WorldWideScience

Sample records for step closer scalablast

  1. One Step Closer to the Marketplace for State-of-the-Art Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivetrain | News | NREL One Step Closer to the Marketplace for State-of-the-Art Wind Turbine Drivetrain One Step Closer to the Marketplace for State-of-the-Art Wind Turbine Drivetrain April 1, 2016 modeling, and testing in state-of-the-art facilities designed to put the drivetrain through its paces

  2. A Secure Web Application Providing Public Access to High-Performance Data Intensive Scientific Resources - ScalaBLAST Web Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Darren S.; Peterson, Elena S.; Oehmen, Chris S.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the ScalaBLAST Web Application (SWA), a web based application implemented using the PHP script language, MySQL DBMS, and Apache web server under a GNU/Linux platform. SWA is an application built as part of the Data Intensive Computer for Complex Biological Systems (DICCBS) project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). SWA delivers accelerated throughput of bioinformatics analysis via high-performance computing through a convenient, easy-to-use web interface. This approach greatly enhances emerging fields of study in biology such as ontology-based homology, and multiple whole genome comparisons which, in the absence of a tool like SWA, require a heroic effort to overcome the computational bottleneck associated with genome analysis. The current version of SWA includes a user account management system, a web based user interface, and a backend process that generates the files necessary for the Internet scientific community to submit a ScalaBLAST parallel processing job on a dedicated cluster

  3. Particulate Matter: a closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsman E; Beck JP; Bree L van; Cassee FR; Koelemeijer RBA; Matthijsen J; Thomas R; Wieringa K; LED; MGO

    2005-01-01

    The summary in booklet form 'Fijn stof nader bekeken' (Particulate Matter: a closer look) , published in Dutch by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) and the Environment and Safety Division of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), has been designed to

  4. Agreement Moves Nevada Solar Plant Step Closer to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secretary Christine Ervin, CSTRR President Rose McKinney-James and NREL Director Dr. Charles Gay today new partnership, NREL will make available its facilities to test renewable energy technologies, help other renewable technologies. NREL will support the efforts of DOE's Federal Energy Management Program

  5. Diseases and Molecular Diagnostics: A Step Closer to Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Shailendra; Purohit, Purvi; Misra, Radhieka; Pareek, Puneet; Goel, Apul; Khattri, Sanjay; Pant, Kamlesh Kumar; Misra, Sanjeev; Sharma, Praveen

    2017-10-01

    The current advent of molecular technologies together with a multidisciplinary interplay of several fields led to the development of genomics, which concentrates on the detection of pathogenic events at the genome level. The structural and functional genomics approaches have now pinpointed the technical challenge in the exploration of disease-related genes and the recognition of their structural alterations or elucidation of gene function. Various promising technologies and diagnostic applications of structural genomics are currently preparing a large database of disease-genes, genetic alterations etc., by mutation scanning and DNA chip technology. Further the functional genomics also exploring the expression genetics (hybridization-, PCR- and sequence-based technologies), two-hybrid technology, next generation sequencing with Bioinformatics and computational biology. Advances in microarray "chip" technology as microarrays have allowed the parallel analysis of gene expression patterns of thousands of genes simultaneously. Sequence information collected from the genomes of many individuals is leading to the rapid discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs. Further advances of genetic engineering have also revolutionized immunoassay biotechnology via engineering of antibody-encoding genes and the phage display technology. The Biotechnology plays an important role in the development of diagnostic assays in response to an outbreak or critical disease response need. However, there is also need to pinpoint various obstacles and issues related to the commercialization and widespread dispersal of genetic knowledge derived from the exploitation of the biotechnology industry and the development and marketing of diagnostic services. Implementation of genetic criteria for patient selection and individual assessment of the risks and benefits of treatment emerges as a major challenge to the pharmaceutical industry. Thus this field is revolutionizing current era and further it may open new vistas in the field of disease management.

  6. QUANTUM COMPUTING: Quantum Entangled Bits Step Closer to IT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, A

    2000-07-21

    In contrast to today's computers, quantum computers and information technologies may in future be able to store and transmit information not only in the state "0" or "1," but also in superpositions of the two; information will then be stored and transmitted in entangled quantum states. Zeilinger discusses recent advances toward using this principle for quantum cryptography and highlights studies into the entanglement (or controlled superposition) of several photons, atoms, or ions.

  7. Brazil and CERN get closer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The map of countries affiliated to CERN may in future include Brazil. On a visit to CERN last week, the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology, Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg, expressed his country's interest in closer links to the Laboratory.   Luciano Maiani and the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg shake hands on CERN-Brazil co-operation. During his visit, the Minister and CERN Director General Luciano Maiani issued a joint statement for the continuation of a Co-operation Agreement first established in 1990. They also agreed to study the possibility of Brazil joining CERN-led Grid computing infrastructure projects. Brazilian physicists are already involved in the LHCb, ATLAS and CMS experiments. At the conclusion of the Minister's visit, he and Director-General Maiani agreed to establish a Working Group to examine ways of strengthening Brazil's links with CERN, and to prepare the way for a Brazilian request to CERN Council to become an Observer at th...

  8. IFRS 8 Operating Segments - A Closer Look

    OpenAIRE

    Muthupandian, K S

    2008-01-01

    The International Accounting Standards Board issued the International Financial Reporting Standard 8 Operating Segments. Segment information is one of the most vital aspects of financial reporting for investors and other users. The IFRS 8 requires an entity to adopt the ‘management approach’ to reporting on the financial performance of its operating segments. This article presents a closer look of the standard (objective, scope, and disclosures).

  9. A closer look at web questionnaire design

    OpenAIRE

    Toepoel, V.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the design of online questionnaires and its consequences for data quality: what is the effect of the number of items placed on a screen, the response categories, layout choices et cetera. It also focuses on attrition and panel conditioning: what do people learn from taking surveys both in content and in the response process. In short: A Closer Look at Web Questionnaire Design.

  10. Bringing MapReduce Closer To Data With Active Drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpayegani, N.; Prathapan, S.; Warmka, R.; Wyatt, B.; Halem, M.; Trantham, J. D.; Markey, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Moving computation closer to the data location has been a much theorized improvement to computation for decades. The increase in processor performance, the decrease in processor size and power requirement combined with the increase in data intensive computing has created a push to move computation as close to data as possible. We will show the next logical step in this evolution in computing: moving computation directly to storage. Hypothetical systems, known as Active Drives, have been proposed as early as 1998. These Active Drives would have a general-purpose CPU on each disk allowing for computations to be performed on them without the need to transfer the data to the computer over the system bus or via a network. We will utilize Seagate's Active Drives to perform general purpose parallel computing using the MapReduce programming model directly on each drive. We will detail how the MapReduce programming model can be adapted to the Active Drive compute model to perform general purpose computing with comparable results to traditional MapReduce computations performed via Hadoop. We will show how an Active Drive based approach significantly reduces the amount of data leaving the drive when performing several common algorithms: subsetting and gridding. We will show that an Active Drive based design significantly improves data transfer speeds into and out of drives compared to Hadoop's HDFS while at the same time keeping comparable compute speeds as Hadoop.

  11. Automatic quality improvement reports in the intensive care unit: One step closer toward meaningful use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadzko, Mikhail A; Thongprayoon, Charat; Ahmed, Adil; Tiong, Ing C; Li, Man; Brown, Daniel R; Pickering, Brian W; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2016-05-04

    To examine the feasibility and validity of electronic generation of quality metrics in the intensive care unit (ICU). This minimal risk observational study was performed at an academic tertiary hospital. The Critical Care Independent Multidisciplinary Program at Mayo Clinic identified and defined 11 key quality metrics. These metrics were automatically calculated using ICU DataMart, a near-real time copy of all ICU electronic medical record (EMR) data. The automatic report was compared with data from a comprehensive EMR review by a trained investigator. Data was collected for 93 randomly selected patients admitted to the ICU during April 2012 (10% of admitted adult population). This study was approved by the Mayo Clinic Institution Review Board. All types of variables needed for metric calculations were found to be available for manual and electronic abstraction, except information for availability of free beds for patient-specific time-frames. There was 100% agreement between electronic and manual data abstraction for ICU admission source, admission service, and discharge disposition. The agreement between electronic and manual data abstraction of the time of ICU admission and discharge were 99% and 89%. The time of hospital admission and discharge were similar for both the electronically and manually abstracted datasets. The specificity of the electronically-generated report was 93% and 94% for invasive and non-invasive ventilation use in the ICU. One false-positive result for each type of ventilation was present. The specificity for ICU and in-hospital mortality was 100%. Sensitivity was 100% for all metrics. Our study demonstrates excellent accuracy of electronically-generated key ICU quality metrics. This validates the feasibility of automatic metric generation.

  12. One Step Closer to Mars with Aquaponics: Cultivating Citizen Science in K12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolattukudy, Maria; Puranik, Niyati; Sane, Nishant; Bisht, Kritika; Saffat, Nabeeha; Gupta, Anika; McHugh, Anne; Detweiler, Angela; Bebout, Brad; Everroad, R. Craig

    2017-01-01

    The Microbial Ecology and Biogeochemistry Research Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center focuses primarily on the nutrient cycling and diversity of complex microbial communities. NASA is interested in the composition and functioning of microbial mat communities as these processes fundamentally shape the form and function of these analogs for the earliest forms of life on Earth (3.6 billion years ago), and likely will on other planets as well. Aquaponics systems are supported by microbial communities who perform many complex ecosystem services, including cycling nitrogen. Microbes are integral to the stability and productivity of aquaponics systems, which are analogous to microbial communities in food production systems that are essential for building efficient life support systems for long-distance space travel. Students at Meadow Park Middle School created 10 parallel aquaponics systems and took temporal microbial samples to characterize whether any macro-ecology variables impacted or changed the microbial diversity of these systems. Students additionally created a website so that other classrooms can pursue similar projects in their own schools (https://go.nasa.gov/2uJhxmF). Our lab at NASA Ames has sequenced water samples from each of the 10 tanks at 3 timepoints using a MinION sequencer. MPMS students will be involved in the analysis of the bioinformatics data generated through this collaboration. Our ongoing collaboration aims to collect and analyze data in the classroom setting that has utility for research scientists, while involving students as collaborators in the research process.

  13. Phd study of reliability and validity: One step closer to a standardized music therapy assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl

    The paper will present a phd study concerning reliability and validity of music therapy assessment model “Assessment of Parenting Competences” (APC) in the area of families with emotionally neglected children. This study had a multiple strategy design with a philosophical base of critical realism...... and pragmatism. The fixed design for this study was a between and within groups design in testing the APCs reliability and validity. The two different groups were parents with neglected children and parents with non-neglected children. The flexible design had a multiple case study strategy specifically...

  14. Financial wellness awareness: A step closer to achieve Millennium Development Goals for Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Rehana; Katpar, Shahjahan; Khan, Rakhshaan; Hussain, Mehwish

    2015-01-01

    To explore financial wellness (FW) awareness amongst public and private sector medical college students of Karachi. A cross sectional questionnaire based survey was conducted on medical students from 3 public and 5 private sector medical colleges of Karachi from February 2011 to December 2011. All ethnic groups having age range of 18-23 years were included. A questionnaire tailored from wellness wheel evaluated the responses of FW on a four point Likert's scale ranging from 0-3(never, sometimes, mostly, and always). Factor analysis explored common FW factors among both public and private sector medical college (MC) students. Private MC Students were better in terms of making short and long terms financial goals compared to students in public sector. The students of public MC were more focused to make and restricting to given budgets (p=0.05). The FW element of keeping savings in bank account was responded more by private MC candidates (P thrift as well (P bank accounts. They were however deficient in the knowledge of making and restricting themselves to budgets.

  15. Move Closer: Towards Design Patterns To Support Initiating Social Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Robb; Boer, Laurens

    2017-01-01

    be addressed. Each inspirational design pattern offers strategies to make social interaction more likely through enabling, encouraging or excusing people to move closer together. The patterns are "Feel For Fun", "Conjoining Self Images", "Eye To Eye", and "Nudge People Together". Articulating possible...... approaches for increasing conviviality may broaden the repertoire of developers concerned with social settings and collaboration....

  16. Europe edges closer to an integrated science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Schiermeier, Q

    2000-01-01

    At a meeting in Luxembourg last week, the research ministers of the 15 member states of the EU fixed a schedule for changes intended to forge closer links between the science activities and policies pursued by individual member states (1 page).

  17. Tax Policy and Sole Proprietorships: A Closer Look

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    The 21 million sole proprietorship returns filed in 2005 represent a wide variety of economic activity. This paper examines three major tax policy issues related to sole proprietorships—taxpayer compliance, taxpayer burden, and incentives for growth. It uses tax return data to take a closer look at sole proprietorships. It proposes a new taxonomy for describing these returns in an economically meaningful way, based on the principal factors of production that they use: their own labor, hired l...

  18. Move Closer: Towards Design Patterns To Support Initiating Social Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Robb; Boer, Laurens

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers four inspirational design patterns concerned with reducing inhibitions for unacquainted co-located people to interact. These patterns identify impediments to interpersonal contact in relation to the distances between people and present diverse examples of how these challenges may...... be addressed. Each inspirational design pattern offers strategies to make social interaction more likely through enabling, encouraging or excusing people to move closer together. The patterns are "Feel For Fun", "Conjoining Self Images", "Eye To Eye", and "Nudge People Together". Articulating possible...

  19. Hepatic encephalopathy: Ever closer to its big bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Pablo A; Marcotegui, Ariel R; Orbea, Lisandro; Skerl, Juan; Perazzo, Juan Carlos

    2016-11-14

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that commonly complicates the course of patients with liver disease. Despite the fact that the syndrome was probably first recognized hundreds of years ago, the exact pathogenesis still remains unclear. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of HE and is estimated to affect more that 75% of patients with liver cirrhosis. It is characterized by cognitive impairment predominantly attention, reactiveness and integrative function with very subtle clinical manifestations. The development of MHE is associated with worsen in driving skills, daily activities and the increase of overall mortality. Skeletal muscle has the ability to shift from ammonia producer to ammonia detoxifying organ. Due to its large size, becomes the main ammonia detoxifying organ in case of chronic liver failure and muscular glutamine-synthase becomes important due to the failing liver and brain metabolic activity. Gut is the major glutamine consumer and ammonia producer organ in the body. Hepatocellular dysfunction due to liver disease, results in an impaired clearance of ammonium and in its inter-organ trafficking. Intestinal bacteria, can also represent an extra source of ammonia production and in cirrhosis, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and symbiosis can be observed. In the study of HE, to get close to MHE is to get closer to its big bang; and from here, to travel less transited roads such as skeletal muscle and intestine, is to go even closer. The aim of this editorial is to expose this road for further and deeper work.

  20. Supernatural/Paranormal Phenomena: A Passionate Closer Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, S.; Robinson, G.; Maulton, J.

    2003-05-01

    A collaboration between a psychologist, a philosopher, and an astronomer resulted in an inter-term (January) course, titled "Supernatural/Paranormal Phenomena: A Passionate Closer Look" at Smith College. The main purpose of the course was to provide students with the tools to evaluate the pseudo-sciences that are so enticing in today's complex and stressful world. We examined some of the reasons why people are attracted to New-Age enterprises that claim to: provide personal insight and social guidance from stars and planets; communicate with the dead; predict the future; prove contact with extraterrestrial beings. The course provided us with an opportunity to introduce the methodology of science and compare it with the claims made by the defenders of pseudo-sciences. We also conducted a survey of paranormal beliefs of enrolled students before and after our inter-term class.

  1. Norway [and the closer relations with the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Opinion in Norway seems to have settled on the idea that having a closer relation to the EC is inevitable, although opinion is divided as to whether this will be a good thing. The plain fact is that with Denmark already involved and the Swedes thinking about it, some Norwegian politicians are nervous about being left out in the cold. However, this feeling of inevitability does not mean that the EC can treat Norway's curious economy like an oyster, to be cracked open and eaten at a time of its own choosing. The Norweigians are, after all, sitting on Western Europe's largest and most secure hydrocarbon reserves for export, and they also have hydropower. The situation in which these resources place Norway are examined with respect to EC membership. (author)

  2. White certificates in an oligopoly market: closer to reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, Vlasis (SOM, Univ. of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)); Giacomo, Marina Di (Univ. of Torino, Dept. di Scienze Economiche e Finanziarie, Torino (Italy)); Russolillo, Daniele (Fondazione per l' Ambiente ' T. Fenoglio' (Italy)); Becchis, Franco (Univ. of East Piedmont, POLIS Dept., Environmental Economics (Italy))

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we depart from neoclassical assumptions of fully competitive energy markets, and attempt to represent an oligopolistic market, which is closer to reality than a fully competitive environment given the reconsolidation tendencies of energy companies. We focus mainly on the effects of energy policies for energy efficiency improvement, namely on supplier obligations and White Certificates in an oligopoly market. In particular we concentrate on two of the most common oligopolistic models: the Cournot and the Stackelberg model where agents are assumed to strategically interact (unlike perfect competition where firms behave atomistically). In these two game theoretically based models the behaviour of each market actor is based on a detailed decision tree, which determines the optimal move given the expectations on the competitor's strategy. According to our preliminary findings, the price of electricity is always higher under the symmetric Cournot model than the Stackelberg one, but the introduction of white certificate obligations should encompass larger increases in the electricity prices in a Stackelberg game. In order to test our theoretical findings we make use of a typical oligopolistic market in Italy, where we depict that a leader company can serve the main part of electricity and energy efficiency projects, through financing them with White Certificates, while the residual demand is more expensive and must be covered at a high cost from follower companies.

  3. A service model for delivering care closer to home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Joanna; Taylor, Charlotte Elizabeth; Bunyan, Paul; White, Philippa Mary; Thomas, Siân Myra; Upton, Dominic

    2011-04-01

    Upton Surgery (Worcestershire) has developed a flexible and responsive service model that facilitates multi-agency support for adult patients with complex care needs experiencing an acute health crisis. The purpose of this service is to provide appropriate interventions that avoid unnecessary hospital admissions or, alternatively, provide support to facilitate early discharge from secondary care. Key aspects of this service are the collaborative and proactive identification of patients at risk, rapid creation and deployment of a reactive multi-agency team and follow-up of patients with an appropriate long-term care plan. A small team of dedicated staff (the Complex Care Team) are pivotal to coordinating and delivering this service. Key skills are sophisticated leadership and project management skills, and these have been used sensitively to challenge some traditional roles and boundaries in the interests of providing effective, holistic care for the patient.This is a practical example of early implementation of the principles underlying the Department of Health's (DH) recent Best Practice Guidance, 'Delivering Care Closer to Home' (DH, July 2008) and may provide useful learning points for other general practice surgeries considering implementing similar models. This integrated case management approach has had enthusiastic endorsement from patients and carers. In addition to the enhanced quality of care and experience for the patient, this approach has delivered value for money. Secondary care costs have been reduced by preventing admissions and also by reducing excess bed-days. The savings achieved have justified the ongoing commitment to the service and the staff employed in the Complex Care Team. The success of this service model has been endorsed recently by the 'Customer Care' award by 'Management in Practice'. The Surgery was also awarded the 'Practice of the Year' award for this and a number of other customer-focussed projects.

