Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2004, 'stepped-care models' have been adopted in several international evidence-based clinical guidelines to guide clinicians in the organisation of depression care. To enhance the adoption of this new treatment approach, a Quality Improvement Collaborative (QIC was initiated in the Netherlands. Methods Alongside the QIC, an intervention study using a controlled before-and-after design was performed. Part of the study was a process evaluation, utilizing semi-structured group interviews, to provide insight into the perceptions of the participating clinicians on the implementation of stepped care for depression into their daily routines. Participants were primary care clinicians, specialist clinicians, and other healthcare staff from eight regions in the Netherlands. Analysis was supported by the Normalisation Process Theory (NPT. Results The introduction of a stepped-care model for depression to primary care teams within the context of a depression QIC was generally well received by participating clinicians. All three elements of the proposed stepped-care model (patient differentiation, stepped-care treatment, and outcome monitoring, were translated and introduced locally. Clinicians reported changes in terms of learning how to differentiate between patient groups and different levels of care, changing antidepressant prescribing routines as a consequence of having a broader treatment package to offer to their patients, and better working relationships with patients and colleagues. A complex range of factors influenced the implementation process. Facilitating factors were the stepped-care model itself, the structured team meetings (part of the QIC method, and the positive reaction from patients to stepped care. The differing views of depression and depression care within multidisciplinary health teams, lack of resources, and poor information systems hindered the rapid introduction of the stepped-care model. The NPT
Stepped care for depression and anxiety: from primary care to specialized mental health care: a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a stepped care program among primary care patients with mood or anxiety disorders
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mood and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have a large impact on the lives of the affected individuals. Therefore, optimal treatment of these disorders is highly important. In this study we will examine the effectiveness of a stepped care program for primary care patients with mood and anxiety disorders. A stepped care program is characterized by different treatment steps that are arranged in order of increasing intensity. Methods This study is a randomised controlled trial with two conditions: stepped care and care as usual, whereby the latter forms the control group. The stepped care program consists of four evidence based interventions: (1 Watchful waiting, (2 Guided self-help, (3 Problem Solving Treatment and (4 Medication and/or specialized mental health care. The study population consists of primary care attendees aged 18–65 years. Screeners are sent to all patients of the participating general practitioners. Individuals with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM diagnosis of major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia are included as well as individuals with minor depression and anxiety disorders. Primary focus is the reduction of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both conditions are monitored at 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a stepped care program for patients with depressive and anxiety disorder. If effective, a stepped care program can form a worthwhile alternative for care as usual. Strengths and limitations of this study are discussed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trails: ISRCTN17831610.
Coulton, Simon; Bland, Martin; Crosby, Helen; Dale, Veronica; Drummond, Colin; Godfrey, Christine; Kaner, Eileen; Sweetman, Jennifer; McGovern, Ruth; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Parrott, Steve; Tober, Gillian; Watson, Judith; Wu, Qi
To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a stepped-care intervention versus a minimal intervention for the treatment of older hazardous alcohol users in primary care. Multi-centre, pragmatic RCT, set in Primary Care in UK. Patients aged ≥ 55 years scoring ≥ 8 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test were allocated either to 5-min of brief advice or to 'Stepped Care': an initial 20-min of behavioural change counselling, with Step 2 being three sessions of Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Step 3 referral to local alcohol services (progression between each Step being determined by outcomes 1 month after each Step). Outcome measures included average drinks per day, AUDIT-C, alcohol-related problems using the Drinking Problems Index, health-related quality of life using the Short Form 12, costs measured from a NHS/Personal Social Care perspective and estimated health gains in quality adjusted life-years measured assessed EQ-5D. Both groups reduced alcohol consumption at 12 months but the difference between groups was small and not significant. No significant differences were observed between the groups on secondary outcomes. In economic terms stepped care was less costly and more effective than the minimal intervention. Stepped care does not confer an advantage over a minimal intervention in terms of reduction in alcohol use for older hazardous alcohol users in primary care. However, stepped care has a greater probability of being more cost-effective. Current controlled trials ISRCTN52557360. A stepped care approach was compared with brief intervention for older at-risk drinkers attending primary care. While consumption reduced in both groups over 12 months there was no significant difference between the groups. An economic analysis indicated the stepped care which had a greater probability of being more cost-effective than brief intervention. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights
Full Text Available Abstract Background Panic disorder (PD and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD are two of the most disabling and costly anxiety disorders seen in primary care. However, treatment quality of these disorders in primary care generally falls beneath the standard of international guidelines. Collaborative stepped care is recommended for improving treatment of anxiety disorders, but cost-effectiveness of such an intervention has not yet been assessed in primary care. This article describes the aims and design of a study that is currently underway. The aim of this study is to evaluate effects and costs of a collaborative stepped care approach in the primary care setting for patients with PD and GAD compared with care as usual. Methods/design The study is a two armed, cluster randomized controlled trial. Care managers and their primary care practices will be randomized to deliver either collaborative stepped care (CSC or care as usual (CAU. In the CSC group a general practitioner, care manager and psychiatrist work together in a collaborative care framework. Stepped care is provided in three steps: 1 guided self-help, 2 cognitive behavioral therapy and 3 antidepressant medication. Primary care patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of PD and/or GAD will be included. 134 completers are needed to attain sufficient power to show a clinically significant effect of 1/2 SD on the primary outcome measure, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. Data on anxiety symptoms, mental and physical health, quality of life, health resource use and productivity will be collected at baseline and after three, six, nine and twelve months. Discussion It is hypothesized that the collaborative stepped care intervention will be more cost-effective than care as usual. The pragmatic design of this study will enable the researchers to evaluate what is possible in real clinical practice, rather than under ideal circumstances. Many requirements for a high quality trial are being met. Results of
Pols, Alide D; Schipper, Karen; Overkamp, Debbie; van Dijk, Susan E; Bosmans, Judith E; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Adriaanse, Marcel C; van Tulder, Maurits W
Depression is common in patients with diabetes type 2 (DM2) and/or coronary heart disease (CHD), with high personal and societal burden and may even be preventable. Recently, a cluster randomized trial of stepped care to prevent depression among patients with DM2 and/or CHD and subthreshold depression in Dutch primary care (Step-Dep) versus usual care showed no effectiveness. This paper presents its process evaluation, exploring in-depth experiences from a patient and practice nurse perspective to further understand the results. A qualitative study was conducted. Using a purposive sampling strategy, data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 participants (15 patients and nine practice nurses). All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Atlas.ti 5.7.1 software was used for coding and structuring of themes. A thematic analysis of the data was performed. The process evaluation showed, even through a negative trial, that Step-Dep was perceived as valuable by both patients and practice nurses; perceived effectiveness on improving depressive symptoms varied greatly, but most felt that it had been beneficial for patients' well-being. Facilitators were: increased awareness of mental health problems in chronic disease management and improved accessibility and decreased experienced stigma of receiving mental health care. The Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), used to determine depression severity, functioned as a useful starting point for the conversation on mental health and patients gained more insight into their mental health by regularly filling out the PHQ-9. However, patients and practice nurses did not widely support its use for monitoring depressive symptoms or making treatment decisions. Monitoring mental health was deemed important in chronically ill patients by both patients and practice nurses and was suggested to start at the time of diagnosis of a chronic disease. Appointed barriers were that patients were primarily
Stoop, C.H.; Nefs, G.M.; Pommer, A.M.; Pop, V.J.M.; Pouwer, F.
Background Depression and anxiety are common in people with a chronic somatic disease. Although guidelines recommend stepped care, the effectiveness of this approach has not been evaluated in people with diabetes, asthma, or COPD in primary care. Methods 3559 People were sent screening
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a wealth of evidence regarding the detrimental impact of excessive alcohol consumption. In older populations excessive alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke and a range of cancers. Alcohol consumption is also associated with an increased risk of falls, early onset of dementia and other cognitive deficits. Physiological changes that occur as part of the ageing process mean that older people experience alcohol related problems at lower consumption levels. There is a strong evidence base for the effectiveness of brief psychosocial interventions in reducing alcohol consumption in populations identified opportunistically in primary care settings. Stepped care interventions involve the delivery of more intensive interventions only to those in the population who fail to respond to less intensive interventions and provide a potentially resource efficient means of meeting the needs of this population. Methods/design The study design is a pragmatic prospective multi-centre two arm randomised controlled trial. The primary hypothesis is that stepped care interventions for older hazardous alcohol users reduce alcohol consumption compared with a minimal intervention at 12 months post randomisation. Potential participants are identified using the AUDIT questionnaire. Eligible and consenting participants are randomised with equal probability to either a minimal intervention or a three step treatment approach. The step treatment approach incorporates as step 1 behavioural change counselling, step 2 three sessions of motivational enhancement therapy and step 3 referral to specialist services. The primary outcome is measured using average standard drinks per day and secondary outcome measures include the Drinking Problems Index, health related quality of life and health utility. The study incorporates a comprehensive economic analysis to assess the relative cost
Solberg, Leif I; Crain, A Lauren; Maciosek, Michael V; Unützer, Jürgen; Ohnsorg, Kris A; Beck, Arne; Rubenstein, Lisa; Whitebird, Robin R; Rossom, Rebecca C; Pietruszewski, Pamela B; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Joslyn, Kenneth; Van de Ven, Andrew; Glasgow, Russell E
Scale-up and spread of evidence-based practices is one of the most important challenges facing health care. We tested whether a statewide initiative, Depression Improvement Across Minnesota-Offering a New Direction (DIAMOND), to implement the collaborative care model for depression in 75 primary care clinics resulted in patient outcome improvements corresponding to those reported in randomized controlled trials. Health plans provided a new monthly payment to participating clinics after a 6-month intensive training program with ongoing data submission, networking, and consultation. Implementation was staggered, with 5 sequences of 10 to 40 clinics every 6 months. Payers provided weekly contact information for members from participating clinics who were filling antidepressant prescriptions, and we conducted baseline and 6-month surveys of 1,578 patients about their care and outcomes. There were 466 patients in DIAMOND clinics who received usual care before implementation (UCB), 559 who received usual care in DIAMOND clinics after implementation (UCA), 245 who received DIAMOND care after implementation (DCA), and 308 who received usual care in comparison clinics (UC). Patients who received DIAMOND care after implementation reported more collaborative care depression services than the 3 comparison groups (10.9 vs 6.4-6.7, on a scale of 0 of 14, where higher numbers indicate more services; P <.001) and more satisfaction with their care (4.0 vs 3.4 on a scale 1 to 5, in which higher scores indicate higher satisfaction; P ≤.001). Depression remission rates, however, were not significantly different among the 4 groups (36.4% DCA vs 35.8% UCB, 35.0% UCA, 33.9% UC; P = .94). Despite the incentive of a supporting payment change and intensive training and support for clinics volunteering to participate, no difference in depression outcomes was documented. Specific unmeasured actions present in trials but not present in these clinics may be critical for successful outcome
Sutorius, Fleur L; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Prins, Bernard A H; van Hout, Hein P J
Many instruments have been developed to identify frail older adults in primary care. A direct comparison of the accuracy and prevalence of identification methods is rare and most studies ignore the stepped selection typically employed in routine care practice. Also it is unclear whether the various methods select persons with different characteristics. We aimed to estimate the accuracy of 10 single and stepped methods to identify frailty in older adults and to predict adverse health outcomes. In addition, the methods were compared on their prevalence of the identified frail persons and on the characteristics of persons identified. The Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI), the PRISMA-7, polypharmacy, the clinical judgment of the general practitioner (GP), the self-rated health of the older adult, the Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS), the Identification Seniors At Risk Primary Care (ISAR PC), the Frailty Index (FI), the InterRAI screener and gait speed were compared to three measures: two reference standards (the clinical judgment of a multidisciplinary expert panel and Fried's frailty criteria) and 6-years mortality or long term care admission. Data were used from the Dutch Identification of Frail Elderly Study, consisting of 102 people aged 65 and over from a primary care practice in Amsterdam. Frail older adults were oversampled. The accuracy of each instrument and several stepped strategies was estimated by calculating the area under the ROC-curve. Prevalence rates of frailty ranged from 14.8 to 52.9 %. The accuracy for recommended cut off values ranged from poor (AUC = 0.556 ISAR-PC) to good (AUC = 0.865 gait speed). PRISMA-7 performed best over two reference standards, GP predicted adversities best. Stepped strategies resulted in lower prevalence rates and accuracy. Persons selected by the different instruments varied greatly in age, IADL dependency, receiving homecare and mood. We found huge differences between methods to identify frail persons in prevalence
Østerås, Nina; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti; Dziedzic, Krysia; Moseng, Tuva; Aas, Eline; Andreassen, Øyvor; Mdala, Ibrahim; Natvig, Bård; Røtterud, Jan Harald; Schjervheim, Unni-Berit; Vlieland, Thea Vliet; Hagen, Kåre Birger
Previous research indicates that people with osteoarthritis (OA) are not receiving the recommended and optimal treatment. Based on international treatment recommendations for hip and knee OA and previous research, the SAMBA model for integrated OA care in Norwegian primary health care has been developed. The model includes physiotherapist (PT) led patient OA education sessions and an exercise programme lasting 8-12 weeks. This study aims to assess the effectiveness, feasibility, and costs of a tailored strategy to implement the SAMBA model. A cluster randomized controlled trial with stepped wedge design including an effect, process, and cost evaluation will be conducted in six municipalities (clusters) in Norway. The municipalities will be randomized for time of crossover from current usual care to the implementation of the SAMBA model by a tailored strategy. The tailored strategy includes interactive workshops for general practitioners (GPs) and PTs in primary care covering the SAMBA model for integrated OA care, educational material, educational outreach visits, feedback, and reminder material. Outcomes will be measured at the patient, GP, and PT levels using self-report, semi-structured interviews, and register based data. The primary outcome measure is patient-reported quality of care (OsteoArthritis Quality Indicator questionnaire) at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include referrals to PT, imaging, and referrals to the orthopaedic surgeon as well as participants' treatment satisfaction, symptoms, physical activity level, body weight, and self-reported and measured lower limb function. The actual exposure to the tailor made implementation strategy and user experiences will be measured in a process evaluation. In the economic evaluation, the difference in costs of usual OA care and the SAMBA model for integrated OA care will be compared with the difference in health outcomes and reported by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). The results
Hoogendijk, Emiel O; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; van de Ven, Peter M; Twisk, Jos W R; Deeg, Dorly J H; Frijters, Dinnus H M; van Leeuwen, Karen M; van Campen, Jos P C M; Nijpels, Giel; Jansen, Aaltje P D; van Hout, Hein P J
Primary care-based comprehensive care programs have the potential to improve outcomes in frail older adults. We evaluated the impact of the Geriatric Care Model (GCM) on the quality of life of community-dwelling frail older adults. A 24-month stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted between May 2010 and March 2013 in 35 primary care practices in the Netherlands, and included 1147 frail older adults. The intervention consisted of a geriatric in-home assessment by a practice nurse, followed by a tailored care plan. Reassessment occurred every six months. Nurses worked together with primary care physicians and were supervised and trained by geriatric expert teams. Complex patients were reviewed in multidisciplinary consultations. The primary outcome was quality of life (SF-12). Secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life, functional limitations, self-rated health, psychological wellbeing, social functioning and hospitalizations. Intention-to-treat analyses based on multilevel modeling showed no significant differences between the intervention group and usual care regarding SF-12 and most secondary outcomes. Only for IADL limitations we found a small intervention effect in patients who received the intervention for 18months (B=-0.25, 95%CI=-0.43 to -0.06, p=0.007), but this effect was not statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. The GCM did not show beneficial effects on quality of life in frail older adults in primary care, compared to usual care. This study strengthens the idea that comprehensive care programs add very little to usual primary care for this population. The Netherlands National Trial Register NTR2160. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Buchholz, Melissa; Fischer, Collette; Margolis, Kate L.; Talmi, Ayelet
Primary care settings are optimal environments for providing comprehensive, family-centered care to young children and their families. Primary care clinics with integrated behavioral health clinicians (BHCs) are well-positioned to build trust and create access to care for marginalized and underserved populations. Refugees from around the world are…
Watson, J M; Crosby, H; Dale, V M; Tober, G; Wu, Q; Lang, J; McGovern, R; Newbury-Birch, D; Parrott, S; Bland, J M; Drummond, C; Godfrey, C; Kaner, E; Coulton, S
There is clear evidence of the detrimental impact of hazardous alcohol consumption on the physical and mental health of the population. Estimates suggest that hazardous alcohol consumption annually accounts for 150,000 hospital admissions and between 15,000 and 22,000 deaths in the UK. In the older population, hazardous alcohol consumption is associated with a wide range of physical, psychological and social problems. There is evidence of an association between increased alcohol consumption and increased risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension and haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke, increased rates of alcohol-related liver disease and increased risk of a range of cancers. Alcohol is identified as one of the three main risk factors for falls. Excessive alcohol consumption in older age can also contribute to the onset of dementia and other age-related cognitive deficits and is implicated in one-third of all suicides in the older population. To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a stepped care intervention against a minimal intervention in the treatment of older hazardous alcohol users in primary care. A multicentre, pragmatic, two-armed randomised controlled trial with an economic evaluation. General practices in primary care in England and Scotland between April 2008 and October 2010. Adults aged ≥ 55 years scoring ≥ 8 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (10-item) (AUDIT) were eligible. In total, 529 patients were randomised in the study. The minimal intervention group received a 5-minute brief advice intervention with the practice or research nurse involving feedback of the screening results and discussion regarding the health consequences of continued hazardous alcohol consumption. Those in the stepped care arm initially received a 20-minute session of behavioural change counselling, with referral to step 2 (motivational enhancement therapy) and step 3 (local specialist alcohol services) if indicated. Sessions were
van Leeuwen, Karen M; Bosmans, Judith E; Jansen, Aaltje P D; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Muntinga, Maaike E; van Hout, Hein P J; Nijpels, Giel; van der Horst, Henriette E; van Tulder, Maurits W
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Geriatric Care Model (GCM), an integrated care model for frail older adults based on the Chronic Care Model, with that of usual care. Economic evaluation alongside a 24-month stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial. Primary care (35 practices) in two regions in the Netherlands. Community-dwelling older adults who were frail according to their primary care physicians and the Program on Research for Integrating Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy case-finding tool questionnaire (N = 1,147). The GCM consisted of the following components: a regularly scheduled in-home comprehensive geriatric assessment by a practice nurse followed by a customized care plan, management and training of practice nurses by a geriatric expert team, and coordination of care through community network meetings and multidisciplinary team consultations of individuals with complex care needs. Outcomes were measured every 6 months and included costs from a societal perspective, health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Survey (SF-12) physical (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scales), functional limitations (Katz activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living), and quality-adjusted life years based on the EQ-5D. Multilevel regression models adjusted for time and baseline confounders showed no significant differences in costs ($356, 95% confidence interval = -$488-1,134) and outcomes between intervention and usual care phases. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that, for the SF-12 PCS and MCS, the probability of the intervention being cost-effective was 0.76 if decision-makers are willing to pay $30,000 per point improvement on the SF-12 scales (range 0-100). For all other outcomes the probability of the intervention being cost-effective was low. Because the GCM was not cost-effective compared to usual care after 24 months of follow-up, widespread implementation
van Leeuwen, K.M.; Bosmans, J.E.; Jansen, A.P.D.; Hoogendijk, E.O.; Muntinga, M.E.; van Hout, H.P.J.; Nijpels, G.; van der Horst, H.E.; van Tulder, M.W.
Objectives To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Geriatric Care Model (GCM), an integrated care model for frail older adults based on the Chronic Care Model, with that of usual care. Design Economic evaluation alongside a 24-month stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial. Setting
van Leeuwen, Karen M; Bosmans, Judith E; Jansen, Aaltje P D; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Muntinga, Maaike E; van Hout, Hein P J; Nijpels, Giel; van der Horst, Henriette E; van Tulder, Maurits W
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Geriatric Care Model (GCM), an integrated care model for frail older adults based on the Chronic Care Model, with that of usual care. DESIGN: Economic evaluation alongside a 24-month stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial. SETTING:
Alhamdan, Adel A; Alshammari, Sulaiman A; Al-Amoud, Maysoon M; Hameed, Tariq A; Al-Muammar, May N; Bindawas, Saad M; Al-Orf, Saada M; Mohamed, Ashry G; Al-Ghamdi, Essam A; Calder, Philip C
To evaluate the health care services provided for older adults by primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and the ease of use of these centers by older adults. Between October 2013 and January 2014, we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 15 randomly selected PHCCs in Riyadh City, KSA. The evaluation focused on basic indicators of clinical services offered and factors indicative of the ease of use of the centers by older adults. Evaluations were based upon the age-friendly PHCCs toolkit of the World Health Organization. Coverage of basic health assessments (such as blood pressure, diabetes, and blood cholesterol) was generally good. However, fewer than half of the PHCCs offered annual comprehensive screening for the common age-related conditions. There was no screening for cancer. Counseling on improving lifestyle was provided by most centers. However, there was no standard protocol for counseling. Coverage of common vaccinations was poor. The layout of most PHCCs and their signage were good, except for lack of Braille signage. There may be issues of access of older adults to PHCCs through lack of public transport, limited parking opportunities, the presence of steps, ramps, and internal stairs, and the lack of handrails. Clinical services and the internal environment of PHCCs can be improved. The data will be useful for health-policy makers to improve PHCCs to be more age-friendly.
Adel A. Alhamdan
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the health care services provided for older adults by primary health care centers (PHCCs in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, and the ease of use of these centers by older adults. Methods: Between October 2013 and January 2014, we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 15 randomly selected PHCCs in Riyadh City, KSA. The evaluation focused on basic indicators of clinical services offered and factors indicative of the ease of use of the centers by older adults. Evaluations were based upon the age-friendly PHCCs toolkit of the World Health Organization. Results: Coverage of basic health assessments (such as blood pressure, diabetes, and blood cholesterol was generally good. However, fewer than half of the PHCCs offered annual comprehensive screening for the common age-related conditions. There was no screening for cancer. Counseling on improving lifestyle was provided by most centers. However, there was no standard protocol for counseling. Coverage of common vaccinations was poor. The layout of most PHCCs and their signage were good, except for lack of Braille signage. There may be issues of access of older adults to PHCCs through lack of public transport, limited parking opportunities, the presence of steps, ramps, and internal stairs, and the lack of handrails. Conclusions: Clinical services and the internal environment of PHCCs can be improved. The data will be useful for health-policy makers to improve PHCCs to be more age-friendly.
Zgierska, Aleksandra E; Vidaver, Regina M; Smith, Paul; Ales, Mary W; Nisbet, Kate; Boss, Deanne; Tuan, Wen-Jan; Hahn, David L
Systematic implementation of guidelines for opioid therapy management in chronic non-cancer pain can reduce opioid-related harms. However, implementation of guideline-recommended practices in routine care is subpar. The goal of this quality improvement (QI) project is to assess whether a clinic-tailored QI intervention improves the implementation of a health system-wide, guideline-driven policy on opioid prescribing in primary care. This manuscript describes the protocol for this QI project. A health system with 28 primary care clinics caring for approximately 294,000 primary care patients developed and implemented a guideline-driven policy on long-term opioid therapy in adults with opioid-treated chronic non-cancer pain (estimated N = 3980). The policy provided multiple recommendations, including the universal use of treatment agreements, urine drug testing, depression and opioid misuse risk screening, and standardized documentation of the chronic pain diagnosis and treatment plan. The project team drew upon existing guidelines, feedback from end-users, experts and health system leadership to develop a robust QI intervention, targeting clinic-level implementation of policy-directed practices. The resulting multi-pronged QI intervention included clinic-wide and individual clinician-level educational interventions. The QI intervention will augment the health system's "routine rollout" method, consisting of a single educational presentation to clinicians in group settings and a separate presentation for staff. A stepped-wedge design will enable 9 primary care clinics to receive the intervention and assessment of within-clinic and between-clinic changes in adherence to the policy items measured by clinic-level electronic health record-based measures and process measures of the experience with the intervention. Developing methods for a health system-tailored QI intervention required a multi-step process to incorporate end-user feedback and account for the needs of
Fleming, G.R.; Van Grondelle, R.
The two important initial steps of photosynthesis-electron transfer and energy transfer occur with great speed and efficiency. New techniques in laser optics and genetic engineering age helping us to understand why. (author). 24 refs. 8 figs
Adcock, G B
Corporate-based nurse managed centers are not the national norm. More prevalent is the use of an occupational health or physician-directed medical model of care. The author describes how a 14-year-old primary care center at a North Carolina computer software company is just "business as usual" when viewed in the context of the company's philosophy, goals, and culture. Included are considerations for nurse practitioners interested in the successful transplantation of this primary care model to other settings.
Spanish doctors are still leaving the country to look for quality work. Ireland is not a country with many Spanish professionals but it is interesting to know its particular Health care system. Ireland is one of the countries with a national health care system, although it has a mixture of private health care insurance schemes. People have a right to health care if they have been living in Ireland at least for a year. Access to the primary care health system depends on age and income: free of charge for Category 1 and co-payments for the rest. This division generates great inequalities among the population. Primary Care doctors are self-employed, and they work independently. However, since 2001 they have tended to work in multidisciplinary teams in order to strengthen the Primary Care practice. Salary is gained from a combination of public and private incomes which are not differentiated. The role of the General Practitioner consists in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases, minor surgery, child care, etc. There is no coordination between Primary and Secondary care. Access to specialised medicine is regulated by the price of consultation. Primary Care doctors are not gatekeepers. To be able to work here, doctors must have three years of training after medical school. After that, Continuing Medical Education is compulsory, and the college of general practitioners monitors it annually. The Irish health care system does not fit into the European model. Lack of a clear separation between public and private health care generates great inequalities. The non-existence of coordination between primary and specialised care leads to inefficiencies, which Ireland cannot allow itself after a decade of economic crisis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Italy is not a country where Spanish doctors emigrate, as there is an over-supply of health care professionals. The Italian Servizio Sanitario Nazionale has some differences compared to the Spanish National Health System. The Servizio Sanitario Nazionale is financed by national and regional taxes and co-payments. There are taxes earmarked for health, and Primary Care receives 50% of the total funds. Italian citizens and residents in Italy have the right to free health cover. However, there are co-payments for laboratory and imaging tests, pharmaceuticals, specialist ambulatory services, and emergencies. Co-payments vary in the different regions. The provision of services is regional, and thus fragmentation and major inequities are the norm. Doctors in Primary Care are self-employed and from 2000 onwards, there are incentives to work in multidisciplinary teams. Salary is regulated by a national contract and it is the sum of per-capita payments and extra resources for specific activities. Responsibilities are similar to those of Spanish professionals. However, medical care is more personal. Relationships between Primary Care and specialised care depend on the doctors' relationships. Primary Care doctors are gatekeepers for specialised care, except for gynaecology, obstetrics and paediatrics. Specialised training is compulsory in order to work as general practitioner. The Italian Health Care System is a national health system like the Spanish one. However, health care professionals are self-employed, and there are co-payments. In spite of co-payments, Italians have one of the highest average life expectancy, and they support a universal and publicly funded health-care system. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
The uptake of family health teams in Ontario has been tremendous. And the creation of group practices in primary care has taken root in other provinces as well. For many people, being involved with something new is exciting. At the same time, once they are committed, they discover the challenges that can be simultaneously exhilarating and frustrating. This issue of Healthcare Quarterly offers two articles that provide interesting reflections on what has been learned so far from the perspectives of both team leadership and the team members themselves within a transforming primary care system.
Claire van Deventer
Keywords: child HIV, doctor involvement, primary health care, quality improvement ... expertise increased, PHC facilities are now expected to be able to .... organised patient documentation were revisited. .... Review: what can we learn from quality ... South Pacific: Review of evidence and lessons from an innovative.
Belgium is an attractive country to work in, not just for doctors but for all Spanish workers, due to it having the headquarters of European Union. The health job allure is double; on the one hand, the opportunity to find a decent job, and on the other, because it is possible to develop their professional abilities with patients of the same nationality in a health system with a different way of working. The Belgium health care system is based on security social models. Health care is financed by the government, social security contributions, and voluntary private health insurance. Primary care in Belgium is very different to that in Spain. Citizens may freely choose their doctor (general practitioner or specialist) increasing the lack of coordination between primary and specialized care. This leads to serious patient safety problems and loss of efficiency within the system. Belgium is a European country with room to improve preventive coverage. General practitioners are self-employed professionals with free choice of setting, and their salary is linked to their professional activity. Ambulatory care is subjected to co-payment, and this fact leads to great inequities on access to care. The statistics say that there is universal coverage but, in 2010, 14% of the population did not seek medical contact due to economic problems. It takes 3 years to become a General Practitioner and continuing medical education is compulsory to be revalidated. In general, Belgian and Spaniards living and working in Belgium are happy with the functioning of the health care system. However, as doctors, we should be aware that it is a health care system in which access is constrained for some people, and preventive coverage could be improved. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Coates, Allan L; Graham, Brian L; McFadden, Robin G; McParland, Colm; Moosa, Dilshad; Provencher, Steeve; Road, Jeremy
Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) clinical guidelines for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) specify that spirometry should be used to diagnose these diseases. Given the burden of asthma and COPD, most people with these diseases will be diagnosed in the primary care setting. The present CTS position statement was developed to provide guidance on key factors affecting the quality of spirometry testing in the primary care setting. The present statement may also be used to inform and guide the accreditation process for spirometry in each province. Although many of the principles discussed are equally applicable to pulmonary function laboratories and interpretation of tests by respirologists, they are held to a higher standard and are outside the scope of the present statement. PMID:23457669
Neo M. Tapela
Full Text Available IntroductionHealth system delays in diagnosis of cancer contribute to the glaring disparities in cancer mortality between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries. In Botswana, approximately 70% of cancers are diagnosed at late stage and median time from first health facility visit for cancer-related symptoms to specialty cancer care was 160 days (IQR 59–653. We describe the implementation and early outcomes of training targeting primary care providers, which is a part of a multi-component implementation study in Kweneng-East district aiming to enhance timely diagnosis of cancers.MethodsHealth-care providers from all public facilities within the district were invited to participate in an 8-h intensive short-course program developed by a multidisciplinary team and adapted to the Botswana health system context. Participants’ performance was assessed using a 25-multiple choice question tool, with pre- and post-assessments paired by anonymous identifier. Statistical analysis with Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare performance at the two time points across eight sub-domains (pathophysiology, epidemiology, social context, symptoms, evaluation, treatment, documentation, follow-up. Linear regression and negative binomial modeling were used to determine change in performance. Participants’ satisfaction with the program was measured on a separate survey using a 5-point Likert scale.Results176 participants attended the training over 5 days in April 2016. Pooled linear regression controlling for test version showed an overall performance increase of 16.8% after participation (95% CI 15.2–18.4. Statistically significant improvement was observed for seven out of eight subdomains on test A and all eight subdomains on test B. Overall, 71 (40.3% trainees achieved a score greater than 70% on the pretest, and 161 (91.5% did so on the posttest. Participants reported a high degree of satisfaction with the training program’s content
The economic crisis and deterioration of the Portuguese National Health service has forced professionals to leave the country. The Portuguese National Health System was introduced in 1976, but it has been unable to provide citizens with the social and health advantages of an equality of access and free national health system. The Portuguese National Health System is financed by taxes. However, a 35% of its incomes are from private sources. The health minister decides the budget, and it is based on an historical financing plus a per capita system. Portuguese citizens and immigrants are entitled to free health care, but there is a co-payment for care, diagnostic, pharmacy, and emergency care. Health care provision is a mixture of public and private health care at a regional level. It leads to fragmentation of services and greater inequalities. Doctors are civil servants. Salary is regulated and it depends on seniority and on-call shifts. Primary care activities are similar to those of their Spanish counterparts. General practitioners have gatekeeper function, but the system is imperfect, and patients with private insurance get direct access to the specialist. Specialist training is similar to the training system in Spain. Continuing education is not regulated. The Portuguese Health System has been trying to become a national health system since 1979. Political instability, fragmentation of services, lack of clarity between public and private and co-payments are important constraints. Inequalities are an important problem to reconsider while discussing a national health system. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ijäs, Jarja; Alanen, Seija; Kaila, Minna
OBJECTIVE: To describe the adoption of the national Hypertension Guideline in primary care and to evaluate the consistency of the views of the health centre senior executives on the guideline's impact on clinical practices in the treatment of hypertension in their health centres. DESIGN: A cross...... Guideline. RESULTS: Data were available from 143 health centres in Finland (49%). The views of head physicians and senior nursing officers on the adoption of the Hypertension Guideline were not consistent. Head physicians more often than senior nursing officers (44% vs. 29%, p ...: Hypertension Guideline recommendations that require joint agreements between professionals are less often adopted than simple, precise recommendations. More emphasis on effective multidisciplinary collaboration is needed....
Rollow, William; Cucchiara, Peter
The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model provides a compelling vision for primary care transformation, but studies of its impact have used insufficiently patient-centered metrics with inconsistent results. We propose a framework for defining patient-centered value and a new model for value-based primary care transformation: the primary care value model (PCVM). We advocate for use of patient-centered value when measuring the impact of primary care transformation, recognition, and performance-based payment; for financial support and research and development to better define primary care value-creating activities and their implementation; and for use of the model to support primary care organizations in transformation. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Vedsted, Peter; Kallestrup, Per
International Perspectives on Primary Care Research examines how the evidence base from primary care research can strengthen health care services and delivery, tackle the growing burden of disease, improve quality and safety, and increase a person-centred focus to health care. Demonstrating...... the inter-professional nature of the discipline, the book also features a section on cross-nation organisations and primary care networks supporting research. National perspectives are offered from researchers in 20 countries that form part of the World Organization of Family Doctors, providing case...... histories from research-rich to resource-poor nations that illustrate the range of research development and capacity building. This book argues the importance of primary care research, especially to policy makers, decision makers and funders in informing best practice, training primary health care providers...
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. ... Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4400, Osogbo, Osun State. ... weak management and poor adherence to the basic infrastructure e.g. primary, secondary and tertiary.
Client Satisfaction with Antenatal Care Services in Primary Health Care. Centres in Sabon ... important information about how well clinicians and the population of women within child bearing. 8 ..... model. Health and Quality of Life outcomes.
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The data on health care facilities includes the name and location of all the hospitals and primary care facilities in Allegheny County. The current listing of...
Scarpaci, Joseph L.
Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help......-Seeking Behavior of the Urban Poor Chapter 5: Spatial Organization and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 6: Conclusion...
Reid, Steve; Mash, Bob
This article is part of a series on African Primary Care Research and focuses on the topic of qualitative interviewing in primary care. In particular it looks at issues of study design, sample size, sampling and interviewing in relation to individual and focus group interviews.There is a particular focus on helping postgraduate students at a Masters level to write their research proposals.
The PULSAR primary care protocol: a stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial to test a training intervention for general practitioners in recovery-oriented practice to optimize personal recovery in adult patients.
Enticott, Joanne C; Shawyer, Frances; Brophy, Lisa; Russell, Grant; Fossey, Ellie; Inder, Brett; Mazza, Danielle; Vasi, Shiva; Weller, Penelope June; Wilson-Evered, Elisabeth; Edan, Vrinda; Meadows, Graham
General practitioners (GPs) in Australia play a central role in the delivery of mental health care. This article describes the PULSAR (Principles Unite Local Services Assisting Recovery) Primary Care protocol, a novel mixed methods evaluation of a training intervention for GPs in recovery-oriented practice. The aim of the intervention is to optimize personal recovery in patients consulting study GPs for mental health issues. The intervention mixed methods design involves a stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial testing the outcomes of training in recovery-oriented practice, together with an embedded qualitative study to identify the contextual enablers and challenges to implementing recovery-oriented practice. The project is conducted in Victoria, Australia between 2013 and 2017. Eighteen general practices and community health centers are randomly allocated to one of two steps (nine months apart) to start an intervention comprising GP training in the delivery of recovery-oriented practice. Data collection consists of cross-sectional surveys collected from patients of participating GPs at baseline, and again at the end of Steps 1 and 2. The primary outcome is improvement in personal recovery using responses to the Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery. Secondary outcomes are improvements in patient-rated measures of personal recovery and wellbeing, and of the recovery-oriented practice they have received, using the INSPIRE questionnaire, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Participant data will be analyzed in the group that the cluster was assigned to at each study time point. Another per-protocol dataset will contain all data time-stamped according to the date of intervention received at each cluster site. Qualitative interviews with GPs and patients at three and nine months post-training will investigate experiences and challenges related to implementing recovery-oriented practice in primary
Ellner, Andrew L; Phillips, Russell S
The United States has the most expensive, technologically advanced, and sub-specialized healthcare system in the world, yet it has worse population health status than any other high-income country. Rising healthcare costs, high rates of waste, the continued trend towards chronic non-communicable disease, and the growth of new market entrants that compete with primary care services have set the stage for fundamental change in all of healthcare, driven by a revolution in primary care. We believe that the coming primary care revolution ought to be guided by the following design principles: 1) Payment must adequately support primary care and reward value, including non-visit-based care. 2) Relationships will serve as the bedrock of value in primary care, and will increasingly be fostered by teams, improved clinical operations, and technology, with patients and non-physicians assuming an ever-increasing role in most aspects of healthcare. 3) Generalist physicians will increasingly focus on high-acuity and high-complexity presentations, and primary care teams will increasingly manage conditions that specialists managed in the past. 4) Primary care will refocus on whole-person care, and address health behaviors as well as vision, hearing, dental, and social services. Design based on these principles should lead to higher-value healthcare, but will require new approaches to workforce training.
This article reviews the impact of successive experiments in the development of primary care organisations in England and assesses the long-term importance of English primary care groups for the integration of health and community and health and social care and the deinstitutionalisation of hospital care. Governments in a number of Western countries are attempting to improve the efficiency, appropriateness and equity of their health systems. One of the main ways of doing this is to devolve provision and commissioning responsibility from national and regional organisations to more local agencies based in primary care. Such primary care organisations are allocated budgets that span both primary and secondary (hospital) services and also, potentially, social care. This article is based on a systematic review of the literature forthcoming from the UK Government's Department of Health-funded evaluations of successive primary care organisational developments. These include total purchasing pilots, GP commissioning group pilots, personal medical services pilots and primary care groups and trusts. Primary care organisations in England have proved to be a catalyst in facilitating the development of integrated care working between primary and community health services. Conversely, primary care organisations have proved less effective in promoting integration between health and social care agencies where most progress has been made at the strategic commissioning level. The development of primary care trusts in England is heralding an end to traditional community hospitals. The development of primary care groups in England are but an intermediate step of a policy progression towards future primary care-based organisations that will functionally integrate primary and community health services with local authority services under a single management umbrella.
Full Text Available Purpose: This article reviews the impact of successive experiments in the development of primary care organisations in England and assesses the long-term importance of English primary care groups for the integration of health and community and health and social care and the deinstitutionalisation of hospital care. Theory: Governments in a number of Western countries are attempting to improve the efficiency, appropriateness and equity of their health systems. One of the main ways of doing this is to devolve provision and commissioning responsibility from national and regional organisations to more local agencies based in primary care. Such primary care organisations are allocated budgets that span both primary and secondary (hospital services and also, potentially, social care. Method: This article is based on a systematic review of the literature forthcoming from the UK Government's Department of Health-funded evaluations of successive primary care organisational developments. These include total purchasing pilots, GP commissioning group pilots, personal medical services pilots and primary care groups and trusts. Results: Primary care organisations in England have proved to be a catalyst in facilitating the development of integrated care working between primary and community health services. Conversely, primary care organisations have proved less effective in promoting integration between health and social care agencies where most progress has been made at the strategic commissioning level. The development of primary care trusts in England is heralding an end to traditional community hospitals. Conclusions: The development of primary care groups in England are but an intermediate step of a policy progression towards future primary care-based organisations that will functionally integrate primary and community health services with local authority services under a single management umbrella.
J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)
textabstractBackground: Although widespread problems in patient-professional interaction and insufficient support of patients' self-management abilities have been recognized, research investigating the relationships among care quality, productive interaction, and self-management abilities to
J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)
markdownabstractAbstract Background: Although widespread problems in patient–professional interaction and insufficient support of patients’self-management abilities have been recognized, research investigating the relationships among care quality, productiveinteraction, and self-management
Deodhar, N S
Concurrently with the development of the general health services infrastructure in India, serveral special health programs were instituted at the national level to provide a massive and concentrated assault on the major public health problems of malaria, smallpox, cholera, trachoma, tuberculosis, leprosy, filariasis, and the rapid population growth. These vertical programs were expected to reduce the heavy morbidity and mortality within the shortest possible time to where they were no longer major public health problems. The impact was variable. Major steps toward providing integrated health care were taken during the first 5-year plan. Emphasis was on the provision of a packet of inttegrated health, family planning, and nutrition services to the vulnerable groups, i.e., children, pregnant women, and nursing mothers. To rectify past shortcomings ssuch as the failures of the national health programs, ineffective coordination in the nutrition programs, and slow rate of development as a result of interdependence of different sectors, it was necessary to improve the health infrastructure and to launch a frontal attack on poverty. The Multipurpose Health Workers Scheme was planned to rationalize the organization and use of available manpower to reduce the area and population covered by each of the field staff in order to reduce travel time and to make services more effective and more satisfactory. Each multipurpose health worker was entrusted with the task of providing comprehensive health care to about 5000 people. Communicable diseases were the main public health problems, and many specific control/eradication programs were launched. the immunization programs against common childhood diseases have not taken deep roots and coverage continues to be poor. The adoption of the Western model of medical services has resulted in emphasis on "cure" rather than on "care". Another problem is maldistribution of the facilities. Overemphasis on medical education has resulted in the
Quarry industry has become a major means of livelihood in Ebonyi state, but insufficient data exists on their operations ... of Dust Mask among Crushers of Selected Quarry (Crushed ... Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care.
3Department of Community and Primary Health Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idiaraba, ... Some of the participants (45.3%) carry out physical exercises such as walking ..... hypertension, continuous effective management of.
2Primary Health Care Department, Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Benin City, ... selected from each of the ten wards in the LGA using multistage sampling technique. ..... Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Insurance Companies in Lagos State.
Mroz, Tracy M.; Fogelberg, Donald J.; Leland, Natalie E.
As our health care system continues to change, so do the opportunities for occupational therapy. This article provides an update to a 2012 Health Policy Perspectives on this topic. We identify new initiatives and opportunities in primary care, explore common challenges to integrating occupational therapy in primary care environments, and highlight international works that can support our efforts. We conclude by discussing next steps for occupational therapy practitioners in order to continue to progress our efforts in primary care. PMID:29689169
2Department of Community Medicine & Primary Care, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, ... It may result from road traffic accident, near saving basic principles in emergency care that even drowning, electric ... (4.3%) at place of work, 8 (11.4%) at.
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 26 (1) 12-20 .... large proportions of the population work in the poor people use health care services far less than. 19 ... hypertension, cancers and road traffic accidents) below 1 dollar ...
Schäfer, W.L.A.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Schellevis, F.G.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Background: So far, studies about people’s appreciation of primary care services has shown that patient satisfaction seems to be lower in health care systems with regulated access to specialist services by gate keeping. Nevertheless, international comparative research about patients’ expectations
Background: The well-being of women and children is one of the major determinants ... The Sample for the study were women recruited from 11 primary health care ... respondents educational level and knowledge of preconception care (X =24.76, ... single adult or married couple) are in an optimal state .... The major site for.
Full Text Available Objective. To document the structure and functions of primary care (PC in the country of Dominica using the Primary Care Assessment Tools (PCAT, a set of questionnaires that evaluate PC functions. Methods. This cross-sectional study combined data from two surveys. The systems PCAT (S-PCAT survey gathered national-level data from key informants about health system characteristics and PC performance. The provider version (P-PCAT survey collected data on PC performance from health providers (nurses and physicians at all PC facilities in the country. Provider-level data were aggregated to obtain national and district-level results for PC domains scored from 0.00 (worst to 1.00 (best. Results. From the systems perspective, results showed several knowledge gaps in PC policy, financing, and structure. Key informants gave “Good” (adequate ratings for “first-contact” care (0.74, continuity of care (0.77, comprehensive care (0.70, and coordinated care (0.78; middling scores for family-centered care and community-oriented care (0.65; and low scores for access to care (0.57. PC providers assessed access to care (which included “first-contact” care, in the P-PCAT surveys (0.84, continuity of care (0.86, information systems (0.84, family-centered care (0.92, and community-oriented care (0.85 as “Very Good”; comprehensive care as “Good” (0.79; and coordinated care as “Reasonable” (0.68. Overall, the scores for the country's health districts were good, although the ratings varied by specific PC domain. Conclusions. The assessments described here were carried out with relatively little expense and have provided important inputs into strategic planning, strategies for improving PC, and identification of priority areas for further investigation. This two-staged approach could be adapted and used in other countries.
Lim, Yvonne Mei Fong; Yusof, Maryati; Sivasampu, Sheamini
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess National Medical Care Survey data quality. Design/methodology/approach Data completeness and representativeness were computed for all observations while other data quality measures were assessed using a 10 per cent sample from the National Medical Care Survey database; i.e., 12,569 primary care records from 189 public and private practices were included in the analysis. Findings Data field completion ranged from 69 to 100 per cent. Error rates for data transfer from paper to web-based application varied between 0.5 and 6.1 per cent. Error rates arising from diagnosis and clinical process coding were higher than medication coding. Data fields that involved free text entry were more prone to errors than those involving selection from menus. The authors found that completeness, accuracy, coding reliability and representativeness were generally good, while data timeliness needs to be improved. Research limitations/implications Only data entered into a web-based application were examined. Data omissions and errors in the original questionnaires were not covered. Practical implications Results from this study provided informative and practicable approaches to improve primary health care data completeness and accuracy especially in developing nations where resources are limited. Originality/value Primary care data quality studies in developing nations are limited. Understanding errors and missing data enables researchers and health service administrators to prevent quality-related problems in primary care data.
Antonio, Gisele Damian; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale; Moretti-Pires, Rodrigo Otavio
OBJECTIVE To characterize the integration of phytotherapy in primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Journal articles and theses and dissertations were searched for in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Theses Portal Capes, between January 1988 and March 2013. We analyzed 53 original studies on actions, programs, acceptance and use of phytotherapy and medicinal plants in the Brazilian Unified Health System. Bibliometric data, characteristics of the actions/programs, places and subjects involved and type and focus of the selected studies were analyzed. RESULTS Between 2003 and 2013, there was an increase in publications in different areas of knowledge, compared with the 1990-2002 period. The objectives and actions of programs involving the integration of phytotherapy into primary health care varied: including other treatment options, reduce costs, reviving traditional knowledge, preserving biodiversity, promoting social development and stimulating inter-sectorial actions. CONCLUSIONS Over the past 25 years, there was a small increase in scientific production on actions/programs developed in primary care. Including phytotherapy in primary care services encourages interaction between health care users and professionals. It also contributes to the socialization of scientific research and the development of a critical vision about the use of phytotherapy and plant medicine, not only on the part of professionals but also of the population. PMID:25119949
Goldie, Christine; Brown, Jenny
Obesity is a complex problem and often difficult to tackle in primary care. A year-long pilot of a practice nurse-led scheme that used a holistic approach towards self-care in obesity management was set up to reduce the cardiovascular risk of patients who were obese and improve their quality of life. This person-centred approach may offer an important tool in the management of these patients in the GP surgery.
Herzig, Lilli; Mühlemann, Nicole; Bischoff, Thomas
Mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatization) are frequent in Primary care and are often associated to physical complaints and to psychosocial stressors. Mental disorders have in this way a specific presentation and in addition patients may present different associations of them. Sometimes it is difficult to recognize them, but it is important to do so and to take rapidly care of these patients. Specific screening questions exist and have been used in a research of the Institute of General Medicine and the Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine (PMU), University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
Neenan, M. Elaine; And Others
A study describes the characteristics of the current primary dental care workforce (dentists, hygienists, assistants), its distribution, and its delivery system in private and public sectors. Graduate dental school enrollments, trends in patient visits, employment patterns, state dental activities, and workforce issues related to health care…
VPDs, this represents 17% of global total. 1 ... Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Childhood Immunization ... Department of Community Health & Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, P.M.B. 12003, ... include access to services, parental (maternal) ... Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine Oral Polio.
... Experience in a primary health care facility in Rivers State, South-South Nigeria. ... health center increased by 3.09% (p-value > 0.05); the patients that had their babies in the facility were ... 100, 000 live births, based on historical studies and.
Velden, L.F.J. van der; Schellevis, F.G.
Introduction: Previous studies predicted an increase in both the incidence and prevalence of cancer in the Netherlands. Other studies showed that cancer patients use primary care more frequently than non-cancer patients. Finally, during the “chronic phase” of the disease, task substitution from
Groenewegen, P.; Heinemann, S.; Gress, S.; Schäfer, W.
Background: There is a large variation in the organization of primary care in Europe. In some health care systems, primary care is the gatekeeper to more specialized care, whilst in others patients have the choice between a wide range of providers. Primary care has increasingly become teamwork.
