of co-solvent, the flow-rate and the outlet pressure were optimized through a design of experiments (DoE). The preparation of 50mg of each stereoisomer was achieved successfully on a Chiralpak AD-H with isopropanol as a co-solvent. Productivity (kkd), solvent usage and environmental factor (E Factor) were calculated. Flash chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography approaches were compared in terms of yield and purity of each stereoisomer manufactured. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Distributions of geohopanoids in peat: Implications for the use of hopanoid-based proxies in natural archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Gordon N.; Naafs, B. David A.; Zheng, Yanhong; McClymont, Erin L.; Evershed, Richard P.; Pancost, Richard D.; T-GRES Peat Database Collaborators

    2018-03-01

    Hopanoids are pentacyclic triterpenoids produced by a wide range of bacteria. Within modern settings, hopanoids mostly occur in the biological 17β,21β(H) configuration. However, in some modern peatlands, the C31 hopane is present as the 'thermally-mature' 17α,21β(H) stereoisomer. This has traditionally been ascribed to isomerisation at the C-17 position catalysed by the acidic environment. However, recent work has argued that temperature and/or hydrology also exert a control upon hopane isomerisation. Such findings complicate the application of geohopanoids as palaeoenvironmental proxies. However, due to the small number of peats that have been studied, as well as the lack of peatland diversity sampled, the environmental controls regulating geohopanoid isomerisation remain poorly constrained. Here, we undertake a global approach to investigate the occurrence, distribution and diagenesis of geohopanoids within peat, combining previously published and newly generated data (n = 395) from peatlands with a wide temperature (-1 to 27 °C) and pH (3-8) range. Our results indicate that peats are characterised by a wide range of geohopanoids. However, the C31 hopane and C32 hopanoic acid (and occasionally the C32 hopanol) typically dominate. C32 hopanoic acids occur as αβ- and ββ-stereoisomers, with the ββ-isomer typically dominating. In contrast, C31 hopanes occur predominantly as the αβ-stereoisomer. These two observations collectively suggest that isomerisation is not inherited from an original biological precursor (i.e. biohopanoids). Using geohopanoid ββ/(αβ + ββ) indices, we demonstrate that the abundance of αβ-hopanoids is strongly influenced by the acidic environment, and we observe a significant positive correlation between C31 hopane isomerisation and pH (n = 94, r2 = 0.64, p indicates that this isomerisation is rapid. This shows that geohopanoid ββ/(αβ + ββ) indices can be used to reconstruct pH within modern and ancient peat

  20. A new-generation of Bacillus subtilis cell factory for further elevated scyllo-inositol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kosei; Natsume, Ayane; Ishikawa, Shu; Takenaka, Shinji; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2017-04-21

    A stereoisomer of inositol, scyllo-inositol (SI), has been regarded as a promising therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease. However, this compound is relatively rare, whereas another stereoisomer of inositol, myo-inositol (MI) is abundant in nature. Bacillus subtilis 168 has the ability to metabolize inositol stereoisomers, including MI and SI. Previously, we reported a B. subtilis cell factory with modified inositol metabolism that converts MI into SI in the culture medium. The strain was constructed by deleting all genes related to inositol metabolism and overexpressing key enzymes, IolG and IolW. By using this strain, 10 g/l of MI initially included in the medium was completely converted into SI within 48 h of cultivation in a rich medium containing 2% (w/v) Bacto soytone. When the initial concentration of MI was increased to 50 g/l, conversion was limited to 15.1 g/l of SI. Therefore, overexpression systems of IolT and PntAB, the main transporter of MI in B. subtilis and the membrane-integral nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase in Escherichia coli respectively, were additionally introduced into the B. subtilis cell factory, but the conversion efficiency hardly improved. We systematically determined the amount of Bacto soytone necessary for ultimate conversion, which was 4% (w/v). As a result, the conversion of SI reached to 27.6 g/l within 48 h of cultivation. The B. subtilis cell factory was improved to yield a SI production rate of 27.6 g/l/48 h by simultaneous overexpression of IolT and PntAB, and by addition of 4% (w/v) Bacto soytone in the conversion medium. The concentration of SI was increased even in the stationary phase perhaps due to nutrients in the Bacto soytone that contribute to the conversion process. Thus, MI conversion to SI may be further optimized via identification and control of these unknown nutrients.

  1. Stereoselective uptake and distribution of the chiral neonicotinoid insecticide, Paichongding, in Chinese pak choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinenesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Zhen; Liu, Ruyang; Fu, Qiuguo; Zhang, Sufen; Cai, Zhiqiang; Li, Juying; Zhao, Xiaojun; Ye, Qingfu; Wang, Wei; Li, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Absorption of foliar applied Paichongding by pak choi was not stereoselective. • Foliar uptake and downward transport of Paichongding were both found in pak choi. • Enantioselective and epimer-selective root uptake were observed for Paichongding. • Foliage/root uptake showed diastereoselective transport of Paichongding epimers. • The SR and RS are more easily taken up by roots and accumulated in edible parts. -- Abstract: Neonicotinoid chiral insecticidal Paichongding is a promising substitute for the widely used imidacloprid. Four stereoisomers of Paichongding, 5R,7R, 5S,7S, 5S,7R and 5R,7S, were employed in both foliage and roots of Chinese pak choi to investigate their stereoselective uptake and distribution in pak choi. Results showed that after foliar application, no stereoselective absorption into pak-choi plants was observed among the enantiomers. Total absorptions were 35.40% of the applied amount for 5R,7R, 36.66% for 5S,7S, 36.80% for 5S,7R and 38.20% for 5R,7S at 96 HAT. The translocation of the four absorbed stereoisomers within pak choi occurred both acropetally and basipetally and the transport of 14 C from enantiomers 5R,7R and 5S,7S were significantly higher than for 5R,7S and 5S,7R. Significant stereoselective translocation inside plants was observed between Paichongding epimers. Total root uptake reached 16.49–19.85% for 5R,7R and 5S,7S, and 24.57–28.82% for 5S,7R and 5R,7S at 144 HAT. Both enantioselective and diastereoselective root uptake into pak-choi occurred between the four stereoisomers. The 5R,7S and 5S,7R enantiomers were more readily uptaken by the roots than 5R,7R and 5S,7S and accumulated in the edible leaves. These results will help to develop an understanding of Paichongding using only the target-active enantiomer of pesticides

  2. Stereoselective uptake and distribution of the chiral neonicotinoid insecticide, Paichongding, in Chinese pak choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinenesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Zhen; Liu, Ruyang; Fu, Qiuguo; Zhang, Sufen; Cai, Zhiqiang; Li, Juying; Zhao, Xiaojun [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Ye, Qingfu, E-mail: qfye@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Wang, Wei [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Li, Zhong, E-mail: lizhong@ecust.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Absorption of foliar applied Paichongding by pak choi was not stereoselective. • Foliar uptake and downward transport of Paichongding were both found in pak choi. • Enantioselective and epimer-selective root uptake were observed for Paichongding. • Foliage/root uptake showed diastereoselective transport of Paichongding epimers. • The SR and RS are more easily taken up by roots and accumulated in edible parts. -- Abstract: Neonicotinoid chiral insecticidal Paichongding is a promising substitute for the widely used imidacloprid. Four stereoisomers of Paichongding, 5R,7R, 5S,7S, 5S,7R and 5R,7S, were employed in both foliage and roots of Chinese pak choi to investigate their stereoselective uptake and distribution in pak choi. Results showed that after foliar application, no stereoselective absorption into pak-choi plants was observed among the enantiomers. Total absorptions were 35.40% of the applied amount for 5R,7R, 36.66% for 5S,7S, 36.80% for 5S,7R and 38.20% for 5R,7S at 96 HAT. The translocation of the four absorbed stereoisomers within pak choi occurred both acropetally and basipetally and the transport of {sup 14}C from enantiomers 5R,7R and 5S,7S were significantly higher than for 5R,7S and 5S,7R. Significant stereoselective translocation inside plants was observed between Paichongding epimers. Total root uptake reached 16.49–19.85% for 5R,7R and 5S,7S, and 24.57–28.82% for 5S,7R and 5R,7S at 144 HAT. Both enantioselective and diastereoselective root uptake into pak-choi occurred between the four stereoisomers. The 5R,7S and 5S,7R enantiomers were more readily uptaken by the roots than 5R,7R and 5S,7S and accumulated in the edible leaves. These results will help to develop an understanding of Paichongding using only the target-active enantiomer of pesticides.

  3. Ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of geometric isomers of carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Sandberg, Daniel J.; Cong, Hong; Sandberg, Megan N.; Gibson, George N.; Birge, Robert R.; Frank, Harry A.

    2009-01-01

    The structures of a number of stereoisomers of carotenoids have been revealed in three-dimensional X-ray crystallographic investigations of pigment-protein complexes from photosynthetic organisms. Despite these structural elucidations, the reason for the presence of stereoisomers in these systems is not well understood. An important unresolved issue is whether the natural selection of geometric isomers of carotenoids in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes is determined by the structure of the protein binding site or by the need for the organism to accomplish a specific physiological task. The association of cis isomers of a carotenoid with reaction centers and trans isomers of the same carotenoid with light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes has led to the hypothesis that the stereoisomers play distinctly different physiological roles. A systematic investigation of the photophysics and photochemistry of purified, stable geometric isomers of carotenoids is needed to understand if a relationship between stereochemistry and biological function exists. In this work we present a comparative study of the spectroscopy and excited state dynamics of cis and trans isomers of three different open-chain carotenoids in solution. The molecules are neurosporene (n = 9), spheroidene (n = 10), and spirilloxanthin (n = 13), where n is the number of conjugated π-electron double bonds. The spectroscopic experiments were carried out on geometric isomers of the carotenoids purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and then frozen to 77 K to inhibit isomerization. The spectral data taken at 77 K provide a high resolution view of the spectroscopic differences between geometric isomers. The kinetic data reveal that the lifetime of the lowest excited singlet state of a cis-isomer is consistently shorter than that of its corresponding all-trans counterpart despite the fact that the excited state energy of the cis molecule is typically higher than that of the trans

  4. Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL: Stereochemical modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakh Andrei A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our previous papers we introduced the Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL for providing a linear representation of chemical information. A subsequent development was the MCDL Java Chemical Structure Editor which is capable of drawing chemical structures from linear representations and generating MCDL descriptors from structures. Results In this paper we present MCDL modules and accompanying software that incorporate unique representation of molecular stereochemistry based on Cahn-Ingold-Prelog and Fischer ideas in constructing stereoisomer descriptors. The paper also contains additional discussions regarding canonical representation of stereochemical isomers, and brief algorithm descriptions of the open source LINDES, Java applet, and Open Babel MCDL processing module software packages. Conclusions Testing of the upgraded MCDL Java Chemical Structure Editor on compounds taken from several large and diverse chemical databases demonstrated satisfactory performance for storage and processing of stereochemical information in MCDL format.

  5. Structure elucidation of chromogen resulting from jaffe's reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.; Tariq, M.I.; Siddiqui, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Jaffe's reaction is a reaction of creatinine with alkaline picric acid resulting in red chromogen. This color is being used widely for the estimation of creatinine in biological fluids without knowing the exact structure of the chromogen. The red species is isolated and its UV/Visible, /sup 1/H- and /sup 13/C- NMR studies are carried out. It is found that the red species is not a pure compound but a mixture of stereoisomers. Moreover, the red species in water reflects the same UV /Visible spectra as given by the reaction of creatinine with alkaline picrate in aqueous media The red species is a 2:3 molar Meisenheimer a-complex of creatinine-picric acid. (author)

  6. Liver X receptor antagonist reduces lipid formation and increases glucose metabolism in myotubes from lean, obese and type 2 diabetic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kase, E T; Thoresen, G H; Westerlund, S

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Liver X receptors (LXRs) play important roles in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate effects of the endogenous LXR agonist 22-R-hydroxycholesterol (22-R-HC) and its stereoisomer 22-S-hydroxycholesterol (22-S-HC), in comparison...... with the synthetic agonist T0901317 on lipid and glucose metabolism in human skeletal muscle cells (myotubes). METHODS: Myotubes established from lean and obese control volunteers and from obese type 2 diabetic volunteers were treated with LXR ligands for 4 days. Lipid and glucose metabolisms were studied...... with labelled precursors, and gene expression was analysed using real-time PCR. RESULTS: Treatment with T0901317 increased lipogenesis (de novo lipid synthesis) and lipid accumulation in myotubes, this increase being more pronounced in myotubes from type 2 diabetic volunteers than from lean volunteers...

  7. Uncovering biologically significant lipid isomers with liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Jennifer E.; Zhang, Xing; Weitz, Karl K.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Lovelace, Erica S.; Wagoner, Jessica; Polyak, Steve; Metz, Thomas O.; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Smith, Richard D.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin Shammel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how biological molecules are generated, metabolized and eliminated in living systems is important for interpreting processes such as immune response and disease pathology. While genomic and proteomic studies have provided vast amounts of information over the last several decades, interest in lipidomics has also grown due to improved analytical technologies revealing altered lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes, cancer, and lipid storage disease. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements are currently the dominant approach for characterizing the lipidome by providing detailed information on the spatial and temporal composition of lipids. However, interpreting lipids’ biological roles is challenging due to the existence of numerous structural and stereoisomers (i.e. distinct acyl chain and double-bond positions), which are unresolvable using present LC-MS approaches. Here we show that combining structurally-based ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) with LC-MS measurements distinguishes lipid isomers and allows insight into biological and disease processes.

  8. Tetrahydrobiopterin restores endothelial dysfunction induced by an oral glucose challenge in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Rask-Madsen, Christian; Perner, Anders

    2003-01-01

    (n = 10) and SNP (n = 8). On different days (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-l-biopterin dihydrochloride (6R-BH4; n = 10), the active cofactor of eNOS or its stereoisomer (6S)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-l-biopterin sulfate (6S-BH4; n = 10), which is inactive as a cofactor, was added 10 min (500 microg/min) before...... and during the 1-h postchallenge serotonin dose-response study. In vitro studies showed that 6R-BH4 and 6S-BH4 were equipotent antioxidants. Serotonin response was reduced by 24 +/- 7% (at the highest dose) at 1 h postchallenge compared with fasting (P = 0.001) and was restored 2 h postchallenge...

  9. A new fundamental type of conformational isomerism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Peter J.; Blake, Iain M.; Cai, Zheng-Li; Luck, Ian J.; Krausz, Elmars; Kobayashi, Rika; Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Crossley, Maxwell J.

    2018-06-01

    Isomerism is a fundamental chemical concept, reflecting the fact that the arrangement of atoms in a molecular entity has a profound influence on its chemical and physical properties. Here we describe a previously unclassified fundamental form of conformational isomerism through four resolved stereoisomers of a transoid (BF)O(BF)-quinoxalinoporphyrin. These comprise two pairs of enantiomers that manifest structural relationships not describable within existing IUPAC nomenclature and terminology. They undergo thermal diastereomeric interconversion over a barrier of 104 ± 2 kJ mol-1, which we term `akamptisomerization'. Feasible interconversion processes between conceivable synthesis products and reaction intermediates were mapped out by density functional theory calculations, identifying bond-angle inversion (BAI) at a singly bonded atom as the reaction mechanism. We also introduce the necessary BAI stereodescriptors parvo and amplo. Based on an extended polytope formalism of molecular structure and stereoisomerization, BAI-driven akamptisomerization is shown to be the final fundamental type of conformational isomerization.

  10. Comprehensive DFT study on molecular structures of Lewisites in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidian, Hamid; Sahandi, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    The structure of all of Lewisite's stereoisomers has been examined by B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd) calculations. The geometry analysis for trans Lewisite L1-1 shows that the calculated bond angles, bond distances and dipole moment have a satisfactory relation compared with experimental values. HOMO-LUMO analysis of Lewisites reveals that L1-2 and L3-7 have the maximum and minimum electrophilicity index, respectively. The calculated chemical shifts were compared with experimental data, showing a very good agreement both for 1H and 13C. The vibrational and Raman frequencies of Lewisites have been precisely assigned and theoretical data were compared with the experimental vibrations. The bonding trends and Mulliken and atomic polar tensor charge distribution in Lewisites can be explained by the Bent's rule and the donor-acceptor interaction, respectively.

  11. Influence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds on regioselectivity of glycosylation. Synthesis of lupane-type saponins bearing the OSW-1 saponin disaccharide unit and its isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynska, Kinga; Cmoch, Piotr; Rárová, Lucie; Oklešťková, Jana; Korda, Anna; Pakulski, Zbigniew; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-03-24

    A series of lupane-type saponins bearing OSW-1 disaccharide unit as well as its regio- and stereoisomers were prepared and used for the structure-activity relationships (SAR) study. Unexpected preference for 1→4-linked regioisomers and an unusual inversion of the conformation of the sugar rings were noted. Cytotoxic activity of new lupane compounds was evaluated in vitro and revealed that some saponins exhibited an interesting bioactivity profile against human cancer cell lines. Influence of the protecting groups on the cytotoxicity was investigated. These results open the way to the synthesis of various lupane-type triterpene and saponin derivatives as potential anticancer compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Minireview of Stereoselective Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Donald F.; Jakobsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Stereoselectivity is a fundamental principle in living systems. Stereoselectivity reflects the dependence of molecular processes on the spatial orientation of constituent atoms. Stereoselective processes govern many aspects of brain function and direct the course of many psychotropic drugs. Today......, modern imaging techniques such as SPECT and PET provide a means for studying stereoselective processes in the living brain. Chemists have prepared numerous radiolabelled stereoisomers for use in SPECT and PET in order to explore various molecular processes in the living brain of anesthetized laboratory...... animals and awake humans. The studies have demonstrated how many aspects of neurotransmission consist of crucial stereoselective events that can affect brain function in health and disease. Here, we present a brief account of those findings in hope of stimulating further interest in the vital topic....

  13. Visible-Light Photocatalytic Decarboxylation of α,β-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids: Facile Access to Stereoselective Difluoromethylated Styrenes in Batch and Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The development of synthetic methodologies which provide access to both stereoisomers of α,β-disubstituted olefins is a challenging undertaking. Herein, we describe the development of an operationally simple and stereoselective synthesis of difluoromethylated styrenes via a visible-light photocatalytic decarboxylation strategy using fac-Ir(ppy)3 as the photocatalyst. Meta- and para-substituted cinnamic acids provide the expected E-isomer. In contrast, ortho-substituted cinnamic acids yield selectively the less stable Z-product, whereas the E-isomer can be obtained via continuous-flow processing through accurate control of the reaction time. Furthermore, our protocol is amenable to the decarboxylative difluoromethylation of aryl propiolic acids. PMID:29109904

  14. Synthetic routes to some isotopically labelled intermediates for diterpenoid biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, R.M.; Godfrey, I.M.; Hogg, R.W.; Knox, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The exo-15-hydrogen of ent-kaurene can be exchanged through a reversible ene reaction in a convenient and efficient procedure which has the potential for giving high specific activity 3 H-labelling. Copalol, the (Z)-double bond stereoisomer, and the allylic alcohol isomers ent-manool and ent-epimanool have been obtained through divergent synthetic pathways involving a 15,16-bisnor ketone intermediate. These pathways have also allowed the four compounds to be obtained with 14 C-labelling. A method, involving a Wittig reaction to form a vinyl bromide intermediate, has been developed for obtaining copalol, as the trityl ether derivative, with stereospecific isotopic labelling of one or the other of the hydrogens of the exocyclic methylene group. 27 refs., figs

  15. Phlebitis as a consequence of peripheral intravenous administration of cisatracurium besylate in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeder, Annelijn M; van der Steen, Marijke S; Rozendaal, Annemieke; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2016-10-03

    This case report series describes 3 cases of cisatracurium besylate associated phlebitis after an infusion period of 14-20 hours. No similar cases have been reported in the literature. Association of phlebitis with another neuromuscular blocking agent, atracurium, has been described in the literature. The acidity of atracurium is thought to be the main cause. It is recommended that atracurium is administered only via central venous catheters when indicated to infuse over prolonged periods of time due to the acidity. Cisatracurium is a stereoisomer of atracurium and as such has the same molecular weight. Although cisatracurium also has a similar acidity as atracurium, a recommendation concerning infusion via a central venous catheter is lacking. We suggest prolonged administration of cisatracurium besylate only via centrally placed venous catheters or if not possible to careful monitor relevant peripheral intravenous sites to diminish the risks of phlebitis and associated complications or other cutaneous reactions. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Effects of topical application of aqueous solutions of hexoses on epidermal permeability barrier recovery rate after barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested that hexose molecules influence the stability of phospholipid bilayers. Therefore, the effects of topical application of all 12 stereoisomers of dextro-hexose on the epidermal barrier recovery rate after barrier disruption were evaluated. Immediately after tape stripping, 0.1 m aqueous solution of each hexose was applied on hairless mouse skin. Among the eight dextro-aldohexoses, topical application of altose, idose, mannose and talose accelerated the barrier recovery, while allose, galactose, glucose and gulose had no effect. Among the four dextro-ketohexoses, psicose, fructose, sorbose and tagatose all accelerated the barrier recovery. As the effects of hexoses on the barrier recovery rate appeared within 1 h, the mechanism is unlikely to be genomic. Instead, these hexoses may influence phase transition of the lipid bilayers of lamellar bodies and cell membrane, a crucial step in epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. On the correlation between hydrogen bonding and melting points in the inositols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Sándor L; Alig, Edith; Schmidt, Martin U

    2014-01-01

    Inositol, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydroxycyclohexane, exists in nine stereoisomers with different crystal structures and melting points. In a previous paper on the relationship between the melting points of the inositols and the hydrogen-bonding patterns in their crystal structures [Simperler et al. (2006...... ▶). CrystEngComm 8, 589], it was noted that although all inositol crystal structures known at that time contained 12 hydrogen bonds per molecule, their melting points span a large range of about 170 °C. Our preliminary investigations suggested that the highest melting point must be corrected for the effect...... ordered phases could be determined, of which seven were obtained from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data. Five additional phases turned out to be rotator phases and only their unit cells could be determined. Two previously unknown melting points were measured, as well as most enthalpies of melting...

  18. Stereochemistry of Complex Marine Natural Products by Quantum Mechanical Calculations of NMR Chemical Shifts: Solvent and Conformational Effects on Okadaic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto J. Domínguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are an increasingly important source of novel metabolites, some of which have already inspired or become new drugs. In addition, many of these molecules show a high degree of novelty from a structural and/or pharmacological point of view. Structure determination is generally achieved by the use of a variety of spectroscopic methods, among which NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance plays a major role and determination of the stereochemical relationships within every new molecule is generally the most challenging part in structural determination. In this communication, we have chosen okadaic acid as a model compound to perform a computational chemistry study to predict 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts. The effect of two different solvents and conformation on the ability of DFT (density functional theory calculations to predict the correct stereoisomer has been studied.

  19. Studies towards the identification of the sex pheromone of Thyrinteina arnobia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Jardel A.; Neppe, Tiago; Paiva, Marcelo M. de; Deobald, Anna M.; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G.; Paixao, Marcio W.; Correa, Arlene G., E-mail: agcorrea@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2013-12-01

    The eucalyptus brown-looper Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is considered an important pest in Brazilian native plants, e.g. Psidium guajava, and exotic plants, such as Eucalyptus species. In this work we describe the isolation of the pheromone components of T. arnobia, using glands extract and solid phase micro extraction (SPME) of virgin females. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with an electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD), and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two reproducible electroantennographic responses were elicited in the male antenna of T. arnobia and one of them was identified as 3,4-epoxy-6,9-heneicosadiene by CG-MS. The racemic synthesis of this epoxydiene was carried out in 10 steps and 28% overall yield. The four stereoisomers of the epoxydiene were also synthesized employing the corresponding enantiomeric enriched epoxyalcohols. (author)

  20. Complete separation of racemic p-boronophenylalanine by high performance liquid chromatography with crown ether-coated reversed-phase packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, K.; Mieda, S.; Maruyama, T.; Mori, Y.; Mishima, Y.; Ichihashi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Since the L-form of p-boronophenylalanine (p-bpa) has been shown to be more efficiently incorporated into melanoma cells than racemic p-bpa separation of racemic p-bpa into its stereoisomers is an important subject. One of the preparative methods used to resolve racemic p-bpa involves the use of α-chymotrypsin. However, there has been a problem in that optical purity of resolved L- or D-p-bpa products was not easily determined. In this paper, the authors describe a method which can be used to confirm the optical purity of b-pba using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with crown ether-coated reversed-phase packings

  1. Studies towards the identification of the sex pheromone of Thyrinteina arnobia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Jardel A.; Neppe, Tiago; Paiva, Marcelo M. de; Deobald, Anna M.; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G.; Paixao, Marcio W.; Correa, Arlene G.

    2013-01-01

    The eucalyptus brown-looper Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is considered an important pest in Brazilian native plants, e.g. Psidium guajava, and exotic plants, such as Eucalyptus species. In this work we describe the isolation of the pheromone components of T. arnobia, using glands extract and solid phase micro extraction (SPME) of virgin females. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with an electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD), and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two reproducible electroantennographic responses were elicited in the male antenna of T. arnobia and one of them was identified as 3,4-epoxy-6,9-heneicosadiene by CG-MS. The racemic synthesis of this epoxydiene was carried out in 10 steps and 28% overall yield. The four stereoisomers of the epoxydiene were also synthesized employing the corresponding enantiomeric enriched epoxyalcohols. (author)

  2. Principles of asymmetric synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Gawley, Robert E; Aube, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The world is chiral. Most of the molecules in it are chiral, and asymmetric synthesis is an important means by which enantiopure chiral molecules may be obtained for study and sale. Using examples from the literature of asymmetric synthesis, this book presents a detailed analysis of the factors that govern stereoselectivity in organic reactions. After an explanation of the basic physical-organic principles governing stereoselective reactions, the authors provide a detailed, annotated glossary of stereochemical terms. A chapter on "Practical Aspects of Asymmetric Synthesis" provides a critical overview of the most common methods for the preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds, techniques for analysis of stereoisomers using chromatographic, spectroscopic, and chiroptical methods. The authors then present an overview of the most important methods in contemporary asymmetric synthesis organized by reaction type. Thus, there are four chapters on carbon-carbon bond forming reactions, one chapter on reductions...

  3. rac-1-[6-Hydroxy-4-(4-methoxyphenyl-3,6-dimethyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazol-5-yl]ethanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Potekhin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H22N2O3, represents a (4S,5R,6S-stereoisomer, crystallizing as a racemate in a centrosymmetric space group. The six-membered aliphatic ring adopts a half-chair conformation, with the hydroxy- and acetyl-substituted C atoms deviating by 0.458 (2 and −0.366 (2 Å, respectively, from the plane defined by other four ring atoms. The pyrazole ring is essentially planar [r.m.s deviation = 0.004 (2 Å]. In the crystal, the molecules are linked into chains along the b axis by N—H...N hydrogen bonds. The chains are linked by O—H...N hydrogen bonds into layers parallel to the bc plane.

  4. Evaluation of potential reaction mechanisms leading to the formation of coniferyl alcohol α-linkages in lignin: a density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Heath D; Mohamed, Mohamed Naseer Ali; Kubicki, James D

    2011-12-21

    Five potential reaction mechanisms, each leading to the formation of an α-O-4-linked coniferyl alcohol dimer, and one scheme leading to the formation of a recently proposed free-radical coniferyl alcohol trimer were assessed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. These potential reaction mechanisms were evaluated using both the calculated Gibbs free energies, to predict the spontaneity of the constituent reactions, and the electron-density mapped Fukui function, to determine the most reactive sites of each intermediate species. The results indicate that each reaction in one of the six mechanisms is thermodynamically favorable to those in the other mechanisms; what is more, the Fukui function for each free radical intermediate corroborates with the thermochemical results for this mechanism. This mechanism proceeds via the formation of two distinct free-radical intermediates, which then react to produce the four α-O-4 stereoisomers.

  5. Synthesis of 4,4-ditritio-(+)-nicotine: comparative binding and distribution studies with natural enantiomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincek, W.C.; Martin, B.R.; Aceto, M.D.; Tripathi, H.L.; May, E.L.; Harris, L.S.

    1981-11-01

    The preparation of 4,4-ditritio-(+)-nicotine (Vb) (specific activity 10.3 Ci/mmole)from (+)-nicotine (Ib) via (-) 4,4-dibromocotinine (IIIb) is described. Although Ib is 10-30 times less potent than (-)-nicotine (Ia) in the CNS, its binding affinity for the crude mitochondrial or nuclear fraction of whole rat brain is only three times less than that of Ia. However, distribution studies showed that the maximum brain levels of (-)-(3H) nicotine are nearly twice those of (+)-(3H)-nicotine following administration of a 2-micrograms/kg dose. Binding affinity and disposition of the stereoisomers account for a portion of the pharmacological stereospecificity of nicotine.

  6. 2,3-trans-3,4-trans-3,4-Dihydroxy-L-proline: An amino acid in toxic peptides of Amanita virosa mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buku, A.; Faulstich, H.; Wieland, T.; Dabrowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    Among the four possible stereoisomers of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline,2,3-trans-3,4-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline (IV) had not been found in nature previously. It has now been detected as a component of virotoxins, toxic peptides of Amanita virosa mushrooms. Because periodate failed to effect an oxidative glycol splitting reaction, the two hydroxyl groups in positions 3 and 4 were expected to be in a trans configuration. Furthermore, the formation of a 4-lactone on treatment with acids pointed to the carboxyl group and the hydroxyl group at position 4 being in a cis configuration. These results are in agreement with structure IV only. Final proof for structure IV was given by NMR spectroscopy and direct comparison with the 2,3-cis-3,4-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline isomer. PMID:16592813

  7. Combinatorial synthesis by nature: volatile organic sulfur-containing constituents of Ruta chalepensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Sina; Niclass, Yvan; van de Waal, Matthijs; Starkenmann, Christian

    2006-09-01

    Ongoing interest in discovering new natural fragrance and flavor ingredients prompted us to examine a solvent extract of sulfurous-sweaty smelling Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) plant material more closely. Twenty-one sulfur-containing constituents of similar structures were identified by GC/MS techniques. Amongst them, 14 have never been described to occur in nature. The compounds 1-18 belong to a family of natural flavor and fragrance molecules having a 1,3-positioned O,S moiety in common. The identities of the natural constituents were confirmed by comparison with synthetic reference samples, and the organoleptic properties of the latter were studied. The relative and absolute configurations of the four stereoisomers of 4-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (5) were established by stereoselective synthesis. The natural isomers consisted of a 65 : 35 mixture of (3R,4S)-5 and (3S,4S)-5.

  8. Divergent Synthesis of Diastereomeric Sphingosines from a Chiral Aziridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, On-Yu; Shin, Mi-Ri; Kang, Han-Young [Chungbuk National University, Gongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    All four stereoisomers of sphingosines were synthesized starting from a single intermediate, chiral aziridine (2), which was efficiently prepared by enzymatic desymmetrization in an enatiopure form. Aziridine (2) was converted to 3, which was used for the synthesis of 4. Both the advanced key intermediates, vinylaziridines 3 and 4, were successfully converted to threo-sphingosines 1a and 1b, respectively. Ring-closing metathesis (RCM) using the Grubbs II catalyst was the key reaction in the synthesis. Two erythro-sphingosines 1c and 1d were synthesized by the ring-expansion reactions of vinylaziridines 3 and 4, followed by RCM reactions. The successful divergent synthesis confirmed that chiral vinylaziridine 2 can be used as a key intermediate for the synthesis of sphingosine-related natural products.

  9. Conversion of Natural Aldehydes from Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, and Lippia multiflora into Oximes: GC-MS and FT-IR Analysis †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor W. Ouédraogo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Three carbonyl-containing extracts of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora (Myrtaceae, Cymbopogon citratus (Gramineae and Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae were used for the preparation of oximes. The reaction mixtures were analyzed by GC-MS and different compounds were identified on the basis of their retention times and mass spectra. We observed quantitative conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding oximes with a purity of 95 to 99%. E and Z stereoisomers of the oximes were obtained and separated by GC-MS. During GC analysis, the high temperature in the injector was shown to cause partial dehydratation of oximes and the resulting nitriles were readily identified. Based on FT-IR spectroscopy, that revealed the high stability and low volatility of these compounds, the so-obtained oximes could be useful for future biological studies.

  10. Methodology in structural determination and synthesis of insect pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang Lin

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of ethereal washing of insect pheromone glands of female moths, GC-MS detection along with microchemical reactions and electroantennogram (EAG survey, six economically important insect species were targeted for pheromone identification. The discovery of a natural pheromone inhibitor, chemo-selectivity and species isolation by pheromone will be described. The modified triple bond migration and triethylamine liganded vinyl cuprate were applied for achiral pheromone synthesis in double bond formation. Some optically active pheromones and their stereoisomers were synthesized through chiral pool or asymmetric synthesis. Some examples of chiral recognition of insects towards their chiral pheromones will be discussed. A CaH2 and silica gel catalyzed Sharpless Expoxidation Reaction was found in shortening the reaction time.

  11. Identification of geranic acid, a tyrosinase inhibitor in lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Toshiya; Odaka, Yuka; Ogawa, Natsuko; Nakamoto, Katsuo; Kuninaga, Hideki

    2008-01-23

    Lemongrass is a popular Asian herb having a lemon-like flavor. Very recently, potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity has been found in lemongrass in addition to various biological activities reported in the literature. The aim of the present study is to identify the active compounds in the lemongrass. An assay-guided purification revealed that one of the active substances was geranic acid. Geranic acid has two stereoisomers, which are responsible for the trans and cis geometry on the conjugated double bond. Both isomers are present in the active ethyl acetate-soluble extract of the lemongrass, and their IC50 values were calculated to be 0.14 and 2.3 mM, respectively. The structure requirement of geranic acid for the potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity was investigated using geranic acid-related compounds.

  12. Potentials to differentiate milk composition by different feeding strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slots, Tina; Butler, G.; Leifert, C.

    2009-01-01

    parameters. Production of milk based on feeding a high intake of cereals, pasture, and grass silage resulted in milk with a high concentration of alpha-linolenic acid (9.4 +/- 0.2 mg/kg of fatty acids), polyunsaturated fatty acids (3.66 +/- 0.07 mg/kg of fatty acids), and natural stereoisomer of alpha...... (27.5 +/- 0.3 mg/kg of fatty acids), and a high ratio between LA and alpha-linolenic acid (4.7 +/- 0.2). Comparing these 2 production systems with a very extensive nonorganic milk production system relying on pasture as almost the sole feed (95 +/- 4% dry matter intake), it was found...

  13. Stereodivergent Mannich reaction of bis(trimethylsilyl)ketene acetals with N-tert-butanesulfinyl imines by Lewis acid or Lewis base activation, a one-pot protocol to obtain chiral β-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú-Reyes, Margarita; Alvarado-Beltrán, Isabel; Ballinas-Indilí, Ricardo; Álvarez-Toledano, Cecilio; Hernández-Rodríguez, Marcos

    2017-09-20

    We report a one-pot synthesis of chiral β 2,2,3 -amino acids by the Mannich addition of bistrimethylsilyl ketene acetals to N-tert-butanesulfinyl imines followed by the removal of the chiral auxiliary. The synthesis and isolation of pure β-amino acid hydrochlorides were conducted under mild conditions, without strong bases and this method is operationally simple. The stereoselective reaction was promoted by two different activation methods that lead to different stereoisomers: (1) Lewis Acid (LA) catalysis with boron trifluoride diethyl etherate and (2) Lewis Base (LB) catalysis with tetrabutylammonium difluorotriphenylsilicate. The reaction presented good diastereoselectivity with LB activation and moderate to good dr with LA catalysis. The exceptions in both protocols were imines with electron donating groups in the aromatic ring.

  14. PIP2 modulation of slick and slack K+ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejada, Maria de los Angeles; Jensen, Lars Jørn; Klærke, Dan Arne

    2012-01-01

    Slick and Slack are members of the Slo family of high-conductance potassium channels. These channels are activated by Na(+) and Cl(-) and are highly expressed in the CNS, where they are believed to contribute to the resting membrane potential of neurons and the control of excitability. Herein, we...... provide evidence that Slick and Slack channels are regulated by the phosphoinositide PIP(2). Two stereoisomers of PIP(2) were able to exogenously activate Slick and Slack channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and in addition, it is shown that Slick and Slack channels are modulated by endogenous PIP(2......). The activating effect of PIP(2) appears to occur by direct interaction with lysine 306 in Slick and lysine 339 in Slack, located at the proximal C-termini of both channels. Overall, our data suggest that PIP(2) is an important regulator of Slick and Slack channels, yet it is not involved in the recently...

  15. Distribution of enantiomers of volatile organic compounds in selected fruit distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyviurska, Olga; Zvrškovcová, Helena; Špánik, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The enantiomer ratios of chiral volatile organic compounds in fruit distillates were determined by multidimensional gas chromatography using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) as a sample treatment procedure. Linalool and its oxides, limonene, α-terpineol, and nerolidol, were present at the highest concentration levels, while significantly lower amounts of β-citronellol and lactones were found in the studied samples. However, almost all terpenoids mainly occur as a racemic or near-racemic mixture; enantiomer distribution of some chiral organic compounds in fruit distillates correlated to a botanical origin. In particular, a significant enantiomeric excess of (R)-linalool and (S)-α-terpineol was found only for pear brandy, and likewise the dominance (R)-limonene and the second eluted enantiomer of nerolidol for Sorbus domestica and strawberry, respectively. The distribution of γ-lactones stereoisomers was more nonspecific, with a general excess of the R-enantiomer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Chemical Graph Transformation with Stereo-Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Lykke; Flamm, Christoph; Merkle, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Double Pushout graph transformation naturally facilitates the modelling of chemical reactions: labelled undirected graphs model molecules and direct derivations model chemical reactions. However, the most straightforward modelling approach ignores the relative placement of atoms and their neighbo......Double Pushout graph transformation naturally facilitates the modelling of chemical reactions: labelled undirected graphs model molecules and direct derivations model chemical reactions. However, the most straightforward modelling approach ignores the relative placement of atoms...... and their neighbours in space. Stereoisomers of chemical compounds thus cannot be distinguished, even though their chemical activity may differ substantially. In this contribution we propose an extended chemical graph transformation system with attributes that encode information about local geometry. The modelling...... of graph transformation, but we here propose a framework that also allows for partially specified stereoinformation. While there are several stereochemical configurations to be considered, we focus here on the tetrahedral molecular shape, and suggest general principles for how to treat all other chemically...

  17. Simultaneous determination of diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric impurities in SSS-octahydroindole-2-carboxylic acid by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin Zhao; Zeng, Su; Hu, Gong Yun; Wang, Dan Hua

    2009-04-10

    SSS-Octahydroindole-2-carboxylic acid (SSS-Oic) is a key intermediate used in the synthesis of some angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The separation of diastereoisomers and enantiomers of Oic was performed using a pre-column derivatization chiral HPLC method. Phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) was used as the derivatization reagent. Three PITC derivatives of Oic stereoisomers were separated on an Ultron ES-OVM chiral column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). Derivatization conditions such as reaction temperature, reaction time and derivatization reagent concentration were investigated. The chromatographic conditions for separation of the three PITC-Oic derivatives were optimized. The method was successfully applied in the diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric purity test of SSS-Oic.

  18. Structure Elucidation and Activity of Kolossin A, the D-/L-Pentadecapeptide Product of a Giant Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Helge B; Brachmann, Alexander O; Jadhav, Kirtikumar B; Seyfarth, Lydia; Dauth, Christina; Fuchs, Sebastian W; Kaiser, Marcel; Waterfield, Nick R; Sack, Holger; Heinemann, Stefan H; Arndt, Hans-Dieter

    2015-08-24

    The largest continuous bacterial nonribosomal peptide synthetase discovered so far is described. It consists of 15 consecutive modules arising from an uninterrupted, fully functional gene in the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. The identification of its cryptic biosynthesis product was achieved by using a combination of genome analysis, promoter exchange, isotopic labeling experiments, and total synthesis of a focused collection of peptide candidates. Although it belongs to the growing class of D-/ L-peptide natural products, the encoded metabolite kolossin A was found to be largely devoid of antibiotic activity and is likely involved in interspecies communication. A stereoisomer of this peculiar natural product displayed high activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, a recalcitrant parasite that causes the deadly disease African sleeping sickness. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Specific Stereoisomeric Conformations Determine the Drug Potency of Cladosporin Scaffold against Malarial Parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pronay; Babbar, Palak; Malhotra, Nipun; Sharma, Manmohan; Jachak, Gorakhnath R; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Harlos, Karl; Yogavel, Manickam; Sharma, Amit; Reddy, D Srinivasa

    2018-05-21

    The dependence of drug potency on diastereomeric configurations is a key facet. Using a novel general divergent synthetic route for a three-chiral centre anti-malarial natural product cladosporin, we built its complete library of stereoisomers (cladologs) and assessed their inhibitory potential using parasite-, enzyme- and structure-based assays. We show that potency is manifest via tetrahyropyran ring conformations that are housed in the ribose binding pocket of parasite lysyl tRNA synthetase (KRS). Strikingly, drug potency between top and worst enantiomers varied 500-fold, and structures of KRS-cladolog complexes reveal that alterations at C3 and C10 are detrimental to drug potency where changes at C3 are sensed by rotameric flipping of Glutamate332. Given that scores of anti-malarial and anti-infective drugs contain chiral centers, this work provides a new foundation for focusing on inhibitor stereochemistry as a facet of anti-microbial drug development.

  20. Chiral DOTA chelators as an improved platform for biomedical imaging and therapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lixiong; Jones, Chloe M; Chan, Wesley Ting Kwok; Pham, Tiffany A; Ling, Xiaoxi; Gale, Eric M; Rotile, Nicholas J; Tai, William Chi-Shing; Anderson, Carolyn J; Caravan, Peter; Law, Ga-Lai

    2018-02-27

    Despite established clinical utilisation, there is an increasing need for safer, more inert gadolinium-based contrast agents, and for chelators that react rapidly with radiometals. Here we report the syntheses of a series of chiral DOTA chelators and their corresponding metal complexes and reveal properties that transcend the parent DOTA compound. We incorporated symmetrical chiral substituents around the tetraaza ring, imparting enhanced rigidity to the DOTA cavity, enabling control over the range of stereoisomers of the lanthanide complexes. The Gd chiral DOTA complexes are shown to be orders of magnitude more inert to Gd release than [GdDOTA] - . These compounds also exhibit very-fast water exchange rates in an optimal range for high field imaging. Radiolabeling studies with (Cu-64/Lu-177) also demonstrate faster labelling properties. These chiral DOTA chelators are alternative general platforms for the development of stable, high relaxivity contrast agents, and for radiometal complexes used for imaging and/or therapy.

  1. Rapid purification of diastereoisomers from Piper kadsura using supercritical fluid chromatography with chiral stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Huaxia; Dai, Zhuoshun; Cai, Jianfeng; Ke, Yanxiong; Shi, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-08-04

    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with chiral stationary phases (CSPs) is an advanced solution for the separation of achiral compounds in Piper kadsura. Analogues and stereoisomers are abundant in natural products, but there are obstacles in separation using conventional method. In this paper, four lignan diastereoisomers, (-)-Galbelgin, (-)-Ganschisandrin, Galgravin and (-)-Veraguensin, from Piper kadsura were separated and purified by chiral SFC. Purification strategy was designed, considering of the compound enrichment, sample purity and purification throughput. Two-step achiral purification method on chiral preparative columns with stacked automated injections was developed. Unconventional mobile phase modifier dichloromethane (DCM) was applied to improve the sample solubility. Four diastereoisomers was prepared at the respective weight of 103.1mg, 10.0mg, 152.3mg and 178.6mg from 710mg extract with the purity of greater than 98%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of maturation on the configuration of pristane in sediments and petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, R. L.; Rowland, S. J.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The absolute stereochemistry of pristane in a sample of contemporary marine zooplankton, Messel shale (Germany) and Djatibarang (Java) crude has been determined by gas chromatographic methods. The relative stereochemistry in Irati shale (Brazil), Green River (U.S.) crude, Halibut (Australia) crude has also been determined, and confirmed for a sample of the Green River shale. The stereoisomer distributions indicate a loss of stereospecificity of the phytol-derived 6(R), 10(S) pristane with increasing geological maturation. For example, the least mature geological sample, the Eocene Messel shale, contains solely the 6(R), 10(S) isomer, whereas a mature sample, Djatibarange crude, contains 50% of the 6(R), 10(S) isomer and 25% of each of the 6(R), 10(R) and 6(S), 10(S) isomers.

  3. N-[5-Methyl-2-(2-nitrophenyl-4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akkurt

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H14N4O4S·H2O, the benzene and pyridine rings make a dihedral angle of 85.8 (1°. Both enantiomers of the chiral title compound are statistically disordered over the same position in the unit cell. The methyl and carbonyl group attached to the stereogenic center (C5 of the thiazolidine ring were therefore refined with common site-occupation factors of 0.531 (9 and 0.469 (9, respectively, for each stereoisomer. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O, O—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds link the molecules, forming a three-dimensional supramolecular network. The crystal structure further shows π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5063 (13 Å] between the pyridine rings.

  4. N-[5-Methyl-2-(2-nitro-phen-yl)-4-oxo-1,3-thia-zolidin-3-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkurt, Mehmet; Celik, Ismail; Demir, Hale; Ozkırımlı, Sumru; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2011-01-08

    In the title compound, C(16)H(14)N(4)O(4)S·H(2)O, the benzene and pyridine rings make a dihedral angle of 85.8 (1)°. Both enanti-omers of the chiral title compound are statistically disordered over the same position in the unit cell. The methyl and carbonyl group attached to the stereogenic center (C(5) of the thia-zolidine ring) were therefore refined with common site-occupation factors of 0.531 (9) and 0.469 (9), respectively, for each stereoisomer. In the crystal, inter-molecular N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules, forming a three-dimensional supra-molecular network. The crystal structure further shows π-π stacking inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.5063 (13) Å] between the pyridine rings.

  5. Simultaneous analysis of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids and N-oxides in comfrey root by LC-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuilloud, Jorgelina C A; Gratze, Samuel R; Gamble, Bryan M; Wolnik, Karen A

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop a LC-MS(n) method for the analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in comfrey. Published data presents an extensive list of PAs and their N-oxides present in comfrey. However, standards are not commercially available for any of the PAs typically present in comfrey. Those PAs that are not stereoisomers were readily resolved on a C(18) column using a water-acetonitrile gradient as the mobile phase. The use of a selective technique, LC-MS/MS, allowed us to identify groups of PAs and their N-oxides, as well as identify the number of PAs present in each group, including those that were not completely resolved chromatographically.