  4. One Step Closer: Understanding the Complex Relationship between Weight and Self-Esteem in Ethnically Diverse Preadolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Hahn-Smith, Anne; Smith, Jane Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Empirical support for the association between childhood overweight and low self-esteem is equivocal. The present study investigated how weight, ethnicity, body esteem, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating attitudes/behaviors contribute to global and dimensional self-esteem in a non-clinical sample of Hispanic- and Anglo-American grade 3-6…

  5. Mining SNPs in extracellular vesicular transcriptome of Trypanosoma cruzi: a step closer to early diagnosis of neglected Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Pallavi; Chaturvedi, Anoop

    2016-01-01

    One of the newest and strongest members of intercellular communicators, the Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their enclosed RNAs; Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) have been acknowledged as putative biomarkers and therapeutic targets for various diseases. Although a very deep insight has not been possible into the physiology of these vesicles, they are believed to be involved in cell-to-cell communication and host-pathogen interactions. EVs might be significantly helpful in discovering biomarkers for possible target identification as well as prognostics, diagnostics and developing vaccines. In recent studies, highly bioactive EVs have drawn attention of parasitologists for being able to communicate between different cells and having likeliness of reflecting both source and target environments. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has eased the way to have a deeper insight into these vesicles and their roles in various diseases. This article arises from bioinformatics-based analysis and predictive data mining of transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) data of EVs, derived from different life stages of Trypanosoma cruzi ; a causing agent of neglected Chagas disease. Variants (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)) were mined from Extracellular vesicular transcriptomic data and functionally analyzed using different bioinformatics based approaches. Functional analysis showed the association of these variants with various important factors like Trans-Sialidase (TS), Alpha Tubulin, P-Type H+-ATPase, etc. which, in turn, are associated with disease in different ways. Some of the 'candidate SNPs' were found to be stage-specific, which strengthens the probability of finding stage-specific biomarkers. These results may lead to a better understanding of Chagas disease, and improved knowledge may provide further development of the biomarkers for prognosis, diagnosis and drug development for treating Chagas disease.

  6. Mining SNPs in extracellular vesicular transcriptome of Trypanosoma cruzi: a step closer to early diagnosis of neglected Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Gaur

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the newest and strongest members of intercellular communicators, the Extracellular vesicles (EVs and their enclosed RNAs; Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs have been acknowledged as putative biomarkers and therapeutic targets for various diseases. Although a very deep insight has not been possible into the physiology of these vesicles, they are believed to be involved in cell-to-cell communication and host-pathogen interactions. EVs might be significantly helpful in discovering biomarkers for possible target identification as well as prognostics, diagnostics and developing vaccines. In recent studies, highly bioactive EVs have drawn attention of parasitologists for being able to communicate between different cells and having likeliness of reflecting both source and target environments. Next-generation sequencing (NGS has eased the way to have a deeper insight into these vesicles and their roles in various diseases. This article arises from bioinformatics-based analysis and predictive data mining of transcriptomic (RNA-Seq data of EVs, derived from different life stages of Trypanosoma cruzi; a causing agent of neglected Chagas disease. Variants (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs were mined from Extracellular vesicular transcriptomic data and functionally analyzed using different bioinformatics based approaches. Functional analysis showed the association of these variants with various important factors like Trans-Sialidase (TS, Alpha Tubulin, P-Type H+-ATPase, etc. which, in turn, are associated with disease in different ways. Some of the ‘candidate SNPs’ were found to be stage-specific, which strengthens the probability of finding stage-specific biomarkers. These results may lead to a better understanding of Chagas disease, and improved knowledge may provide further development of the biomarkers for prognosis, diagnosis and drug development for treating Chagas disease.

  7. Using artificial intelligence to bring evidence-based medicine a step closer to making the individual difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissons, B; Gray, W A; Bater, A; Morrey, D

    2007-03-01

    The vision of evidence-based medicine is that of experienced clinicians systematically using the best research evidence to meet the individual patient's needs. This vision remains distant from clinical reality, as no complete methodology exists to apply objective, population-based research evidence to the needs of an individual real-world patient. We describe an approach, based on techniques from machine learning, to bridge this gap between evidence and individual patients in oncology. We examine existing proposals for tackling this gap and the relative benefits and challenges of our proposed, k-nearest-neighbour-based, approach.

  8. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  9. Step out - Step in Sequencing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Quant, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new class of relaxed sequencing games is introduced: the class of Step out - Step in sequencing games. In this relaxation any player within a coalition is allowed to step out from his position in the processing order and to step in at any position later in the processing order.

  10. Step out-step in sequencing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new class of relaxed sequencing games is introduced: the class of Step out–Step in sequencing games. In this relaxation any player within a coalition is allowed to step out from his position in the processing order and to step in at any position later in the processing order. First,

  11. Getting closer: the effects of personalized and interactive online political communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruikemeier, S.; van Noort, G.; Vliegenthart, R.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Political parties and politicians increasingly use the possibilities of the Internet to communicate interactively with citizens and vice versa. The Internet also offers opportunities for individual politicians to profile themselves. These developments are often said to bring politics closer to

  12. Internship guide : Work placements step by step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haag, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Internship Guide: Work Placements Step by Step has been written from the practical perspective of a placement coordinator. This book addresses the following questions : what problems do students encounter when they start thinking about the jobs their degree programme prepares them for? How do you

  13. The way to collisions, step by step

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    While the LHC sectors cool down and reach the cryogenic operating temperature, spirits are warming up as we all eagerly await the first collisions. No reason to hurry, though. Making particles collide involves the complex manoeuvring of thousands of delicate components. The experts will make it happen using a step-by-step approach.

  14. Closer Scrutiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Examines strategies that some universities are using to make their stadium sporting events more secure in the post September 11 era. Schools reveal how they are minimizing their terrorism risks and providing a greater security presence. (GR)

  15. Microsoft Office professional 2010 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce; Frye, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Teach yourself exactly what you need to know about using Office Professional 2010-one step at a time! With STEP BY STEP, you build and practice new skills hands-on, at your own pace. Covering Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Outlook, Excel, Access, Publisher, and OneNote, this book will help you learn the core features and capabilities needed to: Create attractive documents, publications, and spreadsheetsManage your e-mail, calendar, meetings, and communicationsPut your business data to workDevelop and deliver great presentationsOrganize your ideas and notes in one placeConnect, share, and accom

  16. A Closer Look at Deep Learning Neural Networks with Low-level Spectral Periodicity Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Kereliuk, Corey; Pikrakis, Aggelos

    2014-01-01

    Systems built using deep learning neural networks trained on low-level spectral periodicity features (DeSPerF) reproduced the most “ground truth” of the systems submitted to the MIREX 2013 task, “Audio Latin Genre Classification.” To answer why this was the case, we take a closer look...

  17. Explore: An Action to Bring Science and Technology Closer to Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torras-Melenchon, Nuria; Grau, M. Dolors; Font-Soldevila, Josep; Freixas, Josep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experience of an initiative, the EXPLORE courses, designed to bring science and technology closer to secondary school. The EXPLORE courses, organised by "EXPLORATORI: Natural Resources" project, are particularly addressed to secondary school teachers and are conducted at Catalonia (North East of Spain). The main…

  18. Step by Step Microsoft Office Visio 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Lemke, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Visio 2003, the Microsoft Office business and technical diagramming program. With STEP BY STEP, you can take just the lessons you need, or work from cover to cover. Either way, you drive the instruction-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Produce computer network diagrams, organization charts, floor plans, and moreUse templates to create new diagrams and drawings quicklyAdd text, color, and 1-D and 2-D shapesInsert graphics and pictures, such as company logosConnect shapes to create a basic f

  19. Free Modal Algebras Revisited: The Step-by-Step Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, N.; Ghilardi, Silvio; Jibladze, Mamuka

    2012-01-01

    We review the step-by-step method of constructing finitely generated free modal algebras. First we discuss the global step-by-step method, which works well for rank one modal logics. Next we refine the global step-by-step method to obtain the local step-by-step method, which is applicable beyond

  20. Diabetes PSA (:30) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  1. Diabetes PSA (:60) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  2. IAS 8, Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors – A Closer Look

    OpenAIRE

    Muthupandian, K S

    2008-01-01

    The International Accounting Standards Board issued the revised version of the International Accounting Standard 8, Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors. The objective of IAS 8 is to prescribe the criteria for selecting, applying and changing accounting policies, together with the accounting treatment and disclosure of changes in accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and the corrections of errors. This article presents a closer look of the standard (o...

  3. A closer relationship between working and learning? Employers and distance learners talk about developing work skills

    OpenAIRE

    Pegg, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Across Europe universities are expected to work more closely with employers to ensure that learners develop employability skills for the workplace. Policy discourse suggests that a closer relationship between universities and employers can act as a mechanism to develop employability skills more effectively. This article draws on a small qualitative case study which investigated the “Graduate@Work” initiative undertaken by the Open University. These distance learners, sponsored by their SME em...

  4. Microsoft Office Word 2007 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to create impressive documents with Word 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them!Apply styles and themes to your document for a polished lookAdd graphics and text effects-and see a live previewOrganize information with new SmartArt diagrams and chartsInsert references, footnotes, indexes, a table of contentsSend documents for review and manage revisionsTurn your ideas into blogs, Web pages, and moreYour all-in-one learning experience includes:Files for building sk

  5. Focal cryotherapy: step by step technique description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Redondo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and objective: Focal cryotherapy emerged as an efficient option to treat favorable and localized prostate cancer (PCa. The purpose of this video is to describe the procedure step by step. Materials and methods: We present the case of a 68 year-old man with localized PCa in the anterior aspect of the prostate. Results: The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, with the patient in lithotomy position. Briefly, the equipment utilized includes the cryotherapy console coupled with an ultrasound system, argon and helium gas bottles, cryoprobes, temperature probes and an urethral warming catheter. The procedure starts with a real-time trans-rectal prostate ultrasound, which is used to outline the prostate, the urethra and the rectal wall. The cryoprobes are pretested and placed in to the prostate through the perineum, following a grid template, along with the temperature sensors under ultrasound guidance. A cystoscopy confirms the right positioning of the needles and the urethral warming catheter is installed. Thereafter, the freeze sequence with argon gas is started, achieving extremely low temperatures (-40°C to induce tumor cell lysis. Sequentially, the thawing cycle is performed using helium gas. This process is repeated one time. Results among several series showed a biochemical disease-free survival between 71-93% at 9-70 month- follow-up, incontinence rates between 0-3.6% and erectile dysfunction between 0-42% (1–5. Conclusions: Focal cryotherapy is a feasible procedure to treat anterior PCa that may offer minimal morbidity, allowing good cancer control and better functional outcomes when compared to whole-gland treatment.

  6. The Robobo Project: Bringing Educational Robotics Closer to Real-World Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellas, Francisco; Naya, Martin; Varela, Gervasio

    2017-01-01

    The Robobo Project is a STEM-based project that aims to bring educational robotics, in primary and high school, closer to real-world applications. It is based on the use of a smartphone-based robotic platform called Robobo, a very flexible programming environment, and a set of lessons to integrate...... them. The smartphone provides high-level hardware capabilities in terms of sensors, communications and processing capabilities that allow to create more practical and realistic lessons that exploit human-robot interaction, with a small investment. In this paper, we present the main elements...

  7. Moving forward together, stronger, and closer: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of marital benefits in infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Marie-Soleil; Péloquin, Katherine; Brassard, Audrey

    2018-03-01

    Some couples find in infertility the bonding opportunities that reinforce their relationship. Using an interpretative phenomenological analysis, this study examined marital benefits in three couples seeking fertility treatment. Interviews revealed five types of benefits: being engaged in a shared hardship, feeling closer to one another, feeling reassured in the relationship, developing a satisfying communication and support behaviors, and having faith in the couple's capacity to face adversity. A dyadic analysis also illustrated how marital benefits developed in each couple. Marital benefits nourished marital satisfaction, thus underscoring their importance to help couples cope through fertility treatment.

  8. The Commonwealth Games as an Example of Bringing States Closer Through Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał Marcin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to investigate the issue of positive sports diplomacy directed at bringing countries closer and deepening cooperation between them. Generally, sports diplomacy is a broader term and may include various ways of utilizing sport, both negative and positive, even for the sake of nation-branding. Positive sports diplomacy most commonly refers to bringing hostile states closer together, but it may also be used to deepen political alliances or foster friendship and cooperation between states that are not mutually hostile. The research focuses on the latter form of positive sports diplomacy. The investigation is a case study concerning the Commonwealth Games, a sports event that is held once every four years and gathers countries and territories that used to belong to the former British Empire. The research therefore aims to determine whether this event, the second largest multisport event in the world, is significant from political and diplomatic perspectives. A second research question concerns whether the Commonwealth Games should be seen as an attempt by Great Britain to maintain influence in its former colonies. The research attempts to test the hypothesis that the Commonwealth Games are an important contributor to sustaining ties between states of the former British Empire.

  9. The closer the relationship, the more the interaction on facebook? Investigating the case of Taiwan users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiung-Wen Julia; Wang, Ching-Chan; Tai, Yi-Ting

    2011-01-01

    This study argues for the necessity of applying offline contexts to social networking site research and the importance of distinguishing the relationship types of users' counterparts when studying Facebook users' behaviors. In an attempt to examine the relationship among users' behaviors, their counterparts' relationship types, and the users' perceived acquaintanceships after using Facebook, this study first investigated users' frequently used tools when interacting with different types of friends. Users tended to use less time- and effort-consuming and less privacy-concerned tools with newly acquired friends. This study further examined users' behaviors in terms of their closeness and intimacy and their perceived acquaintanceships toward four different types of friends. The study found that users gained more perceived acquaintanceships from less close friends with whom users have more frequent interaction but less intimate behaviors. As for closer friends, users tended to use more intimate activities to interact with them. However, these activities did not necessarily occur more frequently than the activities they employed with their less close friends. It was found that perceived acquaintanceships with closer friends were significantly lower than those with less close friends. This implies that Facebook is a mechanism for new friends, rather than close friends, to become more acquainted.

  10. Step-by-step cyclic processes scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, G.; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaszak, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research is to pro......Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research...... is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at AGVs fleet scheduling subject to assumed itineraries of concurrently manufactured product types. In other words, assuming a given layout of FMS’s material handling and production routes of simultaneously manufactured...... orders, the main objective is to provide the declarative framework aimed at conditions allowing one to calculate the AGVs fleet schedule in online mode. An illustrative example of the relevant algebra-like driven step-by-stem cyclic scheduling is provided....

  11. The Seven Step Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Connie

    2017-01-01

    Many well-intended instructors use Socratic or leveled questioning to facilitate the discussion of an assigned reading. While this engages a few students, most can opt to remain silent. The seven step strategy described in this article provides an alternative to classroom silence and engages all students. Students discuss a single reading as they…

  12. Operational stability of naringinase PVA lens-shaped microparticles in batch stirred reactors and mini packed bed reactors-one step closer to industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Mário A P; Rosa, M Emilia; Fernandes, Pedro C B; Ribeiro, Maria H L

    2014-07-01

    The immobilization of naringinase in PVA lens-shaped particles, a cheap and biocompatible hydrogel was shown to provide an effective biocatalyst for naringin hydrolysis, an appealing reaction in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The present work addresses the operational stability and scale-up of the bioconversion system, in various types of reactors, namely shaken microtiter plates (volume ⩽ 2 mL), batch stirred tank reactors (volume reactor (PBR, 6.8 mL). Consecutive batch runs were performed with the shaken/stirred vessels, with reproducible and encouraging results, related to operational stability. The PBR was used to establish the feasibility for continuous operation, running continuously for 54 days at 45°C. The biocatalyst activity remained constant for 40 days of continuous operation. The averaged specific productivity was 9.07 mmol h(-1) g enzyme(-1) and the half-life of 48 days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. One step closer to an experimental infection system for Hepatitis B Virus? --- the identification of sodium taurocholate cotransporting peptide as a viral receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pei-Jer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following the successful cloning of receptor for SARS coronavirus a few years ago, Dr. Wenhui Li and colleagues raised attention again by publishing a possible receptor for hepatitis B virus in eLife. We will briefly review the significance of this finding and the future prospects of hepatitis B research.

  14. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  15. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating...... or capturing concrete values, objects, or actions. As the next step, some of these are lifted to a higher level by computational means. In the object-oriented paradigm the target of such steps is classes. We hypothesise that the proposed approach primarily will be beneficial to novice programmers or during...... the exploratory phase of a program development process. In some specific niches it is also expected that our approach will benefit professional programmers....

  16. Step 3: Manage Your Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 3: Manage Your Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2014 ... 2 Diabetes" Articles Diabetes Is Serious But Manageable / Step 1: Learn About Diabetes / Step 2: Know Your ...

  17. Stepping Stones through Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lyle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Indo-European mythology is known only through written records but it needs to be understood in terms of the preliterate oral-cultural context in which it was rooted. It is proposed that this world was conceptually organized through a memory-capsule consisting of the current generation and the three before it, and that there was a system of alternate generations with each generation taking a step into the future under the leadership of a white or red king.

  18. SYSTEMATIZATION OF THE BASIC STEPS OF THE STEP-AEROBICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Korovljev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the development of the powerful sport industry, in front of us appeared a lot of new opportunities for creating of the new programmes of exercising with certain requisites. One of such programmes is certainly step-aerobics. Step-aerobics can be defined as a type of aerobics consisting of the basic aerobic steps (basic steps applied in exercising on stepper (step bench, with a possibility to regulate its height. Step-aerobics itself can be divided into several groups, depending on the following: type of music, working methods and adopted knowledge of the attendants. In this work, the systematization of the basic steps in step-aerobics was made on the basis of the following criteria: steps origin, number of leg motions in stepping and relating the body support at the end of the step. Systematization of the basic steps of the step-aerobics is quite significant for making a concrete review of the existing basic steps, thus making creation of the step-aerobics lesson easier

  19. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galyean, W.J.; Whaley, A.M.; Kelly, D.L.; Boring, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    This guide provides step-by-step guidance on the use of the SPAR-H method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This guide is intended to be used with the worksheets provided in: 'The SPAR-H Human Reliability Analysis Method,' NUREG/CR-6883, dated August 2005. Each step in the process of producing a Human Error Probability (HEP) is discussed. These steps are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff. The discussions on dependence are extensive and include an appendix that describes insights obtained from the psychology literature.