Francisco Ignacio MORETA-VELAYOS
Full Text Available For a long time films have been used in teaching and at various levels of professional training and more specifically in the medical area. In this case, through the description of a project developed in a Primary Care Health Center, we intend to justify the use of movies as a tool that could ease, the sometimes difficult task of continued education among Primary Care professionals. We propose different aspects of everyday practice in which cinema can be potentially useful, as well as the way to include it in the Plan of Continued Education of the Centre and its accreditation.Films and issues discussed in each session, and the project evaluation, are detailed.
Laberge, Maude; Wodchis, Walter P; Barnsley, Jan; Laporte, Audrey
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between newly introduced primary care models in Ontario, Canada, and patients' primary care and total health care costs. A specific focus is on the payment mechanisms for primary care physicians, i.e. fee-for-service (FFS), enhanced-FFS, and blended capitation, and whether providers practiced as part of a multidisciplinary team. Utilization data for a one year period was measured using administrative databases for a 10% sample selected at random from the Ontario adult population. Primary care and total health care costs were calculated at the individual level and included costs from physician services, hospital visits and admissions, long term care, drugs, home care, lab tests, and visits to non-medical health care providers. Generalized linear model regressions were conducted to assess the differences in costs between primary care models. Patients not enrolled with a primary care physicians were younger, more likely to be males and of lower socio-economic status. Patients in blended capitation models were healthier and wealthier than FFS and enhanced-FFS patients. Primary care and total health care costs were significantly different across Ontario primary care models. Using the traditional FFS as the reference, we found that patients in the enhanced-FFS models had the lowest total health care costs, and also the lowest primary care costs. Patients in the blended capitation models had higher primary care costs but lower total health care costs. Patients that were in multidisciplinary teams (FHT), where physicians are also paid on a blended capitation basis, had higher total health care costs than non-FHT patients but still lower than the FFS reference group. Primary care and total health care costs increased with patients' age, morbidity, and lower income quintile across all primary care payment types. The new primary care models were associated with lower total health care costs for patients compared to the
Mendoza del Pino, Mario Valentín
The book O ncology in the primary health care , constitutes an important contribution to the prevention and treatment of cancer, from a very comprehensive assessment. It's a disease that is the second leading cause of death in our country, to much pain and suffering is for the patient and their family. The book has a very useful for basic health equipment approach, since it emphasizes that cancer can be prevented if achieved in the population changes in lifestyle. The book is valued not correct food as responsible for one third of all cancers. Currently important research being developed in relation to psiconeuroinmuno-Endocrinology, who is studying the association between psychological factors and the development of cancer valuing that kept stress and depression reduces the antitumor activity of the immune system; that made programs with encouraging results where the treatment of cancer has joined elements of psychotherapy, immunotherapy and the use of the biotherapy. The focus of the book fills an important place in the primary health care and is an indispensable guide for professionals at this level of care (author)
Town, Katy; McNulty, Cliodna A M; Ricketts, Ellie J; Hartney, Thomas; Nardone, Anthony; Folkard, Kate A; Charlett, Andre; Dunbar, J Kevin
Providing sexual health services in primary care is an essential step towards universal provision. However they are not offered consistently. We conducted a national pilot of an educational intervention to improve staff's skills and confidence to increase chlamydia testing rates and provide condoms with contraceptive information plus HIV testing according to national guidelines, known as 3Cs&HIV. The effectiveness of the pilot on chlamydia testing and diagnosis rates in general practice was evaluated. The pilot was implemented using a step-wedge design over three phases during 2013 and 2014 in England. The intervention combined educational workshops with posters, testing performance feedback and continuous support. Chlamydia testing and diagnosis rates in participating general practices during the control and intervention periods were compared adjusting for seasonal trends in chlamydia testing and differences in practice size. Intervention effect modification was assessed for the following general practice characteristics: chlamydia testing rate compared to national median, number of general practice staff employed, payment for chlamydia screening, practice urban/rurality classification, and proximity to sexual health clinics. The 460 participating practices conducted 26,021 tests in the control period and 18,797 tests during the intervention period. Intention-to-treat analysis showed no change in the unadjusted median tests and diagnoses per month per practice after receiving training: 2.7 vs 2.7; 0.1 vs 0.1. Multivariable negative binomial regression analysis found no significant change in overall testing or diagnoses post-intervention (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.01, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.96-1.07, P = 0.72; 0.98 CI 0.84-1.15, P = 0.84, respectively). Stratified analysis showed testing increased significantly in practices where payments were in place prior to the intervention (IRR 2.12 CI 1.41-3.18, P service improvement intervention to
Groenewegen, Peter P; Jurgutis, Arnoldas
Greece is hit hard by the state debt crisis. This calls for comprehensive reforms to restore sustainable and balanced growth. Healthcare is one of the public sectors needing reform. The European Union (EU) Task Force for Greece asked the authors to assess the situation of primary care and to make recommendations for reform. Primary healthcare is especially relevant in that it might increase the efficiency of the healthcare system, and improve access to good quality healthcare. Assessment of the state of primary care in Greece was made on the basis of existing literature, site visits in primary care and consultations with stakeholders. The governance of primary care (and healthcare in general) is fragmented. There is no system of gatekeeping or patient lists. Private payments (formal and informal) are high. There are too many physicians, but too few general practitioners and nurses, and they are unevenly spread across the country. As a consequence, there are problems of access, continuity, co-ordination and comprehensiveness of primary care. The authors recommend the development of a clear vision and development strategy for strengthening primary care. Stepped access to secondary care should be realised through the introduction of mandatory referrals. Primary care should be accessible through the lowest possible out-of-pocket payments. The roles of purchaser and provider of care should be split. Quality of care should be improved through development of clinical guidelines and quality indicators. The education of health professionals should put more emphasis on primary care and medical specialists working in primary care should be (re-)trained to acquire the necessary competences to satisfy the job descriptions to be developed for primary care professionals. The advantages of strong primary care should be communicated to patients and the wider public.
Valentijn, Pim P; Schepman, Sanneke M; Opheij, Wilfrid; Bruijnzeels, Marc A
Primary care has a central role in integrating care within a health system. However, conceptual ambiguity regarding integrated care hampers a systematic understanding. This paper proposes a conceptual framework that combines the concepts of primary care and integrated care, in order to understand the complexity of integrated care. The search method involved a combination of electronic database searches, hand searches of reference lists (snowball method) and contacting researchers in the field. The process of synthesizing the literature was iterative, to relate the concepts of primary care and integrated care. First, we identified the general principles of primary care and integrated care. Second, we connected the dimensions of integrated care and the principles of primary care. Finally, to improve content validity we held several meetings with researchers in the field to develop and refine our conceptual framework. The conceptual framework combines the functions of primary care with the dimensions of integrated care. Person-focused and population-based care serve as guiding principles for achieving integration across the care continuum. Integration plays complementary roles on the micro (clinical integration), meso (professional and organisational integration) and macro (system integration) level. Functional and normative integration ensure connectivity between the levels. The presented conceptual framework is a first step to achieve a better understanding of the inter-relationships among the dimensions of integrated care from a primary care perspective.
The Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study (PC-VDS) is a naturalistic and prospective cohort study concerning primary care patients with depressive disorders. It forms a collaborative research project between the Department of Mental and Alcohol Research of the National Public Health Institute, and the Primary Health Care Organization of the City of Vantaa. The aim is to obtain a comprehensive view on clinically significant depression in primary care, and to compare depressive patients in prima...
Sep 15, 2005 ... child-care facilities are rare at research institutions, a number of universities ... will have choices on the job market, and having excellent day-care ... Princeton University offers need-based financial aid, rather than a straight.
Simonian, Susan J.
This article reviews issues related to behavioral screening in pediatric primary care settings. Structural-organizational issues affecting the use of pediatric primary care screening are discussed. This study also reviewed selected screening instruments that have utility for use in the primary care setting. Clinical and research issues related to…
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Primary care. 96.47 Section 96.47 Public Welfare... and Tribal Organizations § 96.47 Primary care. Applications for direct funding of Indian tribes and tribal organizations under the primary care block grant must comply with 42 CFR Part 51c (Grants for...
Seeking to understand patient perspectives is an important step in the efforts to improve the quality of health care. The purpose of this study was to examine patient satisfaction with primary health care (PHC) services. A purposive sample of 19136 patients aged 18 years and above was interviewed at 266 PHC clinics in ...
Fazio, Sara B; Demasi, Monica; Farren, Erin; Frankl, Susan; Gottlieb, Barbara; Hoy, Jessica; Johnson, Amanda; Kasper, Jill; Lee, Patrick; McCarthy, Claire; Miller, Kathe; Morris, Juliana; O'Hare, Kitty; Rosales, Rachael; Simmons, Leigh; Smith, Benjamin; Treadway, Katherine; Goodell, Kristen; Ogur, Barbara
In light of the increasing demand for primary care services and the changing scope of health care, it is important to consider how the principles of primary care are taught in medical school. While the majority of schools have increased students' exposure to primary care, they have not developed a standardized primary care curriculum for undergraduate medical education. In 2013, the authors convened a group of educators from primary care internal medicine, pediatrics, family medicine, and medicine-pediatrics, as well as five medical students to create a blueprint for a primary care curriculum that could be integrated into a longitudinal primary care experience spanning undergraduate medical education and delivered to all students regardless of their eventual career choice.The authors organized this blueprint into three domains: care management, specific areas of content expertise, and understanding the role of primary care in the health care system. Within each domain, they described specific curriculum content, including longitudinality, generalism, central responsibility for managing care, therapeutic alliance/communication, approach to acute and chronic care, wellness and prevention, mental and behavioral health, systems improvement, interprofessional training, and population health, as well as competencies that all medical students should attain by graduation.The proposed curriculum incorporates important core features of doctoring, which are often affirmed by all disciplines but owned by none. The authors argue that primary care educators are natural stewards of this curriculum content and can ensure that it complements and strengthens all aspects of undergraduate medical education.
Baik, Seong-Yi; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Gonzales, Junius J
Depression is prevalent in primary care (PC) practices and poses a considerable public health burden in the United States. Despite nearly four decades of efforts to improve depression care quality in PC practices, a gap remains between desired treatment outcomes and the reality of how depression care is delivered. This article presents a real-world PC practice model of depression care, elucidating the processes and their influencing conditions. Grounded theory methodology was used for the data collection and analysis to develop a depression care model. Data were collected from 70 individual interviews (60 to 70 min each), three focus group interviews (n = 24, 2 h each), two surveys per clinician, and investigators' field notes on practice environments. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed for analysis. Surveys and field notes complemented interview data. Seventy primary care clinicians from 52 PC offices in the Midwest: 28 general internists, 28 family physicians, and 14 nurse practitioners. A depression care model was developed that illustrates how real-world conditions infuse complexity into each step of the depression care process. Depression care in PC settings is mediated through clinicians' interactions with patients, practice, and the local community. A clinician's interactional familiarity ("familiarity capital") was a powerful facilitator for depression care. For the recognition of depression, three previously reported processes and three conditions were confirmed. For the management of depression, 13 processes and 11 conditions were identified. Empowering the patient was a parallel process to the management of depression. The clinician's ability to develop and utilize interactional relationships and resources needed to recognize and treat a person with depression is key to depression care in primary care settings. The interactional context of depression care makes empowering the patient central to depression care delivery.
Dijk, C.E. van; Verheij, R.A.; Hansen, J.; Velden, L. van der; Nijpels, G.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Bakker, D.H. de
BACKGROUND: Primary care nurses play an important role in diabetes care, and were introduced in GP-practice partly to shift care from hospital to primary care. The aim of this study was to assess whether the referral rate for hospital treatment for diabetes type II (T2DM) patients has changed with
M de Wet
Full Text Available One of the challenges facing primary health care in South Africa is the delivery of quality eye care to all South Africans. In this regard the role of the primary health care worker, as the first point of contact, is crucial. This paper reports on the problems primary health care workers experience in providing quality eye care in Region B of the Free State. Problems identified by those involved in the study include the cumbersome referral system, the unavailability of appropriate medicine at clinics, the insufficient knowledge of primary health care workers regarding eye conditions and the lack of communication between the various eye care service providers. Suggestions to address the problems identified included more in-service training of primary health care workers regarding eye conditions, liaison with NGO’s providing eye care, decentralisation of services and the establishment of an eye care committee in the region.
Kringos, D.; Boerma, W.; Bourgueil, Y.; Cartier, T.; Dedeu, T.; Hasvold, T.; Hutchinson, A.; Lember, M.; Oleszczyk, M.; Pavlick, D.R.
This chapter analyses differences between countries and explains why countries differ regarding the structure and process of primary care. The components of primary care strength that are used in the analyses are health policy-making, workforce development and in the care process itself (see Fig.
Laberge, Maude; Wodchis, Walter P; Barnsley, Jan; Laporte, Audrey
Background The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between newly introduced primary care models in Ontario, Canada, and patients? primary care and total health care costs. A specific focus is on the payment mechanisms for primary care physicians, i.e. fee-for-service (FFS), enhanced-FFS, and blended capitation, and whether providers practiced as part of a multidisciplinary team. Methods Utilization data for a one year period was measured using administrative databases for a 1...
Djalali, Sima; Meier, Tatjana; Hasler, Susann; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan
Although there is widespread agreement on health- and cost-related benefits of strong primary care in health systems, little is known about the development of the primary care status over time in specific countries, especially in countries with a traditionally weak primary care sector such as Switzerland. The aim of our study was to assess the current strength of primary care in the Swiss health care system and to compare it with published results of earlier primary care assessments in Switzerland and other countries. A survey of experts and stakeholders with insights into the Swiss health care system was carried out between February and March 2014. The study was designed as mixed-modes survey with a self-administered questionnaire based on a set of 15 indicators for the assessment of primary care strength. Forty representatives of Swiss primary and secondary care, patient associations, funders, health care authority, policy makers and experts in health services research were addressed. Concordance between the indicators of a strong primary care system and the real situation in Swiss primary care was rated with 0-2 points (low-high concordance). A response rate of 62.5% was achieved. Participants rated concordance with five indicators as 0 (low), with seven indicators as 1 (medium) and with three indicators as 2 (high). In sum, Switzerland achieved 13 of 30 possible points. Low scores were assigned because of the following characteristics of Swiss primary care: inequitable local distribution of medical resources, relatively low earnings of primary care practitioners compared to specialists, low priority of primary care in medical education and training, lack of formal guidelines for information transfer between primary care practitioners and specialists and disregard of clinical routine data in the context of medical service planning. Compared to results of an earlier assessment in Switzerland, an improvement of seven indicators could be stated since 1995. As a
Semlitsch, Thomas; Abuzahra, Muna; Stigler, Florian; Jeitler, Klaus; Posch, Nicole; Siebenhofer, Andrea
Background The strengthening of primary health care is one major goal of the current national health reform in Austria. In this context, a new interdisciplinary concept was developed in 2014 that defines structures and requirements for future primary health care facilities. Objective The aim of this project was the development of quality indicators for the evaluation of the scheduled primary health care facilities in Austria, which are in accordance with the new Austrian concept. Methods We used the RAND/NPCRDC method for the development and selection of the quality indicators. We conducted systematic literature searches for existing measures in international databases for quality indicators as well as in bibliographic databases. All retrieved measures were evaluated and rated by an expert panel in a 2-step process regarding relevance and feasibility. Results Overall, the literature searches yielded 281 potentially relevant quality indicators, which were summarized to 65 different quality measures for primary health care. Out of these, the panel rated and accepted 30 measures as relevant and feasible for use in Austria. Five of these indicators were structure measures, 14 were process measures and the remaining 11 were outcome measures. Based on the Austrian primary health care concept, the ﬁnal set of quality indicators was grouped in the 5 following domains: Access to primary health care (5), quality of care (15), continuity of care (5), coordination of care (4), and safety (1). Conclusion This set of quality measures largely covers the four defined functions of primary health care. It enables standardized evaluation of primary health care facilities in Austria regarding the implementation of the Austrian primary health care concept as well as improvement in healthcare of the population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Millán, Teresa; Morera, Iván; Vargas, Nelson A
Teenager counseling to recognize risks and reinforce strengths is carried out in a primary care outpatient clinic since 2003. To describe the epidemiology and causes for consultation in this teenage counseling program. Retrospective review of the records of 116 teenagers (median age 13 years, 67% females) that received teenager counseling. Seventy percent of women and 50% of men came from nuclear families. More than two thirds were primogenital. Most adolescents were accompanied by their mother, that were the main adult raw model. Fifty percent had dysfunctional families. All were attending school regularly and 21% of women and 29% of men had repeated a school level. Sixty eight percent of women and 62% of men declared to have a life project. Twenty percent were worried about their physical appearance. Seventy seven percent of women and 62% of men considered themselves as happy. Thirty six percent of women and 14% of men smoked. The figures for alcohol consumption were 21% and 14%, respectively. The causes for consultation were obesity, overweight, unspecific symptoms, behavioral problems, bad school achievement, communication problems or pregnancy. Reasons for counseling were family dysfunction, low self esteem, bad school achievement and information about sexuality. The information obtained could help to improve the interdisciplinary work and to coordinate counseling with the family and schools.
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Primary Care Management Module (PCMM) was developed to assist VA facilities in implementing Primary Care. PCMM supports both Primary Care and non-Primary Care...
care policy which was intended to make health care which of the two alternative methods of health care available to individuals and families in the financing options of free health or DRF was community at very little or no cost at all. However, preferred by the community members within most health facilities would appear to ...
Wiborg, J.F.; Gieseler, D.; Lowe, B.
OBJECTIVE: To examine suicidal ideation in a sample of German primary care patients. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study and included 1455 primary care patients who visited 1 of 41 general practitioners (GPs) working at 19 different sites. Suicidal ideation and psychopathology were
Crampton, P; Dowell, A; Woodward, A
This paper aims to describe and explain the development of third sector primary care organisations in New Zealand. The third sector is the non-government, non-profit sector. International literature suggests that this sector fulfils an important role in democratic societies with market-based economies, providing services otherwise neglected by the government and private for-profit sectors. Third sector organisations provided a range of social services throughout New Zealand's colonial history. However, it was not until the 1980s that third sector organisations providing comprehensive primary medical and related services started having a significant presence in New Zealand. In 1994 a range of union health centres, tribally based Mäori health providers, and community-based primary care providers established a formal network -- Health Care Aotearoa. While not representing all third sector primary care providers in New Zealand, Health Care Aotearoa was the best-developed example of a grouping of third sector primary care organisations. Member organisations served populations that were largely non-European and lived in deprived areas, and tended to adopt population approaches to funding and provision of services. The development of Health Care Aotearoa has been consistent with international experience of third sector involvement -- there were perceived "failures" in government policies for funding primary care and private sector responses to these policies, resulting in lack of universal funding and provision of primary care and continuing patient co-payments. The principal policy implication concerns the role of the third sector in providing primary care services for vulnerable populations as a partial alternative to universal funding and provision of primary care. Such an alternative may be convenient for proponents of reduced state involvement in funding and provision of health care, but may not be desirable from the point of view of equity and social cohesion
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care internationally is approaching a new paradigm. The change agenda implicit in this threatens to de-stabilise and challenge established general practice and primary care. Discussion The Primary Care Amplification Model offers a means to harness the change agenda by 'amplifying' the strengths of established general practices around a 'beacon' practice. Conclusion Such 'beacon' practices can provide a mustering point for an expanded scope of practice for primary care, integrated primary/secondary service delivery, interprofessional learning, relevant local clinical research, and a focus on local service innovation, enhancing rather than fragmenting the collective capacity of existing primary care.
Gawaine Powell Davies
Full Text Available Introduction: To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Description of policy: Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Discussion: Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.
Davies, Gawaine Powell; Perkins, David; McDonald, Julie; Williams, Anna
To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.
Richards David A
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom, clinical guidelines recommend that services for depression and anxiety should be structured around a stepped care model, where patients receive treatment at different 'steps,' with the intensity of treatment (i.e., the amount and type increasing at each step if they fail to benefit at previous steps. There are very limited data available on the implementation of this model, particularly on the intensity of psychological treatment at each step. Our objective was to describe patient pathways through stepped care services and the impact of this on patient flow and management. Methods We recorded service design features of four National Health Service sites implementing stepped care (e.g., the types of treatments available and their links with other treatments, together with the actual treatments received by individual patients and their transitions between different treatment steps. We computed the proportions of patients accessing, receiving, and transiting between the various steps and mapped these proportions visually to illustrate patient movement. Results We collected throughput data on 7,698 patients referred. Patient pathways were highly complex and very variable within and between sites. The ratio of low (e.g., self-help to high-intensity (e.g., cognitive behaviour therapy treatments delivered varied between sites from 22:1, through 2.1:1, 1.4:1 to 0.5:1. The numbers of patients allocated directly to high-intensity treatment varied from 3% to 45%. Rates of stepping up from low-intensity treatment to high-intensity treatment were less than 10%. Conclusions When services attempt to implement the recommendation for stepped care in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines, there were significant differences in implementation and consequent high levels of variation in patient pathways. Evaluations driven by the principles of implementation science (such as targeted planning
dearth of information on patient satisfaction with HIV/AIDS care. This study sought ... with the doctor. Satisfaction rates were: 94.9% technical quality, ... of the delivery of care into several dimensions of contributed by studies carried out in Western. 14 ... efficiency of services as an index of patient needs of its clients. Secondly ...
Family planning is an important preventive measure against maternal and child ... users of the services, desire for more children, fear of side effects and partner's ... It is an essential component of primary development across the regions .
%) was the least common. On bivariate analysis ... the power to determine what their wives do or fail to ... pregnancy care while joint decision-making ... Other maternal health services rendered This data collection was done by a team of trained.
Simmons, Molly M; Gabrielian, Sonya; Byrne, Thomas; McCullough, Megan B; Smith, Jeffery L; Taylor, Thom J; O'Toole, Tom P; Kane, Vincent; Yakovchenko, Vera; McInnes, D Keith; Smelson, David A
Homeless veterans often have multiple health care and psychosocial needs, including assistance with access to housing and health care, as well as support for ongoing treatment engagement. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) developed specialized Homeless Patient Alignment Care Teams (HPACT) with the goal of offering an integrated, "one-stop program" to address housing and health care needs of homeless veterans. However, while 70% of HPACT's veteran enrollees have co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders, HPACT does not have a uniform, embedded treatment protocol for this subpopulation. One wraparound intervention designed to address the needs of homeless veterans with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders which is suitable to be integrated into HPACT clinic sites is the evidence-based practice called Maintaining Independence and Sobriety through Systems Integration, Outreach, and Networking-Veterans Edition, or MISSION-Vet. Despite the promise of MISSION-Vet within HPACT clinics, implementation of an evidence-based intervention within a busy program like HPACT can be difficult. The current study is being undertaken to identify an appropriate implementation strategy for MISSION-Vet within HPACT. The study will test the implementation platform called Facilitation and compared to implementation as usual (IU). The aims of this study are as follows: (1) Compare the extent to which IU or Facilitation strategies achieve fidelity to the MISSION-Vet intervention as delivered by HPACT homeless provider staff. (2) Compare the effects of Facilitation and IU strategies on the National HPACT Performance Measures. (3) Compare the effects of IU and Facilitation on the permanent housing status. (4) Identify and describe key stakeholders' (patients, providers, staff) experiences with, and perspectives on, the barriers to, and facilitators of implementing MISSION. Type III Hybrid modified stepped wedge implementation comparing IU to Facilitation
Snyder, Barbara K; Burack, Gail D; Petrova, Anna
Despite published guidelines on the need to provide comprehensive care to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning/queer (LGBTQ) youth, there has been limited research related to the deliverance of primary health care to this population. The goals of this study were to learn about LGBTQ youth's experiences with their primary care physicians and to identify areas for improvement. Youth attending 1 of 5 community-based programs completed a written questionnaire and participated in a focus group discussion regarding experiences at primary care visits, including topics discussed, counselling received, and physician communication. Most of the youth did not feel their health care needs were well met. The majority acknowledged poor patient-provider communication, disrespect, and lack of discussions about important topics such as sexual and emotional health. Participants cited concerns about confidentiality and inappropriate comments as barriers to care. Youth expressed a strong desire to have physicians be more aware of their needs and concerns.
Although less focused upon given the current emphasis on the patient-centered medical home innovation, the future for US primary care is arguably one that will be characterized by diversity in service delivery structures and personnel. The drivers of this diversity include increased patient demand requiring a larger number of primary care access points; the need for lower-cost delivery structures that can flourish in a low-margin business model; greater interest in primary care delivery by retailers and hospitals that see their involvement as a means to enhance their core business goals; the increased desire by non-physician providers to gain work independence; and a growing cadre of younger PCPs whose career and job preferences leave them open to working in a variety of different settings and structures. A key issue to ask of a more diversified primary care system is whether or not it will be characterized by competition or cooperation. While a competitive system would not be unexpected given historical and current trends, such a system would likely stunt the prospects for a full revitalization of US primary care. However, there is reason to believe that a cooperative system is possible and would be advantageous, given the mutual dependencies that already exist among primary care stakeholders, and additional steps that could be taken to enhance such dependencies even more into the future.
Nebot Adell, Carme; Pasarin Rua, Maribel; Canela Soler, Jaume; Sala Alvarez, Clara; Escosa Farga, Alex
To describe the process of development of community health in a territory where the Primary Health Care board decided to include it in its roadmap as a strategic line. Evaluative research using qualitative techniques, including SWOT analysis on community health. Two-steps study. Primary care teams (PCT) of the Catalan Health Institute in Barcelona city. The 24 PCT belonging to the Muntanya-Dreta Primary Care Service in Barcelona city, with 904 professionals serving 557,430 inhabitants. Application of qualitative methodology using SWOT analysis in two steps (two-step study). Step 1: Setting up a core group consisting of local PCT professionals; collecting the community projects across the territory; SWOT analysis. Step 2: From the needs identified in the previous phase, a plan was developed, including a set of training activities in community health: basic, advanced, and a workshop to exchange experiences from the PCTs. A total of 80 team professionals received specific training in the 4 workshops held, one of them an advanced level. Two workshops were held to exchange experiences with 165 representatives from the local teams, and 22 PCTs presenting their practices. In 2013, 6 out of 24 PCTs have had a community diagnosis performed. Community health has achieved a good level of development in some areas, but this is not the general situation in the health care system. Its progression depends on the management support they have, the local community dynamics, and the scope of the Primary Health Care. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Mullangi, Samyukta; Saint, Sanjay
Addressing the mounting primary care shortage in the United States has been a focus of educators and policy makers, especially with the passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010 and the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in 2015, placing increased pressure on the system. The Association of American Medical Colleges recently projected a shortage of as many as 65,000 primary care physicians by 2025, in part because fewer than 20% of medical students are picking primary care for a career. We examined the issue of attracting medical students to primary care through the lens of organizational behavior theory. Assuming there are reasons other than lower income potential for why students are inclined against primary care, we applied various principles of the Herzberg 2-factor theory to reimagine the operational flow and design of primary care. We conclude by proposing several solutions to enrich the job, such as decreasing documentation requirements, reducing the emphasis on specialty consultations, and elevating physicians to a supervisory role.
Full Text Available Daren R Anderson,1 Ianita Zlateva,1 Emil N Coman,2 Khushbu Khatri,1 Terrence Tian,1 Robert D Kerns3 1Weitzman Institute, Community Health Center, Inc., Middletown, 2UCONN Health Disparities Institute, University of Connecticut, Farmington, 3VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, USA Purpose: Treating pain in primary care is challenging. Primary care providers (PCPs receive limited training in pain care and express low confidence in their knowledge and ability to manage pain effectively. Models to improve pain outcomes have been developed, but not formally implemented in safety net practices where pain is particularly common. This study evaluated the impact of implementing the Stepped Care Model for Pain Management (SCM-PM at a large, multisite Federally Qualified Health Center. Methods: The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework guided the implementation of the SCM-PM. The multicomponent intervention included: education on pain care, new protocols for pain assessment and management, implementation of an opioid management dashboard, telehealth consultations, and enhanced onsite specialty resources. Participants included 25 PCPs and their patients with chronic pain (3,357 preintervention and 4,385 postintervention cared for at Community Health Center, Inc. Data were collected from the electronic health record and supplemented by chart reviews. Surveys were administered to PCPs to assess knowledge, attitudes, and confidence. Results: Providers’ pain knowledge scores increased to an average of 11% from baseline; self-rated confidence in ability to manage pain also increased. Use of opioid treatment agreements and urine drug screens increased significantly by 27.3% and 22.6%, respectively. Significant improvements were also noted in documentation of pain, pain treatment, and pain follow-up. Referrals to behavioral health providers for patients with pain increased by 5.96% (P=0.009. There was no
Full Text Available -Quality Assessment in the Primary care Dear Editor; I have read the article titled as “Implementation of Rogi Kalyan Samiti (RKS at Primary Health Centre Durvesh” with great interest. Shrivastava et all concluded that assessment mechanism for the achievement of objectives for the suggested RKS model was not successful (1. Hereby I would like to emphasize the importance of quality assessment (QA especially in the era of newly established primary care implementations in our country. Promotion of quality has been fundamental part of primary care health services. Nevertheless variations in quality of care exist even in the developed countries. Accomplishment of quality in the primary care has some barriers like administration and directorial factors, absence of evidence-based medicine practice lack of continuous medical education. Quality of health care is no doubt multifaceted model that covers all components of health structures and processes of care. Quality in the primary care set up includes patient physician relationship, immunization, maternal, adolescent, adult and geriatric health care, referral, non-communicable disease management and prescribing (2. Most countries are recently beginning the implementation of quality assessments in all walks of healthcare. Organizations like European society for quality and safety in family practice (EQuiP endeavor to accomplish quality by collaboration. There are reported developments and experiments related to the methodology, processes and outcomes of quality assessments of health care. Quality assessments will not only contribute the accomplishment of the program / project but also detect the areas where obstacles also exist. In order to speed up the adoption of QA and to circumvent the occurrence of mistakes, health policy makers and family physicians from different parts of the world should share their experiences. Consensus on quality in preventive medicine implementations can help to yield
Result: Majority of the mothers (89.2%) had primary/secondary education and 69.4% were traders. Most ... regards immunization, 22.7% of the children were not fully immunized. A total of 69 ..... Nigeria: Perception and Attitudes of the. 17.
one strategy that could be conducted anywhere, if the health care workers are trained and positively disposed ... places; regulate advertising, manufacturing. 13 .... Gender. Male. 52 (46.0). 61 (54.0). 0.0001. Significant. Female. 82 (73.2).
about teething the world over and especially ... children`s out-patients, dental and the ear, nose and throat clinics of a tertiary hospital in south-west Nigeria. ... parents, health care workers and personal experiences were the sources of beliefs ... None (0%) of the respondents had prior knowledge of proven causes of ear.
enrol in an insurance scheme feeling that they need more information on health insurance and the willingness to enrol in a ... and utilize the benefits of different types of health insurance services. Conclusion: The findings ..... improvements in access and quality of care, and the ... the 'rising tide' of and information technology.
these lines: eating together 261/669 (39%), hugging 149/668 (22%), shaking ... Level of education was associated with positive attitudes towards ocular .... the about 250 ethnic groups of Nigeria. ..... ocular cancer are reflection of challenges ... Care: Focus Groups with Older African ... youths in a Nigerian local population.
May 1, 2012 ... with the quality of care in a tertiary health facility in Delta State, Nigeria ... includes contributions from families, charges have been .... employees at 23.5%, self employed 19.1% of showed that most of the respondents (41.3%).
Loeb, Danielle F; Bayliss, Elizabeth A; Candrian, Carey; deGruy, Frank V; Binswanger, Ingrid A
Complex patients are increasingly common in primary care and often have poor clinical outcomes. Healthcare system barriers to effective care for complex patients have been previously described, but less is known about the potential impact and meaning of caring for complex patients on a daily basis for primary care providers (PCPs). Our objective was to describe PCPs' experiences providing care for complex patients, including their experiences of health system barriers and facilitators and their strategies to enhance provision of effective care. Using a general inductive approach, our qualitative research study was guided by an interpretive epistemology, or way of knowing. Our method for understanding included semi-structured in-depth interviews with internal medicine PCPs from two university-based and three community health clinics. We developed an interview guide, which included questions on PCPs' experiences, perceived system barriers and facilitators, and strategies to improve their ability to effectively treat complex patients. To focus interviews on real cases, providers were asked to bring de-identified clinical notes from patients they considered complex to the interview. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed to develop categories from the raw data, which were then conceptualized into broad themes after team-based discussion. PCPs (N = 15) described complex patients with multidimensional needs, such as socio-economic, medical, and mental health. A vision of optimal care emerged from the data, which included coordinating care, preventing hospitalizations, and developing patient trust. PCPs relied on professional values and individual care strategies to overcome local and system barriers. Team based approaches were endorsed to improve the management of complex patients. Given the barriers to effective care described by PCPs, individual PCP efforts alone are unlikely to meet the needs of complex patients. To fulfill PCP's expressed concepts of
Escobar, JI; Gara, M; Waitzkin, H; Silver, RC; Holman, A; Compton, W
The object of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of the DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis in a primary care setting. A large sample (N = 1456) of primary care users was given a structured interview to make diagnoses of mood, anxiety, and somatoform disorders and estimate levels of disability. The prevalence of hypochondriasis (DSM-IV) was about 3%. Patients with this disorder had higher levels of medically unexplained symptoms (abridged somatization) and were more impair...
Vanderlip, Erik R; Williams, Nancy A; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Katon, Wayne
People with serious mental illness often receive inadequate primary and preventive care services. Federal healthcare reform endorses team-based care that provides high quality primary and preventive care to at risk populations. Assertive community treatment (ACT) teams offer a proven, standardized treatment approach effective in improving mental health outcomes for the seriously mentally ill. Much is known about the effectiveness of ACT teams in improving mental health outcomes, but the degree to which medical care needs are addressed is not established. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which ACT teams address the physical health of the population they serve. ACT team leaders were invited to complete an anonymous, web-based survey to explore attitudes and activities involving the primary care needs of their clients. Information was collected regarding the use of health screening tools, physical health assessments, provision of medical care and collaboration with primary care systems. Data was analyzed from 127 team leaders across the country, of which 55 completed the entire survey. Nearly every ACT team leader believed ACT teams have a role in identifying and managing the medical co-morbidities of their clientele. ACT teams report participation in many primary care activities. ACT teams are providing a substantial amount of primary and preventive services to their population. The survey suggests standardization of physical health identification, management or referral processes within ACT teams may result in improved quality of medical care. ACT teams are in a unique position to improve physical health care by virtue of having medically trained staff and frequent, close contact with their clients.
Posey, L Michael; Tanzi, Maria G
To review relevant trends threatening primary care and the evidence supporting use of nonphysicians in primary and chronic care of patients with diabetes. Current medical and pharmacy literature as selected by authors. The care needed by patients with diabetes does not fit well into our current medical model for primary care, and an adequate supply of physicians is not likely to be available for primary care roles in coming years. Patients with diabetes who are placed on evidence-based regimens, are educated about their disease, are coached in ways that motivate them to lose weight and adopt other therapeutic lifestyle changes, and are adhering to and persisting with therapy will soon have improved clinical parameters. These quickly translate into fewer hospitalizations and emergency department visits. A growing body of literature supports the use of pharmacists and other nonphysicians in meeting the needs of patients with diabetes. Pharmacists should join nurse practitioners, specially trained nurses, and physician assistants as integral members of the health care team in providing care to patients with diabetes and, by logical extension, other chronic conditions. Demand for primary care is likely to outstrip the available supply of generalist physicians in the coming years. In addition to nurse practitioners and physician assistants, pharmacists should be considered for key roles in future interdisciplinary teams that triage and provide direct care to patients, including those with diabetes and other chronic conditions.
I recently had an adolescent patient who presented with a chief complaint of depression. He had classic symptoms of difficulty sleeping, dysthymia, and anhedonia (loss of interest in things that used to bring him joy). He was a very smart and self-aware 17-year-old, and was able to describe his symptoms easily. There were no concerns for manic episodes or psychosis, and he met diagnostic criteria for unipolar major depressive disorder. He denied suicidal ideation, and was already seeing a therapist weekly for the last several months. He had a strong family history of depression, with his father, aunts, and grandmother who also carried a diagnosis of depression. He presented with the support of his mother, asking about next steps, and specifically, pharmacotherapy. This patient is a perfect example of an adolescent who is a good candidate for initiation of antidepressant medication. Primary care pediatricians should feel comfortable with first-line agents for major depressive disorder in certain adolescents with depression, but many feel hesitant and rely on child and adolescent psychiatry colleagues for prescriptions. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Mayumi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Tazuma, Susumu; Furukawa, Akira; Nishii, Osamu; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Azuhata, Takeo; Itakura, Atsuo; Kamei, Seiji; Kondo, Hiroshi; Maeda, Shigenobu; Mihara, Hiroshi; Mizooka, Masafumi; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Obara, Hideaki; Sato, Norio; Takayama, Yuichi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Miyata, Tetsuro; Maruyama, Izumi; Honda, Hiroshi; Hirata, Koichi
Since acute abdomen requires accurate diagnosis and treatment within a particular time limit to prevent mortality, the Japanese Society for Abdominal Emergency Medicine in collaboration with four other medical societies launched the Practice Guidelines for Primary Care of Acute Abdomen that were the first English guidelines in the world for the management of acute abdomen. Here we provide the highlights of these guidelines [all clinical questions (CQs) and recommendations are shown in supplementary information]. A systematic and comprehensive evaluation of the evidence for epidemiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and primary treatment for acute abdomen was performed to develop the Practice Guidelines for Primary Care of Acute Abdomen 2015. Because many types of pathophysiological events underlie acute abdomen, these guidelines cover the primary care of adult patients with nontraumatic acute abdomen. A total of 108 questions based on 9 subject areas were used to compile 113 recommendations. The subject areas included definition, epidemiology, history taking, physical examination, laboratory test, imaging studies, differential diagnosis, initial treatment, and education. Japanese medical circumstances were considered for grading the recommendations to assure useful information. The two-step methods for the initial management of acute abdomen were proposed. Early use of transfusion and analgesia, particularly intravenous acetaminophen, were recommended. The Practice Guidelines for Primary Care of Acute Abdomen 2015 have been prepared as the first evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute abdomen. We hope that these guidelines contribute to clinical practice and improve the primary care and prognosis of patients with acute abdomen.
Quanjel, Tessa C C; Struijs, Jeroen N; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Baan, Caroline A; Ruwaard, Dirk
In an attempt to deal with the pressures on the healthcare system and to guarantee sustainability, changes are needed. This study is focused on a cardiology Primary Care Plus intervention in which cardiologists provide consultations with patients in a primary care setting in order to prevent unnecessary referrals to the hospital. This study explores which patients with non-acute and low-complexity cardiology-related health complaints should be excluded from Primary Care Plus and referred directly to specialist care in the hospital. This is a retrospective observational study based on quantitative data. Data collected between January 1 and December 31, 2015 were extracted from the electronic medical record system. Logistic regression analyses were used to select patient groups that should be excluded from referral to Primary Care Plus. In total, 1525 patients were included in the analyses. Results showed that male patients, older patients, those with the referral indication 'Stable Angina Pectoris' or 'Dyspnoea' and patients whose reason for referral was 'To confirm disease' or 'Screening of unclear pathology' had a significantly higher probability of being referred to hospital care after Primary Care Plus. To achieve efficiency one should exclude patient groups with a significantly higher probability of being referred to hospital care after Primary Care Plus. NTR6629 (Data registered: 25-08-2017) (registered retrospectively).
This thesis aimed to get insight into the elements that form (the strength of) primary care (PC) in Europe, their determinants and their impact on health care system outcomes. The results strengthen the evidence-base for policymakers to prioritise PC strengthening on the health policy agenda and
Background A constructive patient safety culture is a main prerequisite for patient safety and improvement initiatives. Until now, patient safety culture (PSC) research was mainly focused on hospital care, however, it is of equal importance in primary care. Measuring PSC informs practices on their
Picardi, Angelo; Adler, D A; Rogers, W H; Lega, I; Zerella, M P; Matteucci, G; Tarsitani, L; Caredda, M; Gigantesco, A; Biondi, M
Depression goes often unrecognised and untreated in non-psychiatric medical settings. Screening has recently gained acceptance as a first step towards improving depression recognition and management. The Primary Care Screener for Affective Disorders (PC-SAD) is a self-administered questionnaire to screen for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Dysthymic Disorder (Dys) which has a sophisticated scoring algorithm that confers several advantages. This study tested its performance against a 'gold standard' diagnostic interview in primary care. A total of 416 adults attending 13 urban general internal medicine primary care practices completed the PC-SAD. Of 409 who returned a valid PC-SAD, all those scoring positive (N=151) and a random sample (N=106) of those scoring negative were selected for a 3-month telephone follow-up assessment including the administration of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) by a psychiatrist who was masked to PC-SAD results. Most selected patients (N=212) took part in the follow-up assessment. After adjustment for partial verification bias the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value for MDD were 90%, 83%, 51%, and 98%. For Dys, the corresponding figures were 78%, 79%, 8%, and 88%. While some study limitations suggest caution in interpreting our results, this study corroborated the diagnostic validity of the PC-SAD, although the low PPV may limit its usefulness with regard to Dys. Given its good psychometric properties and the short average administration time, the PC-SAD might be the screening instrument of choice in settings where the technology for computer automated scoring is available.
Long, Theodore; Chaiyachati, Krisda; Bosu, Olatunde; Sircar, Sohini; Richards, Bradley; Garg, Megha; McGarry, Kelly; Solomon, Sonja; Berman, Rebecca; Curry, Leslie; Moriarty, John; Huot, Stephen
Workforce projections indicate a potential shortage of up to 31,000 adult primary care providers by the year 2025. Approximately 80 % of internal medicine residents and nearly two-thirds of primary care internal medicine residents do not plan to have a career in primary care or general internal medicine. We aimed to explore contextual and programmatic factors within primary care residency training environments that may influence career choices. This was a qualitative study based on semi-structured, in-person interviews. Three primary care internal medicine residency programs were purposefully selected to represent a diversity of training environments. Second and third year residents were interviewed. We used a survey guide developed from pilot interviews and existing literature. Three members of the research team independently coded the transcripts and developed the code structure based on the constant comparative method. The research team identified emerging themes and refined codes. ATLAS.ti was used for the analysis. We completed 24 interviews (12 second-year residents, and 12 third-year residents). The age range was 27-39 years. Four recurrent themes characterized contextual and programmatic factors contributing to residents' decision-making: resident expectations of a career in primary care, navigation of the boundary between social needs and medical needs, mentorship and perceptions of primary care, and structural features of the training program. Addressing aspects of training that may discourage residents from careers in primary care such as lack of diversity in outpatient experiences and resident frustration with their inability to address social needs of patients, and strengthening aspects of training that may encourage interests in careers in primary care such as mentorship and protected time away from inpatient responsibilities during primary care rotations, may increase the proportion of residents enrolled in primary care training programs who pursue
Borgès Da Silva, Roxane; Brault, Isabelle; Pineault, Raynald; Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Prud'homme, Alexandre; D'Amour, Danielle
Nurses are identified as a key provider in the management of patients in primary care. The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' experience of care in primary care as it pertained to the nursing role. The aim was to test the hypothesis that, in primary health care organizations (PHCOs) where patients are systematically followed by a nurse, and where nursing competencies are therefore optimally used, patients' experience of care is better. Based on a cross-sectional analysis combining organizational and experience of care surveys, we built 2 groups of PHCOs. The first group of PHCOs reported having a nurse who systematically followed patients. The second group had a nurse who performed a variety of activities but did not systematically follow patients. Five indicators of care were constructed based on patient questionnaires. Bivariate and multivariate linear mixed models with random intercepts and with patients nested within were used to analyze the experience of care indicators in both groups. Bivariate analyses revealed a better patient experience of care in PHCOs where a nurse systematically followed patients than in those where a nurse performed other activities. In multivariate analyses that included adjustment variables related to PHCOs and patients, the accessibility indicator was found to be higher. Results indicated that systematic follow-up of patients by nurses improved patients' experience of care in terms of accessibility. Using nurses' scope of practice to its full potential is a promising avenue for enhancing both patients' experience of care and health services efficiency.
Crabtree, Benjamin F.
I will focus my comments on uncertainty and surprise in primary care practices. I am a medical anthropologist by training, and have been a full-time researcher in family medicine for close to twenty years. In this talk I want to look at primary care practices as complex systems, particularly taking the perspective of translating evidence into practice. I am going to discuss briefly the challenges we have in primary care, and in medicine in general, of translating new evidence into the everyday care of patients. To do this, I will look at two studies that we have conducted on family practices, then think about how practices can be best characterized as complex adaptive systems. Finally, I will focus on the implications of this portrayal for disseminating new knowledge into practice.
Fawcett, Kenneth J; Brummel, Stacy; Byrnes, John J
Primary care practices can no longer consider ongoing quality assessment and management processes to be optional. There are ever-increasing demands from any number of interested parties for objectively measured proof of outcomes and quality of care. Primary Care Partners (PCP), a 16-site ambulatory affiliate of the Spectrum Health system in Grand Rapids, Michigan, began such a continuous quality improvement (CQI) effort in 2005. The intent was to develop an ongoing systematic process that would raise its performance potential and improve patient outcomes in the areas of chronic disease management and preventive services. This article describes the partnerships PCP established, specific benchmarks and measurements used, processes utilized, and results to date. This could be used as a roadmap for other primary care systems that are working to establish CQI in their daily operations.
Full Text Available Although most people with Type 2 diabetes receive their diabetes care in primary care, only a limited amount is known about the quality of diabetes care in this setting. We investigated the provision and receipt of diabetes care delivered in UK primary care.Postal surveys with all healthcare professionals and a random sample of 100 patients with Type 2 diabetes from 99 UK primary care practices.326/361 (90.3% doctors, 163/186 (87.6% nurses and 3591 patients (41.8% returned a questionnaire. Clinicians reported giving advice about lifestyle behaviours (e.g. 88% would routinely advise about calorie restriction; 99.6% about increasing exercise more often than patients reported having received it (43% and 42% and correlations between clinician and patient report were low. Patients' reported levels of confidence about managing their diabetes were moderately high; a median (range of 21% (3% to 39% of patients reporting being not confident about various areas of diabetes self-management.Primary care practices have organisational structures in place and are, as judged by routine quality indicators, delivering high quality care. There remain evidence-practice gaps in the care provided and in the self confidence that patients have for key aspects of self management and further research is needed to address these issues. Future research should use robust designs and appropriately designed studies to investigate how best to improve this situation.
...] Medicare Program; Comprehensive Primary Care Initiative AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services... organizations to participate in the Comprehensive Primary Care initiative (CPC), a multipayer model designed to... the Comprehensive Primary Care initiative or the application process. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I...
... for mental disorders is enormous 4. Primary care for mental health enhances access 5. Primary care for mental health promotes respect of human rights 6. Primary care for mental health is affordab...
The inadequate planning of health professionals in Spain has boosted the way out of doctors overseas. The United Kingdom is one of the countries chosen by Spanish doctors to develop their job. The National Health Service is a health system similar to the Spanish one. Health care services are financing mainly through taxes. The right to health care is linked to the citizen condition. The provision of health care is a mix-up of public and private enterprises. Primary Care is much closed to Spanish Primary Care. Doctors are "self-employed like" professionals. They can set their surgeries in a free area previously designed by the government. They have the right to make their own team and to manage their own budget. Medical salary is linked to professional capability and curriculum vitae. The main role of a General Practitioner is the prevention. Team work and coordination within primary and specialised care is more developed than in Spain. The access to diagnostic tests and to the specialist is controlled through waiting lists. General Practitioners work as gate-keepers. Patients may choose freely their doctor and consultations and hospital care are free at the point of use. Within the United Kingdom there are also health regions with problems due to inequalities to access and to treatment. There is a training path and the access to it is by Curricula. The number of training jobs is regulated by the local needs. Continuing education is compulsory and strictly regulated local and nationally. The National Health Service was the example for the Spanish health reform in 1986. While Spanish Primary health care is of quality, the efficiency of the health system would improve if staff in Primary Care settings were managed in a similar way to the British's. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Wensaas, Knut-Arne; Hungin, Amrit Pali
Diverticular disease is a chronic and common condition, and yet the impact of diverticular disease in primary care is largely unknown. The diagnosis of diverticular disease relies on the demonstration of diverticula in the colon, and the necessary investigations are often not available in primary care. The specificity and sensitivity of symptoms, clinical signs and laboratory tests alone are generally low and consequently the diagnostic process will be characterized by uncertainty. Also, the criteria for symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease in the absence of macroscopic inflammation are not clearly defined. Therefore both the prevalence of diverticular disease and the incidence of diverticulitis in primary care are unknown. Current recommendations for treatment and follow-up of patients with acute diverticulitis are based on studies where the diagnosis has been verified by computerized tomography. The results cannot be directly transferred to primary care where the diagnosis has to rely on the interpretation of symptoms and signs. Therefore, one must allow for greater diagnostic uncertainty, and safety netting in the event of unexpected development of the condition is an important aspect of the management of diverticulitis in primary care. The highest prevalence of diverticular disease is found among older patients, where multimorbidity and polypharmacy is common. The challenge is to remember the possible contribution of diverticular disease to the patient's overall condition and to foresee its implications in terms of advice and treatment in relation to other diseases.
