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Sample records for stepper motor characterization

  1. Stepper Motor Characterization Utilizing Borland Delphi 5.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoyok-Dwi-Setyo-Pambudi, Darlis

    2005-01-01

    Characterization of 12-Watt, Shinano Kensi, Japan. Stepper Motors series TEAC P.No.14769070.90 had been conducted. Knowledge obtained from this characteristic test can be exploited in motor stepper application in the field of robotics, the appliance of las automatization and also the metal clippers equipment. Test characteristic was performed by using computer program Borland Delphi version 5.0. The result showed that by using input delay time 10 ms, the quickest turn around frequency of the motor is 0.5 Hz. The longer delay time tend to make a rotation frequency became lower, it also mean the moving of motor became slower. (author)

  2. Stepper Motor Actuated Microvalve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal, Imran; Louwerse, Marcus; Jansen, Henri; Elwenspoek, Miko [MESA Research Institute, University of Twente EWI/TST, P. off Box 217 Enschede (Netherlands)

    2006-04-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of a novel microvalve realized by combining micro and fine machining techniques. The design is for high flow rates at high pressure difference between inlet and outlet, burst pressure of up to 15 bars, there is no power consumption required for the valve to maintain its position during operation in any intermediate state and the process gas does not interact with the actuation mechanism. The microvalve was experimentally characterized with airflows. It is shown that flow rates of 220 ml/min at a pressure difference of 4 bars could be achieved with the minimum accurate flow rate of 2-8 ml/min.

  3. Stepper Motor Actuated Microvalve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazal, I.; Louwerse, M.C.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2006-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of a novel microvalve realized by combining micro and fine machining techniques. The design is for high flow rates at high pressure difference between inlet and outlet, burst pressure of up to 15 bars, there is no power consumption required for

  4. Innovative Power Harvesting With Stepper Motor

    OpenAIRE

    N K Kaphungkui; Santanu Phukan; Sourav Mahanta; Sujata Mahanta; Anurag Kalita

    2016-01-01

    This paper present the innovative way of generating electricity using the principle of thermodynamics law. This law states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can be transform from one form to another. In this work, mechanical energy is converted into electricity using stepper motor which acts as a generator. Mechanical energy is freely generated and available such as in gym room and Children Park. The main aim of this work is the production of clean energy employing t...

  5. Pneumatic stepper motor and device comprising at least one such pneumatic stepper motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhuis, Vincent; Siepel, Françoise Jeanette; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The invention relates to a pneumatic stepper motor, comprising: - a housing, said housing accommodating at least part of: - a rack or geared axle comprising a plurality of gear elements; and - two pistons, each comprising at least two teeth, said pistons being arranged to cooperate with said rack or

  6. Control Of Stepper Motor Movement By DC Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayani, Didi; Margono; Indasah, Iin; Sugito

    2000-01-01

    Instrumentation for controlling the power of reactor of TRIGA Mark II uses the stepper motor to move the control rod of neutron absorbers. The direction and speed of control rod movement are determined by the polarity and the amplitude of DC voltage as an error signal that is the difference of set point of power and the power of being measured on the control system. The unit of stepper motor controller of reactor instrumentation of TRIGA Mark II uses patent module of trade Mark of Vexta, USA. In this chance, the electronic circuit is made to function as the control of stepper motor movement by using the DC voltage to anticipate the problem may be faced in case of repair and maintenance of reactor instrumentation. As a result of experiment, it is stated that the control of motor movement by using DC voltage is performed into 2 stages. First, by making the oscillator that is proportional to the positive DC voltage. Secondly, by making the translator to translate the oscillator signal to be a logic pattern for controlling the movement of stepper motor. Translator and motor driver are made by using the L297 and L298 as a pair of stepper motor controller of SGS T HOMSON

  7. Note: Cryogenic heat switch with stepper motor actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melcher, B. S., E-mail: bsmelche@syr.edu; Timbie, P. T., E-mail: pttimbie@wisc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    A mechanical cryogenic heat switch has been developed using a commercially available stepper motor and control electronics. The motor requires 4 leads, each carrying a maximum, pulsed current of 0.5 A. With slight modifications of the stepper motor, the switch functions reliably in vacuum at temperatures between 300 K and 4 K. The switch generates a clamping force of 262 N at room temperature. At 4 K it achieves an “on state” thermal conductance of 5.04 mW/K and no conductance in the “off state.” The switch is optimized for cycling an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator.

  8. Rapid Prototyping High-Performance MR Safe Pneumatic Stepper Motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhuis, Vincent; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we show that pneumatic stepper motors for MR safe robots can be constructed using rapid prototyping techniques such as 3-D printing and laser-cutting. The designs are lightweight, completely metal-free and fully customizable. Besides MR safe robotic systems, other potential

  9. A Recommended New Approach on Motorization Ratio Calculations of Stepper Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbandian, Ruben; Blais, Thierry; Horth, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Stepper motors are widely used on most spacecraft mechanisms requiring repeatable and reliable performance. The unique detent torque characteristics of these type of motors makes them behave differently when subjected to low duty cycle excitations where the applied driving pulses are only energized for a fraction of the pulse duration. This phenomenon is even more pronounced in discrete permanent magnet stepper motors used in the space industry. While the inherent high detent properties of discrete permanent magnets provide desirable unpowered holding performance characteristics, it results in unique behavior especially in low duty cycles. Notably, the running torque reduces quickly to the unpowered holding torque when the duty cycle is reduced. The space industry's accepted methodology of calculating the Motorization Ratio (or Torque Margin) is more applicable to systems where the power is continuously applied to the motor coils like brushless DC motors where the cogging torques are low enough not to affect the linear performance of the motors as a function of applied current. This paper summarizes the theoretical and experimental studies performed on a number of space qualified motors under different pulse rates and duty cycles. It is the intention of this paper to introduce a new approach to calculate the Motorization Ratios for discrete permanent magnet steppers under all full and partial duty cycle regimes. The recommended approach defines two distinct relationships to calculate the Motorization Ratio for 100 percent duty cycle and partial duty cycle, when the motor detent (unpowered holding torque) is the main contributor to holding position. These two computations reflect accurately the stepper motor physical behavior as a function of the command phase (ON versus OFF times of the pulses), pointing out how the torque contributors combine. Important points highlighted under this study are the torque margin computations, in particular for well characterized

  10. An electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper motor fabricated by vertical trench isolation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Yamahata, Christophe; Cordero, Mauricio; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    We present the design, microfabrication and characterization of an electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper micromotor constructed with vertical trench isolation technology. This suitable technology was used to create a monolithic stepper motor with high-aspect-ratio poles and an integrated 3-phase electrical network in the bulk of a standard single-crystal silicon wafer. The shuttle of the stepper motor is suspended by a flexure to avoid any mechanical contact during operation, enhancing the precision, repeatability and reliability of the stepping motion. The prototype is capable of a maximum travel of +/−26 µm (52 µm) at an actuation voltage of 30 V and a step size of 1.4 µm during a half-stepping sequence

  11. An electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper motor fabricated by vertical trench isolation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Yamahata, Christophe; Cordero, Mauricio; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2009-07-01

    We present the design, microfabrication and characterization of an electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper micromotor constructed with vertical trench isolation technology. This suitable technology was used to create a monolithic stepper motor with high-aspect-ratio poles and an integrated 3-phase electrical network in the bulk of a standard single-crystal silicon wafer. The shuttle of the stepper motor is suspended by a flexure to avoid any mechanical contact during operation, enhancing the precision, repeatability and reliability of the stepping motion. The prototype is capable of a maximum travel of +/-26 µm (52 µm) at an actuation voltage of 30 V and a step size of 1.4 µm during a half-stepping sequence. This work was presented in part at the 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME), 28-30 September 2008, Aachen, Germany.

  12. Generate stepper motor linear speed profile in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoychitch, M. Y.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of realization of linear speed profile of stepper motors in real time. We considered the general case when changes of speed in the phases of acceleration and deceleration are different. The new and practical algorithm of the trajectory planning is given. The algorithms of the real time speed control which are suitable for realization to the microcontroller and FPGA circuits are proposed. The practical realization one of these algorithms, using Arduino platform, is given also.

  13. Conceptual design of stepper motor replacing servo motor for control rod controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohd Idris Taib; Izhar Abu Hussin; Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Mohd Sabri Minhat

    2010-01-01

    In PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, current control rod controller are using servo motor to control the movement. Control rod is a very important safety element and measure in every nuclear reactor. So, precision is very important in measurement of security in the nuclear reactor. In this case, there are a few disadvantages when using the servo motor is measurement of the motor is not precise. One solution to overcome this is by shifting servo motor with stepper motor. A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brush less, synchronous electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps. (author)

  14. Controlling Precision Stepper Motors in Flight Using (Almost) No Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David

    2010-01-01

    This concept allows control of high-performance stepper motors with minimal parts count and minimal flight software complexity. Although it uses a small number of common flight-qualified parts and simple control algorithms, it is capable enough to meet demanding system requirements. Its programmable nature makes it trivial to implement changes to control algorithms both during integration & test and in flight. Enhancements such as microstepping, half stepping, back-emf compensation, and jitter reduction can be tailored to the requirements of a large variety of stepper motor based applications including filter wheels, focus mechanisms, antenna tracking subsystems, pointing and mobility. The hardware design (using an H-bridge motor controller IC) was adapted from JPL's MER mission, still operating on Mars. This concept has been fully developed and incorporated into the MCS instrument on MRO, currently operating in Mars orbit. It has been incorporated into the filter wheel mechanism and linear stage (focus) mechanism for the AMT instrument. On MCS/MRO, two of these circuits control the elevation and azimuth of the MCS telescope/radiometer assembly, allowing the instrument to continuously monitor the limb of the Martian atmosphere. Implementation on MCS/MRO resulted in a 4:1 reduction in the volume and mass required for the motor driver electronics (100:25 square inches of PCB space), producing a very compact instrument. In fact, all of the electronics for the MCS instrument are packaged within the movable instrument structure. It also saved approximately 3 Watts of power. Most importantly, the design enabled MCS to meet very its stringent maximum allowable torque disturbance requirements.

  15. Shuffle motor: a high force, high precision linear electrostatic stepper motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Wissink, Jeroen; Sander, A.F.M.; Sander, Louis; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1997-01-01

    The shuffle motor is a electrostatic stepper motor that employs a mechanical transformation to obtain high forces and small steps. A model has been made to calculate the driving voltage, step size and maximum load to pull as well as the optimal geometry. Tests results are an effective step size of

  16. Nanometer range closed-loop control of a stepper micro-motor for data storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patrascu, M.; Stramigioli, Stefano; de Boer, Meint J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a nanometer range, closed-loop control study for MEMS stepper actuators. Although generically applicable to other types of stepper motors, the control design presented here was particularly intended for one dimensional shuffle actuators fabricated by surface micromachining technology. The

  17. Design and construction of stepper motor controller for brachy-therapy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Rifai; Usep Setia Gunawan; Indarzah Masbatin Putra

    2011-01-01

    Based on a microcontroller, a stepper motor controller for brachy-therapy equipment has been designed and prototyped. The embedded control program routine and its other associated routines enable the microcontroller to generate required pulses via external commands for stepper motor based position control. The controller receives ASCII text command via a serial port. The constructed algorithm implements the widely used method that allows motor to rotate in three phases, i.e: acceleration, constant speed, and deceleration. (author)

  18. The thermodynamic cycle of an entropy-driven stepper motor walking hand-over-hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabicki, Michal; Ebeling, Werner; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We develop a new model of an entropy-driven stepper motor walking hand-over-hand, coupled to the energy reservoir of ATP. - Abstract: We develop a model of a kinesin motor based on an entropy-driven spring between the two heads of the stepper. The stepper is coupled to the energy depot which is reservoir of ATP. A Langevin equation for the motion of the two legs in a ratchet potential is analyzed by performing numerical simulations. It is documented that the model motor is able to work against a load force with an efficiency of about 10-30%. At a critical load force the motor stops to operate.

  19. OPEN-LOOP CONTROL OF A BIPOLAR STEPPER MOTORS USING THE SPECIALIZED INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BALUTA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the open-loop control of a stepper motors. Bipolar stepper motors can be driven with an L297, an L298N bridge driver and very few external components. With an L298N this configuration drives motors with winding currents up to 2.5A. If very high powers are required an equivalent circuit made with discrete transistors replaces the bridge driver. Together these two chips form a complete microprocessor-to-stepper motor interface. The command signals for the controller L297 are generated through an IBM-PC486 interface. It was developed an open-loop command program written in BorlandC programming language.

  20. An application of observer for position sensor less stepper motor drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Arymaswati Abdullah; Salinda Buyamin; Glam Hadzir Patai Mohamad; Abu Bakar Ghazali

    2010-01-01

    A control method for stepper motor drives system can be made in open-loop circumstance which mean the system control did not require any feedback input signal in order to run the system. By applying the right sequences of pulses, the stepper motor capable to operate as other motion control. However, the performance of such system cannot be achieved to high level condition and demanded a feedback signal input to compensate the error produced while running the drive system. Therefore, a physical sensor or an encoder is placed in the motor system to obtain the feedback and form a close-loop system for error compensation. Nevertheless, the prices of these instruments are expensive, bulky and also may degrade the system performance. As a result this project presents a sensor less system in stepper motor drive system as an alternative to develop a close-loop system where the input signals are taken from voltage and current of the magnetic flux of the stepper motor. (author)

  1. Design challenges for stepper motor actuated microvalve based on fine and micro-machining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazal, I.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2007-01-01

    We present a normally open stepper motor actuated microvalve based on micro and fine-machining technique. In this paper, first we have described how the larger controllable flow range can be achieved with simple micromachining techniques and secondly we have presented the results which show how the

  2. Analytical Method of Malculation of the Current and Torque a Reluctance Stepper Motor via Fourier Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Zaskalicky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reluctance stepper motors are becoming to be very attractive transducer to conversion of electric signal to the mechanical position. Due to its simple construction is reluctance machine considered a very reliable machine which not requiring any maintenance. Present paper proposes a mathematical method of an analytical calculus of a phase current and electromagnetic torque of the motor via Fourier series. Saturation effect and winding reluctance are neglected.

  3. FIVE PHASE PENTAGON HYBRID STEPPER MOTOR INTELLIGENT HALF/FULL DRIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Morar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stepper motors are very well suited for positioning applications since they can achieve very good positional accuracy without complicated feedback loops associated with servo systems. In this paper, an intelligent five-phase stepper motor driver of business card size proposed. Constant current chopping technique was applied for the purposes of high torque, high velocity and high efficiency. The driver was designed to drive a middle-sized hybrid stepper motor with wire current rating from 0.4 to 1.5A. An up-to-dated translator of five-phase stepping motor was used to drive the gates of N- channel MOSFET array. The resolution in full/half mode is 0.72/0.36 degrees/step. Moreover, an automatic power down circuit was used to limit the power consuming as the motor stops. Additionally, a self-testing program embedded in a 80C31-CPU (PCL838 can self-test whether the driver is normal or not. This embedded program including linear acceleration and deceleration routines also can serve as a positioning controller. The dimension of this driver is approximate 70x65x35 millimeters, which is smaller than a business card. Experimental results demonstrate that the responses of the driver can reach 60 kilo pulses per second

  4. FPGA implementation of adaptive ANN controller for speed regulation of permanent magnet stepper motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanien, Hany M., E-mail: Hanyhasanien@ieee.or [Dept. of Elec. Power and Machines, Faculty of Eng., Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents a novel adaptive artificial neural network (ANN) controller, which applies on permanent magnet stepper motor (PMSM) for regulating its speed. The dynamic response of the PMSM with the proposed controller is studied during the starting process under the full load torque and under load disturbance. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive ANN controller is then compared with that of the conventional PI controller. The proposed methodology solves the problem of nonlinearities and load changes of PMSM drives. The proposed controller ensures fast and accurate dynamic response with an excellent steady state performance. Matlab/Simulink tool is used for this dynamic simulation study. The main contribution of this work is the implementation of the proposed controller on field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware to drive the stepper motor. The driver is built on FPGA Spartan-3E Starter from Xilinx. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  5. FPGA implementation of adaptive ANN controller for speed regulation of permanent magnet stepper motor drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanien, Hany M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel adaptive artificial neural network (ANN) controller, which applies on permanent magnet stepper motor (PMSM) for regulating its speed. The dynamic response of the PMSM with the proposed controller is studied during the starting process under the full load torque and under load disturbance. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive ANN controller is then compared with that of the conventional PI controller. The proposed methodology solves the problem of nonlinearities and load changes of PMSM drives. The proposed controller ensures fast and accurate dynamic response with an excellent steady state performance. Matlab/Simulink tool is used for this dynamic simulation study. The main contribution of this work is the implementation of the proposed controller on field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware to drive the stepper motor. The driver is built on FPGA Spartan-3E Starter from Xilinx. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  6. Modelling and Control of Stepper Motors for High Accuracy Positioning Systems Used in Radioactive Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Picatoste Ruilope, Ricardo; Masi, Alessandro

    Hybrid Stepper Motors are widely used in open-loop position applications. They are the choice of actuation for the collimators in the Large Hadron Collider, the largest particle accelerator at CERN. In this case the positioning requirements and the highly radioactive operating environment are unique. The latter forces both the use of long cables to connect the motors to the drives which act as transmission lines and also prevents the use of standard position sensors. However, reliable and precise operation of the collimators is critical for the machine, requiring the prevention of step loss in the motors and maintenance to be foreseen in case of mechanical degradation. In order to make the above possible, an approach is proposed for the application of an Extended Kalman Filter to a sensorless stepper motor drive, when the motor is separated from its drive by long cables. When the long cables and high frequency pulse width modulated control voltage signals are used together, the electrical signals difer greatl...

  7. A MR-conditional High-torque Pneumatic Stepper Motor for MRI-guided and Robot-assisted Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Kwok, Ka-Wai; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging allows for visualizing detailed pathological and morphological changes of soft tissue. This increasingly attracts attention on MRI-guided intervention; hence, MR-conditional actuations have been widely investigated for development of image-guided and robot-assisted surgical devices under the MRI. This paper presents a simple design of MR-conditional stepper motor which can provide precise and high-torque actuation without adversely affecting the MR image quality. This stepper motor consists of two MR-conditional pneumatic cylinders and the corresponding supporting structures. Alternating the pressurized air can drive the motor to rotate each step in 3.6° with the motor coupled to a planetary gearbox. Experimental studies were conducted to validate its dynamics performance. Maximum 800mNm output torque can be achieved. The motor accuracy independently varied by two factors: motor operating speed and step size, was also investigated. The motor was tested within a Siemens 3T MRI scanner. The image artifact and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were evaluated in order to study its MRI compliancy. The results show that the presented pneumatic stepper motor generated 2.35% SNR reduction in MR images and no observable artifact was presented besides the motor body itself. The proposed motor test also demonstrates a standard to evaluate the motor capability for later incorporation with motorized devices used in robot-assisted surgery under MRI. PMID:24957635

  8. Recession in a linear stepper motor based on piezoelectric actuator and electrorheological clampers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Cuihong; Meng, Yonggang; Tian, Yu

    2012-01-01

    A linear inchworm-type stepper motor based on piezoelectric actuator and comb shape electrorheological (ER) clampers was developed and tested. A recession phenomenon in the movement of the motor was found and was significantly affected by the driving voltage of the piezoelectric actuator and ER fluids. A dynamic model to analyze the mechanism of the recession was established. The force ratio of the viscoelastic clamping force (applied high electric field) to the viscous damping force (zero field) of ER fluids is the critical factor which determines the recession. The ratio is also affected by the extension or contraction rate of the actuator during movement, which is affected by the charging and discharging processes. With a relatively large distance between the clamper electrodes and a small displacement activated by the extension of the piezoelectric actuator, the instantaneous shear rate might not be sufficiently high, preventing ER fluids from attaining a shear-thickened and high-strength state. The ratio of yield strength to the viscous strength of ER fluids during movement should be as large as possible to reduce the recession displacement. (paper)

  9. Use of phase information with a stepper motor to control frequency for tuning system of the Front End Test Stand Radio Frequency Quadrupole at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsari, S., E-mail: s.alsari@imperial.ac.uk; Aslaninejad, M.; Pozimski, J.

    2015-03-01

    For the Front End Test Stand (FETS) linear accelerator project at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, a 4 m, 4 vanes Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) with a resonant frequency of 324 MHz has been designed. The RF power feeding the RFQ gives rise to the temperature increase in the RFQ, which in turn, results in shifting the resonant frequency of the RFQ. The frequency shift and the stability in the RFQ frequency can be maintained based on the reflected power or signal phase information. We have, however, investigated restoration of the RFQ nominal frequency based on the RF signal phases driving a stepper motor. The concept and the system set-up and electronics are described in detail. Results of the measurements indicating the full restoration of the RFQ nominal frequency based on the RF signal phases and stepper motor are presented. Moreover, measured sensitivity of tuner with respect to its position is given.

  10. Use of phase information with a stepper motor to control frequency for tuning system of the Front End Test Stand Radio Frequency Quadrupole at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsari, S.; Aslaninejad, M.; Pozimski, J.

    2015-01-01

    For the Front End Test Stand (FETS) linear accelerator project at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, a 4 m, 4 vanes Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) with a resonant frequency of 324 MHz has been designed. The RF power feeding the RFQ gives rise to the temperature increase in the RFQ, which in turn, results in shifting the resonant frequency of the RFQ. The frequency shift and the stability in the RFQ frequency can be maintained based on the reflected power or signal phase information. We have, however, investigated restoration of the RFQ nominal frequency based on the RF signal phases driving a stepper motor. The concept and the system set-up and electronics are described in detail. Results of the measurements indicating the full restoration of the RFQ nominal frequency based on the RF signal phases and stepper motor are presented. Moreover, measured sensitivity of tuner with respect to its position is given

  11. Modal analysis and modeling of a frictionless electrostatic rotary stepper micromotor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stranczl, M.; Sarajlic, Edin; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Fujita, H.; Gijs, M.A.M.; Yamahata, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present the design, modeling and characterization of a 3-phase electrostatic rotary stepper micromotor. The proposed motor is a monolithic device fabricated using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology. The rotor is suspended with a frictionless flexural pivot bearing and reaches an unprecedented

  12. Fabrication and characterization of an electrostatic contraction beams micromotor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Berenschot, Johan W.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Fujita, H.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2006-01-01

    We report on fabrication and experimental characterization of an electrostatic contraction beams motor that exhibits both reliable operation and high performance haracteristics. This electrostatic linear stepper micromotor is fabricated in a single polysilicon layer combining vertical trench

  13. Effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Meena, Ramovatar; Nirala, Jayprakash; Kumar, Jitender; Verma, H N

    2014-03-01

    Cell phone radiation exposure and its biological interaction is the present concern of debate. Present study aimed to investigate the effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on 45-day-old male Wistar rat brain. Animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 60 days by using mobile phone with angular movement up to zero to 30°. The variation of the motor is restricted to 90° with respect to the horizontal plane, moving at a pre-determined rate of 2° per minute. Immediately after 60 days of exposure, animals were scarified and numbers of parameters (DNA double-strand break, micronuclei, caspase 3, apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, expression of stress-responsive genes) were performed. Result shows that microwave radiation emitted from 3G mobile phone significantly induced DNA strand breaks in brain. Meanwhile a significant increase in micronuclei, caspase 3 and apoptosis were also observed in exposed group (P 3G mobile phone exposure causes a transient increase in phosphorylation of hsp27, hsp70, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), which leads to mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated cytochrome c release and subsequent activation of caspases, involved in the process of radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Study shows that the oxidative stress is the main factor which activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK is the pathway of principle stress response. Results conclude that 3G mobile phone radiations affect the brain function and cause several neurological disorders.

  14. Introducing PneuAct: Parametrically-Designed MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Stepper Actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sojoodi Farimani, F.; Misra, Sarthak

    2018-01-01

    Pneumatic stepper motors are one of the promising alternative actuation methods for motion control in environments where electromagnetic (EM) motors cannot be used. Due to the lack of commercial off-the-shelf products, researchers working on MR compatible robotics have to develop their own pneumatic

  15. Registered Replication Report : Strack, Martin, & Stepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenmakers, E.-J.; Beek, T.; Dijkhoff, L.; Gronau, Q.F.; Acosta, A.; Adams, R.B.; Albohn, D.N.; Allard, E.S.; Benning, S.D.; Blouin-Hudon, E.-M.; Bulnes, L.C.; Caldwell, T.L.; Calin-Jageman, R.J.; Capaldi, C.A.; Carfagno, N.S.; Chasten, K.T.; Cleeremans, A.; Connell, L.; DeCicco, J. M.; Dijkstra, K.; Fischer, A.H.; Foroni, F.; Hess, U.; Holmes, K.J.; Jones, J.L.H.; Klein, O.; Koch, C.; Korb, S.; Lewinski, P.; Liao, J.D.; Lund, S.; Lupianez, J.; Lynott, D.; Nance, C.N.; Oosterwijk, S.; Ozdoğru, A.A.; Pacheco-Unguetti, A.P.; Pearson, B.; Powis, C.; Riding, S.; Roberts, T.A.; Rumiati, R.I.; Senden, M.; Shea-Shumsky, N.B.; Sobocko, K.; Soto, J.A.; Steiner, T.G.; Talarico, J.M.; van Allen, Z.M.; Vandekerckhove, M.; Wainwright, B.; Wayand, J.F.; Zeelenberg, R.; Zetzer, E.E.; Zwaan, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    According to the facial feedback hypothesis, people’s affective responses can be influenced by their own facial expression (e.g., smiling, pouting), even when their expression did not result from their emotional experiences. For example, Strack, Martin, and Stepper (1988) instructed participants to

  16. Design and characterization of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yener, Serra

    This thesis presents modeling and prototype fabrication and characterization of new types of piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotors. Our approach in designing these piezoelectric motors was: (i) to simplify the structure including the poling configuration of piezoelectric elements used in the stator and (ii) to reduce the number of components in order to decrease the cost and enhance the driving reliability. There are two different types of piezoelectric motors designed throughout this research. The first of these designs consists of a metal tube, on which two piezoelectric ceramic plates poled in thickness direction, were bonded. Two orthogonal bending modes of the hollow cylinder were superimposed resulting in a rotational vibration. Since the structure and poling configuration of the active piezoelectric elements used in the stator are simple, this motor structure is very suitable for miniaturization. Moreover, a single driving source can excite two bending modes at the same time, thus generate a wobble motion. Three types of prototypes are included in this design. The piezoelectric stator structure is the same for all. However, the dimensions of the motors are reduced by almost 50 percent. Starting with a 10 mm long stator, we reached to 4 mm in the last prototype. The initial diameter was 2.4 mm, which was reduced to 1.6 mm. In the final design, the rotor part of the motor was changed resulting in the reduction in the number of components. In terms of driving circuit, a single driving source was enough to run the motors and a conventional switching power supply type resonant L-C circuit was used. A simple motor structure with a simple driving circuit were combined successfully and fabricated inexpensively. The second design is a shear type piezoelectric linear motor. The behavior of a single rectangular piezoelectric shear plate was analyzed and after optimizing the dimensions and the mode characteristics, a prototype was fabricated. The prototype consists of

  17. Chromatic bifocus alignment system for SR stepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, Tsutomu

    1991-01-01

    A new alignment system developed for synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray stepper is described. The alignment system has three key elements as follows. The first is a chromatic bifocus optics which observe high contrast bright images of alignment marks printed on a mask and a wafer. The second is broad band light illumination to observe the wafer alignment mark images which is unaffected by resist film coated on a wafer. The third is a new correlation function which is used in measuring of displacement between a mask and a wafer. The alignment system has achieved alignment accuracy on the order of 0.01 μm. The experimental results of this alignment system are discussed in this paper. (author)

  18. Registered Replication Report: Strack, Martin, & Stepper (1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Alberto; Adams, Reginald B; Albohn, Daniel N; Allard, Eric S; Beek, Titia; Benning, Stephen D; Blouin- Hudon, Eve-Marie; Bulnes, Luis Carlo; Caldwell, Tracy L; Calin-Jageman, Robert J; Capaldi, Colin A; Carfagno, Nicholas S; Chasten, Kelsie T; Cleeremans, Axel; Connell, Louise; DeCicco, Jennifer M.; Dijkhoff, Laura; Dijkstra, Katinka; Fischer, Agneta H; Foroni, Francesco; Gronau, Quentin F; Hess, Ursula; Holmes, Kevin J; Jones, Jacob L H; Klein, Olivier; Koch, Christopher; Korb, Sebastian; Lewinski, Peter; Liao, Julia D; Lund, Sophie; Lupiáñez, Juan; Lynott, Dermot; Nance, Christin N; Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Özdog˘ru, Asil Ali; Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Pearson, Bethany; Powis, Christina; Riding, Sarah; Roberts, Tomi-Ann; Rumiati, Raffaella I; Senden, Morgane; Shea-Shumsky, Noah B; Sobocko, Karin; Soto, Jose A; Steiner, Troy G; Talarico, Jennifer M; vanAllen, Zack M; Wagenmakers, E-J; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Wainwright, Bethany; Wayand, Joseph F; Zeelenberg, Rene; Zetzer, Emily E; Zwaan, Rolf A

    2016-11-01

    According to the facial feedback hypothesis, people's affective responses can be influenced by their own facial expression (e.g., smiling, pouting), even when their expression did not result from their emotional experiences. For example, Strack, Martin, and Stepper (1988) instructed participants to rate the funniness of cartoons using a pen that they held in their mouth. In line with the facial feedback hypothesis, when participants held the pen with their teeth (inducing a "smile"), they rated the cartoons as funnier than when they held the pen with their lips (inducing a "pout"). This seminal study of the facial feedback hypothesis has not been replicated directly. This Registered Replication Report describes the results of 17 independent direct replications of Study 1 from Strack et al. (1988), all of which followed the same vetted protocol. A meta-analysis of these studies examined the difference in funniness ratings between the "smile" and "pout" conditions. The original Strack et al. (1988) study reported a rating difference of 0.82 units on a 10-point Likert scale. Our meta-analysis revealed a rating difference of 0.03 units with a 95% confidence interval ranging from -0.11 to 0.16. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. System For Characterizing Three-Phase Brushless dc Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

    1996-01-01

    System of electronic hardware and software developed to automate measurements and calculations needed to characterize electromechanical performances of three-phase brushless dc motors, associated shaft-angle sensors needed for commutation, and associated brushless tachometers. System quickly takes measurements on all three phases of motor, tachometer, and shaft-angle sensor simultaneously and processes measurements into performance data. Also useful in development and testing of motors with not only three phases but also two, four, or more phases.

  20. Characterization of metals emitted from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J; Lough, Glynis C; Shafer, Martin M; Christensen, William F; Arndt, Michael F; DeMinter, Jeffrey T; Park, June-Soo

    2006-03-01

    A systematic approach was used to quantify the metals present in particulate matter emissions associated with on-road motor vehicles. Consistent sampling and chemical analysis techniques were used to determine the chemical composition of particulate matter less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10*) and particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), including analysis of trace metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Four sources of metals were analyzed in emissions associated with motor vehicles: tailpipe emissions from gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles, brake wear, tire wear, and resuspended road dust. Profiles for these sources were used in a chemical mass balance (CMB) model to quantify their relative contributions to the metal emissions measured in roadway tunnel tests in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Roadway tunnel measurements were supplemented by parallel measurements of atmospheric particulate matter and associated metals at three urban locations: Milwaukee and Waukesha, Wisconsin, and Denver, Colorado. Ambient aerosol samples were collected every sixth day for one year and analyzed by the same chemical analysis techniques used for the source samples. The two Wisconsin sites were studied to assess the spatial differences, within one urban airshed, of trace metals present in atmospheric particulate matter. The measurements were evaluated to help understand source and seasonal trends in atmospheric concentrations of trace metals. ICP-MS methods have not been widely used in analyses of ambient aerosols for metals despite demonstrated advantages over traditional techniques. In a preliminary study, ICP-MS techniques were used to assess the leachability of trace metals present in atmospheric particulate matter samples and motor vehicle source samples in a synthetic lung fluid.

  1. Development of Motor Bearings for a New SADA (BepiColombo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuser, J.; Bachman, R.; Bergrath, B.; Heinrich, B.; Zemann, J.

    2013-09-01

    The special requirements of the new MPO Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) developed for the BepiColombo program demanded also new ball bearing designs. In addition to typical requirements for other bearings in space mechanisms, the BepiColombo mission is characterized by a non-operating time of six years at extreme environmental conditions. In cooperation with RUAG Space CEROBEAR has developed different types of ball bearings for this SADA including motor bearings for the drive, a customized stepper motor.The purpose of this paper is to present and summarize the results of the development of the motor bearings of the SADA.

  2. Analysis of the Characteristics of a Rotary Stepper Micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Junji; Mizuma, Toshinari; Masunaga, Masakazu; Mochizuki, Shunsuke; Sarajic, Edin; Yamahata, Christophe; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    A 3-phase electrostatic stepper micromotor was developed. To improve its performance for actual use, we have conducted numerical simulation to optimize the design. An improved simulation method is needed for calculation of various cases. To conduct circuit simulation of this micromotor, its structure is simplified, and a function for computing the force excited by the electrostatic field is added to the circuit simulator. We achieved a reasonably accurate simulation. We also considered an optimal drive waveform to achieve low-voltage operation.

  3. Parameter Optimization and Electrode Improvement of Rotary Stepper Micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Junji; Mizuma, Toshinari; Mochizuki, Shunsuke; Sarajlic, Edin; Yamahata, Christophe; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    We developed a three-phase electrostatic stepper micromotor and performed a numerical simulation to improve its performance for practical use and to optimize its design. We conducted its circuit simulation by simplifying its structure, and the effect of springback force generated by supported mechanism using flexures was considered. And we considered new improvement method for electrodes. This improvement and other parameter optimizations achieved the low voltage drive of micromotor.

  4. Desarrollo de un drive para motores paso a paso y aplicación del filtro de Kalman para el sistema de colimación del LHC = Development of a stepper motor drive and Kalman Filter application for the LHC collimation system

    OpenAIRE

    Picatoste Ruilope, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Este proyecto describe el trabajo realizado durante 14 meses en una estancia en prácticas para estudiantes del CERN. El trabajo consiste en el desarrollo, implementación y testeo de un drive para motores paso a paso que se utilizará en el sistema de colimación del LHC. Se propone así mismo la utilización del filtro de Kalman para obtener una estimación del ángulo, desarrollandose una implementación del mismo aplicable en tiempo real.

  5. Selective detection and characterization of nanoparticles from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Murray V; Klems, Joseph P; Zordan, Christopher A; Pennington, M Ross; Smith, James N

    2013-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that exposure to motor vehicle emissions increases the probability of heart attacks, asthma attacks, and hospital visits among at-risk individuals. However, while many studies have focused on measurements of ambient nanoparticles near highways, they have not focused on specific road-level domains, such as intersections near population centers. At these locations, very intense spikes in particle number concentration have been observed. These spikes have been linked to motor vehicle activity and have the potential to increase exposure dramatically. Characterizing both the contribution and composition of these spikes is critical in developing exposure models and abatement strategies. To determine the contribution of the particle spikes to the ambient number concentration, we implemented wavelet-based algorithms to isolate the particle spikes from measurements taken during the summer and winter of 2009 in Wilmington, Delaware, adjacent to a roadway intersection that approximately 28,000 vehicles pass through daily. These measurements included both number concentration and size distributions recorded once every second by a condensation particle counter (CPC*; TSI, Inc., St. Paul, MN) and a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). The high-frequency portion of the signal, consisting of a series of abrupt spikes in number concentration that varied in length from a few seconds to tens of seconds, accounted for 3% to 35% of the daily ambient number concentration, with spike contributions sometimes greater than 50% of hourly number concentrations. When the data were weighted by particle volume, this portion of the signal contributed an average of 10% to 20% to the daily concentration of particulate matter (PM) vehicles accelerated after a red traffic light turned green. As the distance or transit time from emission to sampling increased, the size distribution shifted to a larger particle size, which confirmed the source assignments. To determine the

  6. Characterizing Sources of Small DC Motor Noise and Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Thung Cho

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Small direct current (DC motors are widely used due to their low cost and compact structure. Small DC motors of various designs are available on the market in different sizes. The smaller the motor, the more closely it may be used by individuals. Contrary to the size and simplicity of these motors in terms of structural design, sources of motor noise and vibration can be quite diverse and complicated. In this study, the source of motor noise and vibration was visualized over a very wide range of frequencies. The particle velocity of the motor was reconstructed from nearfield sound pressure measurements of motor noise. In addition to noncontact measurements conducted on a motor running at constant speed, the particle velocity of a stationary motor due to the impulse of an impact hammer was measured with an accelerometer. Furthermore, motor noise was measured under motor run-up conditions with different rotational speeds. As a result, by combination of these three methods, the sources of motor noise were accurately identified over a wide range of frequencies.

  7. Acoustic Characterization of a Stationary Field Synchronous Motor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woodward, E

    2001-01-01

    .... We investigate the gross acoustic signature of a notional stationary field synchronous motor utilized as a marine propulsion motor in a naval combatant using the following methodology: (1) model the forces...

  8. Installation and initial operation of the Suss Advanced Lithography Model 4 X-ray Stepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, G.M.; Wallace, J.P.; Brodsky, E.L.; Leonard, Q.J.; Reilly, M.T.; Anderson, P.D.; Lee, W.K.; Cerrina, F.; Simon, K.

    1996-01-01

    A Suss Advanced Lithography X-ray Stepper designed as a production tool for high throughput in the sub-quarter-micron device range has been installed and is being commissioned at the University of Wisconsin close-quote s Center for X-ray Lithography (CXrL). Illumination for the stepper is provided by a scanning beamline designed and constructed at CXrL. The beamline optical components are a gold-coated plane mirror, a 1-micron-thick silicon carbide window, and a 25-micron-thick beryllium exit window. Beamline features include synchronized scanning of the mirror and exit window, variable scan velocity to compensate for reflectivity changes as a function of incident angle, and a horizontal oscillation of the beryllium window during vertical scanning to average the effects of nonuniform beryllium window transmission. A helium purged snout transports the x-rays from the beamline exit window, to the exposure plane in the stepper. This snout is retractable to allow for the loading and unloading of masks into the stepper. The motions of the mirror, exit window, and snout are computer controlled by a LABVIEW program that communicates with the stepper control software. The design of the beamline and initial operating experiences with the beamline and stepper will be discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Underground structure characterization using motor vehicles as passive seismic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Rector, J.; Vaidya, S.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to detect and characterize underground voids will be critical to the success of On-Site Inspections (OSI) as mandated by the nuclear Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs may be conducted in order to successfully locate the Ground Zero of underground tests as well as infrastructure related to testing. Recently, our team has shown the potential of a new technique to detect underground objects using the amplitude of seismic surface waves generated by motor vehicles. In an experiment conducted in June, 2009 we were able to detect an abandoned railroad tunnel by recognizing a clear pattern in the surface waves scattered by the tunnel, using a signal generated by driving a car on a dirt road across the tunnel. Synthetic experiments conducted using physically realistic wave-equation models further suggest that the technique can be readily applied to detecting underground features: it may be possible to image structures of importance to OSI simply by laying out an array of geophones (or using an array already in place for passive listening for event aftershocks) and driving vehicles around the site. We present evidence from a set of field experiments and from synthetic modeling and inversion studies to illustrate adaptations of the technique for OSI. Signature of an abandoned underground railroad tunnel at Donner Summit, CA. To produce this image, a line of geophones was placed along a dirt road perpendicular to the tunnel (black box) and a single car was driven along the road. A normalized mean power-spectrum is displayed on a log scale as a function of meters from the center of the tunnel. The top of the tunnel was 18m below ground surface. The tunnel anomaly is made up of a shadow (light) directly above the tunnel and amplitude build-up (dark) on either side of the tunnel. The size of the anomaly (6 orders of magnitude) suggests that the method can be extended to find deep structures at greater distances from the source and receivers.

  10. E-beam direct write versus reticle/stepper technology for ASICS in small volume production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The pros and cons of using e-beam direct writing or reticles plus optical/UV steppers in fast prototyping and the small volume production of ASICs are discussed. The main conclusion is that fast prototyping is best achieved by e-beam direct write whereas small volume production of ASICs is best done via reticles and optical/UV stepping provided that the reticles are made in-house rather than by commercial maskhouses

  11. Motor learning characterization in people with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Íbis Ariana Peña; Massetti, Thais; Crocetta, Tânia Brusque; da Silva, Talita Dias; de Menezes, Lilian Del Ciello; Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira de Mello; Magalhães, Fernando Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder primarily characterized by deficits in social interaction, communication and implicit skill learning. To analyse the results of research on "motor learning" and the means used for measuring "autistic disorder". A systematic literature search was done using Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, BVS (virtual health library), and PsycINFO. We included articles that contained the keywords "autism" and "motor learning". The variables considered were the methodological aspects; results presented, and the methodological quality of the studies. A total of 42 studies were identified; 33 articles were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted from nine eligible studies and summarized. We concluded that although individuals with ASD showed performance difficulties in different memory and motor learning tasks, acquisition of skills still takes place in this population; however, this skill acquisition is related to heterogeneous events, occurring without the awareness of the individual.

  12. High-Performance Shuffle Motor Fabricated by Vertical Trench Isolation Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Yamahata, Christophe; Berenschot, Johan W.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Shuffle motors are electrostatic stepper micromotors that employ a built-in mechanical leverage to produce large output forces as well as high resolution displacements. These motors can generally move only over predefined paths that served as driving electrodes. Here, we present the design, modeling

  13. Micro-motor with screen-printed rotor magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speliotis, Thanassis; Niarchos, Dimitris; Meneroud, Patrick; Magnac, G.; Claeyssen, Franck; Pepin, John; Fermon, Claude; Pannetier, M.; Biziere, N.

    2007-01-01

    The feasibility to develop mini- and micro-magnetic electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) has been evaluated by prototyping of a single-phase stepper motor. The main targeted application of such device is the watch industry needing micro-motors in huge quantities at low cost. The motor part that required the greatest efforts has been the magnet, which cannot yet be found in film layer. The screen-printing technology has been used for the production of NdFeB-based magnets whose properties have been characterised. The thick film magnets have been integrated in the stepper motor specially designed for this purpose. The whole motor has been characterised and conclusions are drawn on the possibility of producing thick film magnets for magnetic MEMS

  14. Modelling a linear PM motor including magnetic saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polinder, H.; Slootweg, J.G.; Compter, J.C.; Hoeijmakers, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of linear permanent-magnet (PM) actuators increases in a wide variety of applications because of the high force density, robustness and accuracy. The paper describes the modelling of a linear PM motor applied in, for example, wafer steppers, including magnetic saturation. This is important

  15. Motor learning characterization in people with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íbis Ariana Peña de Moraes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder primarily characterized by deficits in social interaction, communication and implicit skill learning. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the results of research on "motor learning" and the means used for measuring "autistic disorder". METHODS: A systematic literature search was done using Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, BVS (virtual health library, and PsycINFO. We included articles that contained the keywords "autism" and "motor learning". The variables considered were the methodological aspects; results presented, and the methodological quality of the studies. RESULTS: A total of 42 studies were identified; 33 articles were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted from nine eligible studies and summarized. CONCLUSION: We concluded that although individuals with ASD showed performance difficulties in different memory and motor learning tasks, acquisition of skills still takes place in this population; however, this skill acquisition is related to heterogeneous events, occurring without the awareness of the individual.

  16. Characterization of atmospheric aerosol near motor way: Bassa Valle Susa (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berico, M.; Castellani, C.M.; Formignani, M.