  6. RRR- and SRR-alpha-tocopherols are secreted without discrimination in human chylomicrons, but RRR-alpha-tocopherol is preferentially secreted in very low density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traber, M.G.; Burton, G.W.; Ingold, K.U.; Kayden, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Five subjects ingested in a single oral dose containing 50 mg each of 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-(5,7-(C2H3)2)tocopheryl acetate (d6-RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) with natural stereochemistry, and of 2S,4'R,8'R-alpha-(5-C2H3)tocopheryl acetate (d3-SRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate). These are two of eight stereoisomers in synthetic vitamin E. By day 1 the plasma and red blood cells were enriched fourfold with d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol (P less than 0.004). The ratio of d6-RRR-/d2-SRR- further increased over the succeeding 4 days, because the d3-SRR- decreased at a faster rate than did the d6-RRR-stereoisomer. Plasma and lipoproteins were isolated at intervals during the first day, and daily for 3 days, from four additional subjects fed a mixture of equal amounts of the deuterated tocopherols. The plasma contained similar concentrations of the two forms until 11 h, when the d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol concentration became significantly greater (P less than 0.05). The chylomicrons contained similar concentrations of the two deuterated tocopherols, but the VLDL (very low density lipoproteins) became preferentially enriched in d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol by 11 h. The pattern of the deuterated tocopherols shows that during chylomicron catabolism all of the plasma lipoproteins were labeled equally with both tocopherols, but that during the subsequent VLDL catabolism the low and high density lipoproteins became enriched in d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol. These results suggest the existence of a mechanism in the liver for assembling VLDL preferentially enriched in RRR- relative to SRR-alpha-tocopherol

  7. Triamide mercaptide (N/sub 3/S) ligands for Tc-99m as potential Tc-99m renal function agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzberg, A.R.; Kasina, S.; Johnson, D.L.; Eshima, D.

    1985-01-01

    A number of diamide dimercaptide (N/sub 2/S/sub 2/) complexes of Tc-99m have shown potential as renal tubular function radiopharmaceuticals that could replace radioiodinated hippurate (OIH). Evaluation of such ligands suggested that maximum efficiency for tubular secretion and specificity resulted from addition of a carboxylate group. However, such derivatives resulted in chelate ring stereoisomers that were differently transported by the renal tubular system. The problem of stereoisomers was obviated by replacing one sulfur with an effectively planar amido nitrogen. Groups on the nitrogen then result in diastereomers only when an additional asymetric center is present. A series of triamide mercaptide compounds have been synthesized to evaluate this class as ligands for Tc-99m. One of the simplest of the series, mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (MAG/sub 3/), formed a single Tc-99m product in high yield as determined by HPLC. Preliminary results with pmr and ms of the Tc-99 complex indicate a structure consistent with a 1:1 metal to ligand ratio and monooxo technetium group. Biological evaluation of Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/ showed high renal specificity and rate of excretion exceeding OIH in several species including humans. Members of the N/sub 3/S series studied include mercaptoacetylglycylglycyl-amino acids. In some cases with second asymmetric centers, two components were seen on HPLC. In mice several dianionic Tc-99m complexes were excreted faster than OIH, Tc-99m MAG/sub 2/-ala, -asn, and -gln. Trianionic Tc-99m MAG/sub 2/-asp and -glu were excreted more slowly, and Tc-99m MAG/sub 2/-phe showed hepatobiliary excretion. Triamide mercaptides represent a new ligand class for Tc-99m

  8. Specific membrane binding of factor VIII is mediated by O-phospho-L-serine, a moiety of phosphatidylserine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, G E; Drinkwater, D

    1993-09-21

    Phosphatidylserine, a negatively charged lipid, is exposed on the platelet membrane following cell stimulation, correlating with the expression of factor VIII receptors. We have explored the importance of the negative electrostatic potential of phosphatidylserine vs chemical moieties of phosphatidylserine for specific membrane binding of factor VIII. Fluorescein-labeled factor VIII bound to membranes containing 15% phosphatidic acid, a negatively charged phospholipid, with low affinity compared to phosphatidylserine-containing membranes. Binding was not specific as it was inhibited by other proteins in plasma. Factor VIII bound to membranes containing 10% phosphatidylserine in spite of a varying net charge provided by 0-15% stearylamine, a positively charged lipid. The soluble phosphatidylserine moiety, O-phospho-L-serine, inhibited factor VIII binding to phosphatidylserine-containing membranes with a Ki of 20 mM, but the stereoisomer, O-phospho-D-serine, was 5-fold less effective. Furthermore, binding of factor VIII to membranes containing synthetic phosphatidyl-D-serine was 5-fold less than binding to membranes containing phosphatidyl-L-serine. Membranes containing synthetic phosphatidyl-L-homoserine, differing from phosphatidylserine by a single methylene, supported high-affinity binding, but it was not specific as factor VIII was displaced by other plasma proteins. O-Phospho-L-serine also inhibited the binding of factor VIII to platelet-derived microparticles with a Ki of 20 mM, and the stereoisomer was 4-fold less effective. These results indicate that membrane binding of factor VIII is mediated by a stereoselective recognition O-phospho-L-serine of phosphatidylserine and that negative electrostatic potential is of lesser importance.

  9. Pyranose dehydrogenase ligand promiscuity: a generalized approach to simulate monosaccharide solvation, binding, and product formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M H Graf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The flavoenzyme pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH from the litter decomposing fungus Agaricus meleagris oxidizes many different carbohydrates occurring during lignin degradation. This promiscuous substrate specificity makes PDH a promising catalyst for bioelectrochemical applications. A generalized approach to simulate all 32 possible aldohexopyranoses in the course of one or a few molecular dynamics (MD simulations is reported. Free energy calculations according to the one-step perturbation (OSP method revealed the solvation free energies (ΔGsolv of all 32 aldohexopyranoses in water, which have not yet been reported in the literature. The free energy difference between β- and α-anomers (ΔGβ-α of all d-stereoisomers in water were compared to experimental values with a good agreement. Moreover, the free-energy differences (ΔG of the 32 stereoisomers bound to PDH in two different poses were calculated from MD simulations. The relative binding free energies (ΔΔGbind were calculated and, where available, compared to experimental values, approximated from Km values. The agreement was very good for one of the poses, in which the sugars are positioned in the active site for oxidation at C1 or C2. Distance analysis between hydrogens of the monosaccharide and the reactive N5-atom of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD revealed that oxidation is possible at HC1 or HC2 for pose A, and at HC3 or HC4 for pose B. Experimentally detected oxidation products could be rationalized for the majority of monosaccharides by combining ΔΔGbind and a reweighted distance analysis. Furthermore, several oxidation products were predicted for sugars that have not yet been tested experimentally, directing further analyses. This study rationalizes the relationship between binding free energies and substrate promiscuity in PDH, providing novel insights for its applicability in bioelectrochemistry. The results suggest that a similar approach could be applied to study

  10. Identification of functional residues essential for dehalogenation by the non-stereospecific α-haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase from Rhizobium sp. RC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Azzmer Azzar Abdul; Hamid, Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul; Wahab, Roswanira Abdul; Huyop, Fahrul

    2015-03-01

    The non-stereospecific α-haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase DehE from Rhizobium sp. RC1 catalyzes the removal of the halide from α-haloalkanoic acid D,L-stereoisomers and, by doing so, converts them into hydroxyalkanoic acid L,D-stereoisomers, respectively. DehE has been extensively studied to determine its potential to act as a bioremediation agent, but its structure/function relationship has not been characterized. For this study, we explored the functional relevance of several putative active-site amino acids by site-specific mutagenesis. Ten active-site residues were mutated individually, and the dehalogenase activity of each of the 10 resulting mutants in soluble cell lysates against D- and L-2-chloropropionic acid was assessed. Interestingly, the mutants W34→A,F37→A, and S188→A had diminished activity, suggesting that these residues are functionally relevant. Notably, the D189→N mutant had no activity, which strongly implies that it is a catalytically important residue. Given our data, we propose a dehalogenation mechanism for DehE, which is the same as that suggested for other non-stereospecific α-haloalkanoic acid dehalogenases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report detailing a functional aspect for DehE, and our results could help pave the way for the bioengineering of haloalkanoic acid dehalogenases with improved catalytic properties. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Structural Basis for Dual Functionality of Isoflavonoid O-Methyltransferases in the Evolution of Plant Defense Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Deavours, B; Richard, S; Ferrer, J; Blount, J; Huhman, D; Dixon, R; Noel, J

    2006-01-01

    In leguminous plants such as pea (Pisum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum), 4'-O-methylation of isoflavonoid natural products occurs early in the biosynthesis of defense chemicals known as phytoalexins. However, among these four species, only pea catalyzes 3-O-methylation that converts the pterocarpanoid isoflavonoid 6a-hydroxymaackiain to pisatin. In pea, pisatin is important for chemical resistance to the pathogenic fungus Nectria hematococca. While barrel medic does not biosynthesize 6a-hydroxymaackiain, when cell suspension cultures are fed 6a-hydroxymaackiain, they accumulate pisatin. In vitro, hydroxyisoflavanone 4'-O-methyltransferase (HI4'OMT) from barrel medic exhibits nearly identical steady state kinetic parameters for the 4'-O-methylation of the isoflavonoid intermediate 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and for the 3-O-methylation of the 6a-hydroxymaackiain isoflavonoid-derived pterocarpanoid intermediate found in pea. Protein x-ray crystal structures of HI4'OMT substrate complexes revealed identically bound conformations for the 2S,3R-stereoisomer of 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and the 6aR,11aR-stereoisomer of 6a-hydroxymaackiain. These results suggest how similar conformations intrinsic to seemingly distinct chemical substrates allowed leguminous plants to use homologous enzymes for two different biosynthetic reactions. The three-dimensional similarity of natural small molecules represents one explanation for how plants may rapidly recruit enzymes for new biosynthetic reactions in response to changing physiological and ecological pressures.

  12. Structural Basis for Dual Functionality of Isoflavonoid O-Methyltransferases in the Evolution of Plant Defense Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.-J.; Deavours, B.E.; Richard, S.B.; Ferrer, J.-L.; Blount, J.W.; Huhman, D.; Dixon, R.A.; Noel, J.

    2007-07-10

    In leguminous plants such as pea (Pisum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum), 4'-O-methylation of isoflavonoid natural products occurs early in the biosynthesis of defense chemicals known as phytoalexins. However, among these four species, only pea catalyzes 3-O-methylation that converts the pterocarpanoid isoflavonoid 6a-hydroxymaackiain to pisatin. In pea, pisatin is important for chemical resistance to the pathogenic fungus Nectria hematococca. While barrel medic does not biosynthesize 6a-hydroxymaackiain, when cell suspension cultures are fed 6a-hydroxymaackiain, they accumulate pisatin. In vitro, hydroxyisoflavanone 4'-O-methyltransferase (HI4'OMT) from barrel medic exhibits nearly identical steady state kinetic parameters for the 4'-O-methylation of the isoflavonoid intermediate 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and for the 3-O-methylation of the 6a-hydroxymaackiain isoflavonoid-derived pterocarpanoid intermediate found in pea. Protein x-ray crystal structures of HI4'OMT substrate complexes revealed identically bound conformations for the 2S,3R-stereoisomer of 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and the 6aR,11aR-stereoisomer of 6a-hydroxymaackiain. These results suggest how similar conformations intrinsic to seemingly distinct chemical substrates allowed leguminous plants to use homologous enzymes for two different biosynthetic reactions. The three-dimensional similarity of natural small molecules represents one explanation for how plants may rapidly recruit enzymes for new biosynthetic reactions in response to changing physiological and ecological pressures.

  13. Precision Synthesis of Functional Polysaccharide Materials by Phosphorylase-Catalyzed Enzymatic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Kadokawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, the precise synthesis of functional polysaccharide materials using phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic reactions is presented. This particular enzymatic approach has been identified as a powerful tool in preparing well-defined polysaccharide materials. Phosphorylase is an enzyme that has been employed in the synthesis of pure amylose with a precisely controlled structure. Similarly, using a phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization, the chemoenzymatic synthesis of amylose-grafted heteropolysaccharides containing different main-chain polysaccharide structures (e.g., chitin/chitosan, cellulose, alginate, xanthan gum, and carboxymethyl cellulose was achieved. Amylose-based block, star, and branched polymeric materials have also been prepared using this enzymatic polymerization. Since phosphorylase shows a loose specificity for the recognition of substrates, different sugar residues have been introduced to the non-reducing ends of maltooligosaccharides by phosphorylase-catalyzed glycosylations using analog substrates such as α-d-glucuronic acid and α-d-glucosamine 1-phosphates. By means of such reactions, an amphoteric glycogen and its corresponding hydrogel were successfully prepared. Thermostable phosphorylase was able to tolerate a greater variance in the substrate structures with respect to recognition than potato phosphorylase, and as a result, the enzymatic polymerization of α-d-glucosamine 1-phosphate to produce a chitosan stereoisomer was carried out using this enzyme catalyst, which was then subsequently converted to the chitin stereoisomer by N-acetylation. Amylose supramolecular inclusion complexes with polymeric guests were obtained when the phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization was conducted in the presence of the guest polymers. Since the structure of this polymeric system is similar to the way that a plant vine twines around a rod, this polymerization system has been named

  14. Diastereo- and enantioseparation of a Nα-Boc amino acid with a zwitterionic quinine-based stationary phase: Focus on the stereorecognition mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianni, Federica; Carotti, Andrea; Marinozzi, Maura; Marcelli, Gloria; Di Michele, Alessandro; Sardella, Roccaldo; Lindner, Wolfgang; Natalini, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The ZWIX(+) column allowed getting the Boc-Aph(Hor)-OH (1) isomeric peaks resolved. • ECD studies and molecular dynamic simulations allowed to assign the elution order. • Molecular descriptors revealed the active role of achiral elements of the CSP. - Abstract: A chiral chromatography method enabling the simultaneous diastereo- and enantioseparation of N α -Boc-N 4 -(hydroorotyl)-4-aminophenylalanine [Boc-Aph(Hor)-OH, 1] was optimized with a quinine-based zwitterionic stationary phase. The polar-ionic eluent system consisting of ACN:MeOH:water—49.7:49.7:0.6 (v/v/v) with formic acid (4.0 mM) and diethylamine (2.5 mM), allowed the successful separation of the four acid stereoisomers: α D,D-/D,L-1 = 1.08; α D,L-/L,D-1 = 1.08; α L,D-/L,L-1 = 1.40. According to the in-house developed synthetic procedure and the recorded electronic circular dichroism spectra, the following stereoisomeric elution order was readily established in the optimal chromatographic conditions: D,D-1 < D,L-1 < L,D-1 < L,L-1. With the aim of better understanding the molecular basis of the retention behaviour of the four stereoisomers in the employed chromatographic system and conditions, a computational protocol consisting in molecular dynamics simulations was applied. The use of the three descriptors INTER (in kcal mol −1 , encoding for the interaction energy between the selector SO unit and the whole system), INTER-SA (in kcal mol −1 , encoding for the interaction energy between SO and the sole selectand SA), and SELF (in kcal mol −1 , encoding for the conformational energy of SA relative to its minimum energy registered by the collected snapshots) revealed the active role of achiral sub-structural elements of the chiral stationary phase and eluent components in the overall stereorecognition mechanism

  15. Neutral and stereospecific Tc-99m complexes: [99mTc]N-benzyl-3,4-di-(N-2-mercaptoethyl)-amino-pyrrolidines (P-BAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Zhiping; Ploessl, Karl; Kung Meiping; Mu Mu; Kung, Hank F.

    1999-01-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled radiopharmaceuticals are currently the most commonly used agents in nuclear medicine. To prepare binding site-specific small molecules containing a Tc-99m complexing core, it is important to consider a ligand system, which selectively forms only one stereoisomer. A novel series of bisaminoethanethiol (BAT) derivatives as a model system were prepared. Stereoisomers of N-benzyl-3,4-di-(N-2-mercaptoethyl)-amino pyrrolidines (P-BAT): (3R,4R)-P-BAT (R,R-4) and (3,4)meso-P-BAT (8), the trans and meso isomer, respectively, as a chelating group were prepared successfully. The desired Tc-99m P-BAT complexes were obtained by using Sn(II)/glucoheptonate as the reducing agent for [ 99m Tc]pertechnetate. As predicted, after complexation with [ 99m Tc]Tc v O, the trans isomer, (3R,4R)-P-BAT (R,R-4), showed only one isomer; whereas the corresponding meso isomer, (3,4)meso-P-BAT (8), produced two distinctive complexes isolated readily by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The [ 99m Tc](R,S)meso-P-BAT (8) isomers showed a different lipophilicity (partition coefficient [P.C.]=54.3 and 55.4 for peak A and peak B, respectively), as compared with that of the corresponding [ 99m Tc](3R,4R)-P-BAT (R,R-4), trans isomer ( P.C.=163). Results of the biodistribution study in rats of these isomers show different heart and brain uptake, suggesting that the intrinsic differences in biodistribution are due to structural and stereospecific factors. Examples in this report confirm that it is possible to design stereospecific Tc-99m complexes based on the bisaminoethanethiol (N 2 S 2 , BAT) ligand system. Consideration on stereoselectivity of site-specific agents labeled with Tc-99m is likely an essential requirement on developing binding-site specific radiopharmaceuticals

  16. Enantioselective analysis of chloramphenicol residues in honey samples by chiral LC-MS/MS and results of a honey survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkus, Gerhard G; Hoffmann, Dirk

    2017-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used widely in both human and veterinary medication. Since 1994, CAP has not been authorised for use in food-producing animals in the European Union due to several adverse effects. A minimum required performance level (MRPL) of 0.3 µg kg - 1 was established in 2003. The CAP molecule contains two asymmetric centres, thus in total four para-CAP stereoisomers exist. Only the RR-CAP enantiomer is bioactive, having significant antimicrobial activity. For the first time a chiral LC-MS/MS method is reported to identify and quantify the four CAP enantiomers at residue levels in honey samples. The method was validated at two concentration levels. The decision limits (CCα) and detection capabilities (CCß) were well below 0.3 µg kg - 1 , with limits of quantification (LOQs) between 0.08 and 0.12 µg kg - 1 for all four enantiomers. The method provides a sensitive and reliable analysis of CAP enantiomers in honey, and proved its robustness during the daily routine analyses of numerous honey samples. In an internal honey survey, in total 40 honey samples from different geographical regions with identified CAP residues at or above the MRPL were reanalysed by chiral LC-MS/MS. In nine honey samples only the bioactive RR-CAP was detected as anticipated. However, in all other 31 honey samples the non-bioactive SS-CAP was also identified and quantified unambiguously. In 10 of these samples, mixtures of RR- and SS-CAP were analysed, and in 21 samples only the SS-CAP enantiomer, with concentrations up to 2.2 µg kg - 1 . Most of these samples are honeys from Ukraine and Eastern Europe. This is the first report of SS-CAP residues in food samples. The potential sources for these findings are discussed and the need of further systematic studies emphasised. It is recommended to examine in more depth the toxicological profile of the individual CAP stereoisomers.

  17. Tensor algebra-based geometric methodology to codify central chirality on organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jacas, C R; Marrero-Ponce, Y; Hernández-Ortega, T; Martinez-Mayorga, K; Cabrera-Leyva, L; Ledesma-Romero, J C; Aguilera-Fernández, I; Rodríguez-León, A R

    2017-06-01

    A novel mathematical procedure to codify chiral features of organic molecules in the QuBiLS-MIDAS framework is introduced. This procedure constitutes a generalization to that commonly used to date, where the values 1 and -1 (correction factor) are employed to weight the molecular vectors when each atom is labelled as R (rectus) or S (sinister) according to the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules. Therefore, values in the range [Formula: see text] with steps equal to 0.25 may be accounted for. The atoms labelled R or S can have negative and positive values assigned (e.g. -3 for an R atom and 1 for an S atom, or vice versa), opposed values (e.g. -3 for an R atom and 3 for an S atom, or vice versa), positive values (e.g. 3 for an R atom and 1 for an S atom) or negative values (e.g. -3 for an R atom and -1 for an S atom). These proposed Chiral QuBiLS-MIDAS 3D-MDs are real numbers, non-symmetric and reduced to 'classical' (non-chiral) QuBiLS-MIDAS 3D-MDs when symmetry is not codified (correction factor equal to zero). In this report, only the factors with opposed values were considered with the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of this proposal. From QSAR modelling carried out on four chemical datasets (Cramer's steroids, fenoterol stereoisomer derivatives, N-alkylated 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-piperidines, and perindoprilat stereoisomers), it was demonstrated that the use of several correction factors contributes to the building of models with greater robustness and predictive ability than those reported in the literature, as well as with respect to the models exclusively developed with QuBiLS-MIDAS 3D-MDs based on the factor 1 | -1. In conclusion, it can be stated that this novel strategy constitutes a suitable alternative to computed chirality-based descriptors, contributing to the development of good models to predict properties depending on symmetry.

  18. Three column intermittent simulated moving bed chromatography: 3. Cascade operation for center-cut separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermann, Simon; Meijssen, Mattheus; Mazzotti, Marco

    2015-01-23

    A general design methodology for chromatographic three fraction separation by application of the three column intermittent simulated moving bed (3C-ISMB) cascade is proposed and experimentally validated by studying the purification of an intermediately retained stereoisomer of nadolol, from an equimolar mixture of its four stereoisomers. The theoretical part shows that the 3C-ISMB cascade can be easily designed by applying Triangle Theory. Moreover, a re-scaling approach for the second stage is proposed so as to account for the fact that the feed flow rates to stage 2 are generally higher as compared to stage 1 due to dilution in the latter. Scaling the columns of the second stage accordingly enables to run both stages under optimal conditions with respect to switching time and step ratio, which is an important advantage as compared to integrated ternary processes. The experimental part starts with studying the linear adsorption behavior of nadolol in heptane/ethanol/DEA on Chiralpak AD for varying ratios of heptane and ethanol. Based on that, a solvent composition of Hept/EtOH/DEA 30/70/0.3 (v/v/v) is selected and the competitive multi-component Langmuir isotherm of the quaternary mixture is determined by frontal analysis. The resulting isotherm parameters are used to design several first stage experiments aiming at removal of the most retained component. The resulting ternary intermediate product is reprocessed in several second stage experiments studying various configurations. Finally, the dilution of the intermediate product with Hept/DEA yielding a solvent composition of Hept/EtOH/DEA 60/40/0.3 (v/v/v) is examined showing that the resulting increase in retention is beneficial for final product purities. Moreover, the reduction in viscosity compensates for the dilution as it enables higher flow rates. Dilution of the intermediate product is hence the best option, yielding highest overall cascade productivity (2.10gl(-1)h(-1)) and highest product purity (97

  19. High dietary level of synthetic vitamin E on lipid peroxidation, membrane fatty acid composition and cytotoxicity in breast cancer xenograft and in mouse host tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Christopher J

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background d-α-tocopherol is a naturally occurring form of vitamin E not previously known to have antitumor activity. Synthetic vitamin E (sE is a commonly used dietary supplement consisting of a mixture of d-α-tocopherol and 7 equimolar stereoisomers. To test for antilipid peroxidation and for antitumor activity of sE supplementation, two groups of nude mice bearing a MDA-MB 231 human breast cancer tumor were fed an AIN-76 diet, one with and one without an additional 2000 IU/kg dry food (equivalent to 900 mg of all-rac-α-tocopherol or sE. This provided an intake of about 200 mg/kg body weight per day. The mice were killed at either 2 or 6 weeks after the start of dietary intervention. During necropsy, tumor and host tissues were excised for histology and for biochemical analyses. Results Tumor growth was significantly reduced by 6 weeks of sE supplementation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, were suppressed in tumor and in host tissues in sE supplemented mice. In the sE treated mice, the fatty acid composition of microsomal and mitochondrial membranes of tumor and host tissues had proportionately less linoleic acid (n-6 C 18-2, similar levels of arachidonic acid (n-6 C 20-4, but more docosahexanoic acid (n-3 C 22-6. The sE supplementation had no significant effect on blood counts or on intestinal histology but gave some evidence of cardiac toxicity as judged by myocyte vacuoles and by an indicator of oxidative stress (increased ratio of Mn SOD mRNA over GPX1 mRNA. Conclusions At least one of the stereoisomers in sE has antitumor activity. Synthetic vitamin E appears to preferentially stabilize membrane fatty acids with more double bonds in the acyl chain. Although sE suppressed tumor growth and lipid peroxidation, it may have side-effects in the heart.

  20. Preclinical evaluation of BAY 1075553, a novel 18F-labelled inhibitor of prostate-specific membrane antigen for PET imaging of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesche, Ralf; Kettschau, Georg; Gromov, Alexey V.; Boehnke, Niels; Borkowski, Sandra; Moenning, Ursula; Doehr, Olaf; Graham, Keith; Hegele-Hartung, Christa; Dinkelborg, Ludger M.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane protein overexpressed in prostate cancer and is therefore being explored as a biomarker for diagnosing and staging of the disease. Here we report preclinical data on BAY 1075553 (a 9:1 mixture of (2S,4S)- and (2R,4S)-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-4-phosphonomethyl-pentanedioic acid), a novel 18 F-labelled small molecule inhibitor of PSMA enzymatic activity, which can be efficiently synthesized from a direct radiolabelling precursor. The 18 F-radiolabelled stereoisomers of 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-4-(phosphonomethyl)-pentanedioic acid were synthesized from their respective isomerically pure precursors dimethyl 2-{[bis(benzyloxy)phosphoryl ]methyl}-4-(tosyloxy)pentanedioate. In vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies were conducted in mice bearing LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC-3 tumours. Pharmacokinetic parameters and dosimetry estimates were calculated based on biodistribution studies in rodents. For non-clinical safety assessment (safety pharmacology, toxicology) to support a single-dose human microdose study, off-target effects in vitro, effects on vital organ functions (cardiovascular in dogs, nervous system in rats), mutagenicity screens and an extended single-dose study in rats were conducted with the non-radioactive racemic analogue of BAY 1075553. BAY 1075553 showed high tumour accumulation specific to PSMA-positive tumour-bearing mice and was superior to other stereoisomers tested. Fast clearance of BAY 1075553 resulted overall in low background signals in other organs except for high uptake into kidney and bladder which was mainly caused by renal elimination of BAY 1075553. A modest uptake into bone was observed which decreased over time indicating organ-specific uptake as opposed to defluorination of BAY 1075553 in vivo. Biodistribution studies found highest organ doses for kidneys and the urinary bladder wall resulting in a projected effective dose (ED) in humans of 0.0219 mSv/MBq. Non

  1. Preclinical evaluation of BAY 1075553, a novel {sup 18}F-labelled inhibitor of prostate-specific membrane antigen for PET imaging of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesche, Ralf; Kettschau, Georg; Gromov, Alexey V.; Boehnke, Niels; Borkowski, Sandra; Moenning, Ursula; Doehr, Olaf; Graham, Keith [Global Drug Discovery, Bayer Healthcare, Berlin, Germany, Berlin (Germany); Hegele-Hartung, Christa [Global Drug Discovery, Bayer Healthcare, Wuppertal, Germany, Wuppertal (Germany); Dinkelborg, Ludger M. [Global Drug Discovery, Bayer Healthcare, Berlin, Germany, Berlin (Germany); Piramal Imaging GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane protein overexpressed in prostate cancer and is therefore being explored as a biomarker for diagnosing and staging of the disease. Here we report preclinical data on BAY 1075553 (a 9:1 mixture of (2S,4S)- and (2R,4S)-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-4-phosphonomethyl-pentanedioic acid), a novel {sup 18}F-labelled small molecule inhibitor of PSMA enzymatic activity, which can be efficiently synthesized from a direct radiolabelling precursor. The {sup 18}F-radiolabelled stereoisomers of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-4-(phosphonomethyl)-pentanedioic acid were synthesized from their respective isomerically pure precursors dimethyl 2-{[bis(benzyloxy)phosphoryl ]methyl}-4-(tosyloxy)pentanedioate. In vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies were conducted in mice bearing LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC-3 tumours. Pharmacokinetic parameters and dosimetry estimates were calculated based on biodistribution studies in rodents. For non-clinical safety assessment (safety pharmacology, toxicology) to support a single-dose human microdose study, off-target effects in vitro, effects on vital organ functions (cardiovascular in dogs, nervous system in rats), mutagenicity screens and an extended single-dose study in rats were conducted with the non-radioactive racemic analogue of BAY 1075553. BAY 1075553 showed high tumour accumulation specific to PSMA-positive tumour-bearing mice and was superior to other stereoisomers tested. Fast clearance of BAY 1075553 resulted overall in low background signals in other organs except for high uptake into kidney and bladder which was mainly caused by renal elimination of BAY 1075553. A modest uptake into bone was observed which decreased over time indicating organ-specific uptake as opposed to defluorination of BAY 1075553 in vivo. Biodistribution studies found highest organ doses for kidneys and the urinary bladder wall resulting in a projected effective dose (ED) in humans of 0.0219 m

  2. Cellular Lipid Extraction for Targeted Stable Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelhaus, Stacy L.; Mesaros, A. Clementina; Blair, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolism of fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid (AA) and linoleic acid (LA), results in the formation of oxidized bioactive lipids, including numerous stereoisomers1,2. These metabolites can be formed from free or esterified fatty acids. Many of these oxidized metabolites have biological activity and have been implicated in various diseases including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, asthma, and cancer3-7. Oxidized bioactive lipids can be formed enzymatically or by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Enzymes that metabolize fatty acids include cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LO), and cytochromes P450 (CYPs)1,8. Enzymatic metabolism results in enantioselective formation whereas ROS oxidation results in the racemic formation of products. While this protocol focuses primarily on the analysis of AA- and some LA-derived bioactive metabolites; it could be easily applied to metabolites of other fatty acids. Bioactive lipids are extracted from cell lysate or media using liquid-liquid (l-l) extraction. At the beginning of the l-l extraction process, stable isotope internal standards are added to account for errors during sample preparation. Stable isotope dilution (SID) also accounts for any differences, such as ion suppression, that metabolites may experience during the mass spectrometry (MS) analysis9. After the extraction, derivatization with an electron capture (EC) reagent, pentafluorylbenzyl bromide (PFB) is employed to increase detection sensitivity10,11. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is used to increase the selectivity of the MS analysis. Before MS analysis, lipids are separated using chiral normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC conditions are optimized to separate the enantiomers and various stereoisomers of the monitored lipids12. This specific LC-MS method monitors prostaglandins (PGs), isoprostanes (isoPs), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), oxoeicosatetraenoic

  3. Chiral synthesis of (Z)-3-cis-6,7-cis-9,10-diepoxyhenicosenes, sex pheromone components of the satin moth, Leucoma salicis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Priyantha D C; Slessor, Keith N

    2004-06-01

    All four isomers of (Z)-3-cis-6,7-cis-9,10-diepoxyhenicosenes, 1-4, have been synthesized using D-xylose as the chirally pure starting material. D-Xylose was first converted to 2-deoxy-4,5-O-isopropylidene-3-t-butyldimethylsilyl-D-threopentose 11, via several steps of selective protection, dehydroxylation, and deprotection. Wittig coupling of 11 with nonyltriphenylphosphonium bromide followed by hydrogenation and acid catalyzed deprotection of hydroxyl groups yielded the chiral (2R,3R)-1,2,3-triol, 14, which was used as the precursor for the C-8 to C-21 unit of the (Z)-3-cis-6,7-cis-9,10-diepoxyhenicosenes. Selective tosylation of 14 followed by stereospecific cyclization yielded (2R,3R)-1,2-epoxytetradecan-3-ol, 16, which was then divergently converted to the t-butyldimethylsilyl ether 17 and tosylate 22, respectively. Establishment of the C-5 through C-7 unit of the target molecules was accomplished via regiospecific coupling of 17 with 1-t-butyldimethylsiloxy-2-propyne to form 18. Stepwise transformation of 18 via the formation of tosylate 19, desilylation, and stereospecific cyclization to form epoxy alcohol 20, followed by P2-Ni reduction yielded a key intermediate, allylic epoxy alcohol (Z)-2-(5S,6R)-cis-5,6-epoxyheptadecen-1-ol, 21. Similarly, the coupling of 22 with 1-t-butyldimethylsiloxy-2-propyne yielded 23, which was stereospecifically cyclized to form 24. Desilylation and P2-Ni reduction of 24 gave the antipodal intermediate, (Z)-2-(5R,6S)-cis-5,6-epoxyheptadecen-1-ol, 26. Asymmetric epoxidation of antipodes 21 and 26 with (L)- or (D)-diethyl tartrates resulted in the formation of diepoxy alcohols 27 and 29 from 21, and 33 and 31 from 26, respectively. Tosylation of these diepoxy alcohols followed by coupling with lithium dibutenyl cuprate yielded the four stereoisomers of (Z)-3-cis-6,7-cis-9,10-diepoxyhenicosenes, 1-4. Analysis of the retention characteristics of these materials revealed that one or both of the S*,R*,S*,R* stereoisomers comprise the

  4. Boosting Sensitivity in Liquid Chromatography–Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance–Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Product Ion Analysis of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo eNakabayashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In metabolomics, the analysis of product ions in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS is noteworthy to chemically assign structural information. However, the development of relevant analytical methods are less advanced. Here, we developed a method to boost sensitivity in liquid chromatography–Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance–tandem mass spectrometry analysis (MS/MS boost analysis. To verify the MS/MS boost analysis, both quercetin and uniformly labeled 13C quercetin were analyzed, revealing that the origin of the product ions is not the instrument, but the analyzed compounds resulting in sensitive product ions. Next, we applied this method to the analysis of monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs. The comparative analyses of MIAs having indole basic skeleton (ajmalicine, catharanthine, hirsuteine, and hirsutine and oxindole skeleton (formosanine, isoformosanine, pteropodine, isopteropodine, rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, and mitraphylline identified 86 and 73 common monoisotopic ions, respectively. The comparative analyses of the three pairs of stereoisomers showed more than 170 common monoisotopic ions in each pair. This method was also applied to the targeted analysis of MIAs in Catharanthus roseus and Uncaria rhynchophylla to profile indole and oxindole compounds using the product ions. This analysis is suitable for chemically assigning features of the metabolite groups, which contributes to targeted metabolome analysis.

  5. Forms of organic phosphorus in wetland soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesman, A. W.; Turner, B. L.; Reddy, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) cycling in freshwater wetlands is dominated by biological mechanisms, yet there has been no comprehensive examination of the forms of biogenic P (i.e., forms derived from biological activity) in wetland soils. We used solution 31P NMR spectroscopy to identify and quantify P forms in surface soils of 28 palustrine wetlands spanning a range of climatic, hydrogeomorphic, and vegetation types. Total P concentrations ranged between 51 and 3516 μg P g-1, of which an average of 58% was extracted in a single-step NaOH-EDTA procedure. The extracts contained a broad range of P forms, including phosphomonoesters (averaging 24% of the total soil P), phosphodiesters (averaging 10% of total P), phosphonates (up to 4% of total P), and both pyrophosphate and long-chain polyphosphates (together averaging 6% of total P). Soil P composition was found to be dependant upon two key biogeochemical properties: organic matter content and pH. For example, stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate were detected exclusively in acidic soils with high mineral content, while phosphonates were detected in soils from a broad range of vegetation and hydrogeomorphic types but only under acidic conditions. Conversely inorganic polyphosphates occurred in a broad range of wetland soils, and their abundance appears to reflect more broadly that of a "substantial" and presumably active microbial community with a significant relationship between total inorganic polyphosphates and microbial biomass P. We conclude that soil P composition varies markedly among freshwater wetlands but can be predicted by fundamental soil properties.

  6. Continuous Reusability using Immobilized HasApf in Chemoenzymatic Deracemization: A New Heterogeneous Enzyme Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Nagaoka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study found that the calibration curve of heme acquisition system A (HasA, a new reactive active species immobilized by a porous ceramic particle (ImHApf; immobilized HasA from Pseudomonas fluorescens can be constructed in the range of 1750–1450 cm−1 using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis, and evaluated its catalytic efficiency. In the asymmetric oxidation of rac-1-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-ylethanol (rac-1: a naproxen precursor, a product ketone from the (R-isomer is desymmetrized using NaBH4 and continuously reused even if treated with an organic solvent in 50 mM glycine–NaOH buffer at 40 °C in the absence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(P, leading to >99% enantiomeric excess and >90% chemical yield; the activity was calculated at 0.74 ± 0.03 mU/(mg·min and the turnover number was determined to be approximately 2 × 106. It was confirmed that the other sec-alcohols such as rac-1-(2-naphthylethanol (rac-2 and m- and p-substituted rac-1-phenyl ethanols (rac-3ab–6ab using ImHApf can also yield a single stereoisomer from a racemate. Therefore, HasA immobilization can be expected to become an important tool for building an environmentally friendly system that promotes industrial sustainability.

  7. Multiconformation, Density Functional Theory-Based pKa Prediction in Application to Large, Flexible Organic Molecules with Diverse Functional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochevarov, Art D; Watson, Mark A; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Philipp, Dean M

    2016-12-13

    We consider the conformational flexibility of molecules and its implications for micro- and macro-pK a . The corresponding formulas are derived and discussed against the background of a comprehensive scientific and algorithmic description of the latest version of our computer program Jaguar pK a , a density functional theory-based pK a predictor, which is now capable of acting on multiple conformations explicitly. Jaguar pK a is essentially a complex computational workflow incorporating research and technologies from the fields of cheminformatics, molecular mechanics, quantum mechanics, and implicit solvation models. The workflow also makes use of automatically applied empirical corrections which account for the systematic errors resulting from the neglect of explicit solvent interactions in the algorithm's implicit solvent model. Applications of our program to large, flexible organic molecules representing several classes of functional groups are shown, with a particular emphasis in illustrations laid on drug-like molecules. It is demonstrated that a combination of aggressive conformational search and an explicit consideration of multiple conformations nearly eliminates the dependence of results on the initially chosen conformation. In certain cases this leads to unprecedented accuracy, which is sufficient for distinguishing stereoisomers that have slightly different pK a values. An application of Jaguar pK a to proton sponges, the pK a of which are strongly influenced by steric effects, showcases the advantages that pK a predictors based on quantum mechanical calculations have over similar empirical programs.

  8. Separation properties of the MIL-125(Ti) Metal-Organic Framework in high-performance liquid chromatography revealing cis/trans selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Perre, Stijn; Liekens, Anuschka; Bueken, Bart; De Vos, Dirk E; Baron, Gino V; Denayer, Joeri F M

    2016-10-21

    Monodisperse MIL-125(Ti) Metal-Organic Framework crystals were synthesized and studied as stationary phase in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Different pure compounds and model mixtures (including stereoisomer mixtures) were injected from which chromatographic parameters, including selectivities and resolution factors, were determined to evaluate the adsorption properties and separation performance of MIL-125(Ti) in liquid phase. The MIL-125(Ti) framework displayed a trans selectivity for cis/trans difunctionalized cyclohexane molecules with high selectivity and resolution for 1,3-dimethylcyclohexane and 4-ethylcyclohexanol. The slurry-packed column was further characterized via van Deemter analysis. Fitting of the van Deemter equation through the experimental points allowed to define the contributions of the different processes to plate height with a significant proportion of the A-term, reflecting the importance of a good crystal packing. Although high in comparison to commercial HPLC stationary phases, a very good plate height of around 50μm was found. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Beyond Ribosomal Binding: The Increased Polarity and Aberrant Molecular Interactions of 3-epi-deoxynivalenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef I. Hassan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a secondary fungal metabolite and contaminant mycotoxin that is widely detected in wheat and corn products cultivated around the world. Bio-remediation methods have been extensively studied in the past two decades and promising ways to reduce DON-associated toxicities have been reported. Bacterial epimerization of DON at the C3 carbon was recently reported to induce a significant loss in the bio-toxicity of the resulting stereoisomer (3-epi-DON in comparison to the parental compound, DON. In an earlier study, we confirmed the diminished bio-potency of 3-epi-DON using different mammalian cell lines and mouse models and mechanistically attributed it to the reduced binding of 3-epi-DON within the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center (PTC. In the current study and by inspecting the chromatographic behavior of 3-epi-DON and its molecular interactions with a well-characterized enzyme, Fusarium graminearum Tri101 acetyltransferase, we provide the evidence that the C3 carbon epimerization of DON influences its molecular interactions beyond the abrogated PTC binding.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of an IDS-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens BY6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bäuerle, Bettina [Institute of Microbiology, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Sandalova, Tatyana; Schneider, Gunter [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Rieger, Paul-Gerhard, E-mail: pg.rieger@imb.uni-stuttgart.de [Institute of Microbiology, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-08-01

    This is the first report of the crystallization of an IDS-epimerase from A. tumefaciens BY6 and its l-selenomethionine derivative. The initial degradation of all stereoisomers of the complexing agent iminodisuccinate (IDS) is enabled by an epimerase in the bacterial strain Agrobacterium tumefaciens BY6. This protein was produced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of IDS-epimerase were obtained under several conditions. The best diffracting crystals were grown in 22% PEG 3350, 0.2 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.1 M bis-Tris propane pH 7.2 at 293 K. These crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 55.4, b = 104.2, c = 78.6 Å, β = 103.3°, and diffracted to 1.7 Å resolution. They contain two protein molecules per asymmetric unit. In order to solve the structure using the MAD phasing method, crystals of the l-selenomethionine-substituted epimerase were grown in the presence of 20% PEG 3350, 0.2 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.1 M bis-Tris propane pH 8.5.

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of an IDS-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens BY6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bäuerle, Bettina; Sandalova, Tatyana; Schneider, Gunter; Rieger, Paul-Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    This is the first report of the crystallization of an IDS-epimerase from A. tumefaciens BY6 and its l-selenomethionine derivative. The initial degradation of all stereoisomers of the complexing agent iminodisuccinate (IDS) is enabled by an epimerase in the bacterial strain Agrobacterium tumefaciens BY6. This protein was produced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of IDS-epimerase were obtained under several conditions. The best diffracting crystals were grown in 22% PEG 3350, 0.2 M (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and 0.1 M bis-Tris propane pH 7.2 at 293 K. These crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 55.4, b = 104.2, c = 78.6 Å, β = 103.3°, and diffracted to 1.7 Å resolution. They contain two protein molecules per asymmetric unit. In order to solve the structure using the MAD phasing method, crystals of the l-selenomethionine-substituted epimerase were grown in the presence of 20% PEG 3350, 0.2 M Na 2 SO 4 and 0.1 M bis-Tris propane pH 8.5

  12. Inositol Treatment and ART Outcomes in Women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Deepika; Tal, Reshef

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of women in reproductive age and is characterized by oligo/amenorrhea, androgen excess, insulin resistance, and typical polycystic ovarian morphology. It is the most common cause of infertility secondary to ovulatory dysfunction. The underlying etiology is still unknown but is believed to be multifactorial. Insulin-sensitizing compounds such as inositol, a B-complex vitamin, and its stereoisomers (myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol) have been studied as an effective treatment of PCOS. Administration of inositol in PCOS has been shown to improve not only the metabolic and hormonal parameters but also ovarian function and the response to assisted-reproductive technology (ART). Accumulating evidence suggests that it is also capable of improving folliculogenesis and embryo quality and increasing the mature oocyte yield following ovarian stimulation for ART in women with PCOS. In the current review, we collate the evidence and summarize our current knowledge on ovarian stimulation and ART outcomes following inositol treatment in women with PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

  13. Inositol as putative integrative treatment for PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genazzani, Alessandro D

    2016-12-01

    Studies over the last decade have demonstrated that some polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have abnormal insulin sensitivity (insulin resistance), independently from being overweight or obese. This induces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in such PCOS patients. The use of insulin sensitizers (i.e. metformin), reduces such metabolic, and most hormonal, impairments. As metformin often induces side effects, new integrative strategies have been proposed to treat insulin resistance, such as the use of inositols. Such compounds are mainly represented in humans by two inositol stereoisomers: myo-inositol (MYO) and d-chiro-inositol (DCI). MYO is the precursor of inositol triphosphate, a second messenger that regulates thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and FSH as well as insulin. DCI derives from the conversion of myo-inositol via an insulin-dependent pathway. Several preliminary studies have indicated possible benefits of inositol therapy in PCOS patients, but to date no meta-analysis has been performed. This review aims to give clinical insights for the clinical use of inositol in PCOS. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Positron emitting tracers for studies of cocaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; Gatley, S.J.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Yu, D.W.; Dewey, S.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Bendriem, B.; Logan, J.

    1990-01-01

    The use of PET to study the behavior and mechanism of action of therapeutic drugs and substances of abuse can be approached from a number of perspectives. The most common approach is to measure the effect of a drug on some aspect of metabolism and requires well characterized radiotracers whose behavior in vivo can be related to a discrete biochemical transformation. A second approach is to study the labeled drug itself. This provides information on the drug's regional distribution and kinetics as well as its pharmacological profile and metabolism. Cocaine has been labeled in different positions with carbon-11 and with fluorine-18 and the stereoisomers of cocaine have also been labeled to characterize its binding and metabolism in human and baboon brain. Regional cocaine binding as measured by PET is consistent with reversible binding to striatal dopamine reuptake sites and its time course parallels the behavioral activation of cocaine. The behaviorally inactive enantiomer (+)-cocaine is rapidly metabolized in serum preventing its entry into the brain. These PET tracers are useful in understanding the neurochemical basis of cocaine's action

  15. Hydrogen production from the monomeric sugars hydrolyzed from hemicellulose by Enterobacter aerogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yunli; Wang, Jianji; Liu, Zhen; Ren, Yunlai; Li, Guozhi [School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471039, Henan (China)

    2009-12-15

    Relatively large percentages of xylose with glucose, arabinose, mannose, galactose and rhamnose constitute the hydrolysis products of hemicellulose. In this paper, hydrogen production performance of facultative anaerobe (Enterobacter aerogenes) has been investigated from these different monomeric sugars except glucose. It was shown that the stereoisomers of mannose and galactose were more effective for hydrogen production than those of xylose and arabinose. The substrate of 5 g/l xylose resulted in a relative high level of hydrogen yield (73.8 mmol/l), hydrogen production efficiency (2.2 mol/mol) and a maximum hydrogen production rate (249 ml/l/h). The hydrogen yield, hydrogen production efficiency and the maximum hydrogen production rate reached 104 mmol/l, 2.35 mol/mol and 290 ml/l/h, respectively, on a substrate of 10 g/l galactose. The hydrogen yields and the maximum hydrogen production rates increased with an increase of mannose concentrations and reached 119 mmol/l and 518 ml/l/h on the culture of 25 g/l mannose. However, rhamnose was a relative poor carbon resource for E. aerogenes to produce hydrogen, from which the hydrogen yield and hydrogen production efficiency were about one half of that from the mannose substrate. E. aerogenes was found to be a promising strain for hydrogen production from hydrolysis products of hemicellulose. (author)

  16. Architecture of Amylose Supramolecules in Form of Inclusion Complexes by Phosphorylase-Catalyzed Enzymatic Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Kadokawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the architecture of amylose supramolecules in form of inclusion complexes with synthetic polymers by phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization. Amylose is known to be synthesized by enzymatic polymerization using α-d-glucose 1-phosphate as a monomer, by phosphorylase catalysis. When the phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization was conducted in the presence of various hydrophobic polymers, such as polyethers, polyesters, poly(ester-ether, and polycarbonates as a guest polymer, such inclusion supramolecules were formed by the hydrophobic interaction in the progress of polymerization. Because the representation of propagation in the polymerization is similar to the way that a vine of a plant grows, twining around a rod, this polymerization method for the formation of amylose-polymer inclusion complexes was proposed to be named “vine-twining polymerization”. To yield an inclusion complex from a strongly hydrophobic polyester, the parallel enzymatic polymerization system was extensively developed. The author found that amylose selectively included one side of the guest polymer from a mixture of two resemblant guest polymers, as well as a specific range in molecular weights of the guest polymers poly(tetrahydrofuran (PTHF in the vine-twining polymerization. Selective inclusion behavior of amylose toward stereoisomers of chiral polyesters, poly(lactides, also appeared in the vine-twining polymerization.