Abstract This article is part of a series on Primary Care Research in the African context and focuses on programme evaluation. Different types of programme evaluation are outlined: developmental, process, outcome and impact. Eight steps to follow in designing your programme evaluation are then described in some detail: engage stakeholders; establish what is known; describe the programme; define the evaluation and select a study design; define the indicators; plan and manage data collection an...
Arnold, L M; Gebke, K B; Choy, E H S
Fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic disorder defined by widespread pain, often accompanied by fatigue and sleep disturbance, affects up to one in 20 patients in primary care. Although most patients with FM are managed in primary care, diagnosis and treatment continue to present a challenge, and patients are often referred to specialists. Furthermore, the lack of a clear patient pathway often results in patients being passed from specialist to specialist, exhaustive investigations, prescription of multiple drugs to treat different symptoms, delays in diagnosis, increased disability and increased healthcare resource utilisation. We will discuss the current and evolving understanding of FM, and recommend improvements in the management and treatment of FM, highlighting the role of the primary care physician, and the place of the medical home in FM management. We reviewed the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of FM by searching PubMed and references from relevant articles, and selected articles on the basis of quality, relevance to the illness and importance in illustrating current management pathways and the potential for future improvements. The implementation of a framework for chronic pain management in primary care would limit unnecessary, time-consuming, and costly tests, reduce diagnostic delay and improve patient outcomes. The patient-centred medical home (PCMH), a management framework that has been successfully implemented in other chronic diseases, might improve the care of patients with FM in primary care, by bringing together a team of professionals with a range of skills and training. Although there remain several barriers to overcome, implementation of a PCMH would allow patients with FM, like those with other chronic conditions, to be successfully managed in the primary care setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Olesen, Frede
BACKGROUND. Palliative care for cancer patients is an important part of a GP's work. Although every GP is frequently involved in care for terminally ill cancer patients, only little is known about how these palliative efforts are perceived by the patients and their families, a knowledge...... that is vital to further improve palliative care in the primary sector.AIM. The aim of the study was to analyse the quality of palliative home care with focus on the GP's role based on evaluations by relatives of recently deceased cancer patients and professionals from both the primary and secondary health care...... approach.RESULTS. The analyses revealed several key areas, e.g.: 1) How to take, give and maintain professional responsibility for palliative home care. 2) A need for transparent communication both among primary care professionals and among professionals across the primary/secondary interface. 3...
van der Molen, Thys; Schokker, Siebrig
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent disease, with cigarette smoking being the main risk factor. Prevention is crucial in the fight against COPD. Whereas primary prevention is targeted on whole populations, patient populations are the focus of primary care; therefore, prevention in this setting is mainly aimed at preventing further deterioration of the disease in patients who present with the first signs of disease (secondary prevention). Prevention of COPD in primary care requires detection of COPD at an early stage. An accurate definition of COPD is crucial in this identification process. The benefits of detecting new patients with COPD should be determined before recommending screening and case-finding programs in primary care. No evidence is available that screening by spirometry results in significant health gains. Effective treatment options in patients with mild disease are lacking. Smoking cessation is the cornerstone of COPD prevention. Because cigarette smoking is not only a major cause of COPD but is also a major cause of many other diseases, a decline in tobacco smoking would result in substantial health benefits.
Escobar, J I; Gara, M; Waitzkin, H; Silver, R C; Holman, A; Compton, W
The object of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of the DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis in a primary care setting. A large sample (N = 1456) of primary care users was given a structured interview to make diagnoses of mood, anxiety, and somatoform disorders and estimate levels of disability. The prevalence of hypochondriasis (DSM-IV) was about 3%. Patients with this disorder had higher levels of medically unexplained symptoms (abridged somatization) and were more impaired in their physical functioning than patients without the disorder. Of the various psychopathologies examined, major depressive syndromes were the most frequent among patients with hypochondriasis. Interestingly, unlike somatization disorder, hypochondriasis was not related to any demographic factor. Hypochondriasis is a relatively rare condition in primary care that is largely separable from somatization disorder but seems closely intertwined with the more severe depressive syndromes.
Effective communication requires direct interaction between the hospitalist and the primary care provider using a standardized method of information exchange with the opportunity to ask questions and assign accountability for follow-up roles. The discharge summary is part of the process but does not provide the important aspects of handoff, such as closed loop communication and role assignments. Hospital discharge is a significant safety risk for patients, with more than half of discharged patients experiencing at least one error. Hospitalist and primary care providers need to collaborate to develop a standardized system to communicate about shared patients that meets handoff requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study considers both spatial and a-spatial variables in examining accessibility to primary healthcare in the three largest urban areas of Ohio (Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati. Spatial access emphasizes the importance of geographic barriers between individuals and primary care physicians, while a-spatial variables include non-geographic barriers or facilitators such as age, sex, race, income, social class, education, living conditions and language skills. Population and socioeconomic data were obtained from the 2000 Census, and primary care physician data for 2008 was provided by the Ohio Medical Board. We first implemented a two-step method based on a floating catchment area using Geographic Information Systems to measure spatial accessibility in terms of 30-minute travel times. We then used principal component analysis to group various socio-demographic variables into three groups: (1 socioeconomic disadvantages, (2 living conditions, and (3 healthcare needs. Finally, spatial and a-spatial variables were integrated to identify areas with poor access to primary care in Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati. KEYWORDS: Geographic information systems, healthcare access, spatial accessibility, primary care shortage areas
Jan L. Losby
Full Text Available Objectives: Increasing demands on primary care providers have created a need for systems-level initiatives to improve primary care delivery. The purpose of this article is to describe and present outcomes for 2 such initiatives: the Pennsylvania Academy of Family Physicians’ Residency Program Collaborative (RPC and the St Johnsbury Vermont Community Health Team (CHT. Methods: Researchers conducted case studies of the initiatives using mixed methods, including secondary analysis of program and electronic health record data, systematic document review, and interviews. Results: The RPC is a learning collaborative that teaches quality improvement and patient centeredness to primary care providers, residents, clinical support staff, and administrative staff in residency programs. Results show that participation in a higher number of live learning sessions resulted in a significant increase in patient-centered medical home recognition attainment and significant improvements in performance in diabetic process measures including eye examinations (14.3%, P = .004, eye referrals (13.82%, P = .013, foot examinations (15.73%, P = .003, smoking cessation (15.83%, P = .012, and self-management goals (25.45%, P = .001. As a community-clinical linkages model, CHT involves primary care practices, community health workers (CHWs, and community partners. Results suggest that CHT members successfully work together to coordinate comprehensive care for the individuals they serve. Further, individuals exposed to CHWs experienced increased stability in access to health insurance ( P = .001 and prescription drugs ( P = .000 and the need for health education counseling ( P = .000. Conclusion: Findings from this study indicate that these 2 system-level strategies have the promise to improve primary care delivery. Additional research can determine the extent to which these strategies can improve other health outcomes.
Halcomb, Elizabeth; Stephens, Moira; Bryce, Julianne; Foley, Elizabeth; Ashley, Christine
This paper reports an integrative review of the literature on nursing competency standards for nurses working in primary health care and, in particular, general practice. Internationally, there is growing emphasis on building a strong primary health care nursing workforce to meet the challenges of rising chronic and complex disease. However, there has been limited emphasis on examining the nursing workforce in this setting. Integrative review. A comprehensive search of relevant electronic databases using keywords (e.g. 'competencies', 'competen*' and 'primary health care', 'general practice' and 'nurs*') was combined with searching of the Internet using the Google scholar search engine. Experts were approached to identify relevant grey literature. Key websites were also searched and the reference lists of retrieved sources were followed up. The search focussed on English language literature published since 2000. Limited published literature reports on competency standards for nurses working in general practice and primary health care. Of the literature that is available, there are differences in the reporting of how the competency standards were developed. A number of common themes were identified across the included competency standards, including clinical practice, communication, professionalism and health promotion. Many competency standards also included teamwork, education, research/evaluation, information technology and the primary health care environment. Given the potential value of competency standards, further work is required to develop and test robust standards that can communicate the skills and knowledge required of nurses working in primary health care settings to policy makers, employers, other health professionals and consumers. Competency standards are important tools for communicating the role of nurses to consumers and other health professionals, as well as defining this role for employers, policy makers and educators. Understanding the content
Perry, Danielle; Kolber, Michael R; Korownyk, Christina; Lindblad, Adrienne J; Ramji, Jamil; Ton, Joey; Allan, G Michael
To summarize 10 high-quality studies from 2017 that have strong relevance to primary care practice. Study selection involved routine literature surveillance by a group of primary care health professionals. This included screening abstracts of important journals and Evidence Alerts, as well as searching the American College of Physicians Journal Club. Topics of the 2017 articles include whether treating subclinical hypothyroidism improves outcomes or symptoms; whether evolocumab reduces cardiovascular disease as well as low-density lipoprotein levels; whether lifestyle interventions reduce medication use in patients with diabetes; whether vitamin D prevents cardiovascular disease, cancer, or upper respiratory tract infections; whether canagliflozin reduces clinical events in patients with diabetes; how corticosteroid injections affect knee osteoarthritis; whether drained abscesses benefit from antibiotic treatment; whether patients with diabetes benefit from bariatric surgery; whether exenatide reduces clinical events in patients with diabetes; and whether tympanostomy tubes affect outcomes in recurrent acute otitis media or chronic otitis media. We provide brief summaries, context where needed, and final recommendations for 10 studies with potential effects on primary care. We also briefly review 5 "runner-up" studies. Research from 2017 produced several high-quality studies in diabetes management. These have demonstrated benefit for alternative therapies and offered evidence not previously available. This year's selection of studies also provided information on a variety of conditions and therapies that are, or might become, more common in primary care settings. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
Miller, P; Lukert, B; Broy, S; Civitelli, R; Fleischmann, R; Gagel, R; Khosla, S; Lucas, M; Maricic, M; Pacifici, R; Recker, R; Sarran, H S; Short, B; Short, M J
The shift in health care delivery from a subspecialty to primary care system has transferred the responsibility of preventing osteoporotic fractures from specialists in metabolic bone disease to the web of physicians--family practitioners, general internists, pediatricians, and gynecologists--who provide the bulk of primary care. The challenge for this group of physicians is to decrease the rising prevalence of osteoporotic hip and vertebral fractures while operating within the cost parameters. It is the goal of this brief summary to provide primary practitioners with focused guidelines for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis based on new and exciting developments. Prevention and treatment will change rapidly over the next decade and these advances will require changes in these recommendations. We identified patients at risk for osteoporosis and provided indications for bone mass measurement, criteria for diagnosis of osteoporosis, therapeutic interventions, and biochemical markers of the disease. Prevention and treatment are discussed, including hormone replacement therapy and use of calcitonin, sodium fluoride, bisphosphonates, and serum estrogen receptor modulators. Postmenopausal osteoporosis should no longer be an accepted process of aging. It is both preventable and treatable. Primary care physicians must proactively prevent and treat osteoporosis in their daily practice, and combination therapies are suggested.
Although meniscal tears are a very common phenomenon uncertainty exists about the diagnosis and treatment of meniscal tears in primary care. This thesis aims to provide evidence for general practitioners and physical therapists regarding the diagnosis and management of patients with a suspected
Wilson, A.; Windak, A.; Oleszczyk, M.; Wilm, S.; Hasvold, T.; Kringos, D.
This chapter will be devoted to the dimensions which have been grouped in the framework as “process” and that focus on essential features of service delivery in primary care. In addition to the breadth of services delivered, a comparative overview will be provided of variation in access to services,
Veenstra, Petra; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; de Jong, Gosse; Baarveld, Frans; van den Berg, J. S. Peter
Introduction Migraine is a common disorder with a high burden. Adequate treatment results in improvement of quality of life. Migraine patients are mainly treated by general practitioners (GPs), but there is still room for improvement. This study investigated whether primary care nurses could improve
Full Text Available Stephen Gillam Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Pay-for-performance (P4P schemes have become increasingly common in primary care, and this article reviews their impact. It is based primarily on existing systematic reviews. The evidence suggests that P4P schemes can change health professionals' behavior and improve recorded disease management of those clinical processes that are incentivized. P4P may narrow inequalities in performance comparing deprived with nondeprived areas. However, such schemes have unintended consequences. Whether P4P improves the patient experience, the outcomes of care or population health is less clear. These practical uncertainties mirror the ethical concerns of many clinicians that a reductionist approach to managing markers of chronic disease runs counter to the humanitarian values of family practice. The variation in P4P schemes between countries reflects different historical and organizational contexts. With so much uncertainty regarding the effects of P4P, policy makers are well advised to proceed carefully with the implementation of such schemes until and unless clearer evidence for their cost–benefit emerges. Keywords: financial incentives, pay for performance, quality improvement, primary care
to the easiness to interpret the symptoms of the underlying cancer. Methods. We conducted a population-based cohort study using survey data on time intervals linked at an individually level to routine collected data on demographics from Danish registries. Using logistic regression we estimated the odds......Introduction. Diagnostic delays affect cancer survival negatively. Thus, the time interval from symptomatic presentation to a GP until referral to secondary care (i.e. primary care interval (PCI)), should be as short as possible. Lower socioeconomic position seems associated with poorer cancer...... younger than 45 years of age and older than 54 years of age had longer primary care interval than patients aged ‘45-54’ years. No other associations for SEP characteristics were observed. The findings may imply that GPs are referring patients regardless of SEP, although some room for improvement prevails...
Thrun, Mark W
Expansions in health care coverage, a comprehensive framework for HIV prevention and care, electronic medical records, and novel HIV prevention modalities create a current opportunity to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic in the United States. HIV is increasingly disproportionately found in populations historically at higher risk, including gay men and other men who have sex with men, transgender women, injection drug users, and persons of color. This underscores the need for providers to identify persons at higher risk for HIV and assure the provision of screening and prevention services. In turn, universal screening for HIV-testing every adolescent and adult at least once in their lifetime-will increasingly be necessary to find the infrequent cases of HIV in lower risk populations. In both these domains, primary care providers will play a unique role in complementing traditional providers of HIV prevention and care services by increasing the proportion of their patients who have been screened for HIV, opening dialogues around sexual health, including asking about sexual orientation and gender identity, and prescribing antivirals as pre- and postexposure prophylaxis for their non-HIV-infected patients. Primary care providers must understand and embrace their importance along the HIV prevention and care continuum.
Mohr, David C; Young, Gary J
Research generally shows that greater resource utilization fails to translate into higher-quality healthcare. Organizational slack is defined as extra organizational resources needed to meet demand. Divergent views exist on organizational slack in healthcare. Some investigators view slack negatively because it is wasteful, inefficient, and costly, whereas others view slack positively because it allows flexibility in work practices, expanding available services, and protecting against environmental changes. We tested a curvilinear relationship between organizational slack and care quality. The study setting was primary care clinics (n=568) in the Veterans Health Administration. We examined organizational slack using the patient panel size per clinic capacity ratio and support staff per provider ratio staffing guidelines developed by the Veterans Health Administration. Patient-level measures were influenza vaccinations, continuity of care, and overall quality of care ratings. We obtained 2 independent patient samples with approximately 28,000 and 62,000 observations for the analysis. We used multilevel modeling and examined the linear and quadratic terms for both organizational slack measures. We found a significant curvilinear effect for panel size per clinic capacity for influenza vaccinations and overall quality of care. We also found support staff per provider exhibited a curvilinear effect for continuity of care and influenza vaccinations. Greater available resources led to better care, but at a certain point, additional resources provided minimal quality gains. Our findings highlight the importance of primary care clinic managers monitoring staffing levels. Healthcare systems managing a balanced provider workload and staff-mix may realize better patient care delivery and cost management.
Tasca, Giorgio A; Koszycki, Diana; Brugnera, Agostino; Chyurlia, Livia; Hammond, Nicole; Francis, Kylie; Ritchie, Kerri; Ivanova, Iryna; Proulx, Genevieve; Wilson, Brian; Beaulac, Julie; Bissada, Hany; Beasley, Erin; Mcquaid, Nancy; Grenon, Renee; Fortin-Langelier, Benjamin; Compare, Angelo; Balfour, Louise
A stepped care approach involves patients first receiving low-intensity treatment followed by higher intensity treatment. This two-step randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a sequential stepped care approach for the psychological treatment of binge-eating disorder (BED). In the first step, all participants with BED (n = 135) received unguided self-help (USH) based on a cognitive-behavioral therapy model. In the second step, participants who remained in the trial were randomized either to 16 weeks of group psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy (GPIP) (n = 39) or to a no-treatment control condition (n = 46). Outcomes were assessed for USH in step 1, and then for step 2 up to 6-months post-treatment using multilevel regression slope discontinuity models. In the first step, USH resulted in large and statistically significant reductions in the frequency of binge eating. Statistically significant moderate to large reductions in eating disorder cognitions were also noted. In the second step, there was no difference in change in frequency of binge eating between GPIP and the control condition. Compared with controls, GPIP resulted in significant and large improvement in attachment avoidance and interpersonal problems. The findings indicated that a second step of a stepped care approach did not significantly reduce binge-eating symptoms beyond the effects of USH alone. The study provided some evidence for the second step potentially to reduce factors known to maintain binge eating in the long run, such as attachment avoidance and interpersonal problems.
Mayumi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Tazuma, Susumu; Furukawa, Akira; Nishii, Osamu; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Azuhata, Takeo; Itakura, Atsuo; Kamei, Seiji; Kondo, Hiroshi; Maeda, Shigenobu; Mihara, Hiroshi; Mizooka, Masafumi; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Obara, Hideaki; Sato, Norio; Takayama, Yuichi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Miyata, Tetsuro; Maruyama, Izumi; Honda, Hiroshi; Hirata, Koichi
Since acute abdomen requires accurate diagnosis and treatment within a particular time limit to prevent mortality, the Japanese Society for Abdominal Emergency Medicine, in collaboration with four other medical societies, launched the Practice Guidelines for Primary Care of Acute Abdomen that were the first English guidelines in the world for the management of acute abdomen. Here we provide the highlights of these guidelines (all clinical questions and recommendations were shown in supplementary information). A systematic and comprehensive evaluation of the evidence for epidemiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and primary treatment for acute abdomen was performed to develop the Practice Guidelines for Primary Care of Acute Abdomen 2015. Because many types of pathophysiological events underlie acute abdomen, these guidelines cover the primary care of adult patients with nontraumatic acute abdomen. A total of 108 questions based on nine subject areas were used to compile 113 recommendations. The subject areas included definition, epidemiology, history taking, physical examination, laboratory test, imaging studies, differential diagnosis, initial treatment, and education. Japanese medical circumstances were considered for grading the recommendations to assure useful information. The two-step methods for the initial management of acute abdomen were proposed. Early use of transfusion and analgesia, particularly intravenous acetaminophen, were recommended. The Practice Guidelines for Primary Care of Acute Abdomen 2015 have been prepared as the first evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute abdomen. We hope that these guidelines contribute to clinical practice and improve the primary care and prognosis of patients with acute abdomen. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.
In 2007, a new wave of local reforms involving choice for the population and privatisation of providers was initiated in Swedish primary care. Important objectives behind reforms were to strengthen the role of primary care and to improve performance in terms of access and responsiveness. The purpose of this article was to compare the characteristics of the new models and to discuss changes in financial incentives for providers and challenges regarding governance from the part of county councils. A majority of the models being introduced across the 21 county councils can best be described as innovative combinations between a comprehensive responsibility for providers and significant degrees of freedom regarding choice for the population. Key financial characteristics of fixed payment and comprehensive financial responsibility for providers may create financial incentives to under-provide care. Informed choices by the population, in combination with reasonably low barriers for providers to enter the primary care market, should theoretically counterbalance such incentives. To facilitate such competition is indeed a challenge, not only because of difficulties in implementing informed choices but also because the new models favour large and/or horizontally integrated providers. To prevent monopolistic behaviour, county councils may have to accept more competition as well as more governance over clinical practice than initially intended.
Full Text Available Laurin J Mack, Bruce D RybarczykClinical Psychology Program, Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USAAbstract: Chronic insomnia is a highly prevalent condition that has psychological and medical consequences for those who suffer from it and financial consequences for both the individual and society. In spite of the fact that nonpharmacologic treatment methods have been developed and shown to be as or more effective than medication for chronic insomnia, these methods remain greatly underutilized due to an absence of properly trained therapists and a general failure in dissemination. A stepped-care model implemented in a primary-care setting offers a public health solution to the problem of treatment accessibility and delivery of behavioral treatments for insomnia. Such a model would provide graduated levels of cognitive behavioral intervention, with corresponding increases in intensity and cost, including self-help, manualized group treatment, brief individual treatment, and finally, individualized behavioral treatment provided by a specialist. To provide such a systematic approach, future research would need to confirm several aspects of the model, and a cadre of professionals would need to be trained to administer manualized care in both group and individualized formats.Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy, chronic insomnia, stepped care, primary care
Rogan, Lisa; Boaden, Ruth
Purpose Principal-agent theory (PAT) has been used to understand relationships among different professional groups and explain performance management between organisations, but is rarely used for research within primary care. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether PAT can be used to attain a better understanding of performance management in primary care. Design/methodology/approach Purposive sampling was used to identify a range of general practices in the North-west of England. Interviews were carried out with directors, managers and clinicians in commissioning and regional performance management organisations and within general practices, and the data analysed using matrix analysis techniques to produce a case study of performance management. Findings There are various elements of the principal-agent framework that can be applied in primary care. Goal alignment is relevant, but can only be achieved through clear, strategic direction and consistent interpretation of objectives at all levels. There is confusion between performance measurement and performance management and a tendency to focus on things that are easy to measure whilst omitting aspects of care that are more difficult to capture. Appropriate use of incentives, good communication, clinical engagement, ownership and trust affect the degree to which information asymmetry is overcome and goal alignment achieved. Achieving the right balance between accountability and clinical autonomy is important to ensure governance and financial balance without stifling innovation. Originality/value The principal-agent theoretical framework can be used to attain a better understanding of performance management in primary care; although it is likely that only partial goal alignment will be achieved, dependent on the extent and level of alignment of a range of factors.
Harris, R; Bridgman, C; Ahmad, M; Bowes, L; Haley, R; Saleem, S; Singh, R; Taylor, S
Care pathways have been used in a variety of ways: firstly to support quality improvement through standardising clinical processes, but also for secondary purposes, by purchasers of healthcare, to monitor activity and health outcomes and to commission services. This paper focuses on reporting a secondary use of care pathways: to commission and monitor performance of primary dental care services. Findings of a project involving three dental practices implementing a system based on rating patients according to their risk of disease and need for care are outlined. Data from surgery-based clinical databases and interviews from commissioners and providers are reported. The use of both process and outcome key performance indicators in this context is discussed, as well as issues which arise such as attributability of outcome measures and strategic approaches to improving quality of care.
Ngunyulu, R N; Peu, M D; Mulaudzi, F M; Mataboge, M L S; Phiri, S S
Collaborative HIV care between the nurses and traditional health practitioners is an important strategy to improve health care of people living with HIV. To explore and describe the views of nurses regarding collaborative HIV care in primary healthcare services in the City of Tshwane, South Africa. A qualitative, descriptive design was used to explore and describe the views of nurses who met the study's inclusion criteria. In-depth individual interviews were conducted to collect data from purposively selected nurses. Content analysis was used to analyse data. Two main categories were developed during the data analysis stage. The views of nurses and health system challenges regarding collaborative HIV care. The study findings revealed that there was inadequate collaborative HIV care between the nurses and the traditional health practitioners. It is evident that there is inadequate policy implementation, monitoring and evaluation regarding collaboration in HIV care. The study findings might influence policymakers to consider the importance of collaborative HIV care, and improve the quality of care by strengthening the referral system and follow-up of people living with HIV and AIDS, as a result the health outcomes as implied in the Sustainable Development Goals 2030 might be improved. Training and involvement of traditional health practitioners in the nursing and health policy should be considered to enhance and build a trustworthy working relationship between the nurses and the traditional health practitioners in HIV care. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.
Langenbrunner, James R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Issac F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ross, Timothy J [UNM
Tools, methods, and theories for assessing and quantifying uncertainties vary by application. Uncertainty quantification tasks have unique desiderata and circumstances. To realistically assess uncertainty requires the engineer/scientist to specify mathematical models, the physical phenomena of interest, and the theory or framework for assessments. For example, Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) specifically identifies uncertainties using probability theory, and therefore, PRA's lack formal procedures for quantifying uncertainties that are not probabilistic. The Phenomena Identification and Ranking Technique (PIRT) proceeds by ranking phenomena using scoring criteria that results in linguistic descriptors, such as importance ranked with words, 'High/Medium/Low.' The use of words allows PIRT to be flexible, but the analysis may then be difficult to combine with other uncertainty theories. We propose that a necessary step for the development of a procedure or protocol for uncertainty quantification (UQ) is the application of an Uncertainty Inventory. An Uncertainty Inventory should be considered and performed in the earliest stages of UQ.
This paper explores the entrepreneurial role of dentists in primary care dentistry. It reviews the changing context of dentistry, not least the reforms being introduced by the health and social care bill. It suggests that this new context will reinforce the need to consider the business side of dental practice, in particular, the importance of quality, creativity and innovation, alongside the importance of meeting the needs of patients. An entrepreneurial approach will be required in order to sustain dental practice in an increasingly competitive environment.
Hung, Dorothy Y; Harrison, Michael I; Martinez, Meghan C; Luft, Harold S
We examined a wide range of performance outcomes after Lean methodology-a leading strategy to enhance efficiency and patient value-was implemented and scaled across all primary care clinics in a nonprofit, ambulatory care delivery system. Using a stepped wedge approach, we assessed changes associated with the phased introduction of Lean-based redesigns across 46 primary care departments in 17 different clinic locations. Longitudinal analysis of operational metrics included: workflow efficiency, physician productivity, operating expenses, clinical quality, and satisfaction among patients, physicians, and staff. We used interrupted time series analysis with generalized linear mixed models to estimate Lean impacts over time. Projected outcomes in the absence of changes (ie, counterfactuals) were compared with observed outcomes after Lean redesigns were implemented, and mean differences were assessed using 95% bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs). We observed systemwide improvements in workflow efficiencies (eg, 95% CI, 5.8-10.4) and physician productivity (95% CI, 3.9-27.2), with no adverse effects on clinical quality. Patient satisfaction increased with respect to access to care (95% CI, 15.2-20.7), handling of personal issues (95% CI, 2.1-6.9), and overall experience of care (95% CI, 11.0-17.0), but decreased with respect to interactions with care providers (95% CI, -13.4 to -5.7). Departmental operating costs decreased, and annual staff and physician satisfaction scores increased particularly among early adopters, with key improvements in employee engagement, connection to purpose, relationships with staff, and physician time spent working. Lean redesigns can benefit primary care patients, physicians, and staff without negatively impacting the quality of clinical care. Study results may lead other delivery system leaders to innovate using Lean techniques and may further enhance support for Lean learning among public and private payers.
Hestbæk, Lise; Munck, Anders; Hartvigsen, Lisbeth
Study Design. Baseline description of a multicenter cohort study. Objective. To describe patients with low back pain (LBP) in both chiropractic and general practice in Denmark. Background. To optimize standards of care in the primary healthcare sector, detailed knowledge of the patient populations...... in different settings is needed. In Denmark, most LBP-patients access primary healthcare through chiropractic or general practice. Methods. Chiropractors and general practitioners recruited adult patients seeking care for LBP. Extensive baseline questionnaires were obtained and descriptive analyses presented...... of five patients had had previous episodes, one-fourth were on sick leave, and the LBP considerably limited daily activities. The general practice patients were slightly older and less educated, more often females, and generally worse on all disease-related parameters than chiropractic patients. All...
Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Santos, José Manuel; Lapetra, José
The scientific method is capable of being applied in primary care. In this article we defend the role of the "scientific entertainer "as strategic and necessary in achieving this goal. The task has to include playful and light-hearted content. We explore some words in English that may help us to understand the concept of "scientific entertainer" from a semantic point of view (showman, master of ceremonies, entrepreneur, go-between) also in Spanish language (counsellor, mediator, methodologist) and finally in Latin and Greek (tripalium, negotium, chronos, kairos). We define the clinical, manager or research health-worker who is skilled in primary care as a "primarylogist". Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Bowie, Paul; Jeffcott, Shelly
In the second paper of this series, we provide a brief overview of the scientific discipline of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). Traditionally the HFE focus in healthcare has been in acute hospital settings which are perceived to exhibit characteristics more similar to other high-risk industries already applying related principles and methods. This paper argues that primary care is an area which could benefit extensively from an HFE approach, specifically in improving the performance and well-being of people and organisations. To this end, we define the purpose of HFE, outline its three specialist sub-domains (physical, cognitive and organisational HFE) and provide examples of guiding HFE principles and practices. Additionally, we describe HFE issues of significance to primary care education, improvement and research and outline early plans for building capacity and capability in this setting.
Goldberg, D. P.; Reed, G. M.; Robles, R.
Objective A World Health Organization (WHO) field study conducted in five countries assessed proposals for Bodily Stress Syndrome (BSS) and Health Anxiety (HA) for the Primary Health Care Version of ICD-11. BSS requires multiple somatic symptoms not caused by known physical pathology and associated...... with distress or dysfunction. HA involves persistent, intrusive fears of having an illness or intense preoccupation with and misinterpretation of bodily sensations. This study examined how the proposed descriptions for BSS and HA corresponded to what was observed by working primary care physicians (PCPs......) in participating countries, and the relationship of BSS and HA to depressive and anxiety disorders and to disability. Method PCPs referred patients judged to have BSS or HA, who were then interviewed using a standardized psychiatric interview and a standardized measure of disability. Results Of 587 patients...
Sayed Mahdi Madani
Full Text Available the primary health cares are among the individuals’ primary rights and their outsourcing can pave the way to more suitable use of resources for the field inside and outside of the organization and in this way make possible the better cares. The aim of this study was to determine the type of primary health cares that can be outsourced in Iran; this study embarked upon specifying which one, among the primary health cares, has ability of being outsourced by contractors outside the organization. This applied study has been done by a descriptive and cross-sectional method. According to the other studies at first a general framework was founded; hence the main framework with respect to the opinions of 30 experts. Thereafter a questionnaire was compiled for ensuring its correctness and gathering other experts’ opinions. The method of experts’ judgment was used for validity and for its reliability with distribution of 30 copies the method of calculating Cronbach’ salpha, which was 0.925. Then it was distributed among experts and 786 questionnaires were completed and collected; by using the method of factor of factor and confirmatory analysis as well as the descriptive statistics we embarked upon investigating and deducing the results. For statistical investigation the software SPSS21 and AMOS20 were used. In the factor of outsourcing activities one factor only covering 55.25% of variables variance was discovered. The results suggest that the item q10, “possibility of outsourcing the concrete activities”, with factor load of 0.791 and the item q6, "outsourcing and standardization", with factor load of 0.668 have respectively the highest load and the lowest one in the definition of the factor of cares of outsourcing. The more the primary health cares are more concrete, more simple, more standardized and have the further differentiability, their successful outsourcing is highly possible; in addition only those activities are able to be
Barry, Joe M; Darker, Catherine D; Thomas, David E; Allwright, Shane PA; O'Dowd, Tom
Abstract Background An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT)...
ALLWRIGHT, SHANE PATRICIA ANN; DARKER, CATHERINE; BARRY, JOSEPH; O'DOWD, THOMAS
PUBLISHED Background: An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods: This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of ...
This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing their researc...
Full Text Available The management of depression in the primary care setting should ideally take a biological, psychological, and sociologicalapproach. Antidepressants are the most commonly used biological agents in the treatment of depression. Psychologicaltherapies and psychosocial interventions improve the outcome of treatment when combined with pharmacotherapy.Clinical depression is treatable and thus efforts should be made to alleviate the suffering of patients with depression.
Loeb, Danielle F; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Candrian, Carey; Bayliss, Elizabeth A
Primary care physicians play unique roles caring for complex patients, often acting as the hub for their care and coordinating care among specialists. To inform the clinical application of new models of care for complex patients, we sought to understand how these physicians conceptualize patient complexity and to develop a corresponding typology. We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with internal medicine primary care physicians from 5 clinics associated with a university hospital and a community health hospital. We used systematic nonprobabilistic sampling to achieve an even distribution of sex, years in practice, and type of practice. The interviews were analyzed using a team-based participatory general inductive approach. The 15 physicians in this study endorsed a multidimensional concept of patient complexity. The physicians perceived patients to be complex if they had an exacerbating factor-a medical illness, mental illness, socioeconomic challenge, or behavior or trait (or some combination thereof)-that complicated care for chronic medical illnesses. This perspective of primary care physicians caring for complex patients can help refine models of complexity to design interventions or models of care that improve outcomes for these patients. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Full Text Available Paolo Mannelli,1 Li-Tzy Wu1–41Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Medicine, 3Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, 4Center for Child and Family Policy, Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USARecent reports on prescription opioid misuse and abuse have described unprecedented peaks of a national crisis and the only answer is to expand prevention and treatment, including different levels of care.1 Nonetheless, concerns remain about the ability of busy primary care settings to manage problem opioid users along with other patients. In particular, proposed extensions of buprenorphine treatment, a critically effective intervention for opioid use disorder (OUD, are cautiously considered due to the potential risk of misuse or abuse.2 General practitioners are already facing this burden daily in the treatment of chronic pain, and expert supervision and treatment model adjustment are needed to help improve outcomes. Approximately 20% of patients in primary care have noncancer pain symptoms, with most of them receiving opioid prescriptions by their physicians, and their number is increasing.3 Pain diagnoses are comparable in severity to those of tertiary centers and are complicated by significant psychiatric comorbidity, with a measurable lifetime risk of developing OUD.4,5 Some primary care physicians report frustration about opioid abuse and diversion by their patients; support from pain specialists would improve their competence, the quality f their performance, and the ability to identify patients at risk of opioid misuse.6 Thus, buprenorphine treatment should not be adding to a complex clinical scenario. To this end, the promising models of care emphasize the integration of medical with psychological and pharmacological expertise for the management of OUD.
Fincher, Ruth-Marie E.; And Others
This study identified factors in graduating medical students' choice of primary versus nonprimary care specialty. Subjects were 509 students at the Medical College of Georgia in 1988-90. Students could be classified by such factors as desire for longitudinal patient care opportunities, monetary rewards, perception of lifestyle, and perception of…
Sloane, P D; Dallara, J; Roach, C; Bailey, K E; Mitchell, M; McNutt, R
We sought to determine the types of dizziness problems that are commonly seen in primary care practices, and to bring to light clinical and demographic factors that predict management decisions. We undertook a prospective cohort study with a 6-month follow-up using data gathered in nine primary care practices in two North Carolina counties. Subjects were 144 dizziness patients examined by primary care physicians. Data collected included demographic characteristics, a standardized dizziness history, physician estimation of symptom severity and diagnostic certainty, and physician "worry" about arrhythmia, transient ischemic attack, and brain tumor. Physicians reported their management decisions and diagnosis (or differential diagnosis) by responding to a questionnaire after completing the patient encounter. A 6-month follow-up chart review and physician interview were completed on 140 patients (97.2 percent); information obtained included changes in diagnosis and patient mortality. The most common diagnoses were labyrinthitis, otitis media, benign positional vertigo, unspecified presyncope, sinusitis, and transient ischemic attack. The initial diagnosis changed during the 6-month follow-up period in 34 (24.3 percent) of patients. The overall course of these patients was benign, however, with only one death occurring during the 6-month follow-up period. Patients' dizziness tended to be managed using a combination of strategies, including office laboratory testing (33.6 percent), advanced testing (11.4 percent), referral to a specialist (9.3 percent), medication (61.3 percent), observation (71.8 percent), reassurance (41.6 percent), and behavioral recommendations (15.0 percent). Office laboratory testing was associated with younger patient age, a suspected metabolic or endocrine disorder, and physician worry about a cardiac arrhythmia; advanced laboratory testing was associated with suspected cardiovascular or neurologic disorders. Medication tended to be prescribed
Sippel, J M; Osborne, M L; Bjornson, W; Goldberg, B; Buist, A S
To document smoking cessation rates achieved by applying the 1996 Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) smoking cessation guidelines for primary care clinics, compare these quit rates with historical results, and determine if quit rates improve with an additional motivational intervention that includes education as well as spirometry and carbon monoxide measurements. Randomized clinical trial. Two university-affiliated community primary care clinics. Two hundred five smokers with routinely scheduled appointments. All smokers were given advice and support according to AHCPR guidelines. Half of the subjects received additional education with spirometry and carbon monoxide measurements. Quit rate was evaluated at 9-month follow-up. Eleven percent of smokers were sustained quitters at follow-up. Sustained quit rate was no different for intervention and control groups (9% vs 14%; [OR] 0.6; 95% [CI] 0.2, 1.4). Nicotine replacement therapy was strongly associated with sustained cessation (OR 6.7; 95% CI 2.3, 19.6). Subjects without insurance were the least likely to use nicotine replacement therapy ( p =.05). Historical data from previously published studies showed that 2% of smokers quit following physician advice, and additional support similar to AHCPR guidelines increased the quit rate to 5%. The sustained smoking cessation rate achieved by following AHCPR guidelines was 11% at 9 months, which compares favorably with historical results. Additional education with spirometry did not improve the quit rate. Nicotine replacement therapy was the strongest predictor of cessation, yet was used infrequently owing to cost. These findings support the use of AHCPR guidelines in primary care clinics, but do not support routine spirometry for motivating patients similar to those studied here.
Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Govender, Indiran; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A; Mash, Bob
This article is part of a series on African primary care research and gives practical guidance on qualitative data analysis and the presentation of qualitative findings. After an overview of qualitative methods and analytical approaches, the article focuses particularly on content analysis, using the framework method as an example. The steps of familiarisation, creating a thematic index, indexing, charting, interpretation and confirmation are described. Key concepts with regard to establishing the quality and trustworthiness of data analysis are described. Finally, an approach to the presentation of qualitative findings is given.
Siegrist, Monika; Freiberger, Ellen; Geilhof, Barbara; Salb, Johannes; Hentschke, Christian; Landendoerfer, Peter; Linde, Klause; Halle, Martin; Blank, Wolfgang A
Falls and fall-related injuries are common in community-dwelling elderly people. Effective multifactorial fall prevention programs in the primary care setting may be a promising approach to reduce the incidence rate of falls. In a cluster randomized trial in 33 general practices 378 people living independently and at high risk of falling (65 to 94 years old; 285 women) were allocated to either a 16 week exercise-based fall prevention program including muscle strengthening and challenging balance training exercises, combined with a 12 week home-based exercise program (222 participants), or to usual care (156 participants). The main outcome was number of falls over a period of 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the number of fall-related injuries, physical function (Timed-Up-and-Go-Test, TUG, Chair-Stand-Test, CST, modified Romberg Test), and fear of falling. In the intervention group (n=222 patients in 17 general practices) 291 falls occurred, compared to 367 falls in the usual care group (n=156 patients in 16 general practices). We observed a lower incidence rate for falls in the intervention group (incidence rate ratio/IRR: 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.35; 0.84], p=0.007) and for fall-related injuries (IRR: 0.66; [0.42; 0.94], p=0.033). Additionally, patients in the intervention group showed significant improvements in secondary endpoints (TUG: -2.39 s, [-3.91; -0.87], p=0.014; mRomberg: 1.70 s, [0.35; 3.04], p=0.037; fear of falling: -2.28 points, [-3.87; -0.69], p=0.022) compared to usual care. A complex falls prevention program in a primary care setting was effective in reducing falls and fall-related injuries in community dwelling older adults at risk.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current approaches for AD prediction are based on biomarkers, which are however of restricted availability in primary care. AD prediction tools for primary care are therefore needed. We present a prediction score based on information that can be obtained in the primary care setting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a longitudinal cohort study in 3.055 non-demented individuals above 75 years recruited via primary care chart registries (Study on Aging, Cognition and Dementia, AgeCoDe. After the baseline investigation we performed three follow-up investigations at 18 months intervals with incident dementia as the primary outcome. The best set of predictors was extracted from the baseline variables in one randomly selected half of the sample. This set included age, subjective memory impairment, performance on delayed verbal recall and verbal fluency, on the Mini-Mental-State-Examination, and on an instrumental activities of daily living scale. These variables were aggregated to a prediction score, which achieved a prediction accuracy of 0.84 for AD. The score was applied to the second half of the sample (test cohort. Here, the prediction accuracy was 0.79. With a cut-off of at least 80% sensitivity in the first cohort, 79.6% sensitivity, 66.4% specificity, 14.7% positive predictive value (PPV and 97.8% negative predictive value of (NPV for AD were achieved in the test cohort. At a cut-off for a high risk population (5% of individuals with the highest risk score in the first cohort the PPV for AD was 39.1% (52% for any dementia in the test cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The prediction score has useful prediction accuracy. It can define individuals (1 sensitively for low cost-low risk interventions, or (2 more specific and with increased PPV for measures of prevention with greater costs or risks. As it is independent of technical aids, it may be used within large scale prevention programs.
Sheila Z. Chang
Full Text Available Background: Pediatric subspecialists can participate in the care of obese children. Objective: To describe steps to help subspecialty providers initiate quality improvement efforts in obesity care. Methods: An anonymous patient data download, provider surveys and interviews assessed subspecialty providers’ identification and perspectives of childhood obesity and gathered information on perceived roles and care strategies. Participating divisions received summary analyses of quantitative and qualitative data and met with study leaders to develop visions for division/service-specific care improvement. Results: Among 13 divisions/services, subspecialists’ perceived role varied by specialty; many expressed the need for cross-collaboration. All survey informants agreed that identification was the first step, and expressed interest in obtaining additional resources to improve care. Conclusions: Subspecialists were interested in improving the quality and coordination of obesity care for patients across our tertiary care setting. Developing quality improvement projects to achieve greater pediatric obesity care goals starts with engagement of providers toward better identifying and managing childhood obesity.
Kuo Christina L
Full Text Available Abstract Background While physicians are key to primary preventive care, their delivery rate is sub-optimal. Assessment of physician beliefs is integral to understanding current behavior and the conceptualization of strategies to increase delivery. Methods A focus group with regional primary care physician (PCP Opinion Leaders was conducted as a formative step towards regional assessment of attitudes and barriers regarding preventive care delivery in primary care. Following the PRECEDE-PROCEED model, the focus group aim was to identify conceptual themes that characterize PCP beliefs and practices regarding preventive care. Seven male and five female PCPs (family medicine, internal medicine participated in the audiotaped discussion of their perceptions and behaviors in delivery of primary preventive care. The transcribed audiotape was qualitatively analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Results The PCPs' own perceived role in daily practice was a significant barrier to primary preventive care. The prevailing PCP model was the "one-stop-shop" physician who could provide anything from primary to tertiary care, but whose provision was dominated by the delivery of immediate diagnoses and treatments, namely secondary care. Conclusions The secondary-tertiary prevention PCP model sustained the expectation of immediacy of corrective action, cure, and satisfaction sought by patients and physicians alike, and, thereby, de-prioritized primary prevention in practice. Multiple barriers beyond the immediate control of PCP must be surmounted for the full integration of primary prevention in primary care practice. However, independent of other barriers, physician cognitive value of primary prevention in practice, a base mediator of physician behavior, will need to be increased to frame the likelihood of such integration.
Martin-Misener, Ruth; Kilpatrick, Kelley; Donald, Faith; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Rayner, Jennifer; Valaitis, Ruta; Carter, Nancy; Miller, Patricia A; Landry, Véronique; Harbman, Patricia; Charbonneau-Smith, Renee; McKinlay, R James; Ziegler, Erin; Boesveld, Sarah; Lamb, Alyson
activities relevant to community-based primary health care nurse practitioners. Tools to measure all the components of these role are needed when determining panel/caseload size. Outcomes research is absent in the determination of panel/caseload size. There are few systems in place to track and measure community-based primary health care nurse practitioner activities. The development of such mechanisms is an important next step to assess community-based primary health care nurse practitioner productivity and determine patient panel/caseload size. Decisions about panel/caseload size must take into account the effects of nurse practitioner activities on outcomes of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tummers, Marcia; Knoop, Hans; Bleijenberg, Gijs
Objective: In this randomized noninferiority study, the effectiveness and efficiency of stepped care for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) was compared to care as usual. Stepped care was formed by guided self-instruction, followed by cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) if the patient desired it. Care as usual encompassed CBT after a waiting period.…
Arun Kumar Agnihotri
experiences of, and confidence in, managing these patients in primary care, their perceived role and ... KEY WORDS: Gambling addiction; Primary care; General practitioners; Management ..... Petry NM, Blanco C, Auriacombe M, Borges.
García-Molina Sáez, Celia; Urbieta Sanz, Elena; Madrigal de Torres, Manuel; Piñera Salmerón, Pascual; Pérez Cárceles, María D
To quantify and to evaluate the reliability of Primary Care (PC) computerised medication records of as an information source of patient chronic medications, and to identify associated factors with the presence of discrepancies. A descriptive cross-sectional study. General Referral Hospital in Murcia. Patients admitted to the cardiology-chest diseases unit, during the months of February to April 2013, on home treatment, who agreed to participate in the study. Evaluation of the reliability of Primary Care computerised medication records by analysing the concordance, by identifying discrepancies, between the active medication in these records and that recorded in pharmacist interview with the patient/caregiver. Identification of associated factors with the presence of discrepancies was analysed using a multivariate logistic regression. The study included a total of 308 patients with a mean of 70.9 years (13.0 SD). The concordance of active ingredients was 83.7%, and this decreased to 34.7% when taking the dosage into account. Discrepancies were found in 97.1% of patients. The most frequent discrepancy was omission of frequency (35.6%), commission (drug added unjustifiably) (14.6%), and drug omission (12.7%). Age older than 65 years (1.98 [1.08 to 3.64]), multiple chronic diseases (1.89 [1.04 to 3.42]), and have a narcotic or psychotropic drug prescribed (2.22 [1.16 to 4.24]), were the factors associated with the presence of discrepancies. Primary Care computerised medication records, although of undoubted interest, are not be reliable enough to be used as the sole source of information on patient chronic medications when admitted to hospital. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Pessoa, Vanira Matos; Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Teixeira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo
Territorially-based participative analytical methodologies taking the environmental question and work into consideration are essential for effective primary health care. The study analyzed work and environment-related processes in the primary health care area and their repercussions on the health of workers and the community in a rural city in Ceará, whose economy is based on agriculture for export,. It sought to redeem the area and the proposal of actions focused on health needs by the social subjects through the making of social, environmental and work-related maps in workshops within the framework of action research. Examining the situation from a critical perspective, based on social participation and social determination of the health-disease process with regard to the relations between production, environment and health, was the most important step in the participative map-making process, with the qualitative material interpreted in light of discourse analysis. The process helped identify the health needs, the redemption of the area, strengthened the cooperation between sectors and the tie between the health of the worker and that of the environment, and represented an advance towards the eradication of the causes of poor primary health care services.