    1995-10-01

    Results related to the experimental measurement campaign to characterize atmospheric aerosol carried out near Avigliana (Turin) from 18 to 22 October 1994 are presented in this paper. In the frame of the project aimed at evaluating the impact of the mountain motor way A-32 Rivoli-Bardonecchia-Frejus on the Susa Valley environment and on man the present measurement campaign is the second, and last, one envisaged in the project. The sampling place is in the initial part of the Susa Valley while previous measurements were carried out in the high part of it. Mass mean concentrations result greater in the low than in the high part of the valley approximately by a factor of 3. It is not possible to prove a difference between the 3 sampling positions transversely placed from 20 to 80 m. in comparison with the motor way axis. Whereas mass mean concentrations dropped substantially due to atmospheric precipitations during the last two measurement day. Aerosol granulometry in mass for the accumulation and the coarse mode do not differ from that evaluated in the high part of the valley and fitting granulometric parameters are consistent with those previously evalated

  17. Development and characterization of magnetic HTS bearings for a 400 kW synchronous HTS motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummeth, P; Ries, G; Nick, W; Neumueller, H-W

    2004-01-01

    Promising results of static and dynamic investigations on various journal type test bearings encouraged us to develop a scaled-up HTS bearing, able to carry the HTS rotor of a 400 kW superconducting motor. The stator, a YBCO hollow cylinder of 203 mm inner diameter and 250 mm length, is cooled by liquid nitrogen. Permanent magnet rings with a diameter of 200 mm were mounted on a shaft with alternating polarity. Characterization of the bearing capacity was performed with three different YBCO stators at temperatures between 66 and 86 K in a test set-up. A significant influence of the temperature was found. At a stator temperature of 72 K and a rotation frequency of 25 Hz (corresponding to nominal motor speed) a radial bearing force of 2700 N was measured for the shaft at centre position. Under rotation of the shaft the bearing capacity is reduced. At present our results range within the highest radial bearing capacities reported world-wide

  18. Impulsive behavior in adults with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: characterization of attentional, motor and cognitive impulsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy-Diniz, L; Fuentes, D; Leite, W Borges; Correa, H; Bechara, A

    2007-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Impulsivity persists in adults with ADHD and might be the basis of much of the impairment observed in the daily lives of such individuals. The objective of this study was to address the presence, and more importantly, the three dimensions of impulsivity: attentional, non-planning and motor, in how they may relate to neuropsychological mechanisms of impulse control. We studied a sample of 50 adults with ADHD and 51 healthy comparison controls using the Barratt Impulsivity Scale Version 11 (BIS), and neuropsychological tasks, namely the Continuous Performance Task (CPT-II) and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The ADHD group showed more signs of impulsivity on the three dimensions of BIS, committed more errors of omission and commission on the CPT-II, and made more disadvantageous choices on the IGT. These results support the existence of deficits related to three components of impulsivity: motor, cognitive, and attentional among adults with ADHD. Most importantly, this study also highlights the complementary nature of self-report questionnaires and neuropsychological tasks in the assessment of impulsivity in ADHD adults.

  19. Characterization of EEG Signals Using Wavelet Packet and Fuzzy Entropy in Motor Imagination Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Alexander Medina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Context:  Clinical rhythm analysis on advanced signal processing methods is very important in medical areas such as brain disorder diagnostic, epilepsy, sleep analysis, anesthesia analysis, and more recently in brain-computer interfaces (BCI. Method: Wavelet transform package is used on this work to extract brain rhythms of electroencephalographic signals (EEG related to motor imagination tasks. We used the Competition BCI 2008 database for this characterization. Using statistical functions we obtained features that characterizes brain rhythms, which are discriminated using different classifiers; they were evaluated using a 10-fold cross validation criteria. Results: The classification accuracy achieved 81.11% on average, with a degree of agreement of 61%, indicating a "suitable" concordance, as it has been reported in the literature. An analysis of relevance showed the concentration of characteristics provided in the nodes as a result of Wavelet decomposition, as well as the characteristics that more information content contribute to improve the separability decision region for the classification task. Conclusions: The proposed method can be used as a reference to support future studies focusing on characterizing EEG signals oriented to the imagination of left and right hand movement, considering that our results proved to compared favourably to those reported in the literature. Language: Spanish.

  20. Development of EPICS based beam-line experimental control employing motor controller for precision positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuli, Anupriya; Jain, Rajiv; Vora, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    In a Synchrotron Radiation Source the beamline experiments are carried out in radiation prone environment, inside the hutch, which demands to conduct experiments remotely. These experiments involves instrument control and data acquisition from various devices. Another factor which attributes to system complexity is precise positioning of sample and placement of detectors. A large number of stepper motors are engaged for achieving the required precision positioning. This work is a result of development of Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) based control system to interface a stepper motor controller developed indigenously by Laser Electronics Support Division of RRCAT. EPICS is an internationally accepted open source software environment which follows toolkit approach and standard model paradigm. The operator interface for the control system software was implemented using CSS BOY. The system was successfully tested for Ethernet based remote access. The developed control software comprises of an OPI and alarm handler (EPICS ALH). Both OPI and ALH are linked with PV's defined in database files. The development process resulted into a set of EPICS based commands for controlling stepper motor. These commands are independent of operator interface, i.e. stepper motor can be controlled by using these set of commands directly on EPICS prompt. This command set is illustrated in the above table. EPICS Alarm Handler was also tested independently by running these commands on EPIC prompt. If not using ALH, operator can read the alarm status of a PV using 'SEVR' and 'STAT' attributes. (author)

  1. Characterization of beam position monitors in two-dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, J.; Gilpatrick, D.; Neri, F.; Shurter, B.

    1992-01-01

    We describe characterization of a beam position measuring system. We used an automatic test fixture to map the response in two dimensions of dual-axis beam position monitors (BPMs) and their associated ratio-signal processing electronics and applied signals to a thin wire whose position is controlled by stepper motor actuators on x-y stages. The wire may be moved within a circular area of up to 50 mm in diameter with 5-μm accuracy. The resulting signals picked up by a BPM are recorded for each point on a grid within the mapping area. We present a comparison of the theoretical with the actual response, as well as techniques employed to calculate suitable correction functions that accurately predict the beam position over at least 80% of the probe's inner aperture. (Author) 4 figs., 5 refs

  2. Six-minute stepper test: a valid clinical exercise tolerance test for COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosbois JM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available JM Grosbois,1,2 C Riquier,3 B Chehere,4 J Coquart,5 H Béhal,6 F Bart,2 B Wallaert,2,3 C Chenivesse3 1FormAction Santé, Pérenchies, France; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Germon et Gauthier, Béthune, France; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine Immunology and Allergy, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Competence Center for rare lung diseases, University Lille 2, Lille, France; 4EA 7369, URePSSS, Multidisciplinary Research Unit in Sport Health Society, University Lille 2, Lille, France; 5Faculty of Sport Sciences, Sports and Physical Activity, Center for Ecology and Transformation, University of Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan, France; 6Department of Statistical Methods and Biostatistics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, University of Lille Nord, Lille, France Introduction: Exercise tolerance testing is an integral part of the pulmonary rehabilitation (PR management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The 6-minute stepper test (6MST is a new, well-tolerated, reproducible exercise test, which can be performed without any spatial constraints.Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the results of the 6MST to those obtained during a 6-minute walk test (6MWT and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET in a cohort of COPD patients.Methods: Ninety-one COPD patients managed by outpatient PR and assessed by 6MST, 6MWT, and CPET were retrospectively included in this study. Correlations between the number of steps on the 6MST, the distance covered on the 6MWT, oxygen consumption, and power at the ventilatory threshold and at maximum effort during CPET were analyzed before starting PR, and the improvement on the 6MST and 6MWT was compared after PR.Results: The number of steps on the 6MST was significantly correlated with the distance covered on the 6MWT (r=0.56; P<0.0001, the power at maximum effort (r=0.46; P<0.0001, and oxygen consumption at maximum effort (r=0.39; P<0

  3. Recumbent Stepper Submaximal Test response is reliable in adults with and without stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Wilson

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the reliability of the exercise response (predicted peak VO2 using the total body recumbent stepper (TBRS submaximal exercise test in: 1 healthy adults 20-70 years of age and 2 adults participating in inpatient stroke rehabilitation. We hypothesized that the predicted peak VO2 (Visit 1 would have an excellent relationship (r > 0.80 to predicted peak VO2 (Visit 2. We also wanted to test whether the exercise response at Visit 1 and Visit 2 would be significantly different.Healthy adults were recruited from the Kansas City metro area. Stroke participants were recruited during their inpatient rehabilitation stay. Eligible participants completed 2 TBRS submaximal exercise tests between 24 hours and 5 days at similar times of day.A total of 70 participants completed the study. Healthy adults (n = 50 were 36 M, 38.1 ± 10.1 years and stroke participants (n = 20 were 15 M, 62.5 ± 11.8 years of age. The exercise response was reliable for healthy adults (r = 0.980, p<0.01 and stroke participants (r = 0.987, p<0.01 between Visit 1 and Visit 2. Repeated Measures ANOVA showed a significant difference in predicted values between the two visits for healthy adults (47.2 ± 8.4 vs 47.7 ± 8.5 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; p = 0.04 but not for stroke participants (25.0 ± 9.9 vs 25.3 ± 11.4 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; p = 0.65.These results suggest that the exercise response is reliable using the TBRS submaximal exercise test in this cohort of healthy adults and stroke participants.

  4. Automatically characterizing sensory-motor patterns underlying reach-to-grasp movements on a physical depth inversion illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian eNguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, movement variability has been of great interest to motor control physiologists as it constitutes a physical, quantifiable form of sensory feedback to aid in planning, updating, and executing complex actions. In marked contrast, the psychological and psychiatric arenas mainly rely on verbal descriptions and interpretations of behavior via observation. Consequently, a large gap exists between the body’s manifestations of mental states and their descriptions, creating a disembodied approach in the psychological and neural sciences: contributions of the peripheral nervous system to central control, executive functions, and decision-making processes are poorly understood. How do we shift from a psychological, theorizing approach to characterize complex behaviors more objectively?We introduce a novel, objective, statistical framework and visuomotor control paradigm to help characterize the stochastic signatures of minute fluctuations in overt movements during a visuomotor task. We also quantify a new class of covert movements that spontaneously occur without instruction. These are largely beneath awareness, but inevitably present in all behaviors. The inclusion of these motions in our analyses introduces a new paradigm in sensory-motor integration. As it turns out, these movements, often overlooked as motor noise, contain valuable information that contributes to the emergence of different kinesthetic percepts. We apply these new methods to help better understand perception-action loops. To investigate how perceptual inputs affect reach behavior, we use a depth inversion illusion: the same physical stimulus produces two distinct depth percepts that are nearly orthogonal, enabling a robust comparison of competing percepts. We find that the moment-by-moment empirically estimated motor output variability can inform us of the participants’ perceptual states, detecting physiologically relevant signals from the peripheral nervous system that

  5. A Novel Approach for Brushless DC Motors Characterization in Drones Based on Chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon L. V. Medeiros

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel technique named Signal Analysis based on Chaos using Density of Maxima (SAC-DM is presented to analyze Brushless Direct Current (BLDC motors behavior. These motors are vastly used in electric vehicles, especially in Drones. The proposed approach is compared with the traditional Fast-Fourier Transform (FFT and the experiments analyzing a BLDC motor of a drone demonstrates similar results but computationally simpler than that. The main contribution of this technique is the possibility to analyze signals in time domain, instead of the frequency domain. It is possible to identify working and faulty behavior with less computational resources than the traditional approach.

  6. Characterization of Some Morphological Parameters of Orbicularis Oculi Motor Neurons in the Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    McNeal, DW; Ge, J; Herrick, JL; Stilwell-Morecraft, KS; Morecraft, RJ

    2007-01-01

    The primate facial nucleus is a prominent brainstem structure that is composed of cell bodies giving rise to axons forming the facial nerve. It is musculotopically organized, but we know little about the morphological features of its motor neurons. Using the Lucifer yellow intracellular filling method, we examined 17 morphological parameters of motor neurons innervating the monkey orbicularis oculi (OO) muscle, which plays an important role in eye lid closure and voluntary and emotional facia...

  7. Final Report Phase I Study to Characterize the Market Potential for Non-Motorized Travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Reuscher, Tim [Macrosys; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The idea of livable communities suggests that people should have the option to utilize non-motorized travel (NMT), specifically walking and bicycling, to conduct their daily tasks. Forecasting personal travel by walk and bike is necessary as part of regional transportation planning, and requires fine detail not only about individual travel, but also on transportation and neighborhood infrastructure. In an attempt to characterize the 'market' potential for NMT, the Office of Planning, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) funded the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to conduct a study. The objectives of this effort were to identify factors that influence communities to walk and bike and to examine why, or why not, travelers walk and bike in their communities. This study relied on information collected under the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) as the major source of data, and was supplemented with data from the American Community Survey (ACS), educational survey, health, employment, and others. Initial statistical screening methods were applied to sort through over 400 potential predictor variables, and examined with various measures (e.g., walk trip per person, walk mileage per person, bike trip per person, bike mileage per person) as the dependent variables. The best geographic level of detail used in the modeling for this study was determined to be the Census block group level for walking and Census tract level for biking. The need for additional supplemental private data (i.e., Walk Scores and Nielsen employment data), and geospatial information that reflects land use and physical environments, became evident after an examination of findings from the initial screening models. To be feasible, in terms of costs and time, the geographic scale of the study region was scaled down to nine selected NHTS add-on regions. These regions were chosen based on various criteria including transit

  8. Characterization of f-actin tryptophan phosphorescence in the presence and absence of tryptophan-free myosin motor domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bódis, Emöke; Strambini, Giovanni B; Gonnelli, Margherita; Málnási-Csizmadia, András; Somogyi, Béla

    2004-08-01

    The effect of binding the Trp-free motor domain mutant of Dictyostelium discoideum, rabbit skeletal muscle myosin S1, and tropomyosin on the dynamics and conformation of actin filaments was characterized by an analysis of steady-state tryptophan phosphorescence spectra and phosphorescence decay kinetics over a temperature range of 140-293 K. The binding of the Trp-free motor domain mutant of D. discoideum to actin caused red shifts in the phosphorescence spectrum of two internal Trp residues of actin and affected the intrinsic lifetime of each emitter, decreasing by roughly twofold the short phosphorescence lifetime components (tau(1) and tau(2)) and increasing by approximately 20% the longest component (tau(3)). The alteration of actin phosphorescence by the motor protein suggests that i), structural changes occur deep down in the core of actin and that ii), subtle changes in conformation appear also on the surface but in regions distant from the motor domain binding site. When actin formed complexes with skeletal S1, an extra phosphorescence lifetime component appeared (tau(4), twice as long as tau(3)) in the phosphorescence decay that is absent in the isolated proteins. The lack of this extra component in the analogous actin-Trp-free motor domain mutant of D. discoideum complex suggests that it should be assigned to Trps in S1 that in the complex attain a more compact local structure. Our data indicated that the binding of tropomyosin to actin filaments had no effect on the structure or flexibility of actin observable by this technique.

  9. Characterization of fine motor development: dynamic analysis of children's drawing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiushi; Luo, Jianfei; Wu, Zhongcheng; Shen, Fei; Sun, Zengwu

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated children's fine motor development by analyzing drawing trajectories, kinematics and kinetics. Straight lines drawing task and circles drawing task were performed by using a force sensitive tablet. Forty right-handed and Chinese mother-tongue students aged 6-12, attending classes from grade 1 to 5, were engaged in the experiment. Three spatial parameters, namely cumulative trace length, vector length of straight line and vertical diameter of circle were determined. Drawing duration, mean drawing velocity, and number of peaks in stroke velocity profile (NPV) were derived as kinematic parameters. Besides mean normal force, two kinetic indices were proposed: normalized force angle regulation (NFR) and variation of fine motor control (VFC) for circles drawing task. The maturation and automation of fine motor ability were reflected by increased drawing velocity, reduced drawing duration, NPV and NFR, with decreased VFC in circles drawing task. Grade and task main effects as well as significant correlations between age and parameters suggest that factors such as schooling, age and task should be considered in the assessment of fine motor skills. Compared with kinematic parameters, findings of NFR and VFC revealed that kinetics is another important perspective in the analysis of fine motor movement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of motor units in behaving adult mice shows a wide primary range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Laura K; Tresch, Matthew C; Heckman, C J; Manuel, Marin; Tysseling, Vicki M

    2014-08-01

    The mouse is essential for genetic studies of motor function in both normal and pathological states. Thus it is important to consider whether the structure of motor output from the mouse is in fact analogous to that recorded in other animals. There is a striking difference in the basic electrical properties of mouse motoneurons compared with those in rats, cats, and humans. The firing evoked by injected currents produces a unique frequency-current (F-I) function that emphasizes recruitment of motor units at their maximum force. These F-I functions, however, were measured in anesthetized preparations that lacked two key components of normal synaptic input: high levels of synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. Recent studies suggest that the alterations in the F-I function due to these two components are essential for recreating firing behavior of motor units in human subjects. In this study we provide the first data on firing patterns of motor units in the awake mouse, focusing on steady output in quiet stance. The resulting firing patterns did not match the predictions from the mouse F-I behaviors but instead revealed rate modulation across a remarkably wide range (10-60 Hz). The low end of the firing range may be due to changes in the F-I relation induced by synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. The high end of the range may indicate that, unlike other species, quiet standing in the mouse involves recruitment of relatively fast-twitch motor units. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Oral-motor and electromyographic characterization of patients submitted to open a nd closed reductions of mandibular condyle fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda Pagliotto da; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    To characterize the oral-motor system of adults with mandibular condyle facture comparing the performance of individuals submitted to open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) and closed reduction with mandibulomaxillary fixation (CRMMF). Study participants were 26 adults divided into three groups: G1 - eight individuals submitted to ORIF for correction of condyle fracture; G2 - nine individuals submitted to CRMMF for correction of condyle fracture; CG - nine healthy volunteers with no alterations of the orofacial myofunctional system. All participants underwent the same clinical protocol: assessment of the orofacial myofunctional system; evaluation of the mandibular range of motion; and surface electromyography (sEMG) of the masticatory muscles. Results indicated that patients with condyle fractures from both groups presented significant differences compared with those from the control group in terms of mobility of the oral-motor organs, mastication, and deglutition. Regarding the measures obtained for mandibular movements, participants with facial fractures from both groups showed significant differences compared with those from the control group, indicating greater restrictions in mandibular motion. As for the analysis of sEMG results, G1 patients presented more symmetrical masseter activation during the task of maximal voluntary teeth clenching. Patients with mandibular condyle fractures present significant deficits in posture, mobility, and function of the oral-motor system. The type of medical treatment does not influence the results of muscle function during the first six months after fracture reduction. Individuals submitted to ORIF of the condyle fracture present more symmetrical activation of the masseter muscle.

  12. QTAIM and Stress Tensor Characterization of Intramolecular Interactions Along Dynamics Trajectories of a Light-Driven Rotary Molecular Motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Huan, Guo; Momen, Roya; Azizi, Alireza; Xu, Tianlv; Kirk, Steven R; Filatov, Michael; Jenkins, Samantha

    2017-06-29

    A quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and stress tensor analysis was applied to analyze intramolecular interactions influencing the photoisomerization dynamics of a light-driven rotary molecular motor. For selected nonadiabatic molecular dynamics trajectories characterized by markedly different S 1 state lifetimes, the electron densities were obtained using the ensemble density functional theory method. The analysis revealed that torsional motion of the molecular motor blades from the Franck-Condon point to the S 1 energy minimum and the S 1 /S 0 conical intersection is controlled by two factors: greater numbers of intramolecular bonds before the hop-time and unusually strongly coupled bonds between the atoms of the rotor and the stator blades. This results in the effective stalling of the progress along the torsional path for an extended period of time. This finding suggests a possibility of chemical tuning of the speed of photoisomerization of molecular motors and related molecular switches by reshaping their molecular backbones to decrease or increase the degree of coupling and numbers of intramolecular bond critical points as revealed by the QTAIM/stress tensor analysis of the electron density. Additionally, the stress tensor scalar and vector analysis was found to provide new methods to follow the trajectories, and from this, new insight was gained into the behavior of the S 1 state in the vicinity of the conical intersection.

  13. I-line stepper based overlay evaluation method for wafer bonding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulse, P.; Sasai, K.; Schulz, K.; Wietstruck, M.

    2018-03-01

    In the last decades the semiconductor technology has been driven by Moore's law leading to high performance CMOS technologies with feature sizes of less than 10 nm [1]. It has been pointed out that not only scaling but also the integration of novel components and technology modules into CMOS/BiCMOS technologies is becoming more attractive to realize smart and miniaturized systems [2]. Driven by new applications in the area of communication, health and automation, new components and technology modules such as BiCMOS embedded RF-MEMS, high-Q passives, Sibased microfluidics and InP-SiGe BiCMOS heterointegration have been demonstrated [3-6]. In contrast to standard VLSI processes fabricated on front side of the silicon wafer, these new technology modules additionally require to process the backside of the wafer; thus require an accurate alignment between the front and backside of the wafer. In previous work an advanced back to front side alignment technique and implementation into IHP's 0.25/0.13 µm high performance SiGe:C BiCMOS backside process module has been presented [7]. The developed technique enables a high resolution and accurate lithography on the backside of BiCMOS wafer for additional backside processing. In addition to the aforementioned back side process technologies, new applications like Through-Silicon Vias (TSV) for interposers and advanced substrate technologies for 3D heterogeneous integration demand not only single wafer fabrication but also processing of wafer stacks provided by temporary and permanent wafer bonding [8-9]. In this work, the non-contact infrared alignment system of the Nikon® i-line Stepper NSR-SF150 for both alignment and the overlay determination of bonded wafer stacks with embedded alignment marks are used to achieve an accurate alignment between the different wafer sides. The embedded field image alignment (FIA) marks of the interface and the device wafer top layer are measured in a single measurement job. By taking the

  14. Three dimensional motion capture applied to violin playing: A study on feasibility and characterization of the motor strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancillao, Andrea; Savastano, Bernardo; Galli, Manuela; Albertini, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    Playing string instruments requires advanced motor skills and a long training that is often spent in uncomfortable postures that may lead to injuries or musculoskeletal disorders. Thus, it is interesting to objectively characterize the motor strategy adopted by the players. In this work, we implemented a method for the quantitative analysis of the motor performance of a violin player. The proposed protocol takes advantage of an optoelectronic system and some infra-red reflecting markers in order to track player's motion. The method was tested on a professional violin player performing a legato bowing task. The biomechanical strategy of the upper limb and bow positioning were described by means of quantitative parameters and motion profiles. Measured quantities were: bow trajectory, angles, tracks, velocity, acceleration and jerk. A good repeatability of the bowing motion (CV < 2%) and high smoothness (jerk < 5 m/s 3 ) were observed. Motion profiles of shoulder, elbow and wrist were repeatable (CV < 7%) and comparable to the curves observed in other studies. Jerk and acceleration profiles demonstrated high smoothness in the ascending and descending phases of bowing. High variability was instead observed for the neck angle (CV ∼56%). "Quantitative" measurements, instead of "qualitative" observation, can support the diagnosis of motor disorders and the accurate evaluation of musicians' skills. The proposed protocol is a powerful tool for the description of musician's performance, that may be useful to document improvements in playing abilities and to adjust training strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nozzle erosion characterization and minimization for high-pressure rocket motor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian

    Understanding of the processes that cause nozzle throat erosion and developing methods for mitigation of erosion rate can allow higher operating pressures for advanced rocket motors. However, erosion of the nozzle throat region, which is a strong function of operating pressure, must be controlled to realize the performance gains of higher operating pressures. The objective of this work was the study the nozzle erosion rates at a broad range of pressures from 7 to 34.5 MPa (1,000 to 5,000 psia) using two different rocket motors. The first is an instrumented solidpropellant motor (ISPM), which uses two baseline solid propellants; one is a non-metallized propellant called Propellant S and the other is a metallized propellant called Propellant M. The second test rig is a non-metallized solid-propellant rocket motor simulator (RMS). The RMS is a gas rocket with the ability to vary the combustion-product species composition by systematically varying the flow rates of gaseous reactants. Several reactant mixtures were utilized in the study to determine the relative importance of different oxidizing species (such as H2O, OH, and CO2). Both test rigs are equipped with a windowed nozzle section for real-time X-ray radiography diagnostics of the instantaneous throat variations for deducing the instantaneous erosion rates. The nozzle test section for both motors can also incorporate a nozzle boundary-layer control system (NBLCS) as a means of nozzle erosion mitigation. The effectiveness of the NBLCS at preventing nozzle throat erosion was demonstrated for both the RMS and the ISPM motors at chamber pressures up to 34 MPa (4930 psia). All tests conducted with the NBLCS showed signs of coning of the propellant surface, leading to increased mass burning rate and resultant chamber pressure. Two correlations were developed for the nozzle erosion rates from solid propellant testing, one for metallized propellant and one for non-metallized propellants. The non-metallized propellant

  16. UNIFIED CONTROL STRUCTURE OF MULTI-TYPE INTERIOR PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. NORHISAM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the control strategy structure to extract the speed torque characteristic for the newly designed three phase Multi Type Interior Permanent Magnet Motor. The proposed structure with the driving circuits exhibit the performance of torque characteristics of the stepper motor and brushless motor with independent coil winding per phase especially used as an in-wheel motor in agricultural applications. Brushless Direct Current motors exhibit characteristics of generating high torque at high speed while the Permanent Magnet Stepper motors has characteristic of generating high torque at low speed. The typical characteristics of the above two are integrated in the proposed structure with a complex control structure that handle the switching complexity and speed control in real time. Thus, a specially designed driving system is essential to drive and control this special motor. The evaluation of the motor mechanical characteristics when applying load torque is also presented. The result determines the practical torque range applicable for each motor configuration and as combined machine.

  17. Characterizing and configuring motorized wedge for a new generation telecobalt machine in a treatment planning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinhikar Rajesh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new generation telecobalt unit, Theratron Equinox-80, (MDS Nordion, Canada has been evaluated. It is equipped with a single 60-degree motorized wedge (MW, four universal wedges (UW for 150, 300, 450 and 600. MW was configured in Eclipse (Varian, Palo Alto, USA 3D treatment planning system (TPS. The profiles and central axis depth doses (CADD were measured with radiation field analyzer blue water phantom for MW. These profiles and CADD for MW were compared with UW in a homogeneous phantom generated in Eclipse for various field sizes. The absolute dose was measured for a field size of 10 x 10 cm2 only in a MEDTEC water phantom at 10 cm depth with a 0.13 cc thimble ion chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Uppsala, Sweden and a NE electrometer (Nuclear Enterprises, UK. Measured dose with ion chamber was compared with the TPS predicted dose. MW angle was verified on the Equinox for four angles (15o, 30o, 45o and 60o. The variation in measured and calculated dose at 10 cm depth was within 2%. The measured and the calculated wedge angles were in well agreement within 2o. The motorized wedges were successfully configured in Eclipse for four wedge angles.

  18. Aging and defect characterization of motor-operated valves: progress based on NPAR strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program strategy is directed at carrying out comprehensive aging assessments in order to define and resolve issues related to aging (including service wear) of electrical and mechanical components and structures at operating reactor facilities and their possible impact on plant safety. This paper describes work recently completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory which applied the NPAR strategy to motor-operated valves (MOVs). The objective of the work was primarily to develop an understanding of the operating history and conditions and the failure modes of MOVs in nuclear plant service as a preliminary to identifying and recommending methods for trending aging degradation. A second objective was to demonstrate, using MOVs as an example, that the NPAR strategy can be applied to many electrical and mechanical components of nuclear power plants

  19. Characterization of Motor Control in Handwriting Difficulties in Children with or without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shao-Hsia; Yu, Nan-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to characterize handwriting deficits in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) using computerized movement analyses. Method: Seventy-two children (40 females, 32 males; mean age 7y, SD 7mo; range 6y 2mo to 7y 11mo) with handwriting deficits (33 with DCD, 39 without DCD); and 22 age- and…

  20. Characterization of age-related modifications of upper limb motor control strategies in a new dynamic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Paolo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past, several research groups have shown that when a velocity dependent force field is applied during upper limb movements subjects are able to deal with this external perturbation after some training. This adaptation is achieved by creating a new internal model which is included in the normal unperturbed motor commands to achieve good performance. The efficiency of this motor control mechanism can be compromised by pathological disorders or by muscular-skeletal modifications such as the ones due to the natural aging process. In this respect, the present study aimed at identifying the age-related modifications of upper limb motor control strategies during adaptation and de-adaptation processes in velocity dependent force fields. Methods Eight young and eight elderly healthy subjects were included in the experiment. Subjects were instructed to perform pointing movements in the horizontal plane both in a null field and in a velocity dependent force field. The evolution of smoothness and hand path were used to characterize the performance of the subjects. Furthermore, the ability of modulating the interactive torque has been used as a paradigm to explain the observed discoordinated patterns during the adaptation process. Results The evolution of the kinematics during the experiments highlights important behavioural differences between the two groups during the adaptation and de-adaptation processes. In young subjects the improvement of movement smoothness was in accordance with the expected learning trend related to the consolidation of the internal model. On the contrary, elders did not show a coherent learning process. The kinetic analysis pointed out the presence of different strategies for the compensation of the external perturbation: older people required an increased involvement of the shoulder with a different modulation of joint torque components during the evolution of the experiments. Conclusion The results

  1. RESULTS OF ACCELERATED LIFE TESTING OF LCLS-II CAVITY TUNER MOTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huque, Naeem [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Daly, Edward F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pischalnikov, Yuriy [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2018-04-01

    An Accelerated Life Test (ALT) of the Phytron stepper motor used in the LCLS-II cavity tuner has been conducted at JLab. Since the motor will reside inside the cryomodule, any failure would lead to a very costly and arduous repair. As such, the motor was tested for the equivalent of 30 lifetimes before being approved for use in the production cryomodules. The 9-cell LCLS-II cavity is simulated by disc springs with an equivalent spring constant. Plots of the motor position vs. tuner position ' measured via an installed linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) ' are used to measure motor motion. The titanium spindle was inspected for loss of lubrication. The motor passed the ALT, and is set to be installed in the LCLS-II cryomodules.

  2. A simple, compact, and rigid piezoelectric step motor with large step size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Lu, Qingyou

    2009-08-01

    We present a novel piezoelectric stepper motor featuring high compactness, rigidity, simplicity, and any direction operability. Although tested in room temperature, it is believed to work in low temperatures, owing to its loose operation conditions and large step size. The motor is implemented with a piezoelectric scanner tube that is axially cut into almost two halves and clamp holds a hollow shaft inside at both ends via the spring parts of the shaft. Two driving voltages that singly deform the two halves of the piezotube in one direction and recover simultaneously will move the shaft in the opposite direction, and vice versa.

  3. Development and Characterization of Fast Burning Solid Fuels/Propellants for Hybrid Rocket Motors with High Volumetric Efficiency

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposed work is to develop several fast burning solid fuels/fuel-rich solid propellants for hybrid rocket motor applications. In the...

  4. Characteristics Analysis and Comparison of High-Speed 4/2 and Hybrid 4/4 Poles Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Firsta Lukman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a characteristics analysis and performance comparison of high-speed two-phase 4/2 and hybrid single-phase 4/4 switched reluctance motors (SRMs. Although the motors are advantageous as high-speed drives, both conventional structures have high torque ripple as a result of the presence of the torque dead zone. In this paper, solutions to the torque dead zone problem for each motor are discussed. For the 4/2 SRM, a wide-rotor stepper-type is adopted, while for the 4/4 SRM, the structure is changed to a hybrid by adding permanent magnets (PMs. Both motors have a non-uniform air gap to modify their inductance profile, which leads to the elimination of the torque dead zone. A finite-element method was used to analyze the characteristics of each motor. Then, the manufactured motors were tested through experiments, and lastly, their performance was compared.

  5. Design and characterization of a microelectromechanical system electro-thermal linear motor with interlock mechanism for micro manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tengjiang; Zhao, Yulong; Li, Xiuyuan; Zhao, You; Bai, Yingwei

    2016-03-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a novel electro-thermal linear motor for micro manipulators is presented in this paper. The V-shape electro-thermal actuator arrays, micro lever, micro spring, and slider are introduced. In moving operation, the linear motor can move nearly 1 mm displacement with 100 μm each step while keeping the applied voltage as low as 17 V. In holding operation, the motor can stay in one particular position without consuming energy and no creep deformation is found. Actuation force of 12.7 mN indicates the high force generation capability of the device. Experiments of lifetime show that the device can wear over two million cycles of operation. A silicon-on-insulator wafer is introduced to fabricate a high aspect ratio structure and the chip size is 8.5 mm × 8.5 mm × 0.5 mm.

  6. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  7. Neurochemical, morphologic, and laminar characterization of cortical projection neurons in the cingulate motor areas of the macaque monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimchinsky, E. A.; Hof, P. R.; Young, W. G.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The primate cingulate gyrus contains multiple cortical areas that can be distinguished by several neurochemical features, including the distribution of neurofilament protein-enriched pyramidal neurons. In addition, connectivity and functional properties indicate that there are multiple motor areas in the cortex lining the cingulate sulcus. These motor areas were targeted for analysis of potential interactions among regional specialization, connectivity, and cellular characteristics such as neurochemical profile and morphology. Specifically, intracortical injections of retrogradely transported dyes and intracellular injection were combined with immunocytochemistry to investigate neurons projecting from the cingulate motor areas to the putative forelimb region of the primary motor cortex, area M1. Two separate groups of neurons projecting to area M1 emanated from the cingulate sulcus, one anterior and one posterior, both of which furnished commissural and ipsilateral connections with area M1. The primary difference between the two populations was laminar origin, with the anterior projection originating largely in deep layers, and the posterior projection taking origin equally in superficial and deep layers. With regard to cellular morphology, the anterior projection exhibited more morphologic diversity than the posterior projection. Commissural projections from both anterior and posterior fields originated largely in layer VI. Neurofilament protein distribution was a reliable tool for localizing the two projections and for discriminating between them. Comparable proportions of the two sets of projection neurons contained neurofilament protein, although the density and distribution of the total population of neurofilament protein-enriched neurons was very different in the two subareas of origin. Within a projection, the participating neurons exhibited a high degree of morphologic heterogeneity, and no correlation was observed between somatodendritic morphology and

  8. "Long life" DC brush motor for use on the Mars surveyor program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, David; Noon, Don

    1998-01-01

    DC brush motors have several qualities which make them very attractive for space flight applications. Their mechanical commutation is simple and lightweight, requiring no external sensing and control in order to function properly. They are extremely efficient in converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. Efficiencies over 80% are not uncommon, resulting in high power throughput to weight ratios. However, the inherent unreliability and short life of sliding electrical contacts, especially in vacuum, have driven previous programs to utilize complex brushless DC or the less efficient stepper motors. The Mars Surveyor Program (MSP'98) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) have developed a reliable "long life" brush type DC motor for operation in low temperature, low pressure CO2 and N2, utilizing silver-graphite brushes. The original intent was to utilize this same motor for SRTM's space operation, but the results thus far have been unsatisfactory in vacuum. This paper describes the design, test, and results of this development.

  9. Design of a control system for stepper motors with micro-metric precision employed in the beam emittance measurement of the Linac4 at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2207212; Dueñas Díaz, José Antonio

    A new linear accelerator (Linac4) is being designed to replace its predecessor (Linac2) at CERN. The new Linac4 will double the initial intensity giving an injection energy of up to 160 MeV. It will be an essential component of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To assess the quality of the beam, monitoring systems are placed along the beam pipe, being one of them devoted to measure its emittance, the so-called emittance scanner. The measurement of the emittance is important since it constitutes one of the two main parameters that limits the overall LHC performance, being the other parameter the energy of the beam. While the energy level of the beam can be modified during different phases at CERN, the beam emittance cannot; it is determined by the first source that produces the beam. The beam emittance directly influences the amount of particles colliding. For this purpose, the Linac4 emittance scanner will be placed on the very first step of the whole CERN accelerator complex right after the particles sour...

  10. Novel Synchronous Linear and Rotatory Micro Motors Based on Polymer Magnets with Organic and Inorganic Insulation Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas WALDSCHIK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report on the development of several synchronous motors with rotatory or linear movements. The synchronous micro motors are brushless DC motors or stepper motors with electrically controlled commutation consisting of a stator and a rotor. The rotor is mounted onto the stator and is adjusted by an integrated guidance. Inside the stator different coil systems are realized, like double layer sector coils or special nested coils. The coil systems can be controlled by three or six phases depending on the operational mode. Furthermore, inorganic insulation layers were used in order to reduce the thickness of the system. By this means four layers of electrical conductors can be realized especially for the 2D devices. The smallest diameter of the rotatory motor is 1 mm and could be successfully driven.

  11. Characterization of X-ray optics by soft X-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biltoft, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have constructed a soft x-ray diffractometer to characterize layered synthetic microstructures (LSMs). The source, sample stage, and counter sections of the diffractometer operate under vacuum. The design differs from most others in two respects: the preamplifier and amplifier that process pulses from the subatmospheric-pressure gas-flow proportional counter are located outside the vacuum chamber and are separated from the proportional counter by approximately 76 cm of shielded cable; in addition, the conventional gear-driven, theta-two-theta diffractometer motion is accomplished with synchronized stepper motors. Characterizations of several LSMs have yielded data on d-spacing (distance between layers of different composition), critical angle, and peak reflectivity. Future work includes incorporation of an improved laser alignment system, in vacuo sample articulation (in addition to the theta-two-theta diffractometer movements), and a higher-flux photon source with a close-coupled fluorescent target carousel. Such a capability will permit multiple-energy diffraction work in a single pumpdown cycle

  12. Instrumentation for characterizing materials and composed semiconductors for ionizing radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoal, Arquimedes J.A.; Leite, Adolfo M.B.; Nazzre, Fabio V.B.; Santos, Luiz A.P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the development of instrumentation for characterizing some type of ionizing radiation detectors. Those detectors are being manufactured by the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory at CRCN/Recife and can be used both on photon beam and with particles. Such detectors consist of semiconductor material in the form of films generated by oxide growing or by means of semiconductor material deposition in a substrate. Those materials can be made of metals, semi-metals, composites or semiconductor polymers. Prior to expose those detectors to ionizing radiation, it must be physically and electrically characterized. In this intention it was developed an electromechanical system. An electrical circuit was built to measure the signal from the detector and another circuit to control the movement of four probes (4-points technique) by using a stepper motor and the micro stepping technique avoiding damage to the detector. This system can be of interest to researchers that work with a sort of semiconductor materials in the form of thin film and in nanotechnological processes aiming the design of radiation ionizing detectors. (author)

  13. Characterization of atmospheric aerosol near motor way: Bassa Valle Susa (Italy); Caratterizzazione dell`aerosol atmosferico in prossimita` di un`autostrada: Bassa Valle Susa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berico, M.; Castellani, C.M.; Formignani, M. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1995-10-01

    Results related to the experimental measurement campaign to characterize atmospheric aerosol carried out near Avigliana (Turin) from 18 to 22 October 1994 are presented in this paper. In the frame of the project aimed at evaluating the impact of the mountain motor way A-32 Rivoli-Bardonecchia-Frejus on the Susa Valley environment and on man the present measurement campaign is the second, and last, one envisaged in the project. The sampling place is in the initial part of the Susa Valley while previous measurements were carried out in the high part of it. Mass mean concentrations result greater in the low than in the high part of the valley approximately by a factor of 3. It is not possible to prove a difference between the 3 sampling positions transversely placed from 20 to 80 m. in comparison with the motor way axis. Whereas mass mean concentrations dropped substantially due to atmospheric precipitations during the last two measurement day. Aerosol granulometry in mass for the accumulation and the coarse mode do not differ from that evaluated in the high part of the valley and fitting granulometric parameters are consistent with those previously evaluated.

  14. Characterization of cognitive and motor performance during dual-tasking in healthy older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Lucia Bartmann; de Lima, Daiane Borba; Balardin, Joana Bisol; Rizzi, Luana; Giacobbo, Bruno Lima; Oliveira, Henrique Bianchi; de Lima Argimon, Irani Iracema; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Rieder, Carlos R M; Bromberg, Elke

    2013-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dual-tasking on cognitive performance and gait parameters in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia. The impact of cognitive task complexity on cognition and walking was also examined. Eighteen patients with PD (ages 53-88, 10 women; Hoehn and Yahr stage I-II) and 18 older adults (ages 61-84; 10 women) completed two neuropsychological measures of executive function/attention (the Stroop Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Cognitive performance and gait parameters related to functional mobility of stride were measured under single (cognitive task only) and dual-task (cognitive task during walking) conditions with different levels of difficulty and different types of stimuli. In addition, dual-task cognitive costs were calculated. Although cognitive performance showed no significant difference between controls and PD patients during single or dual-tasking conditions, only the patients had a decrease in cognitive performance during walking. Gait parameters of patients differed significantly from controls at single and dual-task conditions, indicating that patients gave priority to gait while cognitive performance suffered. Dual-task cognitive costs of patients increased with task complexity, reaching significantly higher values then controls in the arithmetic task, which was correlated with scores on executive function/attention (Stroop Color-Word Page). Baseline motor functioning and task executive/attentional load affect the performance of cognitive tasks of PD patients while walking. These findings provide insight into the functional strategies used by PD patients in the initial phases of the disease to manage dual-task interference.

  15. Magnetic characterization of the stator core of a high-speed motor made of an ultrathin electrical steel sheet using the magnetic property evaluation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohachiro Oka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the application areas for electric motors have been expanding. For instance, electric motors are used in new technologies such as rovers, drones, cars, and robots. The motor used in such machinery should be small, high-powered, highly-efficient, and high-speed. In such motors, loss at high-speed rotation must be especially minimal. Eddy-current loss in the stator core is known to increase greatly during loss at high-speed rotation of the motor. To produce an efficient high-speed motor, we are developing a stator core for a motor using an ultrathin electrical steel sheet with only a small amount of eddy-current loss. Furthermore, the magnetic property evaluation for efficient, high-speed motor stator cores that use conventional commercial frequency is insufficient. Thus, we made a new high-speed magnetic property evaluation system to evaluate the magnetic properties of the efficient high-speed motor stator core. This system was composed of high-speed A/D converters, D/A converters, and a high-speed power amplifier. In experiments, the ultrathin electrical steel sheet dramatically suppressed iron loss and, in particular, eddy-current loss. In addition, a new high-speed magnetic property evaluation system accurately evaluated the magnetic properties of the efficient high-speed motor stator core.

  16. Magnetic characterization of the stator core of a high-speed motor made of an ultrathin electrical steel sheet using the magnetic property evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Mohachiro; Enokizono, Masato; Mori, Yuji; Yamazaki, Kazumasa

    2018-04-01

    Recently, the application areas for electric motors have been expanding. For instance, electric motors are used in new technologies such as rovers, drones, cars, and robots. The motor used in such machinery should be small, high-powered, highly-efficient, and high-speed. In such motors, loss at high-speed rotation must be especially minimal. Eddy-current loss in the stator core is known to increase greatly during loss at high-speed rotation of the motor. To produce an efficient high-speed motor, we are developing a stator core for a motor using an ultrathin electrical steel sheet with only a small amount of eddy-current loss. Furthermore, the magnetic property evaluation for efficient, high-speed motor stator cores that use conventional commercial frequency is insufficient. Thus, we made a new high-speed magnetic property evaluation system to evaluate the magnetic properties of the efficient high-speed motor stator core. This system was composed of high-speed A/D converters, D/A converters, and a high-speed power amplifier. In experiments, the ultrathin electrical steel sheet dramatically suppressed iron loss and, in particular, eddy-current loss. In addition, a new high-speed magnetic property evaluation system accurately evaluated the magnetic properties of the efficient high-speed motor stator core.

  17. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Characterization of Sensory-Motor Behavior Under Cognitive Load Using a New Statistical Platform for Studies of Embodied Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Ryu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of enacted/embodied cognition has emerged as a contemporary attempt to connect the mind and body in the study of cognition. However, there has been a paucity of methods that enable a multi-layered approach tapping into different levels of functionality within the nervous systems (e.g., continuously capturing in tandem multi-modal biophysical signals in naturalistic settings. The present study introduces a new theoretical and statistical framework to characterize the influences of cognitive demands on biophysical rhythmic signals harnessed from deliberate, spontaneous and autonomic activities. In this study, nine participants performed a basic pointing task to communicate a decision while they were exposed to different levels of cognitive load. Within these decision-making contexts, we examined the moment-by-moment fluctuations in the peak amplitude and timing of the biophysical time series data (e.g., continuous waveforms extracted from hand kinematics and heart signals. These spike-trains data offered high statistical power for personalized empirical statistical estimation and were well-characterized by a Gamma process. Our approach enabled the identification of different empirically estimated families of probability distributions to facilitate inference regarding the continuous physiological phenomena underlying cognitively driven decision-making. We found that the same pointing task revealed shifts in the probability distribution functions (PDFs of the hand kinematic signals under study and were accompanied by shifts in the signatures of the heart inter-beat-interval timings. Within the time scale of an experimental session, marked changes in skewness and dispersion of the distributions were tracked on the Gamma parameter plane with 95% confidence. The results suggest that traditional theoretical assumptions of stationarity and normality in biophysical data from the nervous systems are incongruent with the true statistical nature of

  19. Characterization of Sensory-Motor Behavior Under Cognitive Load Using a New Statistical Platform for Studies of Embodied Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jihye; Torres, Elizabeth B.