  20. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. J. Galyean; A. M. Whaley; D. L. Kelly; R. L. Boring

    2011-05-01

    This guide provides step-by-step guidance on the use of the SPAR-H method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This guide is intended to be used with the worksheets provided in: 'The SPAR-H Human Reliability Analysis Method,' NUREG/CR-6883, dated August 2005. Each step in the process of producing a Human Error Probability (HEP) is discussed. These steps are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff. The discussions on dependence are extensive and include an appendix that describes insights obtained from the psychology literature.

  1. 'The Closer'-percutaneous vascular suture device: evaluation of safety and performance in neuroangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henk, Christine B.; Grampp, Stephan; Heimberger, Karl; Czerny, Christian; Schindler, Erwin; Mostbeck, Gerhard H.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of the suture mediated vascular closure device concerning practicability and safety in clinical angiography practice. Material and methods: One hundred and seventeen patients (59 female, 58 male, mean age 40.9±13.4) underwent percutaneous closure of common femoral arterial puncture sites following diagnostic neuroangiography using the suture device 'the Closer' (Perclose Inc., Redwood City, CA, USA). Primary success, early problems (within 24 h) and late complications were evaluated. Complications were graded as minor and severe with or without need of surgical intervention and categorized by type. Parameters such as age, gender, sheath size and number of previous arterial punctures were evaluated with respect to complications. Results: Percutaneous closure was primary successful in 85% (100/117). The overall complication rate was 32% (28% mild n=35, 4% severe n=6, which needed surgical intervention). All but one problem occurred within the first 24 h after the suture. Additional manual compression was necessary in 32 cases (25%). There was no significant difference in age and gender between the groups with and without complications. Sheath size was significantly larger (P<0.01) and numbers of preceding angiograms were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the complications group compared with uncomplicated cases. Conclusion: The evaluated percutaneous vascular suture device is useful in clinical practice but limitations concerning patient selection seem to emerge in order to avoid complications

  2. Angioedema Spotlight: A Closer Examination of Sacubitril/Valsartan Safety Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ryan E; Oliphant, Carrie S

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation of neprilysin inhibition into heart failure pharmacotherapy regimens has recently been recommended by U.S. guidelines, based on results from the PARADIGM-HF trial comparing sacubitril/valsartan to enalapril. While most of the discussion has focused on efficacy, a closer examination of the safety results, particularly the incidence of angioedema during the run-in and double-blind periods, is also warranted. Although no major safety concerns were identified, an angioedema risk comparable to enalapril was found, primarily in the black population. Therefore, despite combination with an angiotensin receptor blocker, which historically has a lower incidence of angioedema, the addition of neprilysin inhibition yields an angioedema risk profile comparable to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Clinicians should recognize this safety risk when prescribing sacubitril/valsartan and remain vigilant in counseling patients regarding the signs and symptoms of angioedema. As recommended by the guidelines, avoiding sacubitril/valsartan use concurrently or within 36 hours of the last dose of an ACE inhibitor or in patients with a history of angioedema is also crucial to minimize angioedema risk and prevent patient harm. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  3. Hippocampus discovery First steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available The first steps of the discovery, and the main discoverers, of the hippocampus are outlined. Arantius was the first to describe a structure he named "hippocampus" or "white silkworm". Despite numerous controversies and alternate designations, the term hippocampus has prevailed until this day as the most widely used term. Duvernoy provided an illustration of the hippocampus and surrounding structures, considered the first by most authors, which appeared more than one and a half century after Arantius' description. Some authors have identified other drawings and texts which they claim predate Duvernoy's depiction, in studies by Vesalius, Varolio, Willis, and Eustachio, albeit unconvincingly. Considering the definition of the hippocampal formation as comprising the hippocampus proper, dentate gyrus and subiculum, Arantius and Duvernoy apparently described the gross anatomy of this complex. The pioneering studies of Arantius and Duvernoy revealed a relatively small hidden formation that would become one of the most valued brain structures.

  4. Astronomical sketching a step-by-step introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Handy, Richard; Perez, Jeremy; Rix, Erika; Robbins, Sol

    2007-01-01

    This book presents the amateur with fine examples of astronomical sketches and step-by-step tutorials in each medium, from pencil to computer graphics programs. This unique book can teach almost anyone to create beautiful sketches of celestial objects.

  5. A Snapshot of Gender in Brazil Today : Institutions, Outcomes, and a Closer Look at Racial and Geographic Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Gukovas, Renata; Muller, Miriam; Pereira, Ana Claudia; Reimao, Maira Emy

    2016-01-01

    The Gender Diagnostic: ‘A Snapshot of Gender in Brazil Today: Institutions, Outcomes, and a Closer Look at Racial and Geographic Differences Gender issues in Brazil’ highlights progress on gender equality in the country and lays out the main areas of persisting challenges. It details gender outcomes beyond the national aggregate and emphasizes that gender inequality in Brazil has to be und...

  6. Reliability of Portfolio: A Closer Look at Findings from Recent Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskay, Ozge Ozyalcin; Schallies, Michael; Morgil, Inci

    2008-01-01

    In this review article, conventional portfolio assessment and new developments in portfolio assessment are investigated. The concept of portfolio, portfolio building steps, contents of portfolio, evaluation of portfolio, advantages, disadvantages and concerns in using portfolio as well as validity and reliability of portfolio assessment are…

  7. STEP and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-09-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 1013 to one part in 1018 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels.

  8. STEP and fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-01-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 10 13 to one part in 10 18 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels. (paper)

  9. One-step microlithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlen, Franz-Josef; Sankaranarayanan, Srikanth; Kar, Aravinda

    1997-09-01

    Subject of this investigation is a one-step rapid machining process to create miniaturized 3D parts, using the original sample material. An experimental setup where metal powder is fed to the laser beam-material interaction region has been built. The powder is melted and forms planar, 2D geometries as the substrate is moved under the laser beam in XY- direction. After completing the geometry in the plane, the substrate is displaced in Z-direction, and a new layer of material is placed on top of the just completed deposit. By continuous repetition of this process, 3D parts wee created. In particular, the impact of the focal spot size of the high power laser beam on the smallest achievable structures was investigated. At a translation speed of 51 mm/s a minimum material thickness of 590 micrometers was achieved. Also, it was shown that a small Z-displacement has a negligible influence on the continuity of the material deposition over this power range. A high power CO2 laser was used as energy source, the material powder under investigation was stainless steel SS304L. Helium was used as shield gas at a flow rate of 15 1/min. The incident CO2 laser beam power was varied between 300 W and 400 W, with the laser beam intensity distribute in a donut mode. The laser beam was focused to a focal diameter of 600 (Mu) m.

  10. Step 1: Learn about Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 1: Learn About Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2014 ... the whole family healthy! Here are four key steps to help you control your diabetes and live ...

  11. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; William J. Galyean

    2012-06-01

    Step-by-step guidance was developed recently at Idaho National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the use of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This work was done to address SPAR-H user needs, specifically requests for additional guidance on the proper application of various aspects of the methodology. This paper overviews the steps of the SPAR-H analysis process and highlights some of the most important insights gained during the development of the step-by-step directions. This supplemental guidance for analysts is applicable when plant-specific information is available, and goes beyond the general guidance provided in existing SPAR-H documentation. The steps highlighted in this paper are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff.

  12. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niven, W.A.; Shikany, S.D.; Shira, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed

  13. Effects of walking speed on the step-by-step control of step width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Katy H; Heitkamp, Lauren N; Horne, Joscelyn S; Dean, Jesse C

    2018-02-08

    Young, healthy adults walking at typical preferred speeds use step-by-step adjustments of step width to appropriately redirect their center of mass motion and ensure mediolateral stability. However, it is presently unclear whether this control strategy is retained when walking at the slower speeds preferred by many clinical populations. We investigated whether the typical stabilization strategy is influenced by walking speed. Twelve young, neurologically intact participants walked on a treadmill at a range of prescribed speeds (0.2-1.2 m/s). The mediolateral stabilization strategy was quantified as the proportion of step width variance predicted by the mechanical state of the pelvis throughout a step (calculated as R 2 magnitude from a multiple linear regression). Our ability to accurately predict the upcoming step width increased over the course of a step. The strength of the relationship between step width and pelvis mechanics at the start of a step was reduced at slower speeds. However, these speed-dependent differences largely disappeared by the end of a step, other than at the slowest walking speed (0.2 m/s). These results suggest that mechanics-dependent adjustments in step width are a consistent component of healthy gait across speeds and contexts. However, slower walking speeds may ease this control by allowing mediolateral repositioning of the swing leg to occur later in a step, thus encouraging slower walking among clinical populations with limited sensorimotor control. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Bringing healthcare closer to home: one province's approach to home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, E

    2000-01-01

    Ontario is implementing a number of steps to address the growing need for home care and continuing care. One of these steps is the establishment of Ontario's network of 43 Community Care Access Centres (CCACs). Responsible for aiding Ontario residents who seek community-based long-term healthcare, CCACs coordinate access to home services such as nursing and homemaking, manage placement to long-term care facilities and provide information and referral services. In 2000/01 the Ontario government announced 92.5 million Canadian dollars in new funding for long-term community services. This new funding includes 70.1 million Canadian dollars for CCACs. During this time, the provincial government will spend more than 1.6 billion Canadian dollars for long-term-care community-based services. Of this amount, 1.1 Canadian dollars billion will go to CCACs. Community Care Access Centres served more than 400,000 people in 1998/99 and are estimated to serve more than 420,000 in 2000/01. The administrative funds saved by this province-wide system are reinvested in front-line health services.

  15. HTSC-Josephson step contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.

    1994-03-01

    In this work the properties of josephson step contacts are investigated. After a short introduction into Josephson step contacts the structure, properties and the Josphson contacts of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x high-T c superconductors is presented. The fabrication of HTSC step contacts and the microstructure is discussed. The electric properties of these contacts are measured together with the Josephson emission and the magnetic field dependence. The temperature dependence of the stationary transport properties is given. (WL)

  16. The NIST Step Class Library (Step Into the Future)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Figure 6. Excerpt from a STEP exclange file based on the Geometry model 1be NIST STEP Class Libary Page 13 An issue of concern in this...Scheifler, R., Gettys, J., and Newman, P., X Window System: C Library and Protocol Reference. Digital Press, Bedford, Mass, 1988. [Schenck90] Schenck, D

  17. Step-by-Step Visual Manuals: Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Toshiyuki

    2004-01-01

    The types of handouts and manuals that are used in technology training vary. Some describe procedures in a narrative way without graphics; some employ step-by-step instructions with screen captures. According to Thirlway (1994), a training manual should be like a tutor that permits a student to learn at his own pace and gives him confidence for…

  18. On the Convexity of Step out - Step in Sequencing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    The main result of this paper is the convexity of Step out - Step in (SoSi) sequencing games, a class of relaxed sequencing games first analyzed by Musegaas, Borm, and Quant (2015). The proof makes use of a polynomial time algorithm determining the value and an optimal processing order for an

  19. Valve cam design using numerical step-by-step method

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Bakhracheva, Yuliya; Kabore, Ousman; Zelenskiy, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the numerical step-by-step method of cam profile design. The results of the study are used for designing the internal combustion engine valve gear. This method allows to profile the peak efficiency of cams in view of many restrictions, connected with valve gear serviceability and reliability.

  20. The bounded proof property via step algebras and step frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, N.; Ghilardi, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    We develop a semantic criterion for a specific rule-based calculus Ax axiomatizing a given logic L to have the so-called bounded proof property. This property is a kind of an analytic subformula property limiting the proof search space. Our main tools are one-step frames and one-step algebras. These

  1. Leading Change Step-by-Step: Tactics, Tools, and Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Jody

    2010-01-01

    "Leading Change Step-by-Step" offers a comprehensive and tactical guide for change leaders. Spiro's approach has been field-tested for more than a decade and proven effective in a wide variety of public sector organizations including K-12 schools, universities, international agencies and non-profits. The book is filled with proven tactics for…

  2. A closer look at Arctic ozone loss and polar stratospheric clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. P. Harris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The empirical relationship found between column-integrated Arctic ozone loss and the potential volume of polar stratospheric clouds inferred from meteorological analyses is recalculated in a self-consistent manner using the ERA Interim reanalyses. The relationship is found to hold at different altitudes as well as in the column. The use of a PSC formation threshold based on temperature dependent cold aerosol formation makes little difference to the original, empirical relationship. Analysis of the photochemistry leading to the ozone loss shows that activation is limited by the photolysis of nitric acid. This step produces nitrogen dioxide which is converted to chlorine nitrate which in turn reacts with hydrogen chloride on any polar stratospheric clouds to form active chlorine. The rate-limiting step is the photolysis of nitric acid: this occurs at the same rate every year and so the interannual variation in the ozone loss is caused by the extent and persistence of the polar stratospheric clouds. In early spring the ozone loss rate increases as the solar insolation increases the photolysis of the chlorine monoxide dimer in the near ultraviolet. However the length of the ozone loss period is determined by the photolysis of nitric acid which also occurs in the near ultraviolet. As a result of these compensating effects, the amount of the ozone loss is principally limited by the extent of original activation rather than its timing. In addition a number of factors, including the vertical changes in pressure and total inorganic chlorine as well as denitrification and renitrification, offset each other. As a result the extent of original activation is the most important factor influencing ozone loss. These results indicate that relatively simple parameterisations of Arctic ozone loss could be developed for use in coupled chemistry climate models.

  3. A small step for mankind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, C.; Koymans, R.L.C.; Kuiper, R.; Dams, D.; Hannemann, U.; Steffen, M.

    2010-01-01

    For many programming languages, the only formal semantics published is an SOS big-step semantics. Such a semantics is not suited for investigations that observe intermediate states, such as invariant techniques. In this paper, a construction is proposed that generates automatically a small-step SOS

  4. Grief: Difficult Times, Simple Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Emily Lane

    This guide presents techniques to assist others in coping with the loss of a loved one. Using the language of 9 layperson, the book contains more than 100 tips for caregivers or loved ones. A simple step is presented on each page, followed by reasons and instructions for each step. Chapters include: "What to Say"; "Helpful Things to Do"; "Dealing…

  5. Schizophrenia genomics and proteomics: are we any closer to biomarker discovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Alon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The field of proteomics has made leaps and bounds in the last 10 years particularly in the fields of oncology and cardiovascular medicine. In comparison, neuroproteomics is still playing catch up mainly due to the relative complexity of neurological disorders. Schizophrenia is one such disorder, believed to be the results of multiple factors both genetic and environmental. Affecting over 2 million people in the US alone, it has become a major clinical and public health concern worldwide. This paper gives an update of schizophrenia biomarker research as reviewed by Lakhan in 2006 and gives us a rundown of the progress made during the last two years. Several studies demonstrate the potential of cerebrospinal fluid as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers. Genetic association studies are making headway in identifying candidate genes for schizophrenia. In addition, metabonomics, bioinformatics, and neuroimaging techniques are aiming to complete the picture by filling in knowledge gaps. International cooperation in the form of genomics and protein databases and brain banks is facilitating research efforts. While none of the recent developments described here in qualifies as biomarker discovery, many are likely to be stepping stones towards that goal.

  6. Microprocessor controller for stepping motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, B.G.; Thuot, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    A new concept for digital computer control of multiple stepping motors which operate in a severe electromagnetic pulse environment is presented. The motors position mirrors in the beam-alignment system of a 100-kJ CO 2 laser. An asynchronous communications channel of a computer is used to send coded messages, containing the motor address and stepping-command information, to the stepping-motor controller in a bit serial format over a fiber-optics communications link. The addressed controller responds by transmitting to the computer its address and other motor information, thus confirming the received message. Each controller is capable of controlling three stepping motors. The controller contains the fiber-optics interface, a microprocessor, and the stepping-motor driven circuits. The microprocessor program, which resides in an EPROM, decodes the received messages, transmits responses, performs the stepping-motor sequence logic, maintains motor-position information, and monitors the motor's reference switch. For multiple stepping-motor application, the controllers are connected in a daisy chain providing control of many motors from one asynchronous communications channel of the computer

  7. Adsorption-induced step formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, P.; Christoffersen, Ebbe; Lorensen, Henrik Qvist

    2001-01-01

    Through an interplay between density functional calculations, Monte Carlo simulations and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments, we show that an intermediate coverage of CO on the Pt(110) surface gives rise to a new rough equilibrium structure with more than 50% step atoms. CO is shown to bind...... so strongly to low-coordinated Pt atoms that it can break Pt-Pt bonds and spontaneously form steps on the surface. It is argued that adsorption-induced step formation may be a general effect, in particular at high gas pressures and temperatures....

  8. Step sites in syngas catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup-Nielsen, J.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2006-01-01

    Step sites play an important role in many catalytic reactions. This paper reviews recent results on metal catalysts for syngas reactions with emphasis on steam reforming. Modern characterization techniques (STEM, HREM...) and theoretical calculations (DFT) has allowed a more quantitative explanat......Step sites play an important role in many catalytic reactions. This paper reviews recent results on metal catalysts for syngas reactions with emphasis on steam reforming. Modern characterization techniques (STEM, HREM...) and theoretical calculations (DFT) has allowed a more quantitative...... explanation of the impact of step sites on catalyst activity and side reactions such as carbon formation. This leads to a discussion of principles for catalyst promotion....

  9. A Closer Look at the Design of Cutterheads for Hard Rock Tunnel-Boring Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Rostami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of a tunnel-boring machine (TBM in a given project depends on the functionality of all components of the system, from the cutters to the backup system, and on the entire rolling stock. However, no part of the machine plays a more crucial role in the efficient operation of the machine than its cutterhead. The design of the cutterhead impacts the efficiency of cutting, the balance of the head, the life of the cutters, the maintenance of the main bearing/gearbox, and the effectiveness of the mucking along with its effects on the wear of the face and gage cutters/muck buckets. Overall, cutterhead design heavily impacts the rate of penetration (ROP, rate of machine utilization (U, and daily advance rate (AR. Although there has been some discussion in commonly available publications regarding disk cutters, cutting forces, and some design features of the head, there is limited literature on this subject because the design of cutterheads is mainly handled by machine manufacturers. Most of the design process involves proprietary algorithms by the manufacturers, and despite recent attention on the subject, the design of rock TBMs has been somewhat of a mystery to most end-users. This paper is an attempt to demystify the basic concepts in design. Although it may not be sufficient for a full-fledged design by the readers, this paper allows engineers and contractors to understand the thought process in the design steps, what to look for in a proper design, and the implications of the head design on machine operation and life cycle. Keywords: TBM cutterhead design, Cutterhead layout, Disk cutters, Cutting pattern, TBM efficiency

  10. The primary steps of photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, G.R.; Van Grondelle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The two important initial steps of photosynthesis-electron transfer and energy transfer occur with great speed and efficiency. New techniques in laser optics and genetic engineering age helping us to understand why. (author). 24 refs. 8 figs

  11. 7 Steps to Aging Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section 7 Steps to Aging Well Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... Exercise: A Guide from the National Institute on Aging is a publication from NIA that has strength, ...