  17. Preparation and Applications of Amylose Supramolecules by Means of Phosphorylase-Catalyzed Enzymatic Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Kadokawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews preparation and applications of amylose supramolecules by means of phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization. When the enzymatic polymerization of α-d-glucose 1-phosphate (G-1-P as a monomer was carried out in the presence of poly(tetrahydrofuran (PTHF of a hydrophobic polyether as a guest polymer, the supramolecule, i.e., an amylose-PTHF inclusion complex, was formed in the process of polymerization. Because the representation of propagation in the polymerization is similar to the way that vines of plants grow twining around rods, this polymerization method for the preparation of amylose-polymer inclusion complexes was proposed to be named “vine-twining polymerization”. Various hydrophobic polyethers, polyesters, poly(ester-ether, and polycarbonates were also employed as the guest polymer in the vine-twining polymerization to produce the corresponding inclusion complexes. To obtain the inclusion complex from a strongly hydrophobic guest polymer, the parallel enzymatic polymerization system was developed as an advanced extension of the vine-twining polymerization. In addition, it was found that amylose selectively includes one side of the guest polymer from a mixture of two resemblant guest polymers, as well as a specific range in molecular weights of the guest PTHF. Amylose also exhibited selective inclusion behavior toward stereoisomers of poly(lactides. Moreover, the preparation of hydrogels through the formation of inclusion complexes of amylose in vine-twining polymerization was achieved.

  18. A combined experimental and theoretical study of the thermal [3+2] cycloaddition of carbonyl ylides with activated alkenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza-Reguig, Samira; Bentabed-Ababsa, Ghenia; Domingo, Luis R.; Ríos-Gutiérrez, Mar; Philippot, Stéphanie; Fontanay, Stéphane; Duval, Raphaël E.; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Bach, Stéphane; Roisnel, Thierry; Mongin, Florence

    2018-04-01

    4-Benzoyl-3,5-diaryltetrahydrofuran-2,2-dicarbonitriles were first synthesized from 2,2-dicyano-3-aryloxiranes and chalcones at toluene reflux; the 4,5-cis products proved to be predominantly formed and were isolated. Whereas shortened reaction times were observed by using microwave irradiation or catalytic cuprous chloride, no significant stereoselectivity change was in general noticed. Reacting 2,2-dicyano-3-aryloxiranes with 2-cyclopentenone next afforded 3-aryl-4-oxohexahydro-1H-cyclopenta[c]furan-1,1-dicarbonitriles, and the endo stereoisomers were isolated. That no stereoselectivity change was noticed in the presence of cuprous chloride rather suggests an impact of the salt on the epoxide ring opening. Finally, treatment of 2,2-dicyano-3-aryloxiranes by 2-morpholinoacrylonitrile yielded 3-cyano-3-morpholino-5-phenyltetrahydrofuran-2,2-dicarbonitriles from which the preponderant trans isomers were isolated. Importantly, the molecular mechanism of the domino reaction between 2,2-dicyano-3-phenyloxirane and 2-cyclopentenone was studied. The rate-determining thermal ring opening of the oxirane is followed by a non-concerted pseudoradical-type reaction of the carbonyl ylide with 2-cyclopentenone. Using the bond evolution theory also allowed the regioselectivity of this non-polar reaction to be explained.

  19. Effect of abscisic acid on the linoleic acid metabolism in developing maize embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abian, J.; Gelpi, E.; Pages, M.

    1991-01-01

    Partially purified protein extracts from maize (Zea mays L.) embryos, whether treated or not with abscisic acid (ABA), were incubated with linoleic acid (LA) and 1-[ 14 C]LA. The resulting LA metabolites were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography with a radioactivity detector and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. α- and γ-ketol metabolites arising from 9-lipoxygenase activity were the more abundant compounds detected in the incubates, although the corresponding metabolites produced by 13-lipoxygenase were also present in the samples. In addition, a group of stereoisomers originating form two isomeric trihydroxy acids (9,12,13-trihydroxy-10-octadecenoic and 9,10,13-trihydroxy-11-octadecenoic acids) are described. Important variations in the relative proportions of the LA metabolites were observed depending on the embryo developmental stage and on ABA treatment. Two new ABA-induced compounds have been detected. These compounds are present in embryos at all developmental stages, being more abundant in old (60 days) embryos. Furthermore, ABA induction of these compounds is maximum at very young development stages, decreasing as maturation progresses. A tentative structure for these compounds (10-oxo-9,13-dihydroxy-11-octadecenoic acid and 12-oxo-9,13-dihydroxy-10-octadecenoic acid) is also provided. This study revealed an early stage in maize embryogenesis characterized by a higher relative sensitivity to ABA. The physiological importance of ABA on LA metabolism is discussed

  20. Bacterial epimerization as a route for deoxynivalenol detoxification: the influence of growth and environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wei eHe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by several Fusarium species that infest wheat and corn. Food and feed contaminated with DON pose a health risk to both humans and livestock and form a major barrier for international trade. Microbial detoxification represents an alternative approach to the physical and chemical detoxification methods of DON-contaminated grains. The present study details the characterization of a novel bacterium, Devosia mutans 17-2-E-8, that is capable of transforming DON to a non-toxic stereoisomer, 3-epi-deoxynivalenol under aerobic conditions, mild temperature (25-30 oC, and neutral pH. The biotransformation takes place in the presence of rich sources of organic nitrogen and carbon without the need of DON to be the sole carbon source. The process is enzymatic in nature and endures a high detoxification capacity (3 µg DON/h/108 cells. The above conditions collectively suggest the possibility of utilizing the isolated bacterium as a feed treatment to address DON contamination under empirical field conditions.

  1. Human gastrointestinal tolerance to D-tagatose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1999-04-01

    D-Tagatose is a stereoisomer of D-fructose which is poorly absorbed in the small intestine and may, therefore, have potential as a reduced calorie bulk sweetener. However, one of the major limitations is the use of malabsorbed sugars is that their consumption may be associated with gastric discomfort. This is due to the osmotic impact of the sugar molecules remaining in the gut lumen for a prolonged period. We have performed a series of studies in which gastrointestinal symptoms have been recorded after the consumption of 29 or 30 g of D-tagatose. Nausea and diarrhea were reported with an incidence of 15.1 and 31.5%, respectively, in 73 healthy young male subjects in a screening study. Increased flatulence after D-tagatose was frequently reported in all the studies and the flatulence did not decline during a 15-day period with intake of 30 g in one dose daily. In most cases, symptoms were reported as light or moderate. However, the results suggest that 30 g taken at one time may be above the dose which should be recommended for ordinary use. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  2. Dietary α-eleostearic acid ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease in mice by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephanie N; Brannan, Lera; Guri, Amir J; Lu, Pinyi; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Bevan, David R

    2011-01-01

    Treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are modestly effective and associated with side effects from prolonged use. As there is no known cure for IBD, alternative therapeutic options are needed. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) has been identified as a potential target for novel therapeutics against IBD. For this project, compounds were screened to identify naturally occurring PPARγ agonists as a means to identify novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics for experimental assessment of efficacy. Here we provide complementary computational and experimental methods to efficiently screen for PPARγ agonists and demonstrate amelioration of experimental IBD in mice, respectively. Computational docking as part of virtual screening (VS) was used to test binding between a total of eighty-one compounds and PPARγ. The test compounds included known agonists, known inactive compounds, derivatives and stereoisomers of known agonists with unknown activity, and conjugated trienes. The compound identified through VS as possessing the most favorable docked pose was used as the test compound for experimental work. With our combined methods, we have identified α-eleostearic acid (ESA) as a natural PPARγ agonist. Results of ligand-binding assays complemented the screening prediction. In addition, ESA decreased macrophage infiltration and significantly impeded the progression of IBD-related phenotypes through both PPARγ-dependent and -independent mechanisms in mice with experimental IBD. This study serves as the first significant step toward a large-scale VS protocol for natural PPARγ agonist screening that includes a massively diverse ligand library and structures that represent multiple known target pharmacophores.

  3. Trans-polychlorinated azobenzenes (PCABs) - new possibly ''dioxin-like'' environmental pollutants. Multidimensional analysis of the structural feature space of congener set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falandysz, J.; Wilczynska, A.; Piliszek, S.; Puzyn, T. [Univ. of Gdansk (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction Azoxybenzene is molecule composed of two benzene ring fused to azoxy group (- N(O)=N-). Trans-PCAOBs consist at 399 congeners, and some of them can be formed as unwanted byproduct in the manufacture of 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) and its derivatives, and can be found in herbicides such as Diuron {sup registered}, Linuron {sup registered}, Methazole {sup registered} and Propanil {sup registered}. Degradation of chloroaniline herbicides is also a source of environmental pollution with PCAOBs as well as photolysis and biolysis of DCA. Trans-PCAOBs are planar compounds and can be considered as stereoisomers to highly toxic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. They is lack or very limited number of data available regarding to sources, possible mechanism of formation, environmental occurence and fate, analytical chemistry, properties, and effects of trans-PCAOBs. In this work some selected thermodynamic and quantum-mechanical properties of trans- PCAOBs were computed using ab initio methods. Presented property data of trans-PCAOBs can be useful as structural descriptors in further QSAR/QSPR studies of those compounds.

  4. 3-methylcyclohexanone thiosemicarbazone: determination of E/Z isomerization barrier by dynamic high-performance liquid chromatography, configuration assignment and theoretical study of the mechanisms involved by the spontaneous, acid and base catalyzed processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carradori, Simone; Cirilli, Roberto; Dei Cicchi, Simona; Ferretti, Rosella; Menta, Sergio; Pierini, Marco; Secci, Daniela

    2012-12-21

    Here, we report on the simultaneous direct HPLC diastereo- and enantioseparation of 3-methylcyclohexanone thiosemicarbazone (3-MCET) on a polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phase under normal-phase conditions. The optimized chromatographic system was employed in dynamic HPLC experiments (DHPLC), as well as detection technique in a batch wise approach to determine the rate constants and the corresponding free energy activation barriers of the spontaneous, base- and acid-promoted E/Z diastereomerization of 3-MCET. The stereochemical characterization of four stereoisomers of 3-MCET was fully accomplished by integrating the results obtained by chemical correlation method with those derived by theoretical calculations and experimental investigations of circular dichroism (CD). As a final goal, a deepened analysis of the perturbing effect exercised by the stationary phase on rate constant values measured through DHPLC determinations as a function of the chromatographic separation factor α of the interconverting species was successfully accomplished. This revealed quite small deviations from the equivalent kinetic values obtained by off-column batch wise procedure, and suggested a possible effective correction of rate constants measured by DHPLC approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Asymmetric Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some New Mono and Bicyclic β-Lactams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Taslimi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of the amino acid D-phenylalanine ethyl ester (4 with cinnamaldehyde gave chiral Schiff base 5, which underwent an asymmetric Staudinger [2+2] cycloaddition reaction with phthalimidoacetyl chloride to give the monocyclic β-lactam 6 as a single stereoisomer. Ozonolysis of 6 followed by reduction with lithium aluminum tri(tert-butoxy hydride afforded the hydroxymethyl β-lactam 8. Treatment of 8 with methansulfonyl chloride gave the mesylated monocyclic β-lactam 9, which was converted to the bicyclic β-lactam 10 upon treatment with 1,8-diazabicyclo[5,4.0] undec- 7-ene (DBU. Deprotection of the phthalimido group in β-lactams 6 and 10 by methylhydrazine and subsequent acylation of the free amino β-lactams with different acyl chlorides in the presence of pyridine afforded mono and bicyclic β-lactams 14a-d and 15a-d respectively. The compounds prepared were tested against Escherichia coli, Staphilococcus citrus, Klebsiella pneumanie and Bacillus subtillis. Some of these compounds showed potential antimicrobial activities.

  6. Mass spectrometric differentiation of linear peptides composed of L-amino acids from isomers containing one D-amino acid residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Scott V; Maranan, Rhonda; Zhang, Kangling; Morton, Thomas Hellman

    2005-09-01

    MS/MS of electrosprayed ions is shown to have the capacity to discriminate between peptides that differ by configuration about their alpha-carbons. It is not necessary for the peptides to possess tertiary structures that are affected by stereochemistry, since five epimers of the pentapeptide, H2N-Gly-Leu-Ser-Phe-Ala-OH (GLSFA) all display different collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) patterns of their protonated parent ions. The figure of merit, r, is a ratio of ratios of fragment ion abundances between stereoisomers, where r = 1 corresponds to no stereochemical effect. Values of r as high as 3.8 are seen for diastereomer pairs. Stereochemical effects are also seen for the diprotonated dodecapeptide H2N-Leu-Val-Phe-Phe-Ala-Glu-Asp-Val-Gly-Ser-Asn-Lys-OH (LVFFAEDVGSNK), a tryptic fragment from the amyloid beta-protein. Triply charged complexes of the protonated dodecapeptide with cobalt(II) ions undergo CAD at lower collision energies than do doubly protonated LVFFAEDVGSNK ions. Statistically significant (p < 0.01) differences between the all-L-dodecapeptide and the ones containing a d-serine or a D-aspartic acid are observed.

  7. The Z-isomer of 11{beta}-methoxy-17{alpha}-[{sup 123}I]iodovinylestradiol is a promising radioligand for estrogen receptor imaging in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijks, Leonie J. M.; Boer, Gerard J.; Endert, Erik; Bruin, Kora de; Janssen, Anton G. M.; Royen, Eric A. van

    1997-01-01

    The potential of both stereoisomers of 11{beta}-methoxy-17{alpha}-[{sup 123}I]iodovinylestradiol (E- and Z-[{sup 123}I]MIVE) as suitable radioligands for imaging of estrogen receptor(ER)-positive human breast tumours was studied. The 17{alpha}-[{sup 123}I]iodovinylestradiol derivatives were prepared stereospecifically by oxidative radioiododestannylation of the corresponding 17{alpha}-tri-n-butylstannylvinylestradiol precursors. Both isomers of MIVE showed high in vitro affinity for dimethylbenzanthracene-induced rat and fresh human mammary tumour ER, that of Z-MIVE however being manyfold higher than that of E-MIVE. In vivo distribution studies with E- and Z-[{sup 123}I]MIVE in normal and tumour-bearing female rats showed ER-mediated uptake and retention in uterus, ovaries, pituitary, hypothalamus and mammary tumours, again the highest for Z-[{sup 123}I]MIVE. The uterus- and tumour-to-nontarget tissue (fat, muscle) uptake ratios were also highest for Z-[{sup 123}I]MIVE. Additionally, planar whole body imaging of two breast cancer patients 1-2 h after injection of Z-[{sup 123}I]MIVE showed increased focal uptake at known tumour sites. Therefore, we conclude that Z-[{sup 123}I]MIVE is a promising radioligand for the diagnostic imaging of ER in human breast cancer.

  8. The Z-isomer of 11β-methoxy-17α-[123I]iodovinylestradiol is a promising radioligand for estrogen receptor imaging in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijks, Leonie J. M.; Boer, Gerard J.; Endert, Erik; Bruin, Kora de; Janssen, Anton G. M.; Royen, Eric A. van

    1997-01-01

    The potential of both stereoisomers of 11β-methoxy-17α-[ 123 I]iodovinylestradiol (E- and Z-[ 123 I]MIVE) as suitable radioligands for imaging of estrogen receptor(ER)-positive human breast tumours was studied. The 17α-[ 123 I]iodovinylestradiol derivatives were prepared stereospecifically by oxidative radioiododestannylation of the corresponding 17α-tri-n-butylstannylvinylestradiol precursors. Both isomers of MIVE showed high in vitro affinity for dimethylbenzanthracene-induced rat and fresh human mammary tumour ER, that of Z-MIVE however being manyfold higher than that of E-MIVE. In vivo distribution studies with E- and Z-[ 123 I]MIVE in normal and tumour-bearing female rats showed ER-mediated uptake and retention in uterus, ovaries, pituitary, hypothalamus and mammary tumours, again the highest for Z-[ 123 I]MIVE. The uterus- and tumour-to-nontarget tissue (fat, muscle) uptake ratios were also highest for Z-[ 123 I]MIVE. Additionally, planar whole body imaging of two breast cancer patients 1-2 h after injection of Z-[ 123 I]MIVE showed increased focal uptake at known tumour sites. Therefore, we conclude that Z-[ 123 I]MIVE is a promising radioligand for the diagnostic imaging of ER in human breast cancer

  9. Bacillus subtilis IolQ (DegA) is a transcriptional repressor of iolX encoding NAD+-dependent scyllo-inositol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Min; Michon, Christophe; Morinaga, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Kosei; Takenaka, Shinji; Ishikawa, Shu; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2017-07-11

    Bacillus subtilis is able to utilize at least three inositol stereoisomers as carbon sources, myo-, scyllo-, and D-chiro-inositol (MI, SI, and DCI, respectively). NAD + -dependent SI dehydrogenase responsible for SI catabolism is encoded by iolX. Even in the absence of functional iolX, the presence of SI or MI in the growth medium was found to induce the transcription of iolX through an unknown mechanism. Immediately upstream of iolX, there is an operon that encodes two genes, yisR and iolQ (formerly known as degA), each of which could encode a transcriptional regulator. Here we performed an inactivation analysis of yisR and iolQ and found that iolQ encodes a repressor of the iolX transcription. The coding sequence of iolQ was expressed in Escherichia coli and the gene product was purified as a His-tagged fusion protein, which bound to two sites within the iolX promoter region in vitro. IolQ is a transcriptional repressor of iolX. Genetic evidences allowed us to speculate that SI and MI might possibly be the intracellular inducers, however they failed to antagonize DNA binding of IolQ in in vitro experiments.

  10. Stereoselective biodegradation of tricyclic terpanes in heavy oils from the Bolivar Coastal Fields, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, M. [Stanford University (United States). Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences; PDVSA-Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela); Moldowan, J.M.; Dahl, J.E. [Stanford University (United States). Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences; Peters, K.E. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-MS-MS analyses of heavy oils from Bolivar Coastal Fields (Lagunillas Field) show a complete set of demethylated tricyclic terpanes. As is the case for the 25-norhopanes, the demethylated tricyclics are probably formed in reservoirs by microbially-mediated removal of the methyl group from the C-10 position, generating putative 17-nor-tricyclic terpanes. Diastereomeric pairs of tricyclic terpanes are resolved above C{sub 24} due to resolution of 22S and 22R epimers, but the elution order of the 22S and 22R epimers is unknown. Early-eluting diastereomers (EE) predominate over late-eluting diastereomers (LE) (C{sub 25}-C{sub 29}) in the heavily degraded oils, indicating a stereoselective preference for the LE stereoisomers during biodegradation. Conversely, the LE diastereomers predominate over the EE diastereomers in the 17-nor tricyclic series (C{sub 24}-C{sub 28}), indicating that tricyclic terpanes and 17-nor-tricyclic terpanes are directly linked as precursors and products, respectively. A good correlation exists between the destruction of steranes and the demethylation of hopanes and tricyclic terpanes. This suggests that terpane demethylation occurs during sterane destruction and hopane demethylation, although the rate is slower, indicating that tricyclic terpanes are more resistant to biodegradation. (Author)

  11. Characterization and quantification of racemic and meso-ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetic) acid/iron (III) by ion-pair ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasone, Alessandro; Cianci, Giusto; Di Tommaso, Donata; Piaggesi, Alberto; Tagliavini, Emilio; Galletti, Paola; Moretti, Fabio

    2013-03-22

    EDDHSA/Fe is a promising substitute of EDDHA/Fe to fight iron chlorosis. o,o-EDDHSA structure contains two chiral carbons giving the racemic and meso couples of stereoisomers. Ion-pair HPLC and UHPLC-UV/Vis-ESI-MS/MS methods were developed for the determination of racemic and meso-o,o-EDDHSA/Fe in commercial samples of chelates. The lack of a commercial EDDHSA standard was overcome by sulfonation of a commercial available o,o-EDDHA standard and subsequent quantification by (1)H-NMR. Assignment of configurations was carried out starting from racemic and meso-o,o-EDDHA/Fe by direct sulfonation to give the corresponding o,o-EDDHSA/Fe isomers. The performances of these methods were assessed in terms of intra and inter-day precision, linearity and selectivity. The high selectivity and lower detection limit (nanomolar) of the UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method could allow to deepen the knowledge relative to meso and rac-o,o-EDDHSA/Fe interactions with plants, its fate in different soil conditions, its mobility and other environmental aspects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Engineering Escherichia coli for the production of terpene mixture enriched in caryophyllene and caryophyllene alcohol as potential aviation fuel compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that caryophyllene and its stereoisomers not only exhibit multiple biological activities but also have desired properties as renewable candidates for ground transportation and jet fuel applications. This study presents the first significant production of caryophyllene and caryolan-1-ol by an engineered E. coli with heterologous expression of mevalonate pathway genes with a caryophyllene synthase and a caryolan-1-ol synthase. By optimizing metabolic flux and fermentation parameters, the engineered strains yielded 449 mg/L of total terpene, including 406 mg/L sesquiterpene with 100 mg/L caryophyllene and 10 mg/L caryolan-1-ol. Furthermore, a marine microalgae hydrolysate was used as the sole carbon source for the production of caryophyllene and other terpene compounds. Under the optimal fermentation conditions, 360 mg/L of total terpene, 322 mg/L of sesquiterpene, and 75 mg/L caryophyllene were obtained from the pretreated algae hydrolysates. The highest yields achieved on the biomass basis were 48 mg total terpene/g algae and 10 mg caryophyllene/g algae and the caryophyllene yield is approximately ten times higher than that from plant tissues by solvent extraction. The study provides a sustainable alternative for production of caryophyllene and its alcohol from microalgae biomass as potential candidates for next generation aviation fuels. Keywords: Caryophyllene, Caryolan-1-ol, Caryophyllene synthase, Caryolan-1-ol synthase, Mevalonate pathway, Bioproduct

  13. Luminescent chiral ionic Ir(III) complexes: Synthesis and photophysical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardi, Loredana, E-mail: loredana.ricciardi@unical.it [CNR NANOTEC-Istituto di Nanotecnologia U.O.S. Cosenza, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy); La Deda, Massimo; Ionescu, Andreea; Godbert, Nicolas; Aiello, Iolinda; Ghedini, Mauro [MAT-INLAB (Laboratorio di Materiali Molecolari Inorganici), LASCAMM and CR INSTM, Unità INSTM della Calabria, Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Chimiche, Università della Calabria, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy); Fusè, Marco, E-mail: marco.fuse@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università di Milano, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Rimoldi, Isabella; Cesarotti, Edoardo [Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università di Milano, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Three homologous series of luminescent octahedral ionic Ir(III) complexes (1–12) with a dual stereogenic center of general formula {sup Δ,Λ} {sup (R,S)}[(ppy){sub 2}Ir(R-campy)]X, where ppy=2-phenylpyridine, R-campy=2-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolin-8-amine (Me-campy) or 8-amino-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolines (H-campy) and as counterions X{sup −}=Cl{sup −} or CH{sub 3}COO{sup −} have been synthesized and characterized. The NMR characterization of each complex highlighted the diastereoisomeric purity and the absolute configuration has been confirmed by Electronic Circular Dichroism spectroscopy. The absorption and the luminescence properties of the compounds in solution and in solid state have been investigated by UV–vis, steady-state emission and time-correlated single-photon counting spectroscopy. The obtained results from the 12 compounds highlight the difficult to correlate photophysical properties in solution to the stereochemistry, while excited states decay studies of the solid state samples indicate a correlation between photophysics and packing mode which is affected by the different stereochemistry. - Highlights: • Luminescent chiral ionic Ir(III) complexes have been synthesized and characterized. • Presence in the same structure of two stereogenic centers. • Use of camphorsulfonate as resolving anion to obtain enantiomerically pure samples. • Stereoisomers produce aggregates with different emitting properties. • Lifetimes from solid samples show the presence of AIPE.

  14. Conformational analysis and vibrational spectroscopy of a paracetamol analogous: 2-Bromo-N-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-2-methylpropanamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Rommel B.; Quintero, David E.; Viana, Anderson B.; Moreno-Fuquen, Rodolfo

    2017-11-01

    We conducted an experimental and quantum chemical investigation of the electronic properties and vibrational mode couplings of a structure analogous to a paracetamol (acetaminophen): 2-Bromo-N-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-2-methylpropanamide. The spectroscopic and electronic properties were carried out with the PBE1PBE functional, and G3MP2 was used to predict the heat of formation. Among the E/Z stereoisomers, we showed that the energy gap ranged from 3 to 10 kcal mol-1; the relative stability among the regioisomers (involving the different positions of the methyl and hydroxyl groups) exhibited energy differences lower than 5 kcal mol-1. A topological analysis using the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) was performed to determine the intramolecular hydrogen bonds that govern the configuration changes, and the Natural Bond Orbital method was used to estimate the interplay between the steric and electrostatic interactions that stabilized each isomer. It was also estimated the influence of the population methodology in to predict the atomic charge distribution for the title compound.

  15. Mechanistic studies of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGeehan, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that elicits a wide variety of responses in plant tissue. Among these responses are the hastening of abscission, ripening and senescence. In 1979 it was discovered that 1-amino-1-cyclopropane carboxylic acid is the immediate biosynthetic precursor to ethylene. Given the obvious economic significance of ethylene production the authors concentrated their studies on the conversion of ACC to ethylene. They delved into mechanistic aspects of ACC oxidation and they studied potential inhibitors of ethylene forming enzyme (EFE). They synthesized various analogs of ACC and found that EFE shows good stereodiscrimination among alkyl substituted ACC analogs with the 1R, 2S stereoisomer being processed nine times faster than the 1S, 2R isomer in the MeACC series. They also synthesized 2-cyclopropyl ACC which is a good competitive inhibitor of EFE. This compound also causes time dependent loss of EFE activity leading us to believe it is an irreversible inhibitor of ethylene formation. The synthesis of these analogs has also allowed them to develop a spectroscopic technique to assign the relative stereochemistry of alkyl groups. 13 C NMR allows them to assign the alkyl stereochemistry based upon gamma-shielding effects on the carbonyl resonance. Lastly, they measured kinetic isotope effects on the oxidation of ACC in vivo and in vitro and found that ACC is oxidized by a rate-determining 1-electron removal from nitrogen in close accord with mechanisms for the oxidation of other alkyl amines

  16. Biotransformation of enoximone, a new cardiotonic agent, in man and laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.Y.; Lang, J.F.; Coutant, J.E.; Okerholm, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Enoximone, 1,3-dihydro-4-methyl-5-[4-(methylthio)benzoyl]-2H-imidazol-2-one is a new cardiotonic agent which is currently undergoing clinical evaluation in patients with congestive heart failure. Biotransformation of enoximone was studied in man, rat, monkey and dog by means of 14 C-labelled material, HPLC and GC/MS techniques. Metabolic conversions were qualitatively similar in all species. The parent compound was found to be extensively metabolized. Generally less than 1% of the dose was recovered as enoximone in urine. The sulfoxide was the major metabolite in all species, accounting for over 90% of the dose in the urine of the monkey and greater than 75% in man and the rat. The sulfone was present in trace quantities, except in the rats, where it accounted for 5-8% of the dose. A glycine conjugate of 4-methylthiobenzoic acid was also identified as a urinary metabolite; and the dog seems to favor this pathway more than the other 3 species; as it accounted for over 30% of the dose. The two stereoisomers of synthetic sulfoxide were separated by HPLC, and examination of urine from patients receiving enoximone therapy suggested that the metabolic conversion of enoximone to sulfoxide was stereospecific, as only one isomeric peak was observed in the HPLC system

  17. Piracetam and TRH analogues antagonise inhibition by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and galanin of human erythrocyte D-glucose transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftalin, Richard J; Cunningham, Philip; Afzal-Ahmed, Iram

    2004-01-01

    Nootropic drugs increase glucose uptake into anaesthetised brain and into Alzheimer's diseased brain. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH, which has a chemical structure similar to nootropics increases cerebellar uptake of glucose in murine rolling ataxia. This paper shows that nootropic drugs like piracetam (2-oxo 1 pyrrolidine acetamide) and levetiracetam and neuropeptides like TRH antagonise the inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and endogenous neuropeptide galanin in human erythrocytes in vitro. The potencies of nootropic drugs in opposing scopolamine-induced memory loss correlate with their potencies in antagonising pentobarbital inhibition of erythrocyte glucose transport in vitro (Pnootropics, D-levetiracetam and D-pyroglutamate, have higher antagonist Ki's against pentobarbital inhibition of glucose transport than more potent L-stereoisomers (Pnootropics, like aniracetam and levetiracetam, while antagonising pentobarbital action, also inhibit glucose transport. Analeptics like bemigride and methamphetamine are more potent inhibitors of glucose transport than antagonists of hypnotic action on glucose transport. There are similarities between amino-acid sequences in human glucose transport protein isoform 1 (GLUT1) and the benzodiazepine-binding domains of GABAA (gamma amino butyric acid) receptor subunits. Mapped on a 3D template of GLUT1, these homologies suggest that the site of diazepam and piracetam interaction is a pocket outside the central hydrophilic pore region. Nootropic pyrrolidone antagonism of hypnotic drug inhibition of glucose transport in vitro may be an analogue of TRH antagonism of galanin-induced narcosis. PMID:15148255

  18. BCL::EMAS — Enantioselective Molecular Asymmetry Descriptor for 3D-QSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Butkiewicz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Stereochemistry is an important determinant of a molecule’s biological activity. Stereoisomers can have different degrees of efficacy or even opposing effects when interacting with a target protein. Stereochemistry is a molecular property difficult to represent in 2D-QSAR as it is an inherently three-dimensional phenomenon. A major drawback of most proposed descriptors for 3D-QSAR that encode stereochemistry is that they require a heuristic for defining all stereocenters and rank-ordering its substituents. Here we propose a novel 3D-QSAR descriptor termed Enantioselective Molecular ASymmetry (EMAS that is capable of distinguishing between enantiomers in the absence of such heuristics. The descriptor aims to measure the deviation from an overall symmetric shape of the molecule. A radial-distribution function (RDF determines a signed volume of tetrahedrons of all triplets of atoms and the molecule center. The descriptor can be enriched with atom-centric properties such as partial charge. This descriptor showed good predictability when tested with a dataset of thirty-one steroids commonly used to benchmark stereochemistry descriptors (r2 = 0.89, q2 = 0.78. Additionally, EMAS improved enrichment of 4.38 versus 3.94 without EMAS in a simulated virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS for inhibitors and substrates of cytochrome P450 (PUBCHEM AID891.

  19. Increased Symmetric Dimethylarginine Level Is Associated with Worse Hospital Outcomes through Altered Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lorin

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether SDMA- symmetric dimethylarginine -the symmetrical stereoisomer of ADMA- might be a marker of left ventricular function in AMI.Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA has been implicated in the prognosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI and heart failure (HF.Cross sectional prospective study from 487 consecutive patients hospitalized 2, and death.Patients were analysed based on SDMA tertiles. Sex, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and prior MI were similar for all tertiles. In contrast, age and hypertension increased across the tertiles (p<0.001. From the first to the last tertile, GRACE risk score was elevated while LVEF and eGFR was reduced. The rate of severe HF and death were gradually increased across the SDMA tertiles (from 0.6% to 7.4%, p = 0.006 and from 0.6% to 5.0%, p = 0.034, respectively. Backward logistic multivariate analysis showed that SDMA was an independent estimate of developing severe HF, even when adjusted for confounding (OR(95%CI: 8.2(3.0-22.5, p<0.001. Further, SDMA was associated with mortality, even after adjustment for GRACE risk score (OR(95%CI: 4.56(1.34-15.52, p = 0.015.Our study showed for the first time that SDMA is associated with hospital outcomes, through altered LVEF and may have biological activity beyond renal function.

  20. L-Sorbose but not D-tagatose induces hemolysis of dog erythrocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, A; Leeman, W R

    1999-04-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that L-sorbose induces hemolysis of dog erythrocytes. This effect is probably the consequence of an ATP depletion of the red blood cells subsequent to inhibition of hexokinase, and thus the glycolytic pathway, by sorbose 1-phosphate. In the present study, the susceptibility of dog erythrocytes to D-tagatose, a stereoisomer of L-sorbose, was examined. Washed dog erythrocytes were suspended in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS, containing 5.6 mM glucose) with or without the addition of 0.6, 6, and 60 mM L-sorbose or D-tagatose, or in HBSS with total glucose concentrations of 5.6, 6 and 60 mM D-glucose. After incubation for 24 h at 34 degrees C, the suspensions were centrifuged, and the percentage of hemolysis was determined by measuring the hemoglobin in the sediment and the supernatant. The amount of hemoglobin released in the medium did not differ significantly between the control (HBSS) and the test incubations with glucose or D-tagatose supplementation. In contrast, the addition of 6 and 60 mM L-sorbose resulted in significant hemolysis. At the low dose (0.6 mM), L-sorbose did not have an adverse effect. It is concluded that D-tagatose, unlike L-sorbose, does not have a hemolytic effect on canine erythrocytes. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. The acute effect of D-tagatose on food intake in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Toubro, S; Raben, A; Blundell, J; Astrup, A

    2000-08-01

    A double-blind randomized crossover study was performed with nineteen normal-weight men to investigate the effect on subsequent ad libitum food intake of replacing 29 g sucrose with 29 g D-tagatose as sweetener to a breakfast meal. D-Tagatose is a malabsorbed stereoisomer of fructose with potential application as a bulk sweetener. Food intake was measured at lunch offered 4 h after the breakfast meal, during the afternoon with access to abundant snacks, and finally at a supper buffet 9 h after the breakfast. Energy intake at lunch and during the snacking period was similar after ingesting the two sugars, while it was 15% lower after ingesting D-tagatose than with sucrose at supper (P effects of unabsorbed D-tagatose causing distension of the gut might have mediated the acute appetite-suppressing effect. The present paper also refers to data from a preceding study in which we observed an increased self-reported energy intake after ingestion of D-tagatose compared with sucrose which, in fact, suggests a relative hyperphagic effect of D-tagatose. However, self-reported food intake may be biased by selective under-reporting and this subsequent study with a more controlled assessment of food intake was therefore conducted. This present study did not support any hyperphagic effect of D-tagatose, but rather suggests that D-tagatose may contribute to a reduced energy intake.

  2. Chemical and Biological Properties of S-1-Propenyl-l-Cysteine in Aged Garlic Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Yukihioro; Ushijima, Mitsuyasu; Amano, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Jun-Ichiro; Matsutomo, Toshiaki

    2017-03-31

    S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (S1PC) is a stereoisomer of S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (SAC), an important sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a role for the beneficial pharmacological effects of aged garlic extract (AGE). The existence of S1PC in garlic preparations has been known since the 1960's. However, there was no report regarding the biological and/or pharmacological activity of S1PC until 2016. Recently, we performed a series of studies to examine the chemical, biological, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of S1PC, and obtained some interesting results. S1PC existed only in trace amounts in raw garlic, but its concentration increased almost up to the level similar of SAC through aging process of AGE. S1PC showed immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo, and reduced blood pressure in a hypertensive animal model. A pharmacokinetic study revealed that S1PC was readily absorbed after oral administration in rats and dogs with bioavailability of 88-100%. Additionally, S1PC had little inhibitory influence on human cytochrome P450 activities, even at a concentration of 1 mM. Based on these findings, S1PC was suggested to be another important, pharmacologically active and safe component of AGE similar to SAC. In this review, we highlight some results from recent studies on S1PC and discuss the potential medicinal value of S1PC.

  3. Preventive and curative role of mezo-inosite B group vitamin in radiation disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perepelkin, S.P.; Egorova, N.D.; Katsitadze, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of mezo-inosite (optically nonactive stereoisomer of inosite B group vitamine) having vitamin properties has been studied. Investigations were carried out with nonpedigree male rats. Mezo-inosite was used perorally in two variants of doses: according to the first variant - 2, 5, 10 mg per rat, according to the second variant - 1, 2, 2.5 and 5 mg per rat, which were conditionally named as doses of daily man organism demand, minimum therapeutic and therapeutic doses, respectively. Mezo-inosite was added into the rat ration for 21 days before irradiation and for 30-33 days after irradiation. The animals were exposed to 600 R total X-ray irradiation. Strong protective mezo-inosite effect (particularly at small doses, used in the second variant) in irradiation disease against a background of physiological diet application has been established. These data are confirmed by high animal survival, some increased duration of animal life,some more weight increase for the first ten-day period after irradiation and a comparatively better normalization of leucocytic composition of peripherical blood of the experimental animals, getting mezoinosite, in comparison with the controls

  4. Determination of Noncovalent Binding Using a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor as a Flow Injection Device Coupled to Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C.; Waybright, Veronica B.; Fan, Hui; Ramirez, Sabra; Mesquita, Raquel B. R.; Rangel, António O. S. S.; Fryčák, Petr; Schug, Kevin A.

    2015-07-01

    Described is a new method based on the concept of controlled band dispersion, achieved by hyphenating flow injection analysis with ESI-MS for noncovalent binding determinations. A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was used as a FIA device for exponential dilution of an equimolar host-guest solution over time. The data obtained was treated for the noncovalent binding determination using an equimolar binding model. Dissociation constants between vancomycin and Ac-Lys(Ac)-Ala-Ala-OH peptide stereoisomers were determined using both the positive and negative ionization modes. The results obtained for Ac- L-Lys(Ac)- D-Ala- D-Ala (a model for a Gram-positive bacterial cell wall) binding were in reasonable agreement with literature values made by other mass spectrometry binding determination techniques. Also, the developed method allowed the determination of dissociation constants for vancomycin with Ac- L-Lys(Ac)- D-Ala- L-Ala, Ac- L-Lys(Ac)- L-Ala- D-Ala, and Ac- L-Lys(Ac)- L-Ala- L-Ala. Although some differences in measured binding affinities were noted using different ionization modes, the results of each determination were generally consistent. Differences are likely attributable to the influence of a pseudo-physiological ammonium acetate buffer solution on the formation of positively- and negatively-charged ionic complexes.

  5. Imino Diels-Alder-Based Construction of a Piperidine A-Ring Unit for Total Synthesis of the Marine Hepatotoxin Cylindrospermopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzelman, Geoffrey R.; Weinreb, Steven M.; Parvez, Masood

    1996-07-12

    The synthesis of a piperidine A-ring precursor to the alkaloid cylindrospermopsin (1) is described. The initial approach to the A-ring precursor focused on the imino Diels-Alder reaction of diene 8 with ethyl (N-tosylimino)acetate (9) to form the cycloadduct 10 as a single stereoisomer. However, all attempts to convert ester 10 to a requisite diene such as 5 were unsuccessful. An alternative strategy involved the Diels-Alder cycloaddition of N-tosylimine 9 with oxygenated diene 19 under either thermal or Lewis acid-catalyzed conditions to produce a mixture of cis and trans enones 20 and 21. Although the undesired cis-enone 20 was the major product under all reaction conditions, it could be converted to the desired trans enone 21 by acid-catalyzed isomerization. Copper-mediated conjugate addition of vinylmagnesium bromide to cis-enone 20 followed by stereoselective ketone reduction with L-Selectride produced alcohol 23, whose structure was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Similarly, trans-enone 21 was converted to alcohol 25 whose structure and stereochemistry were also established by X-ray analysis. Alcohol 25 was then protected as the silyl ether 26, which was hydroborated at the terminal olefin to produce primary alcohol ester 28having the stereochemistry and functionality needed for cylindrospermopsin.

  6. Stereoselective synthesis of ( E)-4-(imidazo[1,2- a]pyrid-2-yl)-3-(4-methylphenylsulfonyl)but-3-en-2-one. X-ray crystal structure and conformational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, D.; Force, L.; Carpy, A.; Gardette, D.; Madesclaire, M.

    1998-06-01

    The title compound, gem-ketovinylsulfone 3, was obtained stereoselectively (de > 98%) by the action of the α-anion from p-tolylsulfonylacetone 1 on imidazol[1,2- a]pyridine-2-carbaldehyde 2 in chelation-controlled conditions in the presence of a Lewis acid (ZnCl 2). The X-ray crystal structure of 3 [C 18H 16N 2O 3S: Mt = 340.4, orthorhombic, Pbca, a = 12.208(3) Å, b = 18.848(4) Å, c = 14.566(11) Å, V = 3.351(3) Å3, Z = 8, Dcalc = 1.349 g cm -3, λ( CuKα) = 1.54178 Å, μ = 1.83 mm -1, F(000) = 1424, T = 293 K, R = 0.061 for 2.046 observed reflections] was determined, and confirmed the ( E) configuration. Despite the conjugate position of the vinyl double bond, quasi-coplanar with the imidazopyridine heterocycle, there is no evidence of p-electron delocalization. The crystal cohesion is ensured by a dense network of van der Waals contacts. The conformational analysis of the ( E) and ( Z) stereoisomers was performed by molecular dynamics simulation, and showed the ( E) isomer to be 9.1 kJ mol -1 more stable than the ( Z) isomer.

  7. Preparation of D-[U-14C]galactose and α-D-[U-14C]galactose-1-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolina, J.; Hromadkova, B.

    1989-01-01

    Optically pure D-[U- 14 C]galactose was prepared on a preparatory scale using the galactokinase enzyme. The suggested procedure allows to also prepare a α-D-[U- 14 C]galactose-1-phosphate and L-[U- 14 ]galactose giving good yield. The experiments proved that the raw fraction isolated from yeast of the Kluyveromyces fragilis strain or the Kluyveromyces lactis strain shows sufficient activity. Phosphorylation of D-[U- 14 C]galactose practically terminates after 30 mins of incubation. DL-[U- 14 C]galactose isolated using preparatory paper chromatography from the acid hydrolyzate of [U- 14 C] polysaccharide is a satisfactory radioactive precursor. The developed preparation procedure theoretically contributed towards the further elucidation of the problem of the proportional representation of galactose stereo-isomers in extracellular polysaccharide isolated from red algae. In this respect data in the literature differ and some sources state a significantly higher propertion of L-galactose. The experiments showed that [U- 14 C] polysaccharide isolated from the red algae Porphyridium cruentum prevalently contains D-[U- 14 C]galactose, which confirms the process of enzyme reaction. (author). 1 tab., 4 refs

  8. Synthesis of methyl (13(2)R/S)-alkyl-pyropheophorbide a and a non-epimerized chlorophyll a mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Shin; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2015-10-15

    The (13(2)R/S)-methoxycarbonyl group of methyl pheophorbides a/a' (chlorophyll a/a' derivatives) was converted to methyl, ethyl, propyl, and isopropyl groups through the C13(2)-alkylation under basic conditions followed by pyrolysis in 2,4,6-collidine with lithium iodide. All the resulting products, methyl 13(2)-alkyl-pyropheophorbides a, predominantly gave the (13(2)R)-stereoisomers with about one tenth of the (13(2)S)-epimers. Their stereochemistry was determined by 1D/2D NMR and their optical properties were characterized by visible absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Methyl (13(2)R)-propyl-pyropheophorbide a was converted to (13(2)R)-propyl-pyrochlorophyll a by ester exchanging and magnesium chelating reactions. The synthetic chlorophyll a analogue showed non-epimerization at the 13(2)-position in pyridine-d5 at 40°C, while naturally occurring chlorophyll a was easily epimerized under the same conditions to give its epimeric mixture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sequence-selective topoisomerase II inhibition by anthracycline derivatives in SV40 DNA: Relationship with DNA binding affinity and cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capranico, G.; Kohn, K.W.; Pommier, Y.; Zunino, F.

    1990-01-01

    Topoisomerase II mediated double-strand breaks produced by anthracycline analogues were studied in SV40 DNA. The compounds included doxorubicin, daunorubicin, two doxorubicin stereoisomers (4'-epimer and β-anomer), and five chromophore-modified derivatives, with a wide range of cytotoxic activity and DNA binding affinity. Cleavage of 32 P-end-labeled DNA fragments was visualized by autoradiography of agarose and polyacrylamide gels. Structure-activity relationships indicated that alterations in the chromophore structure greatly affected drug action on topoisomerase II. In particular, removal of substituents on position 4 of the D ring resulted in more active inducers of cleavage with lower DNA binding affinity. The stereochemistry between the sugar and the chromophore was also essential for activity. All the active anthracyclines induced a single region of prominent cleavage in the entire SV40 DNA, which resulted from a cluster of sites between nucleotides 4237 and 4294. DNA cleavage intensity patterns exhibited differences among analogues and were also dependent upon drug concentration. Intensity at a given site dependent on both stimulatory and suppressive effects depending upon drug concentration and DNA sequence. A good correlation was found between cytotoxicity and intensity of topoisomerase II mediated DNA breakage

  10. The role of strigolactones during plant interactions with the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Eloise; Blake, Sara N; Fisher, Brendan J; Smith, Jason A; Reid, James B

    2016-06-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) do not influence spore germination or hyphal growth of Fusarium oxysporum. Mutant studies revealed no role for SLs but a role for ethylene signalling in defence against this pathogen in pea. Strigolactones (SLs) play important roles both inside the plant as a hormone and outside the plant as a rhizosphere signal in interactions with mycorrhizal fungi and parasitic weeds. What is less well understood is any potential role SLs may play in interactions with disease causing microbes such as pathogenic fungi. In this paper we investigate the influence of SLs on the hemibiotrophic pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. pisi both directly via their effects on fungal growth and inside the plant through the use of a mutant deficient in SL. Given that various stereoisomers of synthetic and naturally occuring SLs can display different biological activities, we used (+)-GR24, (-)-GR24 and the naturally occurring SL, (+)-strigol, as well as a racemic mixture of 5-deoxystrigol. As a positive control, we examined the influence of a plant mutant with altered ethylene signalling, ein2, on disease development. We found no evidence that SLs influence spore germination or hyphal growth of Fusarium oxysporum and that, while ethylene signalling influences pea susceptibility to this pathogen, SLs do not.