Miller, William L; Cohen-Katz, Joanne
The renewal of primary care waits just ahead. The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) movement and a refreshing breeze of collaboration signal its arrival with demonstration projects and pilots appearing across the country. An early message from this work suggests that the development of collaborative, cross-disciplinary teams may be essential for the success of the PCMH. Our focus in this article is on training existing health care professionals toward being thriving members of this transformed clinical care team in a relationship-centered PCMH. Our description of the optimal conditions for collaborative training begins with delineating three types of teams and how they relate to levels of collaboration. We then describe how to create a supportive, safe learning environment for this type of training, using a different model of professional socialization, and tools for building culture. Critical skills related to practice development and the cross-disciplinary collaborative processes are also included. Despite significant obstacles in readying current clinicians to be members of thriving collaborative teams, a few next steps toward implementing collaborative training programs for existing professionals are possible using competency-based and adult learning approaches. Grasping the long awaited arrival of collaborative primary health care will also require delivery system and payment reform. Until that happens, there is an abundance of work to be done envisioning new collaborative training programs and initiating a nation-wide effort to motivate and reeducate our colleagues. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Interprofessional Relations; Primary Health Care/Organization & Administration; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/Prevention & Control; Primary Prevention/Methods; Risk Reduction Behavior; Randomized Controlled Trial; Life Style
Sifaki-Pistolla, Dimitra; Chatzea, Vasiliki-Eirini; Markaki, Adelais; Kritikos, Kyriakos; Petelos, Elena; Lionis, Christos
Despite several countrywide attempts to strengthen and standardise the primary healthcare (PHC) system, Greece is still lacking a sustainable, policy-based model of integrated services. The aim of our study was to identify operational integration levels through existing patient care pathways and to recommend an alternative PHC model for optimum integration. The study was part of a large state-funded project, which included 22 randomly selected PHC units located across two health regions of Greece. Dimensions of operational integration in PHC were selected based on the work of Kringos and colleagues. A five-point Likert-type scale, coupled with an algorithm, was used to capture and transform theoretical framework features into measurable attributes. PHC services were grouped under the main categories of chronic care, urgent/acute care, preventive care, and home care. A web-based platform was used to assess patient pathways, evaluate integration levels and propose improvement actions. Analysis relied on a comparison of actual pathways versus optimal, the latter ones having been identified through literature review. Overall integration varied among units. The majority (57%) of units corresponded to a basic level. Integration by type of PHC service ranged as follows: basic (86%) or poor (14%) for chronic care units, poor (78%) or basic (22%) for urgent/acute care units, basic (50%) for preventive care units, and partial or basic (50%) for home care units. The actual pathways across all four categories of PHC services differed from those captured in the optimum integration model. Certain similarities were observed in the operational flows between chronic care management and urgent/acute care management. Such similarities were present at the highest level of abstraction, but also in common steps along the operational flows. Existing patient care pathways were mapped and analysed, and recommendations for an optimum integration PHC model were made. The developed web
Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing prevalence of diabetes and heightened awareness of the benefits of early and intensive disease management have increased service demands and expectations not only of primary care physicians but also of diabetes specialists. While research has addressed issues related to referral into specialist care, much less has been published about the transition from diabetes specialists back to primary care. Understanding the concerns of family physicians related to discharge of diabetes care from specialist centers can support the development of strategies that facilitate this transition and result in broader access to limited specialist services. This study was undertaken to explore primary care physician (PCP perspectives and concerns related to reassuming responsibility for diabetes care after referral to a specialized diabetes center. Methods Qualitative data were collected through three focus groups. Sessions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded and sorted with themes identified using a constant comparison method. The study was undertaken through the regional academic referral center for adult diabetes care in Ottawa, Canada. Participants included 22 primary care physicians representing a variety of referral frequencies, practice types and settings. Results Participants described facilitators and barriers to successful transition of diabetes care at the provider, patient and systems level. Major facilitators included clear communication of a detailed, structured plan of care, ongoing access to specialist services for advice or re-referral, continuing education and mentoring for PCPs. Identified provider barriers were gaps in PCP knowledge and confidence related to diabetes treatment, excessive workload and competing time demands. Systems deterrents included reimbursement policies for health professionals and inadequate funding for diabetes medications and supplies. At the PCP-patient interface
Bojar, I; Wdowiak, L; Kwiatosz-Muc, M
The aim of the research is to get to know opinions of primary health care managers concerning working of primary health care and concerning quality of medical services offered by family doctors out-patient clinics. The research among managers of primary health care units took place in all out-patient clinics in Lublin province. Research instrument was survey questionnaire of authors own construction. Results were statistically analyzed. From 460 surveys sent, 108 questionnaires were accepted to analysis. Majority of managers of out-patient clinics of primary health care is satisfied with the way and the quality of work of employed staff. In opinion of 71.3% of managers access to family doctor services is very good. Availability of primary health care services is better estimated by managers of not public units. The occupied local provide comfortable work for the staff in opinion of 78.5% of surveyed managers of out-patient clinics. Managers estimate the level of their services as very good (37.96%) and good (37.96%) comparing to other such a subjects present in the market. Internal program of improving quality is run in 22% of out-patient clinics, which were investigated. Managers of primary health care units assess the quality of their services as good and very good. They estimate positively the comfort and politeness in serving patients as well as technical status of equipment and the lodging. They assess availability of their services as very good. Large group of managers of family doctors practices recognizes neighborhood practices as a competitors.
Depression in the elderly presenting at primary care settings is usually under- detected by primary care physicians. This study assessed the prevalence of depression and the utility of the Geriatric Depression Scale (Short Form) in detecting depression in elderly patients in primary care populations in Ilorin, Nigeria. This was ...
Brenes Bermúdez, F J; Cozar Olmo, J M; Esteban Fuertes, M; Fernández-Pro Ledesma, A; Molero García, J M
Despite the high incidence of urinary incontinence (UI), health professional awareness of this disease is low, which in itself is not serious but significantly limits the lives of the patients. The Primary Care associations, Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria [SEMERGEN], Sociedad Española de Médicos Generales y de Familia [SEMG], Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria [semFYC]) along with the Asociación Española de Urología (EAU) have developed this consensus with the proposal of making GPs aware, and to help them in the diagnosis, treatment and referral to Urologists. The first goal in primary care must be the detection of UI, thus an opportunistic screening at least once in the lifetime of asymptomatic women > 40 years old and asymptomatic men > 55 years old. The diagnosis, based on medical history and physical examination, must determine the type and severity of the UI in order to refer severe cases to the Urologist. Except for overactive bladder (OAB), non-pharmacological conservative treatment is the first approach to uncomplicated UI in females and males. Antimuscarinics are the only drugs that have demonstrated efficacy and safety in urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and OAB. In men with mixed symptoms, excluding severe obstruction cases, a combination therapy of alpha-blockers and antimuscarinics should be chosen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Ricketts, T C
Rural primary care programs were established in areas where there was thought to be no competition for patients. However, evidence from site visits and surveys of a national sample of subsidized programs revealed a pattern of competitive responses by the clinics. In this study of 193 rural primary care programs, mail and telephone surveys produced uniform data on the organization, operation, finances, and utilization of a representative sample of clinics. The programs were found to compete in terms of: (1) price, (2) service mix, (3) staff availability, (4) structural accessibility, (5) outreach, and (6) targeting a segment of the market. The competitive strategies employed by the clinics had consequences that affected their productivity and financial stability. The strategies were related to the perceived missions of the programs, and depended heavily upon the degree of isolation of the program and the targeting of the services. The competitive strategy chosen by a particular program could not be predicted based on service area population and apparent competitors in the service area. The goals and objectives of the programs had more to do with their competitive responses than with market characteristics. Moreover, the chosen strategies may not meet the demands of those markets.
Weide, M.G.; Fakiri, F. el; Kulu Glasgow, I.; Grielen, S.J.; Zee, J. van der
This book gives an overview of primary health care in the Southern Mediterranean region. For twelve countries detailed information is provided on the structure and financing of health care, the organisation of primary care (including mother and child health care and immunisation programmes), health
Asan, Onur; Montague, Enid
The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of video-based observation research methods in primary care environment and highlight important methodological considerations and provide practical guidance for primary care and human factors researchers conducting video studies to understand patient-clinician interaction in primary care settings. We reviewed studies in the literature which used video methods in health care research, and we also used our own experience based on the video studies we conducted in primary care settings. This paper highlighted the benefits of using video techniques, such as multi-channel recording and video coding, and compared "unmanned" video recording with the traditional observation method in primary care research. We proposed a list that can be followed step by step to conduct an effective video study in a primary care setting for a given problem. This paper also described obstacles, researchers should anticipate when using video recording methods in future studies. With the new technological improvements, video-based observation research is becoming a promising method in primary care and HFE research. Video recording has been under-utilised as a data collection tool because of confidentiality and privacy issues. However, it has many benefits as opposed to traditional observations, and recent studies using video recording methods have introduced new research areas and approaches.
Khalil, Hanan; Shahid, Monica; Roughead, Libby
Medication safety plays an essential role in all healthcare organizations; improving this area is paramount to quality and safety of any wider healthcare program. While several medication safety programs in the hospital setting have been described and the associated impact on patient safety evaluated, no systematic reviews have described the impact of medication safety programs in the primary care setting. A preliminary search of the literature demonstrated that no systematic reviews, meta-analysis or scoping reviews have reported on medication safety programs in primary care; instead they have focused on specific interventions such as medication reconciliation or computerized physician order entry. This scoping review sought to map the current medication safety programs used in primary care. The current scoping review sought to examine the characteristics of medication safety programs in the primary care setting and to map evidence on the outcome measures used to assess the effectiveness of medication safety programs in improving patient safety. The current review considered participants of any age and any condition using care obtained from any primary care services. We considered studies that focussed on the characteristics of medication safety programs and the outcome measures used to measure the effectiveness of these programs on patient safety in the primary care setting. The context of this review was primary care settings, primary healthcare organizations, general practitioner clinics, outpatient clinics and any other clinics that do not classify patients as inpatients. We considered all quantitative studied published in English. A three-step search strategy was utilized in this review. Data were extracted from the included studies to address the review question. The data extracted included type of medication safety program, author, country of origin, aims and purpose of the study, study population, method, comparator, context, main findings and outcome
Mangelsdorf, K L; Luna, J; Smith, H L
The health problems of Ecuador are similar to those in other developing countries where the standard of living is low, and housing and sanitation are inadequate. Women, children, and those living in rural areas are those most severely affected. National policy has been to attempt to increase access to health care in rural areas through the construction of new facilities and the appointment of highly paid medical staff. However, little attention was paid to sociocultural factors, which caused the peasantry to reject the medical care system, or to problems of internal efficiency which inhibited utilization. Since the 1970s various national and international organizations have attempted to implement primary health care (PHC) through the use of trained community health workers (CHWs). The primary problems faced by the CHWs were shortages of medicines and supplies, an almost total lack of supervision, and lack of transportation available to take staff to isolated villages. The poor supervision is blamed for the 17% drop out rate among CHWs since 1980. Independent PHC programs have also been established in Ecuador by voluntary organizations. These work best when coordinated with governmental programs, in order to allow monitoring and to avoid the duplication of services. Problems with the establishment of PHC programs in Ecuador will continue, as the government has no clear cut policy, and difficulties financing on a broad national scale. Other problems include the absence of effective supervision and logistical support for even small pilot programs, and inconsistencies in the training and role definition for CHWs. These problems need to be met in the implementation of a national PHC policy.
Barry, Joe M; Darker, Catherine D; Thomas, David E; Allwright, Shane P A; O'Dowd, Tom
An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT) inspected the medical facilities, equipment and relevant custodial areas in eleven of the fourteen prisons within the IPS. Semistructured interviews took place with personnel who had operational responsibility for delivery of prison medical care. Prison doctors completed a questionnaire to elicit issues such as allocation of clinician's time, nurse and administrative support and resources available. There was wide variation in the standard of medical facilities and infrastructure provided across the IPS. The range of medical equipment available was generally below that of the equivalent general practice scheme in the community. There is inequality within the system with regard to the ratio of doctor-contracted time relative to the size of the prison population. There is limited administrative support, with the majority of prisons not having a medical secretary. There are few psychiatric or counselling sessions available. People in prison have a wide range of medical care needs and there is evidence to suggest that these needs are being met inconsistently in Irish prisons.
Allwright Shane PA
Full Text Available Abstract Background An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT inspected the medical facilities, equipment and relevant custodial areas in eleven of the fourteen prisons within the IPS. Semistructured interviews took place with personnel who had operational responsibility for delivery of prison medical care. Prison doctors completed a questionnaire to elicit issues such as allocation of clinician's time, nurse and administrative support and resources available. Results There was wide variation in the standard of medical facilities and infrastructure provided across the IPS. The range of medical equipment available was generally below that of the equivalent general practice scheme in the community. There is inequality within the system with regard to the ratio of doctor-contracted time relative to the size of the prison population. There is limited administrative support, with the majority of prisons not having a medical secretary. There are few psychiatric or counselling sessions available. Conclusions People in prison have a wide range of medical care needs and there is evidence to suggest that these needs are being met inconsistently in Irish prisons.
Homa, Laura; Rose, Johnie; Hovmand, Peter S.; Cherng, Sarah T.; Riolo, Rick L.; Kraus, Alison; Biswas, Anindita; Burgess, Kelly; Aungst, Heide; Stange, Kurt C.; Brown, Kalanthe; Brooks-Terry, Margaret; Dec, Ellen; Jackson, Brigid; Gilliam, Jules; Kikano, George E.; Reichsman, Ann; Schaadt, Debbie; Hilfer, Jamie; Ticknor, Christine; Tyler, Carl V.; Van der Meulen, Anna; Ways, Heather; Weinberger, Richard F.; Williams, Christine
PURPOSE The paradox of primary care is the observation that primary care is associated with apparently low levels of evidence-based care for individual diseases, but systems based on primary care have healthier populations, use fewer resources, and have less health inequality. The purpose of this article is to explore, from a complex systems perspective, mechanisms that might account for the effects of primary care beyond disease-specific care. METHODS In an 8-session, participatory group model-building process, patient, caregiver, and primary care clinician community stakeholders worked with academic investigators to develop and refine an agent-based computer simulation model to test hypotheses about mechanisms by which features of primary care could affect health and health equity. RESULTS In the resulting model, patients are at risk for acute illness, acute life-changing illness, chronic illness, and mental illness. Patients have changeable health behaviors and care-seeking tendencies that relate to their living in advantaged or disadvantaged neighborhoods. There are 2 types of care available to patients: primary and specialty. Primary care in the model is less effective than specialty care in treating single diseases, but it has the ability to treat multiple diseases at once. Primary care also can provide disease prevention visits, help patients improve their health behaviors, refer to specialty care, and develop relationships with patients that cause them to lower their threshold for seeking care. In a model run with primary care features turned off, primary care patients have poorer health. In a model run with all primary care features turned on, their conjoint effect leads to better population health for patients who seek primary care, with the primary care effect being particularly pronounced for patients who are disadvantaged and patients with multiple chronic conditions. Primary care leads to more total health care visits that are due to more disease
Thompson, Michael; Cutler, Charles M
One of the contributing factors to both the increase in health care costs and the backlash to managed care was the lack of consumer awareness of the cost of health care service, the effect of health care costs on profits and wages, and the need to engage consumers more actively as consumers in health care decisions. This article reviews the birth of the health care consumerism movement and identifies gaps in health care consumerism today. The authors reveal some of the keys to building a sustainable health care consumerism framework, which involves enlisting consumers as well as other stakeholders.
Favin, M; Parlato, P; Kessler, S
The 1st generation of primary health care efforts were assessed in order to temper future efforts with implementation realities. With support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the American Public Health Association (APHA) studied 52 primary health care (PHC) projects from 1980-82, documenting the numerous lessons learned. The contrast between the ideology of PHC and field realities provides valuable insights which must be fed back into 2nd generation projects. The projects were in 33 developing countries in Asia, Latin America, Africa, and the Near East. Approximately 1/3 were national level efforts; one-half, variously sized regional efforts; and the remainder, small scale pilot efforts. The sources of information were project documents and interviews with individuals who knew field activities firsthand. All the projects had as their primary goal provision of low-cost health services to previously unserved rural communities, using community personnel, and strengthening community institutions. Regarding overall assessment, while data continue to be limited on the impact of the approach on health status, there are some positive indications, especially for the projects of longer duration. For example, in Nepal and Thailand, there were modest improvements in health status of the target population in 2 project areas. A project in Kitui, Kenya reported reductions in infant mortality rates. A PHC program in Panama was responsible for decreases in the incidence of diarrhea, parasites, and typhoid. Many of the projects have been successful in setting up a PHC structure that extends coverage for health measures such as immunizations, family planning, and prenatal care. Many new facilities are in place. Skills of health workers have been upgraded, and new categories of paraprofessionals have been trained. Additionally, sizable numbers of community health workers have been trained and deployed. There is some evidence that in a few cases projects have
Stigler, Florian L; Starfield, Barbara; Sprenger, Martin; Salzer, Helmut J F; Campbell, Stephen M
There is emerging evidence that strong primary care achieves better health at lower costs. Although primary care can be measured, in many countries, including Austria, there is little understanding of primary care development. Assessing the primary care development in Austria. A primary care assessment tool developed by Barbara Starfield in 1998 was implemented in Austria. This tool defines 15 primary care characteristics and distinguishes between system and practice characteristics. Each characteristic was evaluated by six Austrian primary care experts and rated as 2 (high), 1 (intermediate) or 0 (low) points, respectively, to their primary care strength (maximum score: n = 30). Austria received 7 out of 30 points; no characteristic was rated as '2' but 8 were rated as '0'. Compared with the 13 previously assessed countries, Austria ranks 10th of 14 countries and is classified as a 'low primary care' country. This study provides the first evidence concerning primary care in Austria, benchmarking it as weak and in need of development. The practicable application of an existing assessment tool can be encouraging for other countries to generate evidence about their primary care system as well.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Scientific research has provided evidence on benefits of well developed primary care systems. The relevance of some of this research for the European situation is limited. There is currently a lack of up to date comprehensive and comparable information on variation in development of primary care, and a lack of knowledge of structures and strategies conducive to strengthening primary care in Europe. The EC funded project Primary Health Care Activity Monitor for Europe (PHAMEU aims to fill this gap by developing a Primary Care Monitoring System (PC Monitor for application in 31 European countries. This article describes the development of the indicators of the PC Monitor, which will make it possible to create an alternative model for holistic analyses of primary care. Methods A systematic review of the primary care literature published between 2003 and July 2008 was carried out. This resulted in an overview of: (1 the dimensions of primary care and their relevance to outcomes at (primary health system level; (2 essential features per dimension; (3 applied indicators to measure the features of primary care dimensions. The indicators were evaluated by the project team against criteria of relevance, precision, flexibility, and discriminating power. The resulting indicator set was evaluated on its suitability for Europe-wide comparison of primary care systems by a panel of primary care experts from various European countries (representing a variety of primary care systems. Results The developed PC Monitor approaches primary care in Europe as a multidimensional concept. It describes the key dimensions of primary care systems at three levels: structure, process, and outcome level. On structure level, it includes indicators for governance, economic conditions, and workforce development. On process level, indicators describe access, comprehensiveness, continuity, and coordination of primary care services. On outcome level, indicators
Sandy, Lewis G; Schroeder, Steven A
The current dilemmas in primary care stem from 1) the unintended consequences of forces thought to promote primary care and 2) the "disruptive technologies of care" that attack the very function and concept of primary care itself. This paper suggests that these forces, in combination with "tiering" in the health insurance market, could lead to the dissolution of primary care as a single concept, to be replaced by alignment of clinicians by economic niche. Evidence already exists in the marketplace for both tiering of health insurance benefits and corresponding practice changes within primary care. In the future, primary care for the top tier will cater to the affluent as "full-service brokers" and will be delivered by a wide variety of clinicians. The middle tier will continue to grapple with tensions created by patient demand and bureaucratic systems but will remain most closely aligned to primary care as a concept. The lower tier will become increasingly concerned with community health and social justice. Each primary care specialty will adapt in a unique way to a tiered world, with general internal medicine facing the most challenges. Given this forecast for the future, those concerned about primary care should focus less on workforce issues and more on macro health care financing and organization issues (such as Medicare reform); appropriate training models; and the development of a conception of primary care that emphasizes values and ethos, not just function.
Pati, S; Chauhan, A S; Mahapatra, S; Sinha, R; Pati, S
Health promotion is an integral part of routine clinical practice. The physicians' role in improving the health status of the general population, through effective understanding and delivery of health promotion practice, is evident throughout the international literature. Data from India suggest that physicians have limited skills in delivering specific health promotion services. However, the data available on this is scarce. This study was planned to document the current health promotion knowledge, perception and practices of local primary care physicians in Odisha. An exploratory study was planned between the months of January - February 2013 in Odisha among primary care physicians working in government set up. This exploratory study was conducted, using a two-step self-administered questionnaire, thirty physicians practicing under government health system were asked to map their ideal and current health promotion practice, and potential health promotion elements to be worked upon to enhance the practice. The study recorded a significant difference between the mean of current and ideal health promotion practices. The study reported that physicians want to increase their practice on health education. We concluded that inclusion of health promotion practices in routine care is imperative for a strong healthcare system. It should be incorporated as a structured health promotion module in medical curriculum as well.
Cadoná, Eliane; Scarparo, Helena
This study sets out to analyze scientific articles in order to investigate how researchers in the area of Social Constructionism define "health" in Primary Health Care. An integrative review of the literature was conducted along with a decision to concentrate on those works with narrative experiences and research studies. The database researched was the Brazilian Virtual Health Library, with experiences in the scope of Primary Health Care. The effectiveness of this step resulted in 12 articles. Data were analyzed and discussed based on the perspectives of social constructionism, which generated two central themes. They were: citizenship exercises - promoting health in collective spaces; health practices - overcoming the dichotomies and absolute truths. This study revealed the relevance of the notion of shared responsibility on meanings of health contained in the texts analyzed. The researchers claim that it is possible to expand health practices into collective action to facilitate ongoing dialogue between health users and workers. However, the dominance of biomedical discourse is criticized by the researchers, because that paradigm still promotes practices of care focused on illness.
García-Martínez, F J; Pascual, J C; López-Martín, I; Pereyra-Rodríguez, J J; Martorell Calatayud, A; Salgado-Boquete, L; Labandeira-García, J
Hidradenitis suppurativa is a prevalent disease that is noted for its clinical variability and by its severe impact on quality of life. A meticulous scientific literature review is presented in this article in order to give an update on what is known on this condition. Primary Care physicians obviously play an important role in the early diagnosis and management of hidradenitis suppurativa. This review aims to provide a current and practical overview about this disease in order to optimise the healthcare for these patients by making the best use of available resources. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Angeline Wan Seng Lian
Full Text Available The Clinical Practice Guidelines on Management of Neonatal Jaundice 2003 was updated by a multidisciplinary development group and approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia in 2014. A systematic review of 13 clinical questions was conducted using evidence retrieved mainly from Medline and Cochrane databases. Critical appraisal was done using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. Recommendations were formulated based on the accepted 103 evidences and tailored to local setting as stated below. Neonatal jaundice (NNJ is a common condition seen in primary care. Multiple risk factors contribute to severe NNJ, which if untreated can lead to adverse neurological outcomes. Visual assessment, transcutaneous bilirubinometer (TcB and total serum bilirubin (TSB are the methods used for the detection of NNJ. Phototherapy remains the mainstay of the treatment. Babies with severe NNJ should be followed-up to detect and manage sequelae. Strategies to prevent severe NNJ include health education, identification of risk factors, proper assessment and early referral.
Grant, C C; Forrest, C B; Starfield, B
(1) To describe New Zealand's primary care system (2) to compare New Zealand to other Anglo-American members of the OECD with respect to the adequacy of primary care, and (3) to assess the cost-efficiency and effectiveness of New Zealand's system by comparing health spending and health indicators relevant to primary care. A cross-national comparison of primary care, health spending and health indicators in New Zealand, Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Main outcome measures were health spending measured in purchasing power parties. Health indicators: mean life expectancy in years, years of potential life lost and infant mortality rates. New Zealand's primary care system ranked below the UK, above the USA and similar to Canada and Australia. Favourable characteristics of New Zealand's primary care system were the use of generalists as the predominant type of practitioner and the low proportion of active physicians who were specialists. Compared to the other countries, New Zealand scored poorly for financial that are necessary for the practise of good primary care. New Zealand and the UK had the lowest spending per capita on health care. New Zealand and the USA scored lowest for all three of the health care indicators. The quality of primary care in New Zealand is limited by barriers to access to care and the intermediate level of practise characteristics essential to primary care. Compared to other AngloAmerican OECD nations, New Zealand has relatively low levels of national health expenditure. In order to improve the quality of primary care, future reform should aim to facilitate access to care, increase the gatekeeping role of primary care physicians, and promote the practise characteristics essential to primary care.
Peccoralo, Lauren A; Callahan, Kathryn; Stark, Rachel; DeCherrie, Linda V
With growing numbers of patient-centered medical homes and accountable care organizations, and the potential implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the provision of primary care in the United States is expanding and changing. Therefore, there is an urgent need to create more primary-care physicians and to train physicians to practice in this environment. In this article, we review the impact that the changing US healthcare system has on trainees, strategies to recruit and retain medical students and residents into primary-care internal medicine, and the preparation of trainees to work in the changing healthcare system. Recruitment methods for medical students include early preclinical exposure to patients in the primary-care setting, enhanced longitudinal patient experiences in clinical clerkships, and primary-care tracks. Recruitment methods for residents include enhanced ambulatory-care training and primary-care programs. Financial-incentive programs such as loan forgiveness may encourage trainees to enter primary care. Retaining residents in primary-care careers may be encouraged via focused postgraduate fellowships or continuing medical education to prepare primary-care physicians as both teachers and practitioners in the changing environment. Finally, to prepare primary-care trainees to effectively and efficiently practice within the changing system, educators should consider shifting ambulatory training to community-based practices, encouraging resident participation in team-based care, providing interprofessional educational experiences, and involving trainees in quality-improvement initiatives. Medical educators in primary care must think innovatively and collaboratively to effectively recruit and train the future generation of primary-care physicians. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.
Saxena, Ramesh; West, Cheryl
As the population of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) grows at an alarming rate, primary care physicians will increasingly be involved in the management of these patients. Early recognition of CKD and timely referral to a nephrologist when glomerular filtration rate approaches 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) is extremely important to improve ESRD outcome and appropriate selection of dialysis modality. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) remains a viable treatment option for ESRD patients. PD is less expensive dialysis modality and may provide a survival advantages over hemodialysis in first 2 to 4 years of treatment. Preserving residual renal function (RRF) is of paramount importance to prolong the survival outcomes in PD patients. Thus preservation of RRF is an important goal in the management of PD patients. Every effort should be made to avoid nephrotoxic drugs like aminoglycosides and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and limit the use of radiocontrast agents in PD patients with RRF. Judicious use of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent peritonitis would further help to reduce morbidity from PD. Protecting peritoneal membrane from long-term toxic and metabolic effects of the conventional glucose-based solutions is another objective to further improve PD outcome. Development of new, more biocompatible PD solutions holds promise for the future. One such solution, icodextrin, is now approved for use in the United States. Although extremely safe to use, it is associated with unique metabolic effects that may concern primary care physicians. They include false elevation of blood glucose, a reversible increase in serum alkaline phosphatase and a false decline in serum amylase. Monitoring of glycemia by assays that use glucose dehydrogenase pyrroloquinoline quinone enzymes should be avoided and serum amylase alone should not be relied on in diagnosing pancreatitis in patients on icodextrin.
Ballvé Moreno, José Luis; Pujol Ribó, Gloria; Romaguera Lliso, Amparo; Bonet Esteve, Anna; Rafecas Ruiz, Montserrat; Zarza Carretero, Elvira
To study internal communication between primary care health professionals Cross-sectional, descriptive. Catalan Health Institute Costa de Ponent Primary Care Area, Spain. All workers in the area (n=3565). Three part questionnaire: a) sociodemographic questions; b) questions scoring from 0 to 10 the current importance and operation of certain aspects; and c) questions on new communication tools. Of those sent a questionnaire, 39% (n=1388) responded, with a mean age of 43.2 years (95% CI, 42.75- 43.65), 28.9% being male. The major differences between importance and current events were said to be "to be informed of projects before they appear in the communication media," "by official routes and not by rumour," and "to be aware of projects of other teams." The least communicated within teams. The doctors considered upward communication to be more important. Doctors are those who appreciate communication within teams better and the professionals of the users services unit (UAU) less so. Doctors are the ones who give more importance to being informed of projects at the time. 55% do not use the intranet, mainly due to lack of time. The second reason is that they find it difficult. Sixty-two per cent read e-mail >2-3 times per week. Eighty-nine per cent want an electronic bulletin. The older workers use new technologies less. Downward, upward, and sideways communication needs to be improved, particularly upwards by doctors, and that of the teams for the UAU professionals. Intranet tools must be provided that make the work easier and training in handling new technologies must be offered.
Vilà Falgueras, Maite; Cruzate Muñoz, Carlota; Orfila Pernas, Francesc; Creixell Sureda, Joan; González López, María Pilar; Davins Miralles, Josep
To estimate the prevalence of burnout and the perception of teamwork in Primary Care teams from Barcelona. Multicenter cross-sectional. Primary Health Care Teams from Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut. All permanent employees or temporary professionals of all categories from 51 teams (N=2398). A total of 879 responses (36.7%) were obtained. The Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire, with 3 dimensions, was sent by emotional exhaustion (AE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (RP). Burnout is considered present when two or more dimensions scored high marks. Perception of teamwork and evaluation of leaders was evaluated using an ad hoc questionnaire. The prevalence of burnout was17.2% (two or more dimensions affected), and 46.2% had at least one of the three dimensions with a high level. A high level of AE was found in 38.2%, of DP in 23.8%, and 7.7% had low RP. Almost half (49.2%) believe that teamwork is encouraged in their workplace. Social workers overall, have a higher average of dimensions affected at a high level, followed by administrative personnel, dentists, doctors and nurses (p<0.001). Permanent staff have a greater degree of emotional exhaustion (p<0.002). Those who rated their leaders worst and least rated teamwork had more emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and higher level of burnout in general (p<0.001). The level of burnout among professionals is considerable, with differences existing between occupational categories. Teamwork and appreciating their leaders protect from burnout. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Mainous, Arch G; Tanner, Rebecca J; Baker, Richard
The increasing prevalence of diabetes is a major health problem. The detection and treatment of prediabetes can delay the onset of diabetes and presents an important diabetes prevention strategy. Using data from the 2012 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, we studied visits by adults aged ≥45 years without diagnosed diabetes who had an HbA1c test within 90 days of the visit (n = 518 unweighted visits; n = 11,167,004 weighted visits). HbA1c results were categorized into normal, prediabetes, and diabetes, and we examined patient characteristics (age, sex, race, payer type, body mass index) and treatment of prediabetes. Among visiting adults, 54.6% had a normal HbA1c value, 33.6% had prediabetes, and 11.9% had diabetes. Of those patient visits with HbA1c consistent with prediabetes, the number of patients diagnosed with prediabetes was too low for a reliable population estimate. Indication of treatment in the medical record (lifestyle modification counseling and/or metformin) was present in 23.0% of those with diagnosed or undiagnosed prediabetes. The most common treatment was lifestyle modification counseling. Our findings show that there are missed opportunities for diabetes prevention in primary care. Providers need to change their approach to prediabetes and play a more effective role in preventing diabetes. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
This is a retrospective report on the importance of Kark and Cassel's 1952 paper on community-oriented primary care (COPC). In 1978, WHO and UNICEF endorsed COPC. However, the ideas girding and framing this approach had first been given full expression in practice some four decades earlier. In Depression-Era South Africa, Sidney Kark, a leader of the National Department of Health, converted the emergent discipline of social medicine into a unique form of comprehensive practice and established the Pholela Health Center, which was the explicit model for COPC. COPC as founded and practiced by Kark was a community, family and personal practice; it also was a multidisciplinary and team practice. Furthermore, the innovations of COPC entailed monitoring, evaluation, and research. Evaluation is the essence of Kark and Kassel's paper, which offers a convincing demonstration of the effects of COPC. Its key findings include the following: 1) that there was a decline in the incidence of syphilis in the area served by the health center; 2) that diet and nutrition improved; and 3) that the crude mortality rate as well as the infant mortality rate--the standard marker--declined in Pholela. In the succeeding decades, OPC had an international legacy (through WHO and H. Jack Geiger's influence in the US Office of Economic Opportunity), which came full circle in the 1980s, when a young generation of South Africans began to search their history for models for their health care programs at the dawn of the post-Apartheid Era.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2000, Israel has had a national program for ongoing monitoring of the quality of the primary care services provided by the country's four competing non-profit health plans. Previous research has demonstrated that quality of care has improved substantially since the program's inception and that the program enjoys wide support among health plan managers. However, prior to this study there were anecdotal and journalistic reports of opposition to the program among primary care physicians engaged in direct service delivery; these raised serious questions about the extent of support among physicians nationally. Goals To assess how Israeli primary care physicians experience and rate health plan efforts to track and improve the quality of care. Method The study population consisted of primary care physicians employed by the health plans who have responsibility for the quality of care of a panel of adult patients. The study team randomly sampled 250 primary-care physicians from each of the four health plans. Of the 1,000 physicians sampled, 884 met the study criteria. Every physician could choose whether to participate in the survey by mail, e-mail, or telephone. The anonymous questionnaire was completed by 605 physicians – 69% of those eligible. The data were weighted to reflect differences in sampling and response rates across health plans. Main findings The vast majority of respondents (87% felt that the monitoring of quality was important and two-thirds (66% felt that the feedback and subsequent remedial interventions improved medical care to a great extent. Almost three-quarters (71% supported continuation of the program in an unqualified manner. The physicians with the most positive attitudes to the program were over age 44, independent contract physicians, and either board-certified in internal medicine or without any board-certification (i.e., residents or general practitioners. At the same time, support for the
Full Text Available Steffy EA Stans, JG Anita Stevens, Anna JHM Beurskens Research Center of Autonomy and Participation for Persons with a Chronic Illness, Zuyd University of Applied Sciences, Heerlen, The Netherlands Purpose: This study investigated the improvement of interprofessional practice in primary care by performing the first three steps of the implementation model described by Grol et al. This article describes the targets for improvement in a setting for children with complex care needs (step 1, the identification of barriers and facilitators influencing interprofessional practice (step 2, and the development of a tailored interprofessional process model (step 3. Methods: In step 2, thirteen qualitative semistructured interviews were held with several stakeholders, including parents of children, an occupational therapist, a speech and language therapist, a physical therapist, the manager of the team, two general practitioners, a psychologist, and a primary school teacher. The data were analyzed using directed content analysis and using the domains of the Chronic Care Model as a framework. In step 3, a project group was formed to develop helpful strategies, including the development of an interprofessional process through process mapping. Results: In step 2, it was found that the most important barriers to implementing interprofessional practice related to the lack of structure in the care process. A process model for interprofessional primary care was developed for the target group. Conclusion: The lack of a shared view of what is involved in the process of interprofessional practice was the most important barrier to its successful implementation. It is suggested that the tailored process developed, supported with the appropriate tools, may provide both professional staff and their clients, in this setting but also in other areas of primary care, with insight to the care process and a clear representation of "who should do what, when, and how." Keywords
Eisenberg, John M.
The organization and curricula of internal medicine residencies programs that emphasize primary care are described and compared with traditional residencies in internal medicine. It is noted that primary care residents spend more time in ambulatory care and are allowed more electives in specialties outside of internal medicine. Out-of-hospital…
Wiegers, T.A.; Warmelink, J.C.; Spelten, E.R.; Klomp, G.M.T.; Hutton, E.K.
Objective: To re-assess the work and workload of primary care midwives in the Netherlands. Background: In the Netherlands most midwives work in primary care as independent practitioners in a midwifery practice with two or more colleagues. Each practice provides 24/7 care coverage through office
Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.W.
Background: The investment in primary care (PC) reforms to improve the overall performance of health care systems has been substantial in Europe. There is however a lack of up to date comparable information to evaluate the development and strength of PC systems. This EU-funded Primary Health Care
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. ... environmental health, clinical care, health planning and management, health policy, health ... non-communicable diseases within the Primary Health Care system in the Federal ... Assessment of occupational hazards, health problems and safety practices of petrol ...
Pomietto, Mo; Docter, Alicia Dixon; Van Borkulo, Nicole; Alfonsi, Lorrie; Krieger, James; Liu, Lenna L
Given the prevalence of childhood obesity and the limited support for preventing and managing obesity in primary care settings, the Seattle Children's Hospital's Children's Obesity Action Team has partnered with Steps to Health King County to develop a pediatric obesity quality-improvement project. Primary care clinics joined year-long quality-improvement collaboratives to integrate obesity prevention and management into the clinic setting by using the chronic-disease model. Sustainability was enhanced through integration at multiple levels by emphasizing small, consistent behavior changes and self-regulation of eating/feeding practices with children, teenagers, and families; building local community partnerships; and encouraging broader advocacy and policy change. Cultural competency and attention to disparities were integrated into quality-improvement efforts. . Participating clinics were able to increase BMI measurement and weight classification; integrate management of overweight/obese children and family and self-management support; and grow community collaborations. Over the course of 4 years, this project grew from a local effort involving 3 clinics to a statewide program recently adopted by the Washington State Department of Health. This model can be used by other states/regions to develop pediatric obesity quality-improvement programs to support the assessment, prevention, and management of childhood obesity. Furthermore, these health care efforts can be integrated into broader community-wide childhood-obesity action plans.
Salloum, Alison; Robst, John; Scheeringa, Michael S; Cohen, Judith A; Wang, Wei; Murphy, Tanya K; Tolin, David F; Storch, Eric A
This pilot study explored the preliminary efficacy, parent acceptability and economic cost of delivering Step One within Stepped Care Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (SC-TF-CBT). Nine young children ages 3-6 years and their parents participated in SC-TF-CBT. Eighty-three percent (5/6) of the children who completed Step One treatment and 55.6 % (5/9) of the intent-to-treat sample responded to Step One. One case relapsed at post-assessment. Treatment gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Generally, parents found Step One to be acceptable and were satisfied with treatment. At 3-month follow-up, the cost per unit improvement for posttraumatic stress symptoms and severity ranged from $27.65 to $131.33 for the responders and from $36.12 to $208.11 for the intent-to-treat sample. Further research on stepped care for young children is warranted to examine if this approach is more efficient, accessible and cost-effective than traditional therapy.
Fard-Aghaie, Mohammad H; Stavrou, Gregor A; Schuetze, Kim C; Papalampros, Alexandros; Donati, Marcello; Oldhafer, Karl J
Resection of the liver is often limited due to the volume of the parenchyma. To address this problem, several approaches to induce hypertrophy were developed. Recently, the 'associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy' (ALPPS) procedure was introduced and led to rapid hypertrophy in a short interval. Additionally to the portal vein occlusion, the parenchyma is transected, which disrupts the inter-parenchymal vascular connections. Since the first description of the ALPPS procedure, various reports around the world were published. In some cases, due to the high morbidity and mortality, a decent oncologic algorithm is not deliverable in a timely manner. If a patient is to be treated with a liver-first approach, the resection of the primary could sometimes be severely protracted. To overcome the problem, a simultaneous resection of the primary tumor and step one of ALPPS were performed. A 73-year-old male patient underwent portal vein embolization (PVE) after suffering from a synchronous hepatic metastasized carcinoma of the right colic flexure in order to perform a right trisectionectomy. Sufficient hypertrophy could not be obtained by PVE. Thus a 'Rescue-ALPPS' was undertaken. During step one of ALPPS, we simultaneously performed a right hemicolectomy. The postoperative course after the first step was uneventful, and sufficient hypertrophy was achieved. In order to achieve a macroscopic disease-free state and lead the patient as soon as possible to the oncologic path (with, for example, chemotherapy), sometimes a simultaneous resection of the primary with step one of the ALPPS procedure seems justified. A resection of the primary with step two is not advisable, due to the high morbidity and mortality after this step. This case shows that a simultaneous resection is feasible and safe. Whether other locations of the primary should be treated this way must be part of further investigations.
Valentijn, P.P.; Schepman, S.M.; Opheij, W.; Bruijnzeels, M.A.
Introduction: Primary care has a central role in integrating care within a health system. However, conceptual ambiguity regarding integrated care hampers a systematic understanding. This paper proposes a conceptual framework that combines the concepts of primary care and integrated care, in order to
Isabel Cristina Ramos Vieira Santos
Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the treatment of patients with wounds in the Primary Health Care. A descriptive research with quantitative approach. Ninety-three Family Health Units of the city of Recife-PE, Brazil, were selected, and 112 nurses were interviewed from July to December 2011. The record book of bandages and procedures and the dressing form were used as an additional source of data. Frequencies, measures of central tendency and dispersion, prevalence and, for continuous variables, the analysis of variance were estimated. The prevalence of patients with wounds was 1.9% of the estimated covered population. Vascular ulcers accounted for 74.1% of the treated wounds. The dressing was predominantly performed by Nursing technicians, and the products available for this procedure did not match the current technological development.
Hutchison, Brian; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Strumpf, Erin; Coyle, Natalie
During the 1980s and 1990s, innovations in the organization, funding, and delivery of primary health care in Canada were at the periphery of the system rather than at its core. In the early 2000s, a new policy environment emerged. This policy analysis examines primary health care reform efforts in Canada during the last decade, drawing on descriptive information from published and gray literature and from a series of semistructured interviews with informed observers of primary health care in Canada. Primary health care in Canada has entered a period of potentially transformative change. Key initiatives include support for interprofessional primary health care teams, group practices and networks, patient enrollment with a primary care provider, financial incentives and blended-payment schemes, development of primary health care governance mechanisms, expansion of the primary health care provider pool, implementation of electronic medical records, and quality improvement training and support. Canada's experience suggests that primary health care transformation can be achieved voluntarily in a pluralistic system of private health care delivery, given strong government and professional leadership working in concert. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.
Elzubier, Ahmed G.; Bella, Hassan; Sebai, Zohair A.
The orientation about Primary Health Care among staff working in the PHC centers was assessed. Staff members numbering 909 were studied. The main criteria for judging orientation were a working knowledge of the definition and elements of PHC in addition to knowledge of the meaning of the word Alma Ata. Differences of this knowledge depending on sex, age, spoken language, type of job, postgraduate experience, previous experience in PHC and previous training in PHC were assessed. The main findi...
Olivera Cañadas, G; Cañada Dorado, A; Drake Canela, M; Fernández-Martínez, B; Ordóñez León, G; Cimas Ballesteros, M
To identify and describe a list of sentinel events (SEs) for Primary Care (PC). A structured experts' consensus was obtained by using two online questionnaires. The participants were selected because of their expertise in PC and patient safety. The first questionnaire assessed the suitability of the hospital SEs established in the National Quality Forum 2006 for use in PC via responses of "yes", "no", or "yes but with modification". In the latter case, a re-wording of the SE was requested. Additionally, inclusion of new SEs was also allowed. The second questionnaire included those SEs with positive responses ("yes", "yes with modification"), so that the experts could choose between the original and alternative drafts, and evaluate the newly described SEs. The questionnaires were completed by 44 out of a total of the 47 experts asked to participate, and a total of 17 SEs were identified as suitable for PC. For the first questionnaire, 12 of the 28 hospital SEs were considered adaptable to PC, of which 11 were re-drafts. Thirty-seven experts proposed new SEs. These mainly concerned problems with medication and vaccines, delay, or lack of assistance, diagnostic delays, and problems with diagnostic tests, and were finally summarised in 5 SEs. In the second questionnaire, ≥65% of the experts chose the alternative wording against the original cases for the 11 SEs suitable for PC. The 5 newly included SEs were considered adequate with a positive response of 70-85%. Having a list of SEs available in PC will help to improve the management of health care risks. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Fortney, Luke; Luchterhand, Charlene; Zakletskaia, Larissa; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Rakel, David
Focus Area: Integrative Algorithms of Care Purpose: Burnout, attrition, and low work satisfaction of primary care physicians are growing concerns and can have a negative influencee on health care. Interventions for clinicians that improve work-life balance are few and poorly understood. We undertook this study as a first step in investigating whether an abbreviated mindfulness intervention could increase job satisfaction, quality of life, and compassion among primary care clinicians. Methods:...
A primary health care approach is essential to contemporary nursing roles such as practice nursing. This paper examines the evolution of primary health care as a global strategy for responding to the social determinants of health. Primary health care roles require knowledge of, and a focus on social determinants of health, particularly the societal factors that allow and perpetuate inequities and disadvantage. They also require a depth and breadth of leadership skills that are responsive to health needs, appropriate in the social and regulatory context, and visionary in balancing both workforce and client needs. The key to succeeding in working with communities and groups under a primary health care umbrella is to balance the big picture of comprehensive primary health care with operational strategies for selective primary health care. The other essential element involves using leadership skills to promote inclusiveness, empowerment and health literacy, and ultimately, better health.
Doricci, Giovanna Cabral; Guanaes-Lorenzi, Carla; Pereira, Maria José Bistafa
In 2009, the Secretary of State for Health of Sao Paulo created a Program with a view to qualify the primary care in the state. This proposal includes a new job function, namely the articulator of primary care. Due to the scarcity of information about the practice of these new professionals in the scientific literature, this article seeks to analyze how articulators interpret their function and how they describe their daily routines. Thirteen articulators were interviewed. The interviews were duly analyzed by qualitative delineation. The results describe three themes: 1)Roles of the articulator: technical communicator and political advisor; 2) Activities performed to comply with the expected roles, examples being diagnosis of the municipalities, negotiation of proposals, participation in meetings, visits to municipalities; and 3) Challenges of the role, which are configured as challenges to the health reform process, examples being the lack of physical and human resources, activities of professionals in the medical-centered model, among others. The conclusion drawn is that the Program has great potential to provide input for the development and enhancement of Primary Care. Nevertheless, there are a series of challenges to be overcome, namely challenges to the context per se.
AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2017-0014 Physical Profiling Performance of Air Force Primary Care Providers Anthony P. Tvaryanas1; William P...COVERED (From – To) September 2016 – January 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Physical Profiling Performance of Air Force Primary Care Providers...encounter with their primary care team. An independent medical standards subject matter expert (SME) reviewed encounters in the electronic health record
A cluster randomised stepped wedge trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted information technology-based intervention in reducing high-risk prescribing of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antiplatelets in primary medical care: The DQIP study protocol
Full Text Available Abstract Background High-risk prescribing of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and antiplatelet agents accounts for a significant proportion of hospital admissions due to preventable adverse drug events. The recently completed PINCER trial has demonstrated that a one-off pharmacist-led information technology (IT-based intervention can significantly reduce high-risk prescribing in primary care, but there is evidence that effects decrease over time and employing additional pharmacists to facilitate change may not be sustainable. Methods/design We will conduct a cluster randomised controlled with a stepped wedge design in 40 volunteer general practices in two Scottish health boards. Eligible practices are those that are using the INPS Vision clinical IT system, and have agreed to have relevant medication-related data to be automatically extracted from their electronic medical records. All practices (clusters that agree to take part will receive the data-driven quality improvement in primary care (DQIP intervention, but will be randomised to one of 10 start dates. The DQIP intervention has three components: a web-based informatics tool that provides weekly updated feedback of targeted prescribing at practice level, prompts the review of individual patients affected, and summarises each patient's relevant risk factors and prescribing; an outreach visit providing education on targeted prescribing and training in the use of the informatics tool; and a fixed payment of 350 GBP (560 USD; 403 EUR up front and a small payment of 15 GBP (24 USD; 17 EUR for each patient reviewed in the 12 months of the intervention. We hypothesise that the DQIP intervention will reduce a composite of nine previously validated measures of high-risk prescribing. Due to the nature of the intervention, it is not possible to blind practices, the core research team, or the data analyst. However, outcome assessment is entirely objective and automated. There will
Sandoval, Brian E; Bell, Jennifer; Khatri, Parinda; Robinson, Patricia J
Primary care continues to be at the center of health care transformation. The Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) model of service delivery includes patient-centered care delivery strategies that can improve clinical outcomes, cost, and patient and primary care provider satisfaction with services. This article reviews the link between the PCBH model of service delivery and health care services quality improvement, and provides guidance for initiating PCBH model clinical pathways for patients facing depression, chronic pain, alcohol misuse, obesity, insomnia, and social barriers to health.
Heidemann, Ivonete Teresinha Schulter Buss; Alonso da Costa, Maria Fernanda Baeta Neves; Hermida, Patrícia Madalena Vieira; Marçal, Cláudia Cossentino Bruck; Antonini, Fabiano Oliveira; Cypriano, Camilla Costa
This is a descriptive-exploratory study using a qualitative approach, conducted in ten municipalities in southern Brazil. Data were obtained by talking to 21 nurses from February to November 2012, through semi-structured interviews using questions to probe their health promotion practices. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis focused on health promotion concepts. We identified four themes about health promotion practices of family health nurses in Brazil: a) training of nurses for health promotion practice was weak; b) nurses formed health promotion groups around diseases and life stages; c) nurses formed groups to meet community needs; and d) nurses used health promotion techniques in group work. These family health nurses were somewhat aware of the importance of health promotion, and how to assist the population against various ailments using some health promotion strategies. The main weaknesses were the lack of understanding about health promotion concepts, and the difficulty of understanding the relevance of its practice, probably attributable to limitations in training. We conclude that primary care groups in Brazil's unified health system could do better in applying health promotion concepts in their practice.
Managing chronic conditions in a South African primary care context: ... is an approach to motivating behaviour change in general health care settings. ... They had mixed experiences with skills for agenda setting and reducing resistance.
CARE PRIORITIES - A CASE STUDY. OF NATIONAL ... development of comprehensive primary health care (pHC). The routine ..... on injection safety will be sustainable. On the negative side, ... This is mainly at management level, where time ...
Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Vinker, Shlomo; Koskela, Tuomas H; Frese, Thomas; Buono, Nicola; Soler, Jean Karl; Ahrensberg, Jette; Asenova, Radost; Foguet Boreu, Quintí; Ceyhun Peker, Gülsen; Collins, Claire; Hanževački, Miro; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Iftode, Claudia; Kurpas, Donata; Le Reste, Jean Yves; Lichtwarck, Bjørn; Petek, Davorina; Pinto, Daniel; Schrans, Diego; Streit, Sven; Tang, Eugene Yee Hing; Tatsioni, Athina; Torzsa, Péter; Unalan, Pemra C; van Marwijk, Harm; Thulesius, Hans
Strategies for the involvement of primary care in the management of patients with presumed or diagnosed dementia are heterogeneous across Europe. We wanted to explore attitudes of primary care physicians (PCPs) when managing dementia: (i) the most popular cognitive tests, (ii) who had the right to initiate or continue cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine treatment, and (iii) the relationship between the permissiveness of these rules/guidelines and PCP's approach in the dementia investigations and assessment. Key informant survey. Primary care practices across 25 European countries. Four hundred forty-five PCPs responded to a self-administered questionnaire. Two-step cluster analysis was performed using characteristics of the informants and the responses to the survey. Two by two contingency tables with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the association between categorical variables. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to assess the association of multiple variables (age class, gender, and perceived prescription rules) with the PCPs' attitude of "trying to establish a diagnosis of dementia on their own." Discrepancies between rules/guidelines and attitudes to dementia management was found in many countries. There was a strong association between the authorization to prescribe dementia drugs and pursuing dementia diagnostic work-up (odds ratio, 3.45; 95% CI 2.28-5.23). Differing regulations about who does what in dementia management seemed to affect PCP's engagement in dementia investigations and assessment. PCPs who were allowed to prescribe dementia drugs also claimed higher engagement in dementia work-up than PCPs who were not allowed to prescribe.