  12. Security Sector Reform and the Serbian Conundrum: Are Security Sector Reform Efforts Bringing Serbia Closer to European Union and North Atlantic Treaty Organization Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Marion J

    2005-01-01

    .... In 2005, certain of the southern Slav nations have gained NATO and EU membership, as in the case of Slovenia, or have drawn ever closer to qualifying for membership, as in the case of Croatia and Bulgaria...

  13. Microsoft® Office Access™ 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Steve; Lambert, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to build database solutions with Access 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build databases from scratch or from templatesExchange data with other databases and Office documentsCreate forms to simplify data entryUse filters and queries to find and analyze informationDesign rich reports that help make your data meaningfulHelp prevent data corruption and unauthorized access Your all-in-one learning experience includes: Files for building skills and practic

  14. Microsoft Windows Sharepoint Services 3.0 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Londer, Olga; Bleeker, Todd; Coventry, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Windows SharePoint Services to enable effective team collaboration. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build your own SharePoint site with easy-to-use templatesCreate lists and libraries to store informationAdd discussion boards, wikis, and blogsSet up Document and Meeting Workspaces for easy collaborationShare calendars, contacts, and data from Microsoft Office programsCustomize your pages with Web Parts Your all-in-one learning experience includes: Fi

  15. Linear, Step by Step Managerial Performance, versus Exponential Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George MOLDOVEANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the transition from the potential management concept, which its authors approached by determining its dimension (Roşca, Moldoveanu, 2009b, to the linear, step by step performance concept, as an objective result of management process. In this way, we “answer” the theorists and practitioners, who support exponential management performance. The authors, as detractors of the exponential performance, are influenced by the current crisis (Roşca, Moldoveanu, 2009a, by the lack of organizational excellence in many companies, particularly in Romanian ones and also reaching “the finality” in the evolved companies, developed into an uncontrollable speed.

  16. Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Coventry, Penelope

    2008-01-01

    The smart way to learn Office SharePoint Designer 2007-one step at a time! Work at your own pace through the easy numbered steps, practice files on CD, helpful hints, and troubleshooting tips to master the fundamentals of building customized SharePoint sites and applications. You'll learn how to work with Windows® SharePoint Services 3.0 and Office SharePoint Server 2007 to create Web pages complete with Cascading Style Sheets, Lists, Libraries, and customized Web parts. Then, make your site really work for you by adding data sources, including databases, XML data and Web services, and RSS fe

  17. A step-by-step methodology for enterprise interoperability projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmeta, Ricardo; Pazos, Verónica

    2015-05-01

    Enterprise interoperability is one of the key factors for enhancing enterprise competitiveness. Achieving enterprise interoperability is an extremely complex process which involves different technological, human and organisational elements. In this paper we present a framework to help enterprise interoperability. The framework has been developed taking into account the three domains of interoperability: Enterprise Modelling, Architecture and Platform and Ontologies. The main novelty of the framework in comparison to existing ones is that it includes a step-by-step methodology that explains how to carry out an enterprise interoperability project taking into account different interoperability views, like business, process, human resources, technology, knowledge and semantics.

  18. One step beyond: Different step-to-step transitions exist during continuous contact brachiation in siamangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fana Michilsens

    2012-02-01

    In brachiation, two main gaits are distinguished, ricochetal brachiation and continuous contact brachiation. During ricochetal brachiation, a flight phase exists and the body centre of mass (bCOM describes a parabolic trajectory. For continuous contact brachiation, where at least one hand is always in contact with the substrate, we showed in an earlier paper that four step-to-step transition types occur. We referred to these as a ‘point’, a ‘loop’, a ‘backward pendulum’ and a ‘parabolic’ transition. Only the first two transition types have previously been mentioned in the existing literature on gibbon brachiation. In the current study, we used three-dimensional video and force analysis to describe and characterize these four step-to-step transition types. Results show that, although individual preference occurs, the brachiation strides characterized by each transition type are mainly associated with speed. Yet, these four transitions seem to form a continuum rather than four distinct types. Energy recovery and collision fraction are used as estimators of mechanical efficiency of brachiation and, remarkably, these parameters do not differ between strides with different transition types. All strides show high energy recoveries (mean  = 70±11.4% and low collision fractions (mean  = 0.2±0.13, regardless of the step-to-step transition type used. We conclude that siamangs have efficient means of modifying locomotor speed during continuous contact brachiation by choosing particular step-to-step transition types, which all minimize collision fraction and enhance energy recovery.

  19. High accuracy step gauge interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byman, V.; Jaakkola, T.; Palosuo, I.; Lassila, A.

    2018-05-01

    Step gauges are convenient transfer standards for the calibration of coordinate measuring machines. A novel interferometer for step gauge calibrations implemented at VTT MIKES is described. The four-pass interferometer follows Abbe’s principle and measures the position of the inductive probe attached to a measuring head. The measuring head of the instrument is connected to a balanced boom above the carriage by a piezo translation stage. A key part of the measuring head is an invar structure on which the inductive probe and the corner cubes of the measuring arm of the interferometer are attached. The invar structure can be elevated so that the probe is raised without breaking the laser beam. During probing, the bending of the probe and the interferometer readings are recorded and the measurement face position is extrapolated to zero force. The measurement process is fully automated and the face positions of the steps can be measured up to a length of 2 m. Ambient conditions are measured continuously and the refractive index of air is compensated for. Before measurements the step gauge is aligned with an integrated 2D coordinate measuring system. The expanded uncertainty of step gauge calibration is U=\\sqrt{{{(64 nm)}2}+{{(88× {{10}-9}L)}2}} .

  20. FIRST STEP towards ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Production of tritium for weapons and fusion R and D programs and successful development of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technologies are important national goals. A conceptual design for an ICF facility to meet these goals is presented. FIRST STEP (Fusion, Inertial, Reduced-Requirements Systems Test for Special Nuclear Material, Tritium, and Energy Production) is a concept for a plant to produce SNM, tritium, and energy while serving as a test bed for ICF technology development. A credible conceptual design for an ICF SNM and tritium production facility that competes favorably with fission technology on the bases of cost, production quality, and safety was sought. FIRST STEP is also designed to be an engineering test facility that integrates systems required for an ICF power plant and that is intermediate in scale between proof-of-principle experiment and commercial power plant. FIRST STEP driver and pellet performance requirements are moderate and represent reasonable intermediate goals in an R and D plan for ICF commercialization. Repetition rate requirements for FIRST STEP are similar to those of commercial size plants and FIRST STEP can be used to integrate systems under realistic ICF conditions

  1. From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicignano, Angelo; Di Monaco, Rossella; Masi, Paolo; Cavella, Silvana

    2015-10-01

    Pasta is a traditional Italian cereal-based food that is popular worldwide because of its convenience, versatility, sensory and nutritional value. The aim of this review is to present a step-by-step guide to facilitate the understanding of the most important events that can affect pasta characteristics, directing the reader to the appropriate production steps. Owing to its unique flavor, color, composition and rheological properties, durum wheat semolina is the best raw material for pasta production. Although pasta is traditionally made from only two ingredients, sensory quality and chemical/physical characteristics of the final product may vary greatly. Starting from the same ingredients, there are a lot of different events in each step of pasta production that can result in the development of varieties of pasta with different characteristics. In particular, numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of temperature and humidity conditions of the pasta drying operation as well as the significance of the choice of raw material and operating conditions on pasta quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Step by step parallel programming method for molecular dynamics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orii, Shigeo; Ohta, Toshio

    1996-07-01

    Parallel programming for a numerical simulation program of molecular dynamics is carried out with a step-by-step programming technique using the two phase method. As a result, within the range of a certain computing parameters, it is found to obtain parallel performance by using the level of parallel programming which decomposes the calculation according to indices of do-loops into each processor on the vector parallel computer VPP500 and the scalar parallel computer Paragon. It is also found that VPP500 shows parallel performance in wider range computing parameters. The reason is that the time cost of the program parts, which can not be reduced by the do-loop level of the parallel programming, can be reduced to the negligible level by the vectorization. After that, the time consuming parts of the program are concentrated on less parts that can be accelerated by the do-loop level of the parallel programming. This report shows the step-by-step parallel programming method and the parallel performance of the molecular dynamics code on VPP500 and Paragon. (author)

  3. Step-by-step phacoemulsification training program for ophthalmology residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yulan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to analyze the learning curve of phacoemulsification (phaco performed by residents without experience in performing extra-capsular cataract extraction (ECCE in a step-by-step training program (SBSTP. Materials and Methods: Consecutive surgical records of phaco performed from March 2009 to Sept 2011 by four residents without previous ECCE experience were retrospectively reviewed. The completion rate of the first 30 procedures by each resident was calculated. The main intraoperative phaco parameter records for the first 30 surgeries by each resident were compared with those for their last 30 surgeries. Intraoperative complications in the residents′ procedures were also recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 1013 surgeries were performed by residents. The completion rate for the first 30 phaco procedures was 79.2 μ 5.8%. The main reasons for halting the procedure were as follows: Anterior capsule tear, inability to crack the nucleus, and posterior capsular rupture during phaco or cortex removal. Cumulative dissipated energy of phaco power used during the surgeries was significantly less in the last 30 cases compared with the first 30 cases (30.10 μ 17.58 vs. 55.41 μ 37.59, P = 0.021. Posterior capsular rupture rate was 2.5 μ 1.2% in total (10.8 μ 4.2% in the first 30 cases and 1.7 μ 1.9% in the last 30 cases, P = 0.008; a statistically significant difference. Conclusion:The step-by-step training program might be a necessary process for a resident to transit from dependence to a self-supported operator. It is also an essential middle step between wet lab training to performing the entire phaco procedure on the patient both effectively and safely.

  4. Time step MOTA thermostat simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, G.L.

    1978-09-01

    The report details the logic, program layout, and operating procedures for the time-step MOTA (Materials Open Test Assembly) thermostat simulation program known as GYRD. It will enable prospective users to understand the operation of the program, run it, and interpret the results. The time-step simulation analysis was the approach chosen to determine the maximum value gain that could be used to minimize steady temperature offset without risking undamped thermal oscillations. The advantage of the GYRD program is that it directly shows hunting, ringing phenomenon, and similar events. Programs BITT and CYLB are faster, but do not directly show ringing time

  5. A mechanism for leader stepping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, U.; Carlson, B. E.; Koehn, C.

    2013-12-01

    The stepping of negative leaders is well observed, but not well understood. A major problem consists of the fact that the streamer corona is typically invisible within a thunderstorm, but determines the evolution of a leader. Motivated by recent observations of streamer and leader formation in the laboratory by T.M.P. Briels, S. Nijdam, P. Kochkin, A.P.J. van Deursen et al., by recent simulations of these processes by J. Teunissen, A. Sun et al., and by our theoretical understanding of the process, we suggest how laboratory phenomena can be extrapolated to lightning leaders to explain the stepping mechanism.

  6. Driver training in steps (DTS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    For some years now, it has been possible in the Netherlands to follow a Driver Training in Steps (DTS) as well as the regular driver training. The DTS is a structured training method with clear training objectives which are categorized in four modules. Although the DTS is considerably better than

  7. Stepping out: dare to step forward, step back, or just stand still and breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, Mary Sue

    2012-01-01

    It is important to step out and make a difference. We have one of the most unique and diverse professions that allows for diversity in thought and practice, permitting each of us to grow in our unique niches and make significant contributions. I was frightened to 'step out' to go to culinary school at the age of 46, but it changed forever the way I look at my profession and I have since experienced the most enjoyable and innovative career. There are also times when it is important to 'step back' to relish the roots of our profession; to help bring food back into nutrition; to translate all of our wonderful science into a language of food that Canadians understand. We all need to take time to 'just stand still and breathe': to celebrate our accomplishments, reflect on our actions, ensure we are heading toward our vision, keep the profession vibrant and relevant, and cherish one another.

  8. 2-Step IMAT and 2-Step IMRT in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratengeier, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    In two dimensions, 2-Step Intensity Modulated Arc Therapy (2-Step IMAT) and 2-Step Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were shown to be powerful methods for the optimization of plans with organs at risk (OAR) (partially) surrounded by a target volume (PTV). In three dimensions, some additional boundary conditions have to be considered to establish 2-Step IMAT as an optimization method. A further aim was to create rules for ad hoc adaptations of an IMRT plan to a daily changing PTV-OAR constellation. As a test model, a cylindrically symmetric PTV-OAR combination was used. The centrally placed OAR can adapt arbitrary diameters with different gap widths toward the PTV. Along the rotation axis the OAR diameter can vary, the OAR can even vanish at some axis positions, leaving a circular PTV. The width and weight of the second segment were the free parameters to optimize. The objective function f to minimize was the root of the integral of the squared difference of the dose in the target volume and a reference dose. For the problem, two local minima exist. Therefore, as a secondary criteria, the magnitude of hot and cold spots were taken into account. As a result, the solution with a larger segment width was recommended. From plane to plane for varying radii of PTV and OAR and for different gaps between them, different sets of weights and widths were optimal. Because only one weight for one segment shall be used for all planes (respectively leaf pairs), a strategy for complex three-dimensional (3-D) cases was established to choose a global weight. In a second step, a suitable segment width was chosen, minimizing f for this global weight. The concept was demonstrated in a planning study for a cylindrically symmetric example with a large range of different radii of an OAR along the patient axis. The method is discussed for some classes of tumor/organ at risk combinations. Noncylindrically symmetric cases were treated exemplarily. The product of width and weight of

  9. Energetics of highly kinked step edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the step edge free energy, the step edge stiffness and dimensionless inverse step edge stiffness of the highly kinked < 010> oriented step on a (001) surface of a simple square lattice within the framework of a solid-on-solid model. We have found an exact expression for the step

  10. Step 2: Know Your Diabetes ABCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 2: Know Your Diabetes ABCs Past Issues / Fall ... 2 Diabetes" Articles Diabetes Is Serious But Manageable / Step 1: Learn About Diabetes / Step 2: Know Your ...

  11. Independent influence of gait speed and step length on stability and fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, D D; Yang, F; Bhatt, T; Pai, Y-C

    2010-07-01

    With aging, individuals' gaits become slower and their steps shorter; both are thought to improve stability against balance threats. Recent studies have shown that shorter step lengths, which bring the center of mass (COM) closer to the leading foot, improve stability against slip-related falls. However, a slower gait, hence lower COM velocity, does the opposite. Due to the inherent coupling of step length and speed in spontaneous gait, the extent to which the benefit of shorter steps can offset the slower speed is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate, through decoupling, the independent effects of gait speed and step length on gait stability and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Fifty-seven young adults walked at one of three target gait patterns, two of equal speed and two of equal step length; at a later trial, they encountered an unannounced slip. The results supported our hypotheses that faster gait as well as shorter steps each ameliorates fall risk when a slip is encountered. This appeared to be attributable to the maintenance of stability from slip initiation to liftoff of the recovery foot during the slip. Successful decoupling of gait speed from step length reveals for the first time that, although slow gait in itself leads to instability and falls (a one-standard-deviation decrease in gait speed increases the odds of fall by 4-fold), this effect is offset by the related decrease in step length (the same one-standard-deviation decrease in step length lowers fall risk by 6 times). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Step-By-Step: Life Cycle Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste is an unavoidable by-product when nuclear technologies are used for electricity production and for beneficial practices in medicine, agriculture, research and industry. When the radioactivity of the waste is above a certain threshold, the waste requires special disposal methods. Through extensive research, standards and approaches have been developed for safely and securely preparing for and managing radioactive waste disposal. In the course of its journey from the point of generation to disposal, radioactive waste undergoes a number of predisposal management treatment steps to transform it into a safe, stable and manageable form suitable for transport, storage and disposal

  13. Blogging business step-by-step startup guide

    CERN Document Server

    magazine, Entrepreneur

    2014-01-01

    This kit includes: Essential industry and business-specific startup steps with worksheets, calculators, checklists and more. Entrepreneur Editors' Start Your Own Business, a guide to starting any business and surviving the first three years. Downloadable, customizable business letters, sales letters, and other sample documents. Entrepreneur's Small Business Legal Toolkit. Blogs are still one of the internet's fastest-growing phenomena–and one of the best and easiest ways to make money online. Packed with the latest blog tools, tricks, and up-and-coming trends, this fully revised edition teache

  14. Closer to Nature?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkfelt, Sune; Kondrup, Sara; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2015-01-01

    discourses in order to sell one image of animal welfare in intensive animal production while the actual production at the same time presupposes a quite different paradigm of animal welfare. Specifically, product advertising utilizes representations tied to concepts of naturalness in depictions of both animal...... lives and product processes as “natural”. Product marketing suggests a coherence between nature, production process (farm, animal), and end product, thereby creating associations that the lives of production animals are lived in nature and that their products bring a wholesome and sustainable...

  15. Closer to Nature?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkfelt, Sune; Kondrup, Sara; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2015-01-01

    As public awareness of environmental issues and animal welfare has risen, catering to public concerns and views on these issues has become a potentially profitable strategy for marketing a number of product types, of which animal products such as dairy and meat are obvious examples. Our analysis ...... product marketing, discusses the ethical implications of this type of marketing communication, and stresses the need for transparency in the area of animal welfare....

  16. Robotic retroperitoneal partial nephrectomy: a step-by-step guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Khurshid R; Porter, James; Menon, Mani; Rogers, Craig

    2014-08-01

    To describe a step-by-step guide for successful implementation of the retroperitoneal approach to robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) PATIENTS AND METHODS: The patient is placed in the flank position and the table fully flexed to increase the space between the 12th rib and iliac crest. Access to the retroperitoneal space is obtained using a balloon-dilating device. Ports include a 12-mm camera port, two 8-mm robotic ports and a 12-mm assistant port placed in the anterior axillary line cephalad to the anterior superior iliac spine, and 7-8 cm caudal to the ipsilateral robotic port. Positioning and port placement strategies for successful technique include: (i) Docking robot directly over the patient's head parallel to the spine; (ii) incision for camera port ≈1.9 cm (1 fingerbreadth) above the iliac crest, lateral to the triangle of Petit; (iii) Seldinger technique insertion of kidney-shaped balloon dilator into retroperitoneal space; (iv) Maximising distance between all ports; (v) Ensuring camera arm is placed in the outer part of the 'sweet spot'. The retroperitoneal approach to RPN permits direct access to the renal hilum, no need for bowel mobilisation and excellent visualisation of posteriorly located tumours. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  17. A need for closer examination of FASD by the criminal justice system: has the call been answered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnier, Karina Royer; Moore, Timothy E; Green, Melvyn

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with FASD exhibit deficits in many domains that can include memory, learning, behavioural inhibition, executive functioning, interpersonal skills, and language. These deficits have serious implications for affected persons when they become engaged in the legal system. In 2004, Moore and Green reviewed case law and psychological literature which suggested that FASD-related deficits placed affected individuals at a significant disadvantage in the justice system. According to them, this disadvantage stemmed from the limited awareness and knowledge of FASD demonstrated by key players in the justice system, as well as the scarcity of effective interventions in place to rehabilitate affected defendants. The aim of the current paper is to assess the extent to which awareness of FASD-related issues in the Canadian justice system has advanced since the publication of Moore and Green's conclusions. First, the deficits associated with FASD and their implications for the justice system are described. Next, recent case law and psychological evidence are reviewed as we consider issues of witness reliability and false confessions. The significance of FASD for sentencing, fitness to stand trial, and the Not Criminally Responsible by Reason of Mental Disorder defence are also briefly discussed. Finally, emerging system wide responses to FASD-related issues are presented. Overall, it appears that the call for closer examination of FASD by the justice system has been answered, but a need for increased education and awareness remains.