  11. Inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase-catalyzed synthesis by intercalated DNA Benzo[a]Pyrene 7,8-Dihydrodiol-9,10-Epoxide adducts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi Chary

    Full Text Available To aid in the characterization of the relationship of structure and function for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT, this investigation utilized DNAs containing benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE-modified primers and templates as a probe of the architecture of this complex. BPDE lesions that differed in their stereochemistry around the C10 position were covalently linked to N (6-adenine and positioned in either the primer or template strand of a duplex template-primer. HIV-1 RT exhibited a stereoisomer-specific and strand-specific difference in replication when the BPDE-lesion was placed in the template versus the primer strand. When the C10 R-BPDE adduct was positioned in the primer strand in duplex DNA, 5 nucleotides from the 3΄ end of the primer terminus, HIV-1 RT could not fully replicate the template, producing truncated products; this block to further synthesis did not affect rates of dissociation or DNA binding affinity. Additionally, when the adducts were in the same relative position, but located in the template strand, similar truncated products were observed with both the C10 R and C10 S BPDE adducts. These data suggest that the presence of covalently-linked intercalative DNA adducts distant from the active site can lead to termination of DNA synthesis catalyzed by HIV-1 RT.

  12. The concern of emergence of multi-station reaction pathways that might make stepwise the mechanism of the 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of azides and alkynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtat, Bita; Siadati, Seyyed Amir; Khalilzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Zareyee, Daryoush

    2018-03-01

    After hot debates on the concerted or stepwise nature of the mechanism of the catalyst-free 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions (DC)s, nowadays, it is being believed that for the reaction of each dipole and dipolarophile, there is a possibility that the reaction mechanism becomes stepwise, intermediates emerge, and the reaction becomes non-stereospecific. Yield of even minimal amounts of unwanted side products or stereoisomers as impurities could bring many troubles like difficult purification steps. In this project, we have made attempts to study all probable reaction channels of the azide cycloadditions with two functionalized alkynes, in order to answer this question: "is there any possibility that intermediates evolve in the catalyst-free click 1,3-DC reaction of azide-alkynes?". During the calculations, several multi-station reaction pathways supporting the stepwise and concerted mechanisms were detected. Also, the born-oppenheimer molecular dynamic (BOMD) simulation was used to find trustable geometries which could be emerged during the reaction coordinate.

  13. Correlations among experimental and theoretical NMR data to determine the absolute stereochemistry of darcyribeirine, a pentacyclic indole alkaloid isolated from Rauvolfia grandiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelieri, Náuvia Maria; Ferreira, Thiago Resende; Vieira, Ivo José Curcino; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Piló-Veloso, Dorila; Alcântara, Antônio Flávio de Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    Darcyribeirine (1) is a pentacyclic indole alkaloid isolated from Rauvolfia grandiflora. Stereochemistry of 1 was previously proposed based on 1D (coupling constant data) and 2D (NOESY correlations) NMR techniques, having been established a configuration 3R, 15S, and 20R (isomer 1a). Stereoisomers of 1 (i.e., 1a-1h) can be grouped into four sets of enantiomers. Carbon chemical shifts and hydrogen coupling constants were calculated using BLYP/6-31G* theory level for the eight isomers of 1. Calculated NMR data of 1a-1h were correlated with the corresponding experimental data of 1. The best correlations between theoretical and experimental carbon chemical shift data were obtained for the set of enantiomers 1e/1f to structures in the gaseous phase and considering solvent effects (using PCM and explicit models). Similar results were obtained when the same procedure was performed to correlations between theoretical and experimental coupling constant data. Finally, optical rotation calculations indicate 1e as its absolute stereochemistry. Orbital population analysis indicates that the hydrogen bonding between N-H of 1e and DMSO is due to contributions of its frontier unoccupied molecular orbitals, mainly LUMO+1, LUMO+2, and LUMO+3.

  14. Molecular signal for induction of the adaptive response to alkylating agents in E. coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, T.; Sedgwick, B.; Teo, I.; Kilpatrick, M.; McCarthy, T.; Hughes, S.

    1986-05-01

    Exposure of E. coli to simple alkylating agents such as methylnitrosourea causes the induction of at least three DNA repair functions, which are under the control of the ada gene. The intracellular signal for switching on the response has been identified as one of the two stereoisomers of methyl phosphotriesters generated in DNA by alkylation. The methyl group is transferred from the phosphotriester moiety to a specific cysteine residue within the regulatory Ada protein in a self-methylation reaction. This protein also corrects the mutagenic lesion O/sup 6/-methylguanine by transfer of its methyl group to a separate cysteine residue in the Ada protein. Methylation of the protein from repair of a DNA phosphotriester residue, but not from O/sup 6/-methylguanine, converts it to an activator of transcription of genes involved in the adaptive response. The activated form of the Ada protein enhances transcription by binding specifically to a sequence d(AAA--AAAGCGCA), located immediately upstream of the RNA polymerase binding site in relevant promoter regions.

  15. Enzymatic conversion of sucrose to glucose and its anomerization by quantitative NMR spectroscopy: Application of a simple consecutive reaction rates approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaideep; Her, Cheenou; Krishnan, V. V.

    2018-02-01

    The anomerization of carbohydrates is an essential process that determines the relative stabilization of stereoisomers in an aqueous solution. In a typical real-time enzyme kinetics experiment, the substrate (sucrose) is converted to glucose and fructose by the enzyme invertase. The product (α-D-glucose) starts to convert to β-D-glucose immediately by hydrolysis. Though the anomerization process is independent of the enzyme catalysis, the progress curve describing the production of β-D-glucose from α-D-glucose is directly affected by the kinetics of consecutive reactions. When α-D-glucose is continually converted to β-D-glucose, by the enzymatic action, the time course of both α- and β-D-glucose is influenced by the enzyme kinetics. Thus, a reversible first-order rate equation is not adequate to model the reaction mechanism, leading to erroneous results on the rates of formation of the glucose anomers. In this manuscript, we incorporate an approximate method to address consecutive general reactions involving enzyme kinetics and first-order reaction processes. The utility of the approach is demonstrated in the real-time NMR measurement of the anomerization process of α-D-glucose (enzymatically produced from sucrose) to β-D-glucose, as a function of invertase enzyme concentration. Variable temperature experiments were used to estimate the thermodynamic parameters of the anomerization process and are consistent with literature values.

  16. Combined experimental and theoretical study on the Raman and Raman optical activity signatures of pentamethylundecane diastereoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drooghaag, Xavier; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Champagne, Benoît; Liégeois, Vincent

    2010-09-16

    The synthesis and the separation of the four stereoisomers of 2,4,6,8,10-pentamethylundecane (PMU) are described together with their characterization by Raman spectroscopy. In parallel, theoretical calculations of the Raman and vibrational Raman optical activity (VROA) spectra are reported and analyzed in relation with the recorded spectra. A very good agreement is found between the experimental and theoretical spectra. The Raman spectra are also shown to be less affected by the change of configuration than the VROA spectra. Nevertheless, by studying the overlap between the theoretical Raman spectra, we show clear relationships between the spectral fingerprints and the structures displaying a mixture of the TGTGTGTG conformation of the (4R,6s,8S)-PMU (isotactic compound) with the TTTTTTTT conformation of the (4R,6r,8S)-PMU (syndiotactic compound). Then, the fingerprints of the VROA spectra of the five conformers of the (4R,8R)-PMU have been related to the fingerprints of the regular (TG)(N) isotactic compound as a function of the torsion angles. Since the (TT)(N) syndiotactic compound has no VROA signatures, the VROA spectroscopy is very sensitive to the helical structures, as demonstrated here.

  17. Asymmetric syntheses of 3,4-disubstituted tetrahydroquinoline derivatives using (+)- sparteine-mediated electrophilic substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Soo; Kang, Kyoung Hee; Park, Yong Sun

    2015-01-01

    Tetrahydroquinolines bearing substituents are frequently found as a substructure in a number of alkaloids and natural products. Since their individual stereoisomers displays different biological activities, it is desirable to develop a highly stereoselective synthetic method for tetrahydroquinolines. While some progress has recently been made toward the development of asymmetric synthetic methods for tetrahydroquinolines, it is still a challenging topic in organic synthesis. In order to investigate the source of diastereoselection attained in the substitution reaction with a racemic epoxide, we examined the substitution of 2 with an excess amount of racemic p-chlorophenyl-substituted oxirane. We have developed a novel method for the asymmetric synthesis of trans-3,4-diaryl-substituted tetrahy- droquinolines from ortho-substituted N-pivaloyl anilines. The enantioselective process includes (+)-sparteine-mediated stereoselective lithiati on, kinetic resolution of epoxides in substitution, and stereospecific Mitsu nobu cyclization as the key reactions. The simple protocol can provide highly functionalized tetrahydroqu inoline rings and would allow their further functionalization to access more complex target molecules

  18. cis-fumagillin, a new methionine aminopeptidase (type 2) inhibitor produced by Penicillium sp. F2757.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, J Y; Jeong, H W; Kim, H K; Kang, K H; Chang, Y H; Bae, K S; Choi, J D; Lee, U C; Son, K H; Kwon, B M

    2000-08-01

    Selective inhibition against the yeast MetAP2 (methionine aminopeptidase type 2) was detected in the fermentation broth of a fungus F2757 that was later identified as Penicillium janczewskii. A new compound cis-fumagillin methyl ester (1) was isolated from the diazomethane treated fermentation extracts together with the known compound fumagillin methyl ester (2). The cis-fumagillin methyl ester, a stereoisomer of fumagillin methyl ester at the C2'-C3' position of the aliphatic side chain, selectively inhibited growth of the map1 mutant yeast strain (MetAP1 deletion strain) at a concentration as low as 1 ng. However, the wild type yeast w303 and the mutant map2 (MetAP2 deleted) strains were resistant up to 10 microg of the compound. In enzyme experiments, compound 1 inhibited the MetAP2 with an IC50 value of 6.3 nM, but it did not inhibit the MetAP1 (IC50 >200 microM). Compound 2 also inhibited the MetAP2 with an IC50 value of 9.2 nM and 105 microM against MetAP1.

  19. Strigolactone analogs derived from ketones using a working model for germination stimulants as a blueprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakaboko, Alinanuswe S; Zwanenburg, Binne

    2011-04-01

    Strigolactones are important signaling compounds in the plant kingdom. Here we focus on their germination stimulatory effect on seeds of the parasitic weeds Striga and Orobanche spp. and more particularly on the design and synthesis of new active strigolactone analogs derived from simple cyclic ketones. New analogs derived from 1-indanone, 1-tetralone, cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone and a series of substituted cyclohexanones (including carvone and pulegone) are prepared by formylation of the ketones with ethyl formate followed by coupling with a halo butenolide. Both enantiomers of the analog derived from 1-tetralone have been prepared by employing a homochiral synthon for the coupling reaction. For three other strigolactone analogs the antipodes have been obtained by chromatography on a chiral column. All analogs have an appreciable germinating activity towards seeds of Striga hermomonthica and Orobanche crenata and O. cernua. Stereoisomers having the same configuration at the D-ring as in naturally occurring strigol have a higher stimulatory effect than the corresponding antipodes. The analogs obtained from 1-indanone and 1-tetralone have an activity comparable with that of the well known stimulant GR 24. Analogs derived from 2-phenyl-cylohexanone, carvone and pulegone also have a good germinating response. The results show that the working model for designing new bioactive strigolactones is applicable.

  20. Clomiphene and Its Isomers Block Ebola Virus Particle Entry and Infection with Similar Potency: Potential Therapeutic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Elizabeth A; Barnes, Alyson B; Wiehle, Ronald D; Fontenot, Gregory K; Hoenen, Thomas; White, Judith M

    2016-08-02

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) in Western Africa highlighted the need for anti-EBOV therapeutics. Clomiphene is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug that blocks EBOV entry and infection in cells and significantly protects EBOV-challenged mice. As provided, clomiphene is, approximately, a 60:40 mixture of two stereoisomers, enclomiphene and zuclomiphene. The pharmacokinetic properties of the two isomers vary, but both accumulate in the eye and male reproductive tract, tissues in which EBOV can persist. Here we compared the ability of clomiphene and its isomers to inhibit EBOV using viral-like particle (VLP) entry and transcription/replication-competent VLP (trVLP) assays. Clomiphene and its isomers inhibited the entry and infection of VLPs and trVLPs with similar potencies. This was demonstrated with VLPs bearing the glycoproteins from three filoviruses (EBOV Mayinga, EBOV Makona, and Marburg virus) and in two cell lines (293T/17 and Vero E6). Visual problems have been noted in EBOV survivors, and viral RNA has been isolated from semen up to nine months post-infection. Since the clomiphene isomers accumulate in these affected tissues, clomiphene or one of its isomers warrants consideration as an anti-EBOV agent, for example, to potentially help ameliorate symptoms in EBOV survivors.

  1. Clomiphene and Its Isomers Block Ebola Virus Particle Entry and Infection with Similar Potency: Potential Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Nelson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV in Western Africa highlighted the need for anti-EBOV therapeutics. Clomiphene is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drug that blocks EBOV entry and infection in cells and significantly protects EBOV-challenged mice. As provided, clomiphene is, approximately, a 60:40 mixture of two stereoisomers, enclomiphene and zuclomiphene. The pharmacokinetic properties of the two isomers vary, but both accumulate in the eye and male reproductive tract, tissues in which EBOV can persist. Here we compared the ability of clomiphene and its isomers to inhibit EBOV using viral-like particle (VLP entry and transcription/replication-competent VLP (trVLP assays. Clomiphene and its isomers inhibited the entry and infection of VLPs and trVLPs with similar potencies. This was demonstrated with VLPs bearing the glycoproteins from three filoviruses (EBOV Mayinga, EBOV Makona, and Marburg virus and in two cell lines (293T/17 and Vero E6. Visual problems have been noted in EBOV survivors, and viral RNA has been isolated from semen up to nine months post-infection. Since the clomiphene isomers accumulate in these affected tissues, clomiphene or one of its isomers warrants consideration as an anti-EBOV agent, for example, to potentially help ameliorate symptoms in EBOV survivors.

  2. Temporal and spatial variation in polychlorinated biphenyl chiral signatures of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) and its arctic marine food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhe; Fisk, Aaron T.; Kovacs, Kit M.; Lydersen, Christian; McKinney, Melissa A.; Tomy, Gregg T.; Rosenburg, Bruno; McMeans, Bailey C.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Wong, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) chiral signatures were measured in Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus) and their potential prey in arctic marine food webs from Canada (Cumberland Sound) and Europe (Svalbard) to assess temporal and spatial variation in PCB contamination at the stereoisomer level. Marine mammals had species-specific enantiomer fractions (EFs), likely due to a combination of in vivo biotransformation and direct trophic transfer. Greenland sharks from Cumberland Sound in 2007–2008 had similar EFs to those sharks collected a decade ago in the same location (PCBs 91, 136 and 149) and also similar to their conspecifics from Svalbard for some PCB congeners (PCBs 95, 136 and 149). However, other PCB EFs in the sharks varied temporally (PCB 91) or spatially (PCB 95), suggesting a possible spatiotemporal variation in their diets, since biotransformation capacity was unlikely to have varied within this species from region to region or over the time frame studied. -- Highlights: • Chiral PCB signatures were measured in Greenland sharks and their prey. • Marine mammals accumulated non-racemic PCBs from biotransformation and their diet. • Chiral PCB signatures were similar in sharks at two different arctic locations. • Some changes in chiral PCB signatures in sharks over a decade. -- PCB chiral signatures in Greenland sharks shift over time and space, likely in parallel with dietary variation

  3. Atropisomers of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) exhibit stereoselective effects on activation of nuclear receptors in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Brenerová, Petra; Svržková, Lucie; Hrubá, Eva; Pálková, Lenka; Vondráček, Jan; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Machala, Miroslav

    2017-11-09

    PCB 136 is an environmentally relevant chiral PCB congener, which has been found in vivo to be present in form of rotational isomers (atropisomers). Its atropselective biotransformation or neurotoxic effects linked with sensitization of ryanodine receptor suggest that it might interact also with other intracellular receptors in a stereospecific manner. However, possible atropselective effects of PCB 136 on nuclear receptor transactivation remain unknown. Therefore, in this study, atropselective effects of PCB 136 on nuclear receptors controlling endocrine signaling and/or expression of xenobiotic and steroid hormone catabolism were investigated. PCB136 atropisomers were found to exert differential effects on estrogen receptor (ER) activation; (+)-PCB 136 was estrogenic, while (-)-PCB 136 was antiestrogenic. In contrast, inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) activity was not stereospecific. Both PCB136 stereoisomers induced the constitutive androgen receptor (CAR)-dependent gene expression; however, no significant stereospecificity of PCB 136 atropisomers was observed. PCB136 was a partial inducer of the pregnane X receptor (PXR)-dependent gene expression. Here, (-)-PCB 136 was a significantly more potent inducer of PXR activity than (+)-PCB 136. Taken together, the present results indicate that at least two nuclear receptors participating in endocrine regulation or metabolism, ER and PXR, could be regulated in an atropselective manner by chiral PCB 136. The enantioselective enrichment of PCB atropisomers in animal and human tissues may thus have significant consequences for endocrine-disrupting effects of chiral ortho-substituted PCB congeners.

  4. Attraction Pheromone of The Benthic Diatom Seminavis robusta: Studies on Structure-Activity Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke, Christine; Stettin, Daniel; Speck, Franziska; Ueberschaar, Nico; De Decker, Sam; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg

    2018-04-01

    Recently the first pheromone of a marine diatom was identified to be the diketopiperazine (S,S)-diproline. This compound facilitates attraction between mating partners in the benthic diatom Seminavis robusta. Interestingly, sexualized S. robusta cells are attracted to both the natural pheromone (S,S)-diproline as well as to its enantiomer (R,R)-diproline. Usually stereospecificity is a prerequisite for successful substrate-receptor interactions, and especially pheromone perception is often highly enantioselective. Here we introduce a structure-activity relationship study, to learn more about the principles of pheromone reception in diatoms. We analyzed the activity of nine different diketopiperazines in attraction and interference assays. The pheromone diproline itself, as well as a pipecolic acid derived diketopiperazine with two expanded aliphatic ring systems, showed the highest attractivity. Hydroxylatoin of the aliphatic rings abolished any bioactivity. Diketopiperazines derived from acyclic amino acids were not attrative as well. All stereoisomers of both the diproline and the pipecolic acid derived diketopiperazine were purified by enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography, and application in bioactivity tests confirmed that attraction pheromone perception in this diatom is indeed not stereospecific. However, the lack of activity of diketopiperazines derived from acyclic amino acids suggests a specificity that prevents misguidance to sources of other naturally occurring diketopiperazines.

  5. Concerning the role of 24,25-dihydrolanosterol and lanostanol in sterol biosynthesis by cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nes, W.D.; Norton, R.A.; Parish, E.J.; Meenan, A.; Popjak, G.

    1989-01-01

    Rat hepatoma cells (H4-II-E-C3) efficiently converted a dietary supplement of [2- 3 H]24,25-dihydrolanosterol (1) to [ 3 H]cholesterol while [2- 3 H]lanostanol 4,4,14 alpha-trimethylcholestanol (2) was recovered from the cells without apparent transformation, although it was esterified and induced an accumulation of lanosterol. A comparison of the chromatographic (TLC, GLC and HPLC), spectral (MS and 1H-NMR) and physical properties of 1 and 2 is given for the first time. The inability to detect 2 in nature coupled with our findings that 1 but not 2 is metabolized to cholesterol by H4 cells is interpreted to imply that the biosynthetic inclusion of the delta 8(9)-bond during the cyclization process of squalene-oxide to a tetracyclic product is an evolutionary adaptation selected for because the olefinic linkage is structually important in the subsequent conversion of lanosterol and its stereoisomers, e.g., cycloartenol, to delta 5-sterols

  6. Synthesis of ent-BE-43547A1 reveals a potent hypoxia-selective anticancer agent and uncovers the biosynthetic origin of the APD-CLD natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadsen, Nikolaj L.; Jacobsen, Kristian M.; Keiding, Ulrik B.; Weibel, Esben T.; Christiansen, Bjørn; Vosegaard, Thomas; Bjerring, Morten; Jensen, Frank; Johannsen, Mogens; Tørring, Thomas; Poulsen, Thomas B.

    2017-03-01

    Tumour hypoxia is speculated to be a key driver of therapeutic resistance and metastatic dissemination. Consequently, the discovery of new potent agents that selectively target the hypoxic cell population may reveal new and untapped antitumour mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that the BE-43547 subclass of the APD-CLD (amidopentadienoate-containing cyclolipodepsipeptides) natural products possesses highly hypoxia-selective growth-inhibitory activity against pancreatic cancer cells. To enable this discovery, we have developed the first synthesis of the BE-43547-macrocyclic scaffold in 16 steps (longest linear sequence), which also allowed access to the full panel of relative stereoisomers and ultimately to the assignment of stereochemical configuration. Discrepancies between the spectroscopic signatures of the synthetic compounds with that originally reported for the BE-43547 members stimulated us to re-isolate the natural product from a BE-43547-producing microorganism during which we elucidated the biosynthetic gene clusters for the BE-43547 family as well as for all other known APD-CLDs. Our studies underline the exciting possibilities for the further development of the anticancer activities of these natural products.

  7. Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenjiao; Chen, Qianying; Li, Peijin; Lu, Qianfeng; Pei, Xue; Sun, Yilin; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Kun

    2017-02-01

    Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate (MI) is a magnesium salt of 18α-GA stereoisomer which has been reported to exert hepatoprotective activity. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the underlying mechanisms behind the action of Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate on neuroinflammatation and oxidative stress in LPS-stimulated mice. Mice were pretreated with Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate (MI, 25, 50mg/kg) as well as fluoxetine (Flu, positive control, 20mg/kg) once daily for one week before intraperitoneal injection of LPS (0.83mg/kg). Pretreatments with MI and Flu significantly improved immobility time in tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST) as well as locomotor activity in open-field test (OFT). In addition, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in serum and hippocampus were also suppressed effectively by MI and Flu administrations. Western blot analysis showed the up-regulated levels of p-Jak3, p-STAT3, p-NF-κBp65, and p-IκBα in mice exposed to LPS, while different degrees of down-regulation in these expression were observed in MI (25, 50mg/kg) and Flu (20mg/kg) groups respectively. Taken together, our obtained results demonstrated that Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate (MI) exhibited an antidepressant-like effect in LPS-induced mice, which might be mediated by JAK/STAT/NF-κB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Dioxins - essential characteristics. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunn, H.

    1993-01-01

    'The dioxins' is the name of a large family of environmentally significant chemicals which, being stereoisomers of 2,3,7,8 TCDD, are all assumed to have similar effects. They include PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, PBDF, and possibly also a whole number of PCBs. Altogether, average ingestion of dioxins and furans in Germany amounts to a toxicity equivalent of 93.5 pg TCDD per person and day, 24.6 pg of which are 2,3,7,8 TCDD. Assuming the average weight of an adult to be 70 kg, this means an average ingestion of 1.3 pg TE/kg body weight and day. Fuerst et al. obtained similar results in their study on dioxin ingestion, average daily intake of dioxins and furans amounting to 85 pg TE per person. This is equivalent to an intake of 1.2 pg TE/kg body weight and day. Breaking down daily PCDD and PCDF intake by food category, the authors obtained the following data: Meat and meat products (beef, veal pork, chicken): 27.5 pg TE/person and day; fish and fish products 27 pg TE/person and day; milk and dairy products (milk, cheese, butter) 26.9 pg TE/person and day; vegetable oils (salad oil, margarine) 3.8 pg TE/person and day. This amounts to an overall intake of 85 pg TE/person and day. (orig./EF) [de

  9. Quantitative analysis of d,1-HMPAO and its freeze-dried kit with HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Suzhen

    1993-05-01

    A quantitative analysis method, which uses RP-HPLC (reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography), has been established to determine the stereoisomeric purity of HMPAO and d,1-HMPAO content for d,l-HMPAO freeze-dried kit. An opitmal mobile phase is selected for obtaining chromatographic parameters that are better than those published in the references. The theoretical tray height is less than 0.06 mm. At the flowrate of 1 ml/min the total separation time is 5.5. The resolution is greater than 5. The detectable limits of meso-HMPAO and d,l-HMPAO are 1 x 10 -8 g and 5 x 10 -7 g respectively. The precision is 5% and the additional recovery is 94% ∼ 107%. This method has many advantages such as accuracy, simplicity, rapidity and stability, and it is suitable for routine inspection. It has been successfully used to determine the HMPAO stereoisomer and d,1-HMPAO of freeze-dried kit produced by China Institute of Atomic Energy and same products imported from Amersham Company of United Kingdom

  10. Production of D- and L-Lactic Acid by Mono- and Mixed Cultures of Lactobacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonija Trontel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch cultivation of monoculture of Lactobacillus sp. and two–strain mixed culture of Lactobacillus sp. and Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 20531T was carried out with the aim of producing L-(+- and D-(–/L-(+-lactic acid to be implemented in poly(lactic acid polymer production. Metabolic capacity of two Lactobacillus strains to ferment different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose or soluble starch during cultivation in MRS medium at 40 °C, in a laboratory-scale stirred tank bioreactor was defined. Lactobacillus sp. showed similar affinity towards mono- and disaccharide substrates, which were homofermentatively converted mostly to L-(+-lactic acid. L. amylovorus DSM 20531T has been characterized as a D/L-lactate producer and it is capable of conducting simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Due to the interaction of Lactobacillus sp. with L. amylovorus DSM 20531T, starch was hydrolysed and fermented to the mixture of L-(+- and D-(–-lactic acid. Modified Luedeking-Piret kinetics used for the description of substrate utilization, growth of mono- and mixed cultures and production of lactic acid stereoisomers showed good agreement with experimental data.

  11. Scavenging of Toxic Acrolein by Resveratrol and Hesperetin and Identification of Adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixin; Qi, Yajing; Rocca, James R; Sarnoski, Paul J; Jia, Aiqun; Gu, Liwei

    2015-11-04

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of resveratrol and hesperetin to scavenge acrolein at pH 7.4 and 37 °C. About 6.4 or 5.2% of acrolein remained after reaction with resveratrol or hesperetin for 12 h at equimolar concentrations. An acrolein-resveratrol adduct and two acrolein-hesperetin adducts were isolated. Their structures were elucidated using mass and NMR spectroscopy. Acrolein reacted with resveratrol at the C-2 and C-3 positions through nucleophilic addition and formed an additional heterocyclic ring. Two similar monoacrolein-conjugated adducts were identified for hesperetin. Spectroscopic data suggested each acrolein-hesperetin adduct was a mixture of four stereoisomers due to the existence of two chiral carbon atoms. Yield of adducts was low at pH 5.4 but increased at pH 7.4 and 8.4. Higher pH also promoted the formation of diacrolein adducts. Results suggest that resveratrol and hesperetin exert health benefits in part through neutralizing toxic acrolein in vivo.

  12. Supramolecular organization and chiral resolution of p-terphenyl-m-dicarbonitrile on the Ag(111) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Matthias; Reichert, Joachim; Seufert, Knud; Auwärter, Willi; Klappenberger, Florian; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Nefedov, Alexei; Strunskus, Thomas; Wöll, Christof; Ruben, Mario; Barth, Johannes V

    2010-05-17

    The supramolecular organization and layer formation of the non-linear, prochiral molecule [1, 1';4',1'']-terphenyl-3,3"-dicarbonitrile adsorbed on the Ag(111) surface is investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). Upon two-dimensional confinement the molecules are deconvoluted in three stereoisomers, that is, two mirror-symmetric trans- and one cis-species. STM measurements reveal large and regular islands following room temperature deposition, whereby NEXAFS confirms a flat adsorption geometry with the electronic pi-system parallel to the surface plane. The ordering within the expressed supramolecular arrays reflects a substrate templating effect, steric constraints and the operation of weak lateral interactions mainly originating from the carbonitrile endgroups. High-resolution data at room temperature reveal enantiormorphic characteristics of the molecular packing schemes in different domains of the arrays, indicative of chiral resolution during the 2D molecular self-assembly process. At submonolayer coverage supramolecular islands coexist with a disordered fluid phase of highly mobile molecules. Following thermal quenching (down to 6 K) we find extended supramolecular ribbons stabilised again by attractive and directional noncovalent interactions, the formation of which reflects a chiral resolution of trans-species.

  13. Asymmetric syntheses of 3,4-disubstituted tetrahydroquinoline derivatives using (+)- sparteine-mediated electrophilic substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Soo; Kang, Kyoung Hee; Park, Yong Sun [Dept. of Chemistry, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Tetrahydroquinolines bearing substituents are frequently found as a substructure in a number of alkaloids and natural products. Since their individual stereoisomers displays different biological activities, it is desirable to develop a highly stereoselective synthetic method for tetrahydroquinolines. While some progress has recently been made toward the development of asymmetric synthetic methods for tetrahydroquinolines, it is still a challenging topic in organic synthesis. In order to investigate the source of diastereoselection attained in the substitution reaction with a racemic epoxide, we examined the substitution of 2 with an excess amount of racemic p-chlorophenyl-substituted oxirane. We have developed a novel method for the asymmetric synthesis of trans-3,4-diaryl-substituted tetrahy- droquinolines from ortho-substituted N-pivaloyl anilines. The enantioselective process includes (+)-sparteine-mediated stereoselective lithiati on, kinetic resolution of epoxides in substitution, and stereospecific Mitsu nobu cyclization as the key reactions. The simple protocol can provide highly functionalized tetrahydroqu inoline rings and would allow their further functionalization to access more complex target molecules.

  14. Ionic liquid mediated stereoselective synthesis of alanine linked hybrid quinazoline-4(3H)-one derivatives perturbing the malarial reductase activity in folate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tarosh S; Bhatt, Jaimin D; Vanparia, Satish F; Patel, Urmila H; Dixit, Ritu B; Chudasama, Chaitanya J; Patel, Bhavesh D; Dixit, Bharat C

    2017-12-15

    Grimmel's method was optimized as well as modified leading to the cyclization and incorporation of alanine linked sulphonamide in 4-quinazolin-(3H)-ones. Further, the generation of heterocyclic motif at position-3 of 4-quinazolinones was explored by synthesis of imines, which unfortunately led to an isomeric mixture of stereoisomers. The hurdle of diastereomers encountered on the path was eminently rectified by development of new rapid and reproducible methodology involving the use of imidazolium based ionic liquid as solvents as well as catalyst for cyclization as well as synthesis of imines in situ at position-3 leading to procurement of single E-isomer as the target hybrid heterocyclic molecules. The purity and presence of single isomer was also confirmed by HPLC and spectroscopic techniques. Further, the synthesized sulphonamide linked 4-quinazolin-(3H)-ones hybrids were screened for their antimalarial potency rendering potent entities (4b, 4c, 4 l, 4 t and 4u). The active hybrids were progressively screened for enzyme inhibitory efficacy against presumed receptor Pf-DHFR and h-DHFR computationally as well as in vitro, proving their potency as dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors. The ADME properties of these active molecules were also predicted to enhance the knowhow of the oral bioavailability, indicating good bioavailability of the active entities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sterochemical consequences of hydrogen exchange as a result of tritium atom reactions on solid aliphatic amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenkaufer, R.L.E.; Hembree, W.C.; Lieberman, S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1977-01-01

    The products of stereochemistry resulting from radicals generated by the interaction of tritium atoms with L-isoleucine and L-alloisoleucine in the solid phase were determined. Among the four possible tritiated stereoisomers for each amino acid the major product was the parent L-amino acid (approximately 70 percent in each case) with the major fraction of the labeling being in positions other than the α position. Approximately 30 percent of the labeling resulted in the diastereomeric product by reaction at either the α or β position, with the major pathway being β-inversion. The yield of products from α-carbon attack of L-isoleucine was minor (7.9 percent) and occurred with net retention. Labeling at the α-carbon of alloisoleucine was less than 1 percent. Tritiated glycine was formed from both amino acids by cleavage of the alkyl side chain. This may result from the excitation decomposition of the intermediates formed from recombination of α (or β) amino acid radicals with tritium. Determination of the stereochemical and chemical consequences of radical formation at chiral centers provides a sensitive probe for studying the consequences of tritium (hydrogen or deuterium) atom reactions

  16. Cytostatic versus cytocidal activities of chloroquine analogues and inhibition of hemozoin crystal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, Alexander P; Alumasa, John N; Sherlach, Katy S; Jacobs, Lauren M; Nickley, Katherine B; Brower, Jonathan P; de Dios, Angel C; Roepe, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    We report an improved, nonhazardous, high-throughput assay for in vitro quantification of antimalarial drug inhibition of β-hematin (hemozoin) crystallization performed under conditions that are more physiological relative to previous assays. The assay uses the differential detergent solubility of crystalline and noncrystalline forms of heme and is optimized via the use of lipid catalyst. Using this assay, we quantify the effect of pH on the crystal growth-inhibitory activities of current quinoline antimalarials, evaluate the catalytic efficiencies of different lipids, and test for a possible correlation between hemozoin inhibition by drugs versus their antiplasmodial activity. Consistent with several previous reports, we found a good correlation between hemozoin inhibition potency versus cytostatic antiplasmodial potency (50% inhibitory concentration) for a series of chloroquine (CQ) analogues. However, we found no correlation between hemozoin inhibition potency and cytocidal antiplasmodial potency (50% lethal dose) for the same drugs, suggesting that cellular targets for these two layers of 4-aminoquinoline drug activity differ. This important concept is also explored further for QN and its stereoisomers in the accompanying paper (A. P. Gorka, K. S. Sherlach, A. C. de Dios, and P. D. Roepe, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57:365-374, 2013).

  17. Comparison of the acute toxicity for gamma-cyhalothrin and lambda-cyhalothrin to zebra fish and shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Cai, D J; Shan, Z J; Chen, W L; Poletika, Nick; Gao, X W

    2007-03-01

    Gamma-cyhalothrin 15CS (GCH) contains only the active stereoisomer of the two isomers found in lambda-cyhalothrin 25EW (LCH). GCH (0.5 x rate) provides equivalent overall insect control as LCH (1 x rate). Both formulations showed high acute toxicity to zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio H.B.) and shrimp (Macrobrachium nippoensis de Haan). The 96-h LC(50(zebra fish,GCH)) is 1.93 microg a.i/L and LC(50(zebra fish,LCH)) is 1.94 microg a.i/L. LC(50(shrimp,GCH)) is 0.28 microg a.i./L and LC(50(shrimp,LCH)) 0.04 microg a.i./L. This indicates that the toxicity to shrimp is likely stereochemistry-dependent. The fates of GCH and LCH are similar in laboratory simulated rice paddy water and their concentrations decrease rapidly, with no GCH or LCH detected after 3 or 4 days. Both are toxic to shrimp in a simulated paddy irrigation reservoir even though treated return water is diluted 5 times. No shrimp fatality is shown in the GCH-treated paddy water after a 4-day holding period, and longer than 5 days is necessary to reach a zero fatality rate for LCH. This is compatible with the 7-day water holding period considered reasonable in agricultural practice.

  18. IMPACT OF STRESS FACTORS ON OPTICAL ISOMERISM OF BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kublin, Elżbieta; Czerwińska, Krystyna; Wyszomirska, Elżbieta; Zajaczkowską, Anna; Malanowicz, Ewa; Kaczmarska-Graczyk, Barbara; Mazurek, Aleksander P

    2015-01-01

    Benazepril hydrochloride contains two stereogenic centers, but is currently available as single enantiomer (S,S configuration) for the treatment of hypertension. Its enantiomer (R,R configuration) and the diastereoisomeric pair (R,S and S,R) can be regarded as impurities. Stereochemical stability of S,S isomer of benazepril hydrochloride and its potential susceptibility to conversion in the.active substance and in Lisonid tablets were examinated. The separation with the use of the TLC method with the following system: chromatographic plates Chiralplate and a mobile phase: methanol - acetonitrile - 1 mM copper(II) acetate (4 : 2 : 4, v/v/v) with saturation of glacial acetic acid for 1 h and the HPLC method system: Chiral AGP column (150 x 4.0 man x 5 µm) and a mobile phase: phosphate buffer pH = 6.0 - methanol (80 : 20, v/v) were obtained. Active substance - benazepril hydrochloride and Lisonid tablets 20 mg were subjected to the impact of different stress factors. Samples were examined after 1 and 6 weeks. It was found that none of the applied stress factors caused the transformation of the S,S enantiomer of benazepril hydrochloride in the substance and tablets to other identified stereoisomers - only the compound decomposition has occurred.

  19. A Novel Fungal Metabolite with Beneficial Properties for Agricultural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Vinale

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma are ubiquitous soil fungi that include species widely used as biocontrol agents in agriculture. Many isolates are known to secrete several secondary metabolites with different biological activities towards plants and other microbes. Harzianic acid (HA is a T. harzianum metabolite able to promote plant growth and strongly bind iron. In this work, we isolated from the culture filtrate of a T. harzianum strain a new metabolite, named isoharzianic acid (iso-HA, a stereoisomer of HA. The structure and absolute configuration of this compound has been determined by spectroscopic methods, including UV-Vis, MS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses. In vitro applications of iso-HA inhibited the mycelium radial growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Rhizoctonia solani. Moreover, iso HA improved the germination of tomato seeds and induced disease resistance. HPLC-DAD experiments showed that the production of HA and iso HA was affected by the presence of plant tissue in the liquid medium. In particular, tomato tissue elicited the production of HA but negatively modulated the biosynthesis of its analogue iso-HA, suggesting that different forms of the same Trichoderma secondary metabolite have specific roles in the molecular mechanism regulating the Trichoderma plant interaction.

  20. A novel fungal metabolite with beneficial properties for agricultural applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinale, Francesco; Manganiello, Gelsomina; Nigro, Marco; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Piccolo, Alessandro; Pascale, Alberto; Ruocco, Michelina; Marra, Roberta; Lombardi, Nadia; Lanzuise, Stefania; Varlese, Rosaria; Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Lorito, Matteo; Woo, Sheridan L

    2014-07-08

    Trichoderma are ubiquitous soil fungi that include species widely used as biocontrol agents in agriculture. Many isolates are known to secrete several secondary metabolites with different biological activities towards plants and other microbes. Harzianic acid (HA) is a T. harzianum metabolite able to promote plant growth and strongly bind iron. In this work, we isolated from the culture filtrate of a T. harzianum strain a new metabolite, named isoharzianic acid (iso-HA), a stereoisomer of HA. The structure and absolute configuration of this compound has been determined by spectroscopic methods, including UV-Vis, MS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses. In vitro applications of iso-HA inhibited the mycelium radial growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Rhizoctonia solani. Moreover, iso HA improved the germination of tomato seeds and induced disease resistance. HPLC-DAD experiments showed that the production of HA and iso HA was affected by the presence of plant tissue in the liquid medium. In particular, tomato tissue elicited the production of HA but negatively modulated the biosynthesis of its analogue iso-HA, suggesting that different forms of the same Trichoderma secondary metabolite have specific roles in the molecular mechanism regulating the Trichoderma plant interaction.

  1. Chemical and Biological Properties of S-1-Propenyl-ʟ-Cysteine in Aged Garlic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihioro Kodera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available S-1-Propenyl-ʟ-cysteine (S1PC is a stereoisomer of S-1-Propenyl-ʟ-cysteine (SAC, an important sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a role for the beneficial pharmacological effects of aged garlic extract (AGE. The existence of S1PC in garlic preparations has been known since the 1960’s. However, there was no report regarding the biological and/or pharmacological activity of S1PC until 2016. Recently, we performed a series of studies to examine the chemical, biological, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of S1PC, and obtained some interesting results. S1PC existed only in trace amounts in raw garlic, but its concentration increased almost up to the level similar of SAC through aging process of AGE. S1PC showed immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo, and reduced blood pressure in a hypertensive animal model. A pharmacokinetic study revealed that S1PC was readily absorbed after oral administration in rats and dogs with bioavailability of 88–100%. Additionally, S1PC had little inhibitory influence on human cytochrome P450 activities, even at a concentration of 1 mM. Based on these findings, S1PC was suggested to be another important, pharmacologically active and safe component of AGE similar to SAC. In this review, we highlight some results from recent studies on S1PC and discuss the potential medicinal value of S1PC.

  2. PIP₂ modulation of Slick and Slack K⁺ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Angeles Tejada, Maria; Jensen, Lars Jørn; Klaerke, Dan A

    2012-07-27

    Slick and Slack are members of the Slo family of high-conductance potassium channels. These channels are activated by Na(+) and Cl(-) and are highly expressed in the CNS, where they are believed to contribute to the resting membrane potential of neurons and the control of excitability. Herein, we provide evidence that Slick and Slack channels are regulated by the phosphoinositide PIP(2). Two stereoisomers of PIP(2) were able to exogenously activate Slick and Slack channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and in addition, it is shown that Slick and Slack channels are modulated by endogenous PIP(2). The activating effect of PIP(2) appears to occur by direct interaction with lysine 306 in Slick and lysine 339 in Slack, located at the proximal C-termini of both channels. Overall, our data suggest that PIP(2) is an important regulator of Slick and Slack channels, yet it is not involved in the recently described cell volume sensitivity of Slick channels, since mutated PIP(2)-insensitive Slick channels retained their sensitivity to cell volume. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of a single-isomer carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin in chiral capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejős, Ida; Varga, Erzsébet; Benkovics, Gábor; Malanga, Milo; Sohajda, Tamás; Szemán, Julianna; Béni, Szabolcs

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the synthesis, characterization, and chiral capillary electrophoretic study of heptakis-(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-carboxymethyl)-β-CD (HDMCM), a single-isomer carboxymethylated CD, are presented. The pH-dependent and selector concentration-dependent enantiorecognition properties of HDMCM were investigated and discussed herein. The enantioseparation was assessed applying a structurally diverse set of noncharged, basic, and zwitterionic racemates. The increase in the selector concentration and gross negative charge of HDMCM improved the enantioseparation that could be observed in the majority of the cases. HDMCM was also successfully applied as BGE additive in NACE using a methanol-based system in order to prove the separation selectivity features and to highlight the broad applicability of HDMCM. Over 25 racemates showed partial or baseline separation with HDMCM under the conditions investigated, among which optimal enantiomer migration order was found for the four stereoisomers of tadalafil, tapentadol, and dapoxetine, offering the possibility of a chiral CE method development for chiral purity profiling of these drugs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Production of natural antioxidants from vegetable oil deodorizer distillates: effect of catalytic hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, María Ayelén; Baltanás, Miguel A

    2010-02-01

    Natural tocopherols are one of the main types of antioxidants found in living creatures, but they also have other critical biological functions. The biopotency of natural (+)-alpha-tocopherol (RRR) is 36% higher than that of the synthetic racemic mixture and 300% higher than the SRR stereoisomer. Vegetable oil deodorizer distillates (DD) are an excellent source of natural tocopherols. Catalytic hydrogenation of DD preconcentrates has been suggested as a feasible route for recovery of tocopherols in high yield. However, it is important to know whether the hydrogenation operation, as applied to these tocopherol-rich mixtures, is capable of preserving the chiral (RRR) character, which is critical to its biopotency. Fortified (i.e., (+)-alpha-tocopherol enriched) sunflower oil and methyl stearate, as well as sunflower oil DD, were fully hydrogenated using commercial Ni and Pd catalysts (120-180 degrees C; 20-60 psig). Products were analyzed by chiral HPLC. Results show that the desired chiral configuration (RRR) is fully retained. Thus, the hydrogenation route can be safely considered as a valid alternative for increasing the efficiency of tocopherol recovery processes from DDs while preserving their natural characteristics.

  5. Detailed NMR, Including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and Anticancer Studies of Compounds from the Echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine H. Liptrot

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara, Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1'-hydroxypropyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3, 2-[(phenylacetylamino]ethanesulfonic acid (4, and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5 were isolated. Comparison of 1H- and 13C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1 with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned 1H- and 13C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent 13C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5.

  6. Boosting Sensitivity in Liquid Chromatography–Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance–Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Product Ion Analysis of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Ryo; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    In metabolomics, the analysis of product ions in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is noteworthy to chemically assign structural information. However, the development of relevant analytical methods are less advanced. Here, we developed a method to boost sensitivity in liquid chromatography–Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance–tandem mass spectrometry analysis (MS/MS boost analysis). To verify the MS/MS boost analysis, both quercetin and uniformly labeled 13C quercetin were analyzed, revealing that the origin of the product ions is not the instrument, but the analyzed compounds resulting in sensitive product ions. Next, we applied this method to the analysis of monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs). The comparative analyses of MIAs having indole basic skeleton (ajmalicine, catharanthine, hirsuteine, and hirsutine) and oxindole skeleton (formosanine, isoformosanine, pteropodine, isopteropodine, rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, and mitraphylline) identified 86 and 73 common monoisotopic ions, respectively. The comparative analyses of the three pairs of stereoisomers showed more than 170 common monoisotopic ions in each pair. This method was also applied to the targeted analysis of MIAs in Catharanthus roseus and Uncaria rhynchophylla to profile indole and oxindole compounds using the product ions. This analysis is suitable for chemically assigning features of the metabolite groups, which contributes to targeted metabolome analysis. PMID:26734034

  7. Chemical constituents from Tribulus terrestris and screening of their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoda, Hala M; Ghazy, Nabila M; Harraz, Fathalla M; Radwan, Mohamed M; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Abdallah, Ingy I

    2013-08-01

    Two oligosaccharides (1,2) and a stereoisomer of di-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3) were isolated from the aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris along with five known compounds (4-8). The structures of the compounds were established as O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→6)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(6→2)-β-D-fructofuranoside (1), O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-fructofuranoside (2), 4,5-di-p-cis-coumaroylquinic acid (3) by different spectroscopic methods including 1D NMR ((1)H, (13)C and DEPT) and 2D NMR (COSY, TOCSY, HMQC and HMBC) experiments as well as ESI-MS analysis. This is the first report for the complete NMR spectral data of the known 4,5-di-p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (4). The antioxidant activity represented as DPPH free radical scavenging activity was investigated revealing that the di-p-coumaroylquinic acid derivatives possess potent antioxidant activity so considered the major constituents contributing to the antioxidant effect of the plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spontaneous Self-Assembly of Fully Protected Ester 1:1 [α/α-Nα-Bn-hydrazino] Pseudodipeptides into a Twisted Parallel β-Sheet in the Crystal State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Eugénie; Moussodia, Ralph-Olivier; Kriznik, Alexandre; Wenger, Emmanuel; Acherar, Samir; Jamart-Grégoire, Brigitte

    2016-10-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that amidic α/β-pseudodipeptides, 1:1 [α/α-N α -Bn-hydrazino], have the ability to fold via a succession of γ-turn (C 7 pseudocycle) and hydrazinoturn in CDCl 3 solution, their amide terminals enabling the formation of an intramolecular H-bond network. Despite their lack of a primary amide terminals allowing the formation of the hydrazinoturn, their ester counterparts 1-4 were proven to self-assemble into C 6 and C 7 pseudocycles by intramolecular H-bonds in solution state and into an uncommon twisted parallel β-sheet through intermolecular H-bonding in the crystal state to form a supramolecular helix, with eight molecules needed to complete a full 360° rotation. Such self-organization (with eight molecules) has only been observed in a specific α/α-pseudodipeptide, depsipeptide (Boc-Leu-Lac-OEt). Relying on IR absorption, NMR, X-ray diffraction, and CD analyses, the aim of this study was to demonstrate that stereoisomers of ester 1:1 [α/α-N α -Bn-hydrazino] pseudodipeptides 1-4 are able to self-assemble into this β-helical structure. The absolute configuration of the asymmetric C α -atom of the α-amino acid residue influences the left- or right-handed twist without changing the pitch of the formed helix.