    2018-01-01

    The field of enacted/embodied cognition has emerged as a contemporary attempt to connect the mind and body in the study of cognition. However, there has been a paucity of methods that enable a multi-layered approach tapping into different levels of functionality within the nervous systems (e.g., continuously capturing in tandem multi-modal biophysical signals in naturalistic settings). The present study introduces a new theoretical and statistical framework to characterize the influences of cognitive demands on biophysical rhythmic signals harnessed from deliberate, spontaneous and autonomic activities. In this study, nine participants performed a basic pointing task to communicate a decision while they were exposed to different levels of cognitive load. Within these decision-making contexts, we examined the moment-by-moment fluctuations in the peak amplitude and timing of the biophysical time series data (e.g., continuous waveforms extracted from hand kinematics and heart signals). These spike-trains data offered high statistical power for personalized empirical statistical estimation and were well-characterized by a Gamma process. Our approach enabled the identification of different empirically estimated families of probability distributions to facilitate inference regarding the continuous physiological phenomena underlying cognitively driven decision-making. We found that the same pointing task revealed shifts in the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the hand kinematic signals under study and were accompanied by shifts in the signatures of the heart inter-beat-interval timings. Within the time scale of an experimental session, marked changes in skewness and dispersion of the distributions were tracked on the Gamma parameter plane with 95% confidence. The results suggest that traditional theoretical assumptions of stationarity and normality in biophysical data from the nervous systems are incongruent with the true statistical nature of empirical data

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF CORES FOR MINI MOTORS FROM LAMINATED SHEETS OF ELECTRIC STEEL ABNT (Brazilian Association of Technical Standards 35F 420M WITH THERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halston Mozetic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this paper were to study the thermal treatment of Fe-Si sheet, as well as the sheet cutting concerning the topology of a mini stepper motor and mini motor simulation using finite element software. The research consisted of the execution of an "Inductive Reheating" thermal treatment of Iron Silicon sheets, NM71-2000/35F 420M with GNO (Grain Non Oriented, and 0.35mm width. The new technique has the benefit of minimizing magnetic losses produced by the cut on the edge of electric sheets. To carry out the process, the system includes a furnace, an induction coil, and a power supply that, when activated in a controlled way, causes relevant changes to the crystalline structure of the material. Related to the cut of the sheets, the topology of a three phase mini stepper motor was considered. The sheets were initially cut using the geometry of the rotor and stator cores. Firstly, a die cutting process was used and later a wire electroerosion cutting process was employed, which provided parts with excellent finishing. Finally, the mini motor was simulated using the finite element software FEMM 4.2 in order to analyze the airgap flow and torque development of the axis end, in comparison to a solid block of the same material (Fe-Si

  1. submitter Estimation of stepping motor current from long distances through cable-length-adaptive piecewise affine virtual sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveri, Alberto; Masi, Alessandro; Storace, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a piecewise affine virtual sensor is used for the estimation of the motor-side current of hybrid stepper motors, which actuate the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) collimators at CERN. The estimation is performed starting from measurements of the current in the driver, which is connected to the motor by a long cable (up to 720 m). The measured current is therefore affected by noise and ringing phenomena. The proposed method does not require a model of the cable, since it is only based on measured data and can be used with cables of different length. A circuit architecture suitable for FPGA implementation has been designed and the effects of fixed point representation of data are analyzed.

  2. Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Polidori

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A photo-electric aerosol sensor, a diffusion charger, an Aethalometer, and a continuous particle counter were used along with other real-time instruments to characterize the particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (p-PAH content, and the physical/chemical characteristics of aerosols collected a in Wilmington (CA near the Los Angeles port and close to 2 major freeways, and b at a dynamometer testing facility in downtown Los Angeles (CA, where 3 diesel trucks were tested. In Wilmington, the p-PAH, surface area, particle number, and "black" carbon concentrations were 4-8 times higher at 09:00–11:00 a.m. than between 17:00 and 18:00 p.m., suggesting that during rush hour traffic people living in that area are exposed to a higher number of diesel combustion particles enriched in p-PAH coatings. Dynamometer tests revealed that the p-PAH emissions from the "baseline" truck (no catalytic converter were up to 200 times higher than those from the 2 vehicles equipped with advanced emission control technologies, and increased when the truck was accelerating. In Wilmington, integrated filter samples were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations of the most abundant p-PAHs. A correlation between the total p-PAH concentration (μg/m3 and the measured photo-electric aerosol sensor signal (fA was also established. Estimated ambient p-PAH concentrations (Average=0.64 ng/m3; Standard deviation=0.46 ng/m3 were in good agreement with those reported in previous studies conducted in Los Angeles during a similar time period. Finally, we calculated the approximate theoretical lifetime (70 years per 24-h/day lung-cancer risk in the Wilmington area due to inhalation of multi-component p-PAHs and "black" carbon. Our results indicate that the lung-cancer risk is highest during rush hour traffic and lowest in the afternoon, and that the genotoxic risk of the considered p-PAHs does not seem to contribute to a significant

  3. SU-F-T-530: Characterization of a 60-Leaf Motorized MLC Designed for Cobalt-60 Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L; Smith, L; Ciresianu, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In a continuing effort to improve conformal radiation therapy with Cobalt-60 units, a 60-leaf MLC was designed, manufactured, and released to market. This work describes the physics measurements taken to characterize the clinical performance of this MLC. Methods: A 60 leaf MLC was custom designed with tungsten leaves of 4.5 cm height, single focused, achieving field size of 30×30 cm^2 when mounted on a 100cm SAD Cobalt-60 unit. Leakage and output factor measurements were performed using a single ion chamber in a solid water phantom. Penumbra and surface dose were measured using scanning chambers and diodes in a water phantom. Radiation-light coincidence measurements were performed using radiographic films. Results: With MLC mounted, measured penumbras at all depths are smaller than with jaws only. Surface doses were not significantly affected by the presence of MLC, and remained below values recommended by regulatory bodies. Light-radiation coincidences were found to be better than 3 mm for all field sizes. Leakage through the MLC was found to be strongly dependent on field size, increasing from 1.0 % for a 10×10 cm field to 2.0% for a 30×30 cm field. Such results meet the requirements of IEC 60601-2-11. The MLC was found to have significant influence on the output factor, when field size defined by MLC is significantly smaller than field size defined by jaws. Such effect is also observed on linear accelerators, but it is more pronounced on Cobalt-60 units. A 10×10 “diamond” MLC shape inside a 14×14 cm jaw showed output factor that is 5.7% higher than 10×10 cm field defined by matching MLC and jaws. Conclusion: The MLC offers clinically acceptable performance in penumbra, surface dose, and light-radiation coincidence. Several units of this MLC have recently been installed and used clinically. Validation of Cobalt-60 based IMRT with this MLC is ongoing. The authors are employees of Best Theratrnics Ltd.

  4. SU-F-T-530: Characterization of a 60-Leaf Motorized MLC Designed for Cobalt-60 Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, L; Smith, L; Ciresianu, A [Best Theratronics, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In a continuing effort to improve conformal radiation therapy with Cobalt-60 units, a 60-leaf MLC was designed, manufactured, and released to market. This work describes the physics measurements taken to characterize the clinical performance of this MLC. Methods: A 60 leaf MLC was custom designed with tungsten leaves of 4.5 cm height, single focused, achieving field size of 30×30 cm^2 when mounted on a 100cm SAD Cobalt-60 unit. Leakage and output factor measurements were performed using a single ion chamber in a solid water phantom. Penumbra and surface dose were measured using scanning chambers and diodes in a water phantom. Radiation-light coincidence measurements were performed using radiographic films. Results: With MLC mounted, measured penumbras at all depths are smaller than with jaws only. Surface doses were not significantly affected by the presence of MLC, and remained below values recommended by regulatory bodies. Light-radiation coincidences were found to be better than 3 mm for all field sizes. Leakage through the MLC was found to be strongly dependent on field size, increasing from 1.0 % for a 10×10 cm field to 2.0% for a 30×30 cm field. Such results meet the requirements of IEC 60601-2-11. The MLC was found to have significant influence on the output factor, when field size defined by MLC is significantly smaller than field size defined by jaws. Such effect is also observed on linear accelerators, but it is more pronounced on Cobalt-60 units. A 10×10 “diamond” MLC shape inside a 14×14 cm jaw showed output factor that is 5.7% higher than 10×10 cm field defined by matching MLC and jaws. Conclusion: The MLC offers clinically acceptable performance in penumbra, surface dose, and light-radiation coincidence. Several units of this MLC have recently been installed and used clinically. Validation of Cobalt-60 based IMRT with this MLC is ongoing. The authors are employees of Best Theratrnics Ltd.

  5. Motorized Positioning Apparatus Having Coaxial Carrousels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Kane, Thomas E.; Liu, Changsheng; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.; Kernan, John R.

    2002-04-02

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carrousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  6. Motor homopolar

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Muñoz, Agustín

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  7. Lower limb muscle moments and power during recovery from forward loss of balance in male and female single and multiple steppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Christopher P; Cronin, Neil J; Lichtwark, Glen A; Mills, Peter M; Barrett, Rod S

    2012-12-01

    Studying recovery responses to loss of balance may help to explain why older adults are susceptible to falls. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether male and female older adults, that use a single or multiple step recovery strategy, differ in the proportion of lower limb strength used and power produced during the stepping phase of balance recovery. Eighty-four community-dwelling older adults (47 men, 37 women) participated in the study. Isometric strength of the ankle, knee and hip joint flexors and extensors was assessed using a dynamometer. Loss of balance was induced by releasing participants from a static forward lean (4 trials at each of 3 forward lean angles). Participants were instructed to recover with a single step and were subsequently classified as using a single or multiple step recovery strategy for each trial. (1) Females were weaker than males and the proportion of females that were able to recover with a single step were lower than for males at each lean magnitude. (2) Multiple compared to single steppers used a significantly higher proportion of their hip extension strength and produced less knee and ankle joint peak power during stepping, at the intermediate lean angle. Strength deficits in female compared to male participants may explain why a lower proportion of female participants were able to recover with a single step. The inability to generate sufficient power in the stepping limb appears to be a limiting factor in single step recovery from forward loss of balance. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  9. Advanced AC Motor Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmierkowski, M.P. [Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a review of control methods for high performance PWM inverter-fed induction motor drives is presented. Starting from the description of an induction motor by the help of the space vectors, three basic control strategic are discussed. As first, the most popular Field Oriented Control (FOC) is described. Secondly, the Direct Torque and Flux vector Control (DTFC) method, which - in contrast to FOC - depart from idea of coordinate transformation and analogy with DC motor, is briefly characterized. The last group is based on Feedback Linearization Control (FLC) and can be easy combined with sliding mode control. The simulation and experimental oscillograms that illustrate the performance of the discussed control strategies are shown. (orig.) 35 refs.

  10. Characterization of a Population with Visual, Auditory, Speech and Motor Disabilities, for Their Linking to Undergraduate Programs at a University in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Myrian Rojas-Rojas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an unpublished research project whose objective was to characterize a population with visual, hearing, speech and motor disabilities. The research quantified potential users of the programs offered by the Faculty of Distance Education (FESAD at the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia (UPTC. It had an exploratory-descriptive methodological design with random sampling. Surveys were applied to young high school students and adult bachelors by using Braille system and a digital sign language translator. For data analysis, a quantitative statistical method was implemented. The results showed that, from young bachelors, 53% were women, 51% adults were men; 57% of young people were between 18 and 21 years old, 47% of adults were between 22 and 30 years old, and 65% of adult bachelors did not work. From the preferred university careers to study, a 28% of young people preferred engineering; 21%, economic and administrative sciences; 15%, arts; and 13%, education sciences. 27% of adult bachelors preferred engineering; 18%, economic and administrative sciences; and 15%, education sciences. 85% of youth and 71% of adult bachelors were deaf. It is concluded that there is a vulnerable population with disabilities and with an obvious lack of opportunities to access higher education. FESAD has trained teachers in designing an integrated and inclusive curriculum for the development of labor skills. FESAD also has technical and technological resources to take care of this population. It is recommended to boost higher education policies for social inclusion in Colombia, and conduct new studies on causes and effects to design and implement programs that apply these policies.

  11. Development and characterization of a novel plug and play liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) source that automates connections between the capillary trap, column, and emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereman, Michael S; Hsieh, Edward J; Corso, Thomas N; Van Pelt, Colleen K; Maccoss, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    We report the development and characterization of a novel, vendor-neutral ultra-high pressure-compatible (~10,000 p.s.i.) LC-MS source. This device is the first to make automated connections with user-packed capillary traps, columns, and capillary emitters. The source uses plastic rectangular inserts (referred to here as cartridges) where individual components (i.e. trap, column, or emitter) can be exchanged independent of one another in a plug and play manner. Automated robotic connections are made between the three cartridges using linear translation powered by stepper motors to axially compress each cartridge by applying a well controlled constant compression force to each commercial LC fitting. The user has the versatility to tailor the separation (e.g. the length of the column, type of stationary phase, and mode of separation) to the experimental design of interest in a cost-effective manner. The source is described in detail, and several experiments are performed to evaluate the robustness of both the system and the exchange of the individual trap and emitter cartridges. The standard deviation in the retention time of four targeted peptides from a standard digest interlaced with a soluble Caenorhabditis elegans lysate ranged between 3.1 and 5.3 s over 3 days of analyses. Exchange of the emitter cartridge was found to have an insignificant effect on the abundance of various peptides. In addition, the trap cartridge can be replaced with minimal effects on retention time (<20 s).

  12. Real-time operating system timing jitter and its impact on motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Frederick M.; Shackleford, William P.

    2001-12-01

    General-purpose microprocessors are increasingly being used for control applications due to their widespread availability and software support for non-control functions like networking and operator interfaces. Two classes of real-time operating systems (RTOS) exist for these systems. The traditional RTOS serves as the sole operating system, and provides all OS services. Examples include ETS, LynxOS, QNX, Windows CE and VxWorks. RTOS extensions add real-time scheduling capabilities to non-real-time OSes, and provide minimal services needed for the time-critical portions of an application. Examples include RTAI and RTL for Linux, and HyperKernel, OnTime and RTX for Windows NT. Timing jitter is an issue in these systems, due to hardware effects such as bus locking, caches and pipelines, and software effects from mutual exclusion resource locks, non-preemtible critical sections, disabled interrupts, and multiple code paths in the scheduler. Jitter is typically on the order of a microsecond to a few tens of microseconds for hard real-time operating systems, and ranges from milliseconds to seconds in the worst case for soft real-time operating systems. The question of its significance on the performance of a controller arises. Naturally, the smaller the scheduling period required for a control task, the more significant is the impact of timing jitter. Aside from this intuitive relationship is the greater significance of timing on open-loop control, such as for stepper motors, than for closed-loop control, such as for servo motors. Techniques for measuring timing jitter are discussed, and comparisons between various platforms are presented. Techniques to reduce jitter or mitigate its effects are presented. The impact of jitter on stepper motor control is analyzed.

  13. Parkinson's Disease Subtypes Identified from Cluster Analysis of Motor and Non-motor Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Jesse; Chaudhuri, Kallol R; Bielza, Concha; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesus; Larrañaga, Pedro; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is now considered a complex, multi-peptide, central, and peripheral nervous system disorder with considerable clinical heterogeneity. Non-motor symptoms play a key role in the trajectory of Parkinson's disease, from prodromal premotor to end stages. To understand the clinical heterogeneity of Parkinson's disease, this study used cluster analysis to search for subtypes from a large, multi-center, international, and well-characterized cohort of Parkinson's disease patients across all motor stages, using a combination of cardinal motor features (bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, axial signs) and, for the first time, specific validated rater-based non-motor symptom scales. Two independent international cohort studies were used: (a) the validation study of the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale ( n = 411) and (b) baseline data from the global Non-Motor International Longitudinal Study ( n = 540). k -means cluster analyses were performed on the non-motor and motor domains (domains clustering) and the 30 individual non-motor symptoms alone (symptoms clustering), and hierarchical agglomerative clustering was performed to group symptoms together. Four clusters are identified from the domains clustering supporting previous studies: mild, non-motor dominant, motor-dominant, and severe. In addition, six new smaller clusters are identified from the symptoms clustering, each characterized by clinically-relevant non-motor symptoms. The clusters identified in this study present statistical confirmation of the increasingly important role of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease heterogeneity and take steps toward subtype-specific treatment packages.

  14. Characterizing Intonation Deficit in Motor Speech Disorders: An Autosegmental-Metrical Analysis of Spontaneous Speech in Hypokinetic Dysarthria, Ataxic Dysarthria, and Foreign Accent Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowit, Anja; Kuschmann, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The autosegmental-metrical (AM) framework represents an established methodology for intonational analysis in unimpaired speaker populations but has found little application in describing intonation in motor speech disorders (MSDs). This study compared the intonation patterns of unimpaired participants (CON) and those with Parkinson's…

  15. Jidosha's Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Shirakawa Okuma, Rosely; Calderón Orejuela, Javier

    2016-01-01

    La tesis narra la situación de una empresa concesionaria de vehículos nuevos, Jidosha's Motors, perteneciente a una corporación japonesa que cuenta con una cultura muy arraigada de ética y de cumplimiento. Se plantean respuestas, se identifican problemas y sus alternativas de solución para una toma adecuada de decisiones por parte de los directivos, siguiendo una estructura de análisis de situaciones de negocios (ASN). Tesis

  16. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Hallett, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that CD with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amygdala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated 2-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Eleven CD patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula, and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system, which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V; Brezing, C; Gallea, C; Hallett, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Conversion disorder is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that conversion disorder with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amgydala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Methods Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated two-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Results Eleven conversion disorder patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Conclusion We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation. PMID:21935985

  18. New overlay measurement technique with an i-line stepper using embedded standard field image alignment marks for wafer bonding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulse, P.; Sasai, K.; Schulz, K.; Wietstruck, M.

    2017-06-01

    marks. In this work, the non-contact infrared alignment system of the Nikon i-line Stepper NSR-SF150 for both the alignment and the overlay determination of bonded wafer stacks with embedded alignment marks are used to achieve an accurate alignment between the different wafer sides. The embedded field image alignment (FIA) marks of the interface and the device wafer top layer are measured in a single measurement job. By taking the offsets between all different FIA's into account, after correcting the wafer rotation induced FIA position errors, hence an overlay for the stacked wafers can be determined. The developed approach has been validated by a standard back to front side application. The overlay was measured and determined using both, the EVG NT40 automated measurement system with special overlay marks and the measurement of the FIA marks of the front and back side layer. A comparison of both results shows mismatches in x and y translations smaller than 200 nm, which is relatively small compared to the overlay tolerances of +/-500 nm for the back to front side process. After the successful validation of the developed technique, special wafer stacks with FIA alignment marks in the bonding interface are fabricated. Due to the super IR light transparency of both doubled side polished wafers, the embedded FIA marks generate a stable and clear signal for accurate x and y wafer coordinate positioning. The FIA marks of the device wafer top layer were measured under standard condition in a developed photoresist mask without IR illumination. Following overlay calculation shows an overlay of less than 200 nm, which enables very accurate process condition for highly scaled TSV integration and advanced substrate integration into IHP's 0.25/0.13 μm SiGe:C BiCMOS technology. The presented method can be applied for both the standard back to front side process technologies and also new temporary and permanent wafer bonding applications.

  19. The correlation between motor impairments and event-related desynchronization during motor imagery in ALS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasahara Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The event-related desynchronization (ERD in EEG is known to appear during motor imagery, and is thought to reflect cortical processing for motor preparation. The aim of this study is to examine the modulation of ERD with motor impairment in ALS patients. ERD during hand motor imagery was obtained from 8 ALS patients with a variety of motor impairments. ERD was also obtained from age-matched 11 healthy control subjects with the same motor task. The magnitude and frequency of ERD were compared between groups for characterization of ALS specific changes. Results The ERD of ALS patients were significantly smaller than those of control subjects. Bulbar function and ERD were negatively correlated in ALS patients. Motor function of the upper extremities did was uncorrelated with ERD. Conclusions ALS patients with worsened bulbar scales may show smaller ERD. Motor function of the upper extremities did was uncorrelated with ERD.

  20. Considerations Regarding the Opportunity of Using Psychological Techniques to Stimulate Solutions Characterized by Novelty and Inventive Step in TISR Transformers and Electric Motors with Shorted Moving Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgescu Daniel Ștefan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the appreciations and contributions regarding the use of psychological techniques to stimulate technical creativity with special reference to consonant association technique and inversion technique. The study is performed in the field of TISR transformers and electric motors with limited movement, starting from the analogy between a transformer and an electric motor with shorted coil. It approached a particular aspect of inversion technique in relation with the transformation of negative effects and results of laws, phenomena and processes into useful applications. The matter reffered to is related to the question: ,,why disadvantages and no advantages ?". At the end of the paper are presented and discussed some experimental models produced and studied by the authors in the Research Laboratory of Machines, Equipment and Drives at the University of Suceava and are exposed conclusions drawn from the experimental study and directions for future research.

  1. Tidal dynamics in the sand motor lagoon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, S.; Radermacher, M.; De Schipper, M.A.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    The Sand Motor is a mega-nourishment characterized by a very large sand volume of around 20 million m3 placed along the Dutch coast. The Sand Motor is a pilot project to evaluate the performance of an alternative nourishment strategy with respect to different functions of the coastal system. Within

  2. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  3. Chemical and mechanical efficiencies of molecular motors and implications for motor mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongyun

    2005-01-01

    Molecular motors operate in an environment dominated by viscous friction and thermal fluctuations. The chemical reaction in a motor may produce an active force at the reaction site to directly move the motor forward. Alternatively a molecular motor may generate a unidirectional motion by rectifying thermal fluctuations using free energy barriers established in the chemical reaction. The reaction cycle has many occupancy states, each having a different effect on the motor motion. The average effect of the chemical reaction on the motor motion can be characterized by the motor potential profile. The biggest advantage of studying the motor potential profile is that it can be reconstructed from the time series of motor positions measured in single-molecule experiments. In this paper, we use the motor potential profile to express the Stokes efficiency as the product of the chemical efficiency and the mechanical efficiency. We show that both the chemical and mechanical efficiencies are bounded by 100% and, thus, are properly defined efficiencies. We discuss implications of high efficiencies for motor mechanisms: a mechanical efficiency close to 100% implies that the motor potential profile is close to a constant slope; a chemical efficiency close to 100% implies that (i) the chemical transitions are not slower than the mechanical motion and (ii) the equilibrium constant of each chemical transition is close to one

  4. Characterization of primary organic aerosol emissions from meat cooking, trash burning, and motor vehicles with high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry and comparison with ambient and chamber observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Claudia; Huffman, Alex; Cubison, Michael J; Aiken, Allison C; Docherty, Kenneth S; Kimmel, Joel R; Ulbrich, Ingrid M; Hannigan, Michael; Jimenez, Jose L

    2009-04-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) emissions from motor vehicles, meat-cooking and trash burning are analyzed here using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). High resolution data show that aerosols emitted by combustion engines and plastic burning are dominated by hydrocarbon-like organic compounds. Meat cooking and especially paper burning emissions contain significant fractions of oxygenated organic compounds; however, their unit-resolution mass spectral signatures are very similar to those from ambient hydrocarbon-like OA, and very different from the mass spectra of ambient secondary or oxygenated OA (OOA). Thus, primary OA from these sources is unlikelyto be a significant direct source of ambient OOA. There are significant differences in high-resolution tracer m/zs that may be useful for differentiating some of these sources. Unlike in most ambient spectra, all of these sources have low total m/z 44 and this signal is not dominated by the CO2+ ion. All sources have high m/z 57, which is low during high OOA ambient periods. Spectra from paper burning are similar to some types of biomass burning OA, with elevated m/z 60. Meat cooking aerosols also have slightly elevated m/z 60, whereas motor vehicle emissions have very low signal at this m/z.

  5. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  6. Apraxia and motor dysfunction in corticobasal syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Burrell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS is characterized by multifaceted motor system dysfunction and cognitive disturbance; distinctive clinical features include limb apraxia and visuospatial dysfunction. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has been used to study motor system dysfunction in CBS, but the relationship of TMS parameters to clinical features has not been studied. The present study explored several hypotheses; firstly, that limb apraxia may be partly due to visuospatial impairment in CBS. Secondly, that motor system dysfunction can be demonstrated in CBS, using threshold-tracking TMS, and is linked to limb apraxia. Finally, that atrophy of the primary motor cortex, studied using voxel-based morphometry analysis (VBM, is associated with motor system dysfunction and limb apraxia in CBS. METHODS: Imitation of meaningful and meaningless hand gestures was graded to assess limb apraxia, while cognitive performance was assessed using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R, with particular emphasis placed on the visuospatial subtask. Patients underwent TMS, to assess cortical function, and VBM. RESULTS: In total, 17 patients with CBS (7 male, 10 female; mean age 64.4+/- 6.6 years were studied and compared to 17 matched control subjects. Of the CBS patients, 23.5% had a relatively inexcitable motor cortex, with evidence of cortical dysfunction in the remaining 76.5% patients. Reduced resting motor threshold, and visuospatial performance, correlated with limb apraxia. Patients with a resting motor threshold <50% performed significantly worse on the visuospatial sub-task of the ACE-R than other CBS patients. Cortical function correlated with atrophy of the primary and pre-motor cortices, and the thalamus, while apraxia correlated with atrophy of the pre-motor and parietal cortices. CONCLUSIONS: Cortical dysfunction appears to underlie the core clinical features of CBS, and is associated with atrophy of the primary motor and

  7. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  8. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  9. Characterization of a cerebral palsy-like model in rats: Analysis of gait pattern and of brain and spinal cord motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Adriana Souza; de Almeida, Wellington; Popik, Bruno; Sbardelotto, Bruno Marques; Torrejais, Márcia Miranda; de Souza, Marcelo Alves; Centenaro, Lígia Aline

    2017-08-01

    In an attempt to propose an animal model that reproduces in rats the phenotype of cerebral palsy, this study evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin associated with perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction on gait pattern, brain and spinal cord morphology. Two experimental groups were used: Control Group (CTG) - offspring of rats injected with saline during pregnancy and Cerebral Palsy Group (CPG) - offspring of rats injected with lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy, submitted to perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction for 30days. At 29days of age, the CPG exhibited coordination between limbs, weight-supported dorsal steps or weight-supported plantar steps with paw rotation. At 45days of age, CPG exhibited plantar stepping with the paw rotated in the balance phase. An increase in the number of glial cells in the primary somatosensory cortex and dorsal striatum were observed in the CPG, but the corpus callosum thickness and cross-sectional area of lateral ventricle were similar between studied groups. No changes were found in the number of motoneurons, glial cells and soma area of the motoneurons in the ventral horn of spinal cord. The combination of insults in the pre, peri and postnatal periods produced changes in hindlimbs gait pattern of animals similar to those observed in diplegic patients, but motor impairments were attenuated over time. Besides, the greater number of glial cells observed seems to be related to the formation of a glial scar in important sensorimotor brain areas. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  11. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  12. James Webb Space Telescope Deployment Brushless DC Motor Characteristics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ahn N.

    2016-01-01

    A DC motor's performance is usually characterized by a series of tests, which are conducted by pass/fail criteria. In most cases, these tests are adequate to address the performance characteristics under environmental and loading effects with some uncertainties and decent power/torque margins. However, if the motor performance requirement is very stringent, a better understanding of the motor characteristics is required. The purpose of this paper is to establish a standard way to extract the torque components of the brushless motor and gear box characteristics of a high gear ratio geared motor from the composite geared motor testing and motor parameter measurement. These torque components include motor magnetic detent torque, Coulomb torque, viscous torque, windage torque, and gear tooth sliding torque. The Aerospace Corp bearing torque model and MPB torque models are used to predict the Coulomb torque of the motor rotor bearings and to model the viscous components. Gear tooth sliding friction torque is derived from the dynamo geared motor test data. With these torque data, the geared motor mechanical efficiency can be estimated and provide the overall performance of the geared motor versus several motor operating parameters such as speed, temperature, applied current, and transmitted power.

  13. Interacting adiabatic quantum motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Anton; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

    2018-05-01

    We present a field-theoretic treatment of an adiabatic quantum motor. We explicitly discuss a motor called the Thouless motor which is based on a Thouless pump operating in reverse. When a sliding periodic potential is considered to be the motor degree of freedom, a bias voltage applied to the electron channel sets the motor in motion. We investigate a Thouless motor whose electron channel is modeled as a Luttinger liquid. Interactions increase the gap opened by the periodic potential. For an infinite Luttinger liquid the coupling-induced friction is enhanced by electron-electron interactions. When the Luttinger liquid is ultimately coupled to Fermi liquid reservoirs, the dissipation reduces to its value for a noninteracting electron system for a constant motor velocity. Our results can also be applied to a motor based on a nanomagnet coupled to a quantum spin Hall edge.

  14. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  15. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Spanner; Burhanettin Koc

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ult...

  16. ATF3 expression improves motor function in the ALS mouse model by promoting motor neuron survival and retaining muscle innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijffers, Rhona; Zhang, Jiangwen; Matthews, Jonathan C; Chen, Adam; Tamrazian, Eric; Babaniyi, Olusegun; Selig, Martin; Hynynen, Meri; Woolf, Clifford J; Brown, Robert H

    2014-01-28

    ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of motor neurons and atrophy of distal axon terminals in muscle, resulting in loss of motor function. Motor end plates denervated by axonal retraction of dying motor neurons are partially reinnervated by remaining viable motor neurons; however, this axonal sprouting is insufficient to compensate for motor neuron loss. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) promotes neuronal survival and axonal growth. Here, we reveal that forced expression of ATF3 in motor neurons of transgenic SOD1(G93A) ALS mice delays neuromuscular junction denervation by inducing axonal sprouting and enhancing motor neuron viability. Maintenance of neuromuscular junction innervation during the course of the disease in ATF3/SOD1(G93A) mice is associated with a substantial delay in muscle atrophy and improved motor performance. Although disease onset and mortality are delayed, disease duration is not affected. This study shows that adaptive axonal growth-promoting mechanisms can substantially improve motor function in ALS and importantly, that augmenting viability of the motor neuron soma and maintaining functional neuromuscular junction connections are both essential elements in therapy for motor neuron disease in the SOD1(G93A) mice. Accordingly, effective protection of optimal motor neuron function requires restitution of multiple dysregulated cellular pathways.

  17. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  18. Programmable dc motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  19. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  20. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Spanner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators.

  1. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  2. Neuroplasticity & Motor Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    Practice of a new motor task is usually associated with an improvement in performance. Indeed, if we stop practicing and return the next day to the same task, we find that our performance has been maintained and may even be better than it was at the start of the first day. This improvement...... is a measure of our ability to form and store a motor memory of the task. However, the initial memory of the task is labile and may be subject to interference. During and following motor learning plastic changes occur within the central nervous system. On one hand these changes are driven by motor practice......, on the other hand the changes underlie the formation of motor memory and the retention of improved motor performance. During motor learning changes may occur at many different levels within the central nervous system dependent on the type of task and training. Here, we demonstrate different studies from our...

  3. Controllable molecular motors engineered from myosin and RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omabegho, Tosan; Gurel, Pinar S.; Cheng, Clarence Y.; Kim, Laura Y.; Ruijgrok, Paul V.; Das, Rhiju; Alushin, Gregory M.; Bryant, Zev

    2018-01-01

    Engineering biomolecular motors can provide direct tests of structure-function relationships and customized components for controlling molecular transport in artificial systems1 or in living cells2. Previously, synthetic nucleic acid motors3-5 and modified natural protein motors6-10 have been developed in separate complementary strategies to achieve tunable and controllable motor function. Integrating protein and nucleic-acid components to form engineered nucleoprotein motors may enable additional sophisticated functionalities. However, this potential has only begun to be explored in pioneering work harnessing DNA scaffolds to dictate the spacing, number and composition of tethered protein motors11-15. Here, we describe myosin motors that incorporate RNA lever arms, forming hybrid assemblies in which conformational changes in the protein motor domain are amplified and redirected by nucleic acid structures. The RNA lever arm geometry determines the speed and direction of motor transport and can be dynamically controlled using programmed transitions in the lever arm structure7,9. We have characterized the hybrid motors using in vitro motility assays, single-molecule tracking, cryo-electron microscopy and structural probing16. Our designs include nucleoprotein motors that reversibly change direction in response to oligonucleotides that drive strand-displacement17 reactions. In multimeric assemblies, the controllable motors walk processively along actin filaments at speeds of 10-20 nm s-1. Finally, to illustrate the potential for multiplexed addressable control, we demonstrate sequence-specific responses of RNA variants to oligonucleotide signals.

  4. A GRAPH READER USING A CCD IMAGE SENSOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... using a stepper motor controlled by a software program in a ... Keywords: CCD sensor, microcontrollen stepper motor and microcomputer. 1. ... commercial applications (Awcock and ... on-chip amplifier, one pixel at a tirtjie.

  5. Motor degradation prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  6. Žingsninio variklio tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Gelgota, Vytenis

    2004-01-01

    The most widely used variable reluctance and permanent magnet stepper motors of different design types are discussed in the theoretical part of this work. It also overviews a constructional diversity of these motors, the fundamentals of operating modes and characteristics. This part discuses features of stepper motors as a part of automation control system, presents the main counting equations and applications with stepper motors. The practical part includes the mathematical model of stepper ...

  7. Teaching Motor Skills to Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Teri

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are commonly characterized by deficits in the social and communication domains. However, up to 80 percent of this population also have poor motor skills. Individuals with an ASD experience difficulties in motor planning, imitation, and postural stability. A better understanding of these deficits and of strategies…

  8. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  9. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  10. Motor coordination and balance in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R J; Morton, J; Dunnett, S B

    2001-08-01

    Measurement of motor coordination and balance can be used not only to assess the effect of drugs or other experimental manipulations on mice and rats, but also to characterize the motor phenotype of transgenic or knock-out animals. Three well established and widely used protocols for measuring motor coordination and balance in mice and rats (rotarod, beam walking and footprint analysis) are described in this unit. The tests can be used equally well for rats and mice, and have been used both for the phenotypic characterization of transgenic mice and for evaluating the effects of lesions and aging in rats. The protocols are described in the primary context of testing mice, but modifications of the test apparatus or variations in the test parameters for assessment of rats are noted.

  11. Early functional impairment of sensory-motor connectivity in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, George Z.; Blivis, Dvir; Liu, Wenfang; Drobac, Estelle; Crowder, Melissa E.; Kong, Lingling; Alvarez, Francisco J.; Sumner, Charlotte J.; O'Donovan, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY To define alterations of neuronal connectivity that occur during motor neuron degeneration, we characterized the function and structure of spinal circuitry in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) model mice. SMA motor neurons show reduced proprioceptive reflexes that correlate with decreased number and function of synapses on motor neuron somata and proximal dendrites. These abnormalities occur at an early stage of disease in motor neurons innervating proximal hindlimb muscles and medial motor neurons innervating axial muscles, but only at end-stage disease in motor neurons innervating distal hindlimb muscles. Motor neuron loss follows afferent synapse loss with the same temporal and topographical pattern. Trichostatin A, which improves motor behavior and survival of SMA mice, partially restores spinal reflexes illustrating the reversibility of these synaptic defects. De-afferentation of motor neurons is an early event in SMA and may be a primary cause of motor dysfunction that is amenable to therapeutic intervention. PMID:21315257

  12. Motor dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome : the role of sensory processing and sensory-motor integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, Paulina Johanna Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the chronic stage of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), motor disturbances are common and cause significant disability. The motor dysfunction of CRPS is a poorly understood phenomenon that is characterized predominantly by a decrease or loss of voluntary muscle control. This thesis aims to

  13. Altered resting-state effective connectivity of fronto-parietal motor control systems on the primary motor network following stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Cory S.; James, G. Andrew; Hamann, Stephan; Rajendra, Justin K.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Butler, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous brain imaging work suggests that stroke alters the effective connectivity (the influence neural regions exert upon each other) of motor execution networks. The present study examines the intrinsic effective connectivity of top-down motor control in stroke survivors (n=13) relative to healthy participants (n=12). Stroke survivors exhibited significant deficits in motor function, as assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) of resting-state fMRI data to investigate the relationship between motor deficits and the intrinsic effective connectivity between brain regions involved in motor control and motor execution. An exploratory adaptation of SEM determined the optimal model of motor execution effective connectivity in healthy participants, and confirmatory SEM assessed stroke survivors’ fit to that model. We observed alterations in spontaneous resting-state effective connectivity from fronto-parietal guidance systems to the motor network in stroke survivors. More specifically, diminished connectivity was found in connections from the superior parietal cortex to primary motor cortex and supplementary motor cortex. Furthermore, the paths demonstrated large individual variance in stroke survivors but less variance in healthy participants. These findings suggest that characterizing the deficits in resting-state connectivity of top-down processes in stroke survivors may help optimize cognitive and physical rehabilitation therapies by individually targeting specific neural pathway. PMID:21839174

  14. Effect of Error Augmentation on Brain Activation and Motor Learning of a Complex Locomotor Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marchal-Crespo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to date, the functional gains obtained after robot-aided gait rehabilitation training are limited. Error augmenting strategies have a great potential to enhance motor learning of simple motor tasks. However, little is known about the effect of these error modulating strategies on complex tasks, such as relearning to walk after a neurologic accident. Additionally, neuroimaging evaluation of brain regions involved in learning processes could provide valuable information on behavioral outcomes. We investigated the effect of robotic training strategies that augment errors—error amplification and random force disturbance—and training without perturbations on brain activation and motor learning of a complex locomotor task. Thirty-four healthy subjects performed the experiment with a robotic stepper (MARCOS in a 1.5 T MR scanner. The task consisted in tracking a Lissajous figure presented on a display by coordinating the legs in a gait-like movement pattern. Behavioral results showed that training without perturbations enhanced motor learning in initially less skilled subjects, while error amplification benefited better-skilled subjects. Training with error amplification, however, hampered transfer of learning. Randomly disturbing forces induced learning and promoted transfer in all subjects, probably because the unexpected forces increased subjects' attention. Functional MRI revealed main effects of training strategy and skill level during training. A main effect of training strategy was seen in brain regions typically associated with motor control and learning, such as, the basal ganglia, cerebellum, intraparietal sulcus, and angular gyrus. Especially, random disturbance and no perturbation lead to stronger brain activation in similar brain regions than error amplification. Skill-level related effects were observed in the IPS, in parts of the superior parietal lobe (SPL, i.e., precuneus, and temporal cortex. These neuroimaging findings

  15. Producer for vegetal combustibles for internal-combustion motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-12-28

    A producer is described for internal-combustion motors fed with wood or agricultural byproducts characterized by the fact that its full operation is independent of the degree of wetness of the material used.

  16. Modeling Induction Motor Imbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armah, Kabenla; Jouffroy, Jerome; Duggen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a study into the development of a generalized model for a three-phase induction motor that offers flexibility of simulating balanced and unbalanced parameter scenarios. By analyzing the interaction of forces within the motor, we achieve our main objective of deriving the system d...

  17. Artificial molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S.; Wilson, Miriam R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Leigh, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new

  18. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Prekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and

  19. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  20. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  1. Spinal cord: motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Kourosh; Roos, Raymond P

    2013-02-01

    Spinal cord motor neuron diseases affect lower motor neurons in the ventral horn. This article focuses on the most common spinal cord motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which also affects upper motor neurons. Also discussed are other motor neuron diseases that only affect the lower motor neurons. Despite the identification of several genes associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the pathogenesis of this complex disease remains elusive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Losses in chopper-controlled DC series motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Motors for electric vehicle (EV) applications must have different features than dc motors designed for industrial applications. The EV motor application is characterized by the following requirements: (1) the need for highest possible efficiency from light load to overload, for maximum EV range, (2) large short time overload capability (The ratio of peak to average power varies from 5/1 in heavy city traffic to 3/1 in suburban driving situations) and (3) operation from power supply voltage levels of 84 to 144 volts (probably 120 volts maximum). A test facility utilizing a dc generator as a substitute for a battery pack was designed and utilized. Criteria for the design of such a facility are presented. Two motors, differing in design detail, commercially available for EV use were tested. Losses measured are discussed, as are waves forms and their harmonic content, the measurements of resistance and inductance, EV motor/chopper application criteria, and motor design considerations.

  3. The motor intervention as delays prevention factor in motor and cognitive development of infants during the hospital stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    arolina Panceri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive-motor tasks intervention is beneficial for the infant’s motor and cognitive development. These interventions in the hospital setting, have been widely studied in neonatal intensive care units, however, few studies evaluate child development within pediatric units. Objective: To evaluate the impact of cognitive-motor intervention in motor and cognitive development of infants hospitalized with respiratory diseases. Method: The research was characterized as quasi-experimental, 22 babies hospitalized in the pediatric unit for respiratory disease were divided into 2 groups (10 in the control group and 12 in the intervention group without significant differences in biological and socioeconomic data. The mean age was 5.50 months (SD ± 4.51, ranging between 1 and 16 months. Questionnaire was conducted with the infant’s parent/guardian for sample characterization. The Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III was used to evaluate motor e cognitive development. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, Student’s t test, General Linear Model and One Way ANOVA. Results: The results show a significant interaction between group x time in motor and cognitive scores. When comparing the two times, the intervention group changed positively and significantly from pre- to post-intervention in motor and cognitive scores. The same was not observed for the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the intervention during the hospital stay contributes positively to the motor and cognitive development.

  4. A novel in-plane mode rotary ultrasonic motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xiaolong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic motors have the merits of high ratio of torque to volume, high positioning precision, intrinsic holding torque, etc., compared to the conventional electromagnetic motors. There have been several potential applications for this type of motor in aerospace exploration, but bearings and bonding mechanism of the piezoelectric ring in the motors limit the performance of them in the space operation conditions. It is known that the Langevin type transducer has excellent energy efficiency and reliability. Hence using the Langevin type transducer in ultrasonic motors may improve the reliability of piezoelectric motors for space applications. In this study, a novel in-plane mode rotary ultrasonic motor is designed, fabricated, and characterized. The proposed motor operates in in-plane vibration mode which is excited by four Langevin-type bending vibrators separately placed around a ring-shaped stator. Two tapered rotors are assembled to the inner ring of the stator and clamped together by a screw nut. In order to make the motor more stable and convenient to fix, a thin cylindrical support is placed under the stator ring. Due to its no-bearing structure and Langevin transducer excitation, the prototype ultrasonic motor may operate well in aeronautic and astronautic environments.