  18. Steps in Researching the Music in Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2007-01-01

    The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy.......The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy....

  19. Assessment and applicability of evaluation tools: Current practice in a sample of European countries and steps towards a state-of-the-art approach. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverables No. 4 and 5.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvik, R.

    2014-01-01

    This report surveys current practice in a sample of European countries with respect to the use of ten different tools for safety management of road systems. The report also proposes steps that can be taken to bring the use of these management tools closer to their state-of-the-art versions. These

  20. Small Steps Forward Through Critical Appraisal (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available As a vocal proponent of evidence based information practice, I have actively encouraged my co‐workers and anyone else who might listen, to take small steps in order to move towards incorporating research evidence into their decision making. I prompt colleagues to search in databases for research articles that may be useful, gather these articles and incorporate research results as part of their decision making process. I am often told of the difficulties faced despite one’s best attempts to make their practice more evidence‐based. A major difficulty is access to the research itself since librarians and information professionals often lack access to databases and journals in our field, particularly those of us working outside of academic libraries. An even more daunting question is how to critically read the existing research to determine whether it is valuable in a specific situation. Not all research is good, and how do we sort out the good from the bad? This inaugural issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice brings us one small step closer to addressing some of these concerns by equipping practitioners with information to help in their decision making process. Every issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice will incorporate approximately 10 evidence summaries to help readers sort through recently published research and determine if that research was done well. Evidence summaries provide a critical appraisal synthesis for a specific research article, so that practitioners may more readily determine if the evidence in that research study is valid and reliable, and whether they can apply it to their own practice. Evidence summaries are indeed a small step, but an important one. Published in an open‐access forum, these summaries will address three barriers to evidence based practice that we have faced in the past. First of all, they will bring awareness of previously published research to readers who may

  1. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70–94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked de...

  2. Biomechanical influences on balance recovery by stepping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, E T; Robinovitch, S N

    1999-10-01

    Stepping represents a common means for balance recovery after a perturbation to upright posture. Yet little is known regarding the biomechanical factors which determine whether a step succeeds in preventing a fall. In the present study, we developed a simple pendulum-spring model of balance recovery by stepping, and used this to assess how step length and step contact time influence the effort (leg contact force) and feasibility of balance recovery by stepping. We then compared model predictions of step characteristics which minimize leg contact force to experimentally observed values over a range of perturbation strengths. At all perturbation levels, experimentally observed step execution times were higher than optimal, and step lengths were smaller than optimal. However, the predicted increase in leg contact force associated with these deviations was substantial only for large perturbations. Furthermore, increases in the strength of the perturbation caused subjects to take larger, quicker steps, which reduced their predicted leg contact force. We interpret these data to reflect young subjects' desire to minimize recovery effort, subject to neuromuscular constraints on step execution time and step length. Finally, our model predicts that successful balance recovery by stepping is governed by a coupling between step length, step execution time, and leg strength, so that the feasibility of balance recovery decreases unless declines in one capacity are offset by enhancements in the others. This suggests that one's risk for falls may be affected more by small but diffuse neuromuscular impairments than by larger impairment in a single motor capacity.

  3. The structure of stepped surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algra, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) as far as multiple scattering effects are concerned, is discussed. The ion fractions of lithium, sodium and potassium scattered from a copper (100) surface have been measured as a function of several experimental parameters. The ratio of the intensities of the single and double scattering peaks observed in ion scattering spectroscopy has been determined and ion scattering spectroscopy applied in the multiple scattering mode is used to determine the structure of a stepped Cu(410) surface. The average relaxation of the (100) terraces of this surface appears to be very small. The adsorption of oxygen on this surface has been studied with LEIS and it is indicated that oxygen absorbs dissociatively. (C.F.)

  4. A step toward nuclear sanity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottfried, K.; Long, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that Reykjavik formally ended as a diplomatic failure, but it has begun an overdue revolution in perceptions. At long last, both superpowers have the in concrete terms that vastly smaller nuclear arsenals would make them safer. Implicitly, they are saying that nuclear weapons are not useful weapons. Those insights are a prerequisite to nuclear sanity. The United States has proposed to eliminate all strategic ballistic missiles, on land and submarines, in two five-year steps. During that period, we (and presumably the Soviet Union) would develop missile defenses to be deployed in ten years. The first part of this plan makes excellent sense. Ballistic missiles explode on their targets ten to thirty minutes after launch. Today's huge and accurate missile arsenals have forced both superpowers to adopt a hair-trigger stance: they might launch missiles simply on warning of attack

  5. Steps towards an evolutionary physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiezzi, E

    2006-01-01

    If thermodynamics is to physics as logic is to philosophy, recent theoretical advancements lend new coherence to the marvel and dynamism of life on Earth. Enzo Tiezzi's "Steps Towards an Evolutionary Physics" is a primer and guide, to those who would to stand on the shoulders of giants to attain this view: Heisenberg, Planck, Bateson, Varela, and Prigogine as well as notable contemporary scientists. The adventure of such a free and enquiring spirit thrives not so much on answers as on new questions. The book offers a new gestalt on the uncertainty principle and concept of probability. A wide range of examples, enigmas, and paradoxes lead one's imagination on an exquisite dance. Among the applications are: songs and shapes of nature, oscillatory reactions, orientors, goal functions and configurations of processes, and "dissipative structures and the city". Ecodynamics is a new science, which proposes a cross-fertilization between Charles Darwin and Ilya Prigogine. As an enigma in thermodynamics, Entropy forms ...

  6. Boris push with spatial stepping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, G; Stoltz, P H; Cary, J R; Wurtele, J

    2003-01-01

    The Boris push is commonly used in plasma physics simulations because of its speed and stability. It is second-order accurate, requires only one field evaluation per time step, and has good conservation properties. However, for accelerator simulations it is convenient to propagate particles in z down a changing beamline. A 'spatial Boris push' algorithm has been developed which is similar to the Boris push but uses a spatial coordinate as the independent variable, instead of time. This scheme is compared to the fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm, for two simplified muon beam lattices: a uniform solenoid field, and a 'FOFO' lattice where the solenoid field varies sinusoidally along the axis. Examination of the canonical angular momentum, which should be conserved in axisymmetric systems, shows that the spatial Boris push improves accuracy over long distances

  7. Ahead of snap elections, Greenland’s independence ambitions could open a window for closer co-operation with the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2014-01-01

    turmoil has undermined plans to use investment in extractive industries such as mining as the basis for an independent economy. He argues that the situation could present an opportunity for the EU to engage in closer bilateral co-operation with the country, particularly given Greenland’s natural resources...

  8. A Closer Look at Split Visual Attention in System- and Self-Paced Instruction in Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Weigand, Florian; Kohnert, Alfred; Glowalla, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined visual attention distribution in learning from text and pictures. Participants watched a 16-step multimedia instruction on the formation of lightning. In Experiment 1 (N=90) the instruction was system-paced (fast, medium, slow pace), while it was self-paced in Experiment 2 (N=31). In both experiments the text modality was…

  9. Preimages for Step-Reduced SHA-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoki, Kazumaro; Guo, Jian; Matusiewicz, Krystian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present preimage attacks on up to 43-step SHA-256 (around 67% of the total 64 steps) and 46-step SHA-512 (around 57.5% of the total 80 steps), which significantly increases the number of attacked steps compared to the best previously published preimage attack working for 24 steps....... The time complexities are 2^251.9, 2^509 for finding pseudo-preimages and 2^254.9, 2^511.5 compression function operations for full preimages. The memory requirements are modest, around 2^6 words for 43-step SHA-256 and 46-step SHA-512. The pseudo-preimage attack also applies to 43-step SHA-224 and SHA-384...

  10. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitara S R Ajjampur

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC, isolate B (ST7-B and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H, we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite.

  11. Linking pedestrian flow characteristics with stepping locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayue; Boltes, Maik; Seyfried, Armin; Zhang, Jun; Ziemer, Verena; Weng, Wenguo

    2018-06-01

    While properties of human traffic flow are described by speed, density and flow, the locomotion of pedestrian is based on steps. To relate characteristics of human locomotor system with properties of human traffic flow, this paper aims to connect gait characteristics like step length, step frequency, swaying amplitude and synchronization with speed and density and thus to build a ground for advanced pedestrian models. For this aim, observational and experimental study on the single-file movement of pedestrians at different densities is conducted. Methods to measure step length, step frequency, swaying amplitude and step synchronization are proposed by means of trajectories of the head. Mathematical models for the relations of step length or frequency and speed are evaluated. The problem how step length and step duration are influenced by factors like body height and density is investigated. It is shown that the effect of body height on step length and step duration changes with density. Furthermore, two different types of step in-phase synchronization between two successive pedestrians are observed and the influence of step synchronization on step length is examined.

  12. Steps to Advanced CANDU 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yongshick; Brooks, G. L.

    1988-01-01

    The CANDU nuclear power system was developed from merging of AECL heavy water reactor technology with Ontario Hydro electrical power station expertise. The original four units of Ontario Hydro's Pickering Generating Station are the first full-scale commercial application of the CANDU system. AECL and Ontario Hydro then moved to the next evolutionary step, a more advanced larger scale design for four units at the Bruce Generating Station. CANDU 600 followed as a single unit nuclear electric power station design derived from an amalgam of features of the multiple unit Pickering and Bruce designs. The design of the CANDU 600 nuclear steam supply system is based on the Pickering design with improvements derived from the Bruce design. For example, most CANDU 600 auxiliary systems are based on Bruce systems, whereas the fuel handling system is based on the Pickering system. Four CANDU 600 units are in operation, and five are under construction in Romania. For the additional four units at Pickering Generating Station 'B', Ontario Hydro selected a replica of the Pickering 'A' design with limited design changes to maintain a high level of standardization across all eight units. Ontario Hydro applied a similar policy for the additional four units at Bruce Generating Station 'B'. For the four unit Darlington station, Ontario Hydro selected a design based on Bruce with improvements derived from operating experience, the CANDU 600 design and development programs

  13. Multi-step direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1992-07-01

    In recent years a variety of statistical theories has been developed concerning multistep direct (MSD) nuclear reactions. In addition, dominant in applications is a whole class of semiclassical models that may be subsumed under the heading of 'generalized exciton models'; these are basically MSD-type extensions on top of compound-like concepts. In this report the relation between their underlying statistical MSD-postulates are highlighted. A command framework is sketched that enables to generate the various MSD theories through assigning statistical properties to different parts of the nuclear Hamiltonian. Then it is shown that distinct forms of nuclear randomness are embodied in the mentioned theories. All these theories appear to be very similar at a qualitative level. In order to explain the high energy-tails and forward-peaked angular distribution typical for particles emitted in MSD reactions, it is imagined that the incident continuum particle stepwise looses its energy and direction in a sequence of collisions, thereby creating new particle-hole pairs in the target system. At each step emission may take place. The statistical aspect comes in because many continuum states are involved in the process. These are supposed to display chaotic behavior, the associated randomness assumption giving rise to important simplifications in the expression for MSD emission cross sections. This picture suggests that mentioned MSD models can be interpreted as a variant of essentially one and the same theory. 113 refs.; 25 figs.; 9 tabs

  14. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step...... length, step height, and.flux start level. Filtrating 8 kg/m(3) yeast cell suspensions by a vibrating 0.45 x 10(-6) m pore size microfiltration hollow fiber module, critical fluxes from 5.6 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-5) m/s have been measured using various step lengths from 300 to 1200 seconds. Thus......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...

  15. Step dynamics and terrace-width distribution on flame-annealed gold films: The effect of step-step interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoni, Nira; Ayal, Shai; Millo, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Dynamics of atomic steps and the terrace-width distribution within step bunches on flame-annealed gold films are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy. The distribution is narrower than commonly observed for vicinal planes and has a Gaussian shape, indicating a short-range repulsive interaction between the steps, with an apparently large interaction constant. The dynamics of the atomic steps, on the other hand, appear to be influenced, in addition to these short-range interactions, also by a longer-range attraction of steps towards step bunches. Both types of interactions promote self-ordering of terrace structures on the surface. When current is driven through the films a step-fingering instability sets in, reminiscent of the Bales-Zangwill instability

  16. The change in capacity and service delivery at public and private hospitals in Turkey: a closer look at regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Hediye A D; Ergin, Işıl; Ocek, Zeliha

    2010-11-01

    Substantial regional health inequalities have been shown to exist in Turkey for major health indicators. Turkish data on hospitals deserves a closer examination with a special emphasis on the regional differences in the context of the rapid privatization of the secondary or tertiary level health services.This study aims to evaluate the change in capacity and service delivery at public and private hospitals in Turkey between 2001-2006 and to determine the regional differences. Data for this retrospective study was provided from Statistical Almanacs of Inpatient Services (2001-2006). Hospitals in each of the 81 provinces were grouped into two categories: public and private. Provinces were grouped into six regions according to a development index composed by the State Planning Organisation. The number of facilities, hospital beds, outpatient admissions, inpatient admissions (per 100 000), number of deliveries and surgical operations (per 10 000) were calculated for public and private hospitals in each province and region. Regional comparisons were based on calculation of ratios for Region 1(R1) to Region 6(R6). Public facilities had a fundamental role in service delivery. However, private sector grew rapidly in Turkey between 2001-2006 in capacity and service delivery. In public sector, there were 2.3 fold increase in the number of beds in R1 to R6 in 2001. This ratio was 69.9 fold for private sector. The substantial regional inequalities in public and private sector decreased for the private sector enormously while a little decrease was observed for the public sector. In 2001 in R1, big surgical operations were performed six times more than R6 at the public sector whereas the difference was 117.7 fold for the same operations in the same regions for the private sector. These ratios decreased to 3.6 for the public sector and 13.9 for the private sector in 2006. The private health sector has grown enormously between 2001-2006 in Turkey including the less developed

  17. The change in capacity and service delivery at public and private hospitals in Turkey: A closer look at regional differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergin Işıl

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial regional health inequalities have been shown to exist in Turkey for major health indicators. Turkish data on hospitals deserves a closer examination with a special emphasis on the regional differences in the context of the rapid privatization of the secondary or tertiary level health services. This study aims to evaluate the change in capacity and service delivery at public and private hospitals in Turkey between 2001-2006 and to determine the regional differences. Methods Data for this retrospective study was provided from Statistical Almanacs of Inpatient Services (2001-2006. Hospitals in each of the 81 provinces were grouped into two categories: public and private. Provinces were grouped into six regions according to a development index composed by the State Planning Organisation. The number of facilities, hospital beds, outpatient admissions, inpatient admissions (per 100 000, number of deliveries and surgical operations (per 10 000 were calculated for public and private hospitals in each province and region. Regional comparisons were based on calculation of ratios for Region 1(R1 to Region 6(R6. Results Public facilities had a fundamental role in service delivery. However, private sector grew rapidly in Turkey between 2001-2006 in capacity and service delivery. In public sector, there were 2.3 fold increase in the number of beds in R1 to R6 in 2001. This ratio was 69.9 fold for private sector. The substantial regional inequalities in public and private sector decreased for the private sector enormously while a little decrease was observed for the public sector. In 2001 in R1, big surgical operations were performed six times more than R6 at the public sector whereas the difference was 117.7 fold for the same operations in the same regions for the private sector. These ratios decreased to 3.6 for the public sector and 13.9 for the private sector in 2006. Conclusions The private health sector has grown

  18. EURATOM research and training programme: towards a new way of developing-teaching science, closer to the end-users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Goethem, G.

    2015-01-01

    important is public information and engagement in energy policy issues, notably in connection with nuclear decision making. In fact, a new way of 'developing - teaching science' is emerging in the EU, closer to the needs of the end-users, i.e.: society and industry. As a result, a strong scientific foundation is being established to support decision making in regulatory and/or industrial organisations, based on confirmed facts and research findings stemming from 'Best Available Science'. The article is followed by the slides of the presentation

  19. Ten steps to successful software process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandt, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper identifies ten steps for managing change that address organizational and cultural issues. Four of these steps are critical, that if not done, will almost guarantee failure. This ten-step program emphasizes the alignment of business goals, change process goals, and the work performed by the employees of an organization.

  20. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.230 Production step. Production step means, in...

  1. Traffic safety and step-by-step driving licence for young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels

    2017-01-01

    presents a review of safety effects from step-by-step driving licence schemes. Most of the investigated schemes consist of a step-by-step driving licence with Step 1) various tests and education, Step 2) a period where driving is only allowed together with an experienced driver and Step 3) driving without...... companion is allowed but with various restrictions and, in some cases, additional driving education and tests. In general, a step-by-step driving licence improves traffic safety even though the young people are permitted to drive a car earlier on. The effects from driving with an experienced driver vary......Young novice car drivers are much more accident-prone than other drivers - up to 10 times that of their parents' generation. A central solution to improve the traffic safety for this group is implementation of a step-by-step driving licence. A number of countries have introduced a step...

  2. University of Aarhus - the stepping stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kent T.

    is currently facing major challenges. Changes in the Danish University Act and a strong political wish for closer partnerships between the private business community, the public sector and the country's universities have gradually altered the role of the universities in Denmark today. This paper looks more...... closely at the history of the University of Aarhus, the importance of the University for the Aarhus region, and the opportunities and barriers facing an "old" comprehensive University in its attempts to adapt to the new role of universities in the knowledge society....

  3. Use of social network sites and instant messaging does not lead to increased offline social network size, or to emotionally closer relationships with offline network members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet, Thomas V; Roberts, Sam G B; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2011-04-01

    The effect of Internet use on social relationships is still a matter of intense debate. This study examined the relationships between use of social media (instant messaging and social network sites), network size, and emotional closeness in a sample of 117 individuals aged 18 to 63 years old. Time spent using social media was associated with a larger number of online social network "friends." However, time spent using social media was not associated with larger offline networks, or feeling emotionally closer to offline network members. Further, those that used social media, as compared to non-users of social media, did not have larger offline networks, and were not emotionally closer to offline network members. These results highlight the importance of considering potential time and cognitive constraints on offline social networks when examining the impact of social media use on social relationships.