  9. Sugar analog synthesis by in vitro biocatalytic cascade: A comparison of alternative enzyme complements for dihydroxyacetone phosphate production as a precursor to rare chiral sugar synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Carol J; French, Nigel G; Scoble, Judith A; Williams, Charlotte C; Churches, Quentin I; Frazer, Andrew R; Taylor, Matthew C; Coia, Greg; Simpson, Gregory; Turner, Nicholas J; Scott, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Carbon-carbon bond formation is one of the most challenging reactions in synthetic organic chemistry, and aldol reactions catalysed by dihydroxyacetone phosphate-dependent aldolases provide a powerful biocatalytic tool for combining C-C bond formation with the generation of two new stereo-centres, with access to all four possible stereoisomers of a compound. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) is unstable so the provision of DHAP for DHAP-dependent aldolases in biocatalytic processes remains complicated. Our research has investigated the efficiency of several different enzymatic cascades for the conversion of glycerol to DHAP, including characterising new candidate enzymes for some of the reaction steps. The most efficient cascade for DHAP production, comprising a one-pot four-enzyme reaction with glycerol kinase, acetate kinase, glycerophosphate oxidase and catalase, was coupled with a DHAP-dependent fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase enzyme to demonstrate the production of several rare chiral sugars. The limitation of batch biocatalysis for these reactions and the potential for improvement using kinetic modelling and flow biocatalysis systems is discussed.

  10. Positive effect of reduced aeration rate on growth and stereospecificity of DL-malic acid consumption by Azospirillum brasilense: improving the shelf life of a liquid inoculant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Espinosa, Karen; García-Cabrera, Ramsés I; Bedoya-López, Andrea; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A

    2015-02-10

    Azospirillum brasilense has significance as a growth promoter in plants of commercial interest. Two industrial native strains (Start and Calf), used as a part of an inoculant formulation in Mexico during the last 15 years, were incubated in laboratory-scale pneumatic bioreactors at different aeration rates. In both strains, the positive effect of decreased aeration was observed. At the lowest (0.1 vvm, air volume/liquid volume×minute), the highest biomass were obtained for Calf (7.8 × 10(10)CFU/ml), and Start (2.9 × 10(9)CFU/ml). These were higher in one magnitude order compared to cultures carried out at 0.5 vvm, and two compared to those at 1.0 vvm. At lower aeration, both stereoisomeric forms of malic acid were consumed, but at higher aeration, just L-malate was consumed. A reduction in aeration allows an increase of the shelf life and the microorganism saved higher concentrations of polyhydroxybutyrate. The selected fermentation conditions are closely related to those prevalent in large-scale bioreactors and offer the possibility of achieving high biomass titles with high shelf life at a reduced costs, due to the complete use of a carbon source at low aeration of a low cost raw material as DL-malic acid mixture in comparison with the L-malic acid stereoisomer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Positive selection on D-lactate dehydrogenases of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jifeng; Gong, Guangyu; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Weidong

    2015-08-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii has been widely used for yogurt fermentation. It has genes encoding both D- and L-type lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) that catalyse the production of L(+) or D(-) stereoisomer of lactic acid. D-lactic acid is the primary lactate product by L. delbrueckii, yet it cannot be metabolised by human intestine. Since it has been domesticated for long time, an interesting question arises regarding to whether the selection pressure has affected the evolution of both L-LDH and D-LDH genes in the genome. To answer this question, in this study the authors first investigated the evolution of these two genes by constructing phylogenetic trees. They found that D-LDH-based phylogenetic tree could better represent the phylogenetic relationship in the acidophilus complex than L-LDH-based tree. They next investigated the evolutions of LDH genes of L. delbrueckii at amino acid level, and found that D-LDH gene in L. delbrueckii is positively selected, possibly a consequence of long-term domestication. They further identified four amino acids that are under positive selection. One of them, V261, is located at the centre of three catalytic active sites, indicating likely functional effects on the enzyme activity. The selection from the domestication process thus provides direction for future engineering of D-LDH.

  12. Total Synthesis and Stereochemical Assignment of Delavatine A: Rh-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Indene-Type Tetrasubstituted Olefins and Kinetic Resolution through Pd-Catalyzed Triflamide-Directed C-H Olefination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongyin; Wang, Jinxin; Li, Jian; Yang, Fan; Liu, Guodu; Tang, Wenjun; He, Weiwei; Fu, Jian-Jun; Shen, Yun-Heng; Li, Ang; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2017-04-19

    Delavatine A (1) is a structurally unusual isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Incarvillea delavayi. The first and gram-scale total synthesis of 1 was accomplished in 13 steps (the longest linear sequence) from commercially available starting materials. We exploited an isoquinoline construction strategy and developed two reactions, namely Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of indene-type tetrasubstituted olefins and kinetic resolution of β-alkyl phenylethylamine derivatives through Pd-catalyzed triflamide-directed C-H olefination. The substrate scope of the first reaction covered unfunctionalized olefins and those containing polar functionalities such as sulfonamides. The kinetic resolution provided a collection of enantioenriched indane- and tetralin-based triflamides, including those bearing quaternary chiral centers. The selectivity factor (s) exceeded 100 for a number of substrates. These reactions enabled two different yet related approaches to a key intermediate 28 in excellent enantiopurity. In the synthesis, the triflamide served as not only an effective directing group for C-H bond activation but also a versatile functional group for further elaborations. The relative and absolute configurations of delavatine A were unambiguously assigned by the syntheses of the natural product and its three stereoisomers. Their cytotoxicity against a series of cancer cell lines was evaluated.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary characterization of dihydropteridine reductase from Dictyostelium discoideum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Cong; Seo, Kyung Hye; Kim, Hye Lim; Zhuang, Ningning; Park, Young Shik; Lee, Kon Ho

    2008-01-01

    The dihydropteridine reductase from D. discoideum has been crystallized. Diffraction data were collected from a rectangular-shaped crystal to 2.16 Å resolution. Dihydropteridine reductase from Dictyostelium discoideum (dicDHPR) can produce d-threo-BH 4 [6R-(1′R,2′R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin], a stereoisomer of l-erythro-BH 4 , in the last step of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH 4 ) recycling. In this reaction, DHPR uses NADH as a cofactor to reduce quinonoid dihydrobiopterin back to BH 4 . To date, the enzyme has been purified to homogeneity from many sources. In this report, the dicDHPR–NAD complex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 3350 as a precipitant. Rectangular-shaped crystals were obtained. Crystals grew to maximum dimensions of 0.4 × 0.6 × 0.1 mm. The crystal belonged to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 49.81, b = 129.90, c = 78.76 Å, β = 100.00°, and contained four molecules in the asymmetric unit, forming two closely interacting dicDHPR–NAD dimers. Diffraction data were collected to 2.16 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal structure has been determined using the molecular-replacement method

  14. Virtual Exploration of the Ring Systems Chemical Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visini, Ricardo; Arús-Pous, Josep; Awale, Mahendra; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2017-11-27

    Here, we explore the chemical space of all virtually possible organic molecules focusing on ring systems, which represent the cyclic cores of organic molecules obtained by removing all acyclic bonds and converting all remaining atoms to carbon. This approach circumvents the combinatorial explosion encountered when enumerating the molecules themselves. We report the chemical universe database GDB4c containing 916 130 ring systems up to four saturated or aromatic rings and maximum ring size of 14 atoms and GDB4c3D containing the corresponding 6 555 929 stereoisomers. Almost all (98.6%) of these ring systems are unknown and represent chiral 3D-shaped macrocycles containing small rings and quaternary centers reminiscent of polycyclic natural products. We envision that GDB4c can serve to select new ring systems from which to design analogs of such natural products. The database is available for download at www.gdb.unibe.ch together with interactive visualization and search tools as a resource for molecular design.

  15. Chiral recognition of proteins having L-histidine residues on the surface with lanthanide ion complex incorporated-molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Lokman; Uzek, Recep; Senel, Serap; Say, Ridvan; Denizli, Adil

    2013-08-01

    In this study, lanthanide ion complex incorporated molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles were synthesized. A combination of three novel approaches was applied for the purpose. First, lanthanide ions [Terbium(III)] were complexed with N-methacryloyl-L-histidine (MAH), polymerizable derivative of L-histidine amino acid, in order to incorporate the complex directly into the polymeric backbone. At the second stage, L-histidine molecules imprinted nanoparticles were utilized instead of whole protein imprinting in order to avoid whole drawbacks such as fragility, complexity, denaturation tendency, and conformation dependency. At the third stage following the first two steps mentioned above, imprinted L-histidine was coordinated with cupric ions [Cu(II)] to conduct the study under mild conditions. Then, molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles synthesized were used for L-histidine adsorption from aqueous solution to optimize conditions for adsorption and fluorimetric detection. Finally, usability of nanoparticles was investigated for chiral biorecognition using stereoisomer, D-histidine, racemic mixture, D,L-histidine, proteins with surface L-histidine residue, lysozyme, cytochrome C, or without ribonuclease A. The results revealed that the proposed polymerization strategy could make significant contribution to the solution of chronic problems of fluorescent component introduction into polymers. Additionally, the fluorescent nanoparticles reported here could be used for selective separation and fluorescent monitoring purposes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sugar analog synthesis by in vitro biocatalytic cascade: A comparison of alternative enzyme complements for dihydroxyacetone phosphate production as a precursor to rare chiral sugar synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol J Hartley

    Full Text Available Carbon-carbon bond formation is one of the most challenging reactions in synthetic organic chemistry, and aldol reactions catalysed by dihydroxyacetone phosphate-dependent aldolases provide a powerful biocatalytic tool for combining C-C bond formation with the generation of two new stereo-centres, with access to all four possible stereoisomers of a compound. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP is unstable so the provision of DHAP for DHAP-dependent aldolases in biocatalytic processes remains complicated. Our research has investigated the efficiency of several different enzymatic cascades for the conversion of glycerol to DHAP, including characterising new candidate enzymes for some of the reaction steps. The most efficient cascade for DHAP production, comprising a one-pot four-enzyme reaction with glycerol kinase, acetate kinase, glycerophosphate oxidase and catalase, was coupled with a DHAP-dependent fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase enzyme to demonstrate the production of several rare chiral sugars. The limitation of batch biocatalysis for these reactions and the potential for improvement using kinetic modelling and flow biocatalysis systems is discussed.

  17. Metabolism of citral, the major constituent of lemongrass oil, in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and effects of enzyme inhibitors on toxicity and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B

    2016-10-01

    Although screening for new and reliable sources of botanical insecticides remains important, finding ways to improve the efficacy of those already in use through better understanding of their modes-of-action or metabolic pathways, or by improving formulations, deserves greater attention as the latter may present lesser regulation hurdles. Metabolic processing of citral (a combination of the stereoisomers geranial and neral), a main constituent of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil has not been previously examined in insects. To address this, we investigated insecticidal activities of lemongrass oil and citral, as well as the metabolism of citral in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, in associations with well-known enzyme inhibitors. Among the inhibitors tested, piperonyl butoxide showed the highest increase in toxicity followed by triphenyl phosphate, but no synergistic interaction between the inhibitors was observed. Topical application of citral to fifth instar larvae produced mild reductions in food consumption, and frass analysis after 24h revealed geranic acid (99.7%) and neric acid (98.8%) as major metabolites of citral. Neither citral nor any other metabolites were found following in vivo analysis of larvae after 24h, and no significant effect of enzyme inhibitors was observed on diet consumption or citral metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ketamine and rapid-acting antidepressants: a new era in the battle against depression and suicide [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald S. Duman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic medications for the treatment of depression have serious limitations, particularly delayed onset and low rates of efficacy. However, the discovery that a single subanesthetic dose of ketamine, a glutamate NMDA receptor channel blocker, can produce a rapid (within hours antidepressant response that is sustained (about 1 week, even in patients considered treatment-resistant, has invigorated the field. In addition to these remarkable actions, ketamine has proven effective for the treatment of suicidal ideation. Efforts are under way to develop ketamine-like drugs with fewer side effects as well as agents that act at other sites within the glutamate neurotransmitter system. This includes ketamine metabolites and stereoisomers, drugs that act as NMDA allosteric modulators or that block mGluR2/3 autoreceptors. In addition, targets that enhance glutamate neurotransmission or synaptic function (or both, which are essential for the rapid and sustained antidepressant actions of ketamine in rodent models, are being investigated; examples are the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist scopolamine and activators of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 signaling, which is required for the actions of ketamine. The discovery of ketamine and its unique mechanisms heralds a new era with tremendous promise for the development of novel, rapid, and efficacious antidepressant medications.

  19. Inositol Treatment and ART Outcomes in Women with PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects 5–10% of women in reproductive age and is characterized by oligo/amenorrhea, androgen excess, insulin resistance, and typical polycystic ovarian morphology. It is the most common cause of infertility secondary to ovulatory dysfunction. The underlying etiology is still unknown but is believed to be multifactorial. Insulin-sensitizing compounds such as inositol, a B-complex vitamin, and its stereoisomers (myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol have been studied as an effective treatment of PCOS. Administration of inositol in PCOS has been shown to improve not only the metabolic and hormonal parameters but also ovarian function and the response to assisted-reproductive technology (ART. Accumulating evidence suggests that it is also capable of improving folliculogenesis and embryo quality and increasing the mature oocyte yield following ovarian stimulation for ART in women with PCOS. In the current review, we collate the evidence and summarize our current knowledge on ovarian stimulation and ART outcomes following inositol treatment in women with PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI.

  20. Supercritical fluid chromatography versus high performance liquid chromatography for enantiomeric and diastereoisomeric separations on coated polysaccharides-based stationary phases: Application to dihydropyridone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoguet, Vanessa; Charton, Julie; Hecquet, Paul-Emile; Lakhmi, Chahinaze; Lipka, Emmanuelle

    2018-05-11

    For analytical applications, SFC has always remained in the shadow of LC. Analytical enantioseparation of eight dihydropyridone derivatives, was run in both High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. Four polysaccharide based chiral stationary phases namely amylose and cellulose tris(3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate), amylose tris((S)-α-phenylethylcarbamate) and cellulose tris(4-methylbenzoate) with four mobile phases consisted of either n-hexane/ethanol or propan-2-ol (80:20 v:v) or carbon dioxide/ethanol or propan-2-ol (80:20 v:v) mixtures were investigated under same operatory conditions (temperature and flow-rate). The elution strength, enantioselectivity and resolution were compared in the two methodologies. For these compounds, for most of the conditions, HPLC afforded shorter retention times and a higher resolution than SFC. HPLC appears particularly suitable for the separation of the compounds bearing two chiral centers. For instance compound 7 was baseline resolved on OD-H CSP under n-Hex/EtOH 80/20, with resolution values equal to 2.98, 1.55, 4.52, between the four stereoisomers in less than 17 min, whereas in SFC, this latter is not fully separated in 23 min under similar eluting conditions. After analytical screenings, the best conditions were transposed to semi-preparative scale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Activity of male pheromone of Melanesian rhinoceros beetle Scapanes australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Didier; Morin, Jean-Paul; Kakul, Titus; Beaudoin-Ollivier, Laurence; Prior, Robert; Renou, Michel; Malosse, Isabelle; Stathers, Tanya; Embupa, Sebastian; Laup, Samson

    2002-03-01

    Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to investigate the nature and role of the male pheromone emitted by the Dynast beetle Scapanes australis and to develop a mass trapping technique against this major coconut pest in Papua New Guinea. We report the biological data obtained from natural and synthetic pheromone, previously described as an 84:12:4 (w/w) mixture of 2-butanol (1), 3-hydoxy-2-butanone (2), and 2,3-butanediol (3). EAG recordings from natural and synthetic pheromone and a pitfall olfactometer were poorly informative. In contrast, extensive field trapping trials with various synthetic pheromone mixtures and doses showed that 1 and 2 (formulated in polyethylene sachets in 90:5 v/v ratio) were necessary and sufficient for optimum long-range attraction. Beetles were captured in traps baited with racemic 1 plus 2, with or without a stereoisomer mixture of 3 (2.5- to 2500-mg/day doses). Plant pieces, either sugarcane or coconut, enhanced captures by the synthetic pheromone, which was active alone. Traps with the pheromone caught both sexes in a 3:2 female-male ratio. A pheromone-based mass trapping led to the capture of 2173 beetles in 14 traps surrounding 40 ha of a cocoa-coconut plantation. The captures followed a log-linear decrease during the 125-week trapping program. The role of the male pheromone and its potential for crop protection are discussed.

  2. Pyrethroid insecticides evoke neurotransmitter release from rabbit striatal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eells, J.T.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate ([R,S]-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl[R,S]-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3- methylbutyrate) on neurotransmitter release in rabbit brain slices were investigated. Fenvalerate evoked a calcium-dependent release of [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine from rabbit striatal slices that was concentration-dependent and specific for the toxic stereoisomer of the insecticide. The release of [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine by fenvalerate was modulated by D2 dopamine receptor activation and antagonized completely by the sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin. These findings are consistent with an action of fenvalerate on the voltage-dependent sodium channels of the presynaptic membrane resulting in membrane depolarization, and the release of dopamine and acetylcholine by a calcium-dependent exocytotic process. In contrast to results obtained in striatal slices, fenvalerate did not elicit the release of [ 3 H]norepinephrine or [ 3 H]acetylcholine from rabbit hippocampal slices indicative of regional differences in sensitivity to type II pyrethroid actions

  3. Characterization of actions of dopamine in the pituitary of the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeljaniuk, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The dopamine receptor in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) pituitary and its involvement with inhibition of gonadotropin (GtH) and {alpha}-melanocyte stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) release was studied. In vitro dopamine, in a dose-related manner, inhibited spontaneous GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from superfused fragments of pars distalis (PD) and neurointermediate lob (NIL), respectively; dopamine also inhibited sGnRH-A stimulation of GtH release. Thyrotropin releasing-hormone (TRH), in a dose-related manner, stimulated {alpha}-MSH release from NIL fragments; dopamine inhibited TRH action. The stereoisomers of apomorphine were equivalent in inhibiting GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from fragments treated with releasing factors. Domperidone, in a dose-related manner, antagonized dopamine action. ({sup 3}H)-Spiperone was used to radiolabel the goldfish pituitary dopamine receptor in vitro. The binding of ({sup 3}H)-spiperone had the characteristics of a receptor: tissue specificity, dependence on tissue quantity, reversibility, saturability, displaceability, specificity of binding with various drugs and a correlation of binding with biological effects were demonstrated. This is a low-affinity, high-capacity receptor which does not show binding stereoselectivity for apomorphine; domperidone binds avidly to this receptor. The NIL contains significantly greater numbers of this receptor compared to the PD.

  4. On the correlation between hydrogen bonding and melting points in the inositols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor L. Bekö

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inositol, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydroxycyclohexane, exists in nine stereoisomers with different crystal structures and melting points. In a previous paper on the relationship between the melting points of the inositols and the hydrogen-bonding patterns in their crystal structures [Simperler et al. (2006. CrystEngComm 8, 589], it was noted that although all inositol crystal structures known at that time contained 12 hydrogen bonds per molecule, their melting points span a large range of about 170 °C. Our preliminary investigations suggested that the highest melting point must be corrected for the effect of molecular symmetry, and that the three lowest melting points may need to be revised. This prompted a full investigation, with additional experiments on six of the nine inositols. Thirteen new phases were discovered; for all of these their crystal structures were examined. The crystal structures of eight ordered phases could be determined, of which seven were obtained from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data. Five additional phases turned out to be rotator phases and only their unit cells could be determined. Two previously unknown melting points were measured, as well as most enthalpies of melting. Several previously reported melting points were shown to be solid-to-solid phase transitions or decomposition points. Our experiments have revealed a complex picture of phases, rotator phases and phase transitions, in which a simple correlation between melting points and hydrogen-bonding patterns is not feasible.

  5. Metabolic studies of oxyguno in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, April S.Y.; Ho, Emmie N.M.; Wan, Terence S.M.; Lam, Kenneth K.H.; Stewart, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Oxyguno (4-chloro-17α-methyl-17β-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-3,11-dione) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid commercially available without a prescription. Manufacturers of oxyguno claim that its anabolic effect in metabolic enhancement exceeds that of the classic anabolic steroid testosterone by seven times, but its androgenic side-effects are only twelve percent of testosterone. Like other anabolic androgenic steroids, oxyguno is prohibited in equine sports. The metabolism of oxyguno in either human or horse has not been reported and therefore little is known about its metabolic fate. This paper describes the in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of oxyguno in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting oxyguno administration. In vitro studies of oxyguno were performed using horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixtures were isolated by liquid–liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the EI mode after trimethylsilylation. In vitro metabolites identified include the stereoisomers of 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β-diol (M1a & M1b); 20-hydroxy-oxyguno (M2); and 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β,20-triol (M3). These novel metabolites were resulted from hydroxylation at C20, and/or reduction of the keto group at C11. For the in vivo studies, two geldings were each administered orally with a total dose of 210 mg oxyguno (52.5 mg twice daily for 2 days). Pre- and post-administration urine and blood samples were collected for analysis. The parent drug oxyguno was detected in both urine and blood, while numerous novel metabolites were detected in urine. The stereoisomers (M1a & M1b) observed in the in vitro studies were also detected in post-administration urine samples. Three other metabolites (M4 - M6) were detected. M4, 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androstane-11-keto-3,17β-diol, was resulted from reductions of the olefin

  6. 35Cl/37Cl isotope effects in 103Rh NMR of [RhCln(H2O)6−n]3−n complex anions in hydrochloric acid solution as a unique ‘NMR finger-print’ for unambiguous speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geswindt, Theodor E.; Gerber, Wilhelmus J.; Brand, D. Jacobus; Koch, Klaus R.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: 35 Cl/ 37 Cl isotope effects in 103 Rh NMR as a unique ‘NMR-fingerprints’ leading to the unambiguous assignment of [RhCl n (H 2 O) 6−n ] 3−n (n = 3–6) complexes without reliance on accurate δ( 103 Rh) chemical shifts. Highlights: ► Direct 103 Rh NMR (19.11 MHz) spectroscopic method of speciation of [RhCl n (H 2 O) 6−n ] 3−n in HCl. ► 35 Cl/ 37 Cl isotope effects in 103 Rh NMR of [RhCl n (H 2 O) 6−n ] 3−n anions isotopologue and isotopomer induced 103 Rh NMR ‘finger-print’ for unambiguous identification. ► 103 Rh NMR identification of stereoisomers without a need for accurate chemical shifts. - Abstract: A detailed analysis of the 35 Cl/ 37 Cl isotope effects observed in the 19.11 MHz 103 Rh NMR resonances of [RhCl n (H 2 O) 6−n ] 3−n complexes (n = 3–6) in acidic solution at 292.1 K, shows that the ‘fine structure’ of each 103 Rh resonance can be understood in terms of the unique isotopologue and in certain instances the isotopomer distribution in each complex. These 35 Cl/ 37 Cl isotope effects in the 103 Rh NMR resonance of the [Rh 35/37 Cl 6 ] 3− species manifest only as a result of the statistically expected 35 Cl/ 37 Cl isotopologues, whereas for the aquated species such as for example [Rh 35/37 Cl 5 (H 2 O)] 2− , cis-[Rh 35/37 Cl 4 (H 2 O) 2 ] − as well as the mer-[Rh 35/37 Cl 3 (H 2 O) 3 ] complexes, additional fine-structure due to the various possible isotopomers within each class of isotopologues, is visible. Of interest is the possibility of the direct identification of stereoisomers cis-[RhCl 4 (H 2 O) 2 ] − , trans-[RhCl 4 (H 2 O) 2 ] − , fac-[RhCl 3 (H 2 O) 3 ] and mer-[RhCl 3 (H 2 O) 3 ] based on the 103 Rh NMR line shape, other than on the basis of their very similar δ( 103 Rh) chemical shift. The 103 Rh NMR resonance structure thus serves as a novel and unique ‘NMR-fingerprint’ leading to the unambiguous assignment of [RhCl n (H 2 O) 6−n ] 3−n complexes (n = 3–6

  7. Metabolic studies of oxyguno in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, April S.Y., E-mail: april.sy.wong-rl@hkjc.org.hk [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Ho, Emmie N.M. [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Wan, Terence S.M., E-mail: terence.sm.wan@hkjc.org.hk [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Lam, Kenneth K.H.; Stewart, Brian D. [Veterinary Regulation & International Liaison, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-09-03

    Oxyguno (4-chloro-17α-methyl-17β-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-3,11-dione) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid commercially available without a prescription. Manufacturers of oxyguno claim that its anabolic effect in metabolic enhancement exceeds that of the classic anabolic steroid testosterone by seven times, but its androgenic side-effects are only twelve percent of testosterone. Like other anabolic androgenic steroids, oxyguno is prohibited in equine sports. The metabolism of oxyguno in either human or horse has not been reported and therefore little is known about its metabolic fate. This paper describes the in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of oxyguno in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting oxyguno administration. In vitro studies of oxyguno were performed using horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixtures were isolated by liquid–liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the EI mode after trimethylsilylation. In vitro metabolites identified include the stereoisomers of 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β-diol (M1a & M1b); 20-hydroxy-oxyguno (M2); and 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β,20-triol (M3). These novel metabolites were resulted from hydroxylation at C20, and/or reduction of the keto group at C11. For the in vivo studies, two geldings were each administered orally with a total dose of 210 mg oxyguno (52.5 mg twice daily for 2 days). Pre- and post-administration urine and blood samples were collected for analysis. The parent drug oxyguno was detected in both urine and blood, while numerous novel metabolites were detected in urine. The stereoisomers (M1a & M1b) observed in the in vitro studies were also detected in post-administration urine samples. Three other metabolites (M4 - M6) were detected. M4, 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androstane-11-keto-3,17β-diol, was resulted from reductions of the olefin

  8. Evidence of the generation of isosaccharinic acids and their subsequent degradation by local microbial consortia within hyper-alkaline contaminated soils, with relevance to intermediate level radioactive waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Simon P; Charles, Christopher J; Garratt, Eva J; Laws, Andrew P; Gunn, John; Humphreys, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of surface environments with hydroxide rich wastes leads to the formation of high pH (>11.0) soil profiles. One such site is a legacy lime works at Harpur Hill, Derbyshire where soil profile indicated in-situ pH values up to pH 12. Soil and porewater profiles around the site indicated clear evidence of the presence of the α and β stereoisomers of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) resulting from the anoxic, alkaline degradation of cellulosic material. ISAs are of particular interest with regards to the disposal of cellulosic materials contained within the intermediate level waste (ILW) inventory of the United Kingdom, where they may influence radionuclide mobility via complexation events occurring within a geological disposal facility (GDF) concept. The mixing of uncontaminated soils with the alkaline leachate of the site resulted in ISA generation, where the rate of generation in-situ is likely to be dependent upon the prevailing temperature of the soil. Microbial consortia present in the uncontaminated soil were capable of surviving conditions imposed by the alkaline leachate and demonstrated the ability to utilise ISAs as a carbon source. Leachate-contaminated soil was sub-cultured in a cellulose degradation product driven microcosm operating at pH 11, the consortia present were capable of the degradation of ISAs and the generation of methane from the resultant H2/CO2 produced from fermentation processes. Following microbial community analysis, fermentation processes appear to be predominated by Clostridia from the genus Alkaliphilus sp, with methanogenesis being attributed to Methanobacterium and Methanomassiliicoccus sp. The study is the first to identify the generation of ISA within an anthropogenic environment and advocates the notion that microbial activity within an ILW-GDF is likely to influence the impact of ISAs upon radionuclide migration.

  9. Evidence of the generation of isosaccharinic acids and their subsequent degradation by local microbial consortia within hyper-alkaline contaminated soils, with relevance to intermediate level radioactive waste disposal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Rout

    Full Text Available The contamination of surface environments with hydroxide rich wastes leads to the formation of high pH (>11.0 soil profiles. One such site is a legacy lime works at Harpur Hill, Derbyshire where soil profile indicated in-situ pH values up to pH 12. Soil and porewater profiles around the site indicated clear evidence of the presence of the α and β stereoisomers of isosaccharinic acid (ISA resulting from the anoxic, alkaline degradation of cellulosic material. ISAs are of particular interest with regards to the disposal of cellulosic materials contained within the intermediate level waste (ILW inventory of the United Kingdom, where they may influence radionuclide mobility via complexation events occurring within a geological disposal facility (GDF concept. The mixing of uncontaminated soils with the alkaline leachate of the site resulted in ISA generation, where the rate of generation in-situ is likely to be dependent upon the prevailing temperature of the soil. Microbial consortia present in the uncontaminated soil were capable of surviving conditions imposed by the alkaline leachate and demonstrated the ability to utilise ISAs as a carbon source. Leachate-contaminated soil was sub-cultured in a cellulose degradation product driven microcosm operating at pH 11, the consortia present were capable of the degradation of ISAs and the generation of methane from the resultant H2/CO2 produced from fermentation processes. Following microbial community analysis, fermentation processes appear to be predominated by Clostridia from the genus Alkaliphilus sp, with methanogenesis being attributed to Methanobacterium and Methanomassiliicoccus sp. The study is the first to identify the generation of ISA within an anthropogenic environment and advocates the notion that microbial activity within an ILW-GDF is likely to influence the impact of ISAs upon radionuclide migration.

  10. Sensitive monitoring of monoterpene metabolites in human urine using two-step derivatisation and positive chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Lukas; Belov, Vladimir N.; Göen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Sensitive monitoring of 10 metabolites of (R)-limonene, α-pinene, and Δ 3 -carene in human urine samples. •Fast and simple sample preparation and derivatisation procedure using two-step silylation for unreactive tertiary hydroxyl groups. •Synthesis of reference substances and isotopically labelled internal standards of (R)-limonene, α-pinene, and Δ 3 -carene metabolites. •Study on (R)-limonene, α-pinene, and Δ 3 -carene metabolite background exposure of 36 occupationally unexposed volunteers. -- Abstract: A gas chromatographic–positive chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometric (GC–PCI-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 10 oxidative metabolites of the monoterpenoid hydrocarbons α-pinene, (R)-limonene, and Δ 3 -carene ((+)-3-carene) in human urine was developed and tested for the monoterpene biomonitoring of the general population (n = 36). The method involves enzymatic cleavage of the glucuronides followed by solid-supported liquid–liquid extraction and derivatisation using a two-step reaction with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide and N-(trimethylsilyl)imidazole. The method proved to be both sensitive and reliable with detection limits ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 μg L −1 . In contrast to the frequent and distinct quantities of (1S,2S,4R)-limonene-1,2-diol, the (1R,2R,4R)-stereoisomer could not be detected. The expected metabolite of (+)-3-carene, 3-caren-10-ol was not detected in any of the samples. All other metabolites were detected in almost all urine samples. The procedure enables for the first time the analysis of trace levels of a broad spectrum of mono- and bicyclic monoterpenoid metabolites (alcohols, diols, and carboxylic acids) in human urine. This analytical procedure is a powerful tool for population studies as well as for the discovery of human metabolism and toxicokinetics of monoterpenes

  11. Enantioselective cytotoxicity of the insecticide bifenthrin on a human amnion epithelial (FL) cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huigang; Zhao Meirong; Zhang Cong; Ma Yun; Liu Weiping

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) are used in preference to organochlorines and organophosphates due to their high efficiency, low toxicity to mammals, and ready biodegradability. Previous studies reported that enantioselective toxicity of SPs occurs in aquatic toxicity. Several studies have indicated that SPs could lead to oxidative damage in humans or animals which was associated with their toxic effects. Little is known about the differences in the effects of chronic toxicity induced by individual stereoisomers of chiral SPs. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the enantioselectivity in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity caused by bifenthrin (BF) on human amnion epithelial (FL) cell lines and pesticidal activity on target organism. The cell proliferation and cytoflow analysis indicated that 1S-cis-BF presented more toxic effects than 1R-cis-BF above the concentration of 7.5 mg L -1 (p > 0.05). FL cells incubated with 1S-cis-BF exhibited a dose-dependent accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the comet assay, the number of cells with damaged DNA incubated with 1S-cis-BF was more than that with 1R-cis-BF (p 50 values of enantiomer to the target pest on Pieris rapae L. show that 1R-cis-BF was 300 times more active than 1S-cis-BF. These results indicate that the enantioselective toxicity and activity of BF between non-target organism and target organism was reversal. These implications together suggest that assessment of the environmental safety and new pesticides development with chiral centers should consider enantioselectivity

  12. Behavioral and neurogenomic transcriptome changes in wild-derived zebrafish with fluoxetine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and anxiety-related behaviors are seen in many organisms. Studies have shown that in humans and other animals, treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g. fluoxetine) can reduce anxiety and anxiety-related behaviors. The efficacies and side effects, however, can vary between individuals. Fluoxetine can modulate anxiety in a stereospecific manner or with equal efficacy regardless of stereoisomer depending on the mechanism of action (e.g. serotonergic or GABAergic effects). Zebrafish are an emerging and valuable translational model for understanding human health related issues such as anxiety. In this study we present data showing the behavioral and whole brain transcriptome changes with fluoxetine treatment in wild-derived zebrafish and suggest additional molecular mechanisms of this widely-prescribed drug. Results We used automated behavioral analyses to assess the effects of racemic and stereoisomeric fluoxetine on male wild-derived zebrafish. Both racemic and the individual isomers of fluoxetine reduced anxiety-related behaviors relative to controls and we did not observe stereospecific fluoxetine effects. Using RNA-sequencing of the whole brain, we identified 411 genes showing differential expression with racemic fluoxetine treatment. Several neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y, isotocin, urocortin 3, prolactin) showed consistent expression patterns with the alleviation of stress and anxiety when anxiety-related behavior was reduced with fluoxetine treatment. With gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses, we identified lipid and amino acid metabolic processes, and steroid biosynthesis among other terms to be over-enriched. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that fluoxetine reduces anxiety-related behaviors in wild-derived zebrafish and alters their neurogenomic state. We identify two biological processes, lipid and amino acid metabolic synthesis that characterize differences in the fluoxetine treated fish. Fluoxetine may be acting on

  13. Replacement of two amino acids of 9R-dioxygenase-allene oxide synthase of Aspergillus niger inverts the chirality of the hydroperoxide and the allene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooman, Linda; Wennman, Anneli; Hamberg, Mats; Hoffmann, Inga; Oliw, Ernst H

    2016-02-01

    The genome of Aspergillus niger codes for a fusion protein (EHA25900), which can be aligned with ~50% sequence identity to 9S-dioxygenase (DOX)-allene oxide synthase (AOS) of Fusarium oxysporum, homologues of the Fusarium and Colletotrichum complexes and with over 62% sequence identity to homologues of Aspergilli, including (DOX)-9R-AOS of Aspergillus terreus. The aims were to characterize the enzymatic activities of EHA25900 and to identify crucial amino acids for the stereospecificity. Recombinant EHA25900 oxidized 18:2n-6 sequentially to 9R-hydroperoxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (9R-HPODE) and to a 9R(10)-allene oxide. 9S- and 9R-DOX-AOS catalyze abstraction of the pro-R hydrogen at C-11, but the direction of oxygen insertion differs. A comparison between twelve 9-DOX domains of 9S- and 9R-DOX-AOS revealed conserved amino acid differences, which could contribute to the chirality of products. The Gly616Ile replacement of 9R-DOX-AOS (A. niger) increased the biosynthesis of 9S-HPODE and the 9S(10)-allene oxide, whereas the Phe627Leu replacement led to biosynthesis of 9S-HPODE and the 9S(10)-allene oxide as main products. The double mutant (Gly616Ile, Phe627Leu) formed over 90% of the 9S stereoisomer of HPODE. 9S-HPODE was formed by antarafacial hydrogen abstraction and oxygen insertion, i.e., the original H-abstraction was retained but the product chirality was altered. We conclude that 9R-DOX-AOS can be altered to 9S-DOX-AOS by replacement of two amino acids (Gly616Ile, Phe627Leu) in the DOX domain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chiral recognition of proteins having L-histidine residues on the surface with lanthanide ion complex incorporated-molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzun, Lokman; Uzek, Recep; Şenel, Serap; Say, Ridvan; Denizli, Adil

    2013-01-01

    In this study, lanthanide ion complex incorporated molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles were synthesized. A combination of three novel approaches was applied for the purpose. First, lanthanide ions [Terbium(III)] were complexed with N-methacryloyl-L-histidine (MAH), polymerizable derivative of L-histidine amino acid, in order to incorporate the complex directly into the polymeric backbone. At the second stage, L-histidine molecules imprinted nanoparticles were utilized instead of whole protein imprinting in order to avoid whole drawbacks such as fragility, complexity, denaturation tendency, and conformation dependency. At the third stage following the first two steps mentioned above, imprinted L-histidine was coordinated with cupric ions [Cu(II)] to conduct the study under mild conditions. Then, molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles synthesized were used for L-histidine adsorption from aqueous solution to optimize conditions for adsorption and fluorimetric detection. Finally, usability of nanoparticles was investigated for chiral biorecognition using stereoisomer, D-histidine, racemic mixture, D,L-histidine, proteins with surface L-histidine residue, lysozyme, cytochrome C, or without ribonuclease A. The results revealed that the proposed polymerization strategy could make significant contribution to the solution of chronic problems of fluorescent component introduction into polymers. Additionally, the fluorescent nanoparticles reported here could be used for selective separation and fluorescent monitoring purposes. Highlights: • Lanthanide ion complex incorporated molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles • Direct incorporation of the fluorescent complex into polymeric backbone. • Imprinting by assistance of cupric ion coordination into nanoparticles • Evaluation of the chiral biorecognition ability of nanoparticles • Simultaneous selective separation and fluorescent monitoring

  15. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers. PMID:21917164

  16. (-)[125I]-iodopindolol, a new highly selective radioiodinated beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist: measurement of beta-receptors on intact rat astrocytoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barovsky, K.; Brooker, G.

    1980-01-01

    (-)-Pindolol, one of the most potent beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, was radioiodinated using chloramine-T oxidation of carrier-free Na 125I and separated from unreacted pindolol to yield 2200 Ci/mmole (-)-[125I]-iodopindolol ((-)-[125I]-IPin). Mass and ultraviolet spectra confirmed that the iodination occurred on the indole ring, presumably at the 3 position. The binding of radiolabeled (-)-[125I]-IPin to beta-adrenergic receptors has been studied using intact C6 rat astrocytoma cells (2B subclone) grown in monolayer cultures. Binding of (-)[125IPin was saturable with time and concentration. Using 13 pM (-)-[125I]IPin, binding equilibrium was reached in 90 min at 21-22 degrees C. The reverse rate constant was 0.026 min-1 at 21 0 C. Specific binding (expressed as 1 microM(-)-propranolol displaceable counts) of (-)-[125I]-IPin was 95% of total binding. Scatchard analysis of (-)-[125I]-I]Pin binding revealed approximately 4300 receptors/cell and a dissociation constant of 30 pM. This was in excellent agreement with the kinetically determined dissociation constant of 35 pM. Displacement by propranolol and isoproterenol showed that (-)-[125I]-IPin binding sites were pharmacologically and stereospecifically selective. These results indicate that (-)-[125I]-IPin, a pure (-)-stereoisomer, high specific activity radioligand, selectively binds to beta-adrenergic receptors in whole cells with a high percentage of specific binding and should therefore be useful in the study and measurement of cellular beta-adrenergic receptors

  17. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel 3-Caren-5-One Oxime Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 3-caren-5-one oxime esters were designed and synthesized by multi-step reactions in an attempt to develop potent antifungal agents. Two E-Z stereoisomers of the intermediate 3-caren-5-one oxime were separated by column chromatography for the first time. The structures of all the intermediates and target compounds were confirmed by UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The antifungal activity of the target compounds was preliminarily evaluated by the in vitro method against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, Physalospora piricola, Alternaria solani, Cercospora arachidicola, Gibberella zeae, Rhizoeotnia solani, Bipolaris maydis, and Colleterichum orbicalare at 50 µg/mL. The target compounds exhibited best antifungal activity against P. piricola, in which compounds (Z-4r (R = β-pyridyl, (Z-4q (R = α-thienyl, (E-4f′ (R = p-F Ph, (Z-4i (R = m-Me Ph, (Z-4j (R = p-Me Ph, and (Z-4p (R = α-furyl had inhibition rates of 97.1%, 87.4%, 87.4%, 85.0%, 81.9%, and 77.7%, respectively, showing better antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Also, compound (Z-4r (R = β-pyridyl displayed remarkable antifungal activity against all the tested fungi, with inhibition rates of 76.7%, 82.7%, 97.1%, 66.3%, 74.7%, 93.9%, 76.7% and 93.3%, respectively, showing better or comparable antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Besides, the E-Z isomers of the target oxime esters were found to show obvious differences in antifungal activity. These results provide an encouraging framework that could lead to the development of potent novel antifungal agents.

  18. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel 3-Caren-5-One Oxime Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Duan, Wen-Gui; Lin, Gui-Shan; Li, Kun; Hu, Qiong

    2017-09-12

    A series of novel 3-caren-5-one oxime esters were designed and synthesized by multi-step reactions in an attempt to develop potent antifungal agents. Two E - Z stereoisomers of the intermediate 3-caren-5-one oxime were separated by column chromatography for the first time. The structures of all the intermediates and target compounds were confirmed by UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The antifungal activity of the target compounds was preliminarily evaluated by the in vitro method against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum , Physalospora piricola , Alternaria solani , Cercospora arachidicola , Gibberella zeae, Rhizoeotnia solani , Bipolaris maydis , and Colleterichum orbicalare at 50 µg/mL. The target compounds exhibited best antifungal activity against P. piricola , in which compounds ( Z )- 4r (R = β -pyridyl), ( Z )- 4q (R = α -thienyl), ( E )- 4f' (R = p -F Ph), ( Z )- 4i (R = m -Me Ph), ( Z )- 4j (R = p -Me Ph), and ( Z )- 4p (R = α -furyl) had inhibition rates of 97.1%, 87.4%, 87.4%, 85.0%, 81.9%, and 77.7%, respectively, showing better antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Also, compound ( Z )- 4r (R = β -pyridyl) displayed remarkable antifungal activity against all the tested fungi, with inhibition rates of 76.7%, 82.7%, 97.1%, 66.3%, 74.7%, 93.9%, 76.7% and 93.3%, respectively, showing better or comparable antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Besides, the E-Z isomers of the target oxime esters were found to show obvious differences in antifungal activity. These results provide an encouraging framework that could lead to the development of potent novel antifungal agents.

  19. A Study of Electrocyclic Reactions in a Molecular Junction: Mechanistic and Energetic Requirements for Switching in the Coulomb Blockade Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Stine T; Brøndsted Nielsen, Mogens; Hansen, Thorsten; Ratner, Mark A; Mikkelsen, Kurt V

    2017-06-20

    Molecular photoswitches incorporated in molecular junctions yield the possibility of light-controlled switching of conductance due to the electronic difference of the photoisomers. Another isomerization mechanism, dark photoswitching, promoted by a voltage stimulus rather than by light, can be operative in the Coulomb blockade regime for a specific charge state of the molecule. Here we elucidate theoretically the mechanistic and thermodynamic restrictions for this dark photoswitching for donor-acceptor substituted 4n and 4n+2 π-electron open-chain oligoenes (1,3-butadiene and 1,3,5-hexatriene) by considering the molecular energies and orbitals of the molecules placed in a junction. For an electrocyclic ring closure reaction to occur for these compounds, we put forward two requirements: a) the closed stereoisomer (cis or trans form) must be of lower energy than the open form, and b) the reaction pathway must be in accordance to the orbital symmetry rules expressed by the Woodward-Hoffmann rules (when the electrodes do not significantly alter the molecular orbital appearances). We find these two requirements to be valid for the dianion of (1E,3Z,5E)-hexa-1,3,5-triene-1,6-diamine, and the Coulomb blockade diamonds were therefore modeled for this compound to elucidate how a dark photoswitching event would manifest itself in the stability plot. From this modeling of conductance as a function of gate and bias potentials, we predict a collapse in Coulomb diamond size, that is, a decrease in the height of the island of zero conductance. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Krake, Susann H; Bergmeier, Stephen C; Payne, Mark J; Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A

    2011-09-14

    This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers.

  1. A holistic evolutionary and structural study of flaviviridae provides insights into the function and inhibition of HCV helicase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Vlachakis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Viral RNA helicases are involved in duplex unwinding during the RNA replication of the virus. It is suggested that these helicases represent very promising antiviral targets. Viruses of the flaviviridae family are the causative agents of many common and devastating diseases, including hepatitis, yellow fever and dengue fever. As there is currently no available anti-Flaviviridae therapy, there is urgent need for the development of efficient anti-viral pharmaceutical strategies. Herein, we report the complete phylogenetic analysis across flaviviridae alongside a more in-depth evolutionary study that revealed a series of conserved and invariant amino acids that are predicted to be key to the function of the helicase. Structural molecular modelling analysis revealed the strategic significance of these residues based on their relative positioning on the 3D structures of the helicase enzymes, which may be used as pharmacological targets. We previously reported a novel series of highly potent HCV helicase inhibitors, and we now re-assess their antiviral potential using the 3D structural model of the invariant helicase residues. It was found that the most active compound of the series, compound C4, exhibited an IC50 in the submicromolar range, whereas its stereoisomer (compound C12 was completely inactive. Useful insights were obtained from molecular modelling and conformational search studies via molecular dynamics simulations. C12 tends to bend and lock in an almost “U” shape conformation, failing to establish vital interactions with the active site of HCV. On the contrary, C4 spends most of its conformational time in a straight, more rigid formation that allows it to successfully block the passage of the oligonucleotide in the ssRNA channel of the HCV helicase. This study paves the way and provides the necessary framework for the in-depth analysis required to enable the future design of new and potent anti-viral agents.