In the current situation, an integrated health care system with primary eye care promoted by government of India is apparently the best answer. This model is both cost effective and practical for the prevention and control of blindness among the underprivileged population. Other models functioning with the newer technology of tele-ophthalmology or mobile clinics also add to the positive outcome in providing primary eye care services. This review highlights the strengths and weaknesses of various models presently functioning in the country with the idea of providing useful inputs for eye care providers and enabling them to identify and adopt an appropriate model for primary eye care services.
Granero-Moya, Nani; Frías-Osuna, Antonio; Barrio-Cantalejo, Inés M; Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio Jesús
To know the primary care nurses' difficulties to promote advance care planning process with patients in the end of life. Phenomenological qualitative methodology. Health Management Area North of Jaén. Primary care nurses. Purposive sampling. Fourteen in-depth interviews were conducted until the speeches saturation. Content analysis in four steps: transcription, coding, obtaining results and conclusions verification. Supported whit the software Nvivo 8. Triangulation of results between researchers. Professionals' difficulties: Lack of knowledge about the topic, lack of communication skills, lack of experience and presence of negative emotions. In the health institution lack of time and interference with other professionals is a barrier. Also the patient's attitude and the family are identified as an obstacle because few people speak about the end of life. Finally, our society prevents open discussion about issues related to death. Professional learning about advanced care planning, training in communication skills and emotional education are necessary. Health managers should consider the fact that early interventions for planning health decisions require training, time and continued attention. If a cultural change does not happen, an evasive way to face the end of life will persist. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Bloch, Gary; Rozmovits, Linda; Giambrone, Broden
Poverty is widely recognized as a major determinant of poor health, and this link has been extensively studied and verified. Despite the strong evidentiary link, little work has been done to determine what primary care health providers can do to address their patients' income as a risk to their health. This qualitative study explores the barriers to primary care responsiveness to poverty as a health issue in a well-resourced jurisdiction with near-universal health care insurance coverage. One to one interviews were conducted with twelve experts on poverty and health in primary care in Ontario, Canada. Participants included family physicians, specialist physicians, nurse practitioners, community workers, advocates, policy experts and researchers. The interviews were analysed for anticipated and emergent themes. This study reveals provider- and patient-centred structural, attitudinal, and knowledge-based barriers to addressing poverty as a risk to health. While many of its findings reinforce previous work in this area, this study's findings point to a number of areas front line primary care providers could target to address their patients' poverty. These include a lack of provider understanding of the lived reality of poverty, leading to a failure to collect adequate data about patients' social circumstances, and to the development of inappropriate care plans. Participants also pointed to prejudicial attitudes among providers, a failure of primary care disciplines to incorporate approaches to poverty as a standard of care, and a lack of knowledge of concrete steps providers can take to address patients' poverty. While this study reinforces, in a well-resourced jurisdiction such as Ontario, the previously reported existence of significant barriers to addressing income as a health issue within primary care, the findings point to the possibility of front line primary care providers taking direct steps to address the health risks posed by poverty. The consistent
Mold, James W
This seventh annual practice-based research theme issue of the Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine highlights primary care research conducted in practice-based research networks (PBRNs). The issue includes discussion of (1) theoretical and methodological research, (2) health care research (studies addressing primary care processes), (3) clinical research (studies addressing the impact of primary care on patients), and (4) health systems research (studies of health system issues impacting primary care including the quality improvement process). We had a noticeable increase in submissions from PBRN collaborations, that is, studies that involved multiple networks. As PBRNs cooperate to recruit larger and more diverse patient samples, greater generalizability and applicability of findings lead to improved primary care processes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong and self confident primary care workforce can deliver the highest quality care and outcomes equitably and cost effectively. To meet the increasing demands being made of it, primary care needs its own thriving research culture and knowledge base. Methods Review of recent developments supporting primary care clinical research. Results Primary care research has benefited from a small group of passionate leaders and significant investment in recent decades in some countries. Emerging from this has been innovation in research design and focus, although less is known of the effect on research output. Conclusion Primary care research is now well placed to lead a broad re-vitalisation of academic medicine, answering questions of relevance to practitioners, patients, communities and Government. Key areas for future primary care research leaders to focus on include exposing undergraduates early to primary care research, integrating this early exposure with doctoral and postdoctoral research career support, further expanding cross disciplinary approaches, and developing useful measures of output for future primary care research investment.
O'Donnell, Patrick; Tierney, Edel; O'Carroll, Austin; Nurse, Diane; MacFarlane, Anne
The involvement of patients and the public in healthcare has grown significantly in recent decades and is documented in health policy documents internationally. Many benefits of involving these groups in primary care planning have been reported. However, these benefits are rarely felt by those considered marginalised in society and they are often excluded from participating in the process of planning primary care. It has been recommended to employ suitable approaches, such as co-operative and participatory initiatives, to enable marginalised groups to highlight their priorities for care. This Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) research study involved 21 members of various marginalised groups who contributed their views about access to primary care. Using a series of PLA techniques for data generation and co-analysis, we explored barriers and facilitators to primary healthcare access from the perspective of migrants, Irish Travellers, homeless people, drug users, sex workers and people living in deprivation, and identified their priorities for action with regard to primary care provision. Four overarching themes were identified: the home environment, the effects of the 'two-tier' healthcare system on engagement, healthcare encounters, and the complex health needs of many in those groups. The study demonstrates that there are many complicated personal and structural barriers to accessing primary healthcare for marginalised groups. There were shared and differential experiences across the groups. Participants also expressed shared priorities for action in the planning and running of primary care services. Members of marginalised groups have shared priorities for action to improve their access to primary care. If steps are taken to address these, there is scope to impact on more than one marginalised group and to address the existing health inequities.
Demarzo, Marcelo M P; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Cuijpers, Pim; Zabaleta-del-Olmo, Edurne; Mahtani, Kamal R; Vellinga, Akke; Vicens, Caterina; López-del-Hoyo, Yolanda; García-Campayo, Javier
Positive effects have been reported after mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in diverse clinical and nonclinical populations. Primary care is a key health care setting for addressing common chronic conditions, and an effective MBI designed for this setting could benefit countless people worldwide. Meta-analyses of MBIs have become popular, but little is known about their efficacy in primary care. Our aim was to investigate the application and efficacy of MBIs that address primary care patients. We performed a meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials addressing the effect of MBIs in adult patients recruited from primary care settings. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and Cochrane guidelines were followed. Effect sizes were calculated with the Hedges g in random effects models. The meta-analyses were based on 6 trials having a total of 553 patients. The overall effect size of MBI compared with a control condition for improving general health was moderate (g = 0.48; P = .002), with moderate heterogeneity (I(2) = 59; P .05). Although the number of randomized controlled trials applying MBIs in primary care is still limited, our results suggest that these interventions are promising for the mental health and quality of life of primary care patients. We discuss innovative approaches for implementing MBIs, such as complex intervention and stepped care. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Doz Mora, J F; Mengual, L; Torné, M; Bonilla, P
To find the individual and socio-family characteristics of that sector of the population which uses Primary Care Social Services (PCSS) at the Primary Care Centre (PCC) and the social problems which occasion demand. A retrospective descriptive study, based on checking over social work case files. A PCC situated in Barcelona's second industrial belt, serving a population with a low socio-economic level. The population group under study were the users with social work files open from January 1st 1985 to July 31st 1991 (a total of 690 case histories). A representative sample of 296 was selected. In comparison with the population of the basic Health Area, the user population of the PCSS at the PCC was predominantly women, and had an older average age, a higher proportion of divorce/separation and widowhood, and, in the labour context, higher unemployment and retirement. A high proportion of one-parent families (12.8%) was found. Analysis of the work situation showed that 50% of the workers were temporary and 75% of the unemployed received no benefit. 51% of the retired people received the minimum pension and 11% received no pension. Monthly family income, recorded for 46.5% of the cases, was 75,362 pesetas (SD 37,643). The most common problems were those related to the "HEALTH" section (61%). The user population of the PCSS at the PCC is, in socio-economic terms, deteriorated, a condition closely related to the development of chronic illnesses. Tackling health inequalities from Primary Care is under discussion.
Shrank, William H
Americans are increasingly demanding the same level of service in healthcare that they receive in other services and products that they buy. This rise in consumerism poses challenges for primary care physicians as they attempt to transform their practices to succeed in a value-based reimbursement landscape, where they are rewarded for managing costs and improving the health of populations. In this paper, three examples of consumer-riven trends are described: retail healthcare, direct and concierge care, and home-based diagnostics and care. For each, the intersection of consumer-driven care and the goals of value-based primary care are explored. If the correct payment and connectivity enablers are in place, some examples of consumer-driven care are well-positioned to support primary care physicians in their mission to deliver high-quality, efficient care for the populations they serve. However, concerns about access and equity make other trends less consistent with that mission.
After establishing the commitment of the government to comprehensive primary health care (PHC), the Department of Health and provinces are now faced with the challenge of implementation. An important response has come with the recent proposed'core package of primary health care services'.' After consultation with ...
Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Zee, J. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.
This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political agenda,
Kringos, Dionne S.; Boerma, Wienke G. W.; van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter P.
This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political agenda,
Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Zee, J. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.
This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political
Schreiter, Elizabeth A. Zeidler; Pandhi, Nancy; Fondow, Meghan D. M.; Thomas, Chantelle; Vonk, Jantina; Reardon, Claudia L.; Serrano, Neftali
Summary After implementation of an integrated consulting psychiatry model and psychology services within primary care at a federally qualified health center, patients have increased access to needed mental health services, and primary care clinicians receive the support and collaboration needed to meet the psychiatric needs of the population. PMID:24185149
Wiborg, J.F.; Gieseler, D.; Fabisch, A.B.; Voigt, K.; Lautenbach, A.; Lowe, B.
Objective To examine rates of suicidality in primary care patients with somatoform disorders and to identify factors that might help to understand and manage active suicidal ideation in these patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study screening 1645 primary care patients. In total, 142
Meyer, William J.; Morrison, Patrick; Lombardero, Anayansi; Swingle, Kelsey; Campbell, Duncan G.
Unwillingness to share depression experiences with primary care physicians contributes to the undertreatment of depression. This project examined college students' reasons for depression nondisclosure to primary care providers (PCPs). Undergraduate participants read a vignette describing someone with depression and completed measures of disclosure…
The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.
Poulsen, Erik; Overgaard, Søren; Vestergaard, Jacob T
BACKGROUND: Hip osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common diagnosis in primary care adult patients presenting with hip pain but pain location and pain distribution in primary care patients with hip OA have been reported inadequately. OBJECTIVE: To describe pain location and pain distribution...
Research in the field of primary care has dramatically increased in France in recent years, especially since 2013 with the introduction of primary care as a thematic priority for research proposals launched by the Ministry of Health (Direction générale de l'offre de soins). The RECaP (Research in Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health) network is a French research network supported by Inserm, which recently implemented a specific working group focusing on research in primary care, based on a multidisciplinary approach. Researchers from different specialties participate in this group. The first aim of the group was to reach a common definition of the perimeter and of the panel of healthcare professionals and structures potentially involved in the field of primary care. For this purpose, a selection of different data sets of sources defining primary care was analyzed by the group, each participant collecting a set of sources, from which a synthesis was made and discussed. A definition of primary care at different levels (international, European and French) was summarized. A special attention was given to the French context in order to adapt the perimeter to the characteristics of the French healthcare system, notably by illustrating the different key elements of the definition with the inclusion of primary care actors and the type of practice premises. In conclusion, this work illustrates the diversity of primary care in France and the potential offered for research purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Health care delivery in Germany is highly fragmented, resulting in poor vertical and horizontal integration and a system that is focused on curing acute illness or single diseases instead of managing patients with more complex or chronic conditions, or managing the health of determined populations. While it is now widely accepted that a strong primary care system can help improve coordination and responsiveness in health care, primary care has so far not played this role in the German system. Primary care physicians traditionally do not have a gatekeeper function; patients can freely choose and directly access both primary and secondary care providers, making coordination and cooperation within and across sectors difficult. Description of policy development: Since 2000, driven by the political leadership and initiative of the Federal Ministry of Health, the German Bundestag has passed several laws enabling new forms of care aimed to improve care coordination and to strengthen primary care as a key function in the German health care system. These include on the contractual side integrated care contracts, and on the delivery side disease management programmes, medical care centres, gatekeeping and ‘community medicine nurses’. Conclusion and discussion: Recent policy reforms improved framework conditions for new forms of care. There is a clear commitment by the government and the introduction of selective contracting and financial incentives for stronger cooperation constitute major drivers for change. First evaluations, especially of disease management programmes, indicate that the new forms of care improve coordination and outcomes. Yet the process of strengthening primary care as a lever for better care coordination has only just begun. Future reforms need to address other structural barriers for change such as fragmented funding streams, inadequate payment systems, the lack of standardized IT systems and trans
Schlette, Sophia; Lisac, Melanie; Blum, Kerstin
Health care delivery in Germany is highly fragmented, resulting in poor vertical and horizontal integration and a system that is focused on curing acute illness or single diseases instead of managing patients with more complex or chronic conditions, or managing the health of determined populations. While it is now widely accepted that a strong primary care system can help improve coordination and responsiveness in health care, primary care has so far not played this role in the German system. Primary care physicians traditionally do not have a gatekeeper function; patients can freely choose and directly access both primary and secondary care providers, making coordination and cooperation within and across sectors difficult. Since 2000, driven by the political leadership and initiative of the Federal Ministry of Health, the German Bundestag has passed several laws enabling new forms of care aimed to improve care coordination and to strengthen primary care as a key function in the German health care system. These include on the contractual side integrated care contracts, and on the delivery side disease management programmes, medical care centres, gatekeeping and 'community medicine nurses'. Recent policy reforms improved framework conditions for new forms of care. There is a clear commitment by the government and the introduction of selective contracting and financial incentives for stronger cooperation constitute major drivers for change. First evaluations, especially of disease management programmes, indicate that the new forms of care improve coordination and outcomes. Yet the process of strengthening primary care as a lever for better care coordination has only just begun. Future reforms need to address other structural barriers for change such as fragmented funding streams, inadequate payment systems, the lack of standardized IT systems and trans-sectoral education and training of providers.
Dubovsky, Amelia N; Kiefer, Meghan M
Borderline personality disorder is estimated to be present in approximately 6% of outpatient primary care settings. However, the time and energy spent on this population can greatly exceed what primary care doctors are able to spend. This article gives an overview of borderline personality disorder, including the clinical characteristics, epidemiology, and comorbidities, as well as pharmacologic and most important behavioral management. It is our hope that, with improved understanding of the disorder and skills for managing this population, caring for patients with the disorder can be more satisfying and less taxing for both primary care doctors and their patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nicolae, Alexandra; Levin, Leo; Wong, Peter D; Dave, Malini G; Taras, Jillian; Mistry, Chetna; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth L; Wong, Michele; Schroth, Robert J
Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common chronic disease affecting young children in Canada. ECC may lead to pain and infection, compromised general health, decreased quality of life and increased risk for dental caries in primary and permanent teeth. A multidisciplinary approach to prevent and identify dental disease is recommended by dental and medical national organizations. Young children visit primary care providers at regular intervals from an early age. These encounters provide an ideal opportunity for primary care providers to educate clients about their children's oral health and its importance for general health. We designed an office-based oral health screening guide to help primary care providers identify ECC, a dental referral form to facilitate dental care access and an oral health education resource to raise parental awareness. These resources were reviewed and trialled with a small number of primary care providers.
Goldberg, David P.; Reed, Geoffrey M.; Robles, Rebeca
Background In this field study of WHO's revised classification of mental disorders for primary care settings, the ICD-11 PHC, we tested the usefulness of two five-item screening scales for anxiety and depression to be administered in primary care settings. Methods The study was conducted in primary...... in primary care settings. Conclusions The two five-item screening scales for anxiety and depression provide a practical way for PCPs to evaluate the likelihood of mood and anxiety disorders without paper and pencil measures that are not feasible in many settings. These scales may provide substantially...... care settings in four large middle-income countries. Primary care physicians (PCPs) referred individuals who they suspected might be psychologically distressed to the study. Screening scales as well as a structured diagnostic interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), adapted...
Oldenburger, David; De Bortoli Cassiani, Silvia Helena; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Valaitis, Ruta Kristina; Baumann, Andrea; Pulcini, Joyce; Martin-Misener, Ruth
SYNOPSIS Advanced practice nursing (APN) is a term used to describe a variety of possible nursing roles operating at an advanced level of practice. Historically, APN roles haves evolved informally, out of the need to improve access to health care services for at-risk and disadvantaged populations and for those living in underserved rural and remote communities. To address health needs, especially ones related to primary health care, nurses acquired additional skills through practice experience, and over time they developed an expanded scope of practice. More recently, APN roles have been developed more formally through the establishment of graduate education programs to meet agreed-upon competencies and standards for practice. The introduction of APN roles is expected to advance primary health care throughout Latin America and the Caribbean, where few such roles exist. The purpose of the paper is to outline an implementation strategy to guide and support the introduction of primary health care APN roles in Latin America and the Caribbean. The strategy includes the adaptation of an existing framework, utilization of recent research evidence, and application of knowledge from experts on APN and primary health care. The strategy consists of nine steps. Each step includes a national perspective that focuses on direct country involvement in health workforce planning and development and on implementation. In addition, each step incorporates an international perspective on encouraging countries that have established APN programs and positions to collaborate in health workforce development with nations without advanced practice nursing.
Kwok, Jonas; Olayiwola, J Nwando; Knox, Margae; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Tuot, Delphine S
Background Electronic consultation systems allow primary care providers to receive timely speciality expertise via iterative electronic communication. The use of such systems is expanding across the USA with well-documented high levels of user satisfaction. We characterise the educational impact for primary care providers of a long-standing integrated electronic consultation and referral system. Methods Primary care providers' perceptions of the educational value inherent to electronic consultation system communication and the impact on their ability to manage common speciality clinical conditions and questions were examined by electronic survey using five-point Likert scales. Differences in primary care providers' perceptions were examined overall and by primary care providers' speciality, provider type and years of experience. Results Among 221 primary care provider participants (35% response rate), 83.9% agreed or strongly agreed that the integrated electronic consultation and referral system provided educational value. There were no significant differences in educational value reported by provider type (attending physician, mid-level provider, or trainee physician), primary care providers' speciality, or years of experience. Perceived benefit of the electronic consultation and referral system in clinical management appeared stronger for laboratory-based conditions (i.e. subclinical hypothyroidism) than more diffuse conditions (i.e. abdominal pain). Nurse practitioners/physician assistants and trainee physicians were more likely to report improved abilities to manage specific clinical conditions when using the electronic consultation and/or referral system than were attending physicians, as were primary care providers with ≤10 years experience, versus those with >20 years of experience. Conclusions Primary care providers report overwhelmingly positive perceptions of the educational value of an integrated electronic consultation and referral system. Nurse
Berenson, Robert A.; Rich, Eugene C.
The purpose of this paper is to address why the three dominant alternatives to compensating physicians (fee-for-service, capitation, and salary) fall short of what is needed to support enhanced primary care in the patient-centered medical home, and the relevance of such payment reforms as pay-for-performance and episodes/bundling. The review illustrates why prevalent physician payment mechanisms in the US have failed to adequately support primary care and why innovative approaches to primary ...
Patricia Sodré Araújo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize the activities of clinical nature developed by pharmacists in basic health units and their participation in educational activities aiming at health promotion. METHODS This article is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos – Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM – National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines – Services, 2015, a cross-sectional and exploratory study, of evaluative nature, consisting of a survey of information in a representative sample of cities, stratified by the Brazilian regions that constitute domains of study, and a subsample of primary health care services. The interviewed pharmacists (n=285 were responsible for the delivery of medicines and were interviewed in person with the use of a script. The characterization of the activities of clinical nature was based on information from pharmacists who declared to perform them, and on participation in educational activities aiming at health promotion, according to information from all pharmacists. The results are presented in frequency and their 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS From the interviewed subjects, 21.3% said they perform activities of clinical nature. Of these, more than 80% considered them very important; the majority does not dispose of specific places to perform them, which hinders privacy and confidentiality in these activities. The main denominations were “pharmaceutical guidance” and “pharmaceutical care.” The registration of activities is mainly made in the users’ medical records, computerized system, and in a specific document filed at the pharmacy, impairing the circulation of information among professionals. Most pharmacists performed these activities mainly along with physicians and nurses; 24.7% rarely participated in meetings with the health team, and 19.7% have never participated. CONCLUSIONS Activities of clinical nature
Full Text Available Home health services is to give examination, diagnosis,treatment, and rehabilitation services to the patients whobedridden, have difficulties to access health facility due toa variety of chronic or malignant disease by professionalhealth care team. Family physicians that providing healthcare in primary care is responsible for to determine whowill need home health care services, and to make homevisit on a regular basis among registered patients in theirpopulations. It is seems that the biggest shortcoming thecontent and scope of this service is not yet a standard. Inthis article, how home health services should be given willbe discussed.Key words: Primary health care, home health care, bedriddenpatient
Boerma, W.G.W.; Kringos, D.S.; Verschuuren, M.; Pellny, M.; Bulc, M.
Of all GPs in Slovenia 86% are not interested in activities to systematically improve care. A clear national quality policy, further education for care managers and financial incentives for GPs could change the picture, as NIVEL research – done on the initiative of the World Health Organisation
Full Text Available Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.Keywords: health psychology, primary care, integrated care, collaborative care, referral, colocation
Prins, M.A.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Meer, K. van der; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Bensing, J.M.
Many anxiety and depression patients receive no care, resulting in unnecessary suffering and high costs. Specific beliefs and the absence of a perceived need for care are major reasons for not receiving care. This study aims to determine the specific perceived need for care in primary care patients
This article explores the recent ferment surrounding professional self-regulation in medicine and other health professions. It reviews the academic literature and sets out an agenda for research. The first section considers definitions, acknowledging the particularly complex regulatory maze in UK health care at present, in which professional self-regulation is only one part. The second section reviews academic writing, currently dispersed among the disciplines. 'The logic of light touch regulation', a feature of the 19th century establishment of the General Medical Council, can perhaps shed light on present debates. Alongside the intense political spotlight on regulation in the wake of the Bristol case, consumer-led research and consumer pressure to rethink the principles of regulation has emerged. This is examined in the third section. Finally, themes for research are advanced. First, there is a need to explore the changing relationship between the state and professions and implications, not only for the professions but for health care more broadly. Second, calls for a new professionalism need to be given clearer content. Third, the moves towards more lay involvement in regulatory bodies need study. Fourth, questions of human rights and professional registers must be explored. Fundamental questions of what professional self-regulation can hope to achieve and where it fits in relation to government ambitions as a whole, remain unresolved. Alongside the work programme of the new overarching regulator, there may well be scope for a new style of public enquiry covering the whole territory of regulation.
Bleijenberg, N.; Ten Dam, V.H.; Drubbel, I.; Numans, M.E.; De Wit, N.J.; Schuurmans, M.J.
Purpose: Care for older patients in primary care is currently reactive, fragmented, and time consuming. An innovative structured and proactive primary care program (U-CARE) has been developed to preserve physical functioning and enhance quality of life of frail older people. This study describes in
Primary care health services in the Irish Republic have undergone fundamental transformation with the establishment of multidisciplinary primary care teams nationwide. Primary care teams provide a community-based health service delivered through a range of health professionals in an integrated way. As part of this initiative ten pilot teams were established in 2003. This research was undertaken in order to gain an understanding of nurse\\'s experiences of working in a piloted primary care team. The methodology used was a focus group approach. The findings from this study illustrated how community nurse\\'s roles and responsibilities have expanded within the team. The findings also highlighted the benefits and challenges of working as a team with various other community-based health-care disciplines.
Schurman, Jennifer Verrill; Kessler, Emily D; Friesen, Craig A
This study examined the practices used by primary care pediatricians to assess and treat chronic abdominal pain (CAP), as an initial step in guiding clinical practice guideline (CPG) development. A survey was mailed to a random sample of office-based pediatrician members (primary care pediatricians [PCPs]) of the American Medical Association. PCPs (n = 470) provided information about the typical presentation of CAP, assessment/treatment approaches used in their own practice, their definition of a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID), and their familiarity with the Rome Criteria for diagnosing FGIDs. Substantial variability among PCPs was noted across all these areas. Results suggest that perceptions and practices of pediatric CAP vary widely among PCPs; no single standard of care emerged to guide development of a CPG for this population. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of specific strategies currently in use to identify potential opportunities for improving assessment and treatment of CAP in pediatric primary care. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ugo, Okoli; Ezinne, Eze-Ajoku; Modupe, Oludipe; Nicole, Spieker; Winifred, Ekezie; Kelechi, Ohiri
Background: Nigeria has a high population density but a weak health-care system. To improve the quality of care, 3 organizations carried out a quality improvement pilot intervention at the primary health-care level in selected rural areas. Objective: To assess the change in quality of care in primary health-care facilities in rural Nigeria following the provision of technical governance support and to document the successes and challenges encountered. Method: A total of 6 states were selected...
healthcare workers in outpatient clinics remain a challenge to quality care. The objective of the study is ... confidence on the quality of service provided by the facilities. Thus the objective ..... practitioner relationship. Journal of General Internal.
Standing at the crossroads of anthropology, communication, industrial design and new technology theories, this article describes the communication challenges posed during hospital emergencies resulting from linguistic and cultural differences between health care professionals and patients. In order to overcome communication barriers, the proposal of a visual solution was analyzed. Likewise, the problem was studied based on the concepts of perception, comprehension, interpretation and graphic representation according to visual culture and semiotics theories. One hundred and ffty images showing symptoms were analyzed in order to identify a pluricultural iconographic code. Results enabled to develop a list of design criteria and create the application: "My Symptoms Translator" as an option to overcome verbal language barriers and cultural differences.
Lakin, Joshua R; Block, Susan D; Billings, J Andrew; Koritsanszky, Luca A; Cunningham, Rebecca; Wichmann, Lisa; Harvey, Doreen; Lamey, Jan; Bernacki, Rachelle E
The Institute of Medicine recently called for systematic improvements in clinician-led conversations about goals, values, and care preferences for patients with serious and life-threatening illnesses. Studies suggest that these conversations are associated with improved outcomes for patients and their families, enhanced clinician satisfaction, and lower health care costs; however, the role of primary care clinicians in driving conversations about goals and priorities in serious illness is not well defined. To present a review of a structured search of the evidence base about communication in serious illness in primary care. MEDLINE was searched, via PubMed, on January 19, 2016, finding 911 articles; 126 articles were reviewed and selected titles were added from bibliography searches. Review of the literature informed 2 major topic areas: the role of primary care in communication about serious illness and clinician barriers and system failures that interfere with effective communication. Literature regarding the role that primary care plays in communication focused primarily on the ambiguity about whether primary care clinicians or specialists are responsible for initiating conversations, the benefits of primary care clinicians and specialists conducting conversations, and the quantity and quality of discussions. Timely and effective communication about serious illness in primary care is hampered by key clinician barriers, which include deficits in knowledge, skills, and attitudes; discomfort with prognostication; and lack of clarity about the appropriate timing and initiation of conversations. Finally, system failures in coordination, documentation, feedback, and quality improvement contribute to lack of conversations. Clinician and system barriers will challenge primary care clinicians and institutions to meet the needs of patients with serious illness. Ensuring that conversations about goals and values occur at the appropriate time for seriously ill patients will
Miller, P; Craig, N; Scott, A; Walker, A; Hanlon, P
The push towards a 'primary care-led' National Health Service (NHS) has far-reaching implications for the future structure of the NHS. The policy involves both a growing emphasis on the role of primary care practitioners in the commissioning of health services, and a change from hospital to primary and community settings for a range of services and procedures. Although the terminology has changed, this emphasis remains in the recent Scottish Health Service White Paper and its English counterpart. To consider three questions in relation to this policy goal. First, does the evidence base support the changes? Secondly, what is the scale of the changes that have occurred? Thirdly, what are the barriers to the development of a primary care-led NHS? Programme budgets were compiled to assess changes over time in the balance of NHS resource allocation with respect to primary and secondary care. Total NHS revenue expenditure for the 15 Scottish health boards was grouped into four blocks or 'programmes': primary care, secondary care, community services, and a residual. The study period was 1991/2 to 1995/6. Expenditure data were supplied by the Scottish Office. Ambiguity of definitions and the absence of good data cause methodological difficulties in evaluating the scale and the appropriateness of the shift. The data that are available suggest that, at the aggregate level, there have been changes over time in the balance of resource allocation between care settings: relative investment into primary care has increased. It would appear that this investment is relatively small and from growth money rather than a 'shift' from secondary care. In addition, the impact of GP-led commissioning is variable but limited. General practitioners' (GPs') attitudes to the policy suggest that progress towards a primary care-led NHS will continue to be patchy. The limited shift to date, alongside evidence of ambivalent attitudes to the shift on the part of GPs, suggest that this is a policy
Thaís Giudice Schultz
Full Text Available Objective: This article describes an experience report that aimed to present perceptions on the care of children with disabilities in the Family Health Strategy (FHS, showing its limits and potentials based on the experience of participation in the program ‘PET-Saúde’. Method: Data were collected from field notes which recorded the monitoring of the care process offered to children with disabilities by the FHS teams. The study was conducted in a health facility in the city of Rio de Janeiro for one year. Results: Content analysis results listed the two main themes that composed the issues of concern for child care in this experience: the coordination of health care and the family and community orientation as the core for child care in the FHS. Conclusion: Despite the weakness in compliance with these categories, which are principles and fundamentals of the FHS, this is a privileged space with regard to care practices for children with disabilities.
Ono, Sarah S.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.; Hemler, Jennifer R.; Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Edwards, Samuel T.; Green, Larry A.; Kaufman, Arthur; Solberg, Leif I.; Miller, William L.; Woodson, Tanisha Tate; Sweeney, Shannon M.; Cohen, Deborah J.
Health care extension is an approach to providing external support to primary care practices with the aim of diffusing innovation. EvidenceNOW was launched to rapidly disseminate and implement evidence-based guidelines for cardiovascular preventive care in the primary care setting. Seven regional grantee cooperatives provided the foundational elements of health care extension—technological and quality improvement support, practice capacity building, and linking with community resources—to more than two hundred primary care practices in each region. This article describes how the cooperatives varied in their approaches to extension and provides early empirical evidence that health care extension is a feasible and potentially useful approach for providing quality improvement support to primary care practices. With investment, health care extension may be an effective platform for federal and state quality improvement efforts to create economies of scale and provide practices with more robust and coordinated support services. PMID:29401016
Cañada Dorado, A; Cárdenas Valladolid, J; Espejo Matorrales, F; García Ferradal, I; Sastre Páez, S; Vicente Martín, I
To describe a project carried out in order to improve the process of Continuous Health Care (CHC) on Saturdays and bank holidays in Primary Care, area number 4, Madrid. The aim of this project was to guarantee a safe and error-free service to patients receiving home health care on weekends. The urgent need for improving CHC process was identified by the Risk Management Functional Unit (RMFU) of the area. In addition, some complaints had been received from the nurses involved in the process as well as from their patients. A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis performed in 2009 highlighted a number of problems with the process. As a result, a project for improvement was drawn up, to be implemented in the following stages: 1. Redesigning and improving the existing process. 2. Application of failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to the new process. 3. Follow up, managing and leading the project. 4. Nurse training. 5. Implementing the process in the whole area. 6. CHC nurse satisfaction surveys. After carrying out this project, the efficiency and level of automation improved considerably. Since implementation of the process enhancement measures, no complaints have been received from patients and surveys show that CHC nurse satisfaction has improved. By using FMEA, errors were given priority and enhancement steps were taken in order to: Inform professionals, back-up personnel and patients about the process. Improve the specialist follow-up report. Provide training in ulcer patient care. The process enhancement, and especially its automation, has resulted in a significant step forward toward achieving greater patient safety. FMEA was a useful tool, which helped in taking some important actions. Finally, CHC nurse satisfaction has clearly improved. Copyright © 2009 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph; Hillier, Loretta M; Slonim, Karen; Craven, Catharine
To identify a set of essential components for primary care for patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) for inclusion in a point-of-practice toolkit for primary care practitioners (PCP) and identification of the essential elements of SCI care that are required in primary care and those that should be the focus of specialist care. Modified Delphi consensus process; survey methodology. Primary care. Three family physicians, six specialist physicians, and five inter-disciplinary health professionals completed surveys. Importance of care elements for inclusion in the toolkit (9-point scale: 1 = lowest level of importance, 9 = greatest level of importance) and identification of most responsible physician (family physician, specialist) for completing key categories of care. Open-ended comments were solicited. There was consensus between the respondent groups on the level of importance of various care elements. Mean importance scores were highest for autonomic dysreflexia, pain, and skin care and lowest for preventive care, social issues, and vital signs. Although, there was agreement across all respondents that family physicians should assume responsibility for assessing mental health, there was variability in who should be responsible for other care categories. Comments were related to the need for shared care approaches and capacity building and lack of knowledge and specialized equipment as barriers to optimal care. This study identified important components of SCI care to be included in a point-of-practice toolkit to facilitate primary care for persons with SCI.
Abu Al Hamayel, Nebras; Isenberg, Sarina R; Hannum, Susan M; Sixon, Joshua; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Dy, Sydney M
Despite increased focus on measuring and improving quality of serious illness care, there has been little emphasis on the primary care context or incorporation of the patient perspective. To explore older patients' perspectives on the quality of serious illness care in primary care. Qualitative interview study. Twenty patients aged 60 or older who were at risk for or living with serious illness and who had participated in the clinic's quality improvement initiative. We used a semistructured, open-ended guide focusing on how older patients perceived quality of serious illness care, particularly in primary care. We transcribed interviews verbatim and inductively identified codes. We identified emergent themes using a thematic and constant comparative method. We identified 5 key themes: (1) the importance of patient-centered communication, (2) coordination of care, (3) the shared decision-making process, (4) clinician competence, and (5) access to care. Communication was an overarching theme that facilitated coordination of care between patients and their clinicians, empowered patients for shared decision-making, related to clinicians' perceived competence, and enabled access to primary and specialty care. Although access to care is not traditionally considered an aspect of quality, patients considered this integral to the quality of care they received. Patients perceived serious illness care as a key aspect of quality in primary care. Efforts to improve quality measurement and implementation of quality improvement initiatives in serious illness care should consider these aspects of care that patients deem important, particularly communication as an overarching priority.
Jorge Wilker Bezerra Clares
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To develop a subset of nursing diagnoses for the elderly followed in primary health care based on the bank of terms for clinical nursing practice with the elderly, in the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP(r version 2013, and on the Model of Nursing Care. METHOD Descriptive study developed in sequential steps of construction and validation of the bank of terms, elaboration of the nursing diagnoses based on the guidelines of the International Council of Nurses and the bank of terms, and categorization of diagnostics according to the Care Model. RESULTS The total of 127 nursing diagnoses were elaborated from 359 validated terms, distributed according to the basic human needs. CONCLUSION It is expected that these diagnoses will form the basis for the planning of nursing care and use of a unified language for documentation of clinical nursing practice with the elderly in primary care.
Sheridan, Bethany; Chien, Alyna T; Peters, Antoinette S; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Brooks, Joanna Veazey; Singer, Sara J
Team-based care has the potential to improve primary care quality and efficiency. In this model, medical assistants (MAs) take a more central role in patient care and population health management. MAs' traditionally low status may give them a unique view on changing organizational dynamics and teamwork. However, little empirical work exists on how team-based organizational designs affect the experiences of low-status health care workers like MAs. The aim of this study was to describe how team-based primary care affects the experiences of MAs. A secondary aim was to explore variation in these experiences. In late 2014, the authors interviewed 30 MAs from nine primary care practices transitioning to team-based care. Interviews addressed job responsibilities, teamwork, implementation, job satisfaction, and learning. Data were analyzed using a thematic networks approach. Interviews also included closed-ended questions about workload and job satisfaction. Most MAs reported both a higher workload (73%) and a greater job satisfaction (86%) under team-based primary care. Interview data surfaced four mechanisms for these results, which suggested more fulfilling work and greater respect for the MA role: (a) relationships with colleagues, (b) involvement with patients, (c) sense of control, and (d) sense of efficacy. Facilitators and barriers to these positive changes also emerged. Team-based care can provide low-status health care workers with more fulfilling work and strengthen relationships across status lines. The extent of this positive impact may depend on supporting factors at the organization, team, and individual worker levels. To maximize the benefits of team-based care, primary care leaders should recognize the larger role that MAs play under this model and support them as increasingly valuable team members. Contingent on organizational conditions, practices may find MAs who are willing to manage the increased workload that often accompanies team-based care.
da Silva, Andréa Tenório Correia; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Susser, Ezra; Menezes, Paulo Rossi
To identify work-related factors associated with depressive symptoms and probable major depression in primary care teams. Cross-sectional study among primary care teams (community health workers, nursing assistants, nurses, and physicians) in the city of São Paulo, Brazil (2011-2012; n = 2940), to assess depressive symptoms and probable major depression and their associations with job strain and other work-related conditions. Community health workers presented higher prevalence of probable major depression (18%) than other primary care workers. Higher odds ratios for depressive symptoms or probable major depression were associated with longer duration of employment in primary care; having a passive, active, or high-strain job; lack of supervisor feedback regarding performance; and low social support from colleagues and supervisors. Observed levels of job-related depression can endanger the sustainability of primary care programs. Public Health implications. Strategies are needed to deliver care to primary care workers with depression, facilitating diagnosis and access to treatment, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Preventive interventions can include training managers to provide feedback and creating strategies to increase job autonomy and social support at work.
Verstappen, Wim; Gaal, Sander; Bowie, Paul; Parker, Diane; Lainer, Miriam; Valderas, Jose M.; Wensing, Michel; Esmail, Aneez
ABSTRACT Background: Healthcare can cause avoidable serious harm to patients. Primary care is not an exception, and the relative lack of research in this area lends urgency to a better understanding of patient safety, the future research agenda and the development of primary care oriented safety programmes. Objective: To outline a research agenda for patient safety improvement in primary care in Europe and beyond. Methods: The LINNEAUS collaboration partners analysed existing research on epidemiology and classification of errors, diagnostic and medication errors, safety culture, and learning for and improving patient safety. We discussed ideas for future research in several meetings, workshops and congresses with LINNEAUS collaboration partners, practising GPs, researchers in this field, and policy makers. Results: This paper summarizes and integrates the outcomes of the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care. It proposes a research agenda on improvement strategies for patient safety in primary care. In addition, it provides background information to help to connect research in this field with practicing GPs and other healthcare workers in primary care. Conclusion: Future research studies should target specific primary care domains, using prospective methods and innovative methods such as patient involvement. PMID:26339841
Verstappen, Wim; Gaal, Sander; Bowie, Paul; Parker, Diane; Lainer, Miriam; Valderas, Jose M; Wensing, Michel; Esmail, Aneez
Healthcare can cause avoidable serious harm to patients. Primary care is not an exception, and the relative lack of research in this area lends urgency to a better understanding of patient safety, the future research agenda and the development of primary care oriented safety programmes. To outline a research agenda for patient safety improvement in primary care in Europe and beyond. The LINNEAUS collaboration partners analysed existing research on epidemiology and classification of errors, diagnostic and medication errors, safety culture, and learning for and improving patient safety. We discussed ideas for future research in several meetings, workshops and congresses with LINNEAUS collaboration partners, practising GPs, researchers in this field, and policy makers. This paper summarizes and integrates the outcomes of the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care. It proposes a research agenda on improvement strategies for patient safety in primary care. In addition, it provides background information to help to connect research in this field with practicing GPs and other healthcare workers in primary care. Future research studies should target specific primary care domains, using prospective methods and innovative methods such as patient involvement.
Koslov, Steven; Trowbridge, Elizabeth; Kamnetz, Sandra; Kraft, Sally; Grossman, Jeffrey; Pandhi, Nancy
Primary care is considered the foundation of an effective health care system. However, primary care departments at academic health centers have numerous challenges to overcome when trying to achieve the Triple Aim. As part of an organizational initiative to redesign primary care at a large academic health center, departments of internal medicine, general pediatrics and adolescent medicine, and family medicine worked together to comprehensively redesign primary care. This article describes the process of aligning these three primary care departments: defining panel size, developing a common primary care job description, redesigning the primary care compensation plan, redesigning the care model, and developing standardized staffing. Prior to the initiative, the rate of patient satisfaction was 85%, anticoagulation measurement 65%, pneumococcal vaccination 85%, breast cancer screening 79%, and colorectal cancer screening 69%. These rates all improved to 87%, 75%, 88%, 80%, and 80% respectively. Themes around key challenges to departmental integration are identified: (1) implementing effective communication strategies; (2) addressing specialty differences in primary care delivery; (3) working within resource limitations; and (4) developing long-term sustainability. Primary care in this large academic health center was transformed through developing a united primary care leadership team that bridged individual departments to create and adopt a common vision and solutions to shared problems. Our collaboration has achieved improvements across patient satisfaction, clinical safety metrics, and publicly-reported preventive care outcomes. The description of this experience may be useful for other academic health centers or other non-integrated delivery systems undertaking primary care practice transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baron, Richard J.
Those in practice find that the fee-for-service system does not adequately value the contributions made by primary care. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (Innovation Center) was created by the Affordable Care Act to test new models of health care delivery to improve the quality of care while lowering costs. All programs coming out of the Innovation Center are tests of new payment and service delivery models. By changing both payment and delivery models and moving to a payment model that rewards physicians for quality of care instead of volume of care, we may be able to achieve the kind of health care patients want to receive and primary care physicians want to provide. PMID:22412007
Yano, Elizabeth M; Soban, Lynn M; Parkerton, Patricia H; Etzioni, David A
To identify primary care practice characteristics associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening performance, controlling for patient-level factors. Primary care director survey (1999-2000) of 155 VA primary care clinics linked with 38,818 eligible patients' sociodemographics, utilization, and CRC screening experience using centralized administrative and chart-review data (2001). Practices were characterized by degrees of centralization (e.g., authority over operations, staffing, outside-practice influence); resources (e.g., sufficiency of nonphysician staffing, space, clinical support arrangements); and complexity (e.g., facility size, academic status, managed care penetration), adjusting for patient-level covariates and contextual factors. Chart-based evidence of CRC screening through direct colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or consecutive fecal occult blood tests, eliminating cases with documented histories of CRC, polyps, or inflammatory bowel disease. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health care utilization, patients were significantly more likely to be screened for CRC if their primary care practices had greater autonomy over the internal structure of care delivery (pmanagement and referral procedures are associated with significantly lower CRC screening performance. Competition with hospital resource demands may impinge on the degree of internal organization of their affiliated primary care practices.
Nagham N. Alsafy
Jun 12, 2011 ... Conclusion: Overall, primary care nurses had poor knowledge regarding DV. Although female ... Physical abuse is defined as any behavior in which the body ... activity.5 Psychological abuse essentially and significantly dif-.
Knowledge of primary care nurses regarding domestic violence. ... It included also knowledge about prevalence of DV, and four main aspects relevant to DV, namely deprivation, psychological, ... schools, training courses and conferences.
Knowledge of Primary Care Physicians Regarding Domestic Violence. ... prevalence of DV, and 4 main aspects relevant to DV, namely deprivation, psychological, ... and instructions about DV from scientific formal sources as medical schools, ...
According to a 1998 World Health Organization Survey of 26 000 primary care ... in pain medicine and continue to follow the biomedical approach, which ... The modern paradigm of pain management has moved from this biomedical to the ...
Jun 8, 2011 ... There is a worldwide epidemic of overweight, obesity, and morbid obesity ... the evolution of bariatric surgery.4 Controversy exists regard- ing the best ..... attitudes and practices among Israeli primary care physicians. Int J.
Caregivers' satisfaction and supervision of primary health care services in Nnewi, ... made in the reduction of childhood health indicators in the previous decade, ... supervision of PHCs should also improve the quality of child health services.
The motivational needs of primary health care nurses to acquire power as leaders in ... Ethical considerations were adhered to and respondents gave written ... Validity and reliability principles were applied during the entire research process.
Participatory action research in the training of primary health care nurses in Venda. ... who had been part of the nurse training programme with clinic attenders. ... enough access to financial decision making and were therefore powerless to ...
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care - Vol 23, No 1-2 (2011) ... The Nigerian National Health Bill 2011: Delay of Presidential Assent to an Act: ... Knowledge And Practice of Occupational Safety Among Quarry Workers in A ...
Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice ... Design: A quasi experimental design, used multi stage sampling technique to select participants. ... Primary health care centers are fairly evenly distributed in all the 16 local government ...
Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care,. University of Stellenbosch & Community Health Services Organisation,. Department of Health ..... helped to create an atmosphere of .... Journal of Mental Health. 1992 ...
After years of being shielded from most of the managerial and organisational changes in health care, primary care is going through a period of change in many countries. Much of the research that has been done in primary care, in common with that in secondary care, puts at the centre of its methodology the concept of professionalism. However, there are other ways of theorising medical work, and using a wider range of theoretical 'lenses' when planning research into the impact of change will enhance and enrich that research. Viewing primary care physicians as 'workers', concerned, like other workers, with constructing understanding of what they do that helps them cope with pressures and uncertainties, shifts the focus of research questions away from issues of professional status towards the practical ways in which they deal with change in their local contexts. Research using this theoretical approach may be able to explain phenomena that other, more broad-brush approaches cannot.
Becker, Werner J.; Findlay, Ted; Moga, Carmen; Scott, N. Ann; Harstall, Christa; Taenzer, Paul
Abstract Objective To increase the use of evidence-informed approaches to diagnosis, investigation, and treatment of headache for patients in primary care. Quality of evidence A comprehensive search was conducted for relevant guidelines and systematic reviews published between January 2000 and May 2011. The guidelines were critically appraised using the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation) tool, and the 6 highest-quality guidelines were used as seed guidelines for the guideline adaptation process. Main message A multidisciplinary guideline development group of primary care providers and other specialists crafted 91 specific recommendations using a consensus process. The recommendations cover diagnosis, investigation, and management of migraine, tension-type, medication-overuse, and cluster headache. Conclusion A clinical practice guideline for the Canadian health care context was created using a guideline adaptation process to assist multidisciplinary primary care practitioners in providing evidence-informed care for patients with headache. PMID:26273080
Full Text Available Osteoarthrosis is the most common rheumatic disease and occurs in more than 50% of all rheumatic patients. These patients are diagnosed and treated by rheumatologists, orthopedists, and neurologists in the primary health care ofBulgaria. The problems in these patients are primarily encountered by general practitioners (family physicians who estimate the need for specialized medical care. The paper considers the organizational aspects of primary medical carefor patients with ostheoarthosis. Six-year data are analyzed.
Holman, G Talley; Beasley, John W; Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Stone, Jamie A; Smith, Paul D; Wetterneck, Tosha B
Primary care efficiency and quality are essential for the nation's health. The demands on primary care physicians (PCPs) are increasing as healthcare becomes more complex. A more complete understanding of PCP workflow variation is needed to guide future healthcare redesigns. This analysis evaluates workflow variation in terms of the sequence of tasks performed during patient visits. Two patient visits from 10 PCPs from 10 different United States Midwestern primary care clinics were analyzed to determine physician workflow. Tasks and the progressive sequence of those tasks were observed, documented, and coded by task category using a PCP task list. Variations in the sequence and prevalence of tasks at each stage of the primary care visit were assessed considering the physician, the patient, the visit's progression, and the presence of an electronic health record (EHR) at the clinic. PCP workflow during patient visits varies significantly, even for an individual physician, with no single or even common workflow pattern being present. The prevalence of specific tasks shifts significantly as primary care visits progress to their conclusion but, notably, PCPs collect patient information throughout the visit. PCP workflows were unpredictable during face-to-face patient visits. Workflow emerges as the result of a "dance" between physician and patient as their separate agendas are addressed, a side effect of patient-centered practice. Future healthcare redesigns should support a wide variety of task sequences to deliver high-quality primary care. The development of tools such as electronic health records must be based on the realities of primary care visits if they are to successfully support a PCP's mental and physical work, resulting in effective, safe, and efficient primary care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ngune, Irene; Jiwa, Moyez; Dadich, Ann; Lotriet, Jaco; Sriram, Deepa
Patient recruitment in primary care research is often a protracted and frustrating process, affecting project timeframes, budget and the dissemination of research findings. Yet, clear guidance on patient recruitment strategies in primary care research is limited. This paper addresses this issue through a systematic review. Articles were sourced from five academic databases - AustHealth, CINAHL, the Cochrane Methodology Group, EMBASE and PubMed/Medline; grey literature was also sourced from an academic library and the Primary Healthcare Research & Information Service (PHCRIS) website. Two reviewers independently screened the articles using the following criteria: (1) published in English, (2) reported empirical research, (3) focused on interventions designed to increase patient recruitment in primary care settings, and (4) reported patient recruitment in primary care settings. Sixty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 23 specifically focused on recruitment strategies and included randomised trials (n = 7), systematic reviews (n = 8) and qualitative studies (n = 8). Of the remaining articles, 30 evaluated recruitment strategies, while 13 addressed the value of recruitment strategies using descriptive statistics and/or qualitative data. Among the 66 articles, primary care chiefly included general practice (n = 30); nursing and allied health services, multiple settings, as well as other community settings (n = 30); and pharmacy (n = 6). Effective recruitment strategies included the involvement of a discipline champion, simple patient eligibility criteria, patient incentives and organisational strategies that reduce practitioner workload. The most effective recruitment in primary care research requires practitioner involvement. The active participation of primary care practitioners in both the design and conduct of research helps to identify strategies that are congruent with the context in which patient care is delivered. This is reported to be the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care specialists have a key role in the management of obesity. Through understanding how they conceive the encounter with patients with obesity, treatment may be improved. The aim of this study was thus to explore general practitioners' and district nurses' conceptions of encountering patients with obesity in primary health care. Method Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and analysed using a phenomenographic approach. The participants were 10 general practitioners (6 women, 4 men and 10 district nurses (7 women, 3 men from 19 primary health care centres within a well-defined area of Sweden. Results Five descriptive categories were identified: Adequate primary health care, Promoting lifestyle change, Need for competency, Adherence to new habits and Understanding patient attitudes. All participants, independent of gender and profession, were represented in the descriptive categories. Some profession and gender differences were, however, found in the underlying conceptions. The general staff view was that obesity had to be prioritised. However, there was also the contradictory view that obesity is not a disease and therefore not the responsibility of primary health care. Despite this, staff conceived it as important that patients were met with respect and that individual solutions were provided which could be adhered to step-by-step by the patient. Patient attitudes, such as motivation to change, evasive behaviour, too much trust in care and lack of self-confidence, were, however, conceived as major barriers to a fruitful encounter. Conclusions Findings from this study indicate that there is a need for development and organisation of weight management in primary health care. Raising awareness of staff's negative views of patient attitudes is important since it is likely that it affects the patient-staff relationship and staff's treatment efforts. More research is also needed on gender and
van der Aa, H.P.A.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.; Comijs, H.C.; Margrain, T.H.; Galindo Garre, F.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Nispen, R.M.A.