  5. Motor current signature analysis for determining operational readiness of motor-operated valves (MOVs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryter, R.C.; Haynes, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is a novel diagnostic process for condition monitoring of electric-motor-driven mechanical equipment (e.g., pumps, motor-operated valves, compressors, and processing machinery). The MCSA process identifies, characterizes, and trends over time the instantaneous load variations of mechanical equipment in order to diagnose changes in the condition of the equipment (e.g., due to degradation or service wear), which, if allowed to continue, may lead to failure. It monitors the instantaneous variations (noise content) in the electric current flowing through the power leads to the electric motor that drives the equipment. The motor itself thereby acts as a transducer, sensing both large and small, long-term and rapid, mechanical load variations and converting them to variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. This motor current noise signature is detected, amplified, and further processed as needed to examine its time domain and frequency domain (spectral) characteristics. The operational principles of MCSA and the nonintrusive data collection apparatus and procedure used with MOVs will be described. Data collected from MOVs in both laboratory and in-plant environments will also be shown to illustrate the ability of MCSA to ''see'' the detailed inner workings of the valve and operator and thus to detect degraded performance at an incipient stage. (Set of 18 vugraphs)

  6. [Children and motor competence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsson, H; Haga, M

    2000-10-20

    Recently, the topic of motor competence has figured prominently in the media. The claims made are many, but the research that support the statements is seldom cited. The aim of this review article is to address that deficiency by documenting what is really known about the motor competence of children. Motor competence not only allows children to carry out everyday practical tasks, but it is also an important determinant of their level of self-esteem and of their popularity and status in their peer group. While many studies have shown a significant correlation between motor problems and other problems in the social sphere, it has been difficult to establish causal relationships with any degree of confidence, as there appear to be several interactions which need to be taken into account. Research has shown that 6-10% of Norwegian children in the 7 to 10 year age group have a motor competence well below the norm. It is unusual for motor problems to simply disappear over time. In the absence of intervention the syndrome is likely to continue to manifest itself. More recent research points to some of the circularity in this causal network, children with motor problems having been shown to be less physically active than their peers. In a larger health perspective this in itself can have very serious consequences for the child.

  7. Characterization of the supersonic flowing microwave discharge using two dimensional plasma tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, M.; Samolov, A.; Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L.; Godunov, A. [Department of Physics, Center for Accelerator Science, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States); Cuckov, F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

    2013-03-14

    A tomographic numerical method based on the two-dimensional Radon formula for a cylindrical cavity has been employed for obtaining spatial distributions of the argon excited levels. The spectroscopy measurements were taken at different positions and directions to observe populations of excited species in the plasmoid region and the corresponding excitation temperatures. Excited argon states are concentrated near the tube walls, thus, confirming the assumption that the post discharge plasma is dominantly sustained by travelling surface wave. An automated optical measurement system has been developed for reconstruction of local plasma parameters of the plasmoid structure formed in an argon supersonic flowing microwave discharge. The system carries out angle and distance measurements using a rotating, flat mirror, as well as two high precision stepper motors operated by a microcontroller-based system and several sensors for precise feedback control.

  8. Comparison of Health Outcomes Among Children with Different Levels of Motor Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagas Daniel V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. While evidence suggests that children with the developmental coordination disorder (DCD have worse health outcomes than their typically developing peers, it remains unclear whether children with low motor competence but without DCD are also characterized by worse health outcomes than those with average motor competence. The main purpose of this study was to compare health outcomes between children with low motor competence without DCD and those with average motor competence.

  9. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  10. Motor Carrier Crash Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains data on large trucks and buses involved in Federally reportable crashes as per Title 49 U.S.C. Part 390.5 (crashes involving a commercial motor vehicle, and...

  11. High Power Density Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  12. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The magnitude of capacitor that will develop maximum torque in capacitor start motor and capacitor run motor are investigated and determined by simulation. Each of these capacitors is connected to the auxiliary winding of split-phase motor thereby transforming it into capacitor start or capacitor run motor. The starting current and starting torque of the split-phase motor (SPM, capacitor run motor (CRM and capacitor star motor (CSM are compared for their suitability in their operational performance and applications.

  13. Electrodynamic linear motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munehiro, H

    1980-05-29

    When driving the carriage of a printer through a rotating motor, there are problems regarding the limited accuracy of the carriage position due to rotation or contraction and ageing of the cable. In order to solve the problem, a direct drive system was proposed, in which the printer carriage is driven by a linear motor. If one wants to keep the motor circuit of such a motor compact, then the magnetic flux density in the air gap must be reduced or the motor travel must be reduced. It is the purpose of this invention to create an electrodynamic linear motor, which on the one hand is compact and light and on the other hand has a relatively high constant force over a large travel. The invention is characterised by the fact that magnetic fields of alternating polarity are generated at equal intervals in the magnetic field, and that the coil arrangement has 2 adjacent coils, whose size corresponds to half the length of each magnetic pole. A logic circuit is provided to select one of the two coils and to determine the direction of the current depending on the signals of a magnetic field sensor on the coil arrangement.

  14. Markov process of muscle motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratiev, Yu; Pechersky, E; Pirogov, S

    2008-01-01

    We study a Markov random process describing muscle molecular motor behaviour. Every motor is either bound up with a thin filament or unbound. In the bound state the motor creates a force proportional to its displacement from the neutral position. In both states the motor spends an exponential time depending on the state. The thin filament moves at a velocity proportional to the average of all displacements of all motors. We assume that the time which a motor stays in the bound state does not depend on its displacement. Then one can find an exact solution of a nonlinear equation appearing in the limit of an infinite number of motors

  15. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  16. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M.

    1996-03-01

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry's large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs

  17. Caracterization of the motor profile of students with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Matiko Okuda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thematic focus: The motor abnormalities may be part of so-called comorbidities that can coexist with autistic disorder. Objective: To characterize the motor profile of students with autistic disorder. Method: the study included six children with autistic disorder in elementary school, male, aged 5 years and 5 months and 10 years and 9 months. After signing the consent form by parents or guardians, the students were submitted to the Motor Development Scale for assessment of fine motor, gross motor performance, balance, body scheme, spatial organization, temporal organization and laterality. Results: The results revealed a significant difference between the motor age and chronological age. According to the classification of the Scale of Motor Development, students in this study showed motor development lower than expected for age. Conclusion: The students with autistic disorder in this study presented a profile of Developmental Coordination Disorder in comorbidity, showing that participants of this research presented difficulties in activities that required skills such as handwriting. Thus, motor and psychomotor needs of these students were focused on educational and clinical environment to reduce the impact of behavioral and social manifestations.

  18. Investigations of the migrating motor complex in domestic turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, L R; Duke, G E; Evanson, O A

    1990-09-01

    The motor correlate of the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) was characterized in domestic turkeys, and feeding state, age, sex, and time of day were examined as possible factors influencing the motor activity observed. Strain gauge transducers, and in a few birds Ag-AgCl bipolar electrodes, were implanted on the caudoventral thin muscle of the muscular stomach, the duodenum, ileum, cecum, and colon. Contractility was recorded for 8-10 h per bird on alternating days for 2-3 wk, except in birds involved in four 24-h recording sessions during a 2-wk period. Intense motor activity characteristic of phase III of the MMC occurred only in the ileum; other phases could not be identified. The duration, propagation velocity, and percent of cyclic motor patterns propagating from one site to another were similar to those reported in other galliform species. The occurrence of cyclic motor activity appeared to be related to food consumption; the number of motor patterns occurring during an intense feeding session was less than the number observed 1.5-2 h after feeding. In addition, more motor patterns were recorded in fasted poults during the light period than in the dark; however, the reverse was observed in juveniles fed ad libitum. Cyclic motor activity recorded in fasted 18-wk-old birds was of longer duration than that in fasted 8-wk-old birds. No statistically significant differences were noted in the cyclic motor patterns of male vs. female poults.

  19. Current and investigational non-dopaminergic agents for management of motor symptoms (including motor complications) in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by a heterogeneous combination of motor and non motor symptoms. The nigrostriatal dopamine deficit is one of its essential pathophysiologic features. Areas covered: This invited narrative review provides an overlook over current available and future promising non dopaminergic therapeutics to modulate altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in Parkinson's disease. Current research strategies aim to proof clinical efficacy by amelioration of motor symptoms and preponderant levodopa related movement fluctuations. These so-called motor complications are characterized by involuntary movements as a result of an overstimulation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system or by temporary recurrence of motor symptoms, when beneficial effects of dopamine substituting drugs vane. Expert opinion: Non dopaminergic modulation of dopamine replacement is currently mostly investigated in well defined and selected patients with motor complications to get approval. However, the world of daily maintenance of patients with its individually adapted, so-called personalised, therapy will determine the real value of these therapeutics. Here the clinical experience of the treating neurologists and the courage to use unconventional drug combinations are essential preconditions for successful treatments of motor and associated non motor complications in cooperation with the patients and their care giving surroundings.

  20. Motor and sensory alalia: diagnostic difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Bobylova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alalia is a speech disorder that develops due to organic brain damage in children with normal hearing and intelligence during the first three year of life. Systemic speech underdevelopment in alalia is characterized by violations in the phonetic, phonemic, lexical, and grammatical structure. Patients with alalia can also have non-speech related impairments, including motor (impaired movement and coordination, sensory (impaired sensitivity and perception, and psychopathological disorders. There are three types of alalia: motor, sensory, and mixed. Children with motor alalia have expressive language disorders, speech praxis, poor speech fluency, impaired articulation, and other focal neurological symptoms; however, they understand speech directed to them. Patients with motor alalia are often left-handed. Regional slowing and epileptiform activity are often detected on their electroencephalogram.  Children with sensory alalia are characterized by poor speech understanding (despite normal hearing resulting in secondary underdevelopment of their own speech. These patients have problems with the analysis of sounds, including speech sounds (impaired speech gnosis, which prevents the development of association between the sound image and the object. Therefore, the child hears, but does not understand the speech directed at him/her (auditory agnosia. Differential diagnosis of alalia is challenging and may require several months of observation. It also implies the exclusion of hearing loss and mental disorders.

  1. The frames of reference of the motor-visual aftereffect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Barchiesi

    Full Text Available Repeatedly performing similar motor acts produces short-term adaptive changes in the agent's motor system. One striking use-dependent effect is the motor-to-visual aftereffect (MVA, a short-lasting negative bias in the conceptual categorization of visually-presented training-related motor behavior. The MVA is considered the behavioral counterpart of the adaptation of visuomotor neurons that code for congruent executed and observed motor acts. Here we characterize which features of the motor training generate the MVA, along 3 main dimensions: a the relative role of motor acts vs. the semantics of the task-set; b the role of muscular-specific vs. goal-specific training and c the spatial frame of reference with respect to the whole body. Participants were asked to repeatedly push or pull some small objects in a bowl as we varied different components of adapting actions across three experiments. The results show that a the semantic value of the instructions given to the participant have no role in generating the MVA, which depends only on the motor meaning of the training act; b both intrinsic body movements and extrinsic action goals contribute simultaneously to the genesis of the MVA and c changes in the relative position of the acting hand compared to the observed hand, when they do not involve changes to the movement performed or to the action meaning, do not have an effect on the MVA. In these series of experiments we confirm that recent motor experiences produce measurable changes in how humans see each others' actions. The MVA is an exquisite motor effect generated by two distinct motor sub-systems, one operating in an intrinsic, muscular specific, frame of reference and the other operating in an extrinsic motor space.

  2. NEW VECTORS OF THE MOTOR INSURANCE DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Prikazyuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The essence and features of different forms of motor insurance are studied. As investigated, the motor insurance is one of the most popular types of insurance in many countries, and continues its further quality development. It is stated that the following new vectors of development has been recently observed in developed countries: Internet sales are getting significantly prevalent along with the traditional channels of insurance distribution; insurers’ websites provide a wide range of online features in motor insurance; innovations in motor insurance based on the use of telematics, particularly the usage-based insurance, are widely spread. Basic types of motor insurance, which represent the domestic market, are analyzed. It was found that the share of motor insurance in the insurance market of Ukraine is significant. As established, the proportion of net premiums of motor insurance is decreasing, because its development is significantly influenced by economic factors. Measures, applied by insurance companies in the domestic market of motor insurance to attract new customers and retain the existing ones, are defined. In particular, insurers are trying to develop the implementation of insurance services online, and use possibilities offered by mobile technologies. It was found that the domestic market of motor insurance is characterized by a high level of fraud, that is why some innovative measures in the domestic and international motor insurance agreements are taken to decrease it, such as the introduction of mandatory registration of insurance agents, who have the right to perform mediatory activity in compulsory civil liability insurance of owners of motor vehicles (CCLIOMV, and procedures for contracting the international insurance “Green Card” agreements with simultaneous entering the information on concluded agreement into a unified centralized database of Motor (transport insurance bureau of Ukraine using the “Green Card online

  3. Human motor unit recordings: origins and insight into the integrated motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchateau, Jacques; Enoka, Roger M

    2011-08-29

    Soon after Edward Liddell [1895-1981] and Charles Sherrington [1857-1952] introduced the concept of a motor unit in 1925 and the necessary technology was developed, the recording of single motor unit activity became feasible in humans. It was quickly discovered by Edgar Adrian [1889-1977] and Detlev Bronk [1897-1975] that the force exerted by muscle during voluntary contractions was the result of the concurrent recruitment of motor units and modulation of the rate at which they discharged action potentials. Subsequent studies found that the relation between discharge frequency and motor unit force was characterized by a sigmoidal function. Based on observations on experimental animals, Elwood Henneman [1915-1996] proposed a "size principle" in 1957 and most studies in humans focussed on validating this concept during various types of muscle contractions. By the end of the 20th C, the experimental evidence indicated that the recruitment order of human motor units was determined primarily by motoneuron size and that the occasional changes in recruitment order were not an intended strategy of the central nervous system. Fundamental knowledge on the function of Sherrington's "common final pathway" was expanded with observations on motor unit rotation, minimal and maximal discharge rates, discharge variability, and self-sustained firing. Despite the great amount of work on characterizing motor unit activity during the first century of inquiry, however, many basic questions remain unanswered and these limit the extent to which findings on humans and experimental animals can be integrated and generalized to all movements. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A versatile system for controlling beamlines or complex experimental setups is described. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. There is an ''emergency stop'' key on the front panel keyboard to stop the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Flood-proof motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Marcus [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Even before the Fukushima event occurred some German nuclear power plants (NPP) have considered flooding scenarios. As a result of one of these studies, AREVA performed an upgrade project in NPP Isar 1 with flood-proof motors as a replacement of existing air-cooled low-voltage and high-voltage motors of the emergency cooling chain. After the Fukushima event, in which the cooling chains failed, the topic flood-proof equipment gets more and more into focus. This compact will introduce different kinds of flood-proof electrical motors which are currently installed or planned for installation into NPPs over the world. Moreover the process of qualification, as it was performed during the project in NPP Isar 1, will be shown. (orig.)

  6. Flood-proof motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Even before the Fukushima event occurred some German nuclear power plants (NPP) have considered flooding scenarios. As a result of one of these studies, AREVA performed an upgrade project in NPP Isar 1 with flood-proof motors as a replacement of existing air-cooled low-voltage and high-voltage motors of the emergency cooling chain. After the Fukushima event, in which the cooling chains failed, the topic flood-proof equipment gets more and more into focus. This compact will introduce different kinds of flood-proof electrical motors which are currently installed or planned for installation into NPPs over the world. Moreover the process of qualification, as it was performed during the project in NPP Isar 1, will be shown. (orig.)

  7. Mechanical design of electric motors

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Rapid increases in energy consumption and emphasis on environmental protection have posed challenges for the motor industry, as has the design and manufacture of highly efficient, reliable, cost-effective, energy-saving, quiet, precisely controlled, and long-lasting electric motors.Suitable for motor designers, engineers, and manufacturers, as well as maintenance personnel, undergraduate and graduate students, and academic researchers, Mechanical Design of Electric Motors provides in-depth knowledge of state-of-the-art design methods and developments of electric motors. From motor classificati

  8. Transformers and motors

    CERN Document Server

    Shultz, George

    1991-01-01

    Transformers and Motors is an in-depth technical reference which was originally written for the National Joint Apprenticeship Training Committee to train apprentice and journeymen electricians. This book provides detailed information for equipment installation and covers equipment maintenance and repair. The book also includes troubleshooting and replacement guidelines, and it contains a minimum of theory and math.In this easy-to-understand, practical sourcebook, you'll discover:* Explanations of the fundamental concepts of transformers and motors* Transformer connections and d

  9. Linear induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation

  10. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    Human studies in the past three decades have provided us with an emerging understanding of how cortical and spinal networks collaborate to ensure the vast repertoire of human behaviors. We differ from other animals in having direct cortical connections to spinal motoneurons, which bypass spinal...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  11. Electrodynamic ratchet motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jiufu; Sader, John E; Mulvaney, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Brownian ratchets produce directed motion through rectification of thermal fluctuations and have been used for separation processes and colloidal transport. We propose a flashing ratchet motor that enables the transduction of electrical energy into rotary micromechanical work. This is achieved through torque generation provided by boundary shaping of equipotential surfaces. The present device contrasts to previous implementations that focus on translational motion. Stochastic simulations elucidate the performance characteristics of this device as a function of its geometry. Miniaturization to nanoscale dimensions yields rotational speeds in excess of 1 kHz, which is comparable to biomolecular motors of similar size.

  12. Motor control of handwriting in the developing brain: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmis, Sarah; Danna, Jeremy; Velay, Jean-Luc; Longcamp, Marieke

    This review focuses on the acquisition of writing motor aspects in adults, and in 5-to 12-year-old children without learning disabilities. We first describe the behavioural aspects of adult writing and dominant models based on the notion of motor programs. We show that handwriting acquisition is characterized by the transition from reactive movements programmed stroke-by-stroke in younger children, to an automatic control of the whole trajectory when the motor programs are memorized at about 10 years old. Then, we describe the neural correlates of adult writing, and the changes that could occur with learning during childhood. The acquisition of a new skill is characterized by the involvement of a network more restricted in space and where neural specificity is increased in key regions. The cerebellum and the left dorsal premotor cortex are of fundamental importance in motor learning, and could be at the core of the acquisition of handwriting.

  13. The effect of induction motor shaft diameter on motor performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım Gökhan Yetgin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Induction motors are used in many areas from the past to the present and in different fields with the development of technology has continued to be used. It is obvious that induction motors as an improvement to the efficiency in terms of energy saving would cause great benefit. In that context, induction motor manufacturers and designers are constantly trying out new methods to improve motor performance and efficiency. In this study, what would be the optimum diameter of the shaft in order to increase the efficiency of the induction motor were investigated. In the study, 5.5 kW, 7.5 kW and 11 kW motors analyzes were also performed. Obtained shaft diameter values were compared with the manufacturer values. In addition, critical points such as the magnetic flux values, weight values and performances of the motors were examined and optimal shaft diameter values for each motor have been determined.

  14. Sensory-motor problems in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyatt, Caroline; Craig, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Despite being largely characterized as a social and cognitive disorder, strong evidence indicates the presence of significant sensory-motor problems in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This paper outlines our progression from initial, broad assessment using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to subsequent targeted kinematic assessment. In particular, pronounced ASD impairment seen in the broad categories of manual dexterity and ball skills was found to be routed in specific difficulties on isolated tasks, which were translated into focused experimental assessment. Kinematic results from both subsequent studies highlight impaired use of perception-action coupling to guide, adapt and tailor movement to task demands, resulting in inflexible and rigid motor profiles. In particular difficulties with the use of temporal adaption are shown, with “hyperdexterity” witnessed in ballistic movement profiles, often at the cost of spatial accuracy and task performance. By linearly progressing from the use of a standardized assessment tool to targeted kinematic assessment, clear and defined links are drawn between measureable difficulties and underlying sensory-motor assessment. Results are specifically viewed in-light of perception-action coupling and its role in early infant development suggesting that rather than being “secondary” level impairment, sensory-motor problems may be fundamental in the progression of ASD. This logical and systematic process thus allows a further understanding into the potential root of observable motor problems in ASD; a vital step if underlying motor problems are to be considered a fundamental aspect of autism and allow a route of non-invasive preliminary diagnosis. PMID:23882194

  15. HTSL massive motor. Project: Motor field calculation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutt, H.J.; Gruener, A.

    2003-01-01

    HTS motors up to 300 kW were to be developed and optimized. For this, specific calculation methods were enhanced to include superconducting rotor types (hysteresis, reluctance and permanent magnet HTS rotors). The experiments were carried out in a SHM70-45 hysteresis motor. It was shown how static and dynamic trapped field magnetisation of the rotor with YBCO rings will increase flux in the air gap motor, increasing the motor capacity to twice its original level. (orig.) [de

  16. Motor function domains in alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Melanie; Gordon, Kelly; Hall, Amanda; Jasien, Joan; Lardinois, Kara; Uchitel, Julie; Mclean, Melissa; Prange, Lyndsey; Wuchich, Jeffrey; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2017-08-01

    To characterize motor function profiles in alternating hemiplegia of childhood, and to investigate interrelationships between these domains and with age. We studied a cohort of 23 patients (9 males, 14 females; mean age 9y 4mo, range 4mo-43y) who underwent standardized tests to assess gross motor, upper extremity motor control, motor speech, and dysphagia functions. Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Revised Melbourne Assessment (MA2) scales manifested predominantly mild impairments; motor speech, moderate to severe; Modified Dysphagia Outcome and Severity Scale (M-DOSS), mild-to moderate deficits. GMFCS correlated with GMFM-88 scores (Pearson's correlation, p=0.002), MACS (p=0.038), and MA2 fluency (p=0.005) and accuracy (p=0.038) scores. GMFCS did not correlate with motor speech (p=0.399), MA2 dexterity (p=0.247), range of motion (p=0.063), or M-DOSS (p=0.856). Motor speech was more severely impaired than the GMFCS (p<0.013). There was no correlation between any of the assessment tools and age (p=0.210-0.798). Our data establish a detailed profile of motor function in alternating hemiplegia of childhood, argue against the presence of worse motor function in older patients, identify tools helpful in evaluating this population, and identify oropharyngeal function as the more severely affected domain, suggesting that brain areas controlling this function are more affected than others. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  17. Stepping Motor - Hydraulic Motor Servo Drives for an NC Milling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the retrofit design of the control system of an NC milling machine with a stepping motor and stepping motor - actuated hydraulic motor servo mechanism on the machines X-axis is described. The servo designed in the course of this study was tested practically and shown to be linear - the velocity following errors ...

  18. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Reis, Callie [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  19. The neural optimal control hierarchy for motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, T.; Eliasmith, C.

    2011-10-01

    Our empirical, neuroscientific understanding of biological motor systems has been rapidly growing in recent years. However, this understanding has not been systematically mapped to a quantitative characterization of motor control based in control theory. Here, we attempt to bridge this gap by describing the neural optimal control hierarchy (NOCH), which can serve as a foundation for biologically plausible models of neural motor control. The NOCH has been constructed by taking recent control theoretic models of motor control, analyzing the required processes, generating neurally plausible equivalent calculations and mapping them on to the neural structures that have been empirically identified to form the anatomical basis of motor control. We demonstrate the utility of the NOCH by constructing a simple model based on the identified principles and testing it in two ways. First, we perturb specific anatomical elements of the model and compare the resulting motor behavior with clinical data in which the corresponding area of the brain has been damaged. We show that damaging the assigned functions of the basal ganglia and cerebellum can cause the movement deficiencies seen in patients with Huntington's disease and cerebellar lesions. Second, we demonstrate that single spiking neuron data from our model's motor cortical areas explain major features of single-cell responses recorded from the same primate areas. We suggest that together these results show how NOCH-based models can be used to unify a broad range of data relevant to biological motor control in a quantitative, control theoretic framework.

  20. Motor features in posterior cortical atrophy and their imaging correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Natalie S; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Lehmann, Manja; Keihaninejad, Shiva; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Leung, Kelvin K; Fox, Nick C; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2014-12-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by impaired higher visual processing skills; however, motor features more commonly associated with corticobasal syndrome may also occur. We investigated the frequency and clinical characteristics of motor features in 44 PCA patients and, with 30 controls, conducted voxel-based morphometry, cortical thickness, and subcortical volumetric analyses of their magnetic resonance imaging. Prominent limb rigidity was used to define a PCA-motor subgroup. A total of 30% (13) had PCA-motor; all demonstrating asymmetrical left upper limb rigidity. Limb apraxia was more frequent and asymmetrical in PCA-motor, as was myoclonus. Tremor and alien limb phenomena only occurred in this subgroup. The subgroups did not differ in neuropsychological test performance or apolipoprotein E4 allele frequency. Greater asymmetry of atrophy occurred in PCA-motor, particularly involving right frontoparietal and peri-rolandic cortices, putamen, and thalamus. The 9 patients (including 4 PCA-motor) with pathology or cerebrospinal fluid all showed evidence of Alzheimer's disease. Our data suggest that PCA patients with motor features have greater atrophy of contralateral sensorimotor areas but are still likely to have underlying Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Motor features in posterior cortical atrophy and their imaging correlates☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Natalie S.; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Lehmann, Manja; Keihaninejad, Shiva; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Leung, Kelvin K.; Fox, Nick C.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2014-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by impaired higher visual processing skills; however, motor features more commonly associated with corticobasal syndrome may also occur. We investigated the frequency and clinical characteristics of motor features in 44 PCA patients and, with 30 controls, conducted voxel-based morphometry, cortical thickness, and subcortical volumetric analyses of their magnetic resonance imaging. Prominent limb rigidity was used to define a PCA-motor subgroup. A total of 30% (13) had PCA-motor; all demonstrating asymmetrical left upper limb rigidity. Limb apraxia was more frequent and asymmetrical in PCA-motor, as was myoclonus. Tremor and alien limb phenomena only occurred in this subgroup. The subgroups did not differ in neuropsychological test performance or apolipoprotein E4 allele frequency. Greater asymmetry of atrophy occurred in PCA-motor, particularly involving right frontoparietal and peri-rolandic cortices, putamen, and thalamus. The 9 patients (including 4 PCA-motor) with pathology or cerebrospinal fluid all showed evidence of Alzheimer's disease. Our data suggest that PCA patients with motor features have greater atrophy of contralateral sensorimotor areas but are still likely to have underlying Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25086839

  2. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  3. Reciprocating Linear Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Features include structural simplicity and good force/displacement characteristics. Reciprocating motor has simple, rugged construction, relatively low reciprocating weight, improved power delivery, and improved force control. Wear reduced by use of magnetic bearings. Intended to provide drivers for long-lived Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, concept has less exotic applications, such as fuel pumps.

  4. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  5. Motor Incoordination in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between motor performance, attention deficit, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity in 42 school-aged children with ADHD (36 males, 6 females; mean age 8 years 2 months; range 6-11 years was studied at National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

  6. Deafness and motor abilities level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zwierzchowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The audition injury hinders some motor motions and the organised coordination at the higher level and may be a cause of disturbances and disorder in some motor abilities adoption. It was assumed that deafness including its aetiology and injury mechanism may significantly influence the motor development of human being. The study aimed in checking if the deafness, as a result of various unfavourable factors, determines the motor development of children and youngsters. Consequently the dependency between qualitative features i.e.: signed motor level and aetiology, audition injury mechanism and the deafness degree was examined. The mechanism and aetiology of hearing correlated with the motor abilities displayed statistically significant dependencies in few motor trials only. Revealed correlations regarded mostly the coordination trials excluding the flexibility one. Statistically significant dependencies between the audition diminution and the motor abilities level were not found.

  7. Measurement of the Robot Motor Capability of a Robot Motor System: A Fitts’s-Law-Inspired Approach

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. George Lee; Hsien-I Lin

    2013-01-01

    Robot motor capability is a crucial factor for a robot, because it affects how accurately and rapidly a robot can perform a motion to accomplish a task constrained by spatial and temporal conditions. In this paper, we propose and derive a pseudo-index of motor performance (pIp ) to characterize robot motor capability with robot kinematics, dynamics and control taken into consideration. The proposed pIp provides a quantitative measure for a robot with revolute joints, which is inspired from an...

  8. Alteration of protein folding and degradation in motor neuron diseases : Implications and protective functions of small heat shock proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carra, Serena; Crippa, Valeria; Rusmini, Paola; Boncoraglio, Alessandra; Minoia, Melania; Giorgetti, Elisa; Kampinga, Harm H.; Poletti, Angelo

    Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are neurodegenerative disorders that specifically affect the survival and function of upper and/or lower motor neurons. Since motor neurons are responsible for the control of voluntary muscular movement, MNDs are characterized by muscle spasticity, weakness and atrophy.

  9. MOTORIC STIMULATION RELATED TO FINE MOTORIC DEVELOPMENT ON CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Triharini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor developmental stimulation is an activity undertaken to stimulate the children basic skills and so they can grow and develop optimally. Children who obtain a direct stimulus will grow faster than who get less stimulus. Mother’s behavior of stimulation is very important for children, it is considering as the basic needs of children and it must be fulfilled. Providing good stimulation could optimize fine motor development in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze mother’s behavior about motor stimulation with fine motor development in toddler age 4-5 years old. Method: Design have been  used in this study was cross sectional. Population were mothers and their toddler in Group A of Dharma Wanita Persatuan Driyorejo Gresik Preschool. Sample were 51 respondents recruited by using purposive sampling technique according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The independent variable was mother’s behavior about motor stimulation whereas dependent variable was fine motor development in toddler. The data were collected using questionnaire and conducting observation on fine motor development based on Denver Development Screening Test (DDST. Data then analyzed using Spearman Rho (r test to find relation between mother’s behaviors about stimulation motor on their toddler fine motor development. Result: Results  of this study showed that there were correlations between mother’s knowledge and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, between mother’s attitude and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, and between mother’s actions and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000. Analysis: In sort study found that there were relation between fine motor development and mother’s behavior. Discussion: Therefore mother’s behavior needed to be improved. Further research about stimulation motor and fine motor development aspects in toddler is required.

  10. Microprocessor controller for stepping motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, B.G.; Thuot, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    A new concept for digital computer control of multiple stepping motors which operate in a severe electromagnetic pulse environment is presented. The motors position mirrors in the beam-alignment system of a 100-kJ CO 2 laser. An asynchronous communications channel of a computer is used to send coded messages, containing the motor address and stepping-command information, to the stepping-motor controller in a bit serial format over a fiber-optics communications link. The addressed controller responds by transmitting to the computer its address and other motor information, thus confirming the received message. Each controller is capable of controlling three stepping motors. The controller contains the fiber-optics interface, a microprocessor, and the stepping-motor driven circuits. The microprocessor program, which resides in an EPROM, decodes the received messages, transmits responses, performs the stepping-motor sequence logic, maintains motor-position information, and monitors the motor's reference switch. For multiple stepping-motor application, the controllers are connected in a daisy chain providing control of many motors from one asynchronous communications channel of the computer

  11. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niven, W.A.; Shikany, S.D.; Shira, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed

  12. Experiments with a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

  13. Fundamental Principles underlying Motor Reflexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Zhou (Kuikui)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe cerebellum has been suggested to be involved in motor control ever since the early 19th century. The motor control ranges from timing and strength of simple reflexes to multiple joint/limb coordination and complex motor sequence acquisition. The current thesis discusses the

  14. Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Caroline Wolf

    Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

  15. Motor neuron, nerve, and neuromuscular junction disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Papić, Lea; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2011-10-01

    The aim is to review the most relevant findings published during the last year concerning clinical, genetic, pathogenic, and therapeutic advances in motor neuron disease, neuropathies, and neuromuscular junction disorders. Studies on animal and cell models have improved the understanding of how mutated survival motor neuron protein in spinal muscular atrophy governs the pathogenetic processes. New phenotypes of SOD1 mutations have been described. Moreover, animal models enhanced the insight into the pathogenetic background of sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Novel treatment options for motor neuron disease have been described in humans and animal models. Considerable progress has been achieved also in elucidating the genetic background of many forms of inherited neuropathies and high clinical and genetic heterogeneity has been demonstrated. Mutations in MuSK and GFTP1 have been shown to cause new types of congenital myasthenic syndromes. A third type of autoantibodies (Lrp4) has been detected to cause myasthenia gravis. Advances in the clinical and genetic characterization of motor neuron diseases, neuropathies, and neuromuscular transmission defects have important implications on the fundamental understanding, diagnosis, and management of these disorders. Identification of crucial steps of the pathogenetic process may provide the basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  16. Segmented motor drive - with multi-phase induction motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Flemming Buus

    of the induction motor is set up. The model is able to calculate dynamical electric, magnetic and mechanic state variables, but initially it is used to calculate static characteristics in motors with different number of phases and different voltage supply shapes. This analysis show i.e. that the efficiency....... The multi-phase motor is selected for further analysis. The project is limited to examine if increasing the number of phases can improve the characteristics for induction motor drives. In the literature it is demonstrated that torque production in a six-phase motor can be increased, if a 3rd harmonic......This PhD project commences in modulation of motor drives, i.e. having the advantage of reducing the number of variants and improves the system reliability at error situations. Four different motor drive topologies with modular construction as common denominator are compared on a general level...

  17. Focal Dystonia and the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePerruchoud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Performing accurate movements requires preparation, execution, and monitoring mechanisms. The first two are coded by the motor system, and the latter by the sensory system. To provide an adaptive neural basis to overt behaviors, motor and sensory information has to be properly integrated in a reciprocal feedback loop. Abnormalities in this sensory-motor loop are involved in movement disorders such as focal dystonia, a hyperkinetic alteration affecting only a specific body part and characterized by sensory and motor deficits in the absence of basic motor impairments. Despite the fundamental impact of sensory-motor integration mechanisms on daily life, the general principles of healthy and pathological anatomic-functional organization of sensory-motor integration remain to be clarified. Based on the available data from experimental psychology, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging, we propose a bio-computational model of sensory-motor integration: the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE. Aiming at direct therapeutic implementations and with the final target of implementing novel intervention protocols for motor rehabilitation, our main goal is to provide the information necessary for further validating the SMILE model. By translating neuroscientific hypotheses into empirical investigations and clinically relevant questions, the prediction based on the SMILE model can be further extended to other pathological conditions characterized by impaired sensory-motor integration.

  18. Focal dystonia and the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchoud, David; Murray, Micah M; Lefebvre, Jeremie; Ionta, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Performing accurate movements requires preparation, execution, and monitoring mechanisms. The first two are coded by the motor system, the latter by the sensory system. To provide an adaptive neural basis to overt behaviors, motor and sensory information has to be properly integrated in a reciprocal feedback loop. Abnormalities in this sensory-motor loop are involved in movement disorders such as focal dystonia, a hyperkinetic alteration affecting only a specific body part and characterized by sensory and motor deficits in the absence of basic motor impairments. Despite the fundamental impact of sensory-motor integration mechanisms on daily life, the general principles of healthy and pathological anatomic-functional organization of sensory-motor integration remain to be clarified. Based on the available data from experimental psychology, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging, we propose a bio-computational model of sensory-motor integration: the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE). Aiming at direct therapeutic implementations and with the final target of implementing novel intervention protocols for motor rehabilitation, our main goal is to provide the information necessary for further validating the SMILE model. By translating neuroscientific hypotheses into empirical investigations and clinically relevant questions, the prediction based on the SMILE model can be further extended to other pathological conditions characterized by impaired sensory-motor integration.

  19. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Different Rotor Structures for Traction Motor in High Speed Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Torrent

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we proposed to study the use of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM for railway traction in the high-speed trains (HST of Renfe Operadora (the Spanish national railway operator. Currently, induction motors (IM are used in AVE classes 102–112 trains, so, the IM used as a traction motor in these trains has been studied and characterized by comparing the results with data provided by Renfe. A PMSM of equivalent power to the IM has been dimensioned, and different electromagnetic structures of the PMSM rotor have been evaluated. The simulation by the finite element method and analysis of the equivalent electrical circuit used in all the motors have been studied to evaluate the performance of the motors in this application. Efficiency is calculated at different operating points due to its impact on the energy consumption of railway traction. The implementation of the PMSM evaluated is recommended, mainly due to the improvements achieved in efficiency as compared with the IM currently used.

  20. Variation in motor output and motor performance in a centrally generated motor pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Brian J.; Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) produce motor patterns that ultimately drive motor outputs. We studied how functional motor performance is achieved, specifically, whether the variation seen in motor patterns is reflected in motor performance and whether fictive motor patterns differ from those in vivo. We used the leech heartbeat system in which a bilaterally symmetrical CPG coordinates segmental heart motor neurons and two segmented heart tubes into two mutually exclusive coordination modes: rear-to-front peristaltic on one side and nearly synchronous on the other, with regular side-to-side switches. We assessed individual variability of the motor pattern and the beat pattern in vivo. To quantify the beat pattern we imaged intact adults. To quantify the phase relations between motor neurons and heart constrictions we recorded extracellularly from two heart motor neurons and movement from the corresponding heart segments in minimally dissected leeches. Variation in the motor pattern was reflected in motor performance only in the peristaltic mode, where larger intersegmental phase differences in the motor neurons resulted in larger phase differences between heart constrictions. Fictive motor patterns differed from those in vivo only in the synchronous mode, where intersegmental phase differences in vivo had a larger front-to-rear bias and were more constrained. Additionally, load-influenced constriction timing might explain the amplification of the phase differences between heart segments in the peristaltic mode and the higher variability in motor output due to body shape assumed in this soft-bodied animal. The motor pattern determines the beat pattern, peristaltic or synchronous, but heart mechanics influence the phase relations achieved. PMID:24717348

  1. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    OpenAIRE

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI; Jacob TSADO; Mark NWOHU; Usman Abraham USMAN; Odu Ayo IMORU

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The ma...

  2. Acute exercise improves motor memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Kasper Christen; Roig, Marc; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that a single bout of acute cardiovascular exercise improves motor skill learning through an optimization of long-term motor memory. Here we expand this previous finding, to explore potential exercise-related biomarkers and their association with measures of motor memory...... practice whereas lactate correlated with better retention 1 hour as well as 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Thus, improvements in motor skill acquisition and retention induced by acute cardiovascular exercise are associated with increased concentrations of biomarkers involved in memory and learning...... processes. More mechanistic studies are required to elucidate the specific role of each biomarker in the formation of motor memory....

  3. Dynamically Timed Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Ann M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A brushless DC motor including a housing having an end cap secured thereto. The housing encloses a rotor. a stator and a rotationally displaceable commutation board having sensors secured thereon and spaced around the periphery of the rotor. An external rotational force is applied to the commutation board for displacement of the sensors to various positions whereby varying feedback signals are generated by the positioning of the sensors relative to the rotating rotor. The commutation board is secured in a fixed position in response to feedback signals indicative of optimum sensor position being determined. The rotation of the commutation board and the securing of the sensors in the desired fixed position is accomplished without requiring the removal of the end cap and with the DC motor operating.

  4. TFTR Motor Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.; Bronner, G.; Horton, M.

    1977-01-01

    A general description is given of 475 MVA pulsed motor generators for TFTR at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Two identical generators operating in parallel are capable of supplying 950 MVA for an equivalent square pulse of 6.77 seconds and 4,500 MJ at 0.7 power factor to provide the energy for the pulsed electrical coils and heating system for TFTR. The description includes the operational features of the 15,000 HP wound rotor motors driving each generator with its starting equipment and cycloconverter for controlling speed, power factor, and regulating line voltage during load pulsing where the generator speed changes from 87.5 to 60 Hz frequency variation to provide the 4,500 MJ or energy. The special design characteristics such as fatigue stress calculations for 10 6 cycles of operation, forcing factor on exciter to provide regulation, and low generator impedance are reviewed

  5. Libert-E Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieloff, Susan F.; Kinnunen, Raymond; Chevarley, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Kei Yun Wong has big dreams. She has been entrusted with the United States launch of Libert-E Motor, a new line of Chinese-manufactured electric scooters. With only $750,000 of her original budget of $3 million left, she needs to make sure that the launch succeeds, as it represents the initial step in her desire to create the first Chinese global…

  6. 350 KVA motor generators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Each logic circuit in the central computers consumes only a fraction of a watt: however, the final load constituted by many such circuits plus peripheral equipment is nearly half a million watts. Shown here are two 350 KVA motor generators used to convert 50 Hz mains to 60 Hz (US standard). Flywheels on the M.G. shafts remove power dropouts of up to 0.5 s.

  7. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  8. Motor car driving; Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensohn, T. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). ISS-Fahrzeugtechnik; Timpe, K.P. (eds.) [Technische Univ. Berlin (DE). Zentrum Mensch-Maschine-Systeme (ZMMS)

    2001-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on motor car driving, i.e. all aspects of motor car technology that cannot be looked at separately from the needs, characteristics and limitations of the human driver. This includes ergonomics as well as the design of the driver interface in consideration of the findings of cognitive science, problems of driving simulation in the context of simulation of technical systems, problems relating to optimal car automation up to traffic psychology. The book is in honour of Prof. Dr. Willumeit who died in summer 2000. Prof. Willumeit was one of the few scientists in Germany who had been an expert on all aspects of motor car driving for many years. [German] Erstmalig wird das Thema der Fahrzeugfuehrung geschlossen dargestellt. Die Thematik der 'Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung' umfasst in diesem Zusammenhang alle Aspekte der Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, die nicht isoliert von den Erfordernissen, Eigenschaften und Grenzen des menschlichen Fahrers betrachtet werden koennen. Dies beinhaltet u.a. Probleme der Ergonomie, aber auch Fragen nach einer kognitionswissenschaftlich unterstuetzten Schnittstellengestaltung, Fragen der Simulation des Fahrverhalten im Kontext der Simulation technischer Systeme oder Fragen einer optimalen Fahrzeugautomatisierung bis hin zu verkehrspsychologischen Aspekten. Das Buch ist als Gedenkband fuer Prof. Dr. Willumeit konzipiert, der im Sommer 2000 verstarb. Prof. Willumeit war einer der wenigen Wissenschaftler in Deutschland, der ueber viele Jahre diese Thematik der Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung in ihrer vollen Breite verfolgte. (orig.)

  9. 76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 3... Motors and Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... motors and small electric motors, clarify the scope of energy conservation standards for electric motors...

  10. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control centers. (a) General. The enclosure for each motor controller or motor-control...

  11. An Element of Determinism in a Stochastic Flagellar Motor Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Altindal, Tuba; Wu, Xiao-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus uses a single polar flagellum to navigate in an aqueous environment. Similar to Escherichia coli cells, the polar flagellar motor has two states; when the motor is counter-clockwise, the cell swims forward and when the motor is clockwise, the cell swims backward. V. alginolyticus also incorporates a direction randomization step at the start of the forward swimming interval by flicking its flagellum. To gain an understanding on how the polar flagellar motor switch is regulated, distributions of the forward Δf and backward Δb intervals are investigated herein. We found that the steady-state probability density functions, P(Δf) and P(Δb), of freely swimming bacteria are strongly peaked at a finite time, suggesting that the motor switch is not Poissonian. The short-time inhibition is sufficiently strong and long lasting, i.e., several hundred milliseconds for both intervals, which is readily observed and characterized. Treating motor reversal dynamics as a first-passage problem, which results from conformation fluctuations of the motor switch, we calculated P(Δf) and P(Δb) and found good agreement with the measurements.

  12. Performance Comparison between a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and an Induction Motor as a Traction Motor for High Speed Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Minoru; Kawamura, Junya; Terauchi, Nobuo

    Performance tests are carried out to demonstrate the superiority of a permanent magnet synchronous motor to an induction motor as a traction motor for high-speed train. A prototype motor was manufactured by replacing the rotor of a conventional induction motor. The test results show that the permanent magnet motor is lighter, efficient and more silent than the induction motor because of the different rotor structure.

  13. Focal dystonia and the Sensory-Motor Integrative Loop for Enacting (SMILE)

    OpenAIRE

    Perruchoud David; Murray Micah; Lefebvre Jeremie; Ionta Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Performing accurate movements requires preparation, execution, and monitoring mechanisms. The first two are coded by the motor system, the latter by the sensory system. To provide an adaptive neural basis to overt behaviors, motor and sensory information has to be properly integrated in a reciprocal feedback loop. Abnormalities in this sensory-motor loop are involved in movement disorders such as focal dystonia, a hyperkinetic alteration affecting only a specific body part and characterized b...

  14. Realization of station for testing asynchronous three-phase motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Surma, W.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, you cannot imagine the construction and operation of machines without the use of electric motors [13-15]. The proposed position is designed to allow testing of asynchronous three-phase motors. The position consists of a tested engine and the engine running as a load, both engines combined with a mechanical clutch [2]. The value of the load is recorded by measuring shaft created with Strain Gauge Bridge. This concept will allow to study the basic parameters of the engines, visualization motor parameters both vector and scalar controlled, during varying load drive system. In addition, registration during the variable physical parameters of the working electric motor, controlled by a frequency converter or controlled by a contactor will be possible. Position is designed as a teaching and research position to characterize the engines. It will be also possible selection of inverter parameters.