  2. D-isoascorbyl palmitate: lipase-catalyzed synthesis, structural characterization and process optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Cui, Feng-Jie; Li, Yun-Hong; Yu, Si-Lian; Zhou, Qiang; Qian, Jing-Ya; Dong, Ying

    2013-07-08

    Isoascorbic acid is a stereoisomer of L-ascorbic acid, and widely used as a food antioxidant. However, its highly hydrophilic behavior prevents its application in cosmetics or fats and oils-based foods. To overcome this problem, D-isoascorbyl palmitate was synthesized in the present study for improving the isoascorbic acid's oil solubility with an immobilized lipase in organic media. The structural information of synthesized product was clarified using LC-ESI-MS, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR analysis, and process parameters for high yield of D-isoascorbyl palmitate were optimized by using One-factor-at-a-time experiments and response surface methodology (RSM). The synthesized product had the purity of 95% and its structural characteristics were confirmed as isoascorbyl palmitate by LC-ESI-MS, FT-IR, 1H, and 13C NMR analysis. Results from "one-factor-at-a-time" experiments indicated that the enzyme load, reaction temperature and D-isoascorbic-to-palmitic acid molar ratio had a significant effect on the D-isoascorbyl palmitate conversion rate. 95.32% of conversion rate was obtained by using response surface methodology (RSM) under the the optimized condition: enzyme load of 20% (w/w), reaction temperature of 53°C and D- isoascorbic-to-palmitic acid molar ratio of 1:4 when the reaction parameters were set as: acetone 20 mL, 40 g/L of molecular sieves content, 200 rpm speed for 24-h reaction time. The findings of this study can become a reference for developing industrial processes for the preparation of isoascorbic acid ester, which might be used in food additives, cosmetic formulations and for the synthesis of other isoascorbic acid derivatives.

  3. Geographic Variation in Sexual Attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda Corn- and Rice-Strain Males to Pheromone Lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbehend, Melanie; Hänniger, Sabine; Vásquez, Gissella M.; Juárez, María Laura; Reisig, Dominic; McNeil, Jeremy N.; Meagher, Robert L.; Jenkins, David A.; Heckel, David G.; Groot, Astrid T.

    2014-01-01

    The corn- and rice-strains of Spodoptera frugiperda exhibit several genetic and behavioral differences and appear to be undergoing ecological speciation in sympatry. Previous studies reported conflicting results when investigating male attraction to pheromone lures in different regions, but this could have been due to inter-strain and/or geographic differences. Therefore, we investigated whether corn- and rice-strain males differed in their response to different synthetic pheromone blends in different regions in North America, the Caribbean and South America. All trapped males were strain-typed by two strain-specific mitochondrial DNA markers. In the first experiment, we found a nearly similar response of corn- and rice-strain males to two different 4-component blends, resembling the corn- and rice-strain female blend we previously described from females in Florida. This response showed some geographic variation in fields in Canada, North Carolina, Florida, Puerto Rico, and South America (Peru, Argentina). In dose-response experiments with the critical secondary sex pheromone component (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:OAc), we found some strain-specific differences in male attraction. While the response to Z7-12:OAc varied geographically in the corn-strain, rice-strain males showed almost no variation. We also found that the minor compound (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:OAc) did not increase attraction of both strains in Florida and of corn-strain males in Peru. In a fourth experiment, where we added the stereo-isomer of the critical sex pheromone component, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate, to the major pheromone component (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc), we found that this compound was attractive to males in North Carolina, but not to males in Peru. Overall, our results suggest that both strains show rather geographic than strain-specific differences in their response to pheromone lures, and that regional sexual communication differences might cause geographic

  4. Synthesis, estrogen receptor binding, and tissue distribution of a new iodovinylestradiol derivative (17{alpha},20E)-21-[{sup 123}I]iodo-11{beta}-nitrato-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-te= traene-3,17 -diol (E-[{sup 123}I]NIVE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijks, Leonie J.M.; Bos, Jan C. van den; Doremalen, Peter A.P.M. van; Boer, Gerard J.; Bruin, Kora de; Doornbos, Tamme; Vekemans, Jozef A.J.M.; Posthumus, Maarten A.; Janssen, Anton G.M.; Royen, Eric A. van

    1998-05-01

    We have synthesized and evaluated E-11{beta}-nitrato-17{alpha}-iodovinylestradiol (E-NIVE; E-3c) and its {sup 123}I-labelled form, as a new potential radioligand for imaging of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human breast tumors. E-[{sup 123}I]NIVE was prepared by stereospecific iododestannylation of the E-tri-n-butylstannylvinyl precursor (E-2c), obtained from reaction of 11{beta}-nitrato-estrone (8) with E-tributylstannylvinyllithium. In competitive binding studies, E-NIVE proved to have high binding affinity for both the rat and the human ER (K{sub i} 280-730 pM), without significant binding to human sex hormone binding globulin. Distribution studies in normal and mammary tumor-bearing rats showed specific ER-mediated uptake of E-[{sup 123}I]NIVE in the estrogen target tissues, i.e., uterus, ovaries, pituitary, and hypothalamus, but not in the mammary tumors. Selective retention in these target tissues, including tumor tissue, resulted in significant increases over time for the target tissue-to-muscle uptake ratios, but not for the target tissue-to-fat uptake ratios. The tumor-to-fat uptake ratio even appeared constantly below 1. In the primary estrogen target tissues, E-[{sup 123}I]NIVE displayed high specific ER-mediated uptake and retention, which resulted in moderate target-to-nontarget tissue uptake ratios. In contrast, in tumor tissue, E-[{sup 123}I]NIVE uptake appeared to be rather low and not ER-specific. As a consequence, E-[{sup 123}I]NIVE appears to be a less favorable radioligand for ER imaging in breast cancer than the previously studied stereoisomers of 11{beta}-methoxy-17{alpha}-[{sup 123}I]iodovinylestradiol (E- and Z-[{sup 123}I]MIVE; [{sup 123}I]E- and [{sup 123}I]Z-3b)

  5. Studying anti-oxidative properties of inclusion complexes of α-lipoic acid with γ-cyclodextrin in single living fission yeast by confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noothalapati, Hemanth; Ikarashi, Ryo; Iwasaki, Keita; Nishida, Tatsuro; Kaino, Tomohiro; Yoshikiyo, Keisuke; Terao, Keiji; Nakata, Daisuke; Ikuta, Naoko; Ando, Masahiro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.; Kawamukai, Makoto; Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki

    2018-05-01

    α-lipoic acid (ALA) is an essential cofactor for many enzyme complexes in aerobic metabolism, especially in mitochondria of eukaryotic cells where respiration takes place. It also has excellent anti-oxidative properties. The acid has two stereo-isomers, R- and S- lipoic acid (R-LA and S-LA), but only the R-LA has biological significance and is exclusively produced in our body. A mutant strain of fission yeast, Δdps1, cannot synthesize coenzyme Q10, which is essential during yeast respiration, leading to oxidative stress. Therefore, it shows growth delay in the minimal medium. We studied anti-oxidant properties of ALA in its free form and their inclusion complexes with γ-cyclodextrin using this mutant yeast model. Both free forms R- and S-LA as well as 1:1 inclusion complexes with γ-cyclodextrin recovered growth of Δdps1 depending on the concentration and form. However, it has no effect on the growth of wild type fission yeast strain at all. Raman microspectroscopy was employed to understand the anti-oxidant property at the molecular level. A sensitive Raman band at 1602 cm-1 was monitored with and without addition of ALAs. It was found that 0.5 mM and 1.0 mM concentrations of ALAs had similar effect in both free and inclusion forms. At 2.5 mM ALAs, free forms inhibited the growth while inclusion complexes helped in recovered. 5.0 mM ALA showed inhibitory effect irrespective of form. Our results suggest that the Raman band at 1602 cm-1 is a good measure of oxidative stress in fission yeast.

  6. Stereochemistry of Endogenous Palmitic Acid Ester of 9-Hydroxystearic Acid and Relevance of Absolute Configuration to Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew T; Kolar, Matthew J; Chu, Qian; Syed, Ismail; Kahn, Barbara B; Saghatelian, Alan; Siegel, Dionicio

    2017-04-05

    Lipids have fundamental roles in the structure, energetics, and signaling of cells and organisms. The recent discovery of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs), lipids with potent antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities, indicates that our understanding of the composition of lipidome and the function of lipids is incomplete. The ability to synthesize and test FAHFAs was critical in elucidating the roles of these lipids, but these studies were performed with racemic mixtures, and the role of stereochemistry remains unexplored. Here, we synthesized the R- and S- palmitic acid ester of 9-hydroxystearic acid (R-9-PAHSA, S-9-PAHSA). Access to highly enantioenriched PAHSAs enabled the development of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method to separate and quantify R- and S-9-PAHSA, and this approach identified R-9-PAHSA as the predominant stereoisomer that accumulates in adipose tissues from transgenic mice where FAHFAs were first discovered. Furthermore, biochemical analysis of 9-PAHSA biosynthesis and degradation indicate that the enzymes and pathways for PAHSA production are stereospecific, with cell lines favoring the production of R-9-PAHSA and carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), a PAHSA degradative enzyme, selectively hydrolyzing S-9-PAHSA. These studies highlight the role of stereochemistry in the production and degradation of PAHSAs and define the endogenous stereochemistry of 9-PAHSA in adipose tissue. This information will be useful in the identification and characterization of the pathway responsible for PAHSA biosynthesis, and access to enantiopure PAHSAs will elucidate the role of stereochemistry in PAHSA activity and metabolism in vivo.

  7. A chimeric prokaryotic-eukaryotic pentameric ligand gated ion channel reveals interactions between the extracellular and transmembrane domains shape neurosteroid modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Borna; Tsao, Tzu-Wei; Czajkowski, Cynthia

    2017-10-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) are the targets of several clinical and endogenous allosteric modulators including anesthetics and neurosteroids. Molecular mechanisms underlying allosteric drug modulation are poorly understood. Here, we constructed a chimeric pLGIC by fusing the extracellular domain (ECD) of the proton-activated, cation-selective bacterial channel GLIC to the transmembrane domain (TMD) of the human ρ1 chloride-selective GABA A R, and tested the hypothesis that drug actions are regulated locally in the domain that houses its binding site. The chimeric channels were proton-gated and chloride-selective demonstrating the GLIC ECD was functionally coupled to the GABAρ TMD. Channels were blocked by picrotoxin and inhibited by pentobarbital, etomidate and propofol. The point mutation, ρ TMD W328M, conferred positive modulation and direct gating by pentobarbital. The data suggest that the structural machinery mediating general anesthetic modulation resides in the TMD. Proton-activation and neurosteroid modulation of the GLIC-ρ chimeric channels, however, did not simply mimic their respective actions on GLIC and GABAρ revealing that across domain interactions between the ECD and TMD play important roles in determining their actions. Proton-induced current responses were biphasic suggesting that the chimeric channels contain an additional proton sensor. Neurosteroid modulation of the GLIC-ρ chimeric channels by the stereoisomers, 5α-THDOC and 5β-THDOC, were swapped compared to their actions on GABAρ indicating that positive versus negative neurosteroid modulation is not encoded solely in the TMD nor by neurosteroid isomer structure but is dependent on specific interdomain connections between the ECD and TMD. Our data reveal a new mechanism for shaping neurosteroid modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase: Binding determinants for 5'-phospho-alpha-d-ribosyl-1'-pyrophosphate (PRPP) and the implications for inhibitor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Genevieve L; Furkert, Daniel P; Abermil, Nacim; Kundu, Preeti; de Lange, Katrina M; Parker, Emily J; Brimble, Margaret A; Baker, Edward N; Lott, J Shaun

    2018-02-01

    Phosphoribosyltransferases (PRTs) bind 5'-phospho-α-d-ribosyl-1'-pyrophosphate (PRPP) and transfer its phosphoribosyl group (PRib) to specific nucleophiles. Anthranilate PRT (AnPRT) is a promiscuous PRT that can phosphoribosylate both anthranilate and alternative substrates, and is the only example of a type III PRT. Comparison of the PRPP binding mode in type I, II and III PRTs indicates that AnPRT does not bind PRPP, or nearby metals, in the same conformation as other PRTs. A structure with a stereoisomer of PRPP bound to AnPRT from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) suggests a catalytic or post-catalytic state that links PRib movement to metal movement. Crystal structures of Mtb-AnPRT in complex with PRPP and with varying occupancies of the two metal binding sites, complemented by activity assay data, indicate that this type III PRT binds a single metal-coordinated species of PRPP, while an adjacent second metal site can be occupied due to a separate binding event. A series of compounds were synthesized that included a phosphonate group to probe PRPP binding site. Compounds containing a "bianthranilate"-like moiety are inhibitors with IC 50 values of 10-60μM, and K i values of 1.3-15μM. Structures of Mtb-AnPRT in complex with these compounds indicate that their phosphonate moieties are unable to mimic the binding modes of the PRib or pyrophosphate moieties of PRPP. The AnPRT structures presented herein indicated that PRPP binds a surface cleft and becomes enclosed due to re-positioning of two mobile loops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The vicinal difluoro motif: The synthesis and conformation of erythro- and threo- diastereoisomers of 1,2-difluorodiphenylethanes, 2,3-difluorosuccinic acids and their derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüler Martin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that vicinal fluorines (RCHF-CHFR prefer to adopt a gauche rather than an anti conformation when placed along aliphatic chains. This has been particularly recognised for 1,2-difluoroethane and extends to 2,3-difluorobutane and longer alkyl chains. It follows in these latter cases that if erythro and threo vicinal difluorinated stereoisomers are compared, they will adopt different overall conformations if the fluorines prefer to be gauche in each case. This concept is explored in this paper with erythro- and threo- diastereoisomers of 2,3-difluorosuccinates. Results A synthetic route to 2,3-difluorosuccinates has been developed through erythro- and threo- 1,2-difluoro-1,2-diphenylethane which involved the oxidation of the aryl rings to generate the corresponding 2,3-difluorosuccinic acids. Ester and amide derivatives of the erythro- and threo- 2,3-difluorosuccinic acids were then prepared. The solid and solution state conformation of these compounds was assessed by X-ray crystallography and NMR. Ab initio calculations were also carried out to model the conformation of erythro- and threo- 1,2-difluoro-1,2-diphenylethane as these differed from the 2,3-difluorosuccinates. Conclusion In general the overall chain conformations of the 2,3-difluorosuccinates diastereoisomers were found to be influenced by the fluorine gauche effect. The study highlights the prospects of utilising the vicinal difluorine motif (RCHF-CHFR as a tool for influencing the conformation of performance organic molecules and particularly tuning conformation by selecting specific diastereoisomers (erythro or threo.

  10. Monitoring Pseudococcus calceolariae (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Fruit Crops Using Pheromone-Baited Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, M Fernanda; Romero, Alda; Oyarzun, M Soledad; Bergmann, Jan; Zaviezo, Tania

    2015-10-01

    The citrophilus mealybug, Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), is an important pest of fruit crops in many regions of the world. Recently, its sex pheromone has been identified and synthesized. We carried out field experiments with the goal of developing monitoring protocols for P. calceolariae using pheromone-baited traps. Traps checked hourly for 24 hours showed a distinct diel pattern of male flight, between 18:00 and 21:00 h. The presence of unnatural stereoisomers did not affect trap captures, with isomeric mixtures capturing similar amounts of males as the biological active isomer. Dose of isomeric mixture pheromone (0-100 µg) had a nonlinear effect on male captures, with 10, 30, and 50 µg capturing similar amounts. The effective range of pheromone traps was determined by placing traps at different distances (15, 40, and 80 m) from an infested blueberry field, loaded with 0, 1 and 25 µg of the pheromone. For all distances, 25 µg dose captured more males, and was highly attractive up to 40 m. There was a significant effect of lure age on male captures (0-150 d), with similar amount of males captured up to 90-day-old lure, and lower captures in the 150-day-old lure compared with fresh ones. We found significant positive correlations between P. calceolariae males caught in pheromone traps with female abundance and fruit infestation at harvest. Our results show the usefulness of P. calceolariae pheromones for monitoring at field level and provide information for the design of monitoring protocols. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Occurrence, distribution and bioaccumulation behaviour of hydrophobic organic contaminants in a large-scale constructed wetland in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Kelly, Barry C

    2017-09-01

    This study involved a field-based investigation to assess the occurrence, distribution and bioaccumulation behaviour of hydrophobic organic contaminants in a large-scale constructed wetland. Samples of raw leachate, water and wetland plants, Typha angustifolia, were collected for chemical analysis. Target contaminants included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCP), as well as several halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and personal care products (triclosan and synthetic musks). In addition to PCBs and OCPs, synthetic musks, triclosan (TCS) and dechlorane plus stereoisomers (syn- and anti-DPs) were frequently detected. Root concentration factors (log RCF L/kg wet weight) of the various contaminants ranged between 3.0 and 7.9. Leaf concentration factors (log LCF L/kg wet weight) ranged between 2.4 and 8.2. syn- and anti-DPs exhibited the greatest RCF and LCF values. A strong linear relationship was observed between log RCF and octanol-water partition coefficient (log K OW ). Translocation factors (log TFs) were negatively correlated with log K OW . The results demonstrate that more hydrophobic compounds exhibit higher degrees of partitioning into plant roots and are less effectively transported from roots to plant leaves. Methyl triclosan (MTCS) and 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (DCDD), TCS degradation products, exhibited relatively high concentrations in roots and leaves., highlighting the importance of degradation/biotransformation. The results further suggest that Typha angustifolia in this constructed wetland can aid the removal of hydrophobic organic contaminants present in this landfill leachate. The findings will aid future investigations regarding the fate and bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic contaminants in constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence on the interaction by functional groups in some series of bicyclo (2,2,1) heptane derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnaire, Genevieve

    1971-01-01

    In connection with investigations involving the interactions of substituted groups in the bicyclo (2,2,1) heptane molecules, the chemical reactivity and some physical properties of polyfunctional compounds have been studied. A new method for preparation of β-fenchylic derivatives is presented, the first described terpenic nitroxide radical have been prepared from oxazolidinic compounds. The stereochemistry of the base induced elimination reaction of 6-exo tosyl and 6-endo tosyl oxy epi-camphor is dependent of the geometry of these compounds. On the other hand, the results indicate that the most important part of the structure is the position of the carbonyl group. Tricyclenic and camphenic derivatives are obtained with different rates. An explanation for these results involve several possible basic abstractions of acid protons, and the competition between these different reactions. The oxazolidinic compounds are obtained by reacting 2-amino 2-methyl 1-propanol with norcamphor and norbornane-2,5 dione. The geometrical configuration of the different stereoisomers is deduced from the measured dipolar interaction parameter D. The cotton effects of the γ-diketones do not show any interaction between the two carbonyl groups, in the fenchylic and bornylic series. The two carbonyl bond angles of the substituted α-diketones do not seem to be sensitive to any substitution of an alkoxy group. So, a new quadrant rule is proposed; compatible results are obtained, except for a methyl group in the α position. At least, PMR studies of terpenic polyfunctional compounds demonstrate the influence of the substitution on the geometry of the carbon skeleton. A new coupling constant 4 J HH is examined. (author) [fr

  13. InChIKey collision resistance: an experimental testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pletnev Igor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract InChIKey is a 27-character compacted (hashed version of InChI which is intended for Internet and database searching/indexing and is based on an SHA-256 hash of the InChI character string. The first block of InChIKey encodes molecular skeleton while the second block represents various kinds of isomerism (stereo, tautomeric, etc.. InChIKey is designed to be a nearly unique substitute for the parent InChI. However, a single InChIKey may occasionally map to two or more InChI strings (collision. The appearance of collision itself does not compromise the signature as collision-free hashing is impossible; the only viable approach is to set and keep a reasonable level of collision resistance which is sufficient for typical applications. We tested, in computational experiments, how well the real-life InChIKey collision resistance corresponds to the theoretical estimates expected by design. For this purpose, we analyzed the statistical characteristics of InChIKey for datasets of variable size in comparison to the theoretical statistical frequencies. For the relatively short second block, an exhaustive direct testing was performed. We computed and compared to theory the numbers of collisions for the stereoisomers of Spongistatin I (using the whole set of 67,108,864 isomers and its subsets. For the longer first block, we generated, using custom-made software, InChIKeys for more than 3 × 1010 chemical structures. The statistical behavior of this block was tested by comparison of experimental and theoretical frequencies for the various four-letter sequences which may appear in the first block body. From the results of our computational experiments we conclude that the observed characteristics of InChIKey collision resistance are in good agreement with theoretical expectations.

  14. No-carrier-added (NCA) synthesis of 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-DOPA using 3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-7,7,8a-trimethyl-[6S-(6{alpha}, 8{alpha}, 8{alpha}{beta})]-6,8-methano-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horti, A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Medicine]|[Yale Univ., West Haven, CT (United States). PET Center; Redmond, D.E. Jr. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Medicine; Soufer, R. [Yale Univ., West Haven, CT (United States). PET Center

    1995-12-31

    3,5,6,7,8,8a-Hexahydro-7,7,8a-trimethyl-[6S-(6{alpha},8{alpha} , 8{alpha}{beta})]-6,8-methano-2H-1,4-benzoxazino-2-one (2) was investigated as chiral auxiliary for asymmetric NCA nucleophilic synthesis of 6-[{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA. Direct condensation of 3,4-dimethoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzaldehyde (1a) or 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-piperonal (1b) in the presence of NaH with 2 gave the corresponding [{sup 18}F]-3-[(2-fluorophenyl)methylene]-3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-7,7,8 a-trimethyl-[6S-(3Z,3{alpha},6{alpha},8{alpha},8{alpha}{beta})]-6, 8-methano-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one derivative 3a or 3b as a single stereoisomer. L-Selectride promoted hydrogenation of the olefinic double bond of these derivatives, in presence of tertbutyl alcohol, afforded the corresponding [{sup 18}F]-3-[(2-fluorophenyl) methyl]-3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-7,7,8a-trimethyl-[3S-(3{alpha}, 6{alpha}, 8{alpha}8{alpha}{beta})]-6,8-methano-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one derivatives (4a,b) without affecting the orientation of diasterofacial discrimination. Deprotection of the derivatives 4a,b yielded 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-DOPA (e.e. >90%, 3% radiochemical yield (EOB), total synthesis time 125 min, specific activity >2000 mCi/{mu}mol). Direct deprotection/reduction of the compounds 3a,b provides the enantiomeric mixture of 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D,L-DOPA (10-12% radiochemical yield) and, after chiral separation, 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-DOPA (e.e. 98%, 4-5% radiochemical yield). (author).

  15. No-carrier-added (NCA) synthesis of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA using 3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-7,7,8a-trimethyl-[6S-(6α, 8α, 8αβ)]-6,8-methano-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horti, A.; Yale Univ., West Haven, CT; Redmond, D.E. Jr.; Soufer, R.

    1995-01-01

    3,5,6,7,8,8a-Hexahydro-7,7,8a-trimethyl-[6S-(6α,8α , 8αβ)]-6,8-methano-2H-1,4-benzoxazino-2-one (2) was investigated as chiral auxiliary for asymmetric NCA nucleophilic synthesis of 6-[ 18 F]Fluoro-L-DOPA. Direct condensation of 3,4-dimethoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluorobenzaldehyde (1a) or 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-piperonal (1b) in the presence of NaH with 2 gave the corresponding [ 18 F]-3-[(2-fluorophenyl)methylene]-3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-7,7,8 a-trimethyl-[6S-(3Z,3α,6α,8α,8αβ)]-6, 8-methano-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one derivative 3a or 3b as a single stereoisomer. L-Selectride promoted hydrogenation of the olefinic double bond of these derivatives, in presence of tertbutyl alcohol, afforded the corresponding [ 18 F]-3-[(2-fluorophenyl) methyl]-3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-7,7,8a-trimethyl-[3S-(3α, 6α, 8α8αβ)]-6,8-methano-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one derivatives (4a,b) without affecting the orientation of diasterofacial discrimination. Deprotection of the derivatives 4a,b yielded 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA (e.e. >90%, 3% radiochemical yield (EOB), total synthesis time 125 min, specific activity >2000 mCi/μmol). Direct deprotection/reduction of the compounds 3a,b provides the enantiomeric mixture of 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-D,L-DOPA (10-12% radiochemical yield) and, after chiral separation, 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA (e.e. 98%, 4-5% radiochemical yield). (author)

  16. Chelator induced phytoextraction and in situ soil washing of Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos, Bostjan; Lestan, Domen

    2004-01-01

    In a soil column experiment, we investigated the effect of 5 mmol kg -1 soil addition of citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate (DTPA) and [S,S]-stereoisomer of ethylenediamine-disuccinate (EDDS) on phytoextraction of Cu from a vineyard soil with 162.6 mg kg -1 Cu, into the test plant Brassica rapa var. pekinensis. We also examined the use of a horizontal permeable barrier, composed of layers of nutrient enriched sawdust and apatite, for reduction of chelator induced Cu leaching. The addition of all chelators, except citric acid, enhanced Cu mobility and caused leaching of 19.5-23% of initial total Cu from the soil column. However, Cu plant uptake did not increase accordingly; the most effective was the EDDS treatment, in which plant Cu concentration reached 37.8±1.3 mg kg -1 Cu and increased by 3.3-times over the control treatment. The addition of none of the chelators in the concentration range from 5 to 15 mmol kg -1 exerted any toxic effect on respiratory soil microorganisms. When EDDS was applied into the columns with horizontal permeable barriers, only 0.53±0.32% of the initial total Cu was leached. Cu (36.7%) was washed from the 18 cm soil layer above the barrier and accumulated in the barrier. Our results indicate that rather than for a reduction of Cu leaching during rather ineffective chelate induced Cu phytoextraction, horizontal permeable barriers could be more effective in a new remediation technique of controlled in situ soil washing of Cu with biodegradable chelates

  17. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Mokler, F

    1995-12-31

    In this report we describe the first resolution of the 3R-(+)-and 3S- ({minus})-methyl BMIPP methyl-branched fatty acid stereoisomers and biodistribution of the radioiodinated isomers in rats to investigate the effects of the configuration of the 3({beta})-methyl group on the organ distribution and myocardial uptake and release kinetics. Synthesesis of 3R-(+)BMIPP was accompanied by initial acylation of the thiophene template with the acid chloride of ethyl 3R- methylglutarate. The amide of the synthetic 3R-BMIPP isomer prepared S-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine exhibited identical spectral and chromatographic properties with the chromatographically more polar isomer (TLC and HPLC) which was separated from the mixture of amides prepared from reaction of the acid chloride of racemic BMIPP with the S-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine. The second less chromatographically polar amide isomer was assigned the 3S-(-)-methyl configuration. The free acids were obtained by acid hydrolysis of the amides and converted to the radioiodinated analogues. While biodistribution studies in separate groups of rats demonstrated greater myocardial uptake of 3R-BMIPP compared with the 3S-isomer values for most other tissues evaluated (blood, lungs, kidneys and thyroid) were similar, whereas the 3S-BMIPP isomer consistently showed higher liver uptake. These results were confirmed in a [l-131]-3S-BMIPP/[l-125]-3R-BMIPP dual label study and both isomers had similar myocardial wash-out curves (5-180 min). These studies suggest that [l-123]-3R-BMIPP is a candidate for clinical evaluation and may show greater myocardial uptake than the 3S-isomer and thus may require a reduced injected dose compared to racemic BMIPP.

  18. Development of radiohalogenated muscarinic ligands for the in vivo imaging of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Alterations in the density of acetylcholinergic muscarinic receptors (m-AChR) have been observed in various dementias. This has spurred interest in the development of radiohalogenated ligands which can be used for the non-invasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques. We have developed a new ligand 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ({alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP,12) which demonstrates high affinity for the muscarinic receptor. When labeled with radioiodine it has been shown to be selective and specific for m-ACHR. Initial studies on the separation and in vivo evaluation of the various isomers of IQNP have shown that the stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the configuration around the double bond play an important role in m-AChR subtype specificity. In vivo evaluation of these stereoisomers demonstrate that E-(R,R)-IQNP has a high affinity for the M{sub 1} muscarinic subtype while Z-(R,R)-IQNP demonstrate a high affinity for M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} receptor subtypes. These data demonstrate IQNP (12) has potential for use in the non-evasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A brominated analogue, ``BrQNP,`` in which the iodine has been replaced by a bromine atom, has also been prepared and was shown to block the in vivo uptake of IQNP in the brain and heart and therefore has potential for positron emission tomographic (PET) studies of m-AChR.

  19. Engineering of tomato for the sustainable production of ketocarotenoids and its evaluation in aquaculture feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Marilise; Enfissi, Eugenia M. A.; Martínez Valenzuela, Maria E.; Menard, Guillaume N.; Driller, Richard L.; Eastmond, Peter J.; Schuch, Wolfgang; Sandmann, Gerhard; Fraser, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Ketocarotenoids are high-value pigments used commercially across multiple industrial sectors as colorants and supplements. Chemical synthesis using petrochemical-derived precursors remains the production method of choice. Aquaculture is an example where ketocarotenoid supplementation of feed is necessary to achieve product viability. The biosynthesis of ketocarotenoids, such as canthaxanthin, phoenicoxanthin, or astaxanthin in plants is rare. In the present study, complex engineering of the carotenoid pathway has been performed to produce high-value ketocarotenoids in tomato fruit (3.0 mg/g dry weight). The strategy adopted involved pathway extension beyond β-carotene through the expression of the β-carotene hydroxylase (CrtZ) and oxyxgenase (CrtW) from Brevundimonas sp. in tomato fruit, followed by β-carotene enhancement through the introgression of a lycopene β-cyclase (β-Cyc) allele from a Solanum galapagense background. Detailed biochemical analysis, carried out using chromatographic, UV/VIS, and MS approaches, identified the predominant carotenoid as fatty acid (C14:0 and C16:0) esters of phoenicoxanthin, present in the S stereoisomer configuration. Under a field-like environment with low resource input, scalability was shown with the potential to deliver 23 kg of ketocarotenoid/hectare. To illustrate the potential of this “generally recognized as safe” material with minimal, low-energy bioprocessing, two independent aquaculture trials were performed. The plant-based feeds developed were more efficient than the synthetic feed to color trout flesh (up to twofold increase in the retention of the main ketocarotenoids in the fish fillets). This achievement has the potential to create a new paradigm in the renewable production of economically competitive feed additives for the aquaculture industry and beyond. PMID:28973873

  20. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, parallel-group, dose-escalating, repeat dose study in healthy volunteers to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetics of the once daily rectal application of NRL001 suppositories for 14 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D; Duffin, A; Jacobs, A; Pediconi, C; Gruss, H J

    2014-03-01

    The 1R,2S stereoisomer of methoxamine hydrochloride, NRL001, is a highly selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist being developed for the local treatment of non-structural faecal incontinence caused by weak internal anal sphincter tone. This study investigated the steady state pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of 2 g rectal suppositories containing NRL001 in different strengths (7.5, 10, 12.5 or 15 mg). Healthy volunteers aged 18-45 years received 14 daily doses of NRL001 2 g suppositories or matching placebo. In each dose group nine participants received NRL001 and three received placebo. Blood samples to determine NRL001 concentrations were taken on Days 1, 7 and 14. Cardiovascular parameters were collected via electrocardiograms, Holter monitoring (three lead Holter monitor) and vital signs. Forty-eight volunteers were enrolled; 43 completed the study and were included in the PK analysis population. AUC and Cmax broadly increased with increasing dose, Tmax generally occurred between 4.0 and 5.0 h. Although the data did not appear strongly dose proportional, dose proportionality analysis did not provide evidence against dose proportionality as the log(dose) coefficients were not significantly < 1. NRL001 did not accumulate over time for any dose. Increasing NRL001 concentrations were related to changes in vital sign variables, most notably decreased heart rate. The most commonly reported adverse events (AEs) in the active treatment groups were paraesthesia and piloerection. Treatment with NRL001 was generally well tolerated over 14 days once daily dosing and plasma NRL001 did not accumulate over time. Treatment was associated with changes in vital sign variables, most notably decreased heart rate. AEs commonly reported with NRL001 treatment were events indicative of a systemic α-adrenergic effect. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Synthesis, estrogen receptor binding, and tissue distribution of a new iodovinylestradiol derivative (17α,20E)-21-[123I]iodo-11β-nitrato-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),20-tetraene-3,17 -diol (E-[123I]NIVE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijks, Leonie J.M.; Bos, Jan C. van den; Doremalen, Peter A.P.M. van; Boer, Gerard J.; Bruin, Kora de; Doornbos, Tamme; Vekemans, Jozef A.J.M.; Posthumus, Maarten A.; Janssen, Anton G.M.; Royen, Eric A. van

    1998-01-01

    We have synthesized and evaluated E-11β-nitrato-17α-iodovinylestradiol (E-NIVE; E-3c) and its 123 I-labelled form, as a new potential radioligand for imaging of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human breast tumors. E-[ 123 I]NIVE was prepared by stereospecific iododestannylation of the E-tri-n-butylstannylvinyl precursor (E-2c), obtained from reaction of 11β-nitrato-estrone (8) with E-tributylstannylvinyllithium. In competitive binding studies, E-NIVE proved to have high binding affinity for both the rat and the human ER (K i 280-730 pM), without significant binding to human sex hormone binding globulin. Distribution studies in normal and mammary tumor-bearing rats showed specific ER-mediated uptake of E-[ 123 I]NIVE in the estrogen target tissues, i.e., uterus, ovaries, pituitary, and hypothalamus, but not in the mammary tumors. Selective retention in these target tissues, including tumor tissue, resulted in significant increases over time for the target tissue-to-muscle uptake ratios, but not for the target tissue-to-fat uptake ratios. The tumor-to-fat uptake ratio even appeared constantly below 1. In the primary estrogen target tissues, E-[ 123 I]NIVE displayed high specific ER-mediated uptake and retention, which resulted in moderate target-to-nontarget tissue uptake ratios. In contrast, in tumor tissue, E-[ 123 I]NIVE uptake appeared to be rather low and not ER-specific. As a consequence, E-[ 123 I]NIVE appears to be a less favorable radioligand for ER imaging in breast cancer than the previously studied stereoisomers of 11β-methoxy-17α-[ 123 I]iodovinylestradiol (E- and Z-[ 123 I]MIVE; [ 123 I]E- and [ 123 I]Z-3b).

  2. Vicinal 1H-1H NMR coupling constants from density functional theory as reliable tools for stereochemical analysis of highly flexible multichiral center molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vallejo, Fabian; Fragoso-Serrano, Mabel; Suárez-Ortiz, Gloria Alejandra; Hernández-Rojas, Adriana C; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

    2011-08-05

    A protocol for stereochemical analysis, based on the systematic comparison between theoretical and experimental vicinal (1)H-(1)H NMR coupling constants, was developed and applied to a series of flexible compounds (1-8) derived from the 6-heptenyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one framework. The method included a broad conformational search, followed by geometry optimization at the DFT B3LYP/DGDZVP level, calculation of the vibrational frequencies, thermochemical parameters, magnetic shielding tensors, and the total NMR spin-spin coupling constants. Three scaling factors, depending on the carbon atom hybridizations, were found for the (1)H-C-C-(1)H vicinal coupling constants: f((sp3)-(sp3)) = 0.910, f((sp3)-(sp2)) = 0.929, and f((sp2)-(sp2))= 0.977. A remarkable correlation between the theoretical (J(pre)) and experimental (1)H-(1)H NMR (J(exp)) coupling constants for spicigerolide (1), a cytotoxic natural product, and some of its synthetic stereoisomers (2-4) demonstrated the predictive value of this approach for the stereochemical assignment of highly flexible compounds containing multiple chiral centers. The stereochemistry of two natural 6-heptenyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-ones (14 and 15) containing diverse functional groups in the heptenyl side chain was also analyzed by application of this combined theoretical and experimental approach, confirming its reliability. Additionally, a geometrical analysis for the conformations of 1-8 revealed that weak hydrogen bonds substantially guide the conformational behavior of the tetraacyloxy-6-heptenyl-2H-pyran-2-ones.

  3. PDMP, a ceramide analogue, acts as an inhibitor of mTORC1 by inducing its translocation from lysosome to endoplasmic reticulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ode, Takashi [Department of Periodontology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Podyma-Inoue, Katarzyna A.; Terasawa, Kazue [Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Inokuchi, Jin-ichi [Division of Glycopathology, Institute of Molecular Biomembrane and Glycobiology, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1, Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 981-8558 (Japan); Kobayashi, Toshihide [Lipid Biology Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); CNRS, UMR 7213, University of Strasbourg, 67401 Illkirch (France); Watabe, Tetsuro [Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Izumi, Yuichi [Department of Periodontology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Hara-Yokoyama, Miki, E-mail: m.yokoyama.bch@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan)

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master regulator of cell growth, metabolism, and cell differentiation. Recent studies have revealed that the recruitment of mTORC1 to lysosomes is essential for its activation. The ceramide analogue 1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP), a well known glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitor, also affects the structures and functions of various organelles, including lysosomes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We investigated whether PDMP regulates the mTORC1 activity through its effects on organellar behavior. PDMP induced the translocation of mTORC1 from late endosomes/lysosomes, leading to the dissociation of mTORC1 from its activator Rheb in MC3T3-E1 cells. Surprisingly, we found mTORC1 translocation to the ER upon PDMP treatment. This effect of PDMP was independent of its action as the inhibitor, since two stereoisomers of PDMP, with and without the inhibitor activity, showed essentially the same effect. We confirmed that PDMP inhibits the mTORC1 activity based on the decrease in the phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase, a downstream target of mTORC1, and the increase in LC3 puncta, reflecting autophagosome formation. Furthermore, PDMP inhibited the mTORC1-dependent osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Accordingly, the present results reveal a novel mechanism of PDMP, which inhibits the mTORC1 activity by inducing the translocation of mTOR from lysosomes to the ER. - Highlights: • The ceramide analogue, PDMP, suppressed the activation of mTORC1. • PDMP induced the translocation of mTOR from lysosomes to ER. • PDMP led to the dissociation of mTOR from its activator Rheb. • PDMP inhibited the mTORC1-dependent osteoblastic cell proliferation.

  4. Recycling of plastic waste: Screening for brominated flame retardants (BFRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Granby, K; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2017-11-01

    Flame retardants are chemicals vital for reducing risks of fire and preventing human casualties and property losses. Due to the abundance, low cost and high performance of bromine, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have had a significant share of the market for years. Physical stability on the other hand, has resulted in dispersion and accumulation of selected BFRs in the environment and receiving biota. A wide range of plastic products may contain BFRs. This affects the quality of waste plastics as secondary resource: material recycling may potentially reintroduce the BFRs into new plastic product cycles and lead to increased exposure levels, e.g. through use of plastic packaging materials. To provide quantitative and qualitative data on presence of BFRs in plastics, we analysed bromophenols (tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), dibromophenols (2,4- and 2,6-DBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP)), hexabromocyclododecane stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), as well as selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples of household waste plastics, virgin and recycled plastics. A considerable number of samples contained BFRs, with highest concentrations associated with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, up to 26,000,000ngTBBPA/g) and polystyrene (PS, up to 330,000ng∑HBCD/g). Abundancy in low concentrations of some BFRs in plastic samples suggested either unintended addition in plastic products or degradation of higher molecular weight BFRs. The presence of currently restricted flame retardants (PBDEs and HBCD) identified in the plastic samples illustrates that circular material flows may be contaminated for extended periods. The screening clearly showed a need for improved documentation and monitoring of the presence of BFRs in plastic waste routed to recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioeconomy Initiative at MBI International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleff, Susanne, Ph.D.

    2011-11-30

    Di-carboxylic acids have the potential to replace petrochemicals used in the polymer industry (Werpy and Petersen, 2004). MBI developed a process for the production of succinic acid using a proprietary organism. During this work MBI assessed the feasibility to produce other carboxylic acids either using A. succinogenes or other organisms. The development of recombinant A. succinogenes strain derivatives for a mono-carboxylic acid through over-expression of enzymatic activities was successful. Fermentations achieved titers of 58 g/L for this organic acid. Recombinant strains that produced the same acid, but a different stereoisomer, reached titers of 10 g/L. Attempts to increase the titers for this isomer as well as other organic acids were unsuccessful. MBI is looking for commercial partners to pursue the development of recombinant A. succinogenes strains for the production of other organic acids. Attempts to develop recombinant strains of A. succinogenes for fumaric acid production through introduction of various antisense RNA constructs were unsuccessful. Alternative suitable organisms were evaluated and Rhizopus oryzae, a natural fumaric acid producer with potential for process improvements, was selected. A novel fermentation and one-step recovery process was developed that allowed capture of IP, produced titers of >80 g/L with a productivity of 1.8 g/L-h and 57% (g/g glucose) yield. The process was scaled to 2000 L pilot scale. The economic analysis projected a production cost of 72 c/lb. Recycling and re-use of the base was demonstrated and incorporated into the process. The ability of the organism to produce fumaric acid from other carbon sources and biomass hydrolysate was demonstrated. The production of other organic acids was evaluated and techno-economic de-risking roadmap documents were prepared.

  6. Engineering of tomato for the sustainable production of ketocarotenoids and its evaluation in aquaculture feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Marilise; Enfissi, Eugenia M A; Martínez Valenzuela, Maria E; Menard, Guillaume N; Driller, Richard L; Eastmond, Peter J; Schuch, Wolfgang; Sandmann, Gerhard; Fraser, Paul D

    2017-10-10

    Ketocarotenoids are high-value pigments used commercially across multiple industrial sectors as colorants and supplements. Chemical synthesis using petrochemical-derived precursors remains the production method of choice. Aquaculture is an example where ketocarotenoid supplementation of feed is necessary to achieve product viability. The biosynthesis of ketocarotenoids, such as canthaxanthin, phoenicoxanthin, or astaxanthin in plants is rare. In the present study, complex engineering of the carotenoid pathway has been performed to produce high-value ketocarotenoids in tomato fruit (3.0 mg/g dry weight). The strategy adopted involved pathway extension beyond β-carotene through the expression of the β-carotene hydroxylase ( CrtZ ) and oxyxgenase ( CrtW ) from Brevundimonas sp. in tomato fruit, followed by β-carotene enhancement through the introgression of a lycopene β-cyclase (β- Cyc ) allele from a Solanum galapagense background. Detailed biochemical analysis, carried out using chromatographic, UV/VIS, and MS approaches, identified the predominant carotenoid as fatty acid (C14:0 and C16:0) esters of phoenicoxanthin, present in the S stereoisomer configuration. Under a field-like environment with low resource input, scalability was shown with the potential to deliver 23 kg of ketocarotenoid/hectare. To illustrate the potential of this "generally recognized as safe" material with minimal, low-energy bioprocessing, two independent aquaculture trials were performed. The plant-based feeds developed were more efficient than the synthetic feed to color trout flesh (up to twofold increase in the retention of the main ketocarotenoids in the fish fillets). This achievement has the potential to create a new paradigm in the renewable production of economically competitive feed additives for the aquaculture industry and beyond.

  7. Chiral effects on the 13C resonances of α-tocopherol and related compounds. A novel illustration of Newman's rule of six

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownstein, S.; Burton, G.W.; Hughes, L.; Ingold, K.U.