Study question Is stepped care compared with usual care effective in preventing the onset of major depressive, dysthymic, and anxiety disorders in older people with visual impairment (caused mainly by age related eye disease) and subthreshold depression and/or anxiety? Methods 265 people aged ?50
González-de Paz, L
The clinical decision making process with ethical implications in the area of primary healthcare differs from other healthcare areas. From the ethical perspective it is important to include these issues in the decision making model. This dissertation explains the need for a process of bioethical deliberation for Primary Healthcare, as well as proposing a method for doing so. The decision process method, adapted to this healthcare area, is flexible and requires a more participative Healthcare System. This proposal involves professionals and the patient population equally, is intended to facilitate the acquisition of responsibility for personal and community health. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Stephanie Anna Lenzen; Trudy van der Weijden; Anna Beurskens; Marloes Amantia van Bokhoven; Ramon Daniëls; Jerôme Jean Jacques van Dongen
Background: The number of people with multiple chronic conditions demanding primary care services is increasing. To deal with the complex health care demands of these people, professionals from different disciplines collaborate. This study aims to explore influential factors regarding
Dongen, J.J. van; Lenzen, S.A.; Bokhoven, M.A. van; Daniels, R.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Beurskens, A.
BACKGROUND: The number of people with multiple chronic conditions demanding primary care services is increasing. To deal with the complex health care demands of these people, professionals from different disciplines collaborate. This study aims to explore influential factors regarding
Freund, Tobias; Peters-Klimm, Frank; Boyd, Cynthia M.
Background: Patients with multiple chronic conditions are at high risk of potentially avoidable hospital admissions, which may be reduced by care coordination and self-management support. Medical assistants are an increasingly available resource for patient care in primary care practices. Objective......: To determine whether protocol-based care management delivered by medical assistants improves patient care in patients at high risk of future hospitalization in primary care. Design: Two-year cluster randomized clinical trial. Setting: 115 primary care practices in Germany. Patients: 2,076 patients with type 2......, and monitoring delivered by medical assistants with usual care. Measurements: All-cause hospitalizations at 12 months (primary outcome) and quality of life scores (Short Form 12 Health Questionnaire [SF-12] and the Euroqol instrument [EQ-5D]). Results: Included patients had, on average, four co-occurring chronic...
Full Text Available Scott E Conard,1 Maureen Reni Courtney21ACAP Health, Dallas, 2College of Nursing, University of Texas, Arlington, TX, USAAbstract: Primary care medicine in the United States is undergoing a revolutionary shift. Primary care providers and their staff have an extraordinary chance to create and participate in exciting new approaches to care. New strategies will require courage, flexibility, and openness to change by every member of the practice team, especially the lead clinician who is most often the physician, but can also be the nurse practitioner or physician's assistant. Providers must first recognize their need to alter their fundamental identity to incorporate a new kind of leadership role—that of the MDCEO™ (i.e., the individual clinician who leads the practice to ensure that quality, service, and financial systems are developed and effectively managed. This paper provides a practical vision and rationale for the required transition in primary care, pointing the way for how to achieve new practice effectiveness through new leadership roles. It also provides a model to evaluate the status of a primary care practice. The authors have extensive experience in working with primary care providers to radically evolve their clinical practices to become MDCEOs™. The MDCEO™ will articulate the vision and strategy for the practice, define and foster the practice culture, and create and facilitate team development and overall high level functioning. Each member of the team can then begin to lead their part of the practice: a 21st century population-oriented, purpose-based practice resulting in increased quality of care, improved patient outcomes, greater financial success, and enhanced peace of mind.Keywords: primary health care organization and administration, health care reform, leadership, patient-centered care
Anaf, Julia; Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Labonte, Ron; Javanparast, Sara; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael
To examine case studies of good practice in intersectoral action for health as one part of evaluating comprehensive primary health care in six sites in South Australia and the Northern Territory. Interviews with primary health care workers, collaborating agency staff and service users (Total N=33); augmented by relevant documents from the services and collaborating partners. The value of intersectoral action for health and the importance of partner relationships to primary health care services were both strongly endorsed. Factors facilitating intersectoral action included sufficient human and financial resources, diverse backgrounds and skills and the personal rewards that sustain commitment. Key constraining factors were financial and time limitations, and a political and policy context which has become less supportive of intersectoral action; including changes to primary health care. While intersectoral action is an effective way for primary health care services to address social determinants of health, commitment to social justice and to adopting a social view of health are constrained by a broader health service now largely reinforcing a biomedical model. Effective organisational practices and policies are needed to address social determinants of health in primary health care and to provide a supportive context for workers engaging in intersectoral action. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.
Prins, Marijn A.; Verhaak, Peter F. M.; van der Meer, Klaas; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Bensing, Jozien M.
Background: Many anxiety and depression patients receive no care, resulting in unnecessary suffering and high costs. Specific beliefs and the absence of a perceived need for care are major reasons for not receiving care. This study aims to determine the specific perceived need for care in primary
Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Muntinga, Maaike E; van Leeuwen, Karen M; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; Deeg, Dorly J H; Frijters, Dinnus H M; Hermsen, Lotte A H; Jansen, Aaltje P D; Nijpels, Giel; van Hout, Hein P J
In order to provide adequate care for frail older adults in primary care it is essential to have insight into their care needs. Our aim was to describe the met and unmet care needs as perceived by frail older adults using a multi-dimensional needs assessment, and to explore their associations with
Full Text Available Abstract China is a country with vast regional differences and uneven economic development, which have led to widening gaps between the rich and poor in terms of access to healthcare, quality of care, and health outcomes. China's healthcare reform efforts must be tailored to the needs and resources of each region and community. Building and strengthening primary care within the Chinese health care system is one way to effectively address health challenges. This paper begins by outlining the concept of primary care, including key definitions and measurements. Next, results from a number of studies will demonstrate that primary care characteristics are associated with savings in medical costs, improvements in health outcomes and reductions in health disparities. This paper concludes with recommendations for China on successfully incorporating a primary care model into its national health policy, including bolstering the primary care workforce, addressing medical financing structures, recognizing the importance of evidence-based medicine, and looking to case studies from countries that have successfully implemented health reform.
Reiter, Jeff; Runyan, Christine
Primary care settings are particularly prone to complex relationships that can be ethically challenging. This is due in part to three of the distinctive attributes of primary care: a whole family orientation; team-based care; and a longitudinal care delivery model. In addition, the high patient volume of primary care means that the likelihood of encountering ethically challenging relationships is probably greater than in a specialty setting. This article argues that one ethical standard of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2010, Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct, www.apa.org/ethics/code) (10.02, Therapy Involving Couples or Families) should be revised to better accommodate the work of psychologists in primary care. The corresponding Principles of Medical Ethics from the American Medical Association (AMA, 2012, Code of medical ethics: Current opinions with annotations, 2012-2013, Washington, DC: Author), most notably the principle regarding a physician's duty to "respect the rights of patients, colleagues, and other health professionals as well as safeguard privacy" are also noted. In addition, the article details how the three attributes of primary care often result in complex relationships, and provides suggestions for handling such relationships ethically. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Valaitis, Ruta; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Wong, Sabrina T; MacDonald, Marjorie; O'Mara, Linda
Public health and primary care are distinct sectors within western health care systems. Within each sector, work is carried out in the context of organizations, for example, public health units and primary care clinics. Building on a scoping literature review, our study aimed to identify the influencing factors within these organizations that affect the ability of these health care sectors to collaborate with one another in the Canadian context. Relationships between these factors were also explored. We conducted an interpretive descriptive qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 74 key informants from three provinces, one each in western, central and eastern Canada, and others representing national organizations, government, or associations. The sample included policy makers, managers, and direct service providers in public health and primary care. Seven major organizational influencing factors on collaboration were identified: 1) Clear Mandates, Vision, and Goals; 2) Strategic Coordination and Communication Mechanisms between Partners; 3) Formal Organizational Leaders as Collaborative Champions; 4) Collaborative Organizational Culture; 5) Optimal Use of Resources; 6) Optimal Use of Human Resources; and 7) Collaborative Approaches to Programs and Services Delivery. While each influencing factor was distinct, the many interactions among these influences are indicative of the complex nature of public health and primary care collaboration. These results can be useful for those working to set up new or maintain existing collaborations with public health and primary care which may or may not include other organizations.
Saini, Pooja; While, David; Chantler, Khatidja; Windfuhr, Kirsten; Kapur, Navneet
Risk assessment and management of suicidal patients is emphasized as a key component of care in specialist mental health services, but these issues are relatively unexplored in primary care services. To examine risk assessment and management in primary and secondary care in a clinical sample of individuals who were in contact with mental health services and died by suicide. Data collection from clinical proformas, case records, and semistructured face-to-face interviews with general practitioners. Primary and secondary care data were available for 198 of the 336 cases (59%). The overall agreement in the rating of risk between services was poor (overall κ = .127, p = .10). Depression, care setting (after discharge), suicidal ideation at last contact, and a history of self-harm were associated with a rating of higher risk. Suicide prevention policies were available in 25% of primary care practices, and 33% of staff received training in suicide risk assessments. Risk is difficult to predict, but the variation in risk assessment between professional groups may reflect poor communication. Further research is required to understand this. There appears to be a relative lack of suicide risk assessment training in primary care.
Schiff, Gordon D; Puopolo, Ann Louise; Huben-Kearney, Anne; Yu, Winnie; Keohane, Carol; McDonough, Peggy; Ellis, Bonnie R; Bates, David W; Biondolillo, Madeleine
Despite prior focus on high-impact inpatient cases, there are increasing data and awareness that malpractice in the outpatient setting, particularly in primary care, is a leading contributor to malpractice risk and claims. To study patterns of primary care malpractice types, causes, and outcomes as part of a Massachusetts ambulatory malpractice risk and safety improvement project. Retrospective review of pooled closed claims data of 2 malpractice carriers covering most Massachusetts physicians during a 5-year period (January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2009). Data were harmonized between the 2 insurers using a standardized taxonomy. Primary care practices in Massachusetts. All malpractice claims that involved primary care practices insured by the 2 largest insurers in the state were screened. A total of 551 claims from primary care practices were identified for the analysis. Numbers and types of claims, including whether claims involved primary care physicians or practices; classification of alleged malpractice (eg, misdiagnosis or medication error); patient diagnosis; breakdown in care process; and claim outcome (dismissed, settled, verdict for plaintiff, or verdict for defendant). During a 5-year period there were 7224 malpractice claims of which 551 (7.7%) were from primary care practices. Allegations were related to diagnosis in 397 (72.1%), medications in 68 (12.3%), other medical treatment in 41 (7.4%), communication in 15 (2.7%), patient rights in 11 (2.0%), and patient safety or security in 8 (1.5%). Leading diagnoses were cancer (n = 190), heart diseases (n = 43), blood vessel diseases (n = 27), infections (n = 22), and stroke (n = 16). Primary care cases were significantly more likely to be settled (35.2% vs 20.5%) or result in a verdict for the plaintiff (1.6% vs 0.9%) compared with non-general medical malpractice claims (P < .001). In Massachusetts, most primary care claims filed are related to alleged misdiagnosis. Compared with malpractice
Davy, Zowie; Middlemass, Jo; Siriwardena, Aloysius N
Insomnia is common leading to patients with sleep problems often presenting to primary care services including general practice, community pharmacies and community mental health teams. Little is known about how health professionals in primary care respond to patients with insomnia. We aimed to explore health professionals' and patients' experiences and perceptions of the management of insomnia in primary care. We used a qualitative design and thematic approach. Primary care in Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire. We undertook focus groups and one-to-one interviews with a purposive sample of health professionals and adults with insomnia. We interviewed 28 patients and 23 health professionals. Practitioners focused on treating the cause of insomnia rather than the insomnia itself. They described providing stepped care for insomnia, but this focused on sleep hygiene which patients often disregarded, rather than cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Practitioners were ambivalent towards hypnotic drugs but often colluded with patients to prescribe to avoid confrontation or express empathy. Patients sometimes took hypnotics in ways that were not intended, for example together with over-the-counter medication. Practitioners and patients were sometimes but not always concerned about addiction. Practitioners sometimes prescribed despite these concerns but at other times withdrew hypnotics abruptly without treating insomnia. Both patients and practitioners wanted more options and better training for the management of insomnia in primary care. A better understanding of the current approaches and difficulties in the management of insomnia will help to inform more therapeutic options and health professional training. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Objective: The aim of the study was to reveal extent of burnout problem among primary care physicians and the socio-demographic factors affecting its occurrence. Methods: The target population included all physicians working in these two health regions in Kuwait. Two hundred physicians working in the primary health ...
van den Berg, Jan S. P.; Steiner, Timothy J.; Veenstra, Petra J. L.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.
Objective. We examined the costs and benefits of introducing migraine nurses into primary care. Background. Migraine is one of the most costly neurological diseases. Methods. We analyzed data from our earlier nonrandomized cohort study comparing an intervention group of 141 patients, whose care was
A SWOT analysis of the pilot project was completed and recommendations were made on how to integrate it into the district health system. Conclusion. Screening with a fundal camera improved the quality of care for diabetic patients and is feasible in the South African public sector, primary care setting. A single technician ...
Introduction: the aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Moroccan consultants in primary health care system. Methods: we conducted a cross sectional survey in three health care centers in two cities of Morocco to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan and suicide attempts among ...
Verbakel, Natasha J.; Langelaan, Maaike; Verheij, Theo J. M.; Wagner, Cordula; Zwart, Dorien L. M.
Background: Patient safety culture, described as shared values, attitudes and behavior of staff in a health-care organization, gained attention as a subject of study as it is believed to be related to the impact of patient safety improvements. However, in primary care, it is yet unknown, which
Katon, Wayne J.; Ludman, Evette J.
Women have a higher prevalence of depressive disorders compared to men. The current system of care for women with depressive disorders provides significant financial barriers for patients with lower incomes to access mental health services. Primary care systems are used extensively by women and have the potential to diagnose patients at early…
Bender, A D; Geoghegan, S S; Lundquist, S H; Cantone, J M; Krasnick, C J
With increasing competition among hospitals, primary care referral development and management programs offer an opportunity for hospitals to increase their admissions. Such programs require careful development, the commitment of the hospital staff to the strategy, an integration of hospital activities, and an understanding of medical practice management.
treated by properly trained middle cadre eye health worker working with simple diagnostic tools in a primary health care setting or by referring to secondary care in a timely ... Personal and environmental hygiene: (regular hand and face washing, proper disposal of garbage, human and animal waste and maintenance of a.
Proficiency in the basic ophthalmic skills is a cri cal factor in the effec ve delivery of eye care services at the primary level of care. The aim of the study was to assess the ability of ... out visual acuity test and correctly iden fy cataract and conjunc vi s using pictures of eye condi ons and ..... Medical Laboratory Technician.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural township health centres and urban community health centres play a crucial role in the delivery of primary health care in China. Over the past two-and-a-half decades, these health institutions have not been as well developed as high-level hospitals. The limited availability and low qualifications of human resources in health are among the main challenges facing lower-level health facilities. This paper aims to analyse the mobility of health workers in township and community health centres. Methods Data used in this paper come from a nationwide survey of health facilities in 2006. Ten provinces in different locations and of varying levels of economic development were selected. From these provinces, 119 rural township health centres and 89 urban community health centres were selected to participate in a questionnaire survey. Thirty key informants were selected from these health facilities to be interviewed. Results In 2005, 8.1% and 8.9% of health workers left township and community health centres, respectively. The health workers in rural township health centres had three to 13 years of work experience and typically had received a formal medical education. The majority of the mobile health workers moved to higher-level health facilities; very few moved to other rural township health centres. The rates of workers leaving township and community health centres increased between 2000 and 2005, with the main reasons for leaving being low salaries, limited opportunities for professional development and poor living conditions. Conclusion In China, primary health workers in township health centres and community health centres move to higher-level facilities due to low salaries, limited opportunities for promotion and poor living conditions. The government already has policies in place to counteract this migration, but it must step up enforcement if rural township health centres and urban community centres are to retain health
Field, C A
BACKGROUND: Problem alcohol use is common among problem drug users (PDU) and associated with adverse health outcomes. Primary care has an important role in the overall stepped approach to alcohol treatment, especially screening and brief intervention (SBI). AIM: To discuss three themes that emerged from an exploration of the literature on SBI for problem alcohol use in drug users attending primary care. METHODS: Material for this discussion paper was gathered from three biomedical databases (PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane library), conference proceedings and online resources of professional organisations or national health agencies. RESULTS: Themes discussed in this paper are: (a) the potential of primary care for delivery of alcohol SBIs to PDUs, (b) screening methods and (c) application of brief interventions to PDUs. CONCLUSIONS: Although SBI improves health outcomes associated with problem alcohol use in the general population, further research is needed among high-risk patient groups, especially PDUs.
Phillips, Shawn; Seiverling, Elizabeth; Silvis, Matthew
Pressure and friction injuries are common throughout the lifespan. A detailed history of the onset and progression of friction and pressure injuries is key to aiding clinicians in determining the underlying mechanism behind the development of the injury. Modifying or removing the forces that are creating pressure or friction is the key to both prevention and healing of these injuries. Proper care of pressure and friction injuries to the skin is important to prevent the development of infection. Patient education on positioning and ergonomics can help to prevent recurrence of pressure and friction injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lennox, Nicholas; Van Driel, Mieke L; van Dooren, Kate
The vast health inequities experienced by people with intellectual disability remain indisputable. Persistent and contemporary challenges exist for primary healthcare providers and researchers working to contribute to improvements to the health and well-being of people with intellectual disability. Over two decades after the only review of supports for primary healthcare providers was published, this paper contributes to an evolving research agenda that aims to make meaningful gains in health-related outcomes for this group. The present authors updated the existing review by searching the international literature for developments and evaluations of multinational models of care. Based on our review, we present three strategies to support primary healthcare providers: (i) effectively using what we know, (ii) considering other strategies that offer support to primary healthcare professionals and (iii) researching primary health care at the system level. Strengthening primary care by supporting equitable provision of health-related care for people with intellectual disability is a much needed step towards improving health outcomes among people with intellectual disability. More descriptive quantitative and qualitative research, as well as intervention-based research underpinned by rigorous mixed-methods evaluating these strategies at the primary care level, which is sensitive to the needs of people with intellectual disability will assist primary care providers to provide better care and achieve better health outcomes. Many people with intellectual disability have poor health. The authors reviewed what has been written by other researchers about how to improve the health of people with intellectual disability. In the future, people who support adults with intellectual disability should continue doing what they do well, think of other ways to improve health, and do more research about health. At all times, the needs of people with intellectual disability should be the
Jolly, John B; Fluet, Norman R; Reis, Michael D; Stern, Charles H; Thompson, Alexander W; Jolly, Gillian A
The integration of behavioral health services in primary care has been referred to in many ways, but ultimately refers to common structures and processes. Behavioral health is integrated into primary care because it increases the effectiveness and efficiency of providing care and reduces costs in the care of primary care patients. Reimbursement is one factor, if not the main factor, that determines the level of integration that can be achieved. The federal health reform agenda supports changes that will eventually permit behavioral health to be fully integrated and will allow the health of the population to be the primary target of intervention. In an effort to develop more integrated services at Baylor Scott and White Healthcare, models of integration are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of each model are discussed. Recommendations to increase integration include adopting a disease management model with care management, planned guideline-based stepped care, follow-up, and treatment monitoring. Population-based interventions can be completed at the pace of the development of alternative reimbursement methods. The program should be based upon patient-centered medical home standards, and research is needed throughout the program development process.
Benamore, R.E.; Wright, D.; Britton, I.
AIM: Primary care access to CT head examinations could enable common neurological conditions to be managed within primary care. Outcome data from the first 8 years of a local service were used to identify effective referral criteria. METHODS: Primary care head CT results from 1 March 1995 to 31 October 2003 were categorized as normal, incidental or significant findings. Normal reports were cross-referenced for referral to secondary care. Case notes with incidental or significant CT findings were reviewed for secondary care attendance and outcome. RESULTS: Records of 1403/1645 CT head examinations (85%) were available for review. Of these 1403, 951 (67.8%) returned normal findings, 317 (22.6%) incidental findings and 135 (9.6%) significant findings. The commonest indication for referral was investigation of headaches (46.6%). Of the total 533 patients under 50 years of age, 13 (2.4%) yielded significant findings and all 13 showed other features in addition to headache. Of 314 cases presenting with focal neurology, 83 (26.4%) showed significant findings. 314 patients were referred from primary to secondary care. 189 had normal scans and 74 had findings described as incidental. 60% of secondary care referrals were for normal CT scans. In patients with focal neurology, 90 of 314 were referred, allowing 71% to be managed in primary care. Yield was also 0% for headaches, dizziness, visual disturbance or nausea and vomiting. CONCLUSION: Primary care access to CT brain examinations is effective for patients with focal neurology, neurological symptoms or a known malignancy, but not for patients aged less than 50 years, or with uncomplicated headaches, dizziness or diplopia
Benamore, R.E. [Department of Radiology, Pilgrim Hospital, Boston (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Wright, D. [Department of Radiology, Pilgrim Hospital, Boston (United Kingdom); Britton, I. [Department of Radiology, Pilgrim Hospital, Boston (United Kingdom)
AIM: Primary care access to CT head examinations could enable common neurological conditions to be managed within primary care. Outcome data from the first 8 years of a local service were used to identify effective referral criteria. METHODS: Primary care head CT results from 1 March 1995 to 31 October 2003 were categorized as normal, incidental or significant findings. Normal reports were cross-referenced for referral to secondary care. Case notes with incidental or significant CT findings were reviewed for secondary care attendance and outcome. RESULTS: Records of 1403/1645 CT head examinations (85%) were available for review. Of these 1403, 951 (67.8%) returned normal findings, 317 (22.6%) incidental findings and 135 (9.6%) significant findings. The commonest indication for referral was investigation of headaches (46.6%). Of the total 533 patients under 50 years of age, 13 (2.4%) yielded significant findings and all 13 showed other features in addition to headache. Of 314 cases presenting with focal neurology, 83 (26.4%) showed significant findings. 314 patients were referred from primary to secondary care. 189 had normal scans and 74 had findings described as incidental. 60% of secondary care referrals were for normal CT scans. In patients with focal neurology, 90 of 314 were referred, allowing 71% to be managed in primary care. Yield was also 0% for headaches, dizziness, visual disturbance or nausea and vomiting. CONCLUSION: Primary care access to CT brain examinations is effective for patients with focal neurology, neurological symptoms or a known malignancy, but not for patients aged less than 50 years, or with uncomplicated headaches, dizziness or diplopia.
Wholey, Douglas R; White, Katie M; Adair, Richard; Christianson, Jon B; Lee, Suhna; Elumba, Deborah
Improving the efficiency and effectiveness of primary care treatment of patients with chronic illness is an important goal in reforming the U.S. health care system. Reducing occupational conflicts and creating interdependent primary care teams is crucial for the effective functioning of new models being developed to reorganize chronic care. Occupational conflict, role interdependence, and resistance to change in a proof-of-concept pilot test of one such model that uses a new kind of employee in the primary care office, a "care guide," were analyzed. Care guides are lay individuals who help chronic disease patients and their providers achieve standard health goals. The aim of this study was to examine the development of occupational boundaries, interdependence of care guides and primary care team members, and acceptance by clinic employees of this new kind of health worker. A mixed methods, pilot study was conducted using qualitative analysis; clinic, provider, and patient surveys; administrative data; and multivariate analysis. Qualitative analysis examined the emergence of the care guide role. Administrative data and surveys were used to examine patterns of interdependence between care guides, physicians, team members, and clinic staff; obtain physician evaluations of the care guide role; and evaluate the effect of care guides on patient perceptions of care coordination and follow-up. Evaluation of implementation of the care guide model showed that (a) the care guide scope of practice was clearly defined; (b) interdependent relationships between care guides and providers were formed; (c) relational triads consisting of patient, care guide, and physician were created; (d) patients and providers were supported in managing chronic disease; and (e) resistance to this model among traditional employees was minimized. The feasibility of implementing a new care model for chronic disease management in the primary care setting, identifying factors associated with a positive
Valaitis, Ruta K; O'Mara, Linda; Wong, Sabrina T; MacDonald, Marjorie; Murray, Nancy; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Meagher-Stewart, Donna
AimThe aim of this paper is to examine Canadian key informants' perceptions of intrapersonal (within an individual) and interpersonal (among individuals) factors that influence successful primary care and public health collaboration. Primary health care systems can be strengthened by building stronger collaborations between primary care and public health. Although there is literature that explores interpersonal factors that can influence successful inter-organizational collaborations, a few of them have specifically explored primary care and public health collaboration. Furthermore, no papers were found that considered factors at the intrapersonal level. This paper aims to explore these gaps in a Canadian context. This interpretative descriptive study involved key informants (service providers, managers, directors, and policy makers) who participated in one h telephone interviews to explore their perceptions of influences on successful primary care and public health collaboration. Transcripts were analyzed using NVivo 9.FindingsA total of 74 participants [from the provinces of British Columbia (n=20); Ontario (n=19); Nova Scotia (n=21), and representatives from other provinces or national organizations (n=14)] participated. Five interpersonal factors were found that influenced public health and primary care collaborations including: (1) trusting and inclusive relationships; (2) shared values, beliefs and attitudes; (3) role clarity; (4) effective communication; and (5) decision processes. There were two influencing factors found at the intrapersonal level: (1) personal qualities, skills and knowledge; and (2) personal values, beliefs, and attitudes. A few differences were found across the three core provinces involved. There were several complex interactions identified among all inter and intra personal influencing factors: One key factor - effective communication - interacted with all of them. Results support and extend our understanding of what influences
Mishori, Ranit; Aleinikoff, Shoshana; Davis, Dawn
Since 1975, more than 3 million refugees have settled in the United States, fleeing unrest, conflict, and persecution. Refugees represent diverse ethnic, cultural, religious, socioeconomic, and educational backgrounds. Despite this heterogeneity, there are commonalities in the refugee experience. Before resettlement, all refugees must undergo an overseas medical screening to detect conditions that pose a potential health threat in the United States. On arrival, they should undergo an examination to detect diseases with high prevalence in their country of origin or departure. Refugees have higher rates of chronic pain compared with the general population, and their mental health and wellbeing are strongly influenced by their migration history. Refugees have higher rates of mood disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety than the general population. Some refugees have been tortured, which contributes to poorer health. Chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, are also prevalent among refugees. Many refugees may be missing routine immunizations and screenings for cancer and chronic diseases. Attention to reproductive health, oral health, and vision care will help identify and address previously unmet needs. Refugees face barriers to care as a result of cultural, language, and socioeconomic factors.
V. M. Kornatsky
Full Text Available Thus, the convergence of medicine, psychiatry and psychology is the reality of today to eliminate the imbalance, psychosomatic health. The role of medical practice in the correction of psychosomatic disorders is large, but insufficient. Complementary medical becomes a psychological resource in decision psychosomatic problems. A study of the leading role of psychogenic factors and mechanisms of somatic response to stressful situations, underlying the formation of the most common and socially significant diseases, is a current trend psychosomatic direction in the PC. The data obtained may become the basis for developing measures for the identification, treatment, and prevention of psychosomatic disorders in conditions of emotional stress and their prevention. Successful interdisciplinary interaction fosters the following principles: collegiality in matters of surveillance, social functioning capabilities; continuity in matters of treatment and preventive care; adherence to the principles of medical ethics and deontology; implementation of accounting volume of medical care. The formation of a new system will bring to the population high-tech methods of diagnostics and treatment, strengthen the development of the system of prevention of socially significant diseases and expand the possibilities of rehabilitation.
Durieux-Paillard, S; Dao, M Dominicé; Perron, N Junod
When consulting with migrant patients, general practitioners should pay special attention to the quality of their communication, because language barriers and cultural differences may arise. They must also be aware that life events experienced in the home country, during transit and in the host country can impact negatively on their patients' health, and thus a detailed history must be carefully obtained. Finally, they must be conscious that the migratory policies of the host country can influence the delivery of health care to migrant patients as well as their health status.
Kriegel, Johannes; Rebhandl, Erwin; Hockl, Wolfgang; Stöbich, Anna-Maria
The primary health care in rural areas in Austria is currently determined by challenges such as ageing of the population, the shift towards chronic and age-related illnesses, the specialist medical and hospital-related education and training of physicians' as well growing widespread difficulty of staffing doctor's office. The objective is to realize a general practitioner centered and team-oriented primary health care (PHC) approach by establishing networked primary health care in rural areas of Austria. Using literature research, online survey, expert interviews and expert workshops, we identified different challenges in terms of primary health care in rural areas. Further, current resources and capacities of primary health care in rural areas were identified using the example of the district of Rohrbach. Twelve design dimensions and 51 relevant measurement indicators of a PHC network were delineated and described. Based on this, 12 design approaches of PHC concept for the GP-centered and team-oriented primary health care in rural areas have been developed.
Corcoran, Mark; Byrne, Michael
Primary care psychology services (PCPS) represent an important resource in meeting the various health needs of our communities. This study evaluated the PCPS in a two-county area within the Republic of Ireland. The objectives were to (i) examine the viewpoints of the service for both psychologists and stakeholders (healthcare professionals only) and (ii) examine the enactment of the stepped care model of service provision. Separate surveys were sent to primary care psychologists (n = 8), general practitioners (GPs; n = 69) and other stakeholders in the two counties. GPs and stakeholders were required to rate the current PCPS. The GP survey specifically examined referrals to the PCPS and service configuration, while the stakeholder survey also requested suggestions for future service provision. Psychologists were required to provide information regarding their workload, time spent on certain tasks and productivity ideas. Referral numbers, waiting lists and waiting times were also obtained. All 8 psychologists, 23 GPs (33% response rate) and 37 stakeholders (unknown response rate) responded. GPs and stakeholders reported access to the PCPS as a primary concern, with waiting times of up to 80 weeks in some areas. Service provision to children and adults was uneven between counties. A stepped care model of service provision was not observed. Access can be improved by further implementation of a stepped care service, developing a high-throughput service for adults (based on a stepped care model), and employing a single waiting list for each county to ensure equal access. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Crampton, P; Dowell, A C; Bowers, S
To describe key organisational characteristics of selected third sector (non-profit and non-government) primary health care organisations. Data were collected, in 1997 and 1998, from 15 third sector primary care organisations that were members of a network of third sector primary care providers, Health Care Aotearoa (HCA). Data were collected by face-to-face interviews of managers and key informants using a semi-structured interview schedule, and from practice computer information systems. Overall the populations served were young: only 4% of patients were aged 65 years or older, and the ethnicity profile was highly atypical, with 21.8% European, 36% Maori, 22.7% Pacific Island, 12% other, and 7.5% not stated. Community services card holding rates were higher than recorded in other studies, and registered patients tended to live in highly deprived areas. HCA organisations had high patient to doctor ratios, in general over 2000:1, and there were significant differences in management structures between HCA practices and more traditional general practice. Third sector organisations provide services for populations that are disadvantaged in many respects. It is likely that New Zealand will continue to develop a diverse range of primary care organisational arrangements. Effort is now required to measure quality and effectiveness of services provided by different primary care organisations serving comparable populations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people living in care homes in England have complex health needs due to a range of medical conditions, mental health needs and frailty. Despite an increasing policy expectation that professionals should operate in an integrated way across organisational boundaries, there is a lack of understanding between care homes and the National Health Service (NHS about how the two sectors should work together, meaning that residents can experience a poor "fit" between their needs, and services they can access. This paper describes a survey to establish the current extent of integrated working that exists between care homes and primary and community health and social services. Methods A self-completion, online questionnaire was designed by the research team. Items on the different dimensions of integration (funding, administrative, organisational, service delivery, clinical care were included. The survey was sent to a random sample of residential care homes with more than 25 beds (n = 621 in England in 2009. Responses were analysed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Results The survey achieved an overall response rate of 15.8%. Most care homes (78.7% worked with more than one general practice. Respondents indicated that a mean of 14.1 professionals/ services (other than GPs had visited the care homes in the last six months (SD 5.11, median 14; a mean of .39 (SD.163 professionals/services per bed. The most frequent services visiting were district nursing, chiropody and community psychiatric nurses. Many (60% managers considered that they worked with the NHS in an integrated way, including sharing documents, engaging in integrated care planning and joint learning and training. However, some care home managers cited working practices dictated by NHS methods of service delivery and priorities for care, rather than those of the care home or residents, a lack of willingness by NHS professionals to share information, and low
Doughty, Christopher T; Seyedsadjadi, Reza
Peripheral neuropathy is commonly encountered in the primary care setting and is associated with significant morbidity, including neuropathic pain, falls, and disability. The clinical presentation of neuropathy is diverse, with possible symptoms including weakness, sensory abnormalities, and autonomic dysfunction. Accordingly, the primary care clinician must be comfortable using the neurologic examination-including the assessment of motor function, multiple sensory modalities, and deep tendon reflexes-to recognize and characterize neuropathy. Although the causes of peripheral neuropathy are numerous and diverse, careful review of the medical and family history coupled with limited, select laboratory testing can often efficiently lead to an etiologic diagnosis. This review offers an approach for evaluating suspected neuropathy in the primary care setting. It will describe the most common causes, suggest an evidence-based workup to aid in diagnosis, and highlight recent evidence that allows for selection of symptomatic treatment of patients with neuropathy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stern, Anita; Mitsakakis, Nicholas; Paulden, Mike; Alibhai, Shabbir; Wong, Josephine; Tomlinson, George; Brooker, Ann-Sylvia; Krahn, Murray; Zwarenstein, Merrick
The study was conducted to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of enhanced multi-disciplinary teams (EMDTs) vs. 'usual care' for the treatment of pressure ulcers in long term care (LTC) facilities in Ontario, Canada We conducted a multi-method study: a pragmatic cluster randomized stepped-wedge trial, ethnographic observation and in-depth interviews, and an economic evaluation. Long term care facilities (clusters) were randomly allocated to start dates of the intervention. An advance practice nurse (APN) with expertise in skin and wound care visited intervention facilities to educate staff on pressure ulcer prevention and treatment, supported by an off-site hospital based expert multi-disciplinary wound care team via email, telephone, or video link as needed. The primary outcome was rate of reduction in pressure ulcer surface area (cm2/day) measured on before and after standard photographs by an assessor blinded to facility allocation. Secondary outcomes were time to healing, probability of healing, pressure ulcer incidence, pressure ulcer prevalence, wound pain, hospitalization, emergency department visits, utility, and cost. 12 of 15 eligible LTC facilities were randomly selected to participate and randomized to start date of the intervention following the stepped wedge design. 137 residents with a total of 259 pressure ulcers (stage 2 or greater) were recruited over the 17 month study period. No statistically significant differences were found between control and intervention periods on any of the primary or secondary outcomes. The economic evaluation demonstrated a mean reduction in direct care costs of $650 per resident compared to 'usual care'. The qualitative study suggested that onsite support by APN wound specialists was welcomed, and is responsible for reduced costs through discontinuation of expensive non evidence based treatments. Insufficient allocation of nursing home staff time to wound care may explain the lack of impact on healing
Thielke, Stephen; Thompson, Alexander; Stuart, Richard
Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.
Grazier, Kyle L; Smith, Judith E; Song, Jean; Smiley, Mary L
Despite the prevailing consensus as to its value, the adoption of integrated care models is not widespread. Thus, the objective of this article it to examine the barriers to the adoption of depression and primary care models in the United States. A literature search focused on peer-reviewed journal literature in Medline and PsycInfo. The search strategy focused on barriers to integrated mental health care services in primary care, and was based on previously existing searches. The search included: MeSH terms combined with targeted keywords; iterative citation searches in Scopus; searches for grey literature (literature not traditionally indexed by commercial publishers) in Google and organization websites, examination of reference lists, and discussions with researchers. Integration of depression care and primary care faces multiple barriers. Patients and families face numerous barriers, linked inextricably to create challenges not easily remedied by any one party, including the following: vulnerable populations with special needs, patient and family factors, medical and mental health comorbidities, provider supply and culture, financing and costs, and organizational issues. An analysis of barriers impeding integration of depression and primary care presents information for future implementation of services.
Donohue, SarahMaria; Haine, James E; Li, Zhanhai; Trowbridge, Elizabeth R; Kamnetz, Sandra A; Feldstein, David A; Sosman, James M; Wilke, Lee G; Sesto, Mary E; Tevaarwerk, Amye J
Survivorship care plans (SCPs) have been recommended as tools to improve care coordination and outcomes for cancer survivors. SCPs are increasingly being provided to survivors and their primary care providers. However, most primary care providers remain unaware of SCPs, limiting their potential benefit. Best practices for educating primary care providers regarding SCP existence and content are needed. We developed an education program to inform primary care providers of the existence, content, and potential uses for SCPs. The education program consisted of a 15-min presentation highlighting SCP basics presented at mandatory primary care faculty meetings. An anonymous survey was electronically administered via email (n = 287 addresses) to evaluate experience with and basic knowledge of SCPs pre- and post-education. A total of 101 primary care advanced practice providers (APPs) and physicians (35% response rate) completed the baseline survey with only 23% reporting prior receipt of a SCP. Only 9% could identify the SCP location within the electronic health record (EHR). Following the education program, primary care physicians and APPs demonstrated a significant improvement in SCP knowledge, including improvement in their ability to locate one within the EHR (9 vs 59%, p educational program containing information about SCP existence, content, and location in the EHR increased primary care physician and APP knowledge in these areas, which are prerequisites for using SCP in clinical practice.
Huijg, Johanna Maria
Despite the promising findings related to the efficacy of primary health care-based physical activity interventions and recommendations for primary health care professionals to promote physical activity, the introduction of physical activity interventions in routine daily primary health care
Draper, Kevin; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Cross, Dori A.; Scholle, Sarah Hudson
Objective Consensus that enhanced teamwork is necessary for efficient and effective primary care delivery is growing. We sought to identify how electronic health records (EHRs) facilitate and pose challenges to primary care teams as well as how practices are overcoming these challenges. Methods Practices in this qualitative study were selected from those recognized as patient-centered medical homes via the National Committee for Quality Assurance 2011 tool, which included a section on practice teamwork. We interviewed 63 respondents, ranging from physicians to front-desk staff, from 27 primary care practices ranging in size, type, geography, and population size. Results EHRs were found to facilitate communication and task delegation in primary care teams through instant messaging, task management software, and the ability to create evidence-based templates for symptom-specific data collection from patients by medical assistants and nurses (which can offload work from physicians). Areas where respondents felt that electronic medical record EHR functionalities were weakest and posed challenges to teamwork included the lack of integrated care manager software and care plans in EHRs, poor practice registry functionality and interoperability, and inadequate ease of tracking patient data in the EHR over time. Discussion Practices developed solutions for some of the challenges they faced when attempting to use EHRs to support teamwork but wanted more permanent vendor and policy solutions for other challenges. Conclusions EHR vendors in the United States need to work alongside practicing primary care teams to create more clinically useful EHRs that support dynamic care plans, integrated care management software, more functional and interoperable practice registries, and greater ease of data tracking over time. PMID:25627278
O'Malley, Ann S; Draper, Kevin; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Cross, Dori A; Scholle, Sarah Hudson
Consensus that enhanced teamwork is necessary for efficient and effective primary care delivery is growing. We sought to identify how electronic health records (EHRs) facilitate and pose challenges to primary care teams as well as how practices are overcoming these challenges. Practices in this qualitative study were selected from those recognized as patient-centered medical homes via the National Committee for Quality Assurance 2011 tool, which included a section on practice teamwork. We interviewed 63 respondents, ranging from physicians to front-desk staff, from 27 primary care practices ranging in size, type, geography, and population size. EHRs were found to facilitate communication and task delegation in primary care teams through instant messaging, task management software, and the ability to create evidence-based templates for symptom-specific data collection from patients by medical assistants and nurses (which can offload work from physicians). Areas where respondents felt that electronic medical record EHR functionalities were weakest and posed challenges to teamwork included the lack of integrated care manager software and care plans in EHRs, poor practice registry functionality and interoperability, and inadequate ease of tracking patient data in the EHR over time. Practices developed solutions for some of the challenges they faced when attempting to use EHRs to support teamwork but wanted more permanent vendor and policy solutions for other challenges. EHR vendors in the United States need to work alongside practicing primary care teams to create more clinically useful EHRs that support dynamic care plans, integrated care management software, more functional and interoperable practice registries, and greater ease of data tracking over time. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.
Pidano, Anne E.; Honigfeld, Lisa; Bar-Halpern, Miri; Vivian, James E.
Background: As many as 20 % of children have diagnosable mental health conditions and nearly all of them receive pediatric primary health care. However, most children with serious mental health concerns do not receive mental health services. This study tested hypotheses that pediatric primary care providers (PPCPs) in relationships with mental…
Berenson, Robert A.; Schoenbaum, Stephen C.; Gardner, Laurence B.
Primary care is essential to the effective and efficient functioning of health care delivery systems, yet there is an impending crisis in the field due in part to a dysfunctional payment system. We present a fundamentally new model of payment for primary care, replacing encounter-based imbursement with comprehensive payment for comprehensive care. Unlike former iterations of primary care capitation (which simply bundled inadequate fee-for-service payments), our comprehensive payment model represents new investment in adult primary care, with substantial increases in payment over current levels. The comprehensive payment is directed to practices to include support for the modern systems and teams essential to the delivery of comprehensive, coordinated care. Income to primary physicians is increased commensurate with the high level of responsibility expected. To ensure optimal allocation of resources and the rewarding of desired outcomes, the comprehensive payment is needs/risk-adjusted and performance-based. Our model establishes a new social contract with the primary care community, substantially increasing payment in return for achieving important societal health system goals, including improved accessibility, quality, safety, and efficiency. Attainment of these goals should help offset and justify the costs of the investment. Field tests of this and other new models of payment for primary care are urgently needed. PMID:17356977
Rabatin, Joseph; Williams, Eric; Baier Manwell, Linda; Schwartz, Mark D; Brown, Roger L; Linzer, Mark
To assess relationships between primary care work conditions, physician burnout, quality of care, and medical errors. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of data from the MEMO (Minimizing Error, Maximizing Outcome) Study. Two surveys of 422 family physicians and general internists, administered 1 year apart, queried physician job satisfaction, stress and burnout, organizational culture, and intent to leave within 2 years. A chart audit of 1795 of their adult patients with diabetes and/or hypertension assessed care quality and medical errors. Women physicians were almost twice as likely as men to report burnout (36% vs 19%, P stress (P work conditions (P work control (P work-life balance (P burnout, care quality, and medical errors. Burnout is highly associated with adverse work conditions and a greater intention to leave the practice, but not with adverse patient outcomes. Care quality thus appears to be preserved at great personal cost to primary care physicians. Efforts focused on workplace redesign and physician self-care are warranted to sustain the primary care workforce. © The Author(s) 2015.
Cheong, Lynn H; Armour, Carol L; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z
Managing chronic illness is highly complex and the pathways to access health care for the patient are unpredictable and often unknown. While multidisciplinary care (MDC) arrangements are promoted in the Australian primary health care system, there is a paucity of research on multidisciplinary collaboration from patients' perspectives. This exploratory study is the first to gain an understanding of the experiences, perceptions, attitudes and potential role of people with chronic illness (asthma) on the delivery of MDC in the Australian primary health care setting. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with asthma patients from Sydney, Australia. Qualitative analysis of data indicates that patients are significant players in MDC and their perceptions of their chronic condition, perceived roles of health care professionals, and expectations of health care delivery, influence their participation and attitudes towards multidisciplinary services. Our research shows the challenges presented by patients in the delivery and establishment of multidisciplinary health care teams, and highlights the need to consider patients' perspectives in the development of MDC models in primary care.
Reamy, Brian V; Derby, Richard; Bunt, Christopher W
Although easily examined, abnormalities of the tongue can present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for physicians. Recognition and diagnosis require a thorough history, including onset and duration, antecedent symptoms, and tobacco and alcohol use. Examination of tongue morphology and a careful assessment for lymphadenopathy are also important. Geographic tongue, fissured tongue, and hairy tongue are the most common tongue problems and do not require treatment. Median rhomboid glossitis is usually associated with a candidal infection and responds to topical antifungals. Atrophic glossitis is often linked to an underlying nutritional deficiency of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, riboflavin, or niacin and resolves with correction of the underlying condition. Oral hairy leukoplakia, which can be a marker for underlying immunodeficiency, is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and is treated with oral antivirals. Tongue growths usually require biopsy to differentiate benign lesions (e.g., granular cell tumors, fibromas, lymphoepithelial cysts) from premalignant leukoplakia or squamous cell carcinoma. Burning mouth syndrome often involves the tongue and has responded to treatment with alpha-lipoic acid, clonazepam, and cognitive behavior therapy in controlled trials. Several trials have also confirmed the effectiveness of surgical division of tongue-tie (ankyloglossia), in the context of optimizing the success of breastfeeding compared with education alone. Tongue lesions of unclear etiology may require biopsy or referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, head and neck surgeon, or a dentist experienced in oral pathology.
Salmon, Nicola; Tidman, Michael J
Actinic, or solar, keratosis is caused by chronic ultraviolet-induced damage to the epidermis. In the UK, 15-23% of individuals have actinic keratosis lesions. Risk factors include: advanced age; male gender; cumulative sun exposure or phototherapy; Fitzpatrick skin phototypes I-II; long-term immuno-suppression and genetic syndromes e.g. xeroderma pigmentosum and albinism. Actinic keratoses are regarded by some authorities as premalignant lesions that may transform into invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and by others as in situ SCC that may progress to an invasive stage. The risk of malignant change appears low; up to 0.5% per lesion per year. Up to 20-30% of lesions may spontaneously regress but in the absence of any reliable prognostic clinical indicators regarding malignant potential active treatment is considered appropriate. Actinic keratosis lesions may present as discrete hyperkeratotic papules, cutaneous horns, or more subtle flat lesions on sun-exposed areas of skin. The single most helpful diagnostic sign is an irregularly roughened surface texture: a sandpaper-like feel almost always indicates actinic damage. Dermatoscopy can be helpful in excluding signs of basal cell carcinoma when actinic keratosis is non-keratotic. It is always important to consider the possibility of SCC. The principal indication for referral to secondary care is the possibility of cutaneous malignancy. However, widespread and severe actinic damage in patients who are immunosuppressed is also a reason for referral.
Carbone, Paul S; Farley, Megan; Davis, Toby
The earliest sign of autism in children is the delayed attainment of social skill milestones, including joint attention, social orienting, and pretend play. Language impairment is a common, but less specific, sign of autism. Repetitive behaviors and restricted interests may not be noted until after social skill and communication impairments are exhibited. Physicians should perform developmental surveillance at all well-child visits, and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends administering an autism-specific screening tool at the 18- and 24-month visits. A referral for comprehensive diagnostic evaluation is appropriate if concerns arise from surveillance, screening, or parental observations. The goals of long-term management are to maximize functional independence and community engagement, minimize maladaptive behaviors, and provide family and caregiver support. Physicians play an important role in coordinating care through an interdisciplinary team; referring families for specialized services; and treating children's associated conditions, including sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal problems, anxiety, and hyperactivity. Autism is a lifelong condition, but early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment can improve the prognosis, whereas associated medical conditions, psychiatric conditions, and intellectual disability can worsen the prognosis.