  4. Clinical utility of ultra high pitch dual source thoracic CT imaging of acute pulmonary embolism in the emergency department: Are we one step closer towards a non-gated triple rule out?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Daniel J., E-mail: danieljameshou@gmail.com; Tso, David K., E-mail: david.k.tso@gmail.com; Davison, Chris, E-mail: chrisdavison100@gmail.com; Inacio, Joao, E-mail: joao.r.inacio@gmail.com; Louis, Luck J., E-mail: lucklouis@gmail.com; Nicolaou, Savvakis, E-mail: savvas.nicolaou@vch.ca; Reimann, Anja J., E-mail: anja.reimann@gmx.de

    2013-10-01

    Objectives/Purpose: Aim of this study was to retrospectively compare the image quality and the radiation dose of an ultra high pitch CT scan for the evaluation of pulmonary embolism and visualization of cardiac structures in comparison to our institution's standard pulmonary embolism protocol. Method and materials: The study cohort consisted of 115 consecutive patients, 57 underwent CT pulmonary angiography on a dual source 128 slice scanner (Siemens Somatom Definition FLASH) via an ultra high pitch mode (Pitch 2.8) while 58 were scanned on a dual source 64 slice scanner (Siemens Somatom Definition Dual Source) with standard pitch (Pitch 0.9). Qualitative image assessment was determined by two blinded radiologists with 3 and 15 years’ experience in chest and cardiac CT. Quantitative image assessment was determined by the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Effective radiation dose was calculated via the product of the dose length product. Results: For the ultra high pitch protocol, 14% (8/57) were positive for pulmonary embolus compared to 13.7% (8/58) for the standard pitch group. 98.2% of the ultra high pitch scans were diagnostic for pulmonary embolus vs. 94.8% of the standard protocol. Visualization of cardiac structures was significantly improved with the ultra high pitch protocol (p < 0.0001). Significantly more lung parenchymal motion was observed on the standard protocol (p < 0.0001). The mean pulmonary vessel attenuation, SNR, and CNR were not significantly different. The mean effective dose was lower for the ultra high pitch studies (4.09 mSv ± 0.78 vs. 7.72 mSv ± 2.60, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Ultra high pitch CT imaging for pulmonary embolus is a technique which has potential to assess motion free evaluation of most cardiac structures and proximal coronary arteries at lower radiation doses.

  5. Using the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake to test the Coulomb stress triggering hypothesis and to calculate faults brought closer to failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Shinji; Lin, Jian; Stein, Ross S.

    2011-01-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake provides an unprecedented test of the extent to which Coulomb stress transfer governs the triggering of aftershocks. During 11-31 March, there were 177 aftershocks with focal mechanisms, and so the Coulomb stress change imparted by the rupture can be resolved on the aftershock nodal planes to learn whether they were brought closer to failure. Numerous source models for the mainshock have been inverted from seismic, geodetic, and tsunami observations. Here, we show that, among six tested source models, there is a mean 47% gain in positively-stressed aftershock mechanisms over that for the background (1997-10 March 2011) earthquakes, which serve as the control group. An aftershock fault friction of 0.4 is found to fit the data better than 0.0 or 0.8, and among all the tested models, Wei and Sladen (2011) produced the largest gain, 63%. We also calculate that at least 5 of the seven large, exotic, or remote aftershocks were brought ≥0.3 bars closer to failure. With these tests as confirmation, we calculate that large sections of the Japan trench megathrust, the outer trench slope normal faults, the Kanto fragment beneath Tokyo, and the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line, were also brought ≥0.3 bars closer to failure.

  6. Step-grandparenthood in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahirun, Jenjira J; Park, Sung S; Seltzer, Judith A

    2018-01-18

    This study provides new information about the demography of step-grandparenthood in the United States. Specifically, we examine the prevalence of step-grandparenthood across birth cohorts and for socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups. We also examine lifetime exposure to the step-grandparent role. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Health and Retirement Study, we use percentages to provide first estimates of step-grandparenthood and to describe demographic and socioeconomic variation in who is a step-grandparent. We use life tables to estimate the exposure to step-grandparenthood. The share of step-grandparents is increasing across birth cohorts. However, individuals without a college education and non-Whites are more likely to become step-grandparents. Exposure to the step-grandparent role accounts for approximately 15% of total grandparent years at age 65 for women and men. A growing body of research finds that grandparents are increasingly instrumental in the lives of younger generations. However, the majority of this work assumes that these ties are biological, with little attention paid to the role of family complexity across three generations. Understanding the demographics of step-grandparenthood sheds light on the family experiences of an overlooked, but growing segment of the older adult population in the United States. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Oak Ridge TNS Program 1976--1977. Integration of engineering reality brings us closer to realizable reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    1977-01-01

    Both the techniques and results of bringing engineering reality into the exploration of the possible design choices for The Next Step (TNS) in the Tokamak Fusion Program after TFTR are discussed in this report. Each of the elements of our interrelated, three-part approach--plasma engineering, engineering design, and program planning--is highlighted. The constraints developed from an engineering viewpoint are seen to stimulate creative improvements in each area. Plasma engineering activities that reduce technological requirements for reactor core performance are described. The engineering design study comparing quantitatively various technical options for TF coils is outlined with summarized findings leading to a clearer view of the essential problems--namely the setting of objectives and making of decisions. The findings of the draft program planning exercise are also presented

  8. The micro-step motor controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kwang Pyo; Lee, Chang Hee; Moon, Myung Kook; Choi, Bung Hun; Choi, Young Hyun; Cheon, Jong Gu

    2004-11-01

    The developed micro-step motor controller can handle 4 axes stepping motor drivers simultaneously and provide high power bipolar driving mechanism with constant current mode. It can be easily controlled by manual key functions and the motor driving status is displayed by the front panel VFD. Due to the development of several kinds of communication and driving protocol, PC can operate even several micro-step motor controllers at once by multi-drop connection

  9. Multi-step contrast sensitivity gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Enrico C; Thompson, Kyle R; Moore, David G; Heister, Jack D; Poland, Richard W; Ellegood, John P; Hodges, George K; Prindville, James E

    2014-10-14

    An X-ray contrast sensitivity gauge is described herein. The contrast sensitivity gauge comprises a plurality of steps of varying thicknesses. Each step in the gauge includes a plurality of recesses of differing depths, wherein the depths are a function of the thickness of their respective step. An X-ray image of the gauge is analyzed to determine a contrast-to-noise ratio of a detector employed to generate the image.

  10. Step-wise stimulated martensitic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, G.; Riva, G.

    1991-01-01

    NiTi alloys, widely known both for their shape memory properties and for unusual pseudoelastic behaviour, are now on the forefront attention for step-wise induced memory processes, thermal or stress stimulated. Literature results related to step-wise stimulated martensite (direct transformation) are examined and contrasted with step-wise thermal stimulated parent phase (reverse transformation). Hypothesis are given to explain the key characters of both transformations, a thermodynamic model from first principles being till now lacking

  11. Microprocessor-based stepping motor driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1979-09-01

    The Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory requires a versatile stepping motor driver to do beam diagnostic measurements. A driver controlled by a microprocessor that can move eight stepping motors simultaneously was designed. The driver can monitor and respond to clockwise- and counterclockwise-limit switches, and it can monitor a 0- to 10-V dc position signal. The software controls start and stop ramping and maximum stepping rates. 2 figures, 1 table

  12. Steps and dislocations in cubic lyotropic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, S; Pieranski, P

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown recently that lyotropic systems are convenient for studies of faceting, growth or anisotropic surface melting of crystals. All these phenomena imply the active contribution of surface steps and bulk dislocations. We show here that steps can be observed in situ and in real time by means of a new method combining hygroscopy with phase contrast. First results raise interesting issues about the consequences of bicontinuous topology on the structure and dynamical behaviour of steps and dislocations

  13. Smart Steps to Sustainability 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart Steps to Sustainability provides small business owners and managers with practical advice and tools to implementsustainable and environmentally-preferable business practices that go beyond compliance.

  14. Role of step stiffness and kinks in the relaxation of vicinal (001) with zigzag [110] steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, B.; Hamouda, Ajmi BH.; Einstein, TL.

    2017-08-01

    We present a kinetic Monte Carlo study of the relaxation dynamics and steady state configurations of 〈110〉 steps on a vicinal (001) simple cubic surface. This system is interesting because 〈110〉 (fully kinked) steps have different elementary excitation energetics and favor step diffusion more than 〈100〉 (nominally straight) steps. In this study we show how this leads to different relaxation dynamics as well as to different steady state configurations, including that 2-bond breaking processes are rate determining for 〈110〉 steps in contrast to 3-bond breaking processes for 〈100〉-steps found in previous work [Surface Sci. 602, 3569 (2008)]. The analysis of the terrace-width distribution (TWD) shows a significant role of kink-generation-annihilation processes during the relaxation of steps: the kinetic of relaxation, toward the steady state, is much faster in the case of 〈110〉-zigzag steps, with a higher standard deviation of the TWD, in agreement with a decrease of step stiffness due to orientation. We conclude that smaller step stiffness leads inexorably to faster step dynamics towards the steady state. The step-edge anisotropy slows the relaxation of steps and increases the strength of step-step effective interactions.

  15. Effect of Stewing in Cooking Step on Textural and Morphological Properties of Cooked Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GHASEMI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Stewing of rice grains by steam after boiling in excess water can be used for cooking rice perfectly. The effects of this procedure in cooking of three varieties of Iranian rice (Sang Tarom, Domsiyah and Fajr on textural and morphological properties of cooked rice grains were investigated. The results showed that this step in rice cooking reduced the hardness and increased the adhesiveness of rice grains significantly. By the use of the scanning electron microscopy, it was shown that the outer surface of cooked rice stewed by steam had less porosity and closer pores due to the modification during cooking, and better gelatinization and more expansion of starch granules compared to non-stewed samples. The use of this procedure in rice cooking to provide a fully cooked and gelatinized, softer and stickier final product is recommended.

  16. Sintering uranium oxide using a preheating step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, N.J.; Nivas, Y.; Packard, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Compacted pellets of uranium oxide or uranium oxide with one or more additives are heated in a kiln in a process having a preheating step, a sintering step, a reduction step, and a cooling step in a controlled atmosphere. The process is practiced to give a range of temperature and atmosphere conditions for obtaining optimum fluoride removal from the compacted pellets along with optimum sintering in a single process. The preheating step of this process is conducted in a temperature range of about 600 0 to about 900 0 C and the pellets are held for at least twenty min, and preferably about 60 min, in an atmosphere having a composition in the range of about 10 to about 75 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. The sintering step is conducted at a temperature in the range of about 900 0 C to 1500 0 C in the presence of an atmosphere having a composition in the range of about 0.5 to about 90 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. The reduction step reduces the oxygen to metal ratio of the pellets to a range of about 1.98 to 2.10:1 and this is accomplished by gradually cooling the pellets for about 30 to about 120 min from the temperature of the sintering step to about 1100 0 C in an atmosphere of about 10 to 90 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. Thereafter the pellets are cooled to about 100 0 C under a protective atmosphere, and in one preferred practice the same atmosphere used in the reduction step is used in the cooling step. The preheating, sintering and reduction steps may also be conducted with their respective atmospheres having an initial additional component of water vapor and the water vapor can comprise up to about 20 vol %

  17. Microcomputer-based stepping-motor controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.

    1983-04-01

    A microcomputer-controlled stepping motor is described. A Motorola MC68701 microcomputer unit is interfaced to a Cybernetic CY500 stored-program controller that outputs through Motorola input/output isolation modules to the stepping motor. A complex multifunction controller with enhanced capabilities is thus available with a minimum number of parts

  18. Step-Up DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Siwakoti, Yam P.; Gorji, Saman A.

    2017-01-01

    on the general law and framework of the development of next-generation step-up dc-dc converters, this paper aims to comprehensively review and classify various step-up dc-dc converters based on their characteristics and voltage-boosting techniques. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these voltage...

  19. Step-wise refolding of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumoto, Kouhei; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Chen, Linda

    2010-04-01

    Protein refolding is still on trial-and-error basis. Here we describe step-wise dialysis refolding, in which denaturant concentration is altered in step-wise fashion. This technology controls the folding pathway by adjusting the concentrations of the denaturant and other solvent additives to induce sequential folding or disulfide formation.

  20. Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevincli, Haldun; Brandbyge, Mads

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance...

  1. Random Walks with Anti-Correlated Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Dirk; Noga, John

    2005-01-01

    We conjecture the expected value of random walks with anti-correlated steps to be exactly 1. We support this conjecture with 2 plausibility arguments and experimental data. The experimental analysis includes the computation of the expected values of random walks for steps up to 22. The result shows the expected value asymptotically converging to 1.

  2. Steps in Performing a Communication Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincoff, Michael Z.; And Others

    This paper develops the step-by-step processes necessary to conduct a communication audit in order to determine the communication effectiveness of an organization. The authors stress the responsibilities of both the audit team and the organization's top management as they interact during progressive phases of the audit. Emphasis is placed on…

  3. Step patterns on vicinal reconstructed surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilfan, Igor

    1996-04-01

    Step patterns on vicinal (2 × 1) reconstructed surfaces of noble metals Au(110) and Pt(110), miscut towards the (100) orientation, are investigated. The free energy of the reconstructed surface with a network of crossing opposite steps is calculated in the strong chirality regime when the steps cannot make overhangs. It is explained why the steps are not perpendicular to the direction of the miscut but form in equilibrium a network of crossing steps which make the surface to look like a fish skin. The network formation is the consequence of competition between the — predominantly elastic — energy loss and entropy gain. It is in agreement with recent scanning tunnelling microscopy observations on vicinal Au(110) and Pt(110) surfaces.

  4. At the Crossroads of Clinical and Preclinical Research for Muscular Dystrophy-Are We Closer to Effective Treatment for Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Kinga I

    2018-05-16

    Among diseases affecting skeletal muscle, muscular dystrophy is one of the most devastating and complex disorders. The term 'muscular dystrophy' refers to a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases associated with a primary muscle defect that leads to progressive muscle wasting and consequent loss of muscle function. Muscular dystrophies are accompanied by numerous clinical complications and abnormalities in other tissues that cause extreme discomfort in everyday life. The fact that muscular dystrophy often takes its toll on babies and small children, and that many patients die at a young age, adds to the cruel character of the disease. Clinicians all over the world are facing the same problem: they have no therapy to offer except for symptom-relieving interventions. Patients, their families, but also clinicians, are in urgent need of an effective cure. Despite advances in genetics, increased understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying muscle disease, despite a sweeping range of successful preclinical strategies and relative progress of their implementation in the clinic, therapy for patients is currently out of reach. Only a greater comprehension of disease mechanisms, new preclinical studies, development of novel technologies, and tight collaboration between scientists and physicians can help improve clinical treatment. Fortunately, inventiveness in research is rapidly extending the limits and setting new standards for treatment design. This review provides a synopsis of muscular dystrophy and considers the steps of preclinical and clinical research that are taking the muscular dystrophy community towards the fundamental goal of combating the traumatic disease.

  5. Microfluidic step-emulsification in axisymmetric geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, I; Ricouvier, J; Yazhgur, P; Tabeling, P; Leshansky, A M

    2017-10-25

    Biphasic step-emulsification (Z. Li et al., Lab Chip, 2015, 15, 1023) is a promising microfluidic technique for high-throughput production of μm and sub-μm highly monodisperse droplets. The step-emulsifier consists of a shallow (Hele-Shaw) microchannel operating with two co-flowing immiscible liquids and an abrupt expansion (i.e., step) to a deep and wide reservoir. Under certain conditions the confined stream of the disperse phase, engulfed by the co-flowing continuous phase, breaks into small highly monodisperse droplets at the step. Theoretical investigation of the corresponding hydrodynamics is complicated due to the complex geometry of the planar device, calling for numerical approaches. However, direct numerical simulations of the three dimensional surface-tension-dominated biphasic flows in confined geometries are computationally expensive. In the present paper we study a model problem of axisymmetric step-emulsification. This setup consists of a stable core-annular biphasic flow in a cylindrical capillary tube connected co-axially to a reservoir tube of a larger diameter through a sudden expansion mimicking the edge of the planar step-emulsifier. We demonstrate that the axisymmetric setup exhibits similar regimes of droplet generation to the planar device. A detailed parametric study of the underlying hydrodynamics is feasible via inexpensive (two dimensional) simulations owing to the axial symmetry. The phase diagram quantifying the different regimes of droplet generation in terms of governing dimensionless parameters is presented. We show that in qualitative agreement with experiments in planar devices, the size of the droplets generated in the step-emulsification regime is independent of the capillary number and almost insensitive to the viscosity ratio. These findings confirm that the step-emulsification regime is solely controlled by surface tension. The numerical predictions are in excellent agreement with in-house experiments with the axisymmetric

  6. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70-94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked design. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured using a forceplate, and the number and latency of postural adjustments were quantified. Subjects were assigned to groups based on their stepping strategy. The frequency of trials with one or two postural adjustments was compared with data from 20 younger adults (mean age 38 y, range 21-58 y). Logistic regression was used to relate presence of a fall in the previous year with the number and latency of postural adjustments. In comparison with younger adults, who almost always demonstrated one postural adjustment when stepping laterally, older adults constituted a continuous distribution in the percentage of step trials made with one postural adjustment (from 0% to 100% of trials). Latencies of the initial postural adjustment and foot liftoff varied depending on the number of postural adjustments made. A history of falls was associated a larger percentage of two postural adjustments, and a longer latency of foot liftoff. In conclusion, the number and latency of postural adjustments made during voluntary lateral stepping provides additional evidence that lateral control of posture may be a critical indicator of aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Value of Step-by-Step Risk Assessment for Unmanned Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2018-01-01

    The new European legislation expected in 2018 or 2019 will introduce a step-by-step process for conducting risk assessments for unmanned aircraft flight operations. This is a relatively simple approach to a very complex challenge. This work compares this step-by-step process to high fidelity risk...... modeling, and shows that at least for a series of example flight missions there is reasonable agreement between the two very different methods....

  8. Pendekatan Pelatihan On-Site dan Step by Step untuk Optimalisasi Fungsi Guru dalam Pembelajaran

    OpenAIRE

    Moch. Sholeh Y.A. Ichrom

    2016-01-01

    Remoteness of programme content from teachers' real work situation and unsuitability of approach employed were suspected as main reasons contributing to the failure of many inservise teacher training programmes. A step by step, onsite teacher training (SSOTT) model was tried out in this experiment to study if the weakness of inservise programmes could be rectified. As it was tried out in relation with kindergarten mathemathics it was then called SSOTT-MTW (Step by Step Onsite Teacher Training...