    1989-01-01

    The 100-MHz 13 C NMR spectrum of (2R,4'R,8'R)-α-tocopherol (natural vitamin E) has been completely assigned with the aid of a number of selectively deuteriated (2R,4'R,8'R)-α-tocopherols. The 13 C NMR spectrum of (2RS,4'RS,8'RS)-α-tocopherol (all-racemic, synthetic vitamin E) has also been measured. Many of the individual carbons in this all-racemic mixture of eight α-tocopherol stereoisomers give more than one resonance with eight of the carbons (2-CH 3 , 2',3',4',4'-CH 3 , 5', 8', and 9') giving the maximum number of four resonances from each of the four enantiomeric pairs; these resonances have also been assigned. The structurally related 5'-hydroxy-2-(4',8',12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,4,6,7-tetramethyl-2,3,-dihydrobenzofuran (HTDBF) has been synthesized for the first time in the 2R,4'R,8'R and 2S,4'R,8'R configurations and their 13 C resonances have been assigned. In its all-racemic form this compound also shows up to four resonances from a single carbon. Related observations have been made with phytol and isophytol. A careful examination of these chirally induced chemical shift differences for the individual carbon atoms, Δ, reveals a bond-alternation effect with maxima at a separation of one, three, and five bonds from the closest chiral center and with the maximum at a five-bond separation being greater than that at a three-bond separation. 32 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  8. Ganaxolone improves behavioral deficits in a mouse model of post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziano ePinna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Allopregnanolone and its equipotent stereoisomer, pregnanolone (together termed ALLO, are neuroactive steroids that positively and allosterically modulate the action of gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA at GABAA receptors. Levels of ALLO are reduced in the cerebrospinal fluid of female premenopausal patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, a severe, neuropsychiatric condition that affects millions, yet is without a consistently effective therapy. This suggests that restoring downregulated brain ALLO levels in PTSD may be beneficial. ALLO biosynthesis is also decreased in association with the emergence of PTSD-like behaviors in socially isolated (SI mice. Similar to PTSD patients, SI mice also exhibit changes in the frontocortical and hippocampal expression of GABAA receptor subunits, resulting in resistance to benzodiazepine-mediated sedation and anxiolysis. ALLO acts at a larger spectrum of GABAA receptor subunits than benzodiazepines, and increasing corticolimbic ALLO levels in SI mice by injecting ALLO or stimulating ALLO biosynthesis with a selective brain steroidogenic stimulant, such as S-norfluoxetine, at doses far below those that block serotonin reuptake, reduces PTSD-like behavior in these mice. This suggests that synthetic analogs of ALLO, such as ganaxolone, may also improve anxiety, aggression, and other PTSD-like behaviors in the SI mouse model. Consistent with this hypothesis, ganaxolone (3.75-30 mg/kg, s.c. injected 60 minutes before testing of SI mice, induced a dose-dependent reduction in aggression toward a same-sex intrude and anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze. The EC50 dose of ganaxolone used in these tests also normalized exaggerated contextual fear conditioning and, remarkably, enhanced fear extinction retention in SI mice. At these doses, ganaxolone failed to change locomotion in an open field test. Therefore, unlike benzodiazepines, ganaxolone at non-sedating concentrations appears to improve

  9. Pyrethroids in chicken eggs from commercial farms and home production in Rio de Janeiro: Estimated daily intake and diastereomeric selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Cláudio E T; Lestayo, Julliana; Guida, Yago S; Azevedo-Silva, Claudio E; Torres, João Paulo M; Meire, Rodrigo O; Malm, Olaf

    2017-10-01

    In this study, pyrethroids were determined in chicken eggs from commercial farm (n = 60) and home egg production (n = 30). These pyrethroids were investigated: bifenthrin, phenothrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate, including most diastereomers. Quantification was done using GC-MS in a negative chemical ionization mode. Pyrethroids residues were found in 79% of the analyzed samples. Cypermethrin presented the highest occurrence, being quantified in 62 samples (69%) in concentrations (lipid weight - l w.) varying between 0.29 and 6408 ng g -1 , followed by phenothrin (24%), 21-3910 ng g -1 , permethrin (14%), 2.96-328 ng g -1 , and bifenthrin (11%), 3.77-16.7 ng g -1 . Cyfluthrin and fenvalerate were not detected. Home-produced eggs had a higher occurrence of pyrethroids (97%), with a greater predominance of phenothrin. In commercial production, 70% of the samples presented pyrethroid residues (predominantly cypermethrin). This is the first report about the presence of pyrethroids in home-produced eggs and the first description of a selectivity pattern with the predominance of cis diastereomers in chicken eggs. In general, estimated daily intake does not present a risk to human consumption, according to Brazilian and international standards (FAO/WHO). However, one third of the samples (30 eggs) had concentrations above the maximum residue limits (MRLs). The maximum cypermethrin concentration was 66 times the MRL, while the maximum phenothrin concentration was 11 times the limit. Further studies about transfer dynamics, bioaccumulation and metabolic degradation of stereoisomers are required, as well as determining if this selectivity pattern in food can increase consumer's health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The functionalized amino acid (S-Lacosamide subverts CRMP2-mediated tubulin polymerization to prevent constitutive and activity-dependent increase in neurite outgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Wilson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Activity-dependent neurite outgrowth is a highly complex, regulated process with important implications for neuronal circuit remodeling in development as well as in seizure-induced sprouting in epilepsy. Recent work has linked outgrowth to collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2, an intracellular phosphoprotein originally identified as axon guidance and growth cone collapse protein. The neurite outgrowth promoting function of CRMP2 is regulated by its phosphorylation state. In this study, depolarization (potassium chloride-driven activity increased the level of active CRMP2 by decreasing its phosphorylation by GSK3β via a reduction in priming by Cdk5. To determine the contribution of CRMP2 in activity-driven neurite outgrowth, we screened a limited set of compounds for their ability to reduce neurite outgrowth but not modify voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC biophysical properties. This led to the identification of (S-lacosamide ((S-LCM, a stereoisomer of the clinically used antiepileptic drug (R-LCM (Vimpat®, as a novel tool for preferentially targeting CRMP2-mediated neurite outgrowth. Whereas (S-LCM was ineffective in targeting VGSCs, the presumptive pharmacological targets of (R-LCM, (S-LCM was more efficient than (R-LCM in subverting neurite outgrowth. Biomolecular interaction analyses revealed that (S-LCM bound to wildtype CRMP2 with low micromolar affinity, similar to (R-LCM. Through the use of this novel tool, the activity-dependent increase in neurite outgrowth observed following depolarization was characterized to be reliant on CRMP2 function. Knockdown of CRMP2 by siRNA in cortical neurons resulted in reduced CRMP2-dependent neurite outgrowth; incubation with (S-LCM phenocopied this effect. Other CRMP2-mediated processes were unaffected. (S-LCM subverted neurite outgrowth not by affecting the canonical CRMP2-tubulin association but rather by impairing the ability of CRMP2 to promote tubulin polymerization, events that are

  11. The Antinociceptive Agent SBFI-26 Binds to Anandamide Transporters FABP5 and FABP7 at Two Different Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hao-Chi [Cryo-EM Structural; Tong, Simon [Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, United States; Zhou, Yuchen [Department of Applied Mathematics; Elmes, Matthew W. [Department of Biochemistry and; Yan, Su [Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, United States; Kaczocha, Martin [Department of Biochemistry and; Department of Anesthesiology, Stony Brook University, Stony; Deutsch, Dale G. [Department of Biochemistry and; Institute of Chemical Biology and; Rizzo, Robert C. [Department of Applied Mathematics; Institute of Chemical Biology and; Laufer; Ojima, Iwao [Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, United States; Institute of Chemical Biology and; Li, Huilin [Cryo-EM Structural; Institute of Chemical Biology and

    2017-06-28

    Human FABP5 and FABP7 are intracellular endocannabinoid transporters. SBFI-26 is an α-truxillic acid 1-naphthyl monoester that competitively inhibits the activities of FABP5 and FABP7 and produces antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in mice. The synthesis of SBFI-26 yields several stereoisomers, and it is not known how the inhibitor binds the transporters. Here we report co-crystal structures of SBFI-26 in complex with human FABP5 and FABP7 at 2.2 and 1.9 Å resolution, respectively. We found that only (S)-SBFI-26 was present in the crystal structures. The inhibitor largely mimics the fatty acid binding pattern, but it also has several unique interactions. Notably, the FABP7 complex corroborates key aspects of the ligand binding pose at the canonical site previously predicted by virtual screening. In FABP5, SBFI-26 was unexpectedly found to bind at the substrate entry portal region in addition to binding at the canonical ligand-binding pocket. Our structural and binding energy analyses indicate that both R and S forms appear to bind the transporter equally well. We suggest that the S enantiomer observed in the crystal structures may be a result of the crystallization process selectively incorporating the (S)-SBFI-26–FABP complexes into the growing lattice, or that the S enantiomer may bind to the portal site more rapidly than to the canonical site, leading to an increased local concentration of the S enantiomer for binding to the canonical site. Our work reveals two binding poses of SBFI-26 in its target transporters. This knowledge will guide the development of more potent FABP inhibitors based upon the SBFI-26 scaffold.

  12. Chiral recognition of pinacidil and its 3-pyridyl isomer by canine cardiac and smooth muscle: Antagonism by sulfonylureas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.I.; Wiest, S.A.; Zimmerman, K.M.; Ertel, P.J.; Bemis, K.G.; Robertson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Pinacidil, a potassium channel opener (PCO), relaxes vascular smooth muscle by increasing potassium ion membrane conductance, thereby causing membrane hyperpolarization. PCOs also act on cardiac muscle to decrease action potential duration (APD) selectively. To examine the enantiomeric selectivity of pinacidil, the stereoisomers of pinacidil (a 4-pyridylcyanoguanidine) and its 3-pyridyl isomer (LY222675) were synthesized and studied in canine Purkinje fibers and cephalic veins. The (-)-enantiomers of both pinacidil and LY222675 were more potent in relaxing phenylephrine-contracted cephalic veins and decreasing APD than were their corresponding (+)-enantiomers. The EC50 values for (-)-pinacidil and (-)-LY222675 in relaxing cephalic veins were 0.44 and 0.09 microM, respectively. In decreasing APD, the EC50 values were 3.2 microM for (-)-pinacidil and 0.43 microM for (-)-LY222675. The eudismic ratio was greater for the 3-pyridyl isomer than for pinacidil in both cardiac (71 vs. 22) and vascular (53 vs. 17) tissues. (-)-LY222675 and (-)-pinacidil (0.1-30 microM) also increased 86Rb efflux from cephalic veins to a greater extent than did their respective optical antipodes. The antidiabetic sulfonylurea, glyburide (1-30 microM), shifted the vascular concentration-response curve of (-)-pinacidil to the right by a similar extent at each inhibitor concentration. Glipizide also antagonized the response to (-)-pinacidil, but was about 1/10 as potent with a maximal shift occurring at 10 and 30 microM. Glyburide antagonized the vascular relaxant effects of 0.3 microM (-)-LY222675 (EC50, 2.3 microM) and reversed the decrease in APD caused by 3 microM (-)-LY222675 (EC50, 1.9 microM). Nitroprusside did not alter 86Rb efflux, and vascular relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside was unaffected by sulfonylureas

  13. Chiral halogenated Schiff base compounds: green synthesis, anticancer activity and DNA-binding study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyaeifar, Mahnaz; Amiri Rudbari, Hadi; Sahihi, Mehdi; Kazemi, Zahra; Kajani, Abolghasem Abbasi; Zali-Boeini, Hassan; Kordestani, Nazanin; Bruno, Giuseppe; Gharaghani, Sajjad

    2018-06-01

    Eight enantiomerically pure halogenated Schiff base compounds were synthesized by reaction of halogenated salicylaldehydes with 3-Amino-1,2-propanediol (R or S) in water as green solvent at ambient temperature. All compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, NMR (1H and 13C), circular dichroism (CD) and FT-IR spectroscopy. FS-DNA binding studies of these compounds carried out by fluorescence quenching and UV-vis spectroscopy. The obtained results revealed that the ligands bind to DNA as: (Rsbnd ClBr) > (Rsbnd Cl2) > (Rsbnd Br2) > (Rsbnd I2) and (Ssbnd ClBr) > (Ssbnd Cl2) > (Ssbnd Br2) > (Ssbnd I2), indicating the effect of halogen on binding constant. In addition, DNA-binding constant of the Ssbnd and R-enantiomers are different from each other. The ligands can form halogen bonds with DNA that were confirmed by molecular docking. This method was also measured the bond distances and bond angles. The study of obtained data can have concluded that binding affinity of the ligands to DNA depends on strength of halogen bonds. The potential anticancer activity of ligands were also evaluated on MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines by using MTT assay. The results showed that the anticancer activity and FS-DNA interaction is significantly dependent on the stereoisomers of Schiff base compounds as R-enantiomers displayed significantly higher activity than S-enantiomers. The molecular docking was also used to illustrate the specific DNA-binding of synthesized compounds and groove binding mode of DNA interaction was proposed for them. In addition, molecular docking results indicated that there are three types of bonds (Hsbnd and X-bond and hX-bond) between synthesized compounds and base pairs of DNA.

  14. An allene oxide and 12-oxophytodienoic acid are key intermediates in jasmonic acid biosynthesis by Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliw, Ernst H; Hamberg, Mats

    2017-08-01

    Fungi can produce jasmonic acid (JA) and its isoleucine conjugate in large quantities, but little is known about the biosynthesis. Plants form JA from 18:3 n -3 by 13 S -lipoxygenase (LOX), allene oxide synthase, and allene oxide cyclase. Shaking cultures of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae released over 200 mg of jasmonates per liter. Nitrogen powder of the mycelia expressed 10 R -dioxygenase-epoxy alcohol synthase activities, which was confirmed by comparison with the recombinant enzyme. The 13 S -LOX of F. oxysporum could not be detected in the cell-free preparations. Incubation of mycelia in phosphate buffer with [17,17,18,18,18- 2 H 5 ]18:3 n -3 led to biosynthesis of a [ 2 H 5 ]12-oxo-13-hydroxy-9 Z ,15 Z -octadecadienoic acid (α-ketol), [ 2 H 5 ]12-oxo-10,15 Z -phytodienoic acid (12-OPDA), and [ 2 H 5 ]13-keto- and [ 2 H 5 ]13 S -hydroxyoctadecatrienoic acids. The α-ketol consisted of 90% of the 13 R stereoisomer, suggesting its formation by nonenzymatic hydrolysis of an allene oxide with 13 S configuration. Labeled and unlabeled 12-OPDA were observed following incubation with 0.1 mM [ 2 H 5 ]18:3 n -3 in a ratio from 0.4:1 up to 47:1 by mycelia of liquid cultures of different ages, whereas 10 times higher concentration of [ 2 H 5 ]13 S -hydroperoxyoctadecatrienoic acid was required to detect biosynthesis of [ 2 H 5 ]12-OPDA. The allene oxide is likely formed by a cytochrome P450 or catalase-related hydroperoxidase. We conclude that F. oxysporum , like plants, forms jasmonates with an allene oxide and 12-OPDA as intermediates. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Bacteriohopanepolyols along redox gradients in the Humboldt Current System off northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys, E D; Sepúlveda, J; Pantoja, S; Lange, C B; Caniupán, M; Lamy, F; Summons, R E

    2017-11-01

    Marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are characterized by the presence of subsurface suboxic or anoxic waters where diverse microbial processes are responsible for the removal of fixed nitrogen. OMZs have expanded over past decades and are expected to continue expanding in response to the changing climate. The implications for marine biogeochemistry, particularly nitrogen cycling, are uncertain. Cell membrane lipids (biomarkers), such as bacterial bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) and their degradation products (hopanoids), have distinctive structural attributes that convey information about their biological sources. Since the discovery of fossil hopanoids in ancient sediments, the study of BHPs has been of great biogeochemical interest due to their potential to serve as proxies for bacteria in the geological record. A stereoisomer of bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT), BHT II, has been previously identified in OMZ waters and has as been unequivocally identified in culture enrichments of anammox bacteria, a key group contributing to nitrogen loss in marine OMZs. We tested BHT II as a proxy for suboxia/anoxia and anammox bacteria in suspended organic matter across OMZ waters of the Humboldt Current System off northern Chile, as well as in surface and deeply buried sediments (125-150 ky). The BHT II ratio (BHT II/total BHT) increases as oxygen content decreases through the water column, consistent with previous results from Perú, the Cariaco Basin and the Arabian Sea, and in line with microbiological evidence indicating intense anammox activity in the Chilean OMZ. Notably, BHT II is transported from the water column to surface sediments, and preserved in deeply buried sediments, where the BHT II ratio correlates with changes in δ 15 N sediment values during glacial-interglacial transitions. This study suggests that BHT II offers a proxy for past changes in the relative importance of anammox, and fluctuations in nitrogen cycling in response to ocean redox changes through the

  16. Fermentation Conditions and Media Optimization for Isocitric Acid Production from Ethanol by Yarrowia lipolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Kamzolova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Isocitric acid exists in the form of four stereoisomers, of which only the threo-Ds-form (ICA is a natural active compound, an intermediate of Krebs cycle, and suitable for nutritional and pharmaceutical use. In this paper, we propose a method for ICA production from ethanol by yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The effects of temperature, pH of the medium, and aeration on the growth of the producer Y. lipolytica VKM Y-2373 and synthesis of ICA were studied. An optimal fermentation regime, which ensures a good growth of the producer and directed synthesis of the target product, was determined. The producer is advised to carry out cultivation at 29°C and various pH of the medium and the oxygen concentration (pH 5 and pO2 20–25% (of saturation during the growth period and pH 6 and pO2 50–55% (of saturation during the acid formation on a nutrient medium containing an increased content of zinc (0.6 mg/L, iron (1.2 mg/L, and 30 mM itaconic acid (inhibitor of isocitrate lyase—the key enzyme of ICA metabolism should also be introduced into the nutrition medium. Such fermentation production mode provides 90.5 g/L ICA with process selectivity of 80%, mass yield (YICA of 0.77 g/g, and energy yield (ηICA of 0.278 g/g.

  17. In vitro bioactivity of 17alpha-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievernich, André; Wildt, Ludwig; Lichtenberg-Fraté, Hella

    2004-12-01

    A miniaturised short-term in vitro assay based on the activation of the human estrogen receptor alpha and genetically modified yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells was performed to explore the capacity of this system to monitor the bioactivity of estrogenic compounds, particularly 17alpha- and 17beta-estradiol. Together with the human estrogen receptor (hER)-alpha plasmid, the reporter plasmid containing a yeast-optimised version of the green fluorescent protein (yEGFP) linked to three repeats of the cis-acting estrogen hormone-responsive element (ERE) were expressed in a strain being deleted in the pleiotropic drug resistance transporters Pdr5, Snq2 and Yor1, known to facilitate efflux of organic compounds including steroids and chemotherapeutics. Agonists that bind to hER in vitro trigger estrogen receptor-mediated transcriptional activation of the GFP reporter gene monitored by fluorescence emission at 535 nm. The sensitivity of the assay was tested with various 17alpha- and 17beta-estradiol concentrations, yielding a detection limit of 5 pg/ml (0.018 nM) for the agonist 17beta-E2 in solvent and in human charcoal-stripped serum using a S. cerevisiae pdr5, snq2 and yor1 mutant strain. For 17alpha-estradiol only, at approximately 1500 pg/ml a similar fluorescence response compared to 100 pg/ml 17beta-E2 was observed implicating a much weaker potency of this stereoisomer. The specificity of the system was tested by expression of a truncated hER lacking the ligand-binding domain E and by administration of the androgen, 4-androsten 3,17 dione. Both controls did not yield an increase in fluorescence emission. This fluorescence emission assay enables detection of estrogenic biological activity induced by direct agonists, such as 17beta-E2 at concentrations similar to those found in human sera or by estrogen-like chemicals.

  18. α 'agostic' assistance in Ziegler-Natta polymerization of olefins. Deuterium isotopic perturbation of stereochemistry indicating coordination of an α C-H bond in chain propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piers, W.E.; Bercaw, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The well-defined, homogeneous Ziegler-Natta olefin polymerization systems that have been reported recently provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the mechanism of this important process. While a consensus appears to be developing that in all these systems the active catalysts are the 14-electron, d 0 (or d 0 f n ) metallocene alkyls, Cp 2 MR (M = lanthanide or group 3 transition metal) or [Cp 2 MR] + (M = group 4 transition metal), the mechanism for chain propagation and the geometry of the transition state for olefin insertion into the metal-carbon bond have not yet been unequivocally established. In a cleverly conceived experiment, Grubbs et al. probed for an α agostic interaction in the transition state for olefin insertion. Racemic 1-d 1 -5-hexenylchlorotitanocene was prepared and found to undergo AlCl 2 (CH 2 CH 3 )-induced cyclization to a mixture of cis- and trans-2-d 1 -cyclopentylmethyl stereoisomers. Any α agostic assistance in the insertion step is expected to favor the trans product (vide infra). Hydrolysis and 2 H NMR analysis of the resultant mixture of deuteriomethylcyclopentanes revealed a 1.00 ± 0.05 ratio of trans:cis products, arguing against an α agostic assisted insertion in their system, however. The scandium hydride, {(η 5 -C 5 Me 4 ) 2 SiMe 2 }Sc(PMe 3 )H ('OpSc(PMe 3 )H'), cleanly catalyzes the hydrocyclization of 1,5-hexadiene to methylcyclopentane. The authors have adapted this catalytic hydrocyclization reaction along the lines of the Grubbs experiment to probe for α agostic assistance with the scandium system

  19. Allopregnanolone-induced rise in intracellular calcium in embryonic hippocampal neurons parallels their proliferative potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinton Roberta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors that regulate intracellular calcium concentration are known to play a critical role in brain function and neural development, including neural plasticity and neurogenesis. We previously demonstrated that the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (APα; 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one promotes neural progenitor proliferation in vitro in cultures of rodent hippocampal and human cortical neural progenitors, and in vivo in triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice dentate gyrus. We also found that APα-induced proliferation of neural progenitors is abolished by a calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, indicating a calcium dependent mechanism for the proliferation. Methods In the present study, we investigated the effect of APα on the regulation of intracellular calcium concentration in E18 rat hippocampal neurons using ratiometric Fura2-AM imaging. Results Results indicate that APα rapidly increased intracellular calcium concentration in a dose-dependent and developmentally regulated manner, with an EC50 of 110 ± 15 nM and a maximal response occurring at three days in vitro. The stereoisomers 3β-hydroxy-5α-hydroxy-pregnan-20-one, and 3β-hydroxy-5β-hydroxy-pregnan-20-one, as well as progesterone, were without significant effect. APα-induced intracellular calcium concentration increase was not observed in calcium depleted medium and was blocked in the presence of the broad spectrum calcium channel blocker La3+, or the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine. Furthermore, the GABAA receptor blockers bicuculline and picrotoxin abolished APα-induced intracellular calcium concentration rise. Conclusion Collectively, these data indicate that APα promotes a rapid, dose-dependent, stereo-specific, and developmentally regulated increase of intracellular calcium concentration in rat embryonic hippocampal neurons via a mechanism that requires both the GABAA receptor and L-type calcium channel. These data suggest that AP

  20. Chiral recognition of proteins having L-histidine residues on the surface with lanthanide ion complex incorporated-molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzun, Lokman, E-mail: lokman@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, 06381, Ankara (Turkey); Uzek, Recep; Şenel, Serap [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, 06381, Ankara (Turkey); Say, Ridvan [Anadolu University, Department of Chemistry, 26470, Eskisehir (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, 06381, Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-08-01

    In this study, lanthanide ion complex incorporated molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles were synthesized. A combination of three novel approaches was applied for the purpose. First, lanthanide ions [Terbium(III)] were complexed with N-methacryloyl-L-histidine (MAH), polymerizable derivative of L-histidine amino acid, in order to incorporate the complex directly into the polymeric backbone. At the second stage, L-histidine molecules imprinted nanoparticles were utilized instead of whole protein imprinting in order to avoid whole drawbacks such as fragility, complexity, denaturation tendency, and conformation dependency. At the third stage following the first two steps mentioned above, imprinted L-histidine was coordinated with cupric ions [Cu(II)] to conduct the study under mild conditions. Then, molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles synthesized were used for L-histidine adsorption from aqueous solution to optimize conditions for adsorption and fluorimetric detection. Finally, usability of nanoparticles was investigated for chiral biorecognition using stereoisomer, D-histidine, racemic mixture, D,L-histidine, proteins with surface L-histidine residue, lysozyme, cytochrome C, or without ribonuclease A. The results revealed that the proposed polymerization strategy could make significant contribution to the solution of chronic problems of fluorescent component introduction into polymers. Additionally, the fluorescent nanoparticles reported here could be used for selective separation and fluorescent monitoring purposes. Highlights: • Lanthanide ion complex incorporated molecularly imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles • Direct incorporation of the fluorescent complex into polymeric backbone. • Imprinting by assistance of cupric ion coordination into nanoparticles • Evaluation of the chiral biorecognition ability of nanoparticles • Simultaneous selective separation and fluorescent monitoring.

  1. Formulation, Characterization, and Antitumor Properties of Trans- and Cis-Citral in the 4T1 Breast Cancer Xenograft Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, San; Kapur, Arvinder; Patankar, Manish S; Xiong, May P

    2015-08-01

    Citral is composed of a random mixture of two geometric stereoisomers geranial (trans-citral) and neral (cis-citral) yet few studies have directly compared their in vivo antitumor properties. A micelle formulation was therefore developed. Geranial and neral were synthesized. Commercially-purchased citral, geranial, and neral were formulated in PEG-b-PCL (block sizes of 5000:10,000, Mw/Mn 1.26) micelles. In vitro degradation, drug release, cytotoxicity, flow cytometry, and western blot studies were conducted. The antitumor properties of drug formulations (40 and 80 mg/kg based on MTD studies) were evaluated on the 4T1 xenograft mouse model and tumor tissues were analyzed by western blot. Micelles encapsulated drugs with >50% LE at 5-40% drug to polymer (w/w), displayed sustained release (t1/2 of 8-9 h), and improved drug stability at pH 5.0. The IC50 of drug formulations against 4T1 cells ranged from 1.4 to 9.9 μM. Western blot revealed that autophagy was the main cause of cytotoxicity. Geranial at 80 mg/kg was most effective at inhibiting tumor growth. Geranial is significantly more potent than neral and citral at 80 mg/kg (p < 0.001) and western blot of tumor tissues confirms that autophagy and not apoptosis is the major mechanism of tumor growth inhibition in p53-null 4T1 cells.

  2. Compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of D-alanine, L-alanine, and valine: application of diastereomer separation to delta15N and microbial peptidoglycan studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yoshinori; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Ogawa, Nanako O; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2009-01-01

    We have developed an analytical method to determine the compound-specific nitrogen isotope compositions of individual amino acid enantiomers using gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. A novel derivatization of amino acid diastereomers by optically active (R)-(-)-2-butanol or (S)-(+)-2-butanol offers two advantages for nitrogen isotope analysis. First, chromatographic chiral separation can be achieved without the use of chiral stationary-phase columns. Second, the elution order of these compounds on the chromatogram can be switched by a designated esterification reaction. We applied the method to the compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of D- and L-alanine in a peptidoglycan derived from the cell walls of cultured bacteria (Firmicutes and Actinobacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus staphylolyticus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, and Streptomyces sp.), natural whole bacterial cells (Bacillus subtilis var. natto), (pseudo)-peptidoglycan from archaea (Methanobacterium sp.), and cell wall from eukaryota (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We observed statistically significant differences in nitrogen isotopic compositions; e.g., delta15N ( per thousand vs air) in Staphylococcus staphylolyticus for d-alanine (19.2 +/- 0.5 per thousand, n = 4) and L-alanine (21.3 +/- 0.8 per thousand, n = 4) and in Bacillus subtilis for D-alanine (6.2 +/- 0.2 per thousand, n = 3) and L-alanine (8.2 +/- 0.4 per thousand, n = 3). These results suggest that enzymatic reaction pathways, including the alanine racemase reaction, produce a nitrogen isotopic difference in amino acid enantiomers, resulting in 15N-depleted D-alanine. This method is expected to facilitate compound-specific nitrogen isotope studies of amino acid stereoisomers.

  3. Carotenoids Database: structures, chemical fingerprints and distribution among organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuzaki, Junko

    2017-01-01

    To promote understanding of how organisms are related via carotenoids, either evolutionarily or symbiotically, or in food chains through natural histories, we built the Carotenoids Database. This provides chemical information on 1117 natural carotenoids with 683 source organisms. For extracting organisms closely related through the biosynthesis of carotenoids, we offer a new similarity search system 'Search similar carotenoids' using our original chemical fingerprint 'Carotenoid DB Chemical Fingerprints'. These Carotenoid DB Chemical Fingerprints describe the chemical substructure and the modification details based upon International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) semi-systematic names of the carotenoids. The fingerprints also allow (i) easier prediction of six biological functions of carotenoids: provitamin A, membrane stabilizers, odorous substances, allelochemicals, antiproliferative activity and reverse MDR activity against cancer cells, (ii) easier classification of carotenoid structures, (iii) partial and exact structure searching and (iv) easier extraction of structural isomers and stereoisomers. We believe this to be the first attempt to establish fingerprints using the IUPAC semi-systematic names. For extracting close profiled organisms, we provide a new tool 'Search similar profiled organisms'. Our current statistics show some insights into natural history: carotenoids seem to have been spread largely by bacteria, as they produce C30, C40, C45 and C50 carotenoids, with the widest range of end groups, and they share a small portion of C40 carotenoids with eukaryotes. Archaea share an even smaller portion with eukaryotes. Eukaryotes then have evolved a considerable variety of C40 carotenoids. Considering carotenoids, eukaryotes seem more closely related to bacteria than to archaea aside from 16S rRNA lineage analysis. : http://carotenoiddb.jp. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. a Chiral Tagging Strategy for Determining Absolute Configuration and Enantiomeric Excess by Molecular Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther; Patterson, David; Thomas, Javix; Xu, Yunjie; West, Channing; Pate, Brooks

    2017-06-01

    The introduction of three wave mixing rotational spectroscopy by Patterson, Schnell, and Doyle [1,2] has expanded applications of molecular rotational spectroscopy into the field of chiral analysis. Chiral analysis of a molecule is the quantitative measurement of the relative abundances of all stereoisomers of the molecule and these include both diastereomers (with distinct molecular rotational spectra) and enantiomers (with equivalent molecular rotational spectra). This work adapts a common strategy in chiral analysis of enantiomers to molecular rotational spectroscopy. A "chiral tag" is attached to the molecule of interest by making a weakly bound complex in a pulsed jet expansion. When this tag molecule is enantiopure, it will create diastereomeric complexes with the two enantiomers of the molecule being analyzed and these can be differentiated by molecule rotational spectroscopy. Identifying the structure of this complex, with knowledge of the absolute configuration of the tag, establishes the absolute configuration of the molecule of interest. Furthermore, the diastereomer complex spectra can be used to determine the enantiomeric excess of the sample. The ability to perform chiral analysis will be illustrated by a study of solketal using propylene oxide as the tag. The possibility of using current methods of quantum chemistry to assign a specific structure to the chiral tag complex will be discussed. Finally, chiral tag rotational spectroscopy offers a "gold standard" method for determining the absolute configuration of the molecule through determination of the substitution structure of the complex. When this measurement is possible, rotational spectroscopy can deliver a quantitative three dimensional structure of the molecule with correct stereochemistry as the analysis output. [1] David Patterson, Melanie Schnell, John M. Doyle, Nature 497, 475 (2013). [2] David Patterson, John M. Doyle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 023008 (2013).

  5. (15)N NMR spectroscopy unambiguously establishes the coordination mode of the diimine linker 2-(2'-pyridyl)pyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid (cppH) in Ru(ii) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistin, Federica; Balducci, Gabriele; Demitri, Nicola; Iengo, Elisabetta; Milani, Barbara; Alessio, Enzo

    2015-09-21

    We investigated the reactivity of three Ru(ii) precursors -trans,cis,cis-[RuCl2(CO)2(dmso-O)2], cis,fac-[RuCl2(dmso-O)(dmso-S)3], and trans-[RuCl2(dmso-S)4] - towards the diimine linker 2-(2'-pyridyl)pyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid (cppH) or its parent compound 4-methyl-2-(2'-pyridyl)pyrimidine ligand (mpp), in which a methyl group replaces the carboxylic group on the pyrimidine ring. In principle, both cppH and mpp can originate linkage isomers, depending on how the pyrimidine ring binds to ruthenium through the nitrogen atom ortho (N(o)) or para (N(p)) to the group in position 4. The principal aim of this work was to establish a spectroscopic fingerprint for distinguishing the coordination mode of cppH/mpp also in the absence of an X-ray structural characterization. By virtue of the new complexes described here, together with the others previously reported by us, we successfully recorded {(1)H,(15)N}-HMBC NMR spectra at natural abundance of the (15)N isotope on a consistent number of fully characterized Ru(ii)-cppH/mpp compounds, most of them being stereoisomers and/or linkage isomers. Thus, we found that (15)N NMR chemical shifts unambiguously establish the binding mode of cppH and mpp - either through N(o) or N(p)- and can be conveniently applied also in the absence of the X-ray structure. In fact, coordination of cppH to Ru(ii) induces a marked upfield shift for the resonance of the N atoms directly bound to the metal, with coordination induced shifts (CIS) ranging from ca.-45 to -75 ppm, depending on the complex, whereas the unbound N atom resonates at a frequency similar to that of the free ligand. Similar results were found for the complexes of mpp. This work confirmed our previous finding that cppH has no binding preference, whereas mpp binds exclusively through N(p). Interestingly, the two cppH linkage isomers trans,cis-[RuCl2(CO)2(cppH-κN(p))] (5) and trans,cis-[RuCl2(CO)2(cppH-κN(o))] (6) were easily obtained in pure form by exploiting their different

  6. Metabolism of 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid by the human platelet. Formation of novel thromboxane analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazy, M

    1991-12-15

    Radiolabeled cis-(+-)-5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (5(6)-EpETrE) was incubated with a suspension of isolated human platelets in order to study its metabolic fate. The epoxide slowly disappeared from the suspension and was completely metabolized within 30 min. After extraction and analysis by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, seven metabolites were found. Addition of either indomethacin (0.01 mM, cyclooxygenase inhibitor) or BW755C (0.1 mM, cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitor) to the incubations blocked the formation of four and six metabolites, respectively, 1,2-Epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane (inhibitor of microsomal epoxide hydrolase) failed to inhibit the formation of 5,6-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (5,6-DiHETrE), a hydrolysis product of the precursor 5(6)-EpETrE. The metabolites were characterized by UV spectroscopy, negative ion chemical ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and, in one instance, coelution with synthetic standard. Three primary platelet metabolites were structurally determined to be 5,6-epoxy-12-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, 5,6-epoxy-12-hydroxyheptadecadienoic acid, and a unique bicyclic metabolite, 5-hydroxy-6,9-epoxy-thromboxane B1, which originated from intramolecular hydrolysis of 5,6-epoxythromboxane-B1. This thromboxane analog was partially separated into stereoisomers and coeluted with the racemic synthetic standard in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Three other metabolites were characterized as 5,6,12-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, 5,6,12-trihydroxyheptadecadienoic acid, and 5,6-dihydroxythromboxane-B1, and resulted from the hydrolysis of the corresponding epoxides rather than from the metabolism of 5,6-DiHETrE. The latter was not metabolized by platelet cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase. The biosynthesis of two cyclooxygenase metabolites indicated the formation of unstable 5,6-epoxythromboxane-A1 as an intermediate

  7. Specificity of interaction between carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and nuclear proteins: widespread occurrence of a restricted pattern of histone-binding in intact cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, M.C.; Pelling, J.C.; Slaga, T.J.; Nikbakht-Noghrei, P.A.; Mansfield, B.K.; Selkirk, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] produces a number of potentially reactive metabolites. The endproducts of one metabolic pathway, 7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-B(a)P (BPDE) are responsible for essentially all DNA adduct formation in animal cells treated with B(a)P, and a particular stereoisomer, designated (+)-anti-BPDE is thought to be the ultimate carcinogenic derivative of B(a)P. In hamster embryo cell nuclei treated with (+)-anti-BPDE, two of the histones of the nucleosomal core, H3 and H2A, are covalently modified, while the remaining core histones, H4 and H2B, are essentially unmodified. All four purified core histones, however, serve as targets. 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and 3-methylcholanthrene show the same pattern of histone binding in hamster embryo cells. Treatment of mouse embryo cells with [ 3 H]-BPDE results in covalent binding of the hydrocarbon to histones H3 and H2A among the many cellular targets, while histones H2B and H4 are not bound. Similar binding patterns are seen in mouse embryo cells, a permanent murine, fibroblastic cell line, and a human mammary epithelial cell line, T47D, treated with [ 3 H]B(a)P. Again, the histones are unevenly labeled, displaying the H3 and H2A pattern. Histone-binding in the human cells may also be mediated by BPDE. Similar BPDE binding patterns were observed in other murine and human cell lines and in primary cultures of murine epidermal epithelial cells. The restriction of histone H2B and H4 binding appears to be general when intact cultured cells are studied. This specificity was not observed in a mixed reconstituted system in which rat liver microsomes were used to activate B(a)P. This finding reinforces reservations concerning the use of microsomal systems to probe the interactions of carcinogens with macromolecules and the relationships of adduct formation with the processes of carcinogenesis

  8. The Puzzle of HCN in Comets: Is it both a Product and a Primary Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Bonev, Boncho P.; Charnley, Steven B.; Cordiner, Martin A.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Gibb, Erika L.; Magee-Sauer, Karen; Paganini, Lucas; Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogen cyanide has long been regarded as a primary volatile in comets, stemming from its presence in dense molecular cloud cores and its supposed storage in the cometary nucleus. Here, we examine the observational evidence for and against that hypothesis, and argue that HCN may also result from near-nucleus chemical reactions in the coma. The distinction (product vs. primary species) is important for multiple reasons: 1. HCN is often used as a proxy for water when the dominant species (H2O) is not available for simultaneous measurement, as at radio wavelengths. 2. HCN is one of the few volatile carriers of nitrogen accessible to remote sensing. If HCN is mainly a product species, its precursor becomes the more important metric for compiling a taxonomic classification based on nitrogen chemistry. 3. The stereoisomer HNC is now confirmed as a product species. Could reaction of a primary precursor (X-CN) with a hydrocarbon co-produce both HNC and HCN? 4. The production rate for CN greatly exceeds that of HCN in some comets, demonstrating the presence of another (more important) precursor of CN. Several puzzling lines of evidence raise issues about the origin of HCN: a. The production rates of HCN measured through rotational (radio) and vibrational (infrared) spectroscopy agree in some comets - in others the infrared rate exceeds the radio rate substantially. b. With its strong dipole moment and H-bonding character, HCN should be linked more strongly in the nuclear ice to other molecules with similar properties (H2O, CH3OH), but instead its spatial release in some comets seems strongly coupled to volatiles that lack a dipole moment and thus do not form H-bonds (methane, ethane). c. The nucleus-centered rotational temperatures measured for H2O and other species (C2H6, CH3OH) usually agree within error, but those for HCN are often slightly smaller. d. In comet ISON, ALMA maps of HCN and the dust continuum show a slight displacement 80 km) in the centroids. We will

  9. Intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary excretion of the rare sugar D-psicose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Hossain, Akram; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Hirata, Yuko; Dong, Youyi; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Sui, Li; Nonaka, Machiko; Ueno, Masaki; Nishimoto, Kazuyuki; Suda, Hirofumi; Morimoto, Kenji; Shimonishi, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Madoka; Song, Tao; Konishi, Ryoji; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary elimination of the rare sugar D-psicose, a 3-carbon stereoisomer of D-fructose that is currently being investigated and which has been found to be strongly effective against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Methods This study was performed using radioactive D-psicose, which was synthesized enzymatically from radioactive D-allose. Concentrations in whole blood, urine, and organs were measured at different time points until 2 hours after both oral and intravenous administrations and 7 days after a single oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to Wistar rats. Autoradiography was also performed by injecting 100 mg/kg body weight of 14C-labeled D-psicose or glucose intravenously to C3H mice. Results Following oral administration, D-psicose easily moved to blood. The maximum blood concentration (48.5±15.6 μg/g) was observed at 1 hour. Excretion to urine was 20% within 1 hour and 33% within 2 hours. Accumulation to organs was detected only in the liver. Following intravenous administration, blood concentration was decreased with the half-life=57 minutes, and the excretion to urine was up to almost 50% within 1 hour. Similarly to the results obtained with oral administration, accumulation to organs was detected only in the liver. Seven days after the single-dose oral administration, the remaining amounts in the whole body were less than 1%. Autoradiography of mice showed results similar to those in rats. High signals of 14C-labeled D-psicose were observed in liver, kidney, and bladder. Interestingly, no accumulation of D-psicose was observed in the brain. Conclusion D-psicose was absorbed well after oral administration and eliminated rapidly after both oral and intravenous administrations, with short duration of action. The study provides valuable pharmacokinetic data for further drug development of D-psicose. Because the findings were mainly based on animal

  10. Antifungal agents. 10. New derivatives of 1-[(aryl)[4-aryl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]methyl]-1H-imidazole, synthesis, anti-candida activity, and quantitative structure-analysis relationship studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafi, Andrea; Costi, Roberta; Botta, Maurizio; Di Santo, Roberto; Corelli, Federico; Massa, Silvio; Ciacci, Andrea; Manetti, Fabrizio; Artico, Marino

    2002-06-20

    The synthesis, anti-Candida activity, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies of a series of 2,4-dichlorobenzylimidazole derivatives having a phenylpyrrole moiety (related to the antibiotic pyrrolnitrin) in the alpha-position are reported. A number of substituents on the phenyl ring, ranging from hydrophobic (tert-butyl, phenyl, or 1-pyrrolyl moiety) to basic (NH(2)), polar (CF(3), CN, SCH(3), NO(2)), or hydrogen bond donors and acceptor (OH) groups, were chosen to better understand the interaction of these compounds with cytochrome P450 14-alpha-lanosterol demethylase (P450(14DM)). Finally, the triazole counterpart of one of the imidazole compounds was synthesized and tested to investigate influence of the heterocyclic ring on biological activity. The in vitro antifungal activities of the newly synthesized azoles 10p-v,x-c' were tested against Candida albicans and Candida spp. at pH 7.2 and pH 5.6. A CoMFA model, previously derived for a series of antifungal agents belonging to chemically diverse families related to bifonazole, was applied to the new products. Because the results produced by this approach were not encouraging, Catalyst software was chosen to perform a new 3D-QSAR study. Catalyst was preferred this time because of the possibility of considering each compound as a collection of energetically reasonable conformations and of considering alternative stereoisomers. The pharmacophore model developed by Catalyst, named HYPO1, showed good performances in predicting the biological activity data, although it did not exhibit an unequivocal preference for one enantiomeric series of inhibitors relative to the other. One aromatic nitrogen with a lone pair in the ring plane (mapped by all of the considered compounds) and three aromatic ring features were recognized to have pharmacophoric relevance, whereas neither hydrogen bond acceptor nor hydrophobic features were found. These findings confirmed that the key interaction of azole

  11. Chemical characterization of PM2.5 collected from a rural coastal island of the Bay of Bengal (Bhola, Bangladesh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohel, Mohammad; Kistler, Magdalena; Rahman, Mohammad Arifur; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Reid, Jeffrey S; Salam, Abdus

    2018-02-01

    This work focuses on the chemical characterization of fine aerosol particles (PM 2.5 ) collected from a rural remote island of the Bay of Bengal (Bhola, Bangladesh) from April to August, 2013. PM 2.5 particle-loaded filters were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble ions, and selected saccharides (levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, arabitol, and mannitol). The average PM 2.5 mass was 15.0 ± 6.9 μg m -3 . Organic carbon and elemental carbon comprised roughly half of the analyzed components. Organic carbon was the predominant contributor to total carbon (TC) and accounting for about 28% of PM 2.5 mass. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) was inferred to be ~ 26% of OC. The sum of ions comprised ~ 27% of PM 2.5 mass. The contribution of sea salt aerosol was smaller than expected for a sea-near site (17%), and very high chloride depletion was observed (78%). NssSO 4 2- was a dominant ionic component with an average concentration of 2.0 μg m -3 followed by Na + , NH 4 + , and nssCa 2+ . The average concentration of arabitol and mannitol was 0.11 and 0.14 μg m -3 , respectively, while levoglucosan and its stereoisomers (mannosan and galactosan) were bellow detection limit. NH 4 + /SO 4 2- equivalent ratio was 0.30 ± 0.13 indicating that secondary inorganic aerosol is not the main source of SO 4 2- . Enrichment factor (EF) analysis showed that SO 4 2- and NO 3 - were enriched in atmospheric particles compared to sea aerosol and soil indicating their anthropogenic origin. Higher OC/EC ratio (3.70 ± 0.88) was a good indicator of the secondary organic compounds formation. Other ratios (OC/EC, K + /EC, nssSO 4 2- /EC) and correlation analysis suggested mixed sources for carbonaceous components. Arabitol and mannitol both showed strong correlation with EC having R 2 value 0.89 and 0.95, respectively. Air mass trajectories analysis showed that concentrations of soil and anthropogenic species were lower for air masses

  12. SPET imaging of central muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with iodine-123 labelled E-IQNP and Z-IQNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobuhara, K.; Farde, L.; Halldin, C.; Karlsson, P.; Swahn, C.G.; Olsson, H.; Sedvall, G. [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergstroem, K.A. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Larsson, S.A.; Schnell, P.-O. [Dept. of Radiation Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); McPherson, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Nuclear Medicine Group, TN (United States); Savonen, A.; Hiltunen, J. [MAP Medical Technologies Oy, Tikkakoski (Finland)

    2001-01-01

    1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP) is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist and the racemic ligand contains eight stereoisomers. In a single-photon emission tomography (SPET) study in monkeys we recently confirmed that [{sup 123}I]E-(R,R)-IQNP ([{sup 123}I]E-IQNP) is a radioligand with modest selectivity for the M{sub 1} and M{sub 4} subtypes, whereas [{sup 123}I]Z-(R,R)-IQNP ([{sup 123}I]Z-IQNP) is non-subtype selective. In the present SPET study, E- and Z-IQNP were examined in human subjects. SPET examination was performed on three male subjects after i.v. injection of [{sup 123}I]E-IQNP and in another three after i.v. injection of [{sup 123}I]Z-IQNP. The binding potential (BP) for [{sup 123}I]E-IQNP was calculated using several quantitative approaches with the cerebellum as a reference region. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure radioligand metabolism in plasma. Following [{sup 123}I]E-IQNP, the radioactivity was high in the neocortex and striatum, intermediate in the thalamus and low in the pons and cerebellum, which is consistent with the rank order for the regional density of M{sub 1} and M{sub 4} subtypes in vitro. For all regions, peak equilibrium was identified within the 48-h data acquisition. The simplified reference tissue approach using SPET data from 0 to 48 h was the most reliable in this limited series of subjects. Following injection of [{sup 123}I]Z-IQNP, radioactivity was high in the neocortex and striatum, intermediate in the thalamus and pons and low in the cerebellum, which is in agreement with the density of M{sub 1}, M{sub 2} and M{sub 4} subtypes as measured in vitro. Quantitative analyses provided indirect support for specific M{sub 2} binding of Z-IQNP in the cerebellum. The high selectivity of [{sup 123}I]E-IQNP for M{sub 1} and M{sub 4} receptors allowed the use of cerebellum as a reference region devoid of specific binding, and

  13. QSAR, docking, dynamic simulation and quantum mechanics studies to explore the recognition properties of cholinesterase binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Basurto, J; Bello, M; Rosales-Hernández, M C; Hernández-Rodríguez, M; Nicolás-Vázquez, I; Rojo-Domínguez, A; Trujillo-Ferrara, J G; Miranda, René; Flores-Sandoval, C A

    2014-02-25

    A set of 84 known N-aryl-monosubstituted derivatives (42 amides: series 1 and 2, and 42 imides: series 3 an 4, from maleic and succinic anhydrides, respectively) that display inhibitory activity toward both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase (ChEs) was considered for Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies. These QSAR studies employed docking data from both ChEs that were previously submitted to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Donepezil and galanthamine stereoisomers were included to analyze their quantum mechanics properties and for validating the docking procedure. Quantum parameters such as frontier orbital energies, dipole moment, molecular volume, atomic charges, bond length and reactivity parameters were measured, as well as partition coefficients, molar refractivity and polarizability were also analyzed. In order to evaluate the obtained equations, four compounds: 1a (4-oxo-4-(phenylamino)butanoic acid), 2a ((2Z)-4-oxo-4-(phenylamino)but-2-enoic acid), 3a (2-phenylcyclopentane-1,3-dione) and 4a (2-phenylcyclopent-4-ene-1,3-dione) were employed as independent data set, using only equations with r(m(test))²>0.5. It was observed that residual values gave low value in almost all series, excepting in series 1 for compounds 3a and 4a, and in series 4 for compounds 1a, 2a and 3a, giving a low value for 4a. Consequently, equations seems to be specific according to the structure of the evaluated compound, that means, series 1 fits better for compound 1a, series 3 or 4 fits better for compounds 3a or 4a. Same behavior was observed in the butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Therefore, obtained equations in this QSAR study could be employed to calculate the inhibition constant (Ki) value for compounds having a similar structure as N-aryl derivatives described here. The QSAR study showed that bond lengths, molecular electrostatic potential and frontier orbital energies are important in both ChE targets. Docking studies revealed that

  14. Revisiting the polytopal rearrangements in penta-coordinate d7-metallocomplexes: modified Berry pseudorotation, octahedral switch, and butterfly isomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asatryan, Rubik; Ruckenstein, Eli; Hachmann, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides a first-principles theoretical investigation of the polytopal rearrangements and fluxional behavior of five-coordinate d 7 -transition metal complexes. Our work is primarily based on a potential energy surface analysis of the iron tetracarbonyl hydride radical HFe˙(CO) 4 . We demonstrate the existence of distorted coordination geometries in this prototypical system and, for the first time, introduce three general rearrangement mechanisms, which account for the non-ideal coordination. The first of these mechanisms constitutes a modified version of the Berry pseudorotation via a square-based pyramidal C 4v transition state that connects two chemically identical edge-bridged tetrahedral stereoisomers of C 2v symmetry. It differs from the classical Berry mechanism, which involves two regular D 3h equilibrium structures and a C 4v transition state. The second mechanism is related to the famous "tetrahedral jump" hypothesis, postulated by Muetterties for a number of d 6 HML 4 and H 2 ML 4 complexes. Here, our study suggests two fluxional rearrangement pathways via distinct types of C 2v transition states. Both pathways of this mechanism can be described as a single-ligand migration to a vacant position of an "octahedron", thus interchanging (switching) the apical and basal ligands of the initial quasi-square pyramidal isomer, which is considered as an idealized octahedron with a vacancy. Accordingly, we call this mechanism "octahedral switch". The third mechanism follows a butterfly-type isomerization featuring a key-angle deformation, and we thus call it "butterfly isomerization". It connects the quasi-square pyramidal and edge-bridged tetrahedral isomers of HFe˙(CO) 4 through a distorted edge-bridged tetrahedral transition state of C s symmetry. Our paper discusses the overall features of the isomers and rearrangement mechanisms as well as their implications. We rationalize the existence of each stationary point through an electronic structure

  15. Effect of agmatine on locus coeruleus neuron activity: possible involvement of nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Durántez, Eduardo; Ruiz-Ortega, José A; Pineda, Joseba; Ugedo, Luisa

    2002-01-01

    To investigate whether agmatine (the proposed endogenous ligand for imidazoline receptors) controls locus coeruleus neuron activity and to elucidate its mechanism of action, we used single-unit extracellular recording techniques in anaesthetized rats. Agmatine (10, 20 and 40 μg, i.c.v.) increased in a dose-related manner the firing rate of locus coeruleus neurons (maximal increase: 95±13% at 40 μg). I1-imidazoline receptor ligands stimulate locus coeruleus neuron activity through an indirect mechanism originated in the paragigantocellularis nucleus via excitatory amino acids. However, neither electrolytic lesions of the paragigantocellularis nucleus nor pretreatment with the excitatory amino acid antagonist kynurenic acid (1 μmol, i.c.v.) modified agmatine effect (10 μg, i.c.v.). After agmatine administration (20 μg, i.c.v.), dose-response curves for the effect of clonidine (0.625 – 10 μg kg−1 i.v.) or morphine (0.3 – 4.8 mg kg−1 i.v.) on locus coeruleus neurons were not different from those obtained in the control groups. Pretreatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors Nω-nitro-L-arginine (10 μg, i.c.v.) or Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 μg, i.c.v.) but not with the less active stereoisomer Nω-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (100 μg, i.c.v.) completely blocked agmatine effect (10 and 40 μg, i.c.v.). Similarly, when agmatine (20 pmoles) was applied into the locus coeruleus there was an increase that was blocked by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 μg, i.c.v.) in the firing rate of the locus coeruleus neurons (maximal increase 53±11% and 14±10% before and after nitric oxide synthase inhibition, respectively). This study demonstrates that agmatine stimulates the firing rate of locus coeruleus neurons via a nitric oxide synthase-dependent mechanism located in this nucleus. PMID:11877321

  16. Tissue distribution, core biosynthesis and diversification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids of the lycopsamine type in three Boraginaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Cordula; Ober, Dietrich; Hartmann, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    before or after this modification are converted into their O(9)-esters by esterification with one of the stereoisomers of 2,3-dihydroxy-2-isopropylbutyric acid, the unique necic acid of PAs of the lycopsamine type. Secondly, the necine O(9)-esters may be further diversified by O(7)- and/or O(3')-acylation.