  15. Neurons other than motor neurons in motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoli, Riccardo; Biagioni, Francesca; Busceti, Carla L; Gaglione, Anderson; Ryskalin, Larisa; Gambardella, Stefano; Frati, Alessandro; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically defined by a loss of motor neurons in the central nervous system. Accordingly, morphological analysis for decades considered motor neurons (in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord) as the neuronal population selectively involved in ALS. Similarly, this was considered the pathological marker to score disease severity ex vivo both in patients and experimental models. However, the concept of non-autonomous motor neuron death was used recently to indicate the need for additional cell types to produce motor neuron death in ALS. This means that motor neuron loss occurs only when they are connected with other cell types. This concept originally emphasized the need for resident glia as well as non-resident inflammatory cells. Nowadays, the additional role of neurons other than motor neurons emerged in the scenario to induce non-autonomous motor neuron death. In fact, in ALS neurons diverse from motor neurons are involved. These cells play multiple roles in ALS: (i) they participate in the chain of events to produce motor neuron loss; (ii) they may even degenerate more than and before motor neurons. In the present manuscript evidence about multi-neuronal involvement in ALS patients and experimental models is discussed. Specific sub-classes of neurons in the whole spinal cord are reported either to degenerate or to trigger neuronal degeneration, thus portraying ALS as a whole spinal cord disorder rather than a disease affecting motor neurons solely. This is associated with a novel concept in motor neuron disease which recruits abnormal mechanisms of cell to cell communication.

  16. Comparison of capabilities of reluctance synchronous motor and induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumberger, Gorazd; Hadziselimovic, Miralem; Stumberger, Bojan; Miljavec, Damijan; Dolinar, Drago; Zagradisnik, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares the capabilities of a reluctance synchronous motor (RSM) with those of an induction motor (IM). An RSM and IM were designed and made, with the same rated power and speed. They differ only in the rotor portion while their stators, housings and cooling systems are identical. The capabilities of both motors in a variable speed drive are evaluated by comparison of the results obtained by magnetically nonlinear models and by measurements

  17. Selective disruption of acetylcholine synthesis in subsets of motor neurons: a new model of late-onset motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Marie-José; Bertolus, Chloé; Santamaria, Julie; Bauchet, Anne-Laure; Herbin, Marc; Saurini, Françoise; Misawa, Hidemi; Maisonobe, Thierry; Pradat, Pierre-François; Nosten-Bertrand, Marika; Mallet, Jacques; Berrard, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    Motor neuron diseases are characterized by the selective chronic dysfunction of a subset of motor neurons and the subsequent impairment of neuromuscular function. To reproduce in the mouse these hallmarks of diseases affecting motor neurons, we generated a mouse line in which ~40% of motor neurons in the spinal cord and the brainstem become unable to sustain neuromuscular transmission. These mice were obtained by conditional knockout of the gene encoding choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the biosynthetic enzyme for acetylcholine. The mutant mice are viable and spontaneously display abnormal phenotypes that worsen with age including hunched back, reduced lifespan, weight loss, as well as striking deficits in muscle strength and motor function. This slowly progressive neuromuscular dysfunction is accompanied by muscle fiber histopathological features characteristic of neurogenic diseases. Unexpectedly, most changes appeared with a 6-month delay relative to the onset of reduction in ChAT levels, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms preserve muscular function for several months and then are overwhelmed. Deterioration of mouse phenotype after ChAT gene disruption is a specific aging process reminiscent of human pathological situations, particularly among survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis. These mutant mice may represent an invaluable tool to determine the sequence of events that follow the loss of function of a motor neuron subset as the disease progresses, and to evaluate therapeutic strategies. They also offer the opportunity to explore fundamental issues of motor neuron biology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Control of synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous motors are indubitably the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. Their control law is thus critical for combining at the same time high productivity to reduced energy consummation. As far as possible, the control algorithms must exploit the properties of these actuators. Therefore, this work draws on well adapted models resulting from the Park's transformation, for both the most traditional machines with sinusoidal field distribution and for machines with non-sinusoidal field distribution which are more and more used in

  19. Electric Motors for Vehicle Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This work is intended to contribute with knowledge to the area of electic motorsfor propulsion in the vehicle industry. This is done by first studying the differentelectric motors available, the motors suitable for vehicle propulsion are then dividedinto four different types to be studied separately. These four types are thedirect current, induction, permanent magnet and switched reluctance motors. Thedesign and construction are then studied to understand how the different typesdiffer from ea...

  20. High efficiency motor selection handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Litman, Todd; Douglass, John G.

    1990-10-01

    Substantial reductions in energy and operational costs can be achieved through the use of energy-efficient electric motors. A handbook was compiled to help industry identify opportunities for cost-effective application of these motors. It covers the economic and operational factors to be considered when motor purchase decisions are being made. Its audience includes plant managers, plant engineers, and others interested in energy management or preventative maintenance programs.

  1. Motor development of blind toddler

    OpenAIRE

    Likar, Petra

    2013-01-01

    For blind toddlers, development of motor skills enables possibilities for learning and exploring the environment. The purpose of this graduation thesis is to systematically mark the milestones in development of motor skills in blind toddlers, to establish different factors which affect this development, and to discover different ways for teachers for visually impaired and parents to encourage development of motor skills. It is typical of blind toddlers that they do not experience a wide varie...

  2. Motor fuel prices in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2014-01-01

    The world's most expensive motor fuel (gasoline, diesel and LPG) is sold most likely in the Republic of Turkey. This paper investigates the key issues related to the motor fuel prices in Turkey. First of all, the paper analyses the main reason behind high prices, namely motor fuel taxes in Turkey. Then, it estimates the elasticity of motor fuel demand in Turkey using an econometric analysis. The findings indicate that motor fuel demand in Turkey is quite inelastic and, therefore, not responsive to price increases caused by an increase in either pre-tax prices or taxes. Therefore, fuel market in Turkey is open to opportunistic behavior by firms (through excessive profits) and the government (through excessive taxes). Besides, the paper focuses on the impact of high motor fuel prices on road transport associated activities, including the pattern of passenger transportation, motorization rate, fuel use, total kilometers traveled and CO 2 emissions from road transportation. The impact of motor fuel prices on income distribution in Turkey and Turkish public opinion about high motor fuel prices are also among the subjects investigated in the course of the study. - Highlights: • The key issues (e.g. taxes) related to motor fuel prices in Turkey are explored. • Their impact on transport activities and income distribution is also investigated. • An econometric analysis is performed to estimate motor fuel demand in Turkey. • Motor fuel demand in Turkey is found to be quite inelastic. • Turkish fuel market is open to opportunistic behavior by firms and the government

  3. Hydraulic Yaw System for Wind Turbines with New Compact Hydraulic Motor Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Mørk; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new hydraulic yaw system for wind turbines. The basic component is a new type of hydraulic motor characterized by an extraordinary high specific displacement yielding high output torque in a compact form. The focus in the paper is the volumetric efficiency of the motor, which...

  4. Motor of the future - superconducting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moen, Odd

    2001-01-01

    High-temperature superconductors count as the most innovative and future-oriented technology for electric motors. When these materials are used, the engine rating can be doubled and at the same time the losses halved while retaining the same size of construction. Siemens have recently developed a synchronous motor based on a high-temperature superconducting excitation winding. The rated power of the motor is 380 kW. The high-temperature superconductor that is used in this motor requires considerably less cooling outfit than low-temperature superconductors

  5. Overview of Bearingless Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearingless induction motors combining functions of both torque generation and noncontact magnetic suspension together have attracted more and more attention in the past decades due to their definite advantages of compactness, simple structure, less maintenance, no wear particles, high rotational speed, and so forth. This paper overviews the key technologies of the bearingless induction motors, with emphasis on motor topologies, mathematical models, and control strategies. Particularly, in the control issues, the vector control, independent control, direct torque control, nonlinear decoupling control, sensorless control, and so forth are investigated. In addition, several possible development trends of the bearingless induction motors are also discussed.

  6. Gap junctions and motor behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Tresch, Matthew C.

    2002-01-01

    The production of any motor behavior requires coordinated activity in motor neurons and premotor networks. In vertebrates, this coordination is often assumed to take place through chemical synapses. Here we review recent data suggesting that electrical gap-junction coupling plays an important role...... in coordinating and generating motor outputs in embryonic and early postnatal life. Considering the recent demonstration of a prevalent expression of gap-junction proteins and gap-junction structures in the adult mammalian spinal cord, we suggest that neuronal gap-junction coupling might also contribute...... to the production of motor behavior in adult mammals....

  7. Design of an HTS motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Hong, Z; Jiang, Q; Coombs, T A [Cambridge University engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yj222@cam.ac.uk

    2008-02-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) motor. The stator of the motor consists of six air cored HTS racetrack windings, together with an iron shield. The rotor is made of 80 superconducting YBCO pucks, which can be magnetized and equates to a four-pole permanent magnet. The whole HTS motor is cooled by liquid nitrogen to 77K, and acts as a permanent magnet synchronous motor with the power rate of 15.7 kW.

  8. Experiments with a dc motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the mechanical and electrical parameters of the motor is clearly seen. The measurements are carried out with the ScienceWorkshop data-acquisition system and the DataStudio software from PASCO scientific. The experiments are well related to university courses of electricity and magnetism and can be used in undergraduate laboratories or for lecture demonstrations.

  9. Harmonic modeling of induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedra, J.; Sainz, L.; Corcoles, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, ETSEIB-UPC, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The paper proposes an induction motor model for the study of harmonic load flow in balanced and unbalanced conditions. The parameters of this model are obtained from motor manufacturer data and the positive- and negative-sequence equivalent circuits of the single- and double-cage models. An approximate harmonic model based on motor manufacturer data only is also proposed. In addition, the paper includes manufacturer data and the calculated parameters of 36 induction motors of different rated powers. This database is used to analyze the proposed models. (author)

  10. Probing intracellular motor protein activity using an inducible cargo trafficking assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitein, Lukas C; Schlager, Max A; van der Zwan, Wouter A; Wulf, Phebe S; Keijzer, Nanda; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2010-10-06

    Although purified cytoskeletal motor proteins have been studied extensively with the use of in vitro approaches, a generic approach to selectively probe actin and microtubule-based motor protein activity inside living cells is lacking. To examine specific motor activity inside living cells, we utilized the FKBP-rapalog-FRB heterodimerization system to develop an in vivo peroxisomal trafficking assay that allows inducible recruitment of exogenous and endogenous kinesin, dynein, and myosin motors to drive specific cargo transport. We demonstrate that cargo rapidly redistributes with distinct dynamics for each respective motor, and that combined (antagonistic) actions of more complex motor combinations can also be probed. Of importance, robust cargo redistribution is readily achieved by one type of motor protein and does not require the presence of opposite-polarity motors. Simultaneous live-cell imaging of microtubules and kinesin or dynein-propelled peroxisomes, combined with high-resolution particle tracking, revealed that peroxisomes frequently pause at microtubule intersections. Titration and washout experiments furthermore revealed that motor recruitment by rapalog-induced heterodimerization is dose-dependent but irreversible. Our assay directly demonstrates that robust cargo motility does not require the presence of opposite-polarity motors, and can therefore be used to characterize the motile properties of specific types of motor proteins. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Motor carrier evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, James

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ), Transportation Management Program (TMP) has the overall responsibility to provide a well-managed transportation program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned materials. The DOE-TMP has established an excellent safety record in the transportation of hazardous materials including radioactive materials and radioactive wastes. This safety record can be maintained only through continued diligence and sustained effort on the part of the DOE-TMP, its field offices, and the contractors' organizations. Key elements in the DOE'S effective hazardous and radioactive materials shipping program are (1) integrity of packages, (2) strict adherence to regulations and procedures, (3) trained personnel, (4) complete management support, and (5) use of the best commercial carriers. The DOE Motor Carrier Evaluation Program was developed to better define the criteria and methodology needed to identify motor carriers for use in the transportation of Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ), Truck Load (TL) quantities of radioactive materials, hazardous materials and waste. (author)

  12. Zenn Motor Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, I. [Zenn Motor Company, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Zenn Motor company is a leader in the electric vehicle space and builds and markets a low speed vehicle known as the zero emission, no noise (ZENN). This presentation provided background information on the Zenn Motor Company as well as on EEStor, a company that develops four-wheeled vehicles and that is seeking partners to fund the development for a modified barium titanate-based ultracapacitor. In 2004, ZENN entered into a technology agreement with EEStor that secured certain exclusive and non-exclusive rights to purchase and deploy EEStor's EESU technology as part of its ZENNergy solutions in several markets, including exclusive rights for new four-passenger vehicles with a curb weight of up to 1,400 kilograms; exclusive rights for the neighbourhood electric vehicles (NEV) and golf carts market; exclusive rights for utility vehicles; and exclusive rights for the aftermarket conversion to ZENNergy of any four-wheeled vehicles. The presentation also addressed ZENNergy and the art of integrating high energy drive solutions. Lessons learned and EEStor's technology attributes were discussed. A hypothetical case study was also offered. The presentation concluded with a discussion of EEStor technology status and opportunity horizons. It was concluded that a better battery is needed to enable the mass adoption of electric vehicles. tabs.

  13. Motor-operated valve (MOV) actuator motor and gearbox testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1997-07-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory tested the performance of electric motors and actuator gearboxes typical of the equipment installed on motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plants. Using a test stand that simulates valve closure loads against flow and pressure, the authors tested five electric motors (four ac and one dc) and three gearboxes at conditions a motor might experience in a power plant, including such off-normal conditions as operation at high temperature and reduced voltage. They also monitored the efficiency of the actuator gearbox. All five motors operated at or above their rated starting torque during tests at normal voltages and temperatures. For all five motors, actual torque losses due to voltage degradation were greater than the losses calculated by methods typically used for predicting motor torque at degraded voltage conditions. For the dc motor the actual torque losses due to elevated operating temperatures were greater than the losses calculated by the typical predictive method. The actual efficiencies of the actuator gearboxes were generally lower than the running efficiencies published by the manufacturer and were generally nearer the published pull-out efficiencies. Operation of the gearbox at elevated temperature did not affect the operating efficiency

  14. Dopaminergic mesocortical projections to M1: role in motor learning and motor cortex plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Aurel Hosp

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the architecture of a dopaminergic (DA system within the primary motorcortex (M1 was well characterized anatomically, its functional significance remainedobscure for a long time. Recent studies in rats revealed that the integrity ofdopaminergic fibers in M1 is a prerequisite for successful acquisition of motor skills.This essential contribution of DA for motor learning is plausible as it modulates M1circuitry at multiple levels thereby promoting plastic changes that are required forinformation storage: at the network level, DA increases cortical excitability andenhances the stability of motor maps. At the cellular level, DA induces the expressionof learning related genes via the transcription factor c-fos. At the level of synapses,DA is required for the formation of long-term potentiation (LTP, a mechanism thatlikely is a fingerprint of a motor memory trace within M1. Dopaminergic fibersinnervating M1 originate within the midbrain, precisely the ventral tegmental area(VTA and the medial portion of substantia nigra (SN. Thus, they could be part of themeso-cortico-limibic pathway – a network that provides information about saliencyand motivational value of an external stimulus and is commonly referred as

  15. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eWelniarz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital mirror movements and model rodents with a hopping gait. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the hopping gait. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: i lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and ii unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output.

  16. Behavioural and neural basis of anomalous motor learning in children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K. Marko (Mollie K.); D. Crocetti (Deana); T. Hulst (Thomas); O. Donchin (Opher); R. Shadmehr (Reza); S.H. Mostofsky (Stewart H.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAutism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social and communication skills and repetitive and stereotyped interests and behaviours. Although not part of the diagnostic criteria, individuals with autism experience a host of motor impairments,

  17. Torque control for electric motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Method for adjusting electric-motor torque output to accomodate various loads utilizes phase-lock loop to control relay connected to starting circuit. As load is imposed, motor slows down, and phase lock is lost. Phase-lock signal triggers relay to power starting coil and generate additional torque. Once phase lock is recoverd, relay restores starting circuit to its normal operating mode.

  18. Open-Ended Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Mauri

    1975-01-01

    Presents complete instructions for assembling an electric motor which does not require large amounts of power to operate and which is inexpensive as well as reliable. Several open-ended experiments with the motor are included as well as information for obtaining a kit of parts and instructions. (BR)

  19. Genetic heterogeneity of motor neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansagi, Boglarka; Griffin, Helen; Whittaker, Roger G; Antoniadi, Thalia; Evangelista, Teresinha; Miller, James; Greenslade, Mark; Forester, Natalie; Duff, Jennifer; Bradshaw, Anna; Kleinle, Stephanie; Boczonadi, Veronika; Steele, Hannah; Ramesh, Venkateswaran; Franko, Edit; Pyle, Angela; Lochmüller, Hanns; Chinnery, Patrick F; Horvath, Rita

    2017-03-28

    To study the prevalence, molecular cause, and clinical presentation of hereditary motor neuropathies in a large cohort of patients from the North of England. Detailed neurologic and electrophysiologic assessments and next-generation panel testing or whole exome sequencing were performed in 105 patients with clinical symptoms of distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN, 64 patients), axonal motor neuropathy (motor Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease [CMT2], 16 patients), or complex neurologic disease predominantly affecting the motor nerves (hereditary motor neuropathy plus, 25 patients). The prevalence of dHMN is 2.14 affected individuals per 100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval 1.62-2.66) in the North of England. Causative mutations were identified in 26 out of 73 index patients (35.6%). The diagnostic rate in the dHMN subgroup was 32.5%, which is higher than previously reported (20%). We detected a significant defect of neuromuscular transmission in 7 cases and identified potentially causative mutations in 4 patients with multifocal demyelinating motor neuropathy. Many of the genes were shared between dHMN and motor CMT2, indicating identical disease mechanisms; therefore, we suggest changing the classification and including dHMN also as a subcategory of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Abnormal neuromuscular transmission in some genetic forms provides a treatable target to develop therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Energy-saving motor; Energiesparmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development and testing of an advanced electrical motor using a permanent-magnet rotor. The aims of the project - to study the technical feasibility and market potential of the Eco-Motor - are discussed and the three phases of the project described. These include the calculation and realisation of a 250-watt prototype operating at 230 V, the measurement of the motor's characteristics as well as those of a comparable asynchronous motor on the test bed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, and a market study to establish if the Eco-Motor and its controller can compete against normal asynchronous motors. Also, the results of an analysis of the energy-savings potential is made, should such Eco-Motors be used. Detailed results of the three phases of the project are presented and the prospects of producing such motors in Switzerland for home use as well as for export are examined.

  1. Advances in esophageal motor disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, André Jpm

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Esophageal motor disorders, often leading to dysphagia and chest pain, continue to pose diagnostic and therapeutic problems. In the past 12 months important new information regarding esophageal motor disorders was published. This information will be reviewed in this paper. RECENT

  2. Advances in esophageal motor disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, Andre J. P. M.

    Purpose of review Esophageal motor disorders, often leading to dysphagia and chest pain, continue to pose diagnostic and therapeutic problems. In the past 12 months important new information regarding esophageal motor disorders was published. This information will be reviewed in this paper. Recent

  3. 77 FR 26607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors; Final Rules #0;#0;Federal... Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... electric motors and small electric motors. That supplemental proposal, along with an earlier proposal from...

  4. A cycloidal wobble motor driven by shape memory alloy wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Donghyun; Higuchi, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    A cycloidal wobble motor driven by shape memory alloy (SMA) wires is proposed. In realizing a motor driving mechanism well known as a type of reduction system, a cycloidal gear mechanism is utilized. It facilitates the achievement of bidirectional continuous rotation with high-torque capability, based on its high efficiency and high reduction ratio. The applied driving mechanism consists of a pin/roller based annular gear as a wobbler, a cycloidal disc as a rotor, and crankshafts to guide the eccentric wobbling motion. The wobbling motion of the annular gear is generated by sequential activation of radially phase-symmetrically placed SMA wires. Consequently the cycloidal disc is rotated by rolling contact based cycloidal gearing between the wobbler and the rotor. In designing the proposed motor, thermomechanical characterization of an SMA wire biased by extension springs is experimentally performed. Then, a simplified geometric model for the motor is devised to conduct theoretical assessment of design parametric effects on structural features and working performance. With consideration of the results from parametric analysis, a functional prototype three-phase motor is fabricated to carry out experimental verification of working performance. The observed experimental results including output torque, rotational speed, bidirectional positioning characteristic, etc obviously demonstrate the practical applicability and potentiality of the wobble motor. (paper)

  5. Piezoelectric wave motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2001-07-17

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  6. Reciprocating linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

  7. Economical motor transport operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, P

    1979-09-01

    Motor transport is one area in a company where energy conservation is a function primarily of operative education and motivation rather than mechanical or technical control and monitoring. Unless the driver wants to save energy by proper operation of the vehicle, there is nothing the company can do to force him, whatever equipment it fits to the vehicles, or incentives it offers. This article gives an overview of the use of energy in road transport and examines a number of actions that can be taken to conserve energy. It discusses the question of the cost-effectiveness of transport energy conservation in the light of the complex issues involved. The problems and opportunities of implementing energy-saving programs are examined. (MCW)

  8. Stabilizing motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1935-07-12

    Motor fuel is stabilized by adding less than 2% of a tar fraction from peat, coal, torbanite or shale, said fraction containing sufficient constituents boiling between 200 and 325/sup 0/C, to inhibit gum formation. Low-temperature coal-tar fractions are specified. The preferred boiling ranges are from 225 or 250/sup 0/ to 275/sup 0/C. In examples, the quantity added was 0.01%. The fuel may be a cracked distillate of gasoline boiling-point range or containing gasoline, and may contain relatively large proportions of di- and tri-olefines. The material added to the fuel may be (1) the tar fraction itself; (2) its alkali-soluble constituents; (3) its acid-soluble constituents; (4) a mixture of (2) and (3); (5) a blend of (2), (3) or (4) with a normal tar fraction; (6) the residue after extraction with alkali; (7) the residue after extraction with acid and alkali.

  9. Sucker rod motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzalov, N N; Radzhabov, N A

    1983-01-01

    The motor consists of rollers mounted on the wellmouth and connected by a flexible rink. Reciprocating mechanism is in the form of a horizontal non-mobile single-side operation cylinder, inside which a plunger and rod are mounted. The working housing of the hydrocylinder is connected to a gas-hydr aulic batter, and when running is connected via plunger to the high pressure source; running in reverse it is connected with a safety valve and automatic control unit. The unit is equipped with a reducer and a mechanical transformer consisting of screw and nut, and which is shutoff with a single-side lining. The plunger rod consists of an auger-like unit. The high pressure source is provided by the injection line of the sucker rod that has been equipped with a reverse valve.

  10. Motor-operated gearbox efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1996-12-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, the authors compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators they tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer.

  11. Motor-operated gearbox efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.; Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, the authors compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators they tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer

  12. Motor-operator gearbox efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, we compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators we tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer

  13. Electric motors for use in radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, T.U.D.; Mahmood, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements of electric motors for a nuclear plant and the effect of nuclear radiations on different parts of the motors are discussed. Feasibility of using locally-fabricated motors is also considered. (author)

  14. VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1984-09-01

    Sep 1, 1984 ... VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR by. L. A. Agu ... order as that of the screw-thread motor can be obtained. LIST OF .... The n stator have equal non- magnetic spacers .... induction motor. An.

  15. Assessing Energy Efficiency Opportunities in US Industrial and Commercial Building Motor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul

    2015-09-01

    In 2002, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) published an energy efficiency assessment of U.S. industrial sector motor systems titled United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. The assessment advanced motor system efficiency by providing a greater understanding of the energy consumption, use characteristics, and energy efficiency improvement potential of industrial sector motor systems in the U.S. Since 2002, regulations such as Minimum Energy Performance Standards, cost reductions for motor system components such as variable frequency drives, system-integrated motor-driven equipment, and awareness programs for motor system energy efficiency have changed the landscape of U.S. motor system energy consumption. To capture the new landscape, the USDOE has initiated a three-year Motor System Market Assessment (MSMA), led by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The MSMA will assess the energy consumption, operational and maintenance characteristics, and efficiency improvement opportunity of U.S. industrial sector and commercial building motor systems. As part of the MSMA, a significant effort is currently underway to conduct field assessments of motor systems from a sample of facilities representative of U.S. commercial and industrial motor system energy consumption. The Field Assessment Plan used for these assessments builds on recent LBNL research presented at EEMODS 2011 and EEMODS 2013 using methods for characterizing and determining regional motor system energy efficiency opportunities. This paper provides an update on the development and progress of the MSMA, focusing on the Field Assessment Plan and the framework for assessing the global supply chain for emerging motors and drive technologies.

  16. A Framework to Survey the Energy Efficiency of Installed Motor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; Hasanbeigi, Ali; McKane, Aimee

    2013-08-01

    While motors are ubiquitous throughout the globe, there is insufficient data to properly assess their level of energy efficiency across regional boundaries. Furthermore, many of the existing data sets focus on motor efficiency and neglect the connected drive and system. Without a comprehensive survey of the installed motor system base, a baseline energy efficiency of a country or region’s motor systems cannot be developed. The lack of data impedes government agencies, utilities, manufacturers, distributers, and energy managers when identifying where to invest resources to capture potential energy savings, creating programs aimed at reducing electrical energy consumption, or quantifying the impacts of such programs. This paper will outline a data collection framework for use when conducting a survey under a variety of execution models to characterize motor system energy efficiency within a country or region. The framework is intended to standardize the data collected ensuring consistency across independently conducted surveys. Consistency allows for the surveys to be leveraged against each other enabling comparisons to motor system energy efficiencies from other regions. In creating the framework, an analysis of various motor driven systems, including compressed air, pumping, and fan systems, was conducted and relevant parameters characterizing the efficiency of these systems were identified. A database using the framework will enable policymakers and industry to better assess the improvement potential of their installed motor system base particularly with respect to other regions, assisting in efforts to promote improvements to the energy efficiency of motor driven systems.

  17. Actions to promote energy efficient electric motors. Motors study group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A.T. de [Coimbra Univ. (PT). Inst. of Systems and Robotics (ISR)

    1996-10-01

    Motor electricity consumption is influenced by many factors including: motor efficiency, motor speed controls, power supply quality, harmonics, systems oversizing, distribution network, mechanical transmission system, maintenance practices, load management and cycling, and the efficiency of the end-use device (e.g. fan, pump, etc.). Due to their importance, an overview of these factors is presented in this report. This study also describes the electricity use in the industrial and tertiary sectors and the electricity consumption associated with the different types of electric motors systems in the Member States of the European Union, as well as estimated future evolution until 2010. The studies for individual countries were carried out by the different partners of the motors study group at a previous stage. The study has found that there is a lack of accurate information about the motor electricity consumption, installed motor capacity and the motor market in almost all the European Union countries and only some general statistical sources are available. There is little field data, which is mainly available in Denmark, France, Italy and the Netherlands. Due to this lack of primary information, some common assumptions were made, based on the experience of the members of the study group. This lack of end-use characterisation data shows the need for improvement from the point of view of current knowledge. It is therefore recommended that further research is undertaken to arrive at more accurate figures. These could be the basis for a better understanding for motor use in practice and - as a consequence - for a more precise appraisal of potentials and barriers to energy efficiency. (orig.)

  18. Curiosity’s robotic arm-mounted Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI): Characterization and calibration status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Maki, Justin N.; Ravine, Michael A.; Ghaemi, F. Tony; McNair, Sean; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Duston, Brian M.; Wilson, Reg G.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Kennedy, Megan R.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Sengstacken, Aaron J.; Supulver, Kimberley D.; Lipkaman, Leslie J.; Krezoski, Gillian M.; McBride, Marie J.; Jones, Tessa L.; Nixon, Brian E.; Van Beek, Jason K.; Krysak, Daniel J.; Kirk, Randolph L.

    2015-01-01

    MAHLI (Mars Hand Lens Imager) is a 2-megapixel, Bayer pattern color CCD camera with a macro lens mounted on a rotatable turret at the end of the 2-meters-long robotic arm aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity. The camera includes white and longwave ultraviolet LEDs to illuminate targets at night. Onboard data processing services include focus stack merging and data compression. Here we report on the results and status of MAHLI characterization and calibration, covering the pre-launch period from August 2008 through the early months of the extended surface mission through February 2015. Since landing in Gale crater in August 2012, MAHLI has been used for a wide range of science and engineering applications, including distinction among a variety of mafic, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks; investigation of grain-scale rock, regolith, and eolian sediment textures and structures; imaging of the landscape; inspection and monitoring of rover and science instrument hardware concerns; and supporting geologic sample selection, extraction, analysis, delivery, and documentation. The camera has a dust cover and focus mechanism actuated by a single stepper motor. The transparent cover was coated with a thin film of dust during landing, thus MAHLI is usually operated with the cover open. The camera focuses over a range from a working distance of 2.04 cm to infinity; the highest resolution images are at 13.9 µm per pixel; images acquired from 6.9 cm show features at the same scale as the Mars Exploration Rover Microscopic Imagers at 31 µm/pixel; and 100 µm/pixel is achieved at a working distance of ~26.5 cm. The very highest resolution images returned from Mars permit distinction of high contrast silt grains in the 30–40 µm size range. MAHLI has performed well; the images need no calibration in order to achieve most of the investigation’s science and engineering goals. The positioning and repeatability of robotic arm placement of the MAHLI camera head have

  19. Resting‐state connectivity of pre‐motor cortex reflects disability in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Soelberg Sørensen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize the relationship between motor resting-state connectivity of the dorsal pre-motor cortex (PMd) and clinical disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Materials and methods A total of 27 patients with relapsing–remitting MS (RR-MS) and 15 patients with secondary...... progressive MS (SP-MS) underwent functional resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Independent component analysis was used to characterize motor resting-state connectivity. Multiple regression analysis was performed in SPM8...... between the individual expression of motor resting-state connectivity in PMd and EDSS scores including age as covariate. Separate post hoc analyses were performed for patients with RR-MS and SP-MS. Results The EDSS scores ranged from 0 to 7 with a median score of 4.3. Motor resting-state connectivity...

  20. Motor Decline in Clinically Presymptomatic Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2 Gene Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Perez, Luis; Díaz, Rosalinda; Pérez-González, Ruth; Canales, Nalia; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Medrano, Jacquelín; Sánchez, Gilberto; Almaguer-Mederos, Luis; Torres, Cira; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Background Motor deficits are a critical component of the clinical characteristics of patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. However, there is no current information on the preclinical manifestation of those motor deficits in presymptomatic gene carriers. To further understand and characterize the onset of the clinical manifestation in this disease, we tested presymptomatic spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 gene carriers, and volunteers, in a task that evaluates their motor performance and their motor learning capabilities. Methods and Findings 28 presymptomatic spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 gene carriers and an equal number of control volunteers matched for age and gender participated in the study. Both groups were tested in a prism adaptation task known to be sensible to both motor performance and visuomotor learning deficits. Our results clearly show that although motor learning capabilities are intact, motor performance deficits are present even years before the clinical manifestation of the disease start. Conclusions The results show a clear deficit in motor performance that can be detected years before the clinical onset of the disease. This motor performance deficit appears before any motor learning or clinical manifestations of the disease. These observations identify the performance coefficient as an objective and quantitative physiological biomarker that could be useful to assess the efficiency of different therapeutic agents. PMID:19401771

  1. ATLAS TileCal Sub-Module Production at UIUC - Photos of Prototype PMT Test Setup

    CERN Multimedia

    Errede, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 - Entrance to the lab. Photo 2 - A shot of the center of the lab. Photo 3 - The back of the lab. The Dark Box: Photo 4 - A view of the outside of the Dark Box along with its dry nitrogen system. Photo 5 - A view of the inside of the Dark Box. Photo 6 - The LED holder, beam splitter (removed in this shot), and a pulsing circuit. Photo 7 - The PMT holder. Photo 8 - A possible design for a Stepper Motor controlled filter wheel. Photo 9 - Polishing area for the optical fibers. R&D Work on Stepper Motor/Motion Control: Photo 10 - The complete prototype of the Stepper Motor setup. Photo 11 - The prototype of the Main Stepper Motor Driver Board. Photo 12 - The prototype of the Stepper Motor Power Amplifer. Photo 13 - The prototype of the Stepper Motor LabPC + Interface Board.

  2. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A mixer pump is described used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump. 10 figs

  3. Pathogenesis of motor neuron disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefei Wang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize and analyze the factors and theories related to the attack of motor neuron disease, and comprehensively investigate the pathogenesis of motor neuron disease.DATA SOURCES: A search of Pubmed database was undertaken to identify articles about motor neuron disease published in English from January 1994 to June 2006 by using the keywords of "neurodegenerative diseases". Other literatures were collected by retrieving specific journals and articles.STUDY SELECTION: The data were checked primarily, articles related to the pathogenesis of motor neuron disease were involved, and those obviously irrelated to the articles were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 54 articles were collected, 30 of them were involved, and the other 24 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: The pathogenesis of motor neuron disease has multiple factors, and the present related theories included free radical oxidation, excitotoxicity, genetic and immune factors, lack of neurotrophic factor,injury of neurofilament, etc. The studies mainly come from transgenic animal models, cell culture in vitro and patients with familial motor neuron disease, but there are still many restrictions and disadvantages.CONCLUSION: It is necessary to try to find whether there is internal association among different mechanisms,comprehensively investigate the pathogenesis of motor neuron diseases, in order to provide reliable evidence for the clinical treatment.

  4. Unilateral pure trigeminal motor nerve neuropathy: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant K Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral pure trigeminal motor nerve neuropathy is an extremely rare and unique condition, characterized by atrophy of the muscles, innervated by the motor branch of the trigeminal nerve. We report such a case in a 25-year-old male patient. The diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical and radiological examinations. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI proved to be the key for establishing the diagnosis, which showed atrophy and fatty infiltration over the affected side of the muscles of mastication. We were unable to establish the cause of the condition even after performing a brain MRI.

  5. Hereditary motor neuropathies and motor neuron diseases: which is which.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanemann, Clemens O; Ludolph, Albert C

    2002-12-01

    When Charcot first defined amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) he used the clinical and neuropathological pattern of vulnerability as a guideline. Similarly other motor neuron diseases such as the spinal muscular atrophies (SMA) and the motor neuropathies (MN) were grouped following clinical criteria. However, ever since the etiology of these diseases has started to be disclosed by genetics, we have learnt that the limits of the syndromes are not as well defined as our forefathers thought. A mutation leading to ALS can also be associated with the clinical picture of spinal muscular atrophy; even more unexpected is the overlap of the so-called motor neuropathies with the clinical syndrome of slowly progressive ALS or that primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) can be caused by the same gene as that responsible for some cases of ALS. In this review we summarise recent work showing that there is a considerable overlap between CMT, MN, SMA, ALS and PLS. Insights into these phenotypes should lead to study of the variants of motor neuron disease and possibly to a reclassification. This comprehensive review should help to improve understanding of the pathogenesis of motor neuron degeneration and finally may aid the research for urgently needed new treatment strategies, perhaps with validity for the entire group of motor neuron diseases.

  6. The change in perceived motor competence and motor task values during elementary school : Gender and motor performance differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, J.J.; van der Net, J.; Jak, S.; Helders, P.J.M.; Jongmans, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in motor activities is essential for social interaction and life satisfaction in children. Self-perceptions and task values have a central position in why children do or do not participate in (motor) activities. Investigating developmental changes in motor self-perceptions and motor

  7. 'Motor control center obsolescence'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    A significant and growing problem within the global nuclear industry is the aging of motor control center (MCC) components. MCC's have a very important role in the safety and critical to generation requirements of a nuclear power plant. Although many OEM's MCC's such as ITE/Telemechanique, GE, Westinghouse, Cutler Hammer, Klockner Moeller, etc. have been used throughout the global nuclear industry, they all have one common aspect obsolescence. Obsolescence of various components within the MCC's such as molded case circuit breakers, starters, relays, heaters, contactors, etc. are impacting the reliability of the MCC to serve its intended function. The paper will discuss the options which the nuclear industry is faced with to increase the reliability of the MCC's while maintaining design control, qualification and meeting budget constraints. The options as listed below shall be discussed in detail with examples to enhance the readers understanding of the situation: 1) Component by component replacement: The hurdles associated with trying to find equivalent components to replace the obsolete components while still worki (mechanically and electrically) in the original cubicle will be presented. 2) Complete MCC cubicle with new internal components replacement: The process of supplying a replacement cubicle, with all new internal components and new door to replace the original cubicle will be discussed. The presentation will conclude with a comparison of the advantages and dis-advantages of the two methods to bring the MCC to an as new condition with the overall goal of increasing reliability. (author)

  8. Honda Motor Company's CVCC Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    From 1968 to 1972, Honda Motor Co. of Japan designed, tested, and massproduced a stratified charge engine, the CVCC, which was lower in carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nitrogen oxide emissions and higher in fuel economy than contemporary convention...

  9. Fault diagnosis of induction motors

    CERN Document Server

    Faiz, Jawad; Joksimović, Gojko

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive, structural approach to fault diagnosis strategy. The different fault types, signal processing techniques, and loss characterisation are addressed in the book. This is essential reading for work with induction motors for transportation and energy.

  10. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs and motor carrier safety regulations through a...

  11. Generation of Spinal Motor Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, David P; Kiskinis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are characterized by their unique ability to self-renew indefinitely, as well as to differentiate into any cell type of the human body. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) share these salient characteristics with ESCs and can easily be generated from any given individual by reprogramming somatic cell types such as fibroblasts or blood cells. The spinal motor neuron (MN) is a specialized neuronal subtype that synapses with muscle to control movement. Here, we present a method to generate functional, postmitotic, spinal motor neurons through the directed differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs by the use of small molecules. These cells can be utilized to study the development and function of human motor neurons in healthy and disease states.

  12. Design and Advanced Control of Switched Reluctance Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    The introduction of mainly power electronics and cheap micro computers have made the Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM), which is in focus in this thesis, a feasible alternative to traditional electrical machines like the induction- and DC-motor which have been the dominating electrical machines...... to a standard induction motor, and from the test it is seen that the nominal efficiency of the SRM is 83 % compared to only 72 % for the induction motor. During the work with this thesis some follow-ups are done which were not specified in the main-goals. But these is very important contributions in the SR...... and a static characterization system developed. To simulate and analyze the electromagnetic performance of different variations of SRMs, in for instance SRDaS, is a general dynamical model derived, which also takes into account SRMs having permanent magnets. The parameters for the models are obtained with 2D...

  13. Electrical stimulation and motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wise

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have successfully regenerated axons in animal spinal cords without locomotor recovery. One explanation is that the animals were not trained to use the regenerated connections. Intensive locomotor training improves walking recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in people, and >90% of people with incomplete SCI recover walking with training. Although the optimal timing, duration, intensity, and type of locomotor training are still controversial, many investigators have reported beneficial effects of training on locomotor function. The mechanisms by which training improves recovery are not clear, but an attractive theory is available. In 1949, Donald Hebb proposed a famous rule that has been paraphrased as "neurons that fire together, wire together." This rule provided a theoretical basis for a widely accepted theory that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic activity facilitate synaptic formation and consolidation. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord has a locomotor center, called the central pattern generator (CPG), which can be activated nonspecifically with electrical stimulation or neurotransmitters to produce walking. The CPG is an obvious target to reconnect after SCI. Stimulating motor cortex, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can modulate lumbar spinal cord excitability. Motor cortex stimulation causes long-term changes in spinal reflexes and synapses, increases sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and restores skilled forelimb function in rats. Long used to treat chronic pain, motor cortex stimuli modify lumbar spinal network excitability and improve lower extremity motor scores in humans. Similarly, epidural spinal cord stimulation has long been used to treat pain and spasticity. Subthreshold epidural stimulation reduces the threshold for locomotor activity. In 2011, Harkema et al. reported lumbosacral epidural stimulation restores motor control in chronic motor complete patients. Peripheral nerve or functional electrical

  14. Mathematical modeling of molecular motors

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the many complex processes taking place in living cells, transport of cargoes across the cytosceleton is fundamental to cell viability and activity. To move cargoes between the different cell parts, cells employ Molecular Motors. The motors operate by transporting cargoes along the so-called cellular micro-tubules, namely rope-like structures that connect, for instance, the cell-nucleus and outer membrane. We introduce a new Markov Chain, the killed Quasi-Random-Walk, for such transpo...

  15. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  16. Motor performance of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Słonka; Manuela Dyas; Tadeusz Słonka; Tomasz Szurmik

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Pre‑school age is a period of intensive development when children shape their posture, habits and motor memory. Movement is child's physiological need.  Motive activity supports not only physical development, but also psychical, intellectual and social.   Aim: The aim of the study is to assess motor ability in preschool children from the city of Opole and District Dobrzeń Wielki. Materials and methods: The research involved 228 children, aged 5 and 6. The method used in...

  17. Paliperidone-associated motor tics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Han; Chiu, Nan-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Paliperidone-associated motor tics. Case report. We report a 30-year-old man with schizophrenia who developed motor tics (eye blinking) after treatment of paliperidone up to 15 mg daily. Tic-like symptoms, from simple eye blinking to complex Tourette-like syndrome, may occur during paliperidone treatment, especially with high dose. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High-speed AC motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, T.; Arkkio, A. [Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Electromechanics, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The paper deals with various types of highspeed electric motors, and their limiting powers. Standard machines with laminated rotors can be utilised if the speed is moderate. The solid rotor construction makes it possible to reach higher power and speed levels than those of laminated rotors. The development work on high-speed motors done at Helsinki University of Technology is presented, too. (orig.) 12 refs.

  19. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2015-07-07

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for advancing a borehole. High power laser drilling system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam through the electrical motor.

  20. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2017-10-10

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for performing a laser operation. A system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam having a wavelength less than 1060 nm through the electrical motor.

  1. Control of non-conventional synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Classical synchronous motors are the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. However, numerous applications require efficient controls in non-conventional situations. Firstly, this is the case with synchronous motors supplied by thyristor line-commutated inverters, or with synchronous motors with faults on one or several phases. Secondly, many drive systems use non-conventional motors such as polyphase (more than three phases) synchronous motors, synchronous motors with double excitation, permanent magnet linear synchronous motors,

  2. Comparative analysis of linear motor geometries for Stirling coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Rajesh V.; Kuzhiveli, Biju T.

    2017-12-01

    Compared to rotary motor driven Stirling coolers, linear motor coolers are characterized by small volume and long life, making them more suitable for space and military applications. The motor design and operational characteristics have a direct effect on the operation of the cooler. In this perspective, ample scope exists in understanding the behavioural description of linear motor systems. In the present work, the authors compare and analyze different moving magnet linear motor geometries to finalize the most favourable one for Stirling coolers. The required axial force in the linear motors is generated by the interaction of magnetic fields of a current carrying coil and that of a permanent magnet. The compact size, commercial availability of permanent magnets and low weight requirement of the system are quite a few constraints for the design. The finite element analysis performed using Maxwell software serves as the basic tool to analyze the magnet movement, flux distribution in the air gap and the magnetic saturation levels on the core. A number of material combinations are investigated for core before finalizing the design. The effect of varying the core geometry on the flux produced in the air gap is also analyzed. The electromagnetic analysis of the motor indicates that the permanent magnet height ought to be taken in such a way that it is under the influence of electromagnetic field of current carrying coil as well as the outer core in the balanced position. This is necessary so that sufficient amount of thrust force is developed by efficient utilisation of the air gap flux density. Also, the outer core ends need to be designed to facilitate enough room for the magnet movement under the operating conditions.

  3. Movement Sonification: Audiovisual benefits on motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Processes of motor control and learning in sports as well as in motor rehabilitation are based on perceptual functions and emergent motor representations. Here a new method of movement sonification is described which is designed to tune in more comprehensively the auditory system into motor perception to enhance motor learning. Usually silent features of the cyclic movement pattern "indoor rowing" are sonified in real time to make them additionally available to the auditory system when executing the movement. Via real time sonification movement perception can be enhanced in terms of temporal precision and multi-channel integration. But beside the contribution of a single perceptual channel to motor perception and motor representation also mechanisms of multisensory integration can be addressed, if movement sonification is configured adequately: Multimodal motor representations consisting of at least visual, auditory and proprioceptive components - can be shaped subtly resulting in more precise motor control and enhanced motor learning.