Zimlichman, Eyal; Mandel, Dror; Mimouni, Francis B; Vinker, Shlomo; Kochba, Ilan; Kreiss, Yitshak; Lahad, Amnon
The health system of the medical corps of the Israel Defense Force is based primarily upon primary healthcare. In recent years, health management organizations have considered the primary care physician responsible for assessing the overall health needs of the patient and, accordingly, introduced the term "gatekeeper." To describe and analyze how PCPs in the IDF view their roles as primary care providers and to characterize how they perceive the quality of the medical care that they provide. We conducted a survey using a questionnaire that was mailed or faxed to a representative sample of PCPs. The questionnaire included demographic background, professional background, statements on self-perception issues, and ranking of roles as a PCP in the IDF. Statements concerning commitment to the patient were ranked higher than statements concerning commitment to the military organization. Most physicians perceive the quality of the medical care service that they provide as high; they also stated that they do not receive adequate continuous medical education. Our survey shows that PCPs in the IDF, like civilian family physicians, perceive their primary obligation as serving the needs of their patients but are yet to take on the full role of "gatekeepers" in the IDF's healthcare system. We conclude that the Medical Corps should implement appropriate steps to ensure that PCPs are prepared to take on a more prominent role as "gatekeepers" and providers of high quality primary medical care.
Dolan Kate A
Full Text Available Abstract In order to be optimally effective, continuing training programmes for health-care professionals need to be tailored so that they target specific knowledge deficits, both in terms of topic content and appropriate intervention strategies. A first step in designing tailored treatment programmes is to identify the characteristics of the relevant health-care professional group, their current levels of content and treatment knowledge, the estimated prevalence of drug and alcohol problems among their patients and their preferred options for receiving continuing education and training. This study reports the results of a survey of 53 primary care physicians working in Iran. The majority were male, had a mean age of 44 years and saw approximately 94 patients per week. In terms of their patients' drug use, primary care physicians thought most patients with a substance use problem were male, women were most likely to use tobacco (52%, opium (32% and marijuana/hashish and young people were most likely to use tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and heroin. Counselling and nicotine patches were the treatments most commonly provided. Although the majority (55% reported referring patients to other services, more than a third did not. Most primary care physicians reported being interested in attending further training on substance abuse issues. The implications of these data for ongoing education and training of primary care physicians in Iran are discussed.
Schmidt, Karen L; Lingler, Jennifer H; Schulz, Richard
Primary care visits of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) often involve communication among patients, family caregivers, and primary care physicians (PCPs). The objective of this study was to understand the nature of each individual's verbal participation in these triadic interactions. To define the verbal communication dynamics of AD care triads, we compared verbal participation (percent of total visit speech) by each participant in patient/caregiver/PCP triads. Twenty-three triads were audio taped during a routine primary care visit. Rates of verbal participation were described and effects of patient cognitive status (MMSE score, verbal fluency) on verbal participation were assessed. PCP verbal participation was highest at 53% of total visit speech, followed by caregivers (31%) and patients (16%). Patient cognitive measures were related to patient and caregiver verbal participation, but not to PCP participation. Caregiver satisfaction with interpersonal treatment by PCP was positively related to caregiver's own verbal participation. Caregivers of AD patients and PCPs maintain active, coordinated verbal participation in primary care visits while patients participate less. Encouraging verbal participation by AD patients and their caregivers may increase the AD patient's active role and caregiver satisfaction with primary care visits.
Schmidt, Karen L.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Schulz, Richard
Objective Primary care visits of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) often involve communication among patients, family caregivers, and primary care physicians (PCPs). The objective of this study was to understand the nature of each individual’s verbal participation in these triadic interactions. Methods To define the verbal communication dynamics of AD care triads, we compared verbal participation (percent of total visit speech) by each participant in patient/caregiver/PCP triads. Twenty three triads were audio taped during a routine primary care visit. Rates of verbal participation were described and effects of patient cognitive status (MMSE score, verbal fluency) on verbal participation were assessed. Results PCP verbal participation was highest at 53% of total visit speech, followed by caregivers (31%) and patients (16%). Patient cognitive measures were related to patient and caregiver verbal participation, but not to PCP participation. Caregiver satisfaction with interpersonal treatment by PCP was positively related to caregiver’s own verbal participation. Conclusion Caregivers of AD patients and PCPs maintain active, coordinated verbal participation in primary care visits while patients participate less. Practice Implications Encouraging verbal participation by AD patients and their caregivers may increase the AD patient’s active role and caregiver satisfaction with primary care visits. PMID:19395224
Creswell, John W; Fetters, Michael D; Ivankova, Nataliya V
Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed methods studies in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed methods investigations published in primary care research journals. Of the 5 studies analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, observational checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field observations that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The studies showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these studies occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed methods designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our study and the need for future research.
Lelli, Vanessa R; Hickman, Ronald L; Savrin, Carol L; Peterson, Rachel A
To examine if differences exist in the levels of autonomy and job satisfaction among primary care nurse practitioners (NPs) employed in retail clinics versus traditional primary care settings. Data were collected from 310 primary care NPs who attended the American Association of NP's 28th Annual Conference in June 2013. Participants completed a demographic form, the Misener NP Job Satisfaction Scale, and the Dempster Practice Behavior Scale. Overall, there were no differences in job satisfaction or autonomy among NPs by practice setting. Retail NPs felt less valued and were less satisfied with social interaction, but more satisfied with benefits compared to NPs in traditional settings. NPs working in retail clinics were less likely to have intentions to leave current position compared to NPs in traditional practice settings. The results of this study enhance our current understanding of the linkages between levels of autonomy, job satisfaction, and practice setting among primary care NPs. The findings of this descriptive study offer valuable insights for stakeholders devoted to the development of the primary care workforce and identify modifiable factors that may influence retention and turnover rates among NPs. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Salloum, Alison; Small, Brent J.; Robst, John; Scheeringa, Michael S.; Cohen, Judith A.; Storch, Eric A.
Objective: This study explored the feasibility of stepped care trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (SC-TF-CBT) relative to TF-CBT with children (aged 8--12). Method: Children (N = 33) with post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) were randomly assigned (2:1) to SC-TF-CBT or TF-CBT. SC-TF-CBT consisted of Step 1, parent-led therapist-assisted…
Nemeth, Lynne S; Feifer, Chris; Stuart, Gail W; Ornstein, Steven M
Implementing change in primary care is difficult, and little practical guidance is available to assist small primary care practices. Methods to structure care and develop new roles are often needed to implement an evidence-based practice that improves care. This study explored the process of change used to implement clinical guidelines for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in primary care practices that used a common electronic medical record (EMR). Multiple conceptual frameworks informed the design of this study designed to explain the complex phenomena of implementing change in primary care practice. Qualitative methods were used to examine the processes of change that practice members used to implement the guidelines. Purposive sampling in eight primary care practices within the Practice Partner Research Network-Translating Researching into Practice (PPRNet-TRIP II) clinical trial yielded 28 staff members and clinicians who were interviewed regarding how change in practice occurred while implementing clinical guidelines for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and strokes. A conceptual framework for implementing clinical guidelines into primary care practice was developed through this research. Seven concepts and their relationships were modelled within this framework: leaders setting a vision with clear goals for staff to embrace; involving the team to enable the goals and vision for the practice to be achieved; enhancing communication systems to reinforce goals for patient care; developing the team to enable the staff to contribute toward practice improvement; taking small steps, encouraging practices' tests of small changes in practice; assimilating the electronic medical record to maximize clinical effectiveness, enhancing practices' use of the electronic tool they have invested in for patient care improvement; and providing feedback within a culture of improvement, leading to an iterative cycle of goal setting
Kumar, Nitin; Conwell, Darwin L; Thompson, Christopher C
Infected walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) is a complication of acute pancreatitis requiring intervention. Surgery is associated with considerable morbidity. Percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD), initial therapy in the step-up approach, minimizes complications. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) has demonstrated safety and efficacy. We compared outcome and health care utilization of DEN versus step-up approach. This was a matched cohort study using a prospective registry. Twelve consecutive DEN patients were matched with 12 step-up approach patients. Outcomes were clinical resolution after primary therapeutic modality, new organ failure, mortality, endocrine or exocrine insufficiency, length of stay, and health care utilization. Clinical resolution in 11 of 12 patients after DEN versus 3 of 12 step-up approach patients after PCD (P endocrine insufficiency, and shorter length of stay (P < 0.05). Health care utilization was lower after DEN by 5.2:1 (P < 0.01). Direct endoscopic necrosectomy may be superior to step-up approach for WOPN with suspected or established infection. Primary PCD generally delayed definitive therapy. Given the higher efficacy, shorter length of stay, and lower health care utilization, DEN could be the first-line therapy for WOPN, with primary PCD for inaccessible or immature collections.
Xue, Ying; Tuttle, Jane
Nurse practitioners are increasingly being integrated into primary care delivery to help meet the growing demand for primary care. It is therefore important to understand nurse practitioners' productivity in primary care practice. We examined nurse practitioners' clinical productivity in regard to number of patients seen per week, whether they had a patient panel, and patient panel size. We further investigated practice characteristics associated with their clinical productivity. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of the 2012 National Sample Survey of Nurse Practitioners. The sample included full-time primary care nurse practitioners in ambulatory settings. Multivariable survey regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between practice characteristics and nurse practitioners' clinical productivity. Primary care nurse practitioners in ambulatory settings saw an average of 80 patients per week (95% confidence interval [CI]: 79-82), and 64% of them had their own patient panel. The average patient panel size was 567 (95% CI: 522-612). Nurse practitioners who had their own patient panel spent a similar percent of time on patient care and documentation as those who did not. However, those with a patient panel were more likely to provide a range of clinical services to most patients. Nurse practitioners' clinical productivity was associated with several modifiable practice characteristics such as practice autonomy and billing and payment policies. The estimated number of patients seen in a typical week by nurse practitioners is comparable to that by primary care physicians reported in the literature. However, they had a significantly smaller patient panel. Nurse practitioners' clinical productivity can be further improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Berenson, Robert A; Rich, Eugene C
The purpose of this paper is to address why the three dominant alternatives to compensating physicians (fee-for-service, capitation, and salary) fall short of what is needed to support enhanced primary care in the patient-centered medical home, and the relevance of such payment reforms as pay-for-performance and episodes/bundling. The review illustrates why prevalent physician payment mechanisms in the US have failed to adequately support primary care and why innovative approaches to primary care payment play such a prominent role in the PCMH discussion. FFS payment for office visits has never effectively rewarded all the activities that comprise prototypical primary care and may contribute to the "hamster on a treadmill" problems in current medical practice. Capitation payments are associated with risk adjustment challenges and, perhaps, public perceptions of conflict with patients' best interests. Most payers don't employ and therefore cannot generally place physicians on salary; while in theory such salary payments might neutralize incentives, operationally, "time is money;" extra effort devoted to meeting the needs of a more complex patient will likely reduce the services available to others. Fee-for-service, the predominant physician payment scheme, has contributed to both the continuing decline in the primary care workforce and the capability to serve patients well. Yet, the conceptual alternative payment approaches, modified fee-for-service (including fee bundles), capitation, and salary, each have their own problems. Accordingly, new payment models will likely be required to support restoration of primary care to its proper role in the US health care system, and to promote and sustain the development of patient-centered medical homes.
Kelly, Martina; Bennett, Deirdre; O'Flynn, Siun; Foley, Tony
Teamwork and patient centredness are frequently articulated concepts in medical education, but are not always explicit in the curriculum. In Ireland, recent government policy emphasises the importance of a primary care team approach to health care. We report on an appraisal of a newly introduced community-based student attachment, which focused on teamwork. To review students' experience of teamwork following a community clinical placement by examining student assignments: essays, poetry, music and art. Year-2 graduate-entry students (n = 45) spent 2 weeks with a primary care team. Attachments comprised placements with members of the primary care team, emphasising team dynamics, at the end of which students submitted a representative piece of work, which captured their learning. Essays (n = 22) were analysed using a thematic content analysis. Artwork consisted of painting, collage, photography, poetry and original music (n = 23). These were analysed using Gardner's entry points. Three core themes emerged in both written and visual work: patient centredness; communication; and an improved appreciation of the skills of other health care professionals. Students identified optimal team communication occurring when patient outcomes were prioritised. Metaphors relating to puzzles, hands and inter-connectedness feature strongly. The poems and artwork had a high impact when they were presented to tutors. Primary care team placements focus student attention on teamwork and patient centredness. Student artwork shows potential as a tool to evaluate student learning in medical education. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.
Katerndahl, David A.; Bell, Iris R.; Palmer, Raymond F.; Miller, Claudia S.
PURPOSE This study extends previous community-based studies on the prevalence and clinical characteristics of chemical intolerance in a sample of primary care clinic patients. We evaluated comorbid medical and psychiatric disorders, functional status, and rates of health care use. METHODS A total of 400 patients were recruited from 2 family medicine clinic waiting rooms in San Antonio, Texas. Patients completed the validated Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI) to assess chemical intolerance; the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) screen for possible psychiatric disorders; the Dartmouth–Northern New England Primary Care Cooperative Information Project (Dartmouth COOP) charts for functional status; and the Healthcare Utilization Questionnaire. RESULTS Overall, 20.3% of the sample met criteria for chemical intolerance. The chemically intolerant group reported significantly higher rates of comorbid allergies and more often met screening criteria for possible major depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and alcohol abuse disorder, as well as somatization disorder. The total number of possible mental disorders was correlated with chemical intolerance scores (P intolerance were significantly more likely to have poorer functional status, with trends toward increased medical service use when compared with non–chemically intolerant patients. After controlling for comorbid psychiatric conditions, the groups differed significantly only regarding limitations of social activities. CONCLUSIONS Chemical intolerance occurs in 1 of 5 primary care patients yet is rarely diagnosed by busy practitioners. Psychiatric comorbidities contribute to functional limitations and increased health care use. Chemical intolerance offers an etiologic explanation. Symptoms may resolve or improve with the avoidance of salient chemical, dietary (including caffeine and alcohol), and drug triggers. Given greater medication
Hollander, Marcus J; Kadlec, Helena
In its fee-for-service funding model for primary care, British Columbia, Canada, introduced incentive payments to general practitioners as pay for performance for providing enhanced, guidelines-based care to patients with chronic conditions. Evaluation of the program was conducted at the health care system level. To examine the impact of the incentive payments on annual health care costs and hospital utilization patterns in British Columbia. The study used Ministry of Health administrative data for Fiscal Year 2010-2011 for patients with diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and/or hypertension. In each disease group, cost and utilization were compared across patients who did, and did not, receive incentive-based care. Health care costs (eg, primary care, hospital) and utilization measures (eg, hospital days, readmissions). After controlling for patients' age, sex, service needs level, and continuity of care (defined as attachment to a general practice), the incentives reduced the net annual health care costs, in Canadian dollars, for patients with hypertension (by approximately Can$308 per patient), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (by Can$496), and congestive heart failure (by Can$96), but not diabetes (incentives cost about Can$148 more per patient). The incentives were also associated with fewer hospital days, fewer admissions and readmissions, and shorter lengths of hospital stays for all 4 groups. Although the available literature on pay for performance shows mixed results, we showed that the funding model used in British Columbia using incentive payments for primary care might reduce health care costs and hospital utilization.
Song, Hummy; Chien, Alyna T; Fisher, Josephine; Martin, Julia; Peters, Antoinette S; Hacker, Karen; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Singer, Sara J
To develop and validate a survey instrument designed to measure team dynamics in primary care. We studied 1,080 physician and nonphysician health care professionals working at 18 primary care practices participating in a learning collaborative aimed at improving team-based care. We developed a conceptual model and administered a cross-sectional survey addressing team dynamics, and we assessed reliability and discriminant validity of survey factors and the overall survey's goodness-of-fit using structural equation modeling. We administered the survey between September 2012 and March 2013. Overall response rate was 68 percent (732 respondents). Results support a seven-factor model of team dynamics, suggesting that conditions for team effectiveness, shared understanding, and three supportive processes are associated with acting and feeling like a team and, in turn, perceived team effectiveness. This model demonstrated adequate fit (goodness-of-fit index: 0.91), scale reliability (Cronbach's alphas: 0.71-0.91), and discriminant validity (average factor correlations: 0.49). It is possible to measure primary care team dynamics reliably using a 29-item survey. This survey may be used in ambulatory settings to study teamwork and explore the effect of efforts to improve team-based care. Future studies should demonstrate the importance of team dynamics for markers of team effectiveness (e.g., work satisfaction, care quality, clinical outcomes). © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Kurian, Benji T; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Grannemann, Bruce D; Claassen, Cynthia A; Daly, Ella J; Sunderajan, Prabha
In 2004, results from The Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP) showed better clinical outcomes for patients whose physicians adhered to a paper-and-pencil algorithm compared to patients who received standard clinical treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, implementation of and fidelity to the treatment algorithm among various providers was observed to be inadequate. A computerized decision support system (CDSS) for the implementation of the TMAP algorithm for depression has since been developed to improve fidelity and adherence to the algorithm. This was a 2-group, parallel design, clinical trial (one patient group receiving MDD treatment from physicians using the CDSS and the other patient group receiving usual care) conducted at 2 separate primary care clinics in Texas from March 2005 through June 2006. Fifty-five patients with MDD (DSM-IV criteria) with no significant difference in disease characteristics were enrolled, 32 of whom were treated by physicians using CDSS and 23 were treated by physicians using usual care. The study's objective was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of implementing a CDSS to assist physicians acutely treating patients with MDD compared to usual care in primary care. Primary efficacy outcomes for depression symptom severity were based on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS(17)) evaluated by an independent rater. Patients treated by physicians employing CDSS had significantly greater symptom reduction, based on the HDRS(17), than patients treated with usual care (P < .001). The CDSS algorithm, utilizing measurement-based care, was superior to usual care for patients with MDD in primary care settings. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00551083.
Uijen, Annemarie A.; Schers, Henk J.; Schene, Aart H.; Schellevis, Francois G.; Lucassen, Peter; van den Bosch, Wil J. H. M.
Existing studies about continuity of care focus on patients with a severe mental illness. Explore the level of experienced continuity of care of patients at risk for depression in primary care, and compare these to those of patients with heart failure. Explorative study comparing patients at risk
Uijen, A.A.; Schers, H.J.; Schene, A.H.; Schellevis, F.G.; Lucassen, P.; Bosch, W.J.H.M. van den
Background: Existing studies about continuity of care focus on patients with a severe mental illness. Objectives: Explore the level of experienced continuity of care of patients at risk for depression in primary care, and compare these to those of patients with heart failure. Methods: Explorative
Providing optimal care for the increasing number of frail older people with complex care needs is a major challenge in primary care. The current approach is reactive and does not meet the needs of older patients, resulting in unnecessary loss of daily functioning, suboptimal quality of life and high
Krist, Alex H; Green, Lee A; Phillips, Robert L; Beasley, John W; DeVoe, Jennifer E; Klinkman, Michael S; Hughes, John; Puro, Jon; Fox, Chester H; Burdick, Tim
While health information technology (HIT) efforts are beginning to yield measurable clinical benefits, more is needed to meet the needs of patients and clinicians. Primary care researchers are uniquely positioned to inform the evidence-based design and use of technology. Research strategies to ensure success include engaging patient and clinician stakeholders, working with existing practice-based research networks, and using established methods from other fields such as human factors engineering and implementation science. Policies are needed to help support primary care researchers in evaluating and implementing HIT into everyday practice, including expanded research funding, strengthened partnerships with vendors, open access to information systems, and support for the Primary Care Extension Program. Through these efforts, the goal of improved outcomes through HIT can be achieved. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
The effect of expectation of recovery on the recovery rate of whiplash patients in the primary care setting is not known. Whiplash patients were assessed in a primary care setting within 1 week of their collision for their expectations of recovery and were re-examined 3 months later for recovery. Initial expectations of recovery predicted recovery. According to adjusted odds ratios, subjects who expected 'to get better slowly' had a recovery rate that was nearly 1.9 times that of subjects with poor recovery expectations. Subjects who expected 'to get better soon' had a recovery rate that was 2.6 times greater than either of those with poor recovery expectations. In the primary care setting, asking patients with whiplash about their expectations of recovery is a useful predictor of their outcome.
Dillon, Patrick J
Although the link between health and morality has been well established, few studies have examined how issues of morality emerge and are addressed in primary care medical encounters. This paper addresses the need to examine morality as it is (re) constructed in everyday health care interactions. A Membership Categorization Analysis of 96 medical interviews reveals how patients orient to particular membership categories and distance themselves from others as a means of accounting (Buttny 1993; Scott and Lyman 1968) for morally questionable health behaviours. More specifically, this paper examines how patients use membership categorizations in order to achieve specific social identity(ies) (Schubert et al. 2009) through two primary strategies: defensive detailing and prioritizing alternative membership categories. Thus, this analysis tracks the emergence of cultural and moral knowledge about social life as it takes place in primary care medical encounters.
Simone Albino da Silva
Full Text Available Objective To assess primary health care attributes of access to a first contact, comprehensiveness, coordination, continuity, family guidance and community orientation. Method An evaluative, quantitative and cross-sectional study with 35 professional teams in the Family Health Program of the Alfenas region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data collection was done with the Primary Care Assessment Tool - Brazil, professional version. Results Results revealed a low percentage of medical experts among the participants who evaluated the attributes with high scores, with the exception of access to a first contact. Data analysis revealed needs for improvement: hours of service; forms of communication between clients and healthcare services and between clients and professionals; the mechanism of counter-referral. Conclusion It was concluded that there is a mismatch between the provision of services and the needs of the population, which compromises the quality of primary health care.
Van Hoof, Thomas J; Bisognano, Maureen; Reinertsen, James L; Meehan, Thomas P
Leadership is increasingly recognized as a potential factor in the success of primary care quality improvement efforts, yet little is definitively known about which specific leadership behaviors are most important. Until more research is available, the authors suggest that primary care clinicians who are committed to developing their leadership skills should commit to a series of actions. These actions include embracing a theory of leadership, modeling the approach for others, focusing on the goal of improving patient outcomes, encouraging teamwork, utilizing available sources of power, and reflecting on one's approach in order to improve it. Primary care clinicians who commit themselves to such actions will be more effective leaders and will be more prepared as new research becomes available on this important factor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bjerrum, Stephanie; Rose, Michala Vaaben; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian
Background: Diagnosing tuberculosis in children remains a great challenge in developing countries. Health staff working in the front line of the health service delivery system has a major responsibility for timely identification and referral of suspected cases of childhood tuberculosis. This study...... explored primary health care staff’s perception, challenges and needs pertaining to the identification of children with tuberculosis in Muheza district in Tanzania. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study that included 13 semi-structured interviews and 3 focus group discussions with a total of 29 health...... staff purposively sampled from primary health care facilities. Analysis was performed in accordance with the principles of a phenomenological analysis. Results: Primary health care staff perceived childhood tuberculosis to be uncommon in the society and tuberculosis was rarely considered as a likely...
Coupe, Nia; Anderson, Emma; Gask, Linda; Sykes, Paul; Richards, David A; Chew-Graham, Carolyn
Collaborative care (CC) is an organisational framework which facilitates the delivery of a mental health intervention to patients by case managers in collaboration with more senior health professionals (supervisors and GPs), and is effective for the management of depression in primary care. However, there remains limited evidence on how to successfully implement this collaborative approach in UK primary care. This study aimed to explore to what extent CC impacts on professional working relationships, and if CC for depression could be implemented as routine in the primary care setting. This qualitative study explored perspectives of the 6 case managers (CMs), 5 supervisors (trial research team members) and 15 general practitioners (GPs) from practices participating in a randomised controlled trial of CC for depression. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data was analysed using a two-step approach using an initial thematic analysis, and a secondary analysis using the Normalisation Process Theory concepts of coherence, cognitive participation, collective action and reflexive monitoring with respect to the implementation of CC in primary care. Supervisors and CMs demonstrated coherence in their understanding of CC, and consequently reported good levels of cognitive participation and collective action regarding delivering and supervising the intervention. GPs interviewed showed limited understanding of the CC framework, and reported limited collaboration with CMs: barriers to collaboration were identified. All participants identified the potential or experienced benefits of a collaborative approach to depression management and were able to discuss ways in which collaboration can be facilitated. Primary care professionals in this study valued the potential for collaboration, but GPs' understanding of CC and organisational barriers hindered opportunities for communication. Further work is needed to address these organisational barriers in order to facilitate
Odusola, A.O.; Stronks, K.; Hendriks, M.E.; Schultsz, C.; Akande, T.; Osibogun, A.; van Weert, H.; Haafkens, J.A.
Background: Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that can be modified through timely and long-term treatment in primary care. Objective: We explored perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers on enablers and
Odusola, Aina O.; Stronks, Karien; Hendriks, Marleen E.; Schultsz, Constance; Akande, Tanimola; Osibogun, Akin; Weert, Henk van; Haafkens, Joke A.
Background Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that can be modified through timely and long-term treatment in primary care. Objective We explored perspectives of primary care staff and health insurance managers on enablers and
Abcaya, Julien; Ștefan, Diana-Elena; Calvet-Montredon, Céline; Gentile, Stéphanie
Background: Homeless people have poorer health status than the general population. They need complex care management, because of associated medical troubles (somatic and psychiatric) and social difficulties. We aimed to describe the main characteristics of the primary care programs that take care of homeless people, and to identify which could be most relevant. Methods: We performed a literature review that included articles which described and evaluated primary care programs for homeless people. Results: Most of the programs presented a team-based approach, multidisciplinary and/or integrated care. They often proposed co-located services between somatic health services, mental health services and social support services. They also tried to answer to the specific needs of homeless people. Some characteristics of these programs were associated with significant positive outcomes: tailored primary care organizations, clinic orientation, multidisciplinary team-based models which included primary care physicians and clinic nurses, integration of social support, and engagement in the community’s health. Conclusions: Primary health care programs that aimed at taking care of the homeless people should emphasize a multidisciplinary approach and should consider an integrated (mental, somatic and social) care model. PMID:29439403
Barton, Christopher; Reeve, Joanne; Adams, Ann; McIntyre, Ellen
This study was undertaken to provide a snapshot of the academic primary health-care workforce in Australia and to provide some insight into research capacity in academic primary health care following changes to funding for this sector. A convenience sample of individuals self-identifying as working within academic primary health care (n=405) completed an anonymous online survey. Respondents were identified from several academic primary health-care mailing lists. The survey explored workforce demographics, clarity of career pathways, career trajectories and enablers/barriers to 'getting in' and 'getting on'. A mix of early career (41%), mid-career (25%) and senior academics (35%) responded. Early career academics tended to be female and younger than mid-career and senior academics, who tended to be male and working in 'balanced' (teaching and research) roles and listing medicine as their disciplinary background. Almost three-quarters (74%) indicated career pathways were either 'completely' or 'somewhat unclear', irrespective of gender and disciplinary backgrounds. Just over half (51%) had a permanent position. Males were more likely to have permanent positions, as were those with a medical background. Less than half (43%) reported having a mentor, and of the 57% without a mentor, more than two-thirds (69%) would like one. These results suggest a lack of clarity in career paths, uncertainty in employment and a large number of temporary (contract) or casual positions represent barriers to sustainable careers in academic primary health care, especially for women who are from non-medicine backgrounds. Professional development or a mentoring program for primary health-care academics was desired and may address some of the issues identified by survey respondents.
Calitri, Raff; Adams, Ann; Atherton, Helen; Reeve, Joanne; Hill, Nathan R
The UK National Health Service (NHS) is undergoing institutional reorganisation due to the Health and Social Care Act-2012 with a continued restriction on funding within the NHS and clinically focused academic institutions. The UK Society for Academic Primary Care (SAPC) is examining the sustainability of academic primary care careers within this climate and preliminary qualitative work has highlighted individual and organisational barriers. This study seeks to quantify the current situation for academics within primary care. A survey of academic primary care staff was undertaken. Fifty-three academic primary care departments were selected. Members were invited to complete a survey which contained questions about an individual's career, clarity of career pathways, organisational culture, and general experience of working within the area. Data were analysed descriptively with cross-tabulations between survey responses and career position (early, mid-level, senior), disciplinary background (medical, scientist), and gender. Pearson chi-square test was used to determine likelihood that any observed difference between the sets arose by chance. Responses were received from 217 people. Career pathways were unclear for the majority of people (64%) and 43% of the workforce felt that the next step in their career was unclear. This was higher in women (52% vs. men 25%; χ(2)(3) = 14.76; p = 0.002) and higher in those in early career (50% vs. senior career, 25%) and mid-career(45%; vs. senior career; χ(2)(6) = 29.19, p cultural experiences. Sustainability of a academic primary care career is undermined by unclear pathways and a lack of promotion. If the discipline is to thrive, there is a need to support early and mid-career individuals via greater transparency of career pathways. Despite these findings staff remained positive about their careers.
Webair, Hana H; Al-Assani, Salwa S; Al-Haddad, Reema H; Al-Shaeeb, Wafa H; Bin Selm, Manal A; Alyamani, Abdulla S
Patient safety culture in primary care is the first step to achieve high quality health care. This study aims to provide a baseline assessment of patient safety culture in primary care settings in Al-Mukala, Yemen as a first published study from a least developed country. A survey was conducted in primary healthcare centres and units in Al-Mukala District, Yemen. A comprehensive sample from the available 16 centres was included. An Arabic version of the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture was distributed to all health workers (110). Participants were physicians, nurses and administrative staff. The response rate from the participating centres was 71 %. (N = 78). The percent positive responses of the items is equal to the percentage of participants who answered positively. Composite scores were calculated by averaging the percent positive response on the items within a dimension. Positive safety culture was defined as 60 % or more positive responses on items or dimensions. Patient safety culture was perceived to be generally positive with the exception of the dimensions of 'Communication openness', 'Work pressure and pace' and 'Patient care tracking/follow-up', as the percent positive response of these dimensions were 58, 57, and 52 % respectively. Overall, positive rating on quality and patient safety were low (49 and 46 % respectively). Although patient safety culture in Al-Mukala primary care setting is generally positive, patient safety and quality rating were fairly low. Implementation of a safety and quality management system in Al-Mukala primary care setting are paramount. Further research is needed to confirm the applicability of the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture (MOSPSC) for Al-Mukala primary care.
Ab Rahman, Norazida; Sivasampu, Sheamini; Mohamad Noh, Kamaliah; Khoo, Ee Ming
The world population has become more globalised with increasing number of people residing in another country for work or other reasons. Little is known about the health profiles of foreign population in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia. Data were derived from the 2012 National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a cross sectional survey of primary care encounters from public and private primary care clinics sampled from five regions in Malaysia. Patients with foreign nationality were identified and analysed for demographic profiles, reasons for encounter (RFEs), diagnosis, and provision of care. Foreigners accounted for 7.7 % (10,830) of all patient encounters from NMCS. Most encounters were from private clinics (90.2 %). Median age was 28 years (IQR: 24.0, 34.8) and 69.9 % were male. Most visits to the primary care clinics were for symptom-based complaints (69.5 %), followed by procedures (23.0 %) and follow-up visit (7.4 %). The commonest diagnosis in public clinics was antenatal care (21.8 %), followed by high risk pregnancies (7.5 %) and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (6.8 %). Private clinics had more cases for general medical examination (13.5 %), URTI (13.1 %) and fever (3.9 %). Medications were prescribed to 76.5 % of these encounters. More foreigners were seeking primary medical care from private clinics and the encounters were for general medical examinations and acute minor ailments. Those who sought care from public clinics were for obstetric problems and chronic diseases. Medications were prescribed to two-thirds of the encounters while other interventions: laboratory investigations, medical procedures and follow-up appointment had lower rates in private clinics. Foreigners are generally of young working group and are expected to have mandatory medical checks. The preponderance of obstetrics seen in public
Campbell-Scherer, Denise; Sharma, Arya Mitra
Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases with significant morbidity, mortality and health care cost. There is concern due to the dramatic increase in overweight and obesity in Canada in the last 20 years. The causes of obesity are multifactorial, with underestimation by patients and healthcare providers of the long-term nature of the condition, and its complexity. Solutions related to prevention and management will require multifaceted strategies involving education, health policy, public health and health systems across the care continuum. We believe that to support such strategies we need to have a strong primary care workforce equipped with appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes to support persons at risk for, or with, obesity. To achieve this end, significant skills building is required to improve primary care obesity prevention and management efforts. This review will first examine the current state, and then will outline how we can improve.
Alvarez, Francisco N; Leys, Mart; Mérida, Hugo E Rivera; Guzmán, Giovanni Escalante
Bolivia is currently undergoing a series of healthcare reforms centred around the Unified Family, Community and Intercultural Health System (SAFCI), established in 2008 and Law 475 for Provision of Comprehensive Health Services enacted in 2014 as a first step towards universal health coverage. The SAFCI model aims to establish an intercultural, intersectoral and integrated primary health care (PHC) system, but there has not been a comprehensive analysis of effective strategies towards such an end. In this systematic review, we analyse research into developing PHC in Bolivia utilizing MEDLINE, the Virtual Health Library and grey literature from Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization's internal database. We find that although progress has been made towards implementation of a healthcare system incorporating principles of PHC, further refining the system and targeting improvements effectively will require increased research and evaluation. Particularly in the 7 years since establishment of SAFCI, there has been a dearth of PHC research that makes evaluation of such key national policies impossible. The quantity and quality of PHC research must be improved, especially quasi-experimental studies with adequate control groups. The infrastructure for such studies must be strengthened through improved financing mechanisms, expanded institutional capacity and setting national research priorities. Important for future progress are improved tracking of health indicators, which in Bolivia are often out-of-date or incomplete, and prioritization of focused national research priorities on relevant policy issues. This study aims to serve as an aid towards PHC development efforts at the national level, as well as provide lessons for countries globally attempting to build effective health systems accommodating of a multi-national population in the midst of development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School
Govender, Indiran; Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A; Mash, Bob
The aim of this article is to provide practical guidance on conducting surveys and the use of questionnaires for postgraduate students at a Masters level who are undertaking primary care research. The article is intended to assist with writing the methods section of the research proposal and thinking through the relevant issues that apply to sample size calculation, sampling strategy, design of a questionnaire and administration of a questionnaire. The articleis part of a larger series on primary care research, with other articles in the series focusing on the structure of the research proposal and the literature review, as well as quantitative data analysis.
Kristensen, Troels; Rose Olsen, Kim
between GP services and overall economies of scope. Data: Cross-section data for a sample of 331 primary care practices with 1-8 GPs from the year 2006. This is a unique combined dataset consisting of survey and register data. Results: We find a trend towards cost complementarities between the production......Aim: We analyze total operating costs and activities in Danish General Practice units to assess whether there are unexploited economies of scope in the production of primary care services. Methods: We apply stochastic frontier analysis to derive cost functions and associated cost complementarities...
D. P. Knobel
Full Text Available The critical need for primary health care in Southern Africa with special reference to the demands of the heterogenous population is measured against the background of the declaration of Alma Ata at the WHO/UNICEF conference in 1978. In particular the provision of primary health care to the Third World communities of the RSA as an essential part of the security power base of the State is underlined and it is analised in terms of how shortcomings in this service can be exploited in a subversive revolutionary onslaught.
Harding, Brittany; Webber, Colleen; Ruhland, Lucia; Dalgarno, Nancy; Armour, Christine M; Birtwhistle, Richard; Brown, Glenn; Carroll, June C; Flavin, Michael; Phillips, Susan; MacKenzie, Jennifer J
To effectively translate genetic advances into practice, engagement of primary care providers (PCPs) is essential. Using a qualitative, phenomenological methodology, we analyzed key informant interviews and focus groups designed to explore perspectives of urban and rural PCPs. PCPs endorsed a responsibility to integrate genetics into their practices and expected advances in genetic medicine to expand. However, PCPs reported limited knowledge and difficulties accessing resources, experts, and continuing education. Rural practitioners' additional concerns included cost, distance, and poor patient engagement. PCPs' perspectives are crucial to develop relevant educational and systems-based interventions to further expand genetic medicine in primary care.
Varley, Jarlath; Delanty, Norman; Normand, Charles; Coyne, Imelda; McQuaid, Louise; Collins, Claire; Boland, Michael; Grimson, Jane; Fitzsimons, Mary
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease affecting people of every age, gender, race and socio-economic background. The diagnosis and optimal management relies on contribution from a number of healthcare disciplines in a variety of healthcare settings. To explore the interface between primary care and specialist epilepsy services in Ireland. Using appreciative inquiry, focus groups were held with healthcare professionals (n=33) from both primary and tertiary epilepsy specialist services in Ireland. There are significant challenges to delivering a consistent high standard of epilepsy care in Ireland. The barriers that were identified are: the stigma of epilepsy, unequal access to care services, insufficient human resources, unclear communication between primary-tertiary services and lack of knowledge. Improving the management of people with epilepsy requires reconfiguration of the primary-tertiary interface and establishing clearly defined roles and formalised clinical pathways. Such initiatives require resources in the form of further education and training and increased usage of information communication technology (ICT). Epilepsy services across the primary-tertiary interface can be significantly enhanced through the implementation of a shared model of care underpinned by an electronic patient record (EPR) system and information communication technology (ICT). Better chronic disease management has the potential to halt the progression of epilepsy with ensuing benefits for patients and the healthcare system. Copyright 2009 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Made Gede Cahyadi Permana
Insomnia is regarded as sleep disorder that most often affects people in the world, both in primary and in the presence of comorbid conditions. Based on those facts, insomnia could be a serious problem at the level of primary health care. General Practitioner should be able to diagnose insomnia and able to perform the appropriate treatment for the patient. Psychosocial factors may related to the degree of severity of insomnia, among others are health status, depression, dysfunctional beliefs ...
Bowman, Sarah; Eiserman, Julie; Beletsky, Leo; Stancliff, Sharon; Bruce, R Douglas
Addiction to prescription opioids is prevalent in primary care settings. Increasing prescription opioid use is largely responsible for a parallel increase in overdose nationally. Many patients most at risk for addiction and overdose come into regular contact with primary care providers. Lack of routine addiction screening results in missed treatment opportunities in this setting. We reviewed the literature on screening and brief interventions for addictive disorders in primary care settings, focusing on opioid addiction. Screening and brief interventions can improve health outcomes for chronic illnesses including diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. Similarly, through the use of screening and brief interventions, patients with addiction can achieve improved health outcome. A spectrum of low-threshold care options can reduce the negative health consequences among individuals with opioid addiction. Screening in primary care coupled with short interventions, including motivational interviewing, syringe distribution, naloxone prescription for overdose prevention, and buprenorphine treatment are effective ways to manage addiction and its associated risks and improve health outcomes for individuals with opioid addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lagomasino, Isabel T; Dwight-Johnson, Megan; Green, Jennifer M; Tang, Lingqi; Zhang, Lily; Duan, Naihua; Miranda, Jeanne
Quality improvement interventions for depression care have been shown to be effective for improving quality of care and depression outcomes in settings with primarily insured patients. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a collaborative care intervention for depression that was tailored for low-income Latino patients seen in public-sector clinics. A total of 400 depressed patients from three public-sector primary care clinics were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a tailored collaborative care intervention versus enhanced usual care. Social workers without previous mental health experience served as depression care specialists for the intervention patients (N=196). Depending on patient preference, they delivered a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention or facilitated antidepressant medication given by primary care providers or both. In enhanced usual care, patients (N=204) received a pamphlet about depression, a letter for their primary care provider stating that they had a positive depression screen, and a list of local mental health resources. Intent-to-treat analyses examined clinical and process-of-care outcomes at 16 weeks. Compared with patients in the enhanced usual care group, patients in the intervention group had significantly improved depression, quality of life, and satisfaction outcomes (ppublic-sector clinics. Social workers without prior mental health experience can effectively provide CBT and manage depression care.
Bailey Kerry A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral treatment services delivered in hospital settings in Africa increasingly lack capacity to meet demand and are difficult to access by patients. We evaluate the effectiveness of nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment by comparison with usual hospital care in a typical rural sub Saharan African setting. Methods We undertook a prospective, controlled evaluation of planned service change in Lubombo, Swaziland. Clinically stable adults with a CD4 count > 100 and on antiretroviral treatment for at least four weeks at the district hospital were assigned to either nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment care or usual hospital care. Assignment depended on the location of the nearest primary care clinic. The main outcome measures were clinic attendance and patient experience. Results Those receiving primary care based treatment were less likely to miss an appointment compared with those continuing to receive hospital care (RR 0·37, p p = 0·001. Those receiving primary care based, nurse led care were more likely to be satisfied in the ability of staff to manage their condition (RR 1·23, p = 0·003. There was no significant difference in loss to follow-up or other health related outcomes in modified intention to treat analysis. Multilevel, multivariable regression identified little inter-cluster variation. Conclusions Clinic attendance and patient experience are better with nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment care than with hospital care; health related outcomes appear equally good. This evidence supports efforts of the WHO to scale-up universal access to antiretroviral treatment in sub Saharan Africa.
Lebovics, Edward; Torres, Richard; Porter, Lucinda K
-up HCV RNA test, and every effort must be made to overcome the challenge of losing patients between these two steps. Good communication between the physician, the physician's office staff, and the patient is necessary. In addition, point-of-care tests and PCR reflex testing can alleviate the need for HCV antibody positive patients to arrange subsequent office visits to undergo confirmatory HCV RNA testing. Physician and patient perspectives are presented throughout this roundtable discussion to obtain a complete picture of the management barriers encountered prior to initiation of therapy. Physician perspectives are provided by Edward Lebovics, the Upham Professor of Gastroenterology and Director of the Sarah C. Upham Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatobiliary Diseases at New York Medical College and Westchester Medical Center in Valhalla, New York, and Richard Torres, Chief Medical Officer at Optimus Health Care and an Associate Professor of Medicine at Yale School of Medicine. Torres has been a primary care provider for 29 years, working at the largest federally qualified community health center in Southwestern CT, which provides over 240,000 patient visits annually primarily to populations that are underserved and suffering from healthcare disparities. Patient perspectives in this roundtable are provided by Lucinda K. Porter, RN, who is the author of two books for hepatitis C patients, and is a former hepatology nurse and hepatitis C patient. She has been advocating for others since 1997, and writes for the HCV Advocate. Lucinda is a contributing editor of HEP magazine, and she blogs at www.LucindaPorterRN.com. The overall goal of this video roundtable discussion is to demonstrate that when provided with appropriate clinical knowledge, and aided by supportive collaborations with appropriate specialists, primary care clinicians should be able to effectively screen, diagnose, and link patients with hepatitis C to appropriate care. While patients need to be educated
Emmanuel, S C; Phua, H P; Cheong, P Y
The 2001 survey on primary medical care was undertaken to compare updated primary healthcare practices such as workload and working hours in the public and private sectors; determine private and public sector market shares in primary medical care provision; and gather the biographical profile and morbidity profile of patients seeking primary medical care from both sectors in Singapore. This is the third survey in its series, the earlier two having been carried out in 1988 and 1993, respectively. The survey questionnaire was sent out to all the 1480 family doctors in private primary health outpatient practice, the 89 community-based paediatricians in the private sector who were registered with the Singapore Medical Council and also to all 152 family doctors working in the public sector primary medical care clinics. The latter comprised the polyclinics under the two health clusters in Singapore, namely the Singapore Health Services and National Healthcare Group, and to a very much smaller extent, the School Health Service's (SHS) outpatient clinics. The survey was conducted on 21 August 2001, and repeated on 25 September 2001 to enable those who had not responded to the original survey date to participate. Subjects consisted of all outpatients who sought treatment at the private family practice clinics (including the clinics of the community-based paediatricians), and the public sector primary medical care clinics, on the survey day. The response rate from the family doctors in private practice was 36 percent. Owing to the structured administrative organisation of the polyclinics and SHS outpatient clinics, all returns were completed and submitted to the respective headquarters. Response from the community-based paediatricians was poor, so their findings were omitted in the survey analysis. The survey showed that the average daily patient-load of a family doctor in private practice was 33 patients per day, which was lower than the 40 patients a day recorded in 1993
Vanessa Bertoglio Comassetto Antunes de Oliveira
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To compare the health assistance models of Basic Traditional Units (UBS with the Family Health Strategy (ESF units for presence and extent of attributes of Primary Health Care (APS, specifically in the care of children. METHOD A cross-sectional study of a quantitative approach with families of children attended by the Public Health Service of Colombo, Paraná. The Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCA-Tool was applied to parents of 482 children, 235 ESF units and 247 UBS units covering all primary care units of the municipality, between June and July 2012. The results were analyzed according to the PCA-Tool manual. RESULTS ESF units reached a borderline overall score for primary health care standards. However, they fared better in their attributes of Affiliation, Integration of care coordination, Comprehensiveness, Family Centeredness and Accessibility of use, while the attributes of Community Guidance/Orientation, Coordination of Information Systems, Longitudinality and Access attributes were rated as insufficient for APS. UBS units had low scores on all attributes. CONCLUSION The ESF units are closer to the principles of APS (Primary Health Care, but there is need to review actions of child care aimed at the attributes of APS in both care models, corroborating similar studies from other regions of Brazil.
Full Text Available Background. The management of a child presenting with obesity in a primary care setting can be viewed as a multi-step behavioral process with many perceived and actual barriers for families and primary care providers. In order to achieve the goal of behavior change and, ultimately, clinically meaningful weight management outcomes in a child who is considered obese, all steps in this process should ideally be completed. We sought to review the evidence for completing each step, and to estimate the population effect of secondary prevention of childhood obesity in Canada.Methods. Data from the 2009/2010 Canadian Community Health Survey and from a review of the literature were used to estimate the probabilities for completion of each step. A flow chart based on these probabilities was used to determine the proportion of children with obesity that would undergo and achieve clinically meaningful weight management outcomes each year in Canada.Results. We estimated that the probability of a child in Canada who presents with obesity achieving clinically meaningful weight management outcomes through secondary prevention in primary care is around 0.6% per year, with a range from 0.01% to 7.2% per year. The lack of accessible and effective weight management programs appeared to be the most important bottleneck in the process.Conclusions. In order to make progress towards supporting effective pediatric obesity management, efforts should focus on population-based primary prevention and a systems approach to change our obesogenic society, alongside the allocation of resources toward weight management approaches that are comprehensively offered, equitably distributed and robustly evaluated.
Salvadó-Hernández, Cristina; Cosculluela-Torres, Pilar; Blanes-Monllor, Carmen; Parellada-Esquius, Neus; Méndez-Galeano, Carmen; Maroto-Villanova, Neus; García-Cerdán, Rosa Maria; Núñez-Manrique, M Pilar; Barrio-Ruiz, Carmen; Salvador-González, Betlem
To determine the attitudes, knowledge, and self-care practices in patients with heart failure (HF) in Primary Care, as well as to identify factors associated with better self-care. Cross-sectional and multicentre study. Primary Care. Subjects over 18 years old with HF diagnosis, attended in 10 Primary Health Care Centres in the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Self-care was measured using the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behaviour Scale. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, tests on attitudes (Self-efficacy Managing Chronic Disease Scale), knowledge (Patient Knowledge Questionnaire), level of autonomy (Barthel), and anxiety and depression screening (Goldberg Test), were also gathered in an interview. A multivariate mixed model stratified by centre was used to analyse the adjusted association of covariates with self-care. A total of 295 subjects (77.6%) agreed to participate, with a mean age of 75.6 years (SD: 11), 56.6% women, and 62% with no primary education. The mean self-care score was 28.65 (SD: 8.22), with 25% of patients scoring lower than 21 points. In the final stratified multivariate model (n=282; R 2 conditional=0.3382), better self-care was associated with higher knowledge (coefficient, 95% confidence interval: -1.37; -1.85 to -0.90), and coronary heart disease diagnosis (-2.41; -4.36: -0.46). Self-care was moderate. The correlation of better self-care with higher knowledge highlights the opportunity to implement strategies to improve self-care, which should consider the characteristics of heart failure patients attended in Primary Care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
van der Leeden, Adelinde J. M.; van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; van der Leeden, Rien; Liber, Juliette M.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Treffers, Philip D. A.
The current nonrandomized clinical trial explored changes over time in children with an anxiety disorder during stepped care, manual-based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Clinically anxious children (8-12 years, n = 133) and their parents participated in child focused CBT (10 sessions). If
Salloum, Alison; Scheeringa, Michael S.; Cohen, Judith A.; Storch, Eric A.