  9. Pendekatan Pelatihan On-Site Dan Step by Step Untuk Optimalisasi Fungsi Guru Dalam Pembelajaran

    OpenAIRE

    Ichrom, Moch. Sholeh Y.A

    1996-01-01

    Remoteness of programme content from teachers' real work situation and unsuitability of approach employed were suspected as main reasons contributing to the failure of many inservise teacher training programmes. A step by step, onsite teacher training (SSOTT) model was tried out in this experiment to study if the weakness of inservise programmes could be rectified. As it was tried out in relation with kindergarten mathemathics it was then called SSOTT-MTW (Step by Step Onsite Teacher Training...

  10. Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevinçli, H.; Brandbyge, M.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance in the range between 5% and 47%. We also consider the transmission across linear kinks formed by adsorption of atomic hydrogen at the bends and find that individual kinks suppress thermal conduction substantially, especially at high temperatures. Our analysis show that substrate irregularities can be detrimental for thermal conduction even for small step heights.

  11. Two-step chemical decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    An improved two-step chemical decontamination technique was recently developed at INEL. This memorandum documents the addition of this technology to the SRTC arsenal of decontamination technology. A two-step process using NAOH, KMnO 4 followed by HNO 3 was used for cleaning doorstops (small casks) in the SRTC High Level Caves in 1967. Subsequently, more aggressive chemical techniques have been found to be much more effective for our applications. No further work on two-step technology is planned

  12. New Step Underground in Universe Origins Quest

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Europe's top particle physics research center has taken a major step in its plan to build the world's biggest "particle smasher" which it hopes will eventually unlock the secrets of the origins of the universe (½ page)

  13. NextSTEP Hybrid Life Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextSTEP Phase I Hybrid Life Support Systems (HLSS) effort assessed options, performance, and reliability for various mission scenarios using contractor-developed...

  14. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes means you have glucose ( ...

  15. Self-Adaptive Step Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhao Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the standard firefly algorithm, each firefly has the same step settings and its values decrease from iteration to iteration. Therefore, it may fall into the local optimum. Furthermore, the decreasing of step is restrained by the maximum of iteration, which has an influence on the convergence speed and precision. In order to avoid falling into the local optimum and reduce the impact of the maximum of iteration, a self-adaptive step firefly algorithm is proposed in the paper. Its core idea is setting the step of each firefly varying with the iteration, according to each firefly’s historical information and current situation. Experiments are made to show the performance of our approach compared with the standard FA, based on sixteen standard testing benchmark functions. The results reveal that our method can prevent the premature convergence and improve the convergence speed and accurateness.

  16. Two steps sintering alumina doped with niobia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, L.B.; Hatzfeld, J.; Heck, M.; Pokorny, A.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, high surface area commercial alumina was doped with niobia and sintered in two steps in order to obtain dense materials with lower processing temperatures. The powders were milled and uniaxially pressed (200 MPa). The first step of sintering took place at 1100°C for 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours, followed by the second step at 1350°C for 3 hours. The relative density, porosity and water absorption of the samples were determined by the Archimedes method. The crystalline phases were analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and the morphology of the samples after sintering, evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the use of niobia combined with the two steps sintering promotes an increase in the density of the material, even at lower sintering temperatures. (author)

  17. Nine Steps to a Successful Lighting Retrofit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Presents the steps needed to successfully design a lighting retrofit of school classrooms. Tips cover budgeting, technology, financing, contractor selection, assessing area function, and choosing a light source. (GR)

  18. Robust Detection of Stepping-Stone Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Ting; Tong, Lang

    2006-01-01

    The detection of encrypted stepping-stone attack is considered. Besides encryption and padding, the attacker is capable of inserting chaff packets and perturbing packet timing and transmission order...

  19. IT project management 30 steps to success

    CERN Document Server

    Doraiswamy, Premanand

    2011-01-01

    This pocket guide is designed to help IT project managers to succeed, and is based on the author's years of experience in IT project management. The guide's step-by-step approach will enable those new to IT project management, or intending to make a career in this field, to master the essential skills. For seasoned professionals, the pocket guide offers an invaluable concise reference guide.

  20. Steps in formulating an environmental monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This section describes the process of establishing a complete equipment environmental monitoring program; the step by step process is also illustrated in Table 3 of the Summary. The following decisions must be made in defining the program: an initial characterization of plant environment, how to integrate with existing programs to realize the maximum benefits, identification of the specific monitoring locations, determining the monitoring techniques, frequency of recording data, monitoring duration, quality assurance requirements, and finally, establishing the recordkeeping requirements

  1. Does my step look big in this? A visual illusion leads to safer stepping behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Elliott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tripping is a common factor in falls and a typical safety strategy to avoid tripping on steps or stairs is to increase foot clearance over the step edge. In the present study we asked whether the perceived height of a step could be increased using a visual illusion and whether this would lead to the adoption of a safer stepping strategy, in terms of greater foot clearance over the step edge. The study also addressed the controversial question of whether motor actions are dissociated from visual perception. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 21 young, healthy subjects perceived the step to be higher in a configuration of the horizontal-vertical illusion compared to a reverse configuration (p = 0.01. During a simple stepping task, maximum toe elevation changed by an amount corresponding to the size of the visual illusion (p<0.001. Linear regression analyses showed highly significant associations between perceived step height and maximum toe elevation for all conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The perceived height of a step can be manipulated using a simple visual illusion, leading to the adoption of a safer stepping strategy in terms of greater foot clearance over a step edge. In addition, the strong link found between perception of a visual illusion and visuomotor action provides additional support to the view that the original, controversial proposal by Goodale and Milner (1992 of two separate and distinct visual streams for perception and visuomotor action should be re-evaluated.

  2. Recovery of forward stepping in spinal cord injured patients does not transfer to untrained backward stepping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Renato; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka; Molinari, Marco; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2004-08-01

    Six spinal cord injured (SCI) patients were trained to step on a treadmill with body-weight support for 1.5-3 months. At the end of training, foot motion recovered the shape and the step-by-step reproducibility that characterize normal gait. They were then asked to step backward on the treadmill belt that moved in the opposite direction relative to standard forward training. In contrast to healthy subjects, who can immediately reverse the direction of walking by time-reversing the kinematic waveforms, patients were unable to step backward. Similarly patients were unable to perform another untrained locomotor task, namely stepping in place on the idle treadmill. Two patients who were trained to step backward for 2-3 weeks were able to develop control of foot motion appropriate for this task. The results show that locomotor improvement does not transfer to untrained tasks, thus supporting the idea of task-dependent plasticity in human locomotor networks.

  3. Comparison of step-by-step kinematics of resisted, assisted and unloaded 20-m sprint runs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Gamble, Paul

    2018-03-26

    This investigation examined step-by-step kinematics of sprint running acceleration. Using a randomised counterbalanced approach, 37 female team handball players (age 17.8 ± 1.6 years, body mass 69.6 ± 9.1 kg, height 1.74 ± 0.06 m) performed resisted, assisted and unloaded 20-m sprints within a single session. 20-m sprint times and step velocity, as well as step length, step frequency, contact and flight times of each step were evaluated for each condition with a laser gun and an infrared mat. Almost all measured parameters were altered for each step under the resisted and assisted sprint conditions (η 2  ≥ 0.28). The exception was step frequency, which did not differ between assisted and normal sprints. Contact time, flight time and step frequency at almost each step were different between 'fast' vs. 'slow' sub-groups (η 2  ≥ 0.22). Nevertheless overall both groups responded similarly to the respective sprint conditions. No significant differences in step length were observed between groups for the respective condition. It is possible that continued exposure to assisted sprinting might allow the female team-sports players studied to adapt their coordination to the 'over-speed' condition and increase step frequency. It is notable that step-by-step kinematics in these sprints were easy to obtain using relatively inexpensive equipment with possibilities of direct feedback.

  4. Symplectic integrators with adaptive time steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. S.; Finn, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, there have been many attempts to construct symplectic integrators with variable time steps, with rather disappointing results. In this paper, we identify the causes for this lack of performance, and find that they fall into two categories. In the first, the time step is considered a function of time alone, Δ = Δ(t). In this case, backward error analysis shows that while the algorithms remain symplectic, parametric instabilities may arise because of resonance between oscillations of Δ(t) and the orbital motion. In the second category the time step is a function of phase space variables Δ = Δ(q, p). In this case, the system of equations to be solved is analyzed by introducing a new time variable τ with dt = Δ(q, p) dτ. The transformed equations are no longer in Hamiltonian form, and thus do not benefit from integration methods which would be symplectic for Hamiltonian systems. We analyze two methods for integrating the transformed equations which do, however, preserve the structure of the original equations. The first is an extended phase space method, which has been successfully used in previous studies of adaptive time step symplectic integrators. The second, novel, method is based on a non-canonical mixed-variable generating function. Numerical trials for both of these methods show good results, without parametric instabilities or spurious growth or damping. It is then shown how to adapt the time step to an error estimate found by backward error analysis, in order to optimize the time-stepping scheme. Numerical results are obtained using this formulation and compared with other time-stepping schemes for the extended phase space symplectic method.

  5. Effect of One-Step and Multi-Steps Polishing System on Enamel Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Sumali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The final procedures of orthodontic treatment are bracket debonding and cleaning the remaining adhesive. Multi-step polishing system is the most common method used. The disadvantage of that system is long working time, because of the stages that should be done. Therefore, dental material manufacturer make an improvement to the system, to reduce several stages into one stage only. This new system is known as one-step polishing system. Objective: To compare the effect of one-step and multi-step polishing system on enamel roughness after orthodontic bracket debonding. Methods: Randomized control trial was conducted included twenty-eight maxillary premolar randomized into two polishing system; one-step OptraPol (Ivoclar, Vivadent and multi-step AstroPol (Ivoclar, Vivadent. After bracket debonding, the remaining adhesive on each group was cleaned by subjective polishing system for ninety seconds using low speed handpiece. The enamel roughness was subjected to profilometer, registering two roughness parameters (Ra, Rz. Independent t-test was used to analyze the mean score of enamel roughness in each group. Results: There was no significant difference of enamel roughness between one-step and multi-step polishing system (p>0.005. Conclusion: One-step polishing system can produce a similar enamel roughness to multi-step polishing system after bracket debonding and adhesive cleaning.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v19i3.136

  6. Influence of step complexity and presentation style on step performance of computerized emergency operating procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Song [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Zhizhong [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: zzli@tsinghua.edu.cn; Song Fei; Luo Wei; Zhao Qianyi; Salvendy, Gavriel [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-02-15

    With the development of information technology, computerized emergency operating procedures (EOPs) are taking the place of paper-based ones. However, ergonomics issues of computerized EOPs have not been studied adequately since the industrial practice is quite limited yet. This study examined the influence of step complexity and presentation style of EOPs on step performance. A simulated computerized EOP system was developed in two presentation styles: Style A: one- and two-dimensional flowcharts combination; Style B: two-dimensional flowchart and success logic tree combination. Step complexity was quantified by a complexity measure model based on an entropy concept. Forty subjects participated in the experiment of EOP execution using the simulated system. The results of data analysis on the experiment data indicate that step complexity and presentation style could significantly influence step performance (both step error rate and operation time). Regression models were also developed. The regression analysis results imply that operation time of a step could be well predicted by step complexity while step error rate could only partly predicted by it. The result of a questionnaire investigation implies that step error rate was influenced not only by the operation task itself but also by other human factors. These findings may be useful for the design and assessment of computerized EOPs.

  7. Rapid decay of vacancy islands at step edges on Ag(111): step orientation dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Mingmin; Thiel, P A; Jenks, Cynthia J; Evans, J W

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has established that vacancy islands or pits fill much more quickly when they are in contact with a step edge, such that the common boundary is a double step. The present work focuses on the effect of the orientation of that step, with two possibilities existing for a face centered cubic (111) surface: A- and B-type steps. We find that the following features can depend on the orientation: (1) the shapes of islands while they shrink; (2) whether the island remains attached to the step edge; and (3) the rate of filling. The first two effects can be explained by the different rates of adatom diffusion along the A- and B-steps that define the pit, enhanced by the different filling rates. The third observation-the difference in the filling rate itself-is explained within the context of the concerted exchange mechanism at the double step. This process is facile at all regular sites along B-steps, but only at kink sites along A-steps, which explains the different rates. We also observe that oxygen can greatly accelerate the decay process, although it has no apparent effect on an isolated vacancy island (i.e. an island that is not in contact with a step).

  8. Seven steps to curb global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, John

    2007-01-01

    Based on best current estimates that the world needs to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by 70% by 2050, and that there is at best a 10-year window of opportunity available to initiate the enormous changes needed, this paper proposes a set of seven self-contained steps that can be taken at a global level to tackle the problem with some prospect of success. The steps are self-financing and practicable, in that they are based on existing technologies. They involve agreement to create a new international agency charged with formulating and policing a global carbon pricing regime; a complementary step involving global monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions utilizing satellite resources; taking steps to compensate developing countries for preserving rainforest as carbon sinks; the dismantling of newly created trade barriers holding back global trade in biofuels; global promotion of a transition to renewable sources of electricity through facilitation of grid interconnections with independent power producers; a global moratorium on the building of new coal-fired power stations; and recycling of carbon revenues to promote uptake of renewable energy sources in developing countries, particularly Brazil, India and China. Taken as a group, it is argued that these steps are both necessary and sufficient. They call for institutional innovations at a global level that are politically difficult but feasible, given the magnitude of the problems addressed

  9. Strength evaluation code STEP for brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Futakawa, Masatoshi.

    1997-12-01

    In a structural design using brittle materials such as graphite and/or ceramics it is necessary to evaluate the strength of component under complex stress condition. The strength of ceramic materials is said to be influenced by the stress distribution. However, in the structural design criteria simplified stress limits had been adopted without taking account of the strength change with the stress distribution. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the strength of component on the basis of the fracture model for brittle material. Consequently, the strength evaluation program, STEP, on a brittle fracture of ceramic materials based on the competing risk theory had been developed. Two different brittle fracture modes, a surface layer fracture mode dominated by surface flaws and an internal fracture mode by internal flaws, are treated in the STEP code in order to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture. The STEP code uses stress calculation results including complex shape of structures analyzed by the generalized FEM stress analysis code, ABAQUS, so as to be possible to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture for the structures having complicate shapes. This code is, therefore, useful to evaluate the structural integrity of arbitrary shapes of components such as core graphite components in the HTTR, heat exchanger components made of ceramics materials etc. This paper describes the basic equations applying to the STEP code, code system with a combination of the STEP and the ABAQUS codes and the result of the verification analysis. (author)

  10. Investigation and improvement of high step- up converters for pv module applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed moradmand jazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available sun is of the clean and cheapest sources of energy. Charging slight energy to electricity is carried out by PV modules. Since most electric consumers need Ac input voltage, the PV modules output voltage should be changed into Ac form. But, the voltage level of PV modules is much lower than the voltage needed in input stage of inverters. Because of large voltage level. Difference it is not possible to use the basic boost and buck-boost converters. The basic boost and buck-boost converters definitely can not be used in this applications, for, they will face extreme drop in efficiency in duty cycles closer to unity. In this paper The proposed converter is presented in order to decrease the voltage stress of coupled inductors based high step-up converters. The voltage stress in the proposed converter is lower than the high step-up boost converter with coupled inductors in identical condition. Also, soft switching condition for switches and diodes is realized by active clamp circuit, and with this technique and proper selection of duty cycle, large gain and high efficiency could be achieved ultimately. . In this paper theoretical analysis is used for analyzing the performance of the proposed converters, and in order to verify the theoretical analysis, simulated results from pspice software is provides.

  11. A step-defined sedentary lifestyle index: <5000 steps/day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Craig, Cora L; Thyfault, John P; Spence, John C

    2013-02-01

    Step counting (using pedometers or accelerometers) is widely accepted by researchers, practitioners, and the general public. Given the mounting evidence of the link between low steps/day and time spent in sedentary behaviours, how few steps/day some populations actually perform, and the growing interest in the potentially deleterious effects of excessive sedentary behaviours on health, an emerging question is "How many steps/day are too few?" This review examines the utility, appropriateness, and limitations of using a reoccurring candidate for a step-defined sedentary lifestyle index: 10 000) to lower (sedentary lifestyle index for adults is appropriate for researchers and practitioners and for communicating with the general public. There is little evidence to advocate any specific value indicative of a step-defined sedentary lifestyle index in children and adolescents.

  12. Comparing the efficacy of metronome beeps and stepping stones to adjust gait: steps to follow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Paulina J M; Roerdink, Melvyn; Peper, C E

    2011-03-01

    Acoustic metronomes and visual targets have been used in rehabilitation practice to improve pathological gait. In addition, they may be instrumental in evaluating and training instantaneous gait adjustments. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two cue types in inducing gait adjustments, viz. acoustic temporal cues in the form of metronome beeps and visual spatial cues in the form of projected stepping stones. Twenty healthy elderly (aged 63.2 ± 3.6 years) were recruited to walk on an instrumented treadmill at preferred speed and cadence, paced by either metronome beeps or projected stepping stones. Gait adaptations were induced using two manipulations: by perturbing the sequence of cues and by imposing switches from one cueing type to the other. Responses to these manipulations were quantified in terms of step-length and step-time adjustments, the percentage correction achieved over subsequent steps, and the number of steps required to restore the relation between gait and the beeps or stepping stones. The results showed that perturbations in a sequence of stepping stones were overcome faster than those in a sequence of metronome beeps. In switching trials, switching from metronome beeps to stepping stones was achieved faster than vice versa, indicating that gait was influenced more strongly by the stepping stones than the metronome beeps. Together these results revealed that, in healthy elderly, the stepping stones induced gait adjustments more effectively than did the metronome beeps. Potential implications for the use of metronome beeps and stepping stones in gait rehabilitation practice are discussed.

  13. Control Software for Piezo Stepping Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Joel F.

    2013-01-01

    A control system has been developed for the Space Interferometer Mission (SIM) piezo stepping actuator. Piezo stepping actuators are novel because they offer extreme dynamic range (centimeter stroke with nanometer resolution) with power, thermal, mass, and volume advantages over existing motorized actuation technology. These advantages come with the added benefit of greatly reduced complexity in the support electronics. The piezo stepping actuator consists of three fully redundant sets of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs), two sets of brake PZTs, and one set of extension PZTs. These PZTs are used to grasp and move a runner attached to the optic to be moved. By proper cycling of the two brake and extension PZTs, both forward and backward moves of the runner can be achieved. Each brake can be configured for either a power-on or power-off state. For SIM, the brakes and gate of the mechanism are configured in such a manner that, at the end of the step, the actuator is in a parked or power-off state. The control software uses asynchronous sampling of an optical encoder to monitor the position of the runner. These samples are timed to coincide with the end of the previous move, which may consist of a variable number of steps. This sampling technique linearizes the device by avoiding input saturation of the actuator and makes latencies of the plant vanish. The software also estimates, in real time, the scale factor of the device and a disturbance caused by cycling of the brakes. These estimates are used to actively cancel the brake disturbance. The control system also includes feedback and feedforward elements that regulate the position of the runner to a given reference position. Convergence time for smalland medium-sized reference positions (less than 200 microns) to within 10 nanometers can be achieved in under 10 seconds. Convergence times for large moves (greater than 1 millimeter) are limited by the step rate.