  4. Measurement of the Robot Motor Capability of a Robot Motor System: A Fitts’s-Law-Inspired Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. George Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Robot motor capability is a crucial factor for a robot, because it affects how accurately and rapidly a robot can perform a motion to accomplish a task constrained by spatial and temporal conditions. In this paper, we propose and derive a pseudo-index of motor performance (pIp to characterize robot motor capability with robot kinematics, dynamics and control taken into consideration. The proposed pIp provides a quantitative measure for a robot with revolute joints, which is inspired from an index of performance in Fitts’s law of human skills. Computer simulations and experiments on a PUMA 560 industrial robot were conducted to validate the proposed pIp for performing a motion accurately and rapidly.

  5. Measurement of the robot motor capability of a robot motor system: a Fitts's-law-inspired approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-I; Lee, C S George

    2013-07-02

    Robot motor capability is a crucial factor for a robot, because it affects how accurately and rapidly a robot can perform a motion to accomplish a task constrained by spatial and temporal conditions. In this paper, we propose and derive a pseudo-index of motor performance (pIp) to characterize robot motor capability with robot kinematics, dynamics and control taken into consideration. The proposed pIp provides a quantitative measure for a robot with revolute joints, which is inspired from an index of performance in Fitts's law of human skills. Computer simulations and experiments on a PUMA 560 industrial robot were conducted to validate the proposed pIp for performing a motion accurately and rapidly.

  6. Multi-elemental characterization of tunnel and road dusts in Houston, Texas using dynamic reaction cell-quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry: Evidence for the release of platinum group and anthropogenic metals from motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spada, Nicholas; Bozlaker, Ayse; Chellam, Shankararaman

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analytical method for PGEs, main group, transition and rare earth metals developed. ► Comprehensive characterization of road and tunnel dust samples was accomplished. ► PGEs in dusts arise from autocatalyst attrition. ► Mobile sources also contributed to Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, W and Pb. ► All other elements, including rare earths arose from crustal sources. - Abstract: Platinum group elements (PGEs) including Rh, Pd, and Pt are important tracers for vehicular emissions, though their measurement is often challenging and difficult to replicate in environmental campaigns. These challenges arise from sample preparation steps required for PGE quantitation, which often cause severe isobaric interferences and spectral overlaps from polyatomic species of other anthropogenically emitted metals. Consequently, most previous road dust studies have either only quantified PGEs or included a small number of anthropogenic elements. Therefore a novel analytical method was developed to simultaneously measure PGEs, lanthanoids, transition and main group elements to comprehensively characterize the elemental composition of urban road and tunnel dusts. Dust samples collected from the vicinity of high-traffic roadways and a busy underwater tunnel restricted to single-axle (predominantly gasoline-driven) vehicles in Houston, TX were analyzed for 45 metals with the newly developed method using dynamic reaction cell-quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (DRC-q-ICP–MS). Average Rh, Pd and Pt concentrations were 152 ± 52, 770 ± 208 and 529 ± 130 ng g −1 respectively in tunnel dusts while they varied between 6 and 8 ng g −1 , 10 and 88 ng g −1 and 35 and 131 ng g −1 in surface road dusts. Elemental ratios and enrichment factors demonstrated that PGEs in dusts originated from autocatalyst attrition/abrasion. Strong evidence is also presented for mobile source emissions of Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, W and Pb. However

  7. Electric Motor Thermal Management Research: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    Past work in the area of active convective cooling provided data on the average convective heat transfer coefficients of circular orifice automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets impinging on stationary targets intended to represent the wire bundle surface of the motor end-winding. Work during FY16 focused on the impact of alternative jet geometries that could lead to improved cooling over a larger surface of the motor winding. Results show that the planar jet heat transfer coefficients over a small (12.7-mm-diameter) target surface are not too much lower than for the circular orifice jet in which all of the ATF from the jet impinges on the target surface. The planar jet has the potential to achieve higher heat transfer over a larger area of the motor end winding. A new test apparatus was constructed to measure the spatial dependence of the heat transfer relative to the jet nozzle over a larger area representative of a motor end-winding. The tested planar flow geometry has the potential to provide more uniform cooling over the full end-winding surface versus the conventional jet configuration. The data will be used by motor designers to develop thermal management strategies to improve motor power density. Work on passive thermal design in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to measure the thermal conductivity of wire bundle samples representative of end-winding and slot-winding materials was completed. Multiple measurement techniques were compared to determine which was most suitable for measuring composite wire bundle samples. NREL used a steady-state thermal resistance technique to measure the direction-dependent thermal conductivity. The work supported new interactions with industry to test new materials and reduce passive-stack thermal resistance in motors, leading to motors with increased power density. NREL collaborated with Ames Laboratory in the area of material characterization. The work focused on measuring the transverse rupture strength of

  8. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle Identification...

  9. An Arduino microcontroller based digitalization of a vertical traversing mechanism used for the analysis of jet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S. M. Rakibur; Roshid, S. M. Al Mamun Or; Nishan, Ishtiaque Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with the design of a drive system of traversing mechanism used to position the pitot tube in desired position of the jet flow field. In this system a stepper motor is driven by a `dual H bridge' motor driver and programmed Arduino microcontroller. The stepper motor is made to move in precise steps to obtain desired movement of the traversing mechanism. The jet flow is characterized in three distinct zones - initial zone, transition zone and developed zone. Each zone can be divided into required number of segments based on variation of velocity. By assigning number of segments, step range and number of steps in each segment as inputs, it is possible to collect data in all the flow zones according to our programmed schedule. The system will allow taking a large number of readings automatically.

  10. Brain infusion of α-synuclein oligomers induces motor and non-motor Parkinson's disease-like symptoms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Juliana T S; Gralle, Matthias; Beckman, Danielle; Neves, Fernanda S; Diniz, Luan P; Frost, Paula S; Barros-Aragão, Fernanda; Santos, Luís E; Gonçalves, Rafaella A; Romão, Luciana; Zamberlan, Daniele C; Soares, Felix A A; Braga, Carolina; Foguel, Debora; Gomes, Flávia C A; De Felice, Fernanda G; Ferreira, Sergio T; Clarke, Julia R; Figueiredo, Cláudia P

    2017-08-30

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor dysfunction, which is preceded by a number of non-motor symptoms including olfactory deficits. Aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) gives rise to Lewy bodies in dopaminergic neurons and is thought to play a central role in PD pathology. However, whether amyloid fibrils or soluble oligomers of α-syn are the main neurotoxic species in PD remains controversial. Here, we performed a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of α-syn oligomers (α-SYOs) in mice and evaluated motor and non-motor symptoms. Familiar bedding and vanillin essence discrimination tasks showed that α-SYOs impaired olfactory performance of mice, and decreased TH and dopamine levels in the olfactory bulb early after infusion. The olfactory deficit persisted until 45days post-infusion (dpi). α- SYO-infused mice behaved normally in the object recognition and forced swim tests, but showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the open field and elevated plus maze tests 20 dpi. Finally, administration of α-SYOs induced late motor impairment in the pole test and rotarod paradigms, along with reduced TH and dopamine content in the caudate putamen, 45 dpi. Reduced number of TH-positive cells was also seen in the substantia nigra of α-SYO-injected mice compared to control. In conclusion, i.c.v. infusion of α-SYOs recapitulated some of PD-associated non-motor symptoms, such as increased anxiety and olfactory dysfunction, but failed to recapitulate memory impairment and depressive-like behavior typical of the disease. Moreover, α-SYOs i.c.v. administration induced motor deficits and loss of TH and dopamine levels, key features of PD. Results point to α-syn oligomers as the proximal neurotoxins responsible for early non-motor and motor deficits in PD and suggest that the i.c.v. infusion model characterized here may comprise a useful tool for identification of PD novel therapeutic targets and drug screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Correlations between Motor Symptoms across Different Motor Tasks, Quantified via Random Forest Feature Classification in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kuhner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundObjective assessments of Parkinson’s disease (PD patients’ motor state using motion capture techniques are still rarely used in clinical practice, even though they may improve clinical management. One major obstacle relates to the large dimensionality of motor abnormalities in PD. We aimed to extract global motor performance measures covering different everyday motor tasks, as a function of a clinical intervention, i.e., deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus.MethodsWe followed a data-driven, machine-learning approach and propose performance measures that employ Random Forests with probability distributions. We applied this method to 14 PD patients with DBS switched-off or -on, and 26 healthy control subjects performing the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG, the Functional Reach Test (FRT, a hand coordination task, walking 10-m straight, and a 90° curve.ResultsFor each motor task, a Random Forest identified a specific set of metrics that optimally separated PD off DBS from healthy subjects. We noted the highest accuracy (94.6% for standing up. This corresponded to a sensitivity of 91.5% to detect a PD patient off DBS, and a specificity of 97.2% representing the rate of correctly identified healthy subjects. We then calculated performance measures based on these sets of metrics and applied those results to characterize symptom severity in different motor tasks. Task-specific symptom severity measures correlated significantly with each other and with the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, part III, correlation of r2 = 0.79. Agreement rates between different measures ranged from 79.8 to 89.3%.ConclusionThe close correlation of PD patients’ various motor abnormalities quantified by different, task-specific severity measures suggests that these abnormalities are only facets of the underlying one-dimensional severity of motor deficits. The identification and characterization of this underlying motor deficit

  12. Correlated conductance parameters in leech heart motor neurons contribute to motor pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Damon G; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    Neurons can have widely differing intrinsic membrane properties, in particular the density of specific conductances, but how these contribute to characteristic neuronal activity or pattern formation is not well understood. To explore the relationship between conductances, and in particular how they influence the activity of motor neurons in the well characterized leech heartbeat system, we developed a new multi-compartmental Hodgkin-Huxley style leech heart motor neuron model. To do so, we evolved a population of model instances, which differed in the density of specific conductances, capable of achieving specific output activity targets given an associated input pattern. We then examined the sensitivity of measures of output activity to conductances and how the model instances responded to hyperpolarizing current injections. We found that the strengths of many conductances, including those with differing dynamics, had strong partial correlations and that these relationships appeared to be linked by their influence on heart motor neuron activity. Conductances that had positive correlations opposed one another and had the opposite effects on activity metrics when perturbed whereas conductances that had negative correlations could compensate for one another and had similar effects on activity metrics.

  13. Composite ceramic superconducting wires for electric motor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, John W.

    1990-07-01

    Several types of HTSC wire have been produced and two types of HTSC motors are being built. Hundreds of meters of Ag- clad wire were fabricated from YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (Y-123) and Bi2Ca2Sr2Cu3O10 (BiSCCO). The dc homopolar motor coils are not yet completed, but multiple turns of wire have been wound on the coil bobbins to characterize the superconducting properties of coiled wire. Multifilamentary conductors were fabricated as cables and coils. The sintered polycrystalline wire has self-field critical current densities (Jc) as high as 2800 A/sq cm, but the Jc falls rapidly with magnetic field. To improve Jc, sintered YBCO wire is melt textured with a continuous process which has produced textures wire up to 0.5 meters long with 77K transport Jc above 11, 770 A/sq cm2 in self field and 2100 A/sq cm2 at 1 telsa. The Emerson Electric dc homopolar HTSC motor has been fabricated and run with conventional copper coils. A novel class of potential very powerful superconducting motors have been designed to use trapped flux in melt textures Y-123 as magnet replicas in an new type of permanent magnet motor. The stator element and part of the rotor of the first prototype machine exist, and the HTSC magnet replica segments are being fabricated.

  14. Operating experience and aging-seismic assessment of electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Burns, E.L.; Taylor, J.H.

    1985-06-01

    Objectives of this program are to identify concerns related to the aging and service wear of equipment operating in nuclear power plants, to assess their possible impact on plant safety, to identify effective inspection surveillance and monitoring methods and to recommend suitable maintenance practices for mitigating aging related concerns and diminish the rate of degradation due to aging and service wear. Motor design and materials of construction are reviewed to identify age-sensitive components. Operational and accidental stressors are determined, and their effect on promoting aging degradation is assessed. Failure modes, mechanisms, and causes have been reviewed from operating experiences and existing data banks. The study has also included consideration for the seismic correlation of age-degraded motor components. The aforementioned reviews and assessments were assimilated to characterize the dielectric, rotational, and mechanical hazards on motor performance and operational readiness. The functional indicators which can be monitored to assess motor component deterioration due to aging or other accidental stressors are identified. Conforming with the NPAR strategy as outlined in the program plan, the study also includes a preliminary discussion of current standards and guides, maintenance programs, and research activities pertaining to nuclear power plant safety-related electric motors

  15. Characterization of diesel oil mixtures with soy oil used for activation of engines of internal combustion; Caracterizacao de misturas de oleo diesel com oleo de soja reutilizado para acionamento de motores de combustao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Wagner da Cunha; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos; Teixiera, Mauri Martins; Abrahao, Selma Alves; Leite, Daniel Mariano [Universidade de Vicosa, (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: wagner.siqueira@ufv.br, haroldo@ufv.br, mauri@ufv.br, selma.abrahao@ufv.br, daniel.mariano@ufv.br

    2011-07-01

    Alternative energy sources have been studied in several countries, with emphasis on ways of obtaining and using more efficient. The objective of this work to evaluate and characterize mixtures of diesel oil (DO) with soybean oil reused (OSR), the ratios of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of OSR in relation to specific gravity index viscosity and calorific value. To determine the specific gravity was used beaker, thermometer and a balance for each mixture was adjusted a regression model to estimate the bulk density as a function of temperature (25 to 90 deg C). We analyzed the viscosity of the mixtures using an orifice-type viscometer Saybolt, through regression analysis models were fit to estimate the viscosity as a function of temperature, heating the OSR 100% from 40 to 90 deg C decreased by up 90.4% to its viscosity. The tests were performed calorimetric using a bomb calorimeter determines the calorific value , the variation in calorific value followed a descending order with respect to OD with the increasing content of OSR. The OSR is efficient for use in internal combustion engines in small proportions. (author)

  16. Applications of superconductors to electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews previous experience in applying superconductors to electric motors and examines the difficulties encountered. While motors and generators have a common basis, several significant differences exist. The application of high temperature superconductors to the major electric motor types is discussed and expected difficulties are presented. The limitations imposed by various motor designs are reflected in a statement of the desired material properties for high temperature superconductor electric motor applications

  17. Space shuttle booster separation motor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The separation characteristics of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRBs) are introduced along with the system level requirements for the booster separation motors (BSMs). These system requirements are then translated into specific motor requirements that control the design of the BSM. Each motor component is discussed including its geometry, material selection, and fabrication process. Also discussed is the propellant selection, grain design, and performance capabilities of the motor. The upcoming test program to develop and qualify the motor is outlined.

  18. Fine motor skills in adult Tourette patients are task-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuner Irene

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics. Deficient motor inhibition underlying tics is one of the main hypotheses in its pathophysiology. Therefore the question arises whether this supposed deficient motor inhibition affects also voluntary movements. Despite severe motor tics, different personalities who suffer from Tourette perform successfully as neurosurgeon, pilot or professional basketball player. Methods For the investigation of fine motor skills we conducted a motor performance test battery in an adult Tourette sample and an age matched group of healthy controls. Results The Tourette patients showed a significant lower performance in the categories steadiness of both hands and aiming of the right hand in comparison to the healthy controls. A comparison of patients’ subgroup without comorbidities or medication and healthy controls revealed a significant difference in the category steadiness of the right hand. Conclusions Our results show that steadiness and visuomotor integration of fine motor skills are altered in our adult sample but not precision and speed of movements. This alteration pattern might be the clinical vignette of complex adaptations in the excitability of the motor system on the basis of altered cortical and subcortical components. The structurally and functionally altered neuronal components could encompass orbitofrontal, ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, the anterior cingulate, amygdala, primary motor and sensorimotor areas including altered corticospinal projections, the corpus callosum and the basal ganglia.

  19. Mutant TDP-43 within motor neurons drives disease onset but not progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditsworth, Dara; Maldonado, Marcus; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Sun, Shuying; Seelman, Amanda; Drenner, Kevin; Arnold, Eveline; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Pizzo, Donald; Ravits, John; Cleveland, Don W; Da Cruz, Sandrine

    2017-06-01

    Mutations in TDP-43 cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal paralytic disease characterized by degeneration and premature death of motor neurons. The contribution of mutant TDP-43-mediated damage within motor neurons was evaluated using mice expressing a conditional allele of an ALS-causing TDP-43 mutant (Q331K) whose broad expression throughout the central nervous system mimics endogenous TDP-43. TDP-43 Q331K mice develop age- and mutant-dependent motor deficits from degeneration and death of motor neurons. Cre-recombinase-mediated excision of the TDP-43 Q331K gene from motor neurons is shown to delay onset of motor symptoms and appearance of TDP-43-mediated aberrant nuclear morphology, and abrogate subsequent death of motor neurons. However, reduction of mutant TDP-43 selectively in motor neurons did not prevent age-dependent degeneration of axons and neuromuscular junction loss, nor did it attenuate astrogliosis or microgliosis. Thus, disease mechanism is non-cell autonomous with mutant TDP-43 expressed in motor neurons determining disease onset but progression defined by mutant acting within other cell types.

  20. Design principles and optimal performance for molecular motors under realistic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yuhai; Cao, Yuansheng

    2018-02-01

    The performance of a molecular motor, characterized by its power output and energy efficiency, is investigated in the motor design space spanned by the stepping rate function and the motor-track interaction potential. Analytic results and simulations show that a gating mechanism that restricts forward stepping in a narrow window in configuration space is needed for generating high power at physiologically relevant loads. By deriving general thermodynamics laws for nonequilibrium motors, we find that the maximum torque (force) at stall is less than its theoretical limit for any realistic motor-track interactions due to speed fluctuations. Our study reveals a tradeoff for the motor-track interaction: while a strong interaction generates a high power output for forward steps, it also leads to a higher probability of wasteful spontaneous back steps. Our analysis and simulations show that this tradeoff sets a fundamental limit to the maximum motor efficiency in the presence of spontaneous back steps, i.e., loose-coupling. Balancing this tradeoff leads to an optimal design of the motor-track interaction for achieving a maximum efficiency close to 1 for realistic motors that are not perfectly coupled with the energy source. Comparison with existing data and suggestions for future experiments are discussed.

  1. Motor demand-dependent activation of ipsilateral motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetefisch, Cathrin M; Revill, Kate Pirog; Shuster, Linda; Hines, Benjamin; Parsons, Michael

    2014-08-15

    The role of ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) in hand motor control during complex task performance remains controversial. Bilateral M1 activation is inconsistently observed in functional (f)MRI studies of unilateral hand performance. Two factors limit the interpretation of these data. As the motor tasks differ qualitatively in these studies, it is conceivable that M1 contributions differ with the demand on skillfulness. Second, most studies lack the verification of a strictly unilateral execution of the motor task during the acquisition of imaging data. Here, we use fMRI to determine whether ipsilateral M1 activity depends on the demand for precision in a pointing task where precision varied quantitatively while movement trajectories remained equal. Thirteen healthy participants used an MRI-compatible joystick to point to targets of four different sizes in a block design. A clustered acquisition technique allowed simultaneous fMRI/EMG data collection and confirmed that movements were strictly unilateral. Accuracy of performance increased with target size. Overall, the pointing task revealed activation in contralateral and ipsilateral M1, extending into contralateral somatosensory and parietal areas. Target size-dependent activation differences were found in ipsilateral M1 extending into the temporal/parietal junction, where activation increased with increasing demand on accuracy. The results suggest that ipsilateral M1 is active during the execution of a unilateral motor task and that its activity is modulated by the demand on precision. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Changes of motor-cortical oscillations associated with motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollok, B; Latz, D; Krause, V; Butz, M; Schnitzler, A

    2014-09-05

    Motor learning results from practice but also between practice sessions. After skill acquisition early consolidation results in less interference with other motor tasks and even improved performance of the newly learned skill. A specific significance of the primary motor cortex (M1) for early consolidation has been suggested. Since synchronized oscillatory activity is assumed to facilitate neuronal plasticity, we here investigate alterations of motor-cortical oscillations by means of event-related desynchronization (ERD) at alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) frequencies in healthy humans. Neuromagnetic activity was recorded using a 306-channel whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. ERD was investigated in 15 subjects during training on a serial reaction time task and 10 min after initial training. The data were compared with performance during a randomly varying sequence serving as control condition. The data reveal a stepwise decline of alpha-band ERD associated with faster reaction times replicating previous findings. The amount of beta-band suppression was significantly correlated with reduction of reaction times. While changes of alpha power have been related to lower cognitive control after initial skill acquisition, the present data suggest that the amount of beta suppression represents a neurophysiological marker of early cortical reorganization associated with motor learning. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs

  4. Assessment of motor function, sensory motor gating and recognition memory in a novel BACHD transgenic rat model for huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abada, Yah-Se K; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Schreiber, Rudy; Ellenbroek, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is frequently first diagnosed by the appearance of motor symptoms; the diagnosis is subsequently confirmed by the presence of expanded CAG repeats (> 35) in the HUNTINGTIN (HTT) gene. A BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full length mutated HTT with 97 CAG-CAA repeats has been established recently. Behavioral phenotyping of BACHD rats will help to determine the validity of this model and its potential use in preclinical drug discovery studies. The present study seeks to characterize the progressive emergence of motor, sensorimotor and cognitive deficits in BACHD rats. Wild type and transgenic rats were tested from 1 till 12 months of age. Motor tests were selected to measure spontaneous locomotor activity (open field) and gait coordination. Sensorimotor gating was assessed in acoustic startle response paradigms and recognition memory was evaluated in an object recognition test. Transgenic rats showed hyperactivity at 1 month and hypoactivity starting at 4 months of age. Motor coordination imbalance in a Rotarod test was present at 2 months and gait abnormalities were seen in a Catwalk test at 12 months. Subtle sensorimotor changes were observed, whereas object recognition was unimpaired in BACHD rats up to 12 months of age. The current BACHD rat model recapitulates certain symptoms from HD patients, especially the marked motor deficits. A subtle neuropsychological phenotype was found and further studies are needed to fully address the sensorimotor phenotype and the potential use of BACHD rats for drug discovery purposes.

  5. Motor Simulation without Motor Expertise: Enhanced Corticospinal Excitability in Visually Experienced Dance Spectators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jola, Corinne; Abedian-Amiri, Ali; Kuppuswamy, Annapoorna; Pollick, Frank E.; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    The human “mirror-system” is suggested to play a crucial role in action observation and execution, and is characterized by activity in the premotor and parietal cortices during the passive observation of movements. The previous motor experience of the observer has been shown to enhance the activity in this network. Yet visual experience could also have a determinant influence when watching more complex actions, as in dance performances. Here we tested the impact visual experience has on motor simulation when watching dance, by measuring changes in corticospinal excitability. We also tested the effects of empathic abilities. To fully match the participants' long-term visual experience with the present experimental setting, we used three live solo dance performances: ballet, Indian dance, and non-dance. Participants were either frequent dance spectators of ballet or Indian dance, or “novices” who never watched dance. None of the spectators had been physically trained in these dance styles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure corticospinal excitability by means of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in both the hand and the arm, because the hand is specifically used in Indian dance and the arm is frequently engaged in ballet dance movements. We observed that frequent ballet spectators showed larger MEP amplitudes in the arm muscles when watching ballet compared to when they watched other performances. We also found that the higher Indian dance spectators scored on the fantasy subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the larger their MEPs were in the arms when watching Indian dance. Our results show that even without physical training, corticospinal excitability can be enhanced as a function of either visual experience or the tendency to imaginatively transpose oneself into fictional characters. We suggest that spectators covertly simulate the movements for which they have acquired visual experience, and that empathic abilities heighten

  6. Architecture of vagal motor units controlling striated muscle of esophagus: peripheral elements patterning peristalsis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powley, Terry L; Mittal, Ravinder K; Baronowsky, Elizabeth A; Hudson, Cherie N; Martin, Felecia N; McAdams, Jennifer L; Mason, Jacqueline K; Phillips, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the architecture of the vagal motor units that control esophageal striated muscle, in spite of the fact that these units are necessary, and responsible, for peristalsis. The present experiment was designed to characterize the motor neuron projection fields and terminal arbors forming esophageal motor units. Nucleus ambiguus compact formation neurons of the rat were labeled by bilateral intracranial injections of the anterograde tracer dextran biotin. After tracer transport, thoracic and abdominal esophagi were removed and prepared as whole mounts of muscle wall without mucosa or submucosa. Labeled terminal arbors of individual vagal motor neurons (n=78) in the esophageal wall were inventoried, digitized and analyzed morphometrically. The size of individual vagal motor units innervating striated muscle, throughout thoracic and abdominal esophagus, averaged 52 endplates per motor neuron, a value indicative of fine motor control. A majority (77%) of the motor terminal arbors also issued one or more collateral branches that contacted neurons, including nitric oxide synthase-positive neurons, of local myenteric ganglia. Individual motor neuron terminal arbors co-innervated, or supplied endplates in tandem to, both longitudinal and circular muscle fibers in roughly similar proportions (i.e., two endplates to longitudinal for every three endplates to circular fibers). Both the observation that vagal motor unit collaterals project to myenteric ganglia and the fact that individual motor units co-innervate longitudinal and circular muscle layers are consistent with the hypothesis that elements contributing to peristaltic programming inhere, or are "hardwired," in the peripheral architecture of esophageal motor units. © 2013.

  7. 77 FR 65765 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... the vehicle. The antenna module translates the radio frequency signal received from the key into a... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY...

  8. 77 FR 25534 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... response back to the vehicle. The antenna module translates the radio frequency signal received from the... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY...

  9. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... 1300 [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0054] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of..., multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  10. Comparison of Linear Induction Motor Theories for the LIMRV and TLRV Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Oberretl, Yamamura, and Mosebach theories of the linear induction motor are described and also applied to predict performance characteristics of the TLRV & LIMRV linear induction motors. The effect of finite motor width and length on performance ...

  11. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at... motor that is responsive to motor current or to both motor current and temperature may be used. (b) The...

  12. MOTOR 2.0: module for transformation of organic matter and nutrients in soil; user guide and technical documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assinck, F.B.T.; Rappoldt, C.

    2004-01-01

    MOTOR is a MOdule describing the Transformation of Organic matteR and nutrients in soil. It calculates the transformations between pools of organic matter and mineral nitrogen in soil. Pools are characterized by a carbon and nitrogen content and can be labelled. MOTOR is a flexible tool because the

  13. On line protection systems for induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, I.; Celik, H.; Sefa, I.; Demirbas, S.

    2005-01-01

    Protection of induction motors is very important since they are widely used in industry for many applications due to their high robustness, reliability, low cost and maintenance, high efficiency and long service life. So, protecting these motors is crucial for operations. This paper presents a combined protection approach for induction motors. To achieve this, the electrical values of the induction motor were measured with sensitivity ±1% through a data acquisition card and processed with software developed in Visual C++. An on line protection system for induction motors was achieved easily and effectively. The experimental results have shown that the induction motor was protected against the possible problems faced during the operation. The software developed for this protection provides flexible and reliable media for operators and their motors. It is expected that the motor protection achieved in this study might be faster than the classical techniques and also may be applied to larger motors easily after small modifications of the software

  14. Dynein's Network of Chemomechanical Motor Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weibo; Wang, Ziqing; Wang, Guodong

    2012-07-01

    An eight-state network model of dynein's chemomechanical motor cycles is developed, in which the states of an effective single dynein head are represented by the number of ATP binding at the primary site and the number of ATP binding at other three secondary sites. The binding and unbinding of ATP, as well as the hydrolysis of ATP and the reverse process, are characterized by transition rates between certain states. Our results show that the stall force of dynein increases fast with ATP up to 1 mM ATP, beyond which it increases slowly to a saturated value, and that load and ATP concentration can adjust the step size of dynein, i.e., dynein can shift gears according to conditions. These results are in agreement with experiments [R. Mallik, B. C. Carter, S. A. Lex, S. J. King and S. P. Gross, Nature 427, 649 (2004)].

  15. Mirror neurons and motor intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Sinigaglia, Corrado

    2007-01-01

    Our social life rests to a large extent on our ability to understand the intentions of others. What are the bases of this ability? A very influential view is that we understand the intentions of others because we are able to represent them as having mental states. Without this meta-representational (mind-reading) ability their behavior would be meaningless to us. Over the past few years this view has been challenged by neurophysiological findings and, in particular, by the discovery of mirror neurons. The functional properties of these neurons indicate that intentional understanding is based primarily on a mechanism that directly matches the sensory representation of the observed actions with one's own motor representation of those same actions. These findings reveal how deeply motor and intentional components of action are intertwined, suggesting that both can be fully comprehended only starting from a motor approach to intentionality.

  16. Induction Motors by Electric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej M. Trzynadlowski

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the issues and means of detection of mechanical abnormalities in induction motors by electric measurements. If undetected and untreated, the worn or damaged bearings, rotor imbalance and eccentricity, broken bars of the rotor cage, and torsional and lateral vibration lead to roughly a half of all failures of induction motor drives. The detection of abnormalities is based on the fact that they cause periodic disturbance of motor variables, such as the speed, torque, current, and magnetic flux. Thus, spectral analysis of those or related quantities may yield a warning about an incipient failure of the drive system. Although the traditional non-invasive diagnostics has mostly been based on the signature analysis of the stator current, other media can also be employed. In particular, the partial instantaneous input power is shown, theoretically and experimentally, to offer distinct advantages under noisy operating conditions. Use of torque and flux estimates is also discussed.

  17. Linear Synchronous Motor Repeatability Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    A cart system using linear synchronous motors was being considered for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). One of the applications in the PIP was the movement of a stack of furnace trays, filled with the waste form (pucks) from a stacking/unstacking station to several bottom loaded furnaces. A system was ordered to perform this function in the PIP Ceramic Prototype Test Facility (CPTF). This system was installed and started up in SRTC prior to being installed in the CPTF. The PIP was suspended and then canceled after the linear synchronous motor system was started up. This system was used to determine repeatability of a linear synchronous motor cart system for the Modern Pit Facility

  18. Perceived effort for motor control and decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Cos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available How effort is internally quantified and how it influences both movement generation and decisions between potential movements are 2 difficult questions to answer. Physical costs are known to influence motor control and decision-making, yet we lack a general, principled characterization of how the perception of effort operates across tasks and conditions. Morel and colleagues introduce an insightful approach to that end, assessing effort indifference points and presenting a quadratic law between perceived effort and force production.

  19. Peripheral nerve injury induces glial activation in primary motor cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Julieta Troncoso; Julieta Troncoso; Efraín Buriticá; Efraín Buriticá

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that peripheral facial nerve injuries are associated with sensorimotor cortex reorganization. We have characterized facial nerve lesion-induced structural changes in primary motor cortex layer 5 pyramidal neurons and their relationship with glial cell density using a rodent facial paralysis model. First, we used adult transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein in microglia and yellow fluorescent protein in pyramidal neurons which were subjected to eithe...

  20. Superconducting DC homopolar motors for ship propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiberger, M.; Reed, M.R.; Creedon, W.P.; O' Hea, B.J. [General Atomic (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Superconducting DC homopolar motors have undergone recent advances in technology, warranting serious consideration of their use for ship propulsion. Homopolar motor propulsion is now practical because of two key technology developments: cryogen-free superconducting refrigeration and high performance motor fiber brushes. These compact motors are ideal for podded applications, where reduced drag and fuel consumption are predicted. In addition, the simple DC motor controller is more efficient and reliable compared with AC motor controllers. Military ships also benefit from increased stealth implicit in homopolar DC excitation, which also allows the option for direct hull or pod mounting. (authors)

  1. Remote Traumatic Brain Injury Is Associated with Motor Dysfunction in Older Military Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Raquel C; Peltz, Carrie B; Kenney, Kimbra; Covinsky, Kenneth E; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Yaffe, Kristine

    2017-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been identified as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Motor dysfunction among TBI-exposed elders without PD has not been well characterized. We sought to determine whether remote TBI is a risk factor for motor dysfunction on exam and functionally relevant motor dysfunction in day-to-day life among independently living elders without PD. This is a cross-sectional cohort study of independently living retired military veterans aged 50 or older with (n = 78) and without (n = 85) prior TBI-all without diagnosed PD. To characterize multidimensional aspects of motor function on exam, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Motor Examination was performed by a board-certified neurologist and used to calculate a modified UPDRS (mUPDRS) global motor score and four domain scores (tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and posture/gait). Functionally relevant motor dysfunction was assessed via self-report of falls within the past year. In analyses adjusted for demographics and comorbidities that differed between groups, compared with veterans without TBI, those with moderate-to-severe TBI were more likely to have fallen in past year (33% vs. 14%, risk ratio 2.5 [95% confidence interval 1.1-5.4]), had higher (worse) mUPDRS global motor (p = .03) and posture/gait scores (p = .02), but not higher tremor (p = .70), rigidity (p = .21), or bradykinesia scores (p = .22). Mild TBI was not associated with worse motor function. Remote moderate-to-severe TBI is a risk factor for motor dysfunction-defined as recent falls and impaired posture/gait-among older veterans. TBI-exposed older adults may be ideal candidates for aggressive fall-screening and prevention strategies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Resting-state connectivity of pre-motor cortex reflects disability in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogonowski, A-M; Siebner, H R; Soelberg Sørensen, P; Paulson, O B; Dyrby, T B; Blinkenberg, M; Madsen, K H

    2013-11-01

    To characterize the relationship between motor resting-state connectivity of the dorsal pre-motor cortex (PMd) and clinical disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 27 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) and 15 patients with secondary progressive MS (SP-MS) underwent functional resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Independent component analysis was used to characterize motor resting-state connectivity. Multiple regression analysis was performed in SPM8 between the individual expression of motor resting-state connectivity in PMd and EDSS scores including age as covariate. Separate post hoc analyses were performed for patients with RR-MS and SP-MS. The EDSS scores ranged from 0 to 7 with a median score of 4.3. Motor resting-state connectivity of left PMd showed a positive linear relation with clinical disability in patients with MS. This effect was stronger when considering the group of patients with RR-MS alone, whereas patients with SP-MS showed no increase in coupling strength between left PMd and the motor resting-state network with increasing clinical disability. No significant relation between motor resting-state connectivity of the right PMd and clinical disability was detected in MS. The increase in functional coupling between left PMd and the motor resting-state network with increasing clinical disability can be interpreted as adaptive reorganization of the motor system to maintain motor function, which appears to be limited to the relapsing-remitting stage of the disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Homopolar motor with dual rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, J.S.

    1998-12-01

    A homopolar motor has a field rotor mounted on a frame for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor mounted for rotation on said frame within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor. The two rotors are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism, so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed. 7 figs.

  4. Homopolar motor with dual rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A homopolar motor (10) has a field rotor (15) mounted on a frame (11) for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor (17) mounted for rotation on said frame (11) within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor (15). The two rotors (15, 17) are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism (19), so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed.

  5. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

  6. Interference in ballistic motor learning - is motor interference really sensory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C

    Skill gained after a short period of practice in one motor task can be abolished if a second task is learned shortly afterwards. We hypothesised that interference requires the same circuits to be engaged in the two tasks and provoke competing processes of synaptic plasticity. To test this, subjects...

  7. To what extent does motor imagery resemble motor preparation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lubbe, Rob; Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Jongsma, Marijtje; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Motor imagery may be defined as the generation of an image of the acting self that lacks the final execution of a movement. This image is thought to be a simulation of the intended action from a first-person perspective. Recent studies with a Go/NoGo version of the discrete sequence production

  8. Motor learning as a criterion for evaluating coordination motor abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boraczynski Tomasz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of motor learning based on objective, metric criteria, in terms of pedagogical process aimed at improving the accuracy of hits a golf ball to the target. A group of 77 students of physical education participated in the study. Within 8 months there were performed 11 measurement sessions. In each session, subjects performed 10 hits a golf ball to the target from a distance of 9 m. Accuracy of hits was recorded. Effect of motor learning has been demonstrated in the progress of 10 consecutive hits a golf ball to the target in each session (operational control; in the dynamics of performance improvement between sessions (current control; as well as in the total result of eight-month experiment (stage control. There were developed norms for quantitative and qualitative assessment of accuracy of hits a golf ball to the target. Developed quantitative and qualitative criteria for assessing the speed of motor learning in various conditions of the educational process creates the possibility of organization the operational, current and stage control of the level of human coordination motor abilities, as required by leading process.

  9. Esophageal hypomotility and spastic motor disorders: current diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Miguel A; Zavala-Solares, Monica R; Coss-Adame, Enrique

    2014-11-01

    Esophageal hypomotility (EH) is characterized by abnormal esophageal peristalsis, either from a reduction or absence of contractions, whereas spastic motor disorders (SMD) are characterized by an increase in the vigor and/or propagation velocity of esophageal body contractions. Their pathophysiology is not clearly known. The reduced excitation of the smooth muscle contraction mediated by cholinergic neurons and the impairment of inhibitory ganglion neuronal function mediated by nitric oxide are likely mechanisms of the peristaltic abnormalities seen in EH and SMD, respectively. Dysphagia and chest pain are the most frequent clinical manifestations for both of these dysfunctions, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is commonly associated with these motor disorders. The introduction of high-resolution manometry (HRM) and esophageal pressure topography (EPT) has significantly enhanced the ability to diagnose EH and SMD. Novel EPT metrics in particular the development of the Chicago Classification of esophageal motor disorders has enabled improved characterization of these abnormalities. The first step in the management of EH and SMD is to treat GERD, especially when esophageal testing shows pathologic reflux. Smooth muscle relaxants (nitrates, calcium channel blockers, 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors) and pain modulators may be useful in the management of dysphagia or pain in SMD. Endoscopic Botox injection and pneumatic dilation are the second-line therapies. Extended myotomy of the esophageal body or peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) may be considered in highly selected cases but lack evidence.

  10. Coupling with concentric contact around motor shaft for line start synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, Michael J.; Burdeshaw, Galen E.

    2017-10-03

    A method comprises providing a line-start synchronous motor. The motor has a stator, a rotor core disposed within the stator, and a motor shaft. In accordance with a step of the method, a coupling for coupling a load to the motor is provided. The coupling has a motor shaft attachment portion configured to provide substantially concentric contact around the shaft at the end of the motor shaft. The coupling has a load attachment portion configured to operatively connect to a load. In accordance with a step of the method, a load is coupled to the motor with the coupling, and driven from start to at least near synchronous speed during steady state operation of the motor with a load coupled thereto. The motor shaft attachment portion may comprise a bushing assembly with matching and opposed tapered surfaces that cooperate to secure the motor shaft attachment portion around the motor shaft.

  11. Motor cortex is required for learning but not for executing a motor skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Risa; Markman, Timothy; Poddar, Rajesh; Ko, Raymond; Fantana, Antoniu L; Dhawale, Ashesh K; Kampff, Adam R; Ölveczky, Bence P

    2015-05-06

    Motor cortex is widely believed to underlie the acquisition and execution of motor skills, but its contributions to these processes are not fully understood. One reason is that studies on motor skills often conflate motor cortex's established role in dexterous control with roles in learning and producing task-specific motor sequences. To dissociate these aspects, we developed a motor task for rats that trains spatiotemporally precise movement patterns without requirements for dexterity. Remarkably, motor cortex lesions had no discernible effect on the acquired skills, which were expressed in their distinct pre-lesion forms on the very first day of post-lesion training. Motor cortex lesions prior to training, however, rendered rats unable to acquire the stereotyped motor sequences required for the task. These results suggest a remarkable capacity of subcortical motor circuits to execute learned skills and a previously unappreciated role for motor cortex in "tutoring" these circuits during learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Motor cortex is required for learning but not executing a motor skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Risa; Markman, Timothy; Poddar, Rajesh; Ko, Raymond; Fantana, Antoniu; Dhawale, Ashesh; Kampff, Adam R.; Ölveczky, Bence P.

    2018-01-01

    Motor cortex is widely believed to underlie the acquisition and execution of motor skills, yet its contributions to these processes are not fully understood. One reason is that studies on motor skills often conflate motor cortex’s established role in dexterous control with roles in learning and producing task-specific motor sequences. To dissociate these aspects, we developed a motor task for rats that trains spatiotemporally precise movement patterns without requirements for dexterity. Remarkably, motor cortex lesions had no discernible effect on the acquired skills, which were expressed in their distinct pre-lesion forms on the very first day of post-lesion training. Motor cortex lesions prior to training, however, rendered rats unable to acquire the stereotyped motor sequences required for the task. These results suggest a remarkable capacity of subcortical motor circuits to execute learned skills and a previously unappreciated role for motor cortex in ‘tutoring’ these circuits during learning. PMID:25892304

  13. Aversive stimuli exacerbate defensive motor behaviour in motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Rebekah L; Sinanaj, Indrit; Galli, Silvio; Aybek, Selma; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-12-01

    Conversion disorder or functional neurological symptom disorder (FND) can affect the voluntary motor system, without an organic cause. Functional symptoms are thought to be generated unconsciously, arising from underlying psychological stressors. However, attempts to demonstrate a direct relationship between the limbic system and disrupted motor function in FND are lacking. We tested whether negative affect would exacerbate alterations of motor control and corresponding brain activations in individuals with FND. Ten patients and ten healthy controls produced an isometric precision-grip contraction at 10% of maximum force while either viewing visual feedback of their force output, or unpleasant or pleasant emotional images (without feedback). Force magnitude was continuously recorded together with change in brain activity using fMRI. For controls, force output decayed from the target level while viewing pleasant and unpleasant images. Patients however, maintained force at the target level without decay while viewing unpleasant images, indicating a pronounced effect of negative affect on force output in FND. This emotional modulation of force control was associated with different brain activation patterns between groups. Contrasting the unpleasant with the pleasant condition, controls showed increased activity in the inferior frontal cortex and pre-supplementary motor area, whereas patients had greater activity in the cerebellum (vermis), posterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus. Engagement of a cerebellar-limbic network in patients is consistent with heightened processing of emotional salience, and supports the role of the cerebellum in freezing responses in the presence of aversive events. These data highlight a possible neural circuit through which psychological stressors elicit defensive behaviour and modulate motor function in FND. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynein is the motor for retrograde axonal transport of organelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnapp, B.J.; Reese, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    Vesicular organelles in axons of nerve cells are transported along microtubules either toward their plus ends (fast anterograde transport) or toward their minus ends (retrograde transport). Two microtubule-based motors were previously identified by examining plastic beads induced to move along microtubules by cytosol fractions from the squid giant axon: (i) an anterograde motor, kinesin, and (ii) a retrograde motor, which is characterized here. The retrograde motor, a cytosolic protein previously termed HMW1, was purified from optic lobes and extruded axoplasm by nucleotide-dependent microtubule affinity and release; microtubule gliding was used as the assay of motor activity. The following properties of the retrograde motor suggest that it is cytoplasmic dynein: (i) sedimentation at 20-22 S with a heavy chain of Mr greater than 200,000 that coelectrophoreses with the alpha and beta subunits of axonemal dynein, (ii) cleavage by UV irradiation in the presence of ATP and vanadate, and (iii) a molecular structure resembling two-headed dynein from axonemes. Furthermore, bead movement toward the minus end of microtubules was blocked when axoplasmic supernatants were treated with UV/vanadate. Treatment of axoplasmic supernatant with UV/vanadate also blocks the retrograde movement of purified organelles in vitro without changing the number of anterograde moving organelles, indicating that dynein interacts specifically with a subgroup of organelles programmed to move toward the cell body. However, purified optic lobe dynein, like purified kinesin, does not by itself promote the movement of purified organelles along microtubules, suggesting that additional axoplasmic factors are necessary for retrograde as well as anterograde transport

  15. Infant Motor Skills After a Cardiac Operation: The Need for Developmental Monitoring and Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzark, Karen; Smith, Cynthia; Donohue, Janet; Yu, Sunkyung; Romano, Jennifer C

    2017-08-01

    Neurodevelopmental dysfunction is increasingly recognized as a common outcome of congenital heart defects and their treatment in infancy. The effects of the intensive care unit (ICU) experience and environment on these infants are unknown and potentially modifiable, but no validated metric is available for objective evaluation of early motor impairments in the ICU/hospital setting. The purpose of this study was to characterize the motor status of hospitalized infants after cardiac operations, including the development and field-testing of the Congenital Heart Assessment of Sensory and Motor Status (CHASMS) metric. CHASMS item generation was based on review of the literature, focused interviews with parents, and expert consensus. A nurse administered CHASMS to 100 infants aged younger than 10 months old undergoing cardiac operations. Preoperative and postoperative CHASMS scores were compared, and associations between CHASMS scores and patient characteristics were examined. Physical therapists assessed neuromotor skills by using the Test of Infant Motor Performance or the Alberta Infant Motor Scales for correlation with CHASMS scores. CHASMS gross motor scores declined postoperatively in 64% (25 of 39). Lower CHASMS scores, after adjusting for age, were associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation (p motor CHASMS scores were significantly correlated with Test of Infant Motor Performance (r = 0.70, p Motor Scales scores (r = 0.88, p Motor impairments in infants after cardiac operations are common and may be exacerbated by longer intubation and prolonged exposure to the ICU environment. The feasibility, reliability, and validity of CHASMS were supported for the evaluation of motor skills in this at-risk population. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Motor contagion during human-human and human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisio, Ambra; Sciutti, Alessandra; Nori, Francesco; Metta, Giorgio; Fadiga, Luciano; Sandini, Giulio; Pozzo, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Motor resonance mechanisms are known to affect humans' ability to interact with others, yielding the kind of "mutual understanding" that is the basis of social interaction. However, it remains unclear how the partner's action features combine or compete to promote or prevent motor resonance during interaction. To clarify this point, the present study tested whether and how the nature of the visual stimulus and the properties of the observed actions influence observer's motor response, being motor contagion one of the behavioral manifestations of motor resonance. Participants observed a humanoid robot and a human agent move their hands into a pre-specified final position or put an object into a container at various velocities. Their movements, both in the object- and non-object- directed conditions, were characterized by either a smooth/curvilinear or a jerky/segmented trajectory. These trajectories were covered with biological or non-biological kinematics (the latter only by the humanoid robot). After action observation, participants were requested to either reach the indicated final position or to transport a similar object into another container. Results showed that motor contagion appeared for both the interactive partner except when the humanoid robot violated the biological laws of motion. These findings suggest that the observer may transiently match his/her own motor repertoire to that of the observed agent. This matching might mediate the activation of motor resonance, and modulate the spontaneity and the pleasantness of the interaction, whatever the nature of the communication partner.