Background: In order to develop Stepped Care trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a definition of early response/non-response is needed to guide decisions about the need for subsequent treatment. Objective: The purpose of this article is to (1) establish criterion for defining an early indicator of response/non-response to the…
Full Text Available Caring for patients with multimorbidity is common for generalists, although such patients are often excluded from clinical trials, and thus such trials lack of generalizability. Data on the association between multimorbidity and preventive care are limited. We aimed to assess whether comorbidity number, severity and type were associated with preventive care among patients receiving care in Swiss University primary care settings.We examined a retrospective cohort composed of a random sample of 1,002 patients aged 50-80 years attending four Swiss university primary care settings. Multimorbidity was defined according to the literature and the Charlson index. We assessed the quality of preventive care and cardiovascular preventive care with RAND's Quality Assessment Tool indicators. Aggregate scores of quality of provided care were calculated by taking into account the number of eligible patients for each indicator.Participants (mean age 63.5 years, 44% women had a mean of 2.6 (SD 1.9 comorbidities and 67.5% had 2 or more comorbidities. The mean Charlson index was 1.8 (SD 1.9. Overall, participants received 69% of recommended preventive care and 84% of cardiovascular preventive care. Quality of care was not associated with higher numbers of comorbidities, both for preventive care and for cardiovascular preventive care. Results were similar in analyses using the Charlson index and after adjusting for age, gender, occupation, center and number of visits. Some patients may receive less preventive care including those with dementia (47% and those with schizophrenia (35%.In Swiss university primary care settings, two thirds of patients had 2 or more comorbidities. The receipt of preventive and cardiovascular preventive care was not affected by comorbidity count or severity, although patients with certain comorbidities may receive lower levels of preventive care.
Alimena, Stephanie; Air, Mary E; Gribbin, Caitlin; Manejias, Elizabeth
This study examines the current utilization of primary and preventive health care services among dancers in order to assess their self-reported primary care needs. Participants were 37 dancers from a variety of dance backgrounds who presented for a free dancer health screening in a large US metropolitan area (30 females, 7 males; mean age: 27.5 ± 7.4 years; age range: 19 to 49 years; mean years of professional dancing: 6.4 ± 5.4 years). Dancers were screened for use of primary care, mental health, and women's health resources using the Health Screen for Professional Dancers developed by the Task Force on Dancer Health. Most dancers had health insurance (62.2%), but within the last 2 years, only approximately half of them (54.1%) reported having a physical examination by a physician. Within the last year, 54.1% of dancers had had a dental check-up, and 56.7% of female dancers received gynecologic care. Thirty percent of female participants indicated irregular menstrual cycles, 16.7% had never been to a gynecologist, and 16.7% were taking birth control. Utilization of calcium and vitamin D supplementation was 27.0% and 29.7%, respectively, and 73.0% were interested in nutritional counseling. A high rate of psychological fatigue and sleep deprivation was found (35.1%), along with a concomitant high rate of self-reported need for mental health counseling (29.7%). Cigarette and recreational drug use was low (5.4% and 5.4%); however, 32.4% engaged in binge drinking within the last year (based on the CDC definition). These findings indicate that dancers infrequently access primary care services, despite high self-reported need for nutritional, mental, and menstrual health counseling and treatment. More studies are warranted to understand dancers' primary health care seeking behavior.
Ward, Charlotte E; Morella, Lisa; Ashburner, Jeffrey M; Atlas, Steven J
Engaging physicians and practice leaders through regular performance reporting is a key goal of patient-centered medical home improvement efforts. We developed and implemented an interactive, Web-based performance dashboard for primary care practices with input from provider focus groups. Adapting a business software application, individual physician and practice-level reports included information on visit-based and panel productivity, patient panel demographics, and outcome measures (quality of care, patient experience of care, and resource utilization). User training occurred prior to dissemination. Over 2 rounds of reporting, 69% to 77% of users viewed their report within 30 days and 79% of users found the report informative.
Stol, D.; Badenbroek, I.; Hollander, M.; Nielen, M.; Schellevis, F.; Wit, N. de
The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an integrated cardiometabolic risk assessment and treatment program in primary care (the INTEGRATE study): a stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial protocol. Rationale: The increasing prevalence of cardiometabolic disease (CMD), including cardiovascular
Warmelink, J Catja; Wiegers, Therese A; de Cock, T Paul; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K
Inter-professional collaboration is considered essential in effective maternity care. National projects are being undertaken to enhance inter-professional relationships and improve communication between all maternity care providers in order to improve the quality of maternity care in the Netherlands. However, little is known about primary care midwives' satisfaction with collaboration with other maternity care providers, such as general practitioners, maternity care assistance organisations (MCAO), maternity care assistants (MCA), obstetricians, clinical midwives and paediatricians. More insight is needed into the professional working relations of primary care midwives in the Netherlands before major changes are made OBJECTIVE: To assess how satisfied primary care midwives are with collaboration with other maternity care providers and to assess the relationship between their 'satisfaction with collaboration' and personal and work-related characteristics of the midwives, their attitudes towards their work and collaboration characteristics (accessibility). The aim of this study was to provide insight into the professional working relations of primary care midwives in the Netherlands. Our descriptive cross-sectional study is part of the DELIVER study. Ninety nine midwives completed a written questionnaire in May 2010. A Friedman ANOVA test assessed differences in satisfaction with collaboration with six groups of maternity care providers. Bivariate analyses were carried out to assess the relationship between satisfaction with collaboration and personal and work-related characteristics of the midwives, their attitudes towards their work and collaboration characteristics. Satisfaction experienced by primary care midwives when collaborating with the different maternity care providers varies within and between primary and secondary/tertiary care. Interactions with non-physicians (clinical midwives and MCA(O)) are ranked consistently higher on satisfaction compared with
Poghosyan, Lusine; Norful, Allison A; Fleck, Elaine; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Talsma, AkkeNeel; Nannini, Angela
Despite recent focus on patient safety in primary care, little attention has been paid to errors of omission, which represent significant gaps in care and threaten patient safety in primary care but are not well studied or categorized. The purpose of this study was to develop a typology of errors of omission from the perspectives of primary care providers (PCPs) and understand what factors within practices lead to or prevent these omissions. A qualitative descriptive design was used to collect data from 26 PCPs, both physicians and nurse practitioners, from the New York State through individual interviews. One researcher conducted all interviews, which were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed in ATLAS.ti, Berlin by 3 researchers using content analysis. They immersed themselves into data, read transcripts independently, and conducted inductive coding. The final codes were linked to each other to develop the typology of errors of omission and the themes. Data saturation was reached at the 26th interview. PCPs reported that omitting patient teaching, patient followup, emotional support, and addressing mental health needs were the main categories of errors of omission. PCPs perceived that time constraints, unplanned patient visits and emergencies, and administrative burden led to these gaps in care. They emphasized that organizational support and infrastructure, effective teamwork and communication, and preparation for the patient encounter were important safeguards to prevent errors of omission within their practices. Errors of omission are common in primary care and could threaten patient safety. Efforts to eliminate them should focus on strengthening organizational attributes of practices, improving teamwork and communication, and assigning manageable workload to PCPs. Practice and policy change is necessary to address gaps in care and prevent them before they result in patient harm. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Wong, Edwin S; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Hernandez, Susan E; Augustine, Matthew R; Nelson, Karin; Fihn, Stephan D; Hebert, Paul L
Improving access to the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is a high priority, particularly given statutory mandates of the Veterans Access, Choice and Accountability Act. This study examined whether patient-reported wait times for VHA appointments were associated with future reliance on VHA primary care services. This observational study examined 13,595 VHA patients dually enrolled in fee-for-service Medicare. Data sources included VHA administrative data, Medicare claims and the Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP). Primary care use was defined as the number of face-to-face visits from VHA and Medicare in the 12 months following SHEP completion. VHA reliance was defined as the number of VHA visits divided by total visits (VHA+Medicare). Wait times were derived from SHEP responses measuring the usual number of days to a VHA appointment with patients' primary care provider for those seeking immediate care. We defined appointment wait times categorically: 0 days, 1day, 2-3 days, 4-7 days and >7 days. We used fractional logistic regression to examine the relationship between wait times and reliance. Mean VHA reliance was 88.1% (95% CI = 86.7% to 89.5%) for patients reporting 0day waits. Compared with these patients, reliance over the subsequent year was 1.4 (p = 0.041), 2.8 (p = 0.001) and 1.6 (p = 0.014) percentage points lower for patients waiting 2-3 days, 4-7 days and >7 days, respectively. Patients reporting longer usual wait times for immediate VHA care exhibited lower future reliance on VHA primary care. Longer wait times may reduce care continuity and impact cost shifting across two federal health programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Huntley, Alyson; Lasserson, Daniel; Wye, Lesley; Morris, Richard; Checkland, Kath; England, Helen; Salisbury, Chris; Purdy, Sarah
To conduct a systematic review to identify studies that describe factors and interventions at primary care practice level that impact on levels of utilisation of unscheduled secondary care. Observational studies at primary care practice level. Studies included people of any age of either sex living in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries with any health condition. The primary outcome measure was unscheduled secondary care as measured by emergency department attendance and emergency hospital admissions. 48 papers were identified describing potential influencing features on emergency department visits (n=24 studies) and emergency admissions (n=22 studies). Patient factors associated with both outcomes were increased age, reduced socioeconomic status, lower educational attainment, chronic disease and multimorbidity. Features of primary care affecting unscheduled secondary care were more complex. Being able to see the same healthcare professional reduced unscheduled secondary care. Generally, better access was associated with reduced unscheduled care in the USA. Proximity to healthcare provision influenced patterns of use. Evidence relating to quality of care was limited and mixed. The majority of research was from different healthcare systems and limited in the extent to which it can inform policy. However, there is evidence that continuity of care is associated with reduced emergency department attendance and emergency hospital admissions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
McFarland, Marilyn M; Eipperle, Marilyn K
Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality is presented as a foundational basis for the educational preparation, primary care contextual practice, and outcomes-focused research endeavours of advanced practice nursing. Discussion emphasises the value of care and caring as the essence of advanced practice nursing through the use of three modes of care, use of the Sunrise and other enablers, and the ethnonursing method. Education, research, practice, and key concepts of the theory are connected as essential components toward the provision of culturally congruent care to meet the healthcare needs of diverse individuals, families, groups, and communities by family nurse practitioners.
Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris
Abstract Context The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient‐centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. Objective To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. Strategy SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. Results The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients’ perceptions rather than expectations. Discussion and conclusions This paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations–perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. PMID:22296402
Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris
The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient-centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients' perceptions rather than expectations. THIS paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations-perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Denvir, M A; Murray, S A; Boyd, K J
Palliative care is recommended for patients with end-stage heart failure with several recent, randomised trials showing improvements in symptoms and quality of life and more studies underway. Future care planning provides a framework for discussing a range of palliative care problems with patients and their families. This approach can be introduced at any time during the patient's journey of care and ideally well in advance of end-of-life care. Future care planning is applicable to a wide range of patients with advanced heart disease and could be delivered systematically by cardiology teams at the time of an unplanned hospital admission, akin to cardiac rehabilitation for myocardial infarction. Integrating cardiology care and palliative care can benefit many patients with advanced heart disease at increased risk of death or hospitalisation. Larger, randomised trials are needed to assess the impact on patient outcomes and experiences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Mayo-Bruinsma, Liesha; Hogg, William; Taljaard, Monica; Dahrouge, Simone
To determine whether models of primary care service delivery differ in their provision of family-centred care (FCC) and to identify practice characteristics associated with FCC. Cross-sectional study. Primary care practices in Ontario (ie, 35 salaried community health centres, 35 fee-for-service practices, 32 capitation-based health service organizations, and 35 blended remuneration family health networks) that belong to 4 models of primary care service delivery. A total of 137 practices, 363 providers, and 5144 patients. Measures of FCC in patient and provider surveys were based on the Primary Care Assessment Tool. Statistical analyses were conducted using linear mixed regression models and generalized estimating equations. Patient-reported FCC scores were high and did not vary significantly by primary care model. Larger panel size in a practice was associated with lower odds of patients reporting FCC. Provider-reported FCC scores were significantly higher in community health centres than in family health networks (P = .035). A larger number of nurse practitioners and clinical services on-site were both associated with higher FCC scores, while scores decreased as the number of family physicians in a practice increased and if practices were more rural. Based on provider and patient reports, primary care reform strategies that encourage larger practices and more patients per family physician might compromise the provision of FCC, while strategies that encourage multidisciplinary practices and a range of services might increase FCC.
Mar 14, 2014 ... stance abuse, suicidal behavior, somatizing disorders, eating disorders, and ... anxiety disorders, and PTSD are at a higher risk of experiencing adult ... reported by mental health and primary care professionals. (29) included ... about the nature and course of DV and assessing the level of readiness to ...
Thompson, Megan R.; Stone, Ramona F.; Ochs, V. Dan; Litvan, Irene
In order to determine primary health care providers' (PCPs) knowledge gaps on Parkinson's disease, data were collected before and after a one-hour continuing medical education (CME) lecture on early Parkinson's disease recognition and treatment from a sample of 104 PCPs participating at an annual meeting. The main outcome measure was the…
Fordwood, Samantha R.; Asarnow, Joan R.; Huizar, Diana P.; Reise, Steven P.
Although depression is strongly associated with suicide attempts and suicide deaths, most depressed youth do not make an attempt, indicating the need to identify additional risk factors. We examined suicide attempts among 451 depressed primary care patients, 13 to 21 years of age. In bivariate analyses, youth classified as suicide attempters…
We set out to study GPs' understanding of gambling addiction, their experiences of, and confidence in, managing these patients in primary care, their perceived role and feasibility, their views on funding gambling treatment services, etc. To this end, we carried out a postal questionnaire survey of all GPs (N=136) in Solihull, ...
Chen, P C
The definition of primary health care is basically the same, but the wide variety of concepts as to the form and type of worker required is largely due to variations in economic, demographic, socio-cultural and political factors. Whatever form it takes, in many parts of the developing world, it is increasingly clear that primary health care must be provided by non-physicians. The reasons for this trend are compelling, yet it is surprisingly opposed by the medical profession in many a developing country. Nonetheless, numerous field trials are being conducted in a variety of situations in several countries around the world. Non-physician primary health care workers vary from medical assistants and nurse practitioners to aide-level workers called village mobilizers, village volunteers, village aides and a variety of other names. The functions, limitations and training of such workers will need to be defined, so that an optimal combination of skills, knowledge and attitudes best suited to produce the desired effect on local health problems may be attained. The supervision of such workers by the physician and other health professionals will need to be developed in the spirit of the health team. An example of the use of non-physicians in providing primary health care in Sarawak is outlined.
Mar 31, 2014 ... developing countries, it is important for primary care physicians to provide services to patients with ... involves one-on-one session between a trained psy- ... ensure the patient a better quality of life. ... Program (mhGAP) launched by the WHO, is to train ..... depression symptoms as well as quality of life in the.
Introduction: Domestic violence (DV) against women has been identified as a serious public health problem. Primary care nurses usually play an important role in managing battered women. They must be equipped with the necessary knowledge, training and experience. Objective: The aim of this work was to study the ...
Oct 17, 2009 ... The ability of fifth-year medical students to perform fundoscopy on ... Keywords: primary health eye care; teaching fundoscopy; essential basic ... treatment is implemented at an early stage in the disease.3-5. Such screening and early treatment can reduce the risk of ... Students with a refractive error were.
Husniyah D. Qasem
Aug 23, 2012 ... Attitude and knowledge of the primary health care ... ference was the psychological sub-domain (78.4 ± 20.3 compared with 69.4 ± 26.3%, P = 0.004). ... depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance abuse.
... Research Council ae Currently from Cape Peninsula University of Technology ... Keywords: primary health care facilities; nutritional status; children; caregivers' rural; South Africa ... underlying causes of malnutrition in children, while poor food quality, .... Information on PHC facility infrastructure and services was obtained.
Background: Domestic violence against women is an important public health problem. Battered women attend primary health care centers seeking for both medical treatment and support. Nurses with a positive attitude play a key role to deal with victimized women. Objectives: The current study was formulated to reveal ...
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine the use of antibiotics by primary care doctors. Methods General practitioners in Hong Kong were invited to fill in a short questionnaire on every patient with infection that they had seen on the first full working day once every three months for four consecutive quarters starting from December 2005. Results Forty six primary care doctors took part and a total of 3096 completed questionnaires were returned. The top three diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (46.7%, gastrointestinal infection (8.2% and pharyngitis (7.1%. Thirty percent of patient encounters with infections were prescribed antibiotics but only 5.2% of patient encounters with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI were prescribed antibiotics. Amino-penicillins were the most commonly used antibiotics while beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (BLBLIs were the second most commonly used antibiotics and they accounted for 16.5% and 14.0% of all antibiotics used respectively. Of all patients or their carers, those who demanded or wished for antibiotics were far more likely to be prescribed antibiotics (Pearson chi-square test, p Conclusion The antibiotic prescribing patterns of primary care doctors in Hong Kong are broadly similar to primary care doctors in other developed countries but a relatively low rate of antibiotics is used for URTI.
Iman Y. Alotaby
Aug 9, 2012 ... the field work of the study in the selected centers were the target population of this ... program; several methods were used to verify data entry. ..... asked about abuse.18 Based on the synthesis and interpretation of data from 25 ... in a primary care setting: the validity of ''feeling safe at home'' and prevalence ...
Conclusion Despite the piecemeal way that computing was introduced into primary care it has achieved great success in the absence of significant external support and shows no sign, overall, of being helped by the new information technology (IT strategy in the NHS as it applies to that sector.
Primary health eye care knowledge among general practitioners working in the Cape Town metropole. M Van Zyl, N Fernandes, G Rogers, N Du Toit. Abstract. Aim: The main purpose of this study was to determine whether general practitioners (GPs) in the Cape Town metropole have sufficient knowledge to diagnose and ...
Kallianidis, A.F.; Smit, L.A.; van Roosmalen, J.
Introduction In the Netherlands, low-risk pregnancies are managed by midwives in primary care. Despite strict definitions of low risk, obstetric complications can occur. Midwives seldom encounter uncommon labour complications, but are sufficiently trained to manage these. We assessed neonatal and
Evil spirit possession and native charm/juju were incorrectly mentioned by half of the respondents as causes of mental illness while alcohol/drug abuse, emotional problems and marijuana smoking were correctly implicated by more than 70% of respondents. Although 90% of the primary health care workers preferred ...
The team will build a virtual Latin American community of practice focused on intersectoral collaborations for health. Findings will be integrated into course curricula for a master's in health systems and services management and a certificate in intersectoral primary health care management offered by Rosario University.
Schäfer, W.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Hansen, J.; Black, N.
Background: All European health systems face several common challenges related to increases in lifestyle and chronic diseases, a decreasing future workforce, inequalities in health and the consequences of societal changes. Primary care, which has the potential to help meet these challenges, would
Garzon, Dawn Lee; Kempker, Tara; Piel, Pamela
The incidence of food allergies is steadily increasing. Due to potentially life-threatening complications, it is important that primary care providers recognize and appropriately manage these disorders. This article includes a discussion of the current evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis, screening, and management of food allergies.
Hegewald, Matthew J; Gallo, Heather M; Wilson, Emily L
Spirometry is necessary for the optimal management of patients with respiratory disease. The quality of spirometry performed in the primary care setting has been inconsistent. We aimed to evaluate spirometer accuracy, determine the clinical significance of inaccurate spirometers, and assess the quality of spirograms obtained in primary care offices. We tested 17 spirometers used in primary care offices with a waveform generator; accuracy and precision were assessed using American Thoracic Society criteria. The clinical significance of inaccurate instruments was determined by applying the FEV 1 /FVC error from an obstructed waveform to a clinical data set. Spirogram quality was determined by grading spirograms using acceptability and repeatability criteria. The relationship between the number of tests performed by a clinic and test quality was assessed. Only 1 of 17 spirometers met accuracy criteria, with mean errors for FVC, FEV 1 , and FEV 1 /FVC ranging from 1.7 to 3.1%. Applying the percentage error to a clinical data set resulted in 28% of tests being recategorized from obstructed to nonobstructed. Of the spirograms reviewed, 60% were considered acceptable for clinical use. There was no association between the number of tests performed by a clinic and spirometry quality. Most spirometers tested were not accurate. The magnitude of the errors resulted in significant changes in the categorization of patients with obstruction. Acceptable-quality tests were produced for only 60% of patients. Our results raise concerns regarding the utility of spirometry obtained in primary care offices without greater attention to quality assurance and training.
Background: The aim of this study was to understand and be part of a process of change in the training of primary health care nurses in Venda. Methods:Because participatory action research (PAR), which is an emancipatory-critical paradigm, to a great extent shares the same worldview as adult education and sustainable ...
This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described…
Grossman, Zachi; van Esso, Diego; Del Torso, Stefano; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Drabik, Anna; Gerber, Andreas; Miron, Dan
An electronic survey assessing primary care pediatricians' estimations and practices regarding parents' vaccination refusal was sent to 395 members of the European Academy of Pediatrics Research in Ambulatory Setting network, with a response rate of 87%. Of respondents who vaccinate in the clinic, 93% estimated the total vaccine refusal rate as refusing parents.
Gum, Amber M.; Arean, Patricia A.; Hunkeler, Enid; Tang, Lingqi; Katon, Wayne; Hitchcock, Polly; Steffens, David C.; Dickens, Jeanne; Unutzer, Jurgen
Purpose: For depressed older primary care patients, this study aimed to examine (a) characteristics associated with depression treatment preferences; (b) predictors of receiving preferred treatment; and (c) whether receiving preferred treatment predicted satisfaction and depression outcomes. Design and Methods: Data are from 1,602 depressed older…
terms of the patient's readiness to change his/her behaviour and then use an agenda-setting technique to decide which risk factor to .... and occasionally uses cannabis. She is not using any family planning (besides ... require a long-term relationship with their primary care physician,. Table 1. The three-stage assessment.
Background: Adequate diagnosis of Malaria is achieved by detection and identification of malaria parasites through examination of Giemsa's stained blood films by competent personnel. Objective: To identify the competency of laboratory personnel of the clinical laboratories attached to primary health care centres at ...
Background: Developing countries health systems are bedeviled with numerous challenges including resource scarcity, high workload, unfavourable working conditions, Physical and Psychosocial stress. The Aim of this study was to assess the burden of burnout among primary care physicians working in such challenging ...
Background: Domestic violence (DV) against women has increased during the past few years and became an important public health problem. Personal values and beliefs of primary health care workers can affect both diagnostic and management procedures adopted to deal with battered women. Objectives: The current ...
Learning experiences in community-based settings provide the students with opportunities to learn by means of being actively engaged in primary health care associated activities to under-resourced communities (Mtshali, 2009, 2005; World Health Organization ,2011a; World Health Organization, 2011b). International ...
May 10, 2010 ... A significant percentage of patients seen at the primary health care level (district ... (GPs) are forced to rely on the knowledge acquired from their limited .... accurate in screening patients for diabetic retinopathy.4. In this study ...
Background: Global attention is being drawn to the use of internet resource because of its overwhelming benefits. Individuals, families, social groups, patients as well as research teams spend quality time on a daily basis exploring the internet. Objective: We carried out a study to determine internet use among primary care ...
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Greve, Jane
-60 years drawn from the National Health Interview (NHI) survey 2000 and merged to Danish register data, we compare differences in the impact of being overweight and obese relative to being normal weight on the demand for primary physician care. Estimated bodyweight effects vary across latent classes...
Groenewegen, P.P.; Jurgutis, A.
Background: Greece is hit hard by the state debt crisis. This calls for comprehensive reforms to restore sustainable and balanced growth. Healthcare is one of the public sectors needing reform. The European Union (EU) Task Force for Greece asked the authors to assess the situation of primary care
Groenewegen, P.P.; Jurgutis, A.
Background: Greece is hit hard by the state debt crisis. This calls for comprehensive reforms to restore sustainable and balanced growth. Healthcare is one of the public sectors needing reform. The European Union (EU) Task Force for Greece asked the authors to assess the situation of primary care
The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to analyze nutrition guidance practices of primary-care physicians (PCPs), their nutritional attitudes and knowledge and their interest in the role of nutrition in health and disease. A second objective was to identify the determinants
Verwey, R.; Weegen, S. van der; Spreeuwenberg, M.; Tange, H.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Witte, L.
The systematic development of a counselling protocol in primary care combined with a monitoring and feedback tool to support chronically ill patients to achieve a more active lifestyle. An iterative user-centred design method was used to develop a counselling protocol: the Self-management Support
Mental disorders affect a great number of people worldwide. Four out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the world are mental disorders. Because of the scarcity of specialists around the world and especially in developing countries, it is important for primary care physicians to provide services to patients with mental ...
Chiauzzi, Emil; Trudeau, Kimberlee J.; Zacharoff, Kevin; Bond, Kathleen
Introduction: Primary care physicians (PCPs) treat a high proportion of chronic pain patients but often lack training about how to assess and address issues associated with prescribing opioids when they are an appropriate component of therapy. The result may be that they may avoid treating these patients, which can lead to an undertreatment of…
Kaarina Frieda Meintjes
primary health care (PHC) management of their children's atopic eczema in a Gauteng district. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive, contextual embedded single case study design ... direct observation until saturation occurred; analysed according to Tesch's ..... needed, it was provided by the researcher as part of the pro-.
Issues in treating depression in primary care. NR Horn. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...
Means-Christensen, Adrienne J; Roy-Byrne, Peter P; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Craske, Michelle G; Stein, Murray B
Pain, anxiety, and depression are commonly seen in primary care patients and there is considerable evidence that these experiences are related. This study examined associations between symptoms of pain and symptoms and diagnoses of anxiety and depression in primary care patients. Results indicate that primary care patients who endorse symptoms of muscle pain, headache, or stomach pain are approximately 2.5-10 times more likely to screen positively for panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or major depressive disorder. Endorsement of pain symptoms was also significantly associated with confirmed diagnoses of several of the anxiety disorders and/or major depression, with odds ratios ranging from approximately 3 to 9 for the diagnoses. Patients with an anxiety or depressive disorder also reported greater interference from pain. Similarly, patients endorsing pain symptoms reported lower mental health functioning and higher scores on severity measures of depression, social anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Mediation analyses indicated that depression mediated some, but not all of the relationships between anxiety and pain. Overall, these results reveal an association between reports of pain symptoms and not only depression, but also anxiety. An awareness of these relationships may be particularly important in primary care settings where a patient who presents with reports of pain may have an undiagnosed anxiety or depressive disorder.
Conclusion: Diabetes control was poorer in primary care than in secondary/tertiary care patients, but control of blood pressure was better in primary care patients. The shorter duration of diabetes and better control of blood pressure in primary care patients and in patients aged < 65 years compared with their elderly counterparts might be related to a lower prevalence of complications.
Harrington, Amanda L; Hirsch, Mark A; Hammond, Flora M; Norton, H James; Bockenek, William L
To determine what percentage of persons with disabilities have a primary care provider, participate in routine screening and health maintenance examinations, and identify perceived physical or physician barriers to receiving care. A total of 344 surveys, consisting of 66 questions, were collected from adults with disabilities receiving care at an outpatient rehabilitation clinic. A total of 89.5% (95% CI 86.3%-92.8%) of participants reported having a primary care physician. Younger persons (P brain injury (P use, and safety with relationships at home ranged from 26.6% to 37.5% compared with screening for depression, diet, exercise, and smoking (64.5%-70%). Completion rates of age- and gender-appropriate health maintenance examinations ranged from 42.4% to 90%. A total of 2.67% of participants reported problems with physical access at their physician's office, and 36.4% (95% CI 30.8%-42.1%) of participants reported having to teach their primary care physician about their disability. Most persons with disabilities have a primary care physician. In general, completion rates for routine screening and health maintenance examinations were high. Perceived deficits in primary care physicians' knowledge of disability issues seem more prevalent than physical barriers to care.
Cláudia Rayanna Silva Mendes
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the practice of self-care performed by patients with systemic arterial hypertension in primary health care. Methods: this is a descriptive and cross-sectional study, conducted with 92 individuals with arterial hypertension in a primary care unit. The data collection occurred through script and data analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean and standard deviation and through the understanding of the adaption between capacity and self-care demand. Results: it was identified as a practice of self-care: adequate water intake, salt intake and restricted coffee, satisfactory sleep period, abstinence from smoking and alcoholism, continuing pharmacological treatment and attending medical appointments. As the demands: inadequate feeding, sedentary lifestyle, had no leisure activities, self-reported stress, and limited knowledge. Conclusion: although patients performed treatment a few years ago, still showed up self-care deficits, highlighting the need for nurses to advise and sensitize about the importance of self-care practice.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Delivery of preventive health services in primary care is lacking. One of the main barriers is lack of time. We estimated the amount of time primary care physicians spend on important preventive health services. Methods We analyzed a large dataset of primary care (family and internal medicine visits using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (2001–4; analyses were conducted 2007–8. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the amount of time spent delivering each preventive service, controlling for demographic covariates. Results Preventive visits were longer than chronic care visits (M = 22.4, SD = 11.8, M = 18.9, SD = 9.2, respectively. New patients required more time from physicians. Services on which physicians spent relatively more time were prostate specific antigen (PSA, cholesterol, Papanicolaou (Pap smear, mammography, exercise counseling, and blood pressure. Physicians spent less time than recommended on two "A" rated ("good evidence" services, tobacco cessation and Pap smear (in preventive visits, and one "B" rated ("at least fair evidence" service, nutrition counseling. Physicians spent substantial time on two services that have an "I" rating ("inconclusive evidence of effectiveness", PSA and exercise counseling. Conclusion Even with limited time, physicians address many of the "A" rated services adequately. However, they may be spending less time than recommended for important services, especially smoking cessation, Pap smear, and nutrition counseling. Future research is needed to understand how physicians decide how to allocate their time to address preventive health.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the ability of a group of Primary Care professionals to acquire appropriate document retrieval skills, so that they can apply evidence based health care techniques to their various Primary Care roles. The participants, most of whom had little prior experience of the Internet, were enrolled on a two-year part-time Postgraduate Diploma / MSc in Primary Care. As part of the course, they took a compulsory 12-week module in Medical Informatics. A specific task was set: to find appropriate information on Meningococcal Meningitis and Public Health, by using National Library of Medicine's PUBMED bibliographic retrieval system and other unspecified Internet sources. A supplementary piece of coursework required the group to become information providers by providing tutorials on the world wide web. Analysis of the reports showed that the participants were able to learn and use the information tools successfully and that appropriate skills can be transferred in a short time. Overall nine were positive as to the benefits of the evidence-based approach contributing to local health care, with nine expressing mixed views and two having more negative opinions.
Franx, Gerdien; Dixon, Lisa; Wensing, Michel; Pincus, Harold
Extensive research exists that collaborative primary care-mental health models can improve care and outcomes for patients. These programs are currently being implemented throughout the United States and beyond. The purpose of this study is to review the literature and to generate an overview of strategies currently used to implement such models in daily practice. Six overlapping strategies to implement collaborative primary care-mental health models were described in 18 selected studies. We identified interactive educational strategies, quality improvement change processes, technological support tools, stakeholder engagement in the design and execution of implementation plans, organizational changes in terms of expanding the task of nurses and financial strategies such as additional collaboration fees and pay for performance incentives. Considering the overwhelming evidence about the effectiveness of primary care-mental health models, there is a lack of good studies focusing on their implementation strategies. In practice, these strategies are multifaceted and locally defined, as a result of intensive and required stakeholder engagement. Although many barriers still exist, the implementation of collaborative models could have a chance to succeed in the United States, where new service delivery and payment models, such as the Patient-Centered Medical Home, the Health Home and the Accountable Care Organization, are being promoted.
de Almeida, Patty Fidelis; Fausto, Márcia Cristina Rodrigues; Giovanella, Lígia
To describe and analyze the actions developed in four large cities to strengthen the family health strategy (FHS) in Brazil. Case studies were carried out in Aracaju, Belo Horizonte, Florianópolis, and Vitória based on semi-structured interviews with health care managers. In addition, a cross-sectional study was conducted with questionnaires administered to a sample of FHS workers and services users. Actions needed to strengthen primary health care services were identified in all four cities. These include increasing the number of services offered at the primary health care level, removing barriers to access, restructuring primary services as the entry point to the health care system, enhancing problem-solving capacity (diagnostic and therapeutic support and networking between health units to organize the work process, training, and supervision), as well as improving articulation between surveillance and care actions. The cities studied have gained solid experience in the reorganization of the health care model based on a strengthening of health primary care and of the capacity to undertake the role of health care coordinator. However, to make the primary care level the customary entry point and first choice for users, additional actions are required to balance supplier-induced and consumer-driven demands. Consumer driven demand is the biggest challenge for the organization of teamwork processes. Support for and recognition of FHS as a basis for primary health care is still an issue. Initiatives to make FHS better known to the population, health care professionals at all levels, and civil society organizations are still needed.
Magistro, Daniele; Brustio, Paolo Riccardo; Ivaldi, Marco; Esliger, Dale Winfield; Zecca, Massimiliano; Rainoldi, Alberto; Boccia, Gennaro
Accurate measurement devices are required to objectively quantify physical activity. Wearable activity monitors, such as pedometers, may serve as affordable and feasible instruments for measuring physical activity levels in older adults during their normal activities of daily living. Currently few available accelerometer-based steps counting devices have been shown to be accurate at slow walking speeds, therefore there is still lacking appropriate devices tailored for slow speed ambulation, typical of older adults. This study aimed to assess the validity of step counting using the pedometer function of the ADAMO Care Watch, containing an embedded algorithm for measuring physical activity in older adults. Twenty older adults aged ≥ 65 years (mean ± SD, 75±7 years; range, 68-91) and 20 young adults (25±5 years, range 20-40), wore a care watch on each wrist and performed a number of randomly ordered tasks: walking at slow, normal and fast self-paced speeds; a Timed Up and Go test (TUG); a step test and ascending/descending stairs. The criterion measure was the actual number of steps observed, counted with a manual tally counter. Absolute percentage error scores, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess validity. ADAMO Care Watch demonstrated high validity during slow and normal speeds (range 0.5-1.5 m/s) showing an absolute error from 1.3% to 1.9% in the older adult group and from 0.7% to 2.7% in the young adult group. The percentage error for the 30-metre walking tasks increased with faster pace in both young adult (17%) and older adult groups (6%). In the TUG test, there was less error in the steps recorded for older adults (1.3% to 2.2%) than the young adults (6.6% to 7.2%). For the total sample, the ICCs for the ADAMO Care Watch for the 30-metre walking tasks at each speed and for the TUG test were ranged between 0.931 to 0.985. These findings provide evidence that the ADAMO Care Watch demonstrated highly accurate
Marcelo Costa Fernandes
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze, in the speeches of nurses, the habitus that conforms their professional identity in the primary health care area. Method: Qualitative study, carried out from March to October 2015, with nurses of primary healthcare units in the cities of Cajazeiras, in the state of Paraíba, and Maracanaú, in the state of Ceará. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews, and analyzed through discourse analysis. Results: Nurses, in their practice and perception, perceive that professional identity is linked to the meaning that involves the word "everything". This situation constitutes a habitus that directs the range of daily actions, often distant from the profession's core of knowledge. Final considerations: Trying to be and do everything in primary health care involves negative repercussions in the professional identity of nurses. Strategic guidance is necessary in order to achieve and embrace elements that reflect the essence of this category.
Full Text Available One of the commonest psychological problems that a clinician would encounter in primary care is depression. Theprevalence of depression is high in women, the elderly and those with underlying physical problems or during the postpartumperiod. The spectrum of clinical presentations is wide and somatic complaints are more common in primary care clinics.Depression may present as a primary disorder and co-morbidity with other psychological problems or physical illnessesis high. A good clinical interview is an important form of assessment and a quick screening of depression can be donewith the administration of proper rating scales, such as the Patient Health Questionnaire, Hamilton Depression RatingScale or Geriatric Depression Scale. Repeated use of the same scale in a patient would help the clinician to monitor theprogress objectively.
Norenberg, David D
Medical school graduates are avoiding primary care. The very aspects that once attracted students have been subverted. The breadth of practice that was once appealing has become the breadth of heavy-handed scrutiny, as politicians and business leaders have demanded quality--simplistically defined as dogmatic adherence to a standard. Individualized clinical judgment has been devalued; thinking has been replaced by algorithms. Practice guidelines have been usurped by pay-for-performance police, on patrol for deviations--not understanding that knowing and allowing for exceptions is the heart and soul of primary care. The coercive surveillance of "Quality Improvement" has become oppressive, making single organ-system specialties increasingly attractive (or at least more tolerable). Generalists are spending so much time proving they are good doctors, they don't have time to be good doctors. A remedy is suggested: a pilot project of volunteer salaried internists (more trusted, less audited) commissioned to our expandable national health care program, Medicare.
de Oliveira, Patrícia Peres; dos Santos, Walquíria Jesusmara; Viegas, Selma Maria da Fonseca; da Silveira, Edilene Aparecida Araújo; Rodrigues, Andrea Bezerra
To know the experience of male users' in the primary health care and to build data based theory that represents this experience. This is a qualitative study, in which was used the reference of Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism, respectively, methodological and theoretical. We interviewed 33 male users of three units of primary health care. After comparative analysis of data was built the data based theory feeling excluded, which includes: living with prejudice; living with the limitations of infra-structure services; reflecting on the health service environment. The analysis showed the need for a change in logistics services and professionals' attitude guided in respectful and effective communication, the problem solving in readiness in attendance, in addressing gender issues. For to take care of men users of the Unified Health System and/or preserve their health, the construction of another rationality in health is imperative, based on reflection and respect for the autonomy and individuality of the male gender.
Krass, I; Hebing, R; Mitchell, B; Hughes, J; Peterson, G; Song, Y J C; Stewart, K; Armour, C L
Worldwide studies have shown that significant proportions of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) do not meet targets for glycaemic control, blood pressure (BP) and lipids, putting them at higher risk of developing complications. However, little is known about medicines management in Australian primary care populations with T2DM. The aim of this study was to (i) describe the management of a large group of patients in primary care, (ii) identify areas for improvement in management and (iii) determine any relationship between adherence and glycaemic, BP and lipid control. This was a retrospective, epidemiological study of primary care patients with T2DM diabetes, with HbA(1c) of >7%, recruited in 90 Australian community pharmacies. Data collected included demographic details, diabetes history, current medication regimen, height, weight, BP, physical activity and smoking status. Of the 430 patients, 98% used antidiabetics, 80% antihypertensives, 73% lipid lowering drugs and 38% aspirin. BP and all lipid targets were met by only 21% and 14% of the treated patients and 21% and 12% of the untreated patients respectively. Medication adherence was related to better glycaemic control (P = 0.04). An evidence-base prescribing practice gap was seen in this Australian primary care population of T2DM patients. Patients were undertreated with antihypertensive and lipid lowering medication, and several subgroups with co-morbidities were not receiving the recommended pharmacotherapy. Interventions are required to redress the current evidence-base prescribing practice gap in disease management in primary care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Creswell, John W.; Fetters, Michael D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.
BACKGROUND Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. METHODS We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed methods studies in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed methods investigations published in primary care research journals. RESULTS Of the 5 studies analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, observational checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field observations that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The studies showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these studies occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. DISCUSSION We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed methods designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our study and the need for future research. PMID:15053277
Arnold, Corey W; Oh, Andrea; Chen, Shawn; Speier, William
Probabilistic topic models provide an unsupervised method for analyzing unstructured text. These models discover semantically coherent combinations of words (topics) that could be integrated in a clinical automatic summarization system for primary care physicians performing chart review. However, the human interpretability of topics discovered from clinical reports is unknown. Our objective is to assess the coherence of topics and their ability to represent the contents of clinical reports from a primary care physician's point of view. Three latent Dirichlet allocation models (50 topics, 100 topics, and 150 topics) were fit to a large collection of clinical reports. Topics were manually evaluated by primary care physicians and graduate students. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Tests for Paired Samples were used to evaluate differences between different topic models, while differences in performance between students and primary care physicians (PCPs) were tested using Mann-Whitney U tests for each of the tasks. While the 150-topic model produced the best log likelihood, participants were most accurate at identifying words that did not belong in topics learned by the 100-topic model, suggesting that 100 topics provides better relative granularity of discovered semantic themes for the data set used in this study. Models were comparable in their ability to represent the contents of documents. Primary care physicians significantly outperformed students in both tasks. This work establishes a baseline of interpretability for topic models trained with clinical reports, and provides insights on the appropriateness of using topic models for informatics applications. Our results indicate that PCPs find discovered topics more coherent and representative of clinical reports relative to students, warranting further research into their use for automatic summarization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ash, Arlene S; Ellis, Randall P
Many wish to change incentives for primary care practices through bundled population-based payments and substantial performance feedback and bonus payments. Recognizing patient differences in costs and outcomes is crucial, but customized risk adjustment for such purposes is underdeveloped. Using MarketScan's claims-based data on 17.4 million commercially insured lives, we modeled bundled payment to support expected primary care activity levels (PCAL) and 9 patient outcomes for performance assessment. We evaluated models using 457,000 people assigned to 436 primary care physician panels, and among 13,000 people in a distinct multipayer medical home implementation with commercially insured, Medicare, and Medicaid patients. Each outcome is separately predicted from age, sex, and diagnoses. We define the PCAL outcome as a subset of all costs that proxies the bundled payment needed for comprehensive primary care. Other expected outcomes are used to establish targets against which actual performance can be fairly judged. We evaluate model performance using R(2)'s at patient and practice levels, and within policy-relevant subgroups. The PCAL model explains 67% of variation in its outcome, performing well across diverse patient ages, payers, plan types, and provider specialties; it explains 72% of practice-level variation. In 9 performance measures, the outcome-specific models explain 17%-86% of variation at the practice level, often substantially outperforming a generic score like the one used for full capitation payments in Medicare: for example, with grouped R(2)'s of 47% versus 5% for predicting "prescriptions for antibiotics of concern." Existing data can support the risk-adjusted bundled payment calculations and performance assessments needed to encourage desired transformations in primary care.
Anna Bryndis Blondal
Full Text Available Even though pharmaceutical care is not a new concept in pharmacy, its introduction and development has proved to be challenging. In Iceland, general practitioners are not familiar with pharmaceutical care and additionally no such service is offered in pharmacies or primary care settings. Introducing pharmaceutical care in primary care in Iceland is making great efforts to follow other countries, which are bringing the pharmacist more into patient care. General practitioners are key stakeholders in this endeavor. The aim of this study was to introduce pharmacist-led pharmaceutical care into primary care clinics in Iceland in collaboration with general practitioners by presenting different setting structures. Action research provided the framework for this research. Data was collected from pharmaceutical care interventions, whereby the pharmaceutical care practitioner ensures that each of a patient’s medications is assessed to determine if it is appropriate, effective, safe, and that the patient can take medicine as expected. Sources of data included pharmaceutical care notes on patients, researcher’s notes, meetings, and interviews with general practitioners over the period of the study. The study ran from September 2013 to October 2015. Three separate semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with five general practitioners from one primary health care clinic in Iceland at different time points throughout the study. Pharmaceutical care was provided to elderly patients (n = 125 before and between general practitioners’ interviews. The study setting was a primary care clinic in the Reykjavik area and the patients’ homes. Results showed that the GPs’ knowledge about pharmacist competencies as healthcare providers and their potential in patient care increased. GPs would now like to have access to a pharmacist on a daily basis. Direct contact between the pharmacist and GPs is better when working in the same physical space
Ellis, Kerri A; Connolly, Ann; Hosseinnezhad, Alireza; Lilly, Craig M
To increase the frequency of communication of patient information between acute and primary care providers. A secondary objective was to determine whether higher rates of communication were associated with lower rates of hospital readmission 30 days after discharge. A validated instrument was used for telephone surveys before and after an intervention designed to increase the frequency of communication among acute care and primary care providers. The communication intervention was implemented in 3 adult intensive care units from 2 campuses of an academic medical center. The frequency of communication among acute care and primary care providers, the perceived usefulness of the intervention, and its association with 30-day readmission rates were assessed for 202 adult intensive care episodes before and 100 episodes after a communication intervention. The frequency of documented communication increased significantly (5/202 or 2% before to 72/100 or 72% after the intervention; P communication was considered useful by every participating primary care provider. Rates of rehospitalization at 30 days were lower for the intervention group than the preintervention group, but the difference was not statistically significant (41/202 or 23% vs 16/88 or 18% of discharged patients; P = .45; power 0.112 at P = .05). The frequency of communication episodes that provide value can be increased through standardized processes. The key aspects of this effective intervention were setting the expectation that communication should occur, documenting when communication has occurred, and reviewing that documentation during multiprofessional rounds. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
Kendall, Marilyn; Mason, Bruce; Momen, Natalie; Barclay, Stephen; Munday, Dan; Lovick, Roberta; Macpherson, Stella; Paterson, Euan; Baughan, Paul; Cormie, Paul; Kiehlmann, Peter; Free, Amanda; Murray, Scott A
Current models of post-treatment cancer care are based on traditional practices and clinician preference rather than evidence of benefit. To assess the feasibility of using a structured template to provide holistic follow-up of patients in primary care from cancer diagnosis onwards. A two-phase mixed methods action research project. An electronic cancer ongoing review document (CORD) was first developed with patients and general practitioners, and used with patients with a new diagnosis of cancer. This was evaluated through documentary analysis of the CORDs, qualitative interviews with patients, family carers and health professionals and record reviews. The records of 107 patients from 13 primary care teams were examined and 45 interviews conducted. The document was started in 54% of people with newly diagnosed cancer, and prompted clear documentation of multidimension needs and understanding. General practitioners found using the document helped to structure consultations and cover psychosocial areas, but they reported it needed to be better integrated in their medical records with computerized prompts in place. Few clinicians discussed the review openly with patients, and the template was often completed afterwards. Anticipatory cancer care from diagnosis to cure or death, 'in primary care', is feasible in the U.K. and acceptable to patients, although there are barriers. The process promoted continuity of care and holism. A reliable system for proactive cancer care in general practice supported by hospital specialists may allow more survivorship care to be delivered in primary care, as in other long-term conditions.
Funderburk, Jennifer S; Shepardson, Robyn L; Wray, Jennifer; Acker, John; Beehler, Gregory P; Possemato, Kyle; Wray, Laura O; Maisto, Stephen A
Health care organizations are embracing integrated primary care (IPC), in which mental health and behavioral health are addressed as part of routine care within primary care settings. Behavioral medicine concerns, which include health behavior change and coping with medical conditions, are common in primary care populations. Although there are evidence-based behavioral interventions that target a variety of behavioral medicine concerns, integrated behavioral health providers need interventions that are sufficiently brief (i.e., ≤6 appointments) to be compatible with IPC. We conducted a literature review of published studies examining behavioral interventions that target prevalent behavioral medicine concerns and can feasibly be employed by IPC providers in adult primary care settings. A total of 67 published articles representing 63 original studies met eligibility criteria. We extracted data on the behavioral interventions employed, results comparing the active intervention to a comparison group, general fit with IPC, and methodological quality. The vast majority of studies examined brief interventions targeting sleep difficulties and physical activity. The most commonly employed interventions were derived from cognitive-behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing. Outcomes were generally statistically significantly in favor of the active intervention relative to comparison, with highly variable methodological quality ratings (range = 0-5; M = 2.0). Results are discussed in relation to the need for further evidence for brief behavioral interventions targeting other behavioral medicine concerns beyond sleep and physical activity, as well as for more specificity regarding the compatibility of such interventions with IPC practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
absenteeism , misconduct, and sick call visits [4–6]. However, less than half of U.S. military members with PTSD receive mental health treatment [2,3,5,7...functioning SF-12  BL, 3-, 6-, and 12 months Work presenteeism and absenteeism WHO Health & Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) Short Form  BL, 3...and veteran service systems. Key by- products of the trial for posterity will be program manuals (primary care, mental health specialist, care manager
Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T.P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Tevyaw, Tracy O’Leary; Barnett, Nancy P.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Short, Erica Eaton; Monti, Peter M.
Objective Over the past two decades, colleges and universities have seen a large increase in the number of students referred to the administration for alcohol policies violations. However, a substantial portion of mandated students may not require extensive treatment. Stepped care may maximize treatment efficiency and greatly reduce the demands on campus alcohol programs. Method Participants in the study (N = 598) were college students mandated to attend an alcohol program following a campus-based alcohol citation. All participants received Step 1: a 15-minute Brief Advice session that included the provision of a booklet containing advice to reduce drinking. Participants were assessed six weeks after receiving the Brief Advice, and those who continued to exhibit risky alcohol use (n = 405) were randomized to Step 2, a 60–90 minute brief motivational intervention (BMI) (n = 211) or an assessment-only control (n = 194). Follow-up assessments were conducted 3, 6, and 9 months after Step 2. Results Results indicated that the participants who received a BMI significantly reduced the number of alcohol-related problems compared to those who received assessment-only, despite no significant group differences in alcohol use. In addition, low risk drinkers (n = 102; who reported low alcohol use and related harms at 6-week follow-up and were not randomized to stepped care) showed a stable alcohol use pattern throughout the follow-up period, indicating they required no additional intervention. Conclusion Stepped care is an efficient and cost-effective method to reduce harms associated with alcohol use by mandated students. PMID:22924334
Hall, Jennifer; Cohen, Deborah J; Davis, Melinda; Gunn, Rose; Blount, Alexander; Pollack, David A; Miller, William L; Smith, Corey; Valentine, Nancy; Miller, Benjamin F
To identify how organizations prepare clinicians to work together to integrate behavioral health and primary care. Observational cross-case comparison study of 19 U.S. practices, 11 participating in Advancing Care Together, and 8 from the Integration Workforce Study. Practices varied in size, ownership, geographic location, and experience delivering integrated care. Multidisciplinary teams collected data (field notes from direct practice observations, semistructured interviews, and online diaries as reported by practice leaders) and then analyz