  17. Rate Coefficient Measurements and Theoretical Analysis of the OH + ( E) CF3CH=CHCF3 Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Marshall, Paul; Waterland, Robert L; Ravishankara, Akkihebbal R; Burkholder, James B

    2018-04-25

    Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with (E) CF3CH=CHCF3 ((E)-1,1,14,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene, HFO-1336mzz(E)) were measured over a range of temperature (211-374 K) and bath gas pressure (20-300 Torr; He, N2) using a pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) technique. k1(T) was independent of pressure over this range of conditions with k1(296 K) = (1.31 ± 0.15) × 10 13 cm3 molecule 1 s 1 and k1(T) = (6.94 ± 0.80) × 10 13 exp[ (496 ± 10)/T] cm3 molecule 1 s 1, where the uncertainties are 2 and the pre-exponential term includes estimated systematic error. Rate coefficients for the OD reaction were also determined over a range of temperature (262-374 K) at 100 Torr (He). The OD rate coefficients were ~15% greater than the OH values and showed similar temperature dependent behavior with k2(T) = (7.52 ± 0.44) × 10 13 exp[ (476 ± 20)/T] and k2(296 K) = (1.53 ± 0.15) × 10 13 cm3 molecule 1 s 1. The rate coefficients for reaction 1 were also measured using a relative rate technique between 296 and 375 K with k1(296 K) measured to be (1.22 ± 0.1) × 10 13 cm3 molecule 1 s 1 in agreement with the PLP-LIF results. In addition, the 296 K rate coefficient for the O3 + (E) CF3CH=CHCF3 reaction was determined to be reaction and the significant decrease in OH reactivity compared to the (Z) CF3CH=CHCF3 stereoisomer reaction. The estimated atmospheric lifetime of (E) CF3CH=CHCF3, due to loss by reaction with OH, is estimated to be ~90 days, while the actual lifetime will depend on the location and season of its emission. Infrared absorption spectra of (E) CF3CH=CHCF3 were measured and used to estimate the 100-year time horizon global warming potentials (GWP) of 32 (atmospherically well-mixed) and 14 (lifetime-adjusted).

  18. Aromatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Pathway in Barbarea vulgaris and its Response to Plutella xylostella Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongjin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Haohui; Agerbirk, Niels; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Shen, Di; Song, Jiangping; Li, Xixiang

    2016-01-01

    The inducibility of the glucosinolate resistance mechanism is an energy-saving strategy for plants, but whether induction would still be triggered by glucosinolate-tolerant Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM) after a plant had evolved a new resistance mechanism (e.g., saponins in Barbara vulgaris) was unknown. In B. vulgaris, aromatic glucosinolates derived from homo-phenylalanine are the dominant glucosinolates, but their biosynthesis pathway was unclear. In this study, we used G-type (pest-resistant) and P-type (pest-susceptible) B. vulgaris to compare glucosinolate levels and the expression profiles of their biosynthesis genes before and after infestation by DBM larvae. Two different stereoisomers of hydroxylated aromatic glucosinolates are dominant in G- and P-type B. vulgaris, respectively, and are induced by DBM. The transcripts of genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway and their corresponding transcription factors were identified from an Illumina dataset of G- and P-type B. vulgaris. Many genes involved or potentially involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were induced in both plant types. The expression patterns of six DBM induced genes were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), while six long-fragment genes were validated by molecular cloning. The core structure biosynthetic genes showed high sequence similarities between the two genotypes. In contrast, the sequence identity of two apparent side chain modification genes, the SHO gene in the G-type and the RHO in P-type plants, showed only 77.50% identity in coding DNA sequences and 65.48% identity in deduced amino acid sequences. The homology to GS-OH in Arabidopsis, DBM induction of the transcript and a series of qPCR and glucosinolate analyses of G-type, P-type and F1 plants indicated that these genes control the production of S and R isomers of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl glucosinolate. These glucosinolates were significantly induced by P. xylostella larvae in both the susceptiple P

  19. Synthesis, structure, and electronic properties of a dimer of Ru(bpy)2 doubly bridged by methoxide and pyrazolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jude, Hershel; Rein, Francisca N; White, Peter S; Dattelbaum, Dana M; Rocha, Reginaldo C

    2008-09-01

    The heterobridged dinuclear complex cis,cis-[(bpy) 2Ru(mu-OCH 3)(mu-pyz)Ru(bpy) 2] (2+) ( 1; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; pyz = pyrazolate) was synthesized and isolated as a hexafluorophosphate salt. Its molecular structure was fully characterized by X-ray crystallography, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and ESI mass spectrometry. The compound 1.(PF 6) 2 (C 44H 38F 12N 10OP 2Ru 2) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2 1/ c with a = 13.3312(4) A, b = 22.5379(6) A, c = 17.2818(4) A, beta = 99.497(2) degrees , V = 5121.3(2) A (3), and Z = 4. The meso diastereoisomeric form was exclusively found in the crystal structure, although the NMR spectra clearly demonstrated the presence of two stereoisomers in solution (rac and meso forms at approximately 1:1 ratio). The electronic properties of the complex in acetonitrile were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis and NIR-IR spectroelectrochemistries. The stepwise oxidation of the Ru (II)-Ru (II) complex into the mixed-valent Ru (II)-Ru (III) and fully oxidized Ru (III)-Ru (III) states is fully reversible on the time scale of the in situ (spectro)electrochemical measurements. The mixed-valent species displays strong electronic coupling, as evidenced by the large splitting between the redox potentials for the Ru(III)/Ru(II) couples (Delta E 1/2 = 0.62 V; K c = 3 x 10 (10)) and the appearance of an intervalence transfer (IT) band at 1490 nm that is intense, narrow, and independent of solvent. Whereas this salient band in the NIR region originates primarily from highest-energy of the three IT transitions predicted for Ru(II)-Ru(III) systems, a weaker absorption band corresponding to the lowest-energy IT transition was clearly evidenced in the IR region ( approximately 3200 cm (-1)). The observation of totally coalesced vibrational peaks in the 1400-1650 cm (-1) range for a set of five bpy spectator vibrations in Ru (II)-Ru (III) relative to Ru (II)-Ru (II) and Ru (III)-Ru (III) provided evidence for rapid electron transfer and

  20. Thermophilic Coenzyme B12-Dependent Acyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Mutase from Kyrpidia tusciae DSM 2912 Preferentially Catalyzes Isomerization of (R)-3-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA and 2-Hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichler, Maria-Teresa; Kurteva-Yaneva, Nadya; Przybylski, Denise; Schuster, Judith; Müller, Roland H; Harms, Hauke; Rohwerder, Thore

    2015-07-01

    The recent discovery of a coenzyme B12-dependent acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) mutase isomerizing 3-hydroxybutyryl- and 2-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA in the mesophilic bacterium Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 (N. Yaneva, J. Schuster, F. Schäfer, V. Lede, D. Przybylski, T. Paproth, H. Harms, R. H. Müller, and T. Rohwerder, J Biol Chem 287:15502-15511, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.314690) could pave the way for a complete biosynthesis route to the building block chemical 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid from renewable carbon. However, the enzyme catalyzes only the conversion of the stereoisomer (S)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA at reasonable rates, which seriously hampers an efficient combination of mutase and well-established bacterial poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) overflow metabolism. Here, we characterize a new 2-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA mutase found in the thermophilic knallgas bacterium Kyrpidia tusciae DSM 2912. Reconstituted mutase subunits revealed highest activity at 55°C. Surprisingly, already at 30°C, isomerization of (R)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA was about 7,000 times more efficient than with the mutase from strain L108. The most striking structural difference between the two mutases, likely determining stereospecificity, is a replacement of active-site residue Asp found in strain L108 at position 117 with Val in the enzyme from strain DSM 2912, resulting in a reversed polarity at this binding site. Overall sequence comparison indicates that both enzymes descended from different prokaryotic thermophilic methylmalonyl-CoA mutases. Concomitant expression of PHB enzymes delivering (R)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA (beta-ketothiolase PhaA and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase PhaB from Cupriavidus necator) with the new mutase in Escherichia coli JM109 and BL21 strains incubated on gluconic acid at 37°C led to the production of 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid at maximal titers of 0.7 mM. Measures to improve production in E. coli, such as coexpression of the chaperone MeaH and repression of

  1. Acceleration of lipid peroxidation in alpha-tocopherol transfer protein-knockout mice following the consumption of drinking water containing a radical initiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yasukazu; Hayakawa, Mieko; Cynshi, Osamu; Jishage, Kou-ichi; Niki, Etsuo

    2008-01-01

    To assess the antioxidative role of vitamin E (VE) in a mouse model of severe VE deficiency by using biomarkers, alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP(-/-))-knockout mice were maintained on a VE-deficient diet for 28 weeks [KO group, n = 6]. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice were maintained on a diet containing 0.002% alpha-tocopherol [WT group, n = 6]. The animals were housed individually in a metabolic cage from the age of 9 weeks (Week 0) to 27 weeks. Urine was collected every week, and the levels of total hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (tHODE), 7-hydroxycholesterol (t7-OHCh), and 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha)(t8-isoPGF(2alpha)), which are biomarkers for lipid peroxidation, were measured by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry. From the age of 21 weeks (Week 12), three mice in each group were provided drinking water containing the water-soluble radical initiator 2,2'-azobis[2-(2-imidazolin-2-yl)propane] dihydrochloride (AIPH) until the end of the study (Week 19). Blood and tissue samples were collected, and the levels of the abovementioned biomarkers therein were assessed. AIPH consumption clearly elevated the plasma and erythrocyte levels of tHODE and t8-isoPGF(2alpha) in both the WT and KO groups except for the erythrocyte level of tHODE in the WT group. Furthermore, this elevation was more prominent in the KO group than in the WT group. Interestingly, AIPH consumption reduced the stereoisomer ratio of HODE (ZE/EE), which is reflective of the efficacy of a compound as an antioxidant in vivo; this suggests that free radical-mediated oxidation reduces the antioxidant capacity in vivo. The urine levels of tHODE, t7-OHCh, and t8-isoPGF(2alpha) tended to increase with AIPH consumption, but these individual levels fluctuated. It was clearly demonstrated by the proposed biomarkers that maintaining alpha-TTP(-/-) mice on a VE-deficient diet results in a severe VE deficiency and promotes lipid peroxidation.

  2. Ganaxolone improves behavioral deficits in a mouse model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Graziano; Rasmusson, Ann M

    2014-01-01

    Allopregnanolone and its equipotent stereoisomer, pregnanolone (together termed ALLO), are neuroactive steroids that positively and allosterically modulate the action of gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) at GABAA receptors. Levels of ALLO are reduced in the cerebrospinal fluid of female premenopausal patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a severe, neuropsychiatric condition that affects millions, yet is without a consistently effective therapy. This suggests that restoring downregulated brain ALLO levels in PTSD may be beneficial. ALLO biosynthesis is also decreased in association with the emergence of PTSD-like behaviors in socially isolated (SI) mice. Similar to PTSD patients, SI mice also exhibit changes in the frontocortical and hippocampal expression of GABAA receptor subunits, resulting in resistance to benzodiazepine-mediated sedation and anxiolysis. ALLO acts at a larger spectrum of GABAA receptor subunits than benzodiazepines, and increasing corticolimbic ALLO levels in SI mice by injecting ALLO or stimulating ALLO biosynthesis with a selective brain steroidogenic stimulant, such as S-norfluoxetine, at doses far below those that block serotonin reuptake, reduces PTSD-like behavior in these mice. This suggests that synthetic analogs of ALLO, such as ganaxolone, may also improve anxiety, aggression, and other PTSD-like behaviors in the SI mouse model. Consistent with this hypothesis, ganaxolone (3.75-30 mg/kg, s.c.) injected 60 min before testing of SI mice, induced a dose-dependent reduction in aggression toward a same-sex intruder and anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze. The EC50 dose of ganaxolone used in these tests also normalized exaggerated contextual fear conditioning and, remarkably, enhanced fear extinction retention in SI mice. At these doses, ganaxolone failed to change locomotion in an open field test. Therefore, unlike benzodiazepines, ganaxolone at non-sedating concentrations appears to improve dysfunctional emotional

  3. Enantioselective recognition of an isomeric ligand by a biomolecule: mechanistic insights into static and dynamic enantiomeric behavior and structural flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Ding, Fei

    2017-10-24

    Chirality is a ubiquitous basic attribute of nature, which inseparably relates to the life activity of living organisms. However, enantiomeric differences have still failed to arouse enough attention during the biological evaluation and practical application of chiral substances, and this poses a large threat to human health. In the current study, we explore the enantioselective biorecognition of a chiral compound by an asymmetric biomolecule, and then decipher the molecular basis of such a biological phenomenon on the static and, in particular, the dynamic scale. In light of the wet experiments, in silico docking results revealed that the orientation of the latter part of the optical isomer structures in the recognition domain can be greatly affected by the chiral carbon center in a model ligand molecule, and this event may induce large disparities between the static chiral bioreaction modes and noncovalent interactions (especially hydrogen bonding). Dynamic stereoselective biorecognition assays indicated that the conformational stability of the protein-(S)-diclofop system is clearly greater than the protein-(R)-diclofop adduct; and moreover, the conformational alterations of the diclofop enantiomers in the dynamic process will directly influence the conformational flexibility of the key residues found in the biorecognition region. These points enable the changing trends of biopolymer structural flexibility and free energy to exhibit significant distinctions when proteins sterically recognize the (R)-/(S)-stereoisomers. The outcomes of the energy decomposition further showed that the van der Waals' energy has roughly the same contribution to the chiral recognition biosystems, whereas the contribution of electrostatic energy to the protein-(R)-diclofop complex is notably smaller than to the protein-(S)-diclofop bioconjugate. This proves that differences in the noncovalent bonds would have a serious impact on the stereoselective biorecognition between a

  4. Aromatic glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway in Barbarea vulgaris and its response to Plutella xylostella infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjin eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The inducibility of the glucosinolate resistance mechanism is an energy-saving strategy for plants, but whether induction would still be triggered by glucosinolate-tolerant Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM after a plant had evolved a new resistance mechanism (e.g. saponins in Barbara vulgaris was unknown. In B. vulgaris, aromatic glucosinolates derived from homo-phenylalanine are the dominate glucosinolates, but their biosynthesis pathway are unclear in this plant. In this study, we used G-type (pest-resistant and P-type (pest-susceptible B. vulgaris to compare glucosinolate levels and the expression profiles of their biosynthesis genes before and after infestation by DBM larvae. Two different stereoisomers of hydroxylated aromatic glucosinolates are dominant in G- and P-type B. vulgaris, respectively, and are induced by DBM. The transcripts of genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway and their corresponding transcription factors were identified from an Illumina dataset of G- and P-type B. vulgaris. Many genes involved or potentially involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were induced in both plant types. The expression patterns of six DBM induced genes were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR, while six long-fragment genes were validated by molecular cloning. The core structure biosynthetic genes showed high sequence similarities between the two genotypes. In contrast, the sequence identity of two apparent side chain modification genes, the SHO gene in the G-type and the RHO in P-type plants, showed only 77.50% identity in coding DNA sequences and 65.48% identity in deduced amino acid sequences. The homology to GS-OH in Arabidopsis, DBM induction of the transcript and a series of qPCR and glucosinolate analyses of G-type, P-type and F1 plants indicated that these genes control the production of S and R isomers of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl glucosinolate. These glucosinolates were significantly induced by P. xylostella larvae in

  5. Sensitive monitoring of monoterpene metabolites in human urine using two-step derivatisation and positive chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Lukas [Institute and Outpatient Clinic of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schillerstrasse 25/29, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Belov, Vladimir N. [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Facility for Synthetic Chemistry, Am Fassberg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Göen, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Goeen@ipasum.med.uni-erlangen.de [Institute and Outpatient Clinic of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schillerstrasse 25/29, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-09-02

    Highlights: •Sensitive monitoring of 10 metabolites of (R)-limonene, α-pinene, and Δ{sup 3}-carene in human urine samples. •Fast and simple sample preparation and derivatisation procedure using two-step silylation for unreactive tertiary hydroxyl groups. •Synthesis of reference substances and isotopically labelled internal standards of (R)-limonene, α-pinene, and Δ{sup 3}-carene metabolites. •Study on (R)-limonene, α-pinene, and Δ{sup 3}-carene metabolite background exposure of 36 occupationally unexposed volunteers. -- Abstract: A gas chromatographic–positive chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometric (GC–PCI-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 10 oxidative metabolites of the monoterpenoid hydrocarbons α-pinene, (R)-limonene, and Δ{sup 3}-carene ((+)-3-carene) in human urine was developed and tested for the monoterpene biomonitoring of the general population (n = 36). The method involves enzymatic cleavage of the glucuronides followed by solid-supported liquid–liquid extraction and derivatisation using a two-step reaction with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide and N-(trimethylsilyl)imidazole. The method proved to be both sensitive and reliable with detection limits ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 μg L{sup −1}. In contrast to the frequent and distinct quantities of (1S,2S,4R)-limonene-1,2-diol, the (1R,2R,4R)-stereoisomer could not be detected. The expected metabolite of (+)-3-carene, 3-caren-10-ol was not detected in any of the samples. All other metabolites were detected in almost all urine samples. The procedure enables for the first time the analysis of trace levels of a broad spectrum of mono- and bicyclic monoterpenoid metabolites (alcohols, diols, and carboxylic acids) in human urine. This analytical procedure is a powerful tool for population studies as well as for the discovery of human metabolism and toxicokinetics of monoterpenes.

  6. Improved attractants for enhancing tsetse fly suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    At the initiation of this co-ordinated research project (CRP), the available visually attractant devices and odours for entomological monitoring and for suppression of tsetse fly populations were not equally effective against all economically important tsetse fly species. For species like G. austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. swynnertoni and some species of the PALPALIS-group of tsetse flies no sufficiently effective combinations of visual or odour attractants were available for efficient suppression and standardized monitoring as part of an operational integrated intervention campaign against the tsetse and trypanosomosis (T and T) problem. The Co-ordinated Research Project on Improved Attractants for Enhancing the Efficiency of Tsetse Fly Suppression Operations and Barrier Systems used in Tsetse Control/Eradication Campaigns involved (a) the identification, synthesis and provision of candidate kairomones, their analogues and of dispensers; (b) laboratory screening of synthesised candidate kairomones through electrophysiological studies and wind tunnel experiments; (c) field tests of candidate kairomones alone or as part of odour blends, in combination with available and or new trap designs; and (d) analysis of hydrocarbons that influence tsetse sexual behaviour. The CRP accomplished several main objectives, namely: - The screening of new structurally related compounds, including specific stereoisomers, of known tsetse attractants resulted in the identification of several new candidate odour attractants with promising potential. - An efficient two-step synthetic method was developed for the pilot plant scale production of 3-n-propyphenol, synergistic tsetse kairomone component. - Electrophysiological experiments complemented with wind tunnel studies provided an efficient basis for the laboratory screening of candidate attractants prior to the initiation of laborious field tests. - New traps were identified and modifications of existing traps were tested for some species

  7. Preparing for chemical terrorism: a study of the stability of expired pralidoxime (2-PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert S; Mercurio-Zappala, Maria; Bouchard, Nicole; Ravikumar, Padinjarekuttu; Goldfrank, Lewis

    2012-03-01

    Oximes such as pralidoxime (2-PAM) are essential antidotes for life-threatening organophosphate poisoning. Unfortunately, oximes are expensive, have limited use, and have short shelf lives. As such, maintaining large stockpiles in preparation for terrorist activity is not always possible. We have demonstrated that atropine is stable well beyond its labeled shelf life and that recently expired 2-PAM was clinically efficacious in a series of poisoned patients. Because 2-PAM is often dosed empirically, clinical improvement does not guarantee pharmacological stability. We therefore chose to analyze the chemical stability of expired 2-PAM. Samples of lyophylized 2-PAM were maintained according to the manufacturer's recommendations for 20 years beyond the published shelf life. We studied 2-PAM contained in a MARK I autoinjector that was stored properly for 3 years beyond its expiration date. An Agilent LC/MSD 1100 with diode-array detector and an Agilent Sorbax SB-C-18, 4.6 × 150-mm, 5-μm column were used with the following solvent systems: water with 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid and methanol with 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid. Fresh reagent grade 2-PAM was used as a standard. Results were repeated for consistency. Lyophylized 2-PAM was a white powder that was clear and colorless in solution. Liquid chromatography was identical to the standard and resulted in 2 isolated peaks with identical mass spectra, suggesting that they are stereoisomers. The autoinjector discharged a clear, yellowish solution. In addition to the 2 peaks identified for lyophylized 2-PAM, a small third peak was identified with a mass spectra corresponding to the reported N -methyl pyridinium carboxaldehyde degradation product. When properly stored, lyophylized 2-PAM appears to be chemically stable well beyond its expiration date. Although the relative amount of degradation product found in solubilized (autoinjector) 2-PAM was small, it is unclear whether this may be toxic and therefore is of concern

  8. Geographic variation in sexual attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda corn- and rice-strain males to pheromone lures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Unbehend

    Full Text Available The corn- and rice-strains of Spodoptera frugiperda exhibit several genetic and behavioral differences and appear to be undergoing ecological speciation in sympatry. Previous studies reported conflicting results when investigating male attraction to pheromone lures in different regions, but this could have been due to inter-strain and/or geographic differences. Therefore, we investigated whether corn- and rice-strain males differed in their response to different synthetic pheromone blends in different regions in North America, the Caribbean and South America. All trapped males were strain-typed by two strain-specific mitochondrial DNA markers. In the first experiment, we found a nearly similar response of corn- and rice-strain males to two different 4-component blends, resembling the corn- and rice-strain female blend we previously described from females in Florida. This response showed some geographic variation in fields in Canada, North Carolina, Florida, Puerto Rico, and South America (Peru, Argentina. In dose-response experiments with the critical secondary sex pheromone component (Z-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:OAc, we found some strain-specific differences in male attraction. While the response to Z7-12:OAc varied geographically in the corn-strain, rice-strain males showed almost no variation. We also found that the minor compound (Z-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:OAc did not increase attraction of both strains in Florida and of corn-strain males in Peru. In a fourth experiment, where we added the stereo-isomer of the critical sex pheromone component, (E-7-dodecenyl acetate, to the major pheromone component (Z-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc, we found that this compound was attractive to males in North Carolina, but not to males in Peru. Overall, our results suggest that both strains show rather geographic than strain-specific differences in their response to pheromone lures, and that regional sexual communication differences might cause

  9. The Levels and Analytical Developments of Brominated Flame Retardant Hexabromocyclododecanes from Various Environmental Media%环境中溴系阻燃剂六溴环十二烷的水平及分析进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦杏春; 路国慧; 王晓春; 杨永亮

    2012-01-01

    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are used as flame retardants primarily in thermal insulation building materials, upholstery textiles, and a little in electronics. During 2006, the production and use of penta- and octa-bromodiphenyl ethers was restricted in Europe, and therefore HBCDs may be used as an alternative for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in some applications. The atmosphere and bodies of water are the two main persistent reservoirs. The high content of HBCDs was detected in the environmental medium adjacent to the point source, which was much higher than that in the region without any point source. According to the different compound structure, environmental condition and biological metabolism processing, synthetic HBCDs were mainly y-HBCD and the biotic HBCDs were a-HBCD. Although the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) technique has high sensitive detection for HBCDs, it is restricted to isomer analysis of compounds by thermal recomposition and thermal degradation of HBCDs. LC-MS overcame these restrictions and was applied to distinguish enantiomer anddiastereomer. The detection limit was improved by the coupling technique of MS/MS. This review summarizes the levels and analytical developments of HBCDs. HBCD stereoisomers transform and degrade during production, which is a potential avenue for future research work. Further study on the environmental behaviour of HBCDs, their evolvement trend, control measures and alternative development are suggested in order to to build a larger HBCD database to meet the convention and to prepare more efficient risk management.%六溴环十二烷(HBCDs)是一种添加型溴系阻燃剂,被广泛应用于建筑隔热材料、纺织用品及少量电子产品中.2006年欧盟、国际公约等组织相继停止生产和使用多溴联苯醚后,HBCDs也曾在某些用途中作为替代品使用.在各环境介质中,空气和水体是HBCDs的主要释放空间.点源附近的环境介质中通常能够

  10. STRUCTURAL INSIGHTS INTO SUBSTRATE BINDING AND STEREOSELECTIVITY OF GIARDIA FRUCTOSE-1,6-BISPHOSPHATE ALDOLASE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Andrey; Li, Zhimin; Li, Ling; Kulakova, Liudmila; Pal, Lipika R.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

    2009-01-01

    Giardia lamblia fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA)1 is a member of the Class II zinc-dependent aldolase family that catalyzes the cleavage of D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) into dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). In addition to the active site zinc, the catalytic apparatus of FBPA employs an aspartic acid, Asp83 in the G. lamblia enzyme, which when replaced by an alanine residue renders the enzyme inactive. A comparison of the crystal structures of the D83A FBPA in complex with FBP and of the wild-type FBPA in the unbound state revealed a substrate induced conformational transition of loops in the vicinity of the active site and a shift in the location of Zn2+. Upon FBP binding, the Zn2+ shifts up to 4.6 Å towards the catalytic Asp83, which brings the metal within coordination distance to the Asp83 carboxylate group. In addition, the structure of wild-type FBPA was determined in complex with the competitive inhibitor D-tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate (TBP), a FBP stereoisomer. In this structure, the zinc binds in a site close to that previously seen in the structure of FBPA in complex with phosphoglycolohydroxamate, an analog of the postulated DHAP ene-diolate intermediate. Together, the ensemble of structures suggests that the zinc mobility is necessary to orient the Asp83 side chain and to polarize the substrate for proton transfer from the FBP C(4) hydroxyl group to the Asp83 carboxyl group. In the absence of FBP, the alternative zinc position is too remote for coordinating the Asp83. We propose a modification of the catalytic mechanism that incorporates the novel features observed in the FBPA/FBP structure. The mechanism invokes coordination and co-planarity of the Zn2+ with the FBP’s O-C(3)-C(4)-O concomitant with coordination of Asp83 carboxylic group. Catalysis is accompanied by movement of Zn2+ to a site co-planar with the O-C(2)-C(3)-O of the DHAP. glFBPA exhibit strict substrate specificity towards FBP and

  11. A Pathway to Artificial Metalloenzymes

    KAUST Repository

    Fischer, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    geometric constitution of the first coordination spheres binding the catalysts. We further apply two general principles to optimize selective conversions of the generated ArMs. 1) Utilizing site-specific mutagenesis, increased hydrophobicity is introduced to the second coordination sphere. 2) In-vitro post-expressional modification utilizing N-hydroxysuccinimide esters is anticipated to introduce a sterically more demanding second coordination sphere that influences substrate entry by favoring a particular stereoisomer. The latter approach however also enhances the host proteins robustness under processing conditions. The presented study investigates a novel approach to create artificial metalloenzymes based on non-enzymatic precursor proteins. It illustrates means of modification and functionalization. Further guidance to overcome the general problem of insufficient stereoselectivity and stability is also presented. In view of the insights gained we see the importance of further mutagenic studies, i.e. through means of guided evolution, to extend stereoselectivities. In-vivo applications of artificial metalloenzymes could thus be used to pursue metabolomic engineering.

  12. Formation of diastereomeric benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-guanine adducts in p53 gene-derived DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Brock; Wang, Gang; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2004-06-01

    (-)-trans-N(2)-BPDE-dG, 2.1 and 8.5% for (-)-cis-N(2)-BPDE-dG, and 0.5 and 8.3% for (+)-cis-N(2)-BPDE-dG. The relative yields of the minor N(2)-BPDE-dG stereoisomers were elevated at the sites of inefficient adduction, while the major (+)-trans-BPDE lesion was even more dominant at the frequently adducted sites. The introduction of 5-methyl groups at adjacent cytosine bases increased the yields of N(2)-BPDE-dG diastereomers, probably a result of favorable hydrophobic interactions between BPDE and 5-methylcytosine. The targeted formation of N(2)-BPDE-dG at (Me)CG dinucleotides within the p53 gene is consistent with the high prevalence of G --> T transversions at these sites in smoking-induced lung cancer.

  13. Effects of acute and repeated oral doses of D-tagatose on plasma uric acid in normal and diabetic humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J P; Donner, T W; Sadler, J H; Levin, G V; Makris, N G

    1999-04-01

    D-tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, is a naturally occurring ketohexose proposed for use as a low-calorie bulk sweetener. Ingested D-tagatose appears to be poorly absorbed. The absorbed portion is metabolized in the liver by a pathway similar to that of D-fructose. The main purpose of this study was to determine if acute or repeated oral doses of D-tagatose would cause elevations in plasma uric acid (as is seen with fructose) in normal humans and Type 2 diabetics. In addition, effects of subchronic D-tagatose ingestion on fasting plasma phosphorus, magnesium, lipids, and glucose homeostasis were studied. Eight normal subjects and eight subjects with Type 2 diabetes participated in this two-phase study. Each group was comprised of four males and four females. In the first phase, all subjects were given separate 75 g 3-h oral glucose and D-tagatose tolerance tests. Uric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium were determined in blood samples collected from each subject at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min after dose. In the 8-week phase of the study, the normals were randomly placed into two groups which received 75 g of either D-tagatose or sucrose (25 g with each meal) daily for 8 weeks. The diabetics were randomized into two groups which received either 75 g D-tagatose or no supplements of sugar daily for 8 weeks. Uric acid, phosphorus, magnesium, lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose, and insulin were determined in fasting blood plasma of all subjects at baseline (time zero) and biweekly over the 8 weeks. The 8-week test did not demonstrate an increase in fasting plasma uric acid in response to the daily intake of D-tagatose. However, a transient increase of plasma uric acid levels was observed after single doses of 75 g of D-tagatose in the tolerance test. Plasma uric acid levels were found to rise and peak at 60 min after such dosing. No clinical relevance was attributed to this treatment-related effect because excursions of plasma uric acid levels above the normal

  14. Intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary excretion of the rare sugar D-psicose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukamoto I

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ikuko Tsukamoto,1,* Akram Hossain,2,3,* Fuminori Yamaguchi,2 Yuko Hirata,2 Youyi Dong,2 Kazuyo Kamitori,2 Li Sui,2 Machiko Nonaka,2 Masaki Ueno,4 Kazuyuki Nishimoto,5 Hirofumi Suda,5 Kenji Morimoto,6 Tsuyoshi Shimonishi,7,† Madoka Saito,8 Tao Song,9 Ryoji Konishi,1 Masaaki Tokuda2 1Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa, Japan; 2Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan; 3Matsutani Chemical Industry Co, Ltd, Itami, Japan; 4Department of Inflammation Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan; 5Division of Radioisotope Research, Life Science Research Center, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan; 6Rare Sugar Research Center, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan; 7IZUMORING LLC, Miki, Kita, Kagawa, Japan; 8Department of Pharmacy, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan; 9The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work†Tsuyoshi Shimonishi has passed away Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary elimination of the rare sugar D-psicose, a 3-carbon stereoisomer of D-fructose that is currently being investigated and which has been found to be strongly effective against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Methods: This study was performed using radioactive D-psicose, which was synthesized enzymatically from radioactive D-allose. Concentrations in whole blood, urine, and organs were measured at different time points until 2 hours after both oral and intravenous administrations and 7 days after a single oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight to Wistar rats. Autoradiography was also performed by injecting 100 mg/kg body weight of 14C-labeled D-psicose or glucose intravenously to C3H mice. Results: Following oral administration, D-psicose easily moved to blood. The maximum blood

  15. Atoms in Action: Observing Atomic Motion with Dynamic in situ X-ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jordan Michael

    environment is left static or data is not collected until after the material has equilibrated to its new environment. First, a unique ECC has been designed and constructed which allows continuous access to the local chemical environment of a single-crystal sample while maintaining ease of use, minimizing size, and which is easily adaptable to a wide variety of gaseous and liquid chemical stimuli. Novel methods have been developed and are herein described for utilizing this ECC and in situ X-ray diffraction methods in a dynamic manner for monitoring the structural responses of single crystals to changes in their local chemical environment. These methods provide the opportunity for the determination of changes in unit cell parameters and even complete crystal structures during adsorption, desorption, and exchange processes in MOF materials. The application of these methods to the determination of the dehydration process of a previously reported cobalt-based MOF have revealed surprising structural and dynamics data. Several new intermediate structures have been determined in this process, including one metastable species and several actively transitioning species during the dehydration process. Applying these methods to the ethanol solvation process in the same material again yielded results which were richer in structural information than the previously reported ex situ structures. A computational study of rotational potential energy surfaces in a family of photochromic MOF linkers revealed the important role rotational stereoisomers can play in maintaining light-activated functionality when these linkers are incorporated into next-generation functional MOF materials. Finally, the application of novel photocrystallography techniques were used in conjunction with spectroscopic methods to determine the nature of the anomalous behavior of a photochromic diarylethene single-crystal.

  16. A study of fundamental reaction pathways for transition metal alkyl complexes. I. The reaction of a nickel methyl complex with alkynes. Ii. The mechanism of aldehyde formation in the reaction of a molybdenum hydride with molybdenum alkyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggins, John Mitchell [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1980-06-12

    I. This study reports the rapid reaction under mild conditions of internal or terminal alkynes with methyl (acetyl-acetonato) (triphenylphosphine) nickel (1) in either aromatic or ether solvents. In all cases vinylnickel products 2 are formed by insertion of the alkyne into the nickel=methyl bond. These complexes may be converted into a variety of organic products (e.g. alkenes, esters, vinyl halides) by treatment with appropriate reagents. Unsymmetrical alkynes give selectively the one regioisomer with the sterically largest substituent next to the nickel atom. In order to investigate the stereochemistry of the initial insertion, a x-ray diffraction study of the reaction of 1 with diphenylacetylene was carried out. This showed that the vinylnickel complex formed by overall trans insertion was the product of the reaction. Furthermore, subsequent slow isomerization of this complex, to a mixture of it and the corresponding cis isomer, demonstrated that this trans addition product is the kinetic product of the reaction. In studies with other alkynes, the product of trans addition was not always exclusively (or even predominantly) formed, but the ratio of the stereoisomers formed kinetically was substantially different from the thermodynamic ratio. Isotope labeling, added phosphine, and other experiments have allowed us to conclude that the mechanism of this reaction does involve initial cis addition. However, a coordinatively unsaturated vinylnickel complex is initially formed which can undergo rapid, phosphine-catalyzed cis-trans isomerization in competition with its conversion to the isolable phosphine-substituted kinetic reaction products. II. The reaction of CpMo(CO)3H (1a) with CpMo(CO)3R (2, R= CH3, C2H5) at 50°C in THF gives the aldehyde RCHO and the dimers [CpMo(CO)3]2 (3a) and [CpMo(CO)2]2 (4a). Labeling one of the reactants with a methylcyclopentadienyl ligand

  17. Calor específico a bajas temperaturas de alcoholes sólidos vítreos y cristalinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talón, C.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss in this work specific-heat experiments at low temperature that we have conducted on different molecular (hydrogenbonded glasses and crystals. Specifically, we have measured the low-temperature specific heat Cp(T for a set of solid alcohols: normal and fully-deuterated ethanol, 1−and 2−propanol, and glycerol. Ethanol exhibits a very interesting polymorphism presenting three different solid phases at low temperature: a fully-ordered (monoclinic crystal, an orientationally-disordered (cubic crystal or “orientational glass”, and the canonical (amorphous structural glass. By measuring and comparing the low-temperature specific heat of the three phases, in the boson peak range, 2−10 K, as well as in the tunneling-states range, below 1K, we are able to provide a quantitative confirmation that “glassy behavior” is not an exclusive property of amorphous solids. On the other hand, propanol is the simplest monoalcohol with two different stereoisomers (1−and 2−propanol, which allows us to study directly the influence of the spatial rearrangement of atoms on the universal properties of glasses. We have measured the specific heat of both isomers, finding a noteworthy quantitative difference between them. Finally, low-temperature specific-heat data of glassy and crystalline glycerol have also been obtained.

    En este trabajo, presentamos y discutimos experimentos de calorimetría a bajas temperaturas que hemos realizado en diferentes vidrios y cristales moleculares (de puentes de hidrógeno. En concreto, hemos medido el calor específico a bajas temperaturas Cp(T para un conjunto de alcoholes sólidos: etanol normal y completamente deuterado, 1−y 2−propanol, y glicerol. El etanol presenta un muy interesante polimorfismo, con tres fases sólidas diferentes a bajas temperaturas: un cristal estable perfectamente ordenado (monoclínico, un cristal (cúbico con desorden orientacional o “vidrio orientacional”, y

  18. In This Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    where it all started: benzene. Warnhoff (page 494) shows how the 19th century investigations of benzene and cyclohexane were intertwined. An article such as this gives a unique perspective on the development of organic chemistry and reveals how far it has come--some of the most famous chemists of that time spent a significant portion of their careers in settling issues that are now covered in a few brief paragraphs of an introductory text but which establish the foundations for all subsequent work. In the organic laboratory, the first revolution was Wohler's synthesis of a natural compound--urea--from inorganic compounds. Toth (page 539) has turned this famous reaction into a demonstration that will bring this seminal experiment off the history pages and into the classroom. Another demonstration, useful in either the general or organic class, has been designed by Pravia and Maynard (page 497) to illustrate why water and oil don't mix. Thall (page 481) gives his teaching colleagues some fascinating examples to use when teaching stereochemical concepts; "When Drug Molecules Look in the Mirror" they often see a stereoisomer with very different and interesting properties. Topics relating to polymer and biochemistry are being integrated into beginning courses, even at the secondary level, because of their importance in everyday life as well as being at the cutting edge of research. "Superabsorbent Polymers: An Idea Whose Time Has Come" by Buchholz (page 512) provides information about polymers with interesting properties that are finally finding a commercial application. Those teaching biochemistry will find Barmettler's summary of "Biochemical Data on the Web" (page 520) useful as well as experiments such as "Research in Undergraduate Instruction: A Biotech Lab Project for Recombinant DNA Protein Expression in Bacteria" by Brockman, Ordman, and Campbell (page 542); "A Simple Method for Isolation of Caffeine from Black Tea Leaves: Use of a Dichloromethane-Alkaline Water

  19. Effect of D-tagatose on liver weight and glycogen content of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, A; Lina, B A; de Groot, D M; de Bie, B; Appel, M J

    1999-04-01

    D-tagatose is an incompletely absorbed ketohexose (stereoisomer of D-fructose) which has potential as an energy-reduced alternative sweetener. In an earlier 90-day toxicity study, rats fed diets with 10, 15 and 20% D-tagatose exhibited increased liver weights, but no histopathological alterations. To determine whether there might be any toxicological relevance to this effect, three studies were conducted in male, adult Sprague-Dawley rats. In the first study, four groups received Purina diet (group A), Purina diet with 20% D-tagatose (group B), SDS diet (group C), or SDS diet with 20% D-tagatose (group D). For groups A and B, the 28-day treatment period was followed by a 14-day recovery period (Purina diet). Food remained available to all animals until the time of sacrifice. Groups of 10 rats were killed on days 14 (groups A and B), 28 (groups A-D), and 42 (groups A and B). Body weights, as well as weights of wet and lyophilized livers, were determined. The lyophilized livers collected on day 28 from groups A and B were analyzed for protein, total lipid, glycogen, DNA, and residual moisture. By day 14, relative wet liver weights had increased by 23% in group B. On day 28, the increase was 38% in group B and 44% in group D. At the end of the recovery period, the increase had diminished to 14% in group B. On day 28, liver glycogen content (in %) was significantly increased, and liver protein, lipid, and DNA contents were significantly decreased in group B compared to group A. Total amounts per liver of protein, total lipid, glycogen, and DNA were significantly increased. In the second study, four groups of 20 rats each received SDS diet with 0, 5, 10, and 20% D-tagatose for 29-31 days. The food was available until the time of sacrifice. At termination, plasma was obtained from 10 rats/group for clinicochemical analyses. Five rats/group were subjected to whole-body perfusion, followed by processing of livers for qualitative and quantitative electron microscopic

  20. Selected Abstracts of the 20th National Congress of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (Società Italiana di Medicina Perinatale, SIMP; Catania (Italy; March 22-24, 2018; Session “Perinatal medicine”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 20th National Congress of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (Società Italiana di Medicina Perinatale, SIMP Catania (Italy • March 22nd-24th, 2018SIMP PRESIDENTIrene CetinCONGRESS PRESIDENTSNicola Chianchiano, Angela Motta SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEMariarosaria Di Tommaso, Gianpaolo Donzelli, Luca Ramenghi----------Guest Editors: Irene Cetin, Nicola Chianchiano, Angela Motta ----------Session “Perinatal medicine”ABS 1. INDUCTION OF LABOR IN CONSTITUTIONALLY SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE FETUSES AT TERM OF PREGNANCY: DOES GESTATIONAL AGE IMPACT DELIVERY OUTCOME? • R. Cuzzola, V. Seravalli, E. Magro-Malosso, G. Rovero, F. Perelli, M. Di Tommaso, F. PetragliaABS 2. PREDICTION OF PRETERM BIRTH IN ASYMPTOMATIC WOMEN WITH REDUCED CERVICAL LENGTH: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON MATERNAL INFLAMMATORY MARKERS • C. Linari, E. Magro-Malosso, S. Paccosi, A. Parenti, V. Seravalli, M. Di Tommaso, F. PetragliaABS 3. MULTIVARIABLE EVALUATION OF THE MATERNAL HEMODYNAMIC PROFILE IN HIGH-RISK PREGNANCIES COMPLICATED BY INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY • D. Di Martino, E. Ferrazzi, M. Garbin, F. Fusè, T. Izzo, J. Duvekot, A. FarinaABS 4. REGIONAL AUDIT SYSTEM IMPLEMENTA­TION FOR STILLBIRTH: A WAY TO BETTER UNDERSTAND AND TARGET THE PHENOMENON • G. Po’, F. Monari, F. Zanni, C. Lupi, F. Facchinetti1 for the Regional Audit System for Stillbirth GroupABS 5. FETAL GENDER PAIRING AND OBSTETRIC OUTCOME IN TWIN PREGNANCY: A 7-YEARS RETROSPECTIVE STUDY AT SINGLE CENTRE • S. Vannuccini, C. Linari, M. Aldinucci, M. Di Tommaso, F. PetragliaABS 6. INOSITOL STEREOISOMERS SUPPLEMENTA­TION AND INCIDENCE OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS IN WOMEN AT HIGH RISK OF THIS DISORDER • G. Pavone, B. Matarrelli, D. Buca, M. Leombroni, E. Vitacolonna, P.A. Mattei, C. CelentanoABS 7. CESAREAN SECTION: DELAYED CORD CLAMPING OR MILKING? • S. Consonni, I. Vaglio Tessitore, C. Conti, C. Plevani, F. Torcasio, A. Pintucci, F. Bonati, A. LocatelliABS 8. ARABIN