  17. Motor contagion during human-human and human-robot interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Bisio

    Full Text Available Motor resonance mechanisms are known to affect humans' ability to interact with others, yielding the kind of "mutual understanding" that is the basis of social interaction. However, it remains unclear how the partner's action features combine or compete to promote or prevent motor resonance during interaction. To clarify this point, the present study tested whether and how the nature of the visual stimulus and the properties of the observed actions influence observer's motor response, being motor contagion one of the behavioral manifestations of motor resonance. Participants observed a humanoid robot and a human agent move their hands into a pre-specified final position or put an object into a container at various velocities. Their movements, both in the object- and non-object- directed conditions, were characterized by either a smooth/curvilinear or a jerky/segmented trajectory. These trajectories were covered with biological or non-biological kinematics (the latter only by the humanoid robot. After action observation, participants were requested to either reach the indicated final position or to transport a similar object into another container. Results showed that motor contagion appeared for both the interactive partner except when the humanoid robot violated the biological laws of motion. These findings suggest that the observer may transiently match his/her own motor repertoire to that of the observed agent. This matching might mediate the activation of motor resonance, and modulate the spontaneity and the pleasantness of the interaction, whatever the nature of the communication partner.

  18. Basal ganglia and beyond: The interplay between motor and cognitive aspects in Parkinson's disease rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzoli, Davide; Ortelli, Paola; Madeo, Graziella; Giladi, Nir; Petzinger, Giselle M; Frazzitta, Giuseppe

    2018-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor and cognitive dysfunctions, affecting the motor behaviour. We summarize evidence that the interplay between motor and cognitive approaches is crucial in PD rehabilitation. Rehabilitation is complementary to pharmacological therapy and effective in reducing the PD disturbances, probably acting by inducing neuroplastic effects. The motor behaviour results from a complex integration between cortical and subcortical areas, underlying the motor, cognitive and motivational aspects of movement. The close interplay amongst these areas makes possible to learn, control and express habitual-automatic actions, which are dysfunctional in PD. The physiopathology of PD could be considered the base for the development of effective rehabilitation treatments. As the volitional action control is spared in early-medium stages of disease, rehabilitative approaches engaging cognition permit to achieve motor benefits and appear to be the most effective for PD. We will point out data supporting the relevance of targeting both motor and cognitive aspects in PD rehabilitation. Finally, we will discuss the role of cognitive engagement in motor rehabilitation for PD. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Motor skills in Czech children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their neurotypical counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharoun, S M; Bryden, P J; Otipkova, Z; Musalek, M; Lejcarova, A

    2013-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioural disorder. Characterized by recurring problems with impulsiveness and inattention in combination with hyperactivity, motor impairments have also been well documented in the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the fine and gross motor skills of male and female children with ADHD and their neurotypical counterparts within seven skill assessments. This included three fine motor tasks: (1) spiral tracing, (2) dot filling, (3) tweezers and beads; and four gross motor tasks: (1) twistbox, (2) foot tapping, (3) small plate finger tapping, and (4) large plate finger tapping. It was hypothesized that children with ADHD would display poorer motor skills in comparison to neurotypical controls in both fine and gross motor assessments. However, statistically significant differences between the groups only emerged in four of the seven tasks (spiral tracing, dot filling, tweezers and beads and foot tapping). In line with previous findings, the complexity underlying upper limb tasks solidified the divide in performance between children with ADHD and their neurotypical counterparts. In light of similar research, impairments in lower limb motor skill were also observed. Future research is required to further delineate trends in motor difficulties in ADHD, while further investigating the underlying mechanisms of impairment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Influence of Water and Mineral Oil On Volumetric Losses in a Hydraulic Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śliwiński Pawel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper volumetric losses in hydraulic motor supplied with water and mineral oil (two liquids having significantly different viscosity and lubricating properties are described and compared. The experimental tests were conducted using an innovative hydraulic satellite motor, that is dedicated to work with different liquids, including water. The sources of leaks in this motor are also characterized and described. On this basis, a mathematical model of volumetric losses and model of effective rotational speed have been developed and presented. The results of calculation of volumetric losses according to the model are compared with the results of experiment. It was found that the difference is not more than 20%. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that this model well describes in both the volumetric losses in the motor supplied with water and oil. Experimental studies have shown that the volumetric losses in the motor supplied with water are even three times greater than the volumetric losses in the motor supplied with oil. It has been shown, that in a small constant stream of water the speed of the motor is reduced even by half in comparison of speed of motor supplied with the same stream of oil.

  1. ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR FARM USE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    BETWEEN 2 AND 8 HOURS ARE REQUIRED FOR USE OF THIS TEXTUAL OR REFERENCE MATERIAL ON ELECTRIC MOTORS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION-AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING SPECIALIST ON THE BASIS OF CONFERENCES WITH SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS. THE OBJECTIVES AND SUBJECT MATTER CENTER AROUND THE…

  2. Imaging the ocular motor nerves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, T.; Verbist, B.M.; Buchem, M. van; Osch, T. van; Webb, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic

  3. Linear Motor With Air Slide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Fenn, Ralph C.

    1993-01-01

    Improved linear actuator comprises air slide and linear electric motor. Unit exhibits low friction, low backlash, and more nearly even acceleration. Used in machinery in which positions, velocities, and accelerations must be carefully controlled and/or vibrations must be suppressed.

  4. Technology and Motor Ability Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  5. Motor Skill Learning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl P.

    The purpose of this article is to briefly describe schema theory and indicate its relevance to early childhood development, with specific reference to children's acquisition of motor skills. Schema theory proposes an explanation of how individuals learn and perform a seemingly endless variety of movements. According to Schmidt (1975), goal…

  6. Shape memory alloy based motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1989a,b) that SMA spring or strip generates force as a non-linear function of its deformed length. ... magnetic property, smooth, jerk free operation and insensitivity to space radiations namely, electrons, protons ..... will be 1 Amp DC. The motor ...

  7. Treatment of functional motor disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelauff, Jeannette M.; Dreissen, Yasmine E. M.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Stone, Jon

    OPINION STATEMENT: For the treatment of functional motor disorder, we recommend a three-stage approach. Firstly, patients must be assessed and given an unambiguous diagnosis, with an explanation that helps them understand that they have a genuine disorder, with the potential for reversibility. A key

  8. Motor Action and Emotional Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2010-01-01

    Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

  9. Configurations of actual and perceived motor competence among children: Associations with motivation for sports and global self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardid, Farid; De Meester, An; Tallir, Isabel; Cardon, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu; Haerens, Leen

    2016-12-01

    The present study used a person-centred approach to examine whether different profiles based on actual and perceived motor competence exist in elementary school children. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to explore how children with different motor competence-based profiles might differ in their autonomous motivation for sports and global self-worth. Validated questionnaires were administered to 161 children (40% boys; age=8.82±0.66years) to assess their perceived motor competence, global self-worth, and motivation for sports. Actual motor competence was measured with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Cluster analyses identified four motor competence-based profiles: two groups were characterized by corresponding levels of actual and perceived motor competence (i.e., low-low and high-high) and two groups were characterized by divergent levels of actual and perceived motor competence (i.e., high-low and low-high). Children in the low-low and high-low group displayed significantly lower levels of autonomous motivation for sports and lower levels of global self-worth than children in the low-high and high-high group. These findings emphasize that fostering children's perceived motor competence might be crucial to improve their motivation for sports and their global self-worth. Teachers and instructors involved in physical education and youth sports should thus focus on both actual and perceived motor competence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetic Signature of Brushless Electric Motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, David

    2006-01-01

    Brushless electric motors are used in a number of underwater vehicles. When these underwater vehicles are used for mine clearance operations the magnetic signature of the brushless motors is important...

  11. Improving commercial motor vehicle safety in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This study addressed the primary functions of the Oregon Department of Transportations (ODOTs) Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP), which is administered by the Motor Carrier Transportation Division (MCTD). The study first documente...

  12. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... demonstrated that energy optimal control will sometimes improve and sometimes deteriorate the stability. Comparison of small and medium-size induction motor drives with permanent magnet motor drives indicated why, and in which applications, PM motors are especially good. Calculations of economical aspects...... improvement by energy optimal control for any standard induction motor drive between 2.2 kW and 90 kW. A simple method to evaluate the robustness against load disturbances was developed and used to compare the robustness of different motor types and sizes. Calculation of the oscillatory behavior of a motor...

  13. Experimental thermodynamics of single molecular motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2013-01-01

    Molecular motor is a nano-sized chemical engine that converts chemical free energy to mechanical motions. Hence, the energetics is as important as kinetics in order to understand its operation principle. We review experiments to evaluate the thermodynamic properties of a rotational F1-ATPase motor (F1-motor) at a single-molecule level. We show that the F1-motor achieves 100% thermo dynamic efficiency at the stalled state. Furthermore, the motor reduces the internal irreversible heat inside the motor to almost zero and achieves a highly-efficient free energy transduction close to 100% during rotations far from quasistatic process. We discuss the mechanism of how the F1-motor achieves such a high efficiency, which highlights the remarkable property of the nano-sized engine F1-motor.

  14. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.

  15. Optimization analysis of propulsion motor control efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Qingnan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper aims to strengthen the control effect of propulsion motors and decrease the energy used during actual control procedures.[Methods] Based on the traditional propulsion motor equivalence circuit, we increase the iron loss current component, introduce the definition of power matching ratio, calculate the highest efficiency of a motor at a given speed and discuss the flux corresponding to the power matching ratio with the highest efficiency. In the original motor vector efficiency optimization control module, an efficiency optimization control module is added so as to achieve motor efficiency optimization and energy conservation.[Results] MATLAB/Simulink simulation data shows that the efficiency optimization control method is suitable for most conditions. The operation efficiency of the improved motor model is significantly higher than that of the original motor model, and its dynamic performance is good.[Conclusions] Our motor efficiency optimization control method can be applied in engineering to achieve energy conservation.

  16. How to make spinal motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Dusenbery, Brandi N; Williams, Luis A; Klim, Joseph R; Eggan, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    All muscle movements, including breathing, walking, and fine motor skills rely on the function of the spinal motor neuron to transmit signals from the brain to individual muscle groups. Loss of spinal motor neuron function underlies several neurological disorders for which treatment has been hampered by the inability to obtain sufficient quantities of primary motor neurons to perform mechanistic studies or drug screens. Progress towards overcoming this challenge has been achieved through the synthesis of developmental biology paradigms and advances in stem cell and reprogramming technology, which allow the production of motor neurons in vitro. In this Primer, we discuss how the logic of spinal motor neuron development has been applied to allow generation of motor neurons either from pluripotent stem cells by directed differentiation and transcriptional programming, or from somatic cells by direct lineage conversion. Finally, we discuss methods to evaluate the molecular and functional properties of motor neurons generated through each of these techniques.

  17. Ultrasonic Linear Motor with Two Independent Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneishi, Takeshi; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    2004-09-01

    We propose a new structure of an ultrasonic linear motor in order to solve the problems of high-power ultrasonic linear motors that drive the XY-stage for electron beam equipment and to expand the application fields of the motor. We pay special attention to the following three points: (1) the vibration in two directions of the ultrasonic linear motor should not influence mutually each other, (2) the vibration in two directions should be divided into the stage traveling direction and the pressing direction of the ultrasonic linear motor, and (3) the rigidity of the stage traveling direction of the ultrasonic linear motor should be increased. As a result, the supporting method of ultrasonic linear motors is simplified. The efficiency of the motor is improved and temperature rise is reduced. The stage position drift is also improved.

  18. Ventajas de los motores de flujo axial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto M Basanta Otero

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Es importante conocer sobre una familia de motores que a diferencia de los convencionales o tradicionales no presentanun flujo rotatorio radial, denominados motores de flujo axial. Dichos motores presentan altos valores de par motriz abajas velocidades, una alta eficiencia y alta densidad de potencia. Este trabajo constituye un breve análisis dealgunos motores de la referencia bibliográfica.  Is important to know about a family of motors that at difference whit the traditional, don't have a rotator radial flux,called, axial flux motors. These motors have high torque for low speed, high efficiency and high power density. Thiswork is a brief analysis of several motors of the bibliographic references.

  19. Language changes coincide with motor and fMRI changes following upper extremity motor therapy for hemiparesis: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnish, Stacy; Meinzer, Marcus; Trinastic, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, David; Page, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    To formally assess changes in language, affected UE movement, and motor functional activation changes via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following participation in motor therapy without any accompanying language intervention. Pre-post case series. Five subjects with stroke exhibiting chronic, stable UE hemiparesis. The upper extremity section of the Fugl-Meyer (FM), the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), administered during performance of an affected UE motor task. All subjects were administered six weeks of repetitive task specific training (RTP), performed for approximately 2.5 hours per day, split into two sessions. For the first four weeks of the intervention period, RTP was administered every weekday, whereas, for the subsequent two weeks, RTP was administered 3 days/week. Epidural cortical stimulation was co-administered with the RTP via an electrode array and implanted pulse generator. For all sessions, one subject worked with a single therapist. Four weeks before and four weeks after the intervention period, all subjects were administered the FM, WAB, and fMRI. Three of the subjects exhibited clinically significant language changes on the WAB. These individuals exhibited the largest motor changes as measured by the FM. Functional MRI revealed distinct motor activation patterns in these subjects, characterized by more strongly right lateralized focal BOLD activity or a shift in activation toward the right hemisphere. Language changes appear to co-occur with motor changes after UE RTP. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of these findings may lead to more efficient and synergistic rehabilitative therapy delivery.

  20. A novel mouse model with impaired dynein/dynactin function develops amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like features in motor neurons and improves lifespan in SOD1-ALS mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Teuling (Eva); V. van Dis (Vera); P. Wulf (Phebe); E.D. Haasdijk (Elize); A.S. Akhmanova (Anna); C.C. Hoogenraad (Casper); D. Jaarsma (Dick)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive motor neuron degeneration and muscle paralysis. Genetic evidence from man and mouse has indicated that mutations in the dynein/dynactin motor complex are correlated with motor neuron

  1. The micro-step motor controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kwang Pyo; Lee, Chang Hee; Moon, Myung Kook; Choi, Bung Hun; Choi, Young Hyun; Cheon, Jong Gu

    2004-11-01

    The developed micro-step motor controller can handle 4 axes stepping motor drivers simultaneously and provide high power bipolar driving mechanism with constant current mode. It can be easily controlled by manual key functions and the motor driving status is displayed by the front panel VFD. Due to the development of several kinds of communication and driving protocol, PC can operate even several micro-step motor controllers at once by multi-drop connection

  2. High-Tc superconducting electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiferl, R.; Stein, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the advantages and limitations of using superconductors in motors are discussed. A synchronous motor with a high temperature superconducting field winding for pump and fan drive applications is described and some of its unique design features are identified. A 10,000 horsepower superconducting motor design is presented. The critical field and current density requirements for high temperature superconducting wire in motors is discussed. Finally, recent progress in superconducting wire performance is presented

  3. Frequency modulation drive for a piezoelectric motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittas, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    A piezoelectric motor has peak performance at a specific frequency f.sub.1 that may vary over a range of frequencies. A drive system is disclosed for operating such a motor at peak performance without feedback. The drive system consists of the motor and an ac source connected to power the motor, the ac source repeatedly generating a frequency over a range from f.sub.1 -.DELTA.x to f.sub.1 +.DELTA.y.

  4. Some simple demonstration experiments involving homopolar motors

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Seán M.

    2007-01-01

    The ready availability of very strong permanent magnets in the form of rare-earth magnetic alloys such as neodymium-iron-boron has lead to renewed interest in one of the oldest types of electric motors - the homopolar motor. The ease with which a demonstration homopolar motor can now be built and operated when neodymium magnets are used is quite remarkable. In this paper some simple homopolar motors employing neodymium magnets suitable for demonstrational purposes are described and discussed....

  5. Some simple demonstration experiments involving homopolar motors

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart,Seán M.

    2007-01-01

    The ready availability of very strong permanent magnets in the form of rare-earth magnetic alloys such as neodymium-iron-boron has lead to renewed interest in one of the oldest types of electric motors - the homopolar motor. The ease with which a demonstration homopolar motor can now be built and operated when neodymium magnets are used is quite remarkable. In this paper some simple homopolar motors employing neodymium magnets suitable for demonstrational purposes are described and discussed.

  6. Physical mechanisms of biological molecular motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John H. Jr. [Department of Physics and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Ste. 617 SR1 Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)], E-mail: jhmiller@uh.edu; Vajrala, Vijayanand; Infante, Hans L. [Department of Physics and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Ste. 617 SR1 Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Claycomb, James R. [Department of Physics and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Ste. 617 SR1 Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Houston Baptist University, 7502 Fondren Road, Houston, TX 77074-3298 (United States); Palanisami, Akilan; Fang Jie; Mercier, George T. [Department of Physics and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Ste. 617 SR1 Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Biological motors generally fall into two categories: (1) those that convert chemical into mechanical energy via hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate, usually adenosine triphosphate, regarded as life's chemical currency of energy and (2) membrane bound motors driven directly by an ion gradient and/or membrane potential. Here we argue that electrostatic interactions play a vital role for both types of motors and, therefore, the tools of physics can greatly contribute to understanding biological motors.

  7. Physical mechanisms of biological molecular motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, John H. Jr.; Vajrala, Vijayanand; Infante, Hans L.; Claycomb, James R.; Palanisami, Akilan; Fang Jie; Mercier, George T.

    2009-01-01

    Biological motors generally fall into two categories: (1) those that convert chemical into mechanical energy via hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate, usually adenosine triphosphate, regarded as life's chemical currency of energy and (2) membrane bound motors driven directly by an ion gradient and/or membrane potential. Here we argue that electrostatic interactions play a vital role for both types of motors and, therefore, the tools of physics can greatly contribute to understanding biological motors

  8. Avaliação e intervenção no desenvolvimento motor de uma criança com Síndrome de Down Assessment and intervention in the motor development of a child with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Maurilia dos Santos

    2010-04-01

    quotient for all items was classified as very low, characterizing motor deficit. The data justifies the relevance of motor intervention programs for children with Down syndrome.

  9. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL OF ELECTRIC MOTORS AND MOTOR DRIVES: FEASIBILITY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study (part 1) of fuzzy logic motor control (FLMC). The study included: 1) reviews of existing applications of fuzzy logic, of motor operation, and of motor control; 2) a description of motor control schemes that can utilize FLMC; 3) selection of a m...

  10. Het motorrijwiel : handboek voor motor- en scooterrijders, motor- en scootermonteurs en -technici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyffardt, A.L.W.

    1961-01-01

    INHOUD: 1. De werking van de motor ; 2. De hoofddelen van de motor ; 3. De kleppen en de klepbeweging ; 4. Balancering, de meercilinder motor ; 5. Bijzonderheden over de werking ; 6. De carburateur ; 7. De smering van de motor ; 8. De tweetaktmotor ; 9. De elektrische installatie ; 10. De

  11. The influence of motor imagery on the learning of a fine hand motor skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaśkowski, Wojciech; Verwey, Willem B.; van der Lubbe, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Motor imagery has been argued to affect the acquisition of motor skills. The present study examined the specificity of motor imagery on the learning of a fine hand motor skill by employing a modified discrete sequence production task: the Go/NoGo DSP task. After an informative cue, a response

  12. 76 FR 12792 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY..., Exemption from the Theft Prevention Standard. This petition is granted because the agency has determined... in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking requirements of...

  13. 77 FR 22383 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; TESLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; TESLA AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... exemption. SUMMARY: This document grants in full the petition of Tesla Motors Inc's. (Tesla) for an... 49 CFR Part 541, Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard. Tesla requested confidential...

  14. Neuronal mechanisms of motor learning and motor memory consolidation in healthy old adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, K. M. M.; Veldman, M. P.; Solnik, S.; Koch, G.; Zijdewind, I.; Hortobagyi, T.

    It is controversial whether or not old adults are capable of learning new motor skills and consolidate the performance gains into motor memory in the offline period. The underlying neuronal mechanisms are equally unclear. We determined the magnitude of motor learning and motor memory consolidation

  15. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  16. Motor Programming in Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Edwin; Robin, Donald A.; Wright, David L.; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2008-01-01

    Apraxia of Speech (AOS) is an impairment of motor programming. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains unclear. The present study examined motor programming in AOS in the context of a recent two-stage model [Klapp, S. T. (1995). Motor response programming during simple and choice reaction time: The role of practice. "Journal of…

  17. Agricultural Electricity. Electric Motors. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert T.

    Addressed to the student, this manual, which includes supplementary diagrams, discusses the following topics and principles: Electromagnetic fields, electromagnets, parts of an electric motor, determining speed of an electric motor, types of electric motors in common use (split-phase, capacitor, repulsion-induction, three-phase), the electric…

  18. Control of a superconducting synchronous motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Jiang, Q; Hong, Z; Coombs, T A [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    This paper presents a control algorithm for starting up a high temperature superconducting synchronous motor. The mathematical model of the motor has been established in m-file in Matlab and the parameters have been identified by means of the finite-element analysis method. Different starting methods for the motor have been compared and discussed, and eventually a hybrid control algorithm is proposed.

  19. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  20. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin

    2016-06-07

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  1. [Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, N.J.; Nijhof, A.; Tissingh, G.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease has traditionally been viewed as a disease with only motor features. Nowadays, a wide variety of non-motor symptoms and signs are also recognised as being characteristic of the disease. Non-motor symptoms, most importantly autonomic dysfunction, neuropsychiatric symptoms and

  2. Motor performance in children with Noonan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croonen, E.A.; Essink, M.; Burgt, I. van der; Draaisma, J.M.; Noordam, C.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2017-01-01

    Although problems with motor performance in daily life are frequently mentioned in Noonan syndrome, the motor performance profile has never been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to examine whether a specific profile in motor performance in children with Noonan syndrome was seen

  3. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a designated...

  4. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be rated...

  5. 47 CFR 32.2112 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 32.2112 Section 32.2112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2112 Motor vehicles. This account shall include the original cost of motor vehicles of the type which are designed and...

  6. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC) Meeting. SUMMARY...

  7. 77 FR 46555 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee: Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC...

  8. 75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  9. 75 FR 29384 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2010-0143] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  10. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces...

  11. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2010-0143] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA...

  12. Pre-motor and motor activities in early handwriting

    OpenAIRE

    van Zwieten, Koos Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural studies make use of handwritten letters’ characteristics like strokes, roundedness, etcetera. In consequence, Fisher et al. (2010) studying brain activation during rejected love, noticed typical pre-motor activity patterns, as suggested by irregular writing patterns as well, due to basal ganglia dysfunction (Mergl et al., 2004). A short historical text written in a presumably depressed mood was checked on such characteristics in the light of hypothesised finger-, and hand movement...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    MEMISEVIC Haris; HADZIC Selmir

    2015-01-01

    Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegbo...

  14. Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    , as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics.......We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors...

  15. Motor control is decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Landy, Michael S

    2012-12-01

    Motor behavior may be viewed as a problem of maximizing the utility of movement outcome in the face of sensory, motor and task uncertainty. Viewed in this way, and allowing for the availability of prior knowledge in the form of a probability distribution over possible states of the world, the choice of a movement plan and strategy for motor control becomes an application of statistical decision theory. This point of view has proven successful in recent years in accounting for movement under risk, inferring the loss function used in motor tasks, and explaining motor behavior in a wide variety of circumstances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Diaphragm Pneumatic Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtášek Kamil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic diaphragm motors belong to the group of motors with elastic working parts. This part is usually made of rubber with a textile insert and it is deformed under the pressure of a compressed air or from the external mass load. This is resulting in a final working effect. In this type of motors are in contact two different elastic environments – the compressed air and the esaltic part. These motors are mainly the low-stroke and working with relatively large forces. This paper presents mathematical modeling static properties of diaphragm motors.

  17. Motor Skill Competence and Perceived Motor Competence: Which Best Predicts Physical Activity among Girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Khalaji, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2013-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls' physical activity behavior. A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr) participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire. Children's physical activity was assessed by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Multiple linear regression model was used to determine whether perceived motor competence or motor skill competence best predicts moderate-to-vigorous self-report physical activity. Multiple regression analysis indicated that motor skill competence and perceived motor competence predicted 21% variance in physical activity (R(2)=0.21, F=48.9, P=0.001), and motor skill competence (R(2)=0.15, ᵝ=0.33, P= 0.001) resulted in more variance than perceived motor competence (R(2)=0.06, ᵝ=0.25, P=0.001) in physical activity. Results revealed motor skill competence had more influence in comparison with perceived motor competence on physical activity level. We suggest interventional programs based on motor skill competence and perceived motor competence should be administered or implemented to promote physical activity in young girls.

  18. Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saig, Avraham; Gordon, Goren; Assa, Eldad; Arieli, Amos; Ahissar, Ehud

    2012-10-03

    Perception involves motor control of sensory organs. However, the dynamics underlying emergence of perception from motor-sensory interactions are not yet known. Two extreme possibilities are as follows: (1) motor and sensory signals interact within an open-loop scheme in which motor signals determine sensory sampling but are not affected by sensory processing and (2) motor and sensory signals are affected by each other within a closed-loop scheme. We studied the scheme of motor-sensory interactions in humans using a novel object localization task that enabled monitoring the relevant overt motor and sensory variables. We found that motor variables were dynamically controlled within each perceptual trial, such that they gradually converged to steady values. Training on this task resulted in improvement in perceptual acuity, which was achieved solely by changes in motor variables, without any change in the acuity of sensory readout. The within-trial dynamics is captured by a hierarchical closed-loop model in which lower loops actively maintain constant sensory coding, and higher loops maintain constant sensory update flow. These findings demonstrate interchangeability of motor and sensory variables in perception, motor convergence during perception, and a consistent hierarchical closed-loop perceptual model.

  19. Motor carrier evaluation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.; Maxwell, J.E.; Boness, G.O.; Rice, L.E.

    1991-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Program (TMP) has established a program to assist the DOE field offices and their contractors in evaluating the motor carriers used to transport DOE-owned hazardous and radioactive materials. This program was initiated to provide the DOE field offices with the tools necessary to help ensure, during this period of motor carrier deregulation, that only highly qualified carriers transport radioactive and hazardous commodities for the DOE. This program will assist DOE in maintaining their excellent performance record in the safe transportation of hazardous commodities. The program was also developed in response to public concern surrounding the transportation of hazardous materials. Representatives of other federal agencies, states, and tribal governments, as well as the news media, have expressed concern about the selection and qualification of carriers engaged in the transportation of Highway Route-Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) and Truckload (TL) quantities of radioactive material for the DOE. 8 refs

  20. Wet motor geroter fuel pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiernicki, M.V.

    1987-05-05

    This patent describes a wet motor gerotor fuel pump for pumping fuel from a fuel source to an internal combustion which consists of: gerotor pump means comprising an inner pump gear, an outer pump gear, and second tang means located on one of the inner and outer pump gears. The second tang means further extends in a second radial direction radially offset from the first radial direction and forms a driving connection with the first tang means such that the fuel pump pumps fuel from the fuel source into the narrow conduit inlet chamber, through the gerotor pump means past the electric motor means into the outlet housing means substantially along the flow axis to the internal combustion engine.

  1. Online Monitoring of Induction Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McJunkin, Timothy R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lybeck, Nancy Jean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The online monitoring of active components project, under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, researched diagnostic and prognostic models for alternating current induction motors (IM). Idaho National Laboratory (INL) worked with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to augment and revise the fault signatures previously implemented in the Asset Fault Signature Database of EPRI’s Fleet Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW PHM) Suite software. Induction Motor diagnostic models were researched using the experimental data collected by Idaho State University. Prognostic models were explored in the set of literature and through a limited experiment with 40HP to seek the Remaining Useful Life Database of the FW PHM Suite.

  2. Sensorimotor oscillations prior to speech onset reflect altered motor networks in adults who stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Mersov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adults who stutter (AWS have demonstrated atypical coordination of motor and sensory regions during speech production. Yet little is known of the speech-motor network in AWS in the brief time window preceding audible speech onset. The purpose of the current study was to characterize neural oscillations in the speech-motor network during preparation for and execution of overt speech production in AWS using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Twelve AWS and twelve age-matched controls were presented with 220 words, each word embedded in a carrier phrase. Controls were presented with the same word list as their matched AWS participant. Neural oscillatory activity was localized using minimum-variance beamforming during two time periods of interest: speech preparation (prior to speech onset and speech execution (following speech onset. Compared to controls, AWS showed stronger beta (15-25Hz suppression in the speech preparation stage, followed by stronger beta synchronization in the bilateral mouth motor cortex. AWS also recruited the right mouth motor cortex significantly earlier in the speech preparation stage compared to controls. Exaggerated motor preparation is discussed in the context of reduced coordination in the speech-motor network of AWS. It is further proposed that exaggerated beta synchronization may reflect a more strongly inhibited motor system that requires a stronger beta suppression to disengage prior to speech initiation. These novel findings highlight critical differences in the speech-motor network of AWS that occur prior to speech onset and emphasize the need to investigate further the speech-motor assembly in the stuttering population.

  3. Altered synaptic plasticity in Tourette's syndrome and its relationship to motor skill learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Cathérine Brandt

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics that can be considered motor responses to preceding inner urges. It has been shown that Tourette patients have inferior performance in some motor learning tasks and reduced synaptic plasticity induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. However, it has not been investigated whether altered synaptic plasticity is directly linked to impaired motor skill acquisition in Tourette patients. In this study, cortical plasticity was assessed by measuring motor-evoked potentials before and after paired associative stimulation in 14 Tourette patients (13 male; age 18-39 and 15 healthy controls (12 male; age 18-33. Tic and urge severity were assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and the Premonitory Urges for Tics Scale. Motor learning was assessed 45 minutes after inducing synaptic plasticity and 9 months later, using the rotary pursuit task. On average, long-term potentiation-like effects in response to the paired associative stimulation were present in healthy controls but not in patients. In Tourette patients, long-term potentiation-like effects were associated with more and long-term depression-like effects with less severe urges and tics. While motor learning did not differ between patients and healthy controls 45 minutes after inducing synaptic plasticity, the learning curve of the healthy controls started at a significantly higher level than the Tourette patients' 9 months later. Induced synaptic plasticity correlated positively with motor skills in healthy controls 9 months later. The present study confirms previously found long-term improvement in motor performance after paired associative stimulation in healthy controls but not in Tourette patients. Tourette patients did not show long-term potentiation in response to PAS and also showed reduced levels of motor skill consolidation after 9 months compared to healthy controls. Moreover

  4. Evidence for an early innate immune response in the motor cortex of ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Javier H; Genç, Barış; Stanford, Macdonell J; Pytel, Peter; Roos, Raymond P; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M Marsel; Bigio, Eileen H; Miller, Richard J; Özdinler, P Hande

    2017-06-26

    Recent evidence indicates the importance of innate immunity and neuroinflammation with microgliosis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathology. The MCP1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and CCR2 (CC chemokine receptor 2) signaling system has been strongly associated with the innate immune responses observed in ALS patients, but the motor cortex has not been studied in detail. After revealing the presence of MCP1 and CCR2 in the motor cortex of ALS patients, to elucidate, visualize, and define the timing, location and the extent of immune response in relation to upper motor neuron vulnerability and progressive degeneration in ALS, we developed MCP1-CCR2-hSOD1 G93A mice, an ALS reporter line, in which cells expressing MCP1 and CCR2 are genetically labeled by monomeric red fluorescent protein-1 and enhanced green fluorescent protein, respectively. In the motor cortex of MCP1-CCR2-hSOD1 G93A mice, unlike in the spinal cord, there was an early increase in the numbers of MCP1+ cells, which displayed microglial morphology and selectively expressed microglia markers. Even though fewer CCR2+ cells were present throughout the motor cortex, they were mainly infiltrating monocytes. Interestingly, MCP1+ cells were found in close proximity to the apical dendrites and cell bodies of corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN), further implicating the importance of their cellular interaction to neuronal pathology. Similar findings were observed in the motor cortex of ALS patients, where MCP1+ microglia were especially in close proximity to the degenerating apical dendrites of Betz cells. Our findings reveal that the intricate cellular interplay between immune cells and upper motor neurons observed in the motor cortex of ALS mice is indeed recapitulated in ALS patients. We generated and characterized a novel model system, to study the cellular and molecular basis of this close cellular interaction and how that relates to motor neuron vulnerability and progressive degeneration in

  5. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley

    2016-01-01

    .93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice......Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...

  6. Motor memory in sports success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia GRĂDINARU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The model of modern sports performance asks for certain graduation in the treatment of its efficiency. Besides the coaching model, what matters is the genetic potential of the child or junior, and particularly the selection of the young talented athlete identified at the proper time and included in a proper training system, in full harmony with the education process. The sports output is determined by the simultaneous action of several factors whose influences are different. At present, there is a tendency to improve those factors on which rely sports outcomes and that need to be analysed and selected. Psychic capacity is a major factor, and mental control – the power to focus, motor intelligence, motor memory, creativity, and tactical skills play a major role in an athlete’s style. This study aims at showing the measure in which motor memory allows early and reliable diagnosis of future performance. The subjects selected are components of the mini-basket team of the Sports Club “Sport Star” from Timisoara, little girls that have played basketball since 1st grade in their free time (some of the girls have played it for four years. The research was carried out during a competitive year; we monitored the subjects both during coach lessons and minibasketball championship. To assess motor memory, we used the “cerebral module” consisting in memorising a complex of technical and tactical elements and applying them depending on the situation in the field. The research also involved monitoring the subjects in four directions considered defining in the assessment of the young athletes: somatic data, physical features, basketball features and intellectual potential. Most parameters point out a medium homogeneity of the group, except for height and commitment (great homogeneity. Half of the athletes of the tested group are above the mean of the group, which allows guiding them towards higher coaching forms (allowing them to practice basketball

  7. Hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Robert C.; McConnell, Benjamin W.; Phillips, Benjamin A.

    1996-01-01

    A hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor includes a rotor separated from a stator by either a radial gap, an axial gap, or a combined axial and radial gap. Dual conically shaped stators are used in one embodiment to levitate a disc-shaped rotor made of superconducting material within a conduit for moving cryogenic fluid. As the rotor is caused to rotate when the field stator is energized, the fluid is pumped through the conduit.

  8. Advances in esophageal motor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smout, André Jpm

    2008-07-01

    Esophageal motor disorders, often leading to dysphagia and chest pain, continue to pose diagnostic and therapeutic problems. In the past 12 months important new information regarding esophageal motor disorders was published. This information will be reviewed in this paper. A number of studies have addressed the issue of heterogeneity in achalasia, the best defined esophageal motility disorder. The spastic esophageal motility disorders nutcracker esophagus and diffuse esophageal spasm may coexist with gastroesophageal reflux disease, which has consequences for the management of patients with these disorders. The entity labelled ineffective esophageal motility is associated with reflux esophagitis, but also with morbid obesity. For the detection of disordered transit caused by ineffective esophageal motility, application of intraluminal impedance monitoring in conjunction with manometry leads to improved diagnosis. New data on the effect of Nissen fundoplication on esophageal motility were published during the last year. Recent knowledge on the heterogeneity of achalasia and the association of spastic esophageal motor disorders and ineffective motility with reflux disease will help the clinician in the management of patients with these disorders.

  9. Summary: High Temperature Downhole Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Directional drilling can be used to enable multi-lateral completions from a single well pad to improve well productivity and decrease environmental impact. Downhole rotation is typically developed with a motor in the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that develops drilling power (speed and torque) necessary to drive rock reduction mechanisms (i.e., the bit) apart from the rotation developed by the surface rig. Historically, wellbore deviation has been introduced by a “bent-sub,” located in the BHA, that introduces a small angular deviation, typically less than 3 degrees, to allow the bit to drill off-axis with orientation of the BHA controlled at the surface. The development of a high temperature downhole motor would allow reliable use of bent subs for geothermal directional drilling. Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing the development of a high temperature motor that will operate on either drilling fluid (water-based mud) or compressed air to enable drilling high temperature, high strength, fractured rock. The project consists of designing a power section based upon geothermal drilling requirements; modeling and analysis of potential solutions; and design, development and testing of prototype hardware to validate the concept. Drilling costs contribute substantially to geothermal electricity production costs. The present development will result in more reliable access to deep, hot geothermal resources and allow preferential wellbore trajectories to be achieved. This will enable development of geothermal wells with multi-lateral completions resulting in improved geothermal resource recovery, decreased environmental impact and enhanced well construction economics.

  10. Motor Proficiency in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Venetsanou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine motor proficiency in young children, focusing on potential gender differences. For that purpose, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP-LF was administered to 540 children (272 boys, 4½ to 6 years old. First, the 2 (sex × 4 (age groups ANOVA computed on children’s total BOTMP-LF scores showed that age had a statistically significant effect, whereas gender did not. Second, the one-way MANCOVA applied on subtest scores, with age as covariate, revealed statistical significant gender differences; however, η2 values were found to be small or moderate. Finally, the MANCOVA applied on items where significant gender differences have been reported showed a significant effect of gender. Nonetheless, η2 values exceeded the limit of practical significance only on two items (“standing on preferred leg on floor”, “throwing a ball at a target with preferred hand” that are associated with gender-stereotyped activities. It can be concluded that (a besides statistical significance, effect sizes should be examined for the results of a study to be adequately interpreted; (b young boys’ and girls’ motor proficiency is similar rather than different. Gender differences in specific skills should be used for movement programs to be individualized.

  11. Aerial image based lens metrology for wafer steppers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, P.; Braat, J.J.M.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.; Leeuwestein, A.; Matsuyama, T.; Noda, T.

    2006-01-01

    Phase Measurement Interferometers (PMI) are widely used during the manufacturing process of high quality lenses. Although they have an excellent reproducibility and sensitivity, the set-up is expensive and the accuracy of the measurement needs to be checked frequently. This paper discusses an

  12. Gastrointestinal motor function in patients with portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Brinch, K; Hansen, Erik Feldager

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing data on gastric emptying and small-intestinal transit rates in portal-hypertensive patients are scarce and contradictory, and so far, the motor function of the colon has not been assessed in these patients. In this study we evaluated the propulsive effect of all main segments...... of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with well-characterized portal hypertension. METHODS: Eight patients with a postsinusoidal hepatic pressure gradient of at least 13 mmHg and eight age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Gastric emptying, small-intestinal transit, and colonic transit...... the test meal between patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the colonic transit is often accelerated in patients with portal hypertension, whereas the motor function of the stomach and the small intestine is unaffected....

  13. What happens to the motor theory of perception when the motor system is damaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasenko, Alena; Garcea, Frank E; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2013-09-01

    Motor theories of perception posit that motor information is necessary for successful recognition of actions. Perhaps the most well known of this class of proposals is the motor theory of speech perception, which argues that speech recognition is fundamentally a process of identifying the articulatory gestures (i.e. motor representations) that were used to produce the speech signal. Here we review neuropsychological evidence from patients with damage to the motor system, in the context of motor theories of perception applied to both manual actions and speech. Motor theories of perception predict that patients with motor impairments will have impairments for action recognition. Contrary to that prediction, the available neuropsychological evidence indicates that recognition can be spared despite profound impairments to production. These data falsify strong forms of the motor theory of perception, and frame new questions about the dynamical interactions that govern how information is exchanged between input and output systems.

  14. Recruitment of rat diaphragm motor units across motor behaviors with different levels of diaphragm activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Yasin B; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2014-12-01

    Phrenic motor neurons are recruited across a range of motor behaviors to generate varying levels of diaphragm muscle (DIAm) force. We hypothesized that DIAm motor units are recruited in a fixed order across a range of motor behaviors of varying force levels, consistent with the Henneman Size Principle. Single motor unit action potentials and compound DIAm EMG activities were recorded in anesthetized, neurally intact rats across different motor behaviors, i.e., eupnea, hypoxia-hypercapnia (10% O2 and 5% CO2), deep breaths, sustained airway occlusion, and sneezing. Central drive [estimated by root-mean-squared (RMS) EMG value 75 ms after the onset of EMG activity (RMS75)], recruitment delay, and onset discharge frequencies were similar during eupnea and hypoxia-hypercapnia. Compared with eupnea, central drive increased (∼25%) during deep breaths, and motor units were recruited ∼12 ms earlier (P motor units were recruited ∼30 ms earlier (P motor unit onset discharge frequencies were significantly higher (P Recruitment order of motor unit pairs observed during eupnea was maintained for 98%, 87%, and 84% of the same pairs recorded during hypoxia-hypercapnia, deep breaths, and airway occlusion, respectively. Reversals in motor unit recruitment order were observed primarily if motor unit pairs were recruited motor unit recruitment order being determined primarily by the intrinsic size-dependent electrophysiological properties of phrenic motor neurons. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Symptom-specific amygdala hyperactivity modulates motor control network in conversion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hassa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial historical accounts as well as recent data suggest that emotion processing is dysfunctional in conversion disorder patients and that this alteration may be the pathomechanistic neurocognitive basis for symptoms in conversion disorder. However, to date evidence of direct interaction of altered negative emotion processing with motor control networks in conversion disorder is still lacking. To specifically study the neural correlates of emotion processing interacting with motor networks we used a task combining emotional and sensorimotor stimuli both separately as well as simultaneously during functional magnetic resonance imaging in a well characterized group of 13 conversion disorder patients with functional hemiparesis and 19 demographically matched healthy controls. We performed voxelwise statistical parametrical mapping for a priori regions of interest within emotion processing and motor control networks. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI was used to test altered functional connectivity of emotion and motor control networks. Only during simultaneous emotional stimulation and passive movement of the affected hand patients displayed left amygdala hyperactivity. PPI revealed increased functional connectivity in patients between the left amygdala and the (pre-supplemental motor area and the subthalamic nucleus, key regions within the motor control network. These findings suggest a novel mechanistic direct link between dysregulated emotion processing and motor control circuitry in conversion disorder.

  16. Experimental Study of the Swirling Oxidizer Flow in HTPB/N2O Hybrid Rocket Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Heydari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of swirling oxidizer flow on the performance of a HTPB/N2O Hybrid rocket motor were studied. A hybrid propulsion laboratory has been developed, to characterize internal ballistics characteristics of swirl flow hybrid motors and to define the operating parameters, like fuel regression rate, specific impulse, and characteristics velocity and combustion efficiency. Primitive variables, like pressure, thrust, temperature, and the oxidizer mass flow rate, were logged. A modular motor with 70 mm outer diameter and variable chamber length is designed for experimental analysis. The injector module has four tangential injectors and one axial injector. Liquid nitrous oxide (N2O as an oxidizer is injected at the head of combustion chamber into the motor. The feed system uses pressurized air as the pressurant. Two sets of tests have been performed. Some tests with axial and tangential oxidizer injection and a test with axial oxidizer injection were done. The test results show that the fuel grain regression rate has been improved by applying tangential oxidizer injection at the head of the motor. Besides, it was seen that combustion efficiency of motors with the swirl flow was about 10 percent more than motors with axial flow.

  17. Novel test of motor and other dysfunctions in mouse neurological disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Albert M I; Mody, Istvan

    2014-01-15

    Just like human neurological disorders, corresponding mouse models present multiple deficiencies. Estimating disease progression or potential treatment effectiveness in such models necessitates the use of time consuming and multiple tests usually requiring a large number of scarcely available genetically modified animals. Here we present a novel and simple single camera arrangement and analysis software for detailed motor function evaluation in mice walking on a wire mesh that provides complex 3D information (instantaneous position, speed, distance traveled, foot fault depth, duration, location, relationship to speed of movement, etc.). We investigated 3 groups of mice with various neurological deficits: (1) unilateral motor cortical stroke; (2) effects of moderate ethanol doses; and (3) aging (96-99 weeks old). We show that post stroke recovery can be divided into separate stages based on strikingly different characteristics of motor function deficits, some resembling the human motor neglect syndrome. Mice treated with moderate dose of alcohol and aged mice showed specific motor and exploratory deficits. Other tests rely either partially or entirely on manual video analysis introducing a significant subjective component into the analysis, and analyze a single aspect of motor function. Our novel experimental approach provides qualitatively new, complex information about motor impairments and locomotor/exploratory activity. It should be useful for the detailed characterization of a broad range of human neurological disease models in mice, and for the more accurate assessment of disease progression or treatment effectiveness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. More than a bystander: the contributions of intrinsic skeletal muscle defects in motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Justin G; Ferrier, Andrew; Kothary, Rashmi

    2013-12-18

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) are devastating diseases characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons. Although the molecular causes underlying these diseases differ, recent findings have highlighted the contribution of intrinsic skeletal muscle defects in motor neuron diseases. The use of cell culture and animal models has led to the important finding that muscle defects occur prior to and independently of motor neuron degeneration in motor neuron diseases. In SMA for instance, the muscle specific requirements of the SMA disease-causing gene have been demonstrated by a series of genetic rescue experiments in SMA models. Conditional ALS mouse models expressing a muscle specific mutant SOD1 gene develop atrophy and muscle degeneration in the absence of motor neuron pathology. Treating SBMA mice by over-expressing IGF-1 in a skeletal muscle-specific manner attenuates disease severity and improves motor neuron pathology. In the present review, we provide an in depth description of muscle intrinsic defects, and discuss how they impact muscle function in these diseases. Furthermore, we discuss muscle-specific therapeutic strategies used to treat animal models of SMA, ALS, and SBMA. The study of intrinsic skeletal muscle defects is crucial for the understanding of the pathophysiology of these diseases and will open new therapeutic options for the treatment of motor neuron diseases.

  19. Maturation of Sensori-Motor Functional Responses in the Preterm Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allievi, Alessandro G; Arichi, Tomoki; Tusor, Nora; Kimpton, Jessica; Arulkumaran, Sophie; Counsell, Serena J; Edwards, A David; Burdet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth engenders an increased risk of conditions like cerebral palsy and therefore this time may be crucial for the brain's developing sensori-motor system. However, little is known about how cortical sensori-motor function matures at this time, whether development is influenced by experience, and about its role in spontaneous motor behavior. We aimed to systematically characterize spatial and temporal maturation of sensori-motor functional brain activity across this period using functional MRI and a custom-made robotic stimulation device. We studied 57 infants aged from 30 + 2 to 43 + 2 weeks postmenstrual age. Following both induced and spontaneous right wrist movements, we saw consistent positive blood oxygen level-dependent functional responses in the contralateral (left) primary somatosensory and motor cortices. In addition, we saw a maturational trend toward faster, higher amplitude, and more spatially dispersed functional responses; and increasing integration of the ipsilateral hemisphere and sensori-motor associative areas. We also found that interhemispheric functional connectivity was significantly related to ex-utero exposure, suggesting the influence of experience-dependent mechanisms. At term equivalent age, we saw a decrease in both response amplitude and interhemispheric functional connectivity, and an increase in spatial specificity, culminating in the establishment of a sensori-motor functional response similar to that seen in adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Symptom-specific amygdala hyperactivity modulates motor control network in conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassa, Thomas; Sebastian, Alexandra; Liepert, Joachim; Weiller, Cornelius; Schmidt, Roger; Tüscher, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Initial historical accounts as well as recent data suggest that emotion processing is dysfunctional in conversion disorder patients and that this alteration may be the pathomechanistic neurocognitive basis for symptoms in conversion disorder. However, to date evidence of direct interaction of altered negative emotion processing with motor control networks in conversion disorder is still lacking. To specifically study the neural correlates of emotion processing interacting with motor networks we used a task combining emotional and sensorimotor stimuli both separately as well as simultaneously during functional magnetic resonance imaging in a well characterized group of 13 conversion disorder patients with functional hemiparesis and 19 demographically matched healthy controls. We performed voxelwise statistical parametrical mapping for a priori regions of interest within emotion processing and motor control networks. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) was used to test altered functional connectivity of emotion and motor control networks. Only during simultaneous emotional stimulation and passive movement of the affected hand patients displayed left amygdala hyperactivity. PPI revealed increased functional connectivity in patients between the left amygdala and the (pre-)supplemental motor area and the subthalamic nucleus, key regions within the motor control network. These findings suggest a novel mechanistic direct link between dysregulated emotion processing and motor control circuitry in conversion disorder.

  1. Using the motor to monitor pump conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casada, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-01

    When the load of a mechanical device being driven by a motor changes, whether in response to changes in the overall process or changes in the performance of the driven device, the motor inherently responds. For induction motors, the current amplitude and phase angle change as the shaft load changes. By examining the details of these changes in amplitude and phase, load fluctuations of the driven device can be observed. The usefulness of the motor as a transducer to improve the understanding of devices with high torque fluctuations, such as positive displacement compressors and motor-operated valves, has been recognized and demonstrated for a number of years. On such devices as these, the spectrum of the motor current amplitude, phase, or power normally has certain characteristic peaks associated with various load components, such as the piston stroke or gear tooth meshing frequencies. Comparison and trending of the amplitudes of these peaks has been shown to provide some indication of their mechanical condition. For most centrifugal pumps, the load fluctuations are normally low in torque amplitude, and as a result, the motor experiences a correspondingly lower level of load fluctuation. However, both laboratory and field test data have demonstrated that the motor does provide insight into some important pump performance conditions, such as hydraulic stability and pump-to-motor alignment. Comparisons of other dynamic signals, such as vibration and pressure pulsation, to motor data for centrifugal pumps are provided. The effects of inadequate suction head, misalignment, mechanical and hydraulic unbalance on these signals are presented.

  2. Using the motor to monitor pump conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1996-01-01

    When the load of a mechanical device being driven by a motor changes, whether in response to changes in the overall process or changes in the performance of the driven device, the motor inherently responds. For induction motors, the current amplitude and phase angle change as the shaft load changes. By examining the details of these changes in amplitude and phase, load fluctuations of the driven device can be observed. The usefulness of the motor as a transducer to improve the understanding of devices with high torque fluctuations, such as positive displacement compressors and motor-operated valves, has been recognized and demonstrated for a number of years. On such devices as these, the spectrum of the motor current amplitude, phase, or power normally has certain characteristic peaks associated with various load components, such as the piston stroke or gear tooth meshing frequencies. Comparison and trending of the amplitudes of these peaks has been shown to provide some indication of their mechanical condition. For most centrifugal pumps, the load fluctuations are normally low in torque amplitude, and as a result, the motor experiences a correspondingly lower level of load fluctuation. However, both laboratory and field test data have demonstrated that the motor does provide insight into some important pump performance conditions, such as hydraulic stability and pump-to-motor alignment. Comparisons of other dynamic signals, such as vibration and pressure pulsation, to motor data for centrifugal pumps are provided. The effects of inadequate suction head, misalignment, mechanical and hydraulic unbalance on these signals are presented

  3. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  4. Interference in motor learning - is motor interference sensory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C

    mechanisms determine whether or not interference occurs. We hypothesised that interference requires the same neural circuits to be engaged in the two tasks and provoke competing processes of synaptic plasticity. To test this, subjects learned a ballistic ankle plantarflexion task. Early motor memory...... was disrupted by subsequent learning of a precision tracking task with the same agonist muscle group, but not by learning involving antagonist muscles or by voluntary agonist contractions that did not require learning. If the competing task was learned with the same agonist muscle group 4 hours following...

  5. ALS-associated mutant FUS induces selective motor neuron degeneration through toxic gain of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aarti; Lyashchenko, Alexander K; Lu, Lei; Nasrabady, Sara Ebrahimi; Elmaleh, Margot; Mendelsohn, Monica; Nemes, Adriana; Tapia, Juan Carlos; Mentis, George Z; Shneider, Neil A

    2016-02-04

    Mutations in FUS cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), including some of the most aggressive, juvenile-onset forms of the disease. FUS loss-of-function and toxic gain-of-function mechanisms have been proposed to explain how mutant FUS leads to motor neuron degeneration, but neither has been firmly established in the pathogenesis of ALS. Here we characterize a series of transgenic FUS mouse lines that manifest progressive, mutant-dependent motor neuron degeneration preceded by early, structural and functional abnormalities at the neuromuscular junction. A novel, conditional FUS knockout mutant reveals that postnatal elimination of FUS has no effect on motor neuron survival or function. Moreover, endogenous FUS does not contribute to the onset of the ALS phenotype induced by mutant FUS. These findings demonstrate that FUS-dependent motor degeneration is not due to loss of FUS function, but to the gain of toxic properties conferred by ALS mutations.

  6. Three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor using a 5-mm-diameter piezoelectric ceramic tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingsen Guo; Junhui Hu; Hua Zhu; Chunsheng Zhao; Shuxiang Dong

    2013-07-01

    A small three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor has been developed using a simple piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-tube stator (OD 5 mm, ID 3 mm, length 15 mm). The stator drives a ball-rotor into rotational motion around one of three orthogonal (x-, y-, and z-) axes by combing the first longitudinal and second bending vibration modes. A motor prototype was fabricated and characterized; its performance was superior to those of previous motors made with a PZT ceramic/metal composite stator of comparable size. The method for further improving the performance was discussed. The motor can be further miniaturized and it has potential to be applied to medical microrobots, endoscopes or micro laparoscopic devices, and cell manipulation devices.

  7. Motor-pump unit provided with a lifting appliance of the motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, Luciano; Francis, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to lifting appliances and particularly concerns a 'pump and motor set' or motor-pump unit fitted with a lifting appliance enabling the motor to be separated from the pump. In nuclear power stations the reactor discharges heat that is carried by the coolant to a distant point away from the reactor to generate steam and electricity conventionally. In order to cause the reactor coolant to flow through the system, coolant motor-pump units are provided in the cooling system. These units are generally of the vertical type with an electric motor fitted vertically on the pump by means of a cylindrical or conical structure called motor support [fr

  8. Focal Stroke in the Developing Rat Motor Cortex Induces Age- and Experience-Dependent Maladaptive Plasticity of Corticospinal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Mariangela; Mattiello, Alessandro; Mazziotti, Raffaele; Antonelli, Camilla; Gherardini, Lisa; Guzzetta, Andrea; Berardi, Nicoletta; Cioni, Giovanni; Pizzorusso, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    Motor system development is characterized by an activity-dependent competition between ipsilateral and contralateral corticospinal tracts (CST). Clinical evidence suggests that age is crucial for developmental stroke outcome, with early lesions inducing a "maladaptive" strengthening of ipsilateral projections from the healthy hemisphere and worse motor impairment. Here, we investigated in developing rats the relation between lesion timing, motor outcome and CST remodeling pattern. We induced a focal ischemia into forelimb motor cortex (fM1) at two distinct pre-weaning ages: P14 and P21. We compared long-term motor outcome with changes in axonal sprouting of contralesional CST at red nucleus and spinal cord level using anterograde tracing. We found that P14 stroke caused a more severe long-term motor impairment than at P21, and induced a strong and aberrant contralesional CST sprouting onto denervated spinal cord and red nucleus. The mistargeted sprouting of CST, and the worse motor outcome of the P14 stroke rats were reversed by an early skilled motor training, underscoring the potential of early activity-dependent plasticity in modulating lesion outcome. Thus, changes in the mechanisms controlling CST plasticity occurring during the third postnatal week are associated with age-dependent regulation of the motor outcome after stroke.

  9. Reduction of power consumption in motor-driven applications by using PM motors; PM = Permanent Magnet; Reduktion af elforbrug til motordrift ved anvendelse af PM motorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvenegaard, C.M.; Hansen, Mads P.R.; Groenborg Nikolaisen, C. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Nielsen, Sandie B. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); Ritchie, E.; Leban, K. (Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

    2009-12-15

    The traditional asynchronous motor with aluminum rotor is today by far the most widespread and sold electric motor, but a new and more energy efficient type of engine - the permanent magnet motor (PM motor) - is expected in the coming years to win larger and larger market shares. Several engine manufacturers in Europe, USA and Asia are now beginning to market the PM motors, which can replace the traditional asynchronous motor. The project aims to uncover the pros and cons of replacing asynchronous motors including EFF1 engines with PM motors, including the price difference. Furthermore, it is identified how the efficiency of PM motors is affected by low load levels and at various forms of control. Finally, the energy savings potential is analysed, by replacing asynchronous motors with PM motors. The study includes laboratory tests of PM motors, made in a test stand at Danish Technological Institute. (ln)

  10. Concurrent word generation and motor performance: further evidence for language-motor interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy D Rodriguez

    Full Text Available Embodied/modality-specific theories of semantic memory propose that sensorimotor representations play an important role in perception and action. A large body of evidence supports the notion that concepts involving human motor action (i.e., semantic-motor representations are processed in both language and motor regions of the brain. However, most studies have focused on perceptual tasks, leaving unanswered questions about language-motor interaction during production tasks. Thus, we investigated the effects of shared semantic-motor representations on concurrent language and motor production tasks in healthy young adults, manipulating the semantic task (motor-related vs. nonmotor-related words and the motor task (i.e., standing still and finger-tapping. In Experiment 1 (n = 20, we demonstrated that motor-related word generation was sufficient to affect postural control. In Experiment 2 (n = 40, we demonstrated that motor-related word generation was sufficient to facilitate word generation and finger tapping. We conclude that engaging semantic-motor representations can have a reciprocal influence on motor and language production. Our study provides additional support for functional language-motor interaction, as well as embodied/modality-specific theories.

  11. Skeletal maturation, fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Duarte L; Lausen, Berthold; Maia, José António; Lefevre, Johan; Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio; Thomis, Martine; Antunes, António Manuel; Claessens, Albrecht L; Beunen, Gaston; Malina, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between skeletal maturation and fundamental motor skills and gross motor coordination were evaluated in 429 children (213 boys and 216 girls) 7-10 years. Skeletal age was assessed (Tanner-Whitehouse 2 method), and stature, body mass, motor coordination (Körperkoordinations Test für Kinder, KTK) and fundamental motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development, TGMD-2) were measured. Relationships among chronological age, skeletal age (expressed as the standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age) and body size and fundamental motor skills and motor coordination were analysed with hierarchical multiple regression. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age interacting with stature and body mass explained a maximum of 7.0% of the variance in fundamental motor skills and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age alone accounted for a maximum of 9.0% of variance in fundamental motor skills, and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se and interactions between standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age and body size. In conclusion, skeletal age alone or interacting with body size has a negligible influence on fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7-10 years.

  12. A Simulation Based Analysis of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) Technique Using Motoneuron Pool and Surface Electromyogram Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Rymer, William Zev; Zhou, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Motor unit number index (MUNIX) measurement has recently achieved increasing attention as a tool to evaluate the progression of motoneuron diseases. In our current study, the sensitivity of the MUNIX technique to changes in motoneuron and muscle properties was explored by a simulation approach utilizing variations on published motoneuron pool and surface electromyogram (EMG) models. Our simulation results indicate that, when keeping motoneuron pool and muscle parameters unchanged and varying the input motor unit numbers to the model, then MUNIX estimates can appropriately characterize changes in motor unit numbers. Such MUNIX estimates are not sensitive to different motor unit recruitment and rate coding strategies used in the model. Furthermore, alterations in motor unit control properties do not have a significant effect on the MUNIX estimates. Neither adjustment of the motor unit recruitment range nor reduction of the motor unit firing rates jeopardizes the MUNIX estimates. The MUNIX estimates closely correlate with the maximum M wave amplitude. However, if we reduce the amplitude of each motor unit action potential rather than simply reduce motor unit number, then MUNIX estimates substantially underestimate the motor unit numbers in the muscle. These findings suggest that the current MUNIX definition is most suitable for motoneuron diseases that demonstrate secondary evidence of muscle fiber reinnervation. In this regard, when MUNIX is applied, it is of much importance to examine a parallel measurement of motor unit size index (MUSIX), defined as the ratio of the maximum M wave amplitude to the MUNIX. However, there are potential limitations in the application of the MUNIX methods in atrophied muscle, where it is unclear whether the atrophy is accompanied by loss of motor units or loss of muscle fiber size. PMID:22514208

  13. Control of permanent magnet synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Vaez-Zadeh, Sadegh

    2018-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive, coherent, and up-to-date book devoted solely to the control of permanent magnet synchronous (PMS) motors, as the fastest growing AC motor. It covers a deep and detailed presentation of major PMS motor modeling and control methods. The readers can find rich materials on the fundamentals of PMS motor control in addition to new motor control methods, which have mainly been developed in the last two decades, including recent advancements in the field in a systematic manner. These include extensive modeling of PMS motors and a full range of vector control and direct torque control schemes, in addition to predictive control, deadbeat control, and combined control methods. All major sensorless control and parameter estimation methods are also studied. The book covers about 10 machine models in various reference frames and 70 control and estimation schemes with sufficient analytical and implementation details including about 200 original figures. A great emphasis is placed on energy-s...

  14. Error Sonification of a Complex Motor Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riener Robert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual information is mainly used to master complex motor tasks. Thus, additional information providing augmented feedback should be displayed in other modalities than vision, e.g. hearing. The present work evaluated the potential of error sonification to enhance learning of a rowing-type motor task. In contrast to a control group receiving self-controlled terminal feedback, the experimental group could not significantly reduce spatial errors. Thus, motor learning was not enhanced by error sonification, although during the training the participant could benefit from it. It seems that the motor task was too slow, resulting in immediate corrections of the movement rather than in an internal representation of the general characteristics of the motor task. Therefore, further studies should elaborate the impact of error sonification when general characteristics of the motor tasks are already known.

  15. Motor Integrated Variable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Yash Veer

    rectifier at the front end is presented in this thesis and requirements of a buffer stage in the form of ESI is explained in detail. An equivalent circuit and linear model are developed to give the transfer function and control of the ESI based three-phase rectifier. In this thesis a power converter...... with ESI is designed and tested with standard induction motor to verify functionality of a working drive. One modified version of the ESI based converter has also been looked into to reduce losses of converter, but because of difficulties in reducing the bus-bar inductance in that design, further...

  16. Motor performance of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Słonka Karina; Dyas Manuela; Słonka Tadeusz; Szurmik Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Słonka Karina, Dyas Manuela, Słonka Tadeusz, Szurmik Tomasz. Motor performance of preschool children. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(8):1308-1323. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1045272 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/5028 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/works/836989 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017...

  17. Environmental diagnosis of the washing machine motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne K. Linnet

    1997-01-01

    An environmental diagnosis of the washing machine focusing on the motor is performed. The goal of the diagnosis is to designate environmental focus points in the product. The LCA of the washing machine showed impact potentials from the life cycle of the product (see: LCA of a washing machine). Th...... up 2%, Manually disassembling and recycling of metals, Reuse of motor in a new washing machine, aluminium wire instead of copper wire in the motor....

  18. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William E [Durham, CT; Perry, Carl A [Middletown, CT; Wassell, Mark E [Kingwood, TX; Barbely, Jason R [Middletown, CT; Burgess, Daniel E [Middletown, CT; Cobern, Martin E [Cheshire, CT

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  19. MOTOR FUEL TAXES AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Ptak

    2011-01-01

    Motor fuel taxes are primarily revenue-raising taxes. However, due to high fuel consumption these taxes can be quite an efficient source of general budget revenue in many countries. It seems that the taxes on motor fuels may also be useful instruments for environmental policy or climate change policy. Environmental objectives can be achieved through change of behavior of drivers. The paper presents theoretical basis for taxes levied on motor fuels. Attention is paid to the problem of external...

  20. Circuit Regulates Speed Of dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Charles; Padden, Robin; Brown, Floyd A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Driving circuit regulates speed of small dc permanent-magnet motor in tape recorder. Two nested feedback loops maintain speed within 1 percent of constant value. Inner loop provides coarse regulation, while outer loop removes most of variation in speed that remains in the presence of regulation by the inner loop. Compares speed of motor with commanded speed and adjusts current supplied to motor accordingly.

  1. Design of motors for inverter operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haring, T. [ABB Motors OY, Vaasa (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes very practical principles of how an induction motor should be designed for converter application. The main focus targets the efficiency of the motor and drive. The results presented are based on actual test motors and FEM-calculation simulations. FEM-calculation together with a time-stepping function is a powerful tool for estimating magnetic flux densities, iron losses, current densities and corresponding losses in windings, in other words a tool for optimisation of the motor design. Time-stepping is rather time consuming because all the circuit equations must be solved for each time-step, but it provides a way to estimate the iron losses; hysteresis and eddy current losses as well as current distribution and current losses. The calculation tool also provides the possibility to check if an existing motor is feasible for a converter drive. Alternatively if a motor is only to be supplied by a converter there are many more degrees of freedom in the electrical design and the motor may be optimised for that converter drive by incorporationg rather simple design changes. Additionally a design compromise, ''a general purpose motor'' useable for DOL and feasible for converter drive can be produced following the principles presented herewith. The converter types which are considered are indirect types and mainly voltage source converters since they are the most common on the market and are ''general purpose converters'' and providing a certain freedom to select the motor for the drive. Current source converters require ''matching'' with the motor and therefore need a precise knowledge of the motor equivalent circuit, making the selection of the motor more complicated. (orig.)

  2. Modeling the Gas Dynamics Environment in a Subscale Solid Rocket Test Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Andrew M.; Ewing, Mark E.; Bailey, Kirk M.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Subscale test motors are often used for the evaluation of solid rocket motor component materials such as internal insulation. These motors are useful for characterizing insulation performance behavior, screening insulation material candidates and obtaining material thermal and ablative property design data. One of the primary challenges associated with using subscale motors however, is the uncertainty involved when extrapolating the results to full-scale motor conditions. These uncertainties are related to differences in such phenomena as turbulent flow behavior and boundary layer development, propellant particle interactions with the wall, insulation off-gas mixing and thermochemical reactions with the bulk flow, radiation levels, material response to the local environment, and other anomalous flow conditions. In addition to the need for better understanding of physical mechanisms, there is also a need to better understand how to best simulate these phenomena using numerical modeling approaches such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD). To better understand and model interactions between major phenomena in a subscale test motor, a numerical study of the internal flow environment of a representative motor was performed. Simulation of the environment included not only gas dynamics, but two-phase flow modeling of entrained alumina particles like those found in an aluminized propellant, and offgassing from wall surfaces similar to an ablating insulation material. This work represents a starting point for establishing the internal environment of a subscale test motor using comprehensive modeling techniques, and lays the groundwork for improving the understanding of the applicability of subscale test data to full-scale motors. It was found that grid resolution, and inclusion of phenomena in addition to gas dynamics, such as two-phase and multi-component gas composition are all important factors that can effect the overall flow field predictions.

  3. Adhesion of Photon-Driven Molecular Motors to Surfaces via 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions : Effect of Interfacial Interactions on Molecular Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, Gregory T.; London, Gabor; Fernández Landaluce, Tatiana; Rudolf, Petra; Feringa, Ben L.

    We report the attachment of altitudinal light-driven molecular motors to surfaces using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions. Molecular motors were designed containing azide or alkyne groups for attachment to alkyne- or azide-modified surfaces. Surface attachment was characterized by UV-vis, IR, XPS,

  4. 78 FR 77790 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... vehicle. The antenna module translates the radio frequency signal received from the key into a digital... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY: National...

  5. Ultrafast Excited State Dynamics in Molecular Motors : Coupling of Motor Length to Medium Viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conyard, Jamie; Stacko, Peter; Chen, Jiawen; McDonagh, Sophie; Hall, Christopher R.; Laptenok, Sergey P.; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Meech, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Photochemically driven molecular motors convert the energy of incident radiation to intramolecular rotational motion. The motor molecules considered here execute four step unidirectional rotational motion. This comprises a pair of successive light induced isomerizations to a metastable state

  6. Neuronal mechanisms of motor learning and motor memory consolidation in healthy old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuis, K M M; Veldman, M P; Solnik, S; Koch, G; Zijdewind, I; Hortobágyi, T

    2015-06-01

    It is controversial whether or not old adults are capable of learning new motor skills and consolidate the performance gains into motor memory in the offline period. The underlying neuronal mechanisms are equally unclear. We determined the magnitude of motor learning and motor memory consolidation in healthy old adults and examined if specific metrics of neuronal excitability measured by magnetic brain stimulation mediate the practice and retention effects. Eleven healthy old adults practiced a wrist extension-flexion visuomotor skill for 20 min (MP, 71.3 years), while a second group only watched the templates without movements (attentional control, AC, n = 11, 70.5 years). There was 40 % motor learning in MP but none in AC (interaction, p learn a new motor skill and consolidate the learned skill into motor memory, processes that are most likely mediated by disinhibitory mechanisms. These results are relevant for the increasing number of old adults who need to learn and relearn movements during motor rehabilitation.

  7. Modeling an electric motor in 1-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    Quite often the dynamicist will be faced with having an electric drive motor as a link in the elastic path of a structure such that the motor's characteristics must be taken into account to properly represent the dynamics of the primary structure. He does not want to model it so accurately that he could get detailed stress and displacements in the motor proper, but just sufficiently to represent its inertia loading and elastic behavior from its mounting bolts to its drive coupling. Described here is how the rotor and stator of such a motor can be adequately modeled as a colinear pair of beams.

  8. Electric motor predictive and preventive maintenance guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Electric motor performance is vital to the reliable and efficient operation of power plants. The failure of one or more critical motors could cause lost capacity and excessive repair and maintenance cost. However, existing maintenance recommendations proposed by vendors for electric motors have sometimes encouraged many overly conservative maintenance practices. These practices have lead to excessive maintenance activities and costs which have provided no extra margin of operability. EPRI has sponsored RP2814-35 to develop a guide which provides power plants with information and guidance for establishing an effective maintenance program which will aid in preventing unexpected motor failures and assist in planning motor maintenance efforts. The guide includes a technical description which summarizes technical data relative to the four basic types of motors and their components in general use in power plants. The significant causes of motor failures are investigated and described in detail and methods to optimize service life and minimize maintenance cost through appropriate preventive maintenance and conditioning program are presented. This guide provides a foundation for an effective electric motor maintenance program and simplifies the selection of predictive and preventive maintenance tasks. Its use will enable maintenance personnel in nuclear and fossil plants to plan motor repairs during scheduled outages and avoid costly unexpected failures

  9. Premium Efficiency Motors And Market Penetration Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhaddadi, Mohamed; Olivier, Guy

    2010-09-15

    This paper illustrates the induced enormous energy saving potential, permitted by using high-efficiency motors. Furthermore, the most important barriers to larger high-efficiency motors utilization are identified, and some incentives recommendations are given to overcome identified impediments. The authors consider that there is a strong case to enhance incentives policies for larger market penetration. The US Energy Policy Act and the Canadian Energy Efficient Act have lead to North American leadership on motor efficiency implementation. North America is not on the leading edge for energy saving and conservation. Motor efficiency is an exception that should be at least maintained.

  10. Presentation of electric motor and motor control technology for electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles; Denki jidosha hybrid sha yo motor oyobi motor seigyo gijutsu no shokai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsudaira, N.; Masakik, R.; Tajima, F. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    The authors have developed a motor drive system for electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. This system consists of a permanent magnet type synchronous motor, an inverter using insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and a controller based on a single-chip microcomputer. To achieve a compact and light weight synchronous motor, an internal permanent magnet type rotor structure was designed. This paper presents motor control technology for electric vehicles, such as an optimization method of field weakening control and a new current control method. (author)

  11. Introduction to the permanent magnet motor market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawa, Toshihiro; Hamada, Kaneyuki [Yaskawa Electric Corp. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    According to the Kyoto summit on global warming (COP3) in December 1997, the green-house gas emission level has to be reduced to 92-94% of the 1990 green-house gas level by the year 2014-2018. This would require conserving energy. An efficient means of achieving this voluntary goal is by employing high-efficiency drives, since motors consume 70% of all electricity for industrial use in Japan. As adjustable speed drives become popular, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors, lately, have been recognized for high-efficiency performance. Due to the progress in permanent magnet technology combined with modern control methods, especially vector control with and without speed-sensors, the IPM motor is gaining in popularity. Compact size and high-efficiency performance is furthering the IPM motor as the preferred motor in many applications. This paper describes the principle and operation of IPM motors and compares its performance with that of an induction motor. Important features and practical control methods for IPM motors are presented. Various application examples highlighting the advantages of employing an IPM motor system are discussed. The applications include, but are not limited to, machine tools, fans, pumps, elevators, cranes, etc. (orig.)

  12. Linear Motor for Drive of Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Krasl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach on the design of a linear motor for drive of belt conveyor (LMBC. The motor is a simple combination of asynchronous motor in plane. The electromagnetic forces is one of the most important parameters of electrical machines. This parameter is necessary for the checking of the design. This paper describes several variants: linear motor with slots in platens, slots in one half of platens and optimization of slots. The electromagnetic force can be found with the help of a Finite Elements Method – based program. For solution was used QuickField program.

  13. Parkinson's disease motor subtypes and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, David J; Landau, Sabine; Hindle, John V; Samuel, Michael; Wilson, Kenneth C; Hurt, Catherine S; Brown, Richard G

    2012-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is heterogeneous, both in terms of motor symptoms and mood. Identifying associations between phenotypic variants of motor and mood subtypes may provide clues to understand mechanisms underlying mood disorder and symptoms in Parkinson's disease. A total of 513 patients were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and separately classified into anxious, depressed, and anxious-depressed mood classes based on latent class analysis of a semistructured interview. Motor subtypes assessed related to age-of-onset, rate of progression, presence of motor fluctuations, lateralization of motor symptoms, tremor dominance, and the presence of postural instability and gait symptoms and falls. The directions of observed associations tended to support previous findings with the exception of lateralization of symptoms, for which there were no consistent or significant results. Regression models examining a range of motor subtypes together indicated increased risk of anxiety in patients with younger age-of-onset and motor fluctuations. In contrast, depression was most strongly related to axial motor symptoms. Different risk factors were observed for depressed patients with and without anxiety, suggesting heterogeneity within Parkinson's disease depression. Such association data may suggest possible underlying common risk factors for motor subtype and mood. Combined with convergent evidence from other sources, possible mechanisms may include cholinergic system damage and white matter changes contributing to non-anxious depression in Parkinson's disease, while situational factors related to threat and unpredictability may contribute to the exacerbation and maintenance of anxiety in susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Mechatronical Design Studies on Small Brushless Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Amrhein

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Brushless DC- and AC-permanent-magnet motors controlled by powerful micro-controller electronics have opened up a significant share of the small motor market in the last years. Based on the mechanical low cost construction of single-phase motor the paper presents electronic drive concepts to improve the performance and for special applications also the lifetime of brushless motors. The tangential and radial forces acting on the rotor are controlled by special phase current curves to reduce the torque ripple and to avoid expendable machinery parts like ball or sliding bearings.

  15. The motor theory of speech perception revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Dominic W; Chen, Trevor H

    2008-04-01

    Galantucci, Fowler, and Turvey (2006) have claimed that perceiving speech is perceiving gestures and that the motor system is recruited for perceiving speech. We make the counter argument that perceiving speech is not perceiving gestures, that the motor system is not recruitedfor perceiving speech, and that speech perception can be adequately described by a prototypical pattern recognition model, the fuzzy logical model of perception (FLMP). Empirical evidence taken as support for gesture and motor theory is reconsidered in more detail and in the framework of the FLMR Additional theoretical and logical arguments are made to challenge gesture and motor theory.

  16. The Model of Brushless Dc Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Pitrėnas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research considered the operation, control, mathematical and simulation models of BLDC motor. A simplified idealized simulation model was designed and tested using Matlab Simulink software package. The simulation model uses Hall effect sensor signals for determining the rotor position. Simulation was done for Maxon, EC-4 pole 22 BL A series motor. The obtained model testing results deviate from the data supplied by the motor manufacturer by as little as 0.2–10.6%; consequently, the implemented model is suitable for BLDC motor control study and research.Article in Lithuanian

  17. Electronically commutated DC motor. Elektronisch kommutierter Gleichstrommotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenleitner, H; Schalk, K; Koegler, G

    1981-08-13

    The purpose of the invention is to create a controlled and electronically commutated DC motor, so that the braking current regulator does not act with the frequency motor current regulator, where an additional switch is not required to decouple the braking current transistor while running, and where the reference value of braking current need not be greater than the reference value of motor current. According to the invention, this problem is solved by a connection, by which, while running, the braking current regulator is interlocked out by means of the output signal of the motor current regulator. A cheap diode and the associated wiring are all that is required for the interlock.

  18. Analisa Perbandingan Efisiensi Motor Dc Kompon Pendek Dengan Motor Dc Kompon Panjang Akibat Penambahan Kutub

    OpenAIRE

    Sitompul, Fuad Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Motor listrik merupakan perangkat elekromagnetis yang mengubah energi listrik menjadi energi mekanik. Motor DC memerlukan tegangan searah pada kumparan medan untuk diubah menjadi energi mekanik. Energi mekanik ini digunakan sebagai penggerak peralatan listrik seperti pompa,penggerak kipas angin, lift dan lain-lain. Karena penggunaannya yang cukup luas maka kinerjanya harus baik. Kinerja suatu motor DC dikatakan baik jika efisiensi motor tersebut tinggi. Hal itu dapat dicapai dengan mengatur b...

  19. Fundamental motor skill proficiency is necessary for children's motor activity inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Barela, José Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Motor development is influenced by many factors such as practice and appropriate instruction, provided by teachers, even in preschool and elementary school. The goal of this paper was to discuss the misconception that maturation underlies children's motor skill development and to show that physical education, even in early years of our school system, is critical to promote proficiency and enrolment of children's in later motor activities. Motor skill development, as a curricular focus, has be...

  20. Imaging the ocular motor nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Teresa [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: T.A.Ferreira@lumc.nl; Verbist, Berit [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: B.M.Verbist@lumc.nl; Buchem, Mark van [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.A.van_Buchem@lumc.nl; Osch, Thijs van [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.J.P.van_Osch@lumc.nl; Webb, Andrew [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: A.Webb@lumc.nl

    2010-05-15

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice in the evaluation of the normal and pathologic ocular motor nerves. CT still plays a limited but important role in the evaluation of the intraosseous portions at the skull base and bony foramina. We describe for each segment of these cranial nerves, the normal anatomy, the most appropriate image sequences and planes, their imaging appearance and pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging with high magnetic fields is a developing and promising technique. We describe our initial experience with a Phillips 7.0 T MRI scanner in the evaluation of the brainstem segments of the OMNs. As imaging becomes more refined, an understanding of the detailed anatomy is increasingly necessary, as the demand on radiology to diagnose smaller lesions also increases.

  1. Esophageal motor disorders: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ibrahim; Mittal, Ravinder K

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight literature published during the last year in the context of previous knowledge. A number of novel techniques - high-resolution manometry, esophageal electrical impedance and intra-luminal ultrasound imaging - have improved our understanding of esophageal function in health and disease. Several studies address the function of longitudinal muscle layer of the esophagus in normal subjects and patients with motor disorders of the esophagus. Esophageal electrical impedance recordings reveal abnormal transit in patients with diffuse esophageal spasm, achalasia and patients with normal manometry. Loss of the mammalian Sprouty2 gene leads to enteric neuronal hyperplasia and esophageal achalasia. Several studies showed excellent long-term results of medical and surgical treatment of achalasia of the esophagus. For the first time, mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients are reported. Novel pharmacologic strategies in the treatment of reflux disease are highlighted. Several novel techniques, perfected during recent years, have improved our understanding of esophageal function and dysfunction. A number of important observations, reviewed here, provide important insight into the pathogenesis of esophageal motor disorders and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  2. Bone and motor organ diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko

    1992-01-01

    Osteosarcoma arising from X-ray radiation therapy has first been reported in the 1920s. The 1950-1965 ABCC-RERF Life Span Study using the sample population of approximately 76,000 persons have revealed no evidence of correlation between osteosarcoma and A-bomb radiation. There is a relative paucity of data supporting the statistical correlation between A-bomb radiation and osseous cancer. This paper deals with the correlation between A-bomb exposure and bone and motor organ diseases. In prenatally exposed children using the Nagasaki's sample (n=74) and the Hiroshima's sample (n=219), there was no difference in skeletal abnormalities between the exposed and control groups in both cities. In the ABCC-study using 264 A-bomb survivors, the incidence of osteoporosis was found to be high in women aged 50 years or older at the time of A-bombing who were exposed at 2,000 m or less from the hypocenter. The RERF Adult Health Study using approximately 14,000 persons have revealed no evidence of correlation between the incidence of lumbar vertebral bone fractures and radiation doses. There was no correlation between the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis and distance from the hypocenter in A-bomb survivors. Continuing studies are expected to confirm the delayed effects of A-bomb radiation on the bone and motor organs with aging in A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  3. Automation of motor dexterity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Patrick; Castrejon, Luis R; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Sucar, Luis Enrique

    2017-07-01

    Motor dexterity assessment is regularly performed in rehabilitation wards to establish patient status and automatization for such routinary task is sought. A system for automatizing the assessment of motor dexterity based on the Fugl-Meyer scale and with loose restrictions on sensing technologies is presented. The system consists of two main elements: 1) A data representation that abstracts the low level information obtained from a variety of sensors, into a highly separable low dimensionality encoding employing t-distributed Stochastic Neighbourhood Embedding, and, 2) central to this communication, a multi-label classifier that boosts classification rates by exploiting the fact that the classes corresponding to the individual exercises are naturally organized as a network. Depending on the targeted therapeutic movement class labels i.e. exercises scores, are highly correlated-patients who perform well in one, tends to perform well in related exercises-; and critically no node can be used as proxy of others - an exercise does not encode the information of other exercises. Over data from a cohort of 20 patients, the novel classifier outperforms classical Naive Bayes, random forest and variants of support vector machines (ANOVA: p home-based virtual rehabilitation and telerehabilitation alternatives.

  4. 36 CFR 292.45 - Use of motorized and non-motorized rivercraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... practicable, conflicts between motorized and non-motorized rivercraft users and between both types of...-motorized rivercraft may be permitted subject to restrictions on size, type of craft, numbers, duration... Service where such activity may be permitted subject to restrictions on size, type of craft, numbers...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris MEMISEVIC

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegboard Test. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by planned com­parisons between the age groups. We also performed a regression analysis to assess the influence of age and motor coordination on visual-motor integration. The results showed that age has a great effect on the development of fine motor skills. Furthermore, the results indicated that there are possible sensitive periods at preschool age in which the development of fine motor skills is accelerated. Early intervention specialists should make a thorough evaluations of fine motor skills in preschool children and make motor (rehabilitation programs for children at risk of fine motor delays.

  6. 75 FR 67770 - General Motors Company, Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Orion Assembly Plant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ..., Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Orion Assembly Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek Automotive, Ryder and Premier Manufacturing Support Services, Lake Orion, MI; Amended... of General Motors Company, formerly known as General Motors Corporation, Orion Assembly Plant, Lake...

  7. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to the Primary Motor Cortex Interferes with Motor Learning by Observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Liana E.; Wilson, Elizabeth T.; Gribble, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Neural representations of novel motor skills can be acquired through visual observation. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to test the idea that this "motor learning by observing" is based on engagement of neural processes for learning in the primary motor cortex (M1). Human subjects who observed another person learning…

  8. Enhanced Multisensory Integration and Motor Reactivation after Active Motor Learning of Audiovisual Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew J.; James, Thomas W.; James, Karin Harman

    2011-01-01

    Everyday experience affords us many opportunities to learn about objects through multiple senses using physical interaction. Previous work has shown that active motor learning of unisensory items enhances memory and leads to the involvement of motor systems during subsequent perception. However, the impact of active motor learning on subsequent…

  9. Cerebellar motor learning versus cerebellar motor timing: the climbing fibre story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Theories concerning the role of the climbing fibre system in motor learning, as opposed to those addressing the olivocerebellar system in the organization of motor timing, are briefly contrasted. The electrophysiological basis for the motor timing hypothesis in relation to the olivocerebellar system is treated in detail. PMID:21486816

  10. 77 FR 4396 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... exemption. SUMMARY: This document grants in full the petition of Toyota Motor North America, Inc's., (Toyota.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In a petition dated September 30, 2011, Toyota requested an exemption from the parts...

  11. 78 FR 3081 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota AGENCY: National Highway Traffic.... SUMMARY: This document grants in full Toyota Motor North America, Inc.'s (Toyota) petition for an... a petition dated October 16, 2012, Toyota requested an exemption from the parts-marking requirements...

  12. 76 FR 12221 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Toyota AGENCY: National Highway Traffic.... SUMMARY: This document grants in full the petition of Toyota Motor North America, Inc's., (Toyota... INFORMATION: In a petition dated January 24, 2011, Toyota requested an exemption from the parts-marking...

  13. A Motor-Skills Programme to Enhance Visual Motor Integration of Selected Pre-School Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Africa, Eileen K.; van Deventer, Karel J.

    2017-01-01

    Pre-schoolers are in a window period for motor skill development. Visual-motor integration (VMI) is the foundation for academic and sport skills. Therefore, it must develop before formal schooling. This study attempted to improve VMI skills. VMI skills were measured with the "Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual-motor integration 6th…

  14. 77 FR 29752 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Jaguar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Jaguar Land Rover AGENCY: National... part 543, Exemption from the Theft Prevention Standard. This petition is granted, because the agency... be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking...

  15. 76 FR 12220 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Jaguar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Jaguar Land Rover AGENCY: National... 543, Exemption from the Theft Prevention Standard. This petition is granted because the agency has... effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking requirements of...

  16. 50 CFR 35.5 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial enterprises, roads, motor... Rules § 35.5 Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft... private rights, there shall be no commercial enterprise and no permanent road within a wilderness unit...

  17. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  18. No Role for Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Motor affordances have been shown to play a role in visual object identification and categorization. The present study explored whether working memory is likewise supported by motor affordances. Use of motor affordances should be disrupted by motor interference, and this effect should be larger for objects that have motor affordances than for…

  19. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Electric Motor Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziller, T.

    This Electric Motor Repair Course is designed to provide the student with practical information for winding, repairing, and troubleshooting alternating current and direct current motors, and controllers. The course is comprised of eight units: (1) Electric Motor Fundamentals, (2) Rewinding, (3) Split-phase Induction Motors, (4) Capacitor Motors,…

  20. 41 CFR 109-38.5103 - Motor vehicle utilization standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5103 Motor vehicle utilization standards. (a) The following average utilization standards...