  14. Do lightning positive leaders really "step"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, D.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known for some time that positive leaders exhibit impulsive charge motion and optical emissions as they extend. However, laboratory and field observations have not produced any evidence of a process analogous to the space leader mechanism of negative leader extension. Instead, observations have suggested that the positive leader tip undergoes a continuous to intermittent series of corona streamer bursts, each burst resulting in a small forward extension of the positive leader channel. Traditionally, it has been held that lightning positive leaders extend in a continuous or quasi-continuous fashion. Lately, however, many have become concerned that this position is incongruous with observations of impulsive activity during lightning positive leader extension. It is increasingly suggested that this impulsive activity is evidence that positive leaders also undergo "stepping". There are two issues that must be addressed. The first issue concerns whether or not the physical processes underlying impulsive extension in negative and positive leaders are distinct. We argue that these processes are in fact physically distinct, and offer new high-speed video evidence to support this position. The second issue regards the proper use of the term "step" as an identifier for the impulsive forward extension of a leader. Traditional use of this term has been applied only to negative leaders, due primarily to their stronger impulsive charge motions and photographic evidence of clearly discontinuous forward progression of the luminous channel. Recently, due to the increasing understanding of the distinct "space leader" process of negative leader extension, the term "step" has increasingly come to be associated with the space leader process itself. Should this emerging association, "step" = space leader attachment, be canonized? If not, then it seems reasonable to use the term "step" to describe impulsive positive leader extension. If, however, we do wish to associate the

  15. One-step fabrication of multifunctional micromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenlong; Liu, Mei; Liu, Limei; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin; Li, Christopher Y.

    2015-08-01

    Although artificial micromotors have undergone tremendous progress in recent years, their fabrication normally requires complex steps or expensive equipment. In this paper, we report a facile one-step method based on an emulsion solvent evaporation process to fabricate multifunctional micromotors. By simultaneously incorporating various components into an oil-in-water droplet, upon emulsification and solidification, a sphere-shaped, asymmetric, and multifunctional micromotor is formed. Some of the attractive functions of this model micromotor include autonomous movement in high ionic strength solution, remote control, enzymatic disassembly and sustained release. This one-step, versatile fabrication method can be easily scaled up and therefore may have great potential in mass production of multifunctional micromotors for a wide range of practical applications.Although artificial micromotors have undergone tremendous progress in recent years, their fabrication normally requires complex steps or expensive equipment. In this paper, we report a facile one-step method based on an emulsion solvent evaporation process to fabricate multifunctional micromotors. By simultaneously incorporating various components into an oil-in-water droplet, upon emulsification and solidification, a sphere-shaped, asymmetric, and multifunctional micromotor is formed. Some of the attractive functions of this model micromotor include autonomous movement in high ionic strength solution, remote control, enzymatic disassembly and sustained release. This one-step, versatile fabrication method can be easily scaled up and therefore may have great potential in mass production of multifunctional micromotors for a wide range of practical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Videos S1-S4 and Fig. S1-S3. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03574k

  16. Enhanced sensitivity to the time variation of the fine-structure constant and mp/me in diatomic molecules: A closer examination of silicon monobromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloy, K.; Borschevsky, A.; Schwerdtfeger, P.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2010-01-01

    Recently it was pointed out that transition frequencies in certain diatomic molecules have an enhanced sensitivity to variations in the fine-structure constant α and the proton-to-electron mass ratio m p /m e due to a near cancellation between the fine structure and vibrational interval in a ground electronic multiplet [V. V. Flambaum and M. G. Kozlov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150801 (2007)]. One such molecule possessing this favorable quality is silicon monobromide. Here we take a closer examination of SiBr as a candidate for detecting variations in α and m p /m e . We analyze the rovibronic spectrum by employing the most accurate experimental data available in the literature and perform ab initio calculations to determine the precise dependence of the spectrum on variations in α. Furthermore, we calculate the natural linewidths of the rovibronic levels, which place a fundamental limit on the accuracy to which variations may be determined.

  17. STEP - Product Model Data Sharing and Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroszynski, Uri

    1998-01-01

    During the last fifteen years, a very large effort to standardize the product models employed in product design, manufacturing and other life-cycle phases has been undertaken. This effort has the acronym STEP, and resulted in the International Standard ISO-10303 "Industrial Automation Systems...... - Product Data Representation and Exchange", featuring at present some 30 released parts, and growing continuously. Many of the parts are Application Protocols (AP). This article presents an overview of STEP, based upon years of involvement in three ESPRIT projects, which contributed to the development...

  18. One-step lowrank wave extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Sindi, Ghada Atif

    2014-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation is at the heart of modeling, imaging, and Full waveform inversion. Spectral methods gained well deserved attention due to their dispersion free solutions and their natural handling of anisotropic media. We propose a scheme a modified one-step lowrank wave extrapolation using Shanks transform in isotropic, and anisotropic media. Specifically, we utilize a velocity gradient term to add to the accuracy of the phase approximation function in the spectral implementation. With the higher accuracy, we can utilize larger time steps and make the extrapolation more efficient. Applications to models with strong inhomogeneity and considerable anisotropy demonstrates the utility of the approach.

  19. Comparison study on mechanical properties single step and three step artificial aging on duralium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamroh, Dewi Izzatus; Puspitasari, Poppy; Andoko, Sasongko, M. Ilman N.; Yazirin, Cepi

    2017-09-01

    Duralium is kind of non-ferro alloy that used widely in industrial. That caused its properties such as mild, high ductility, and resistance from corrosion. This study aimed to know mechanical properties of duralium on single step and three step articial aging process. Mechanical properties that discussed in this study focused on toughness value, tensile strength, and microstructure of duralium. Toughness value of single step artificial aging was 0.082 joule/mm2, and toughness value of three step artificial aging was 0,0721 joule/mm2. Duralium tensile strength of single step artificial aging was 32.36 kgf/mm^2, and duralium tensile strength of three step artificial aging was 32,70 kgf/mm^2. Based on microstructure photo of duralium of single step artificial aging showed that precipitate (θ) was not spreading evenly indicated by black spot which increasing the toughness of material. While microstructure photo of duralium that treated by three step artificial aging showed that it had more precipitate (θ) spread evenly compared with duralium that treated by single step artificial aging.

  20. Crowdsourcing step-by-step information extraction to enhance existing how-to videos

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Phu Tran; Weir, Sarah; Guo, Philip J.; Miller, Robert C.; Gajos, Krzysztof Z.; Kim, Ju Ho

    2014-01-01

    Millions of learners today use how-to videos to master new skills in a variety of domains. But browsing such videos is often tedious and inefficient because video player interfaces are not optimized for the unique step-by-step structure of such videos. This research aims to improve the learning experience of existing how-to videos with step-by-step annotations. We first performed a formative study to verify that annotations are actually useful to learners. We created ToolScape, an interac...

  1. Using Aspen plus in thermodynamics instruction a step-by-step guide

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, Stanley I

    2015-01-01

    A step-by-step guide for students (and faculty) on the use of Aspen in teaching thermodynamics Used for a wide variety of important engineering tasks, Aspen Plus software is a modeling tool used for conceptual design, optimization, and performance monitoring of chemical processes. After more than twenty years, it remains one of the most popular and powerful chemical engineering simulation programs used both industrially and academically. Using Aspen Plus in Thermodynamics Instruction: A Step by Step Guide introduces the reader to the use of Aspen Plus in courses in thermodynamics. It prov

  2. Step growth of two flexible ABf monomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Colin; Fawcett, Allan H.; Hetherington, Cecil R.

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional lattice model was used to simulate the competition between the growth of hyperbranched structures and cycle formation that occurs when flexible ABf monomers undergo step growth. The monomers in the model are mapped onto several lattice sites. The effect of functionality...

  3. The partner selection process : Steps, effectiveness, governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisters, D.; Duijsters, G.M.; de Man, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  4. The partner selection process : steps, effectiveness, governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisters, D.; Duysters, G.M.; Man, de A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  5. Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS): Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, R.; Loughney, J.; van den Bosch, S.; Hancock, R.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Loughney, J.; van den Bosch, S.

    The Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS) working group is considering protocols for signaling information about a data flow along its path in the network. The NSIS suite of protocols is envisioned to support various signaling applications that need to install and/or manipulate such state in the network.

  6. Steps You Can Take to Prevent Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast discusses the main steps people can take to reduce their risk of getting cancer.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  7. Randomness in multi-step direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Akkermans, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors propose a quantum-statistical framework that provides an integrated perspective on the differences and similarities between the many current models for multi-step direct reactions in the continuum. It is argued that to obtain a statistical theory two physically different approaches are conceivable to postulate randomness, respectively called leading-particle statistics and residual-system statistics. They present a new leading-particle statistics theory for multi-step direct reactions. It is shown that the model of Feshbach et al. can be derived as a simplification of this theory and thus can be founded solely upon leading-particle statistics. The models developed by Tamura et al. and Nishioka et al. are based upon residual-system statistics and hence fall into a physically different class of multi-step direct theories, although the resulting cross-section formulae for the important first step are shown to be the same. The widely used semi-classical models such as the generalized exciton model can be interpreted as further phenomenological simplification of the leading-particle statistics theory

  8. Tandem mirror next step conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doggett, J.N.; Damm, C.C.; Bulmer, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made to define the features of the experimental mirror fusion device - The Tandem Mirror Next Step, or TMNS - that will bridge the gap between present mirror confinement experiments and a power-producing reactor. We outline the project goals, describe some initial device parameters, and relate the technological requirements to ongoing development programs

  9. Comparison of step-by-step kinematics in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland

    2018-01-04

    The aim of this study was to compare kinematics in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players. Seventeen subjects performed seven 30m sprints every 30s in one session. Kinematics were measured with an infrared contact mat and laser gun, and running times with an electronic timing device. The main findings were that sprint times increased in the repeated sprint ability test. The main changes in kinematics during the repeated sprint ability test were increased contact time and decreased step frequency, while no change in step length was observed. The step velocity increased in almost each step until the 14, which occurred around 22m. After this, the velocity was stable until the last step, when it decreased. This increase in step velocity was mainly caused by the increased step length and decreased contact times. It was concluded that the fatigue induced in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players resulted in decreased step frequency and increased contact time. Employing this approach in combination with a laser gun and infrared mat for 30m makes it very easy to analyse running kinematics in repeated sprints in training. This extra information gives the athlete, coach and sports scientist the opportunity to give more detailed feedback and help to target these changes in kinematics better to enhance repeated sprint performance.

  10. A step in the right direction: new flow depth relationships for stepped spillway design

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common deficiency for embankment dams changing from a low hazard to a high hazard dam is inadequate spillway capacity. Roller compacted concrete (RCC) stepped spillways are a popular method to address this issue. Stepped spillway research has gained momentum in recent years due to the need for d...

  11. Fostering Autonomy through Syllabus Design: A Step-by-Step Guide for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Espinosa, Alexánder

    2016-01-01

    Promoting learner autonomy is relevant in the field of applied linguistics due to the multiple benefits it brings to the process of learning a new language. However, despite the vast array of research on how to foster autonomy in the language classroom, it is difficult to find step-by-step processes to design syllabi and curricula focused on the…

  12. Integrated Marketing for Colleges, Universities, and Schools: A Step-by-Step Planning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevier, Robert A.

    This book offers a step-by-step approach to marketing for educational institutions, especially colleges and universities. The book is organized into three broad sections. Section 1 makes the case for marketing in six chapters which address: (1) challenges which are or will affect colleges and universities; (2) the role of institutional mission,…

  13. Steps, Choices and Moral Accounting: Observations from a Step-Counting Campaign in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm, Nanna; Shklovski, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary work is a contributing factor to growing obesity levels worldwide. Research shows that step-counters can offer a way to motivate greater physical mobility. We present an in-situ study of a nation-wide workplace step-counting campaign. Our findings show that in the context of the workplace...

  14. Listen to Me Listen to You: A Step-By-Step Guide to Communication Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzman, Mandy; Kotzman, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This step-by-step guide is a companion to the popular "Listen to Me, Listen to You: A Practical Guide to Self-Awareness, Communication Skills and Conflict Management" (New Expanded Edition, Penguin Books, 2007). It is designed for use by anyone working in communication skills and personal development training. Resource material is grouped under…

  15. Action research: A practical step-by-step guide for Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings, the extensionists will be able to identify the action required to improve upon the existing situation. This calls for knowledge and skills in action oriented research. This paper provides simple, easy to follow, step-by-step guidelines which should be suitable for many situations in extension research ...

  16. Accuracy of Single-Step versus 2-Step Double-Mix Impression Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Herrera, Francyle Simões

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the accuracy of dies obtained from single-step and 2-step double-mix impressions. Material and Methods. Impressions (n = 10) of a stainless steel die simulating a complete crown preparation were performed using a polyether (Impregum Soft Heavy and Light body) and a vinyl...

  17. When a Step Is Not a Step! Specificity Analysis of Five Physical Activity Monitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra O'Connell

    Full Text Available Physical activity is an essential aspect of a healthy lifestyle for both physical and mental health states. As step count is one of the most utilized measures for quantifying physical activity it is important that activity-monitoring devices be both sensitive and specific in recording actual steps taken and disregard non-stepping body movements. The objective of this study was to assess the specificity of five activity monitors during a variety of prescribed non-stepping activities.Participants wore five activity monitors simultaneously for a variety of prescribed activities including deskwork, taking an elevator, taking a bus journey, automobile driving, washing and drying dishes; functional reaching task; indoor cycling; outdoor cycling; and indoor rowing. Each task was carried out for either a specific duration of time or over a specific distance. Activity monitors tested were the ActivPAL micro™, NL-2000™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2™, Fitbit One™ and Jawbone UP™. Participants were video-recorded while carrying out the prescribed activities and the false positive step count registered on each activity monitor was obtained and compared to the video.All activity monitors registered a significant number of false positive steps per minute during one or more of the prescribed activities. The Withings™ activity performed best, registering a significant number of false positive steps per minute during the outdoor cycling activity only (P = 0.025. The Jawbone™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the functional reaching task and while washing and drying dishes, which involved arm and hand movement (P < 0.01 for both. The ActivPAL™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the cycling exercises (P < 0.001 for both.As a number of false positive steps were registered on the activity monitors during the non-stepping activities, the authors conclude that non-stepping

  18. When a Step Is Not a Step! Specificity Analysis of Five Physical Activity Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Quinlan, Leo R

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is an essential aspect of a healthy lifestyle for both physical and mental health states. As step count is one of the most utilized measures for quantifying physical activity it is important that activity-monitoring devices be both sensitive and specific in recording actual steps taken and disregard non-stepping body movements. The objective of this study was to assess the specificity of five activity monitors during a variety of prescribed non-stepping activities. Participants wore five activity monitors simultaneously for a variety of prescribed activities including deskwork, taking an elevator, taking a bus journey, automobile driving, washing and drying dishes; functional reaching task; indoor cycling; outdoor cycling; and indoor rowing. Each task was carried out for either a specific duration of time or over a specific distance. Activity monitors tested were the ActivPAL micro™, NL-2000™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2)™, Fitbit One™ and Jawbone UP™. Participants were video-recorded while carrying out the prescribed activities and the false positive step count registered on each activity monitor was obtained and compared to the video. All activity monitors registered a significant number of false positive steps per minute during one or more of the prescribed activities. The Withings™ activity performed best, registering a significant number of false positive steps per minute during the outdoor cycling activity only (P = 0.025). The Jawbone™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the functional reaching task and while washing and drying dishes, which involved arm and hand movement (P positive steps during the cycling exercises (P positive steps were registered on the activity monitors during the non-stepping activities, the authors conclude that non-stepping physical activities can result in the false detection of steps. This can negatively affect the quantification of physical

  19. At closer grips with ITP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyns, A.du P.; Pieters, H.; Wessels, P.; Loetter, M.G.; Badenhorst, P.N.; Kotze, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    An excessive destruction of platelets characterises Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) - a relatively common blood disease, particularly in the young. With the use of In-111 as platelet label there was focused on the mean platelet life span, the efficacy of increased platelet production by the bone marrow in the face of increased platelet destruction, the role of the spleen in ITP, and the different patterns of platelet sequestration in this disease

  20. CERN/USSR: Closer collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The decision of CERN Council to grant Observer status to the Soviet Union is a new milestone in a long history of collaboration between European and Soviet particle physicists which bodes well for the continued success of their research programmes

  1. Bringing fusion electric power closer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kintner, E.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the controlled fusion research program is given. The tokamak research program is described. Beam injection heating, control systems, and the safety of fusion reactors are topics that are also discussed

  2. Red - take a closer look.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L Buechner

    Full Text Available Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure or approach of reward (e.g., mating depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers' attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation.

  3. Looking closer at the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Johanna; Jiang, Wenran

    2011-01-01

    An NGO report on Chinese investment in the Democratic Republic of Congo opens a vital debate, but its methodology leaves the reader wanting a fuller version of the facts, write Johanna Jansson and Jiang Wenran.......An NGO report on Chinese investment in the Democratic Republic of Congo opens a vital debate, but its methodology leaves the reader wanting a fuller version of the facts, write Johanna Jansson and Jiang Wenran....

  4. A TAD closer to ATM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, Francois; Legube, Gaëlle

    2016-05-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) has been known for decades as the main kinase mediating the DNA double-strand break response. Our recent findings suggest that its major role at the sites of breaks likely resides in its ability to modify both the local chromatin landscape and the global chromosome organization in order to promote repair accuracy.

  5. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry

  6. Stepped piezoresistive microcantilever designs for biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Mohd Zahid; Cho, Chongdu; Urban, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of a piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor strongly depends on its ability to convert the surface stress-induced deflections into large resistance change. To improve the sensitivity, we present stepped microcantilever biosensor designs that show significant resistance change compared with commonly used rectangular designs. The cantilever is made of silicon dioxide with a u-shaped silicon piezoresistor. The surface stress-induced deflections, bimorph deflection, fundamental resonant frequency and self-heating properties of the cantilever are studied using the FEM software. The surface stress-induced deflections are compared against the analytical model derived in this work. Results show that stepped designs have better signal-to-noise ratio than the rectangular ones and cantilevers with l/L between 0.5 and 0.75 are better designs for improving sensitivity. (paper)

  7. Step-Up DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Siwakoti, Yam P.; Gorji, Saman A.

    2017-01-01

    on the general law and framework of the development of next-generation step-up dc-dc converters, this paper aims to comprehensively review and classify various step-up dc-dc converters based on their characteristics and voltage-boosting techniques. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these voltage......DC-DC converters with voltage boost capability are widely used in a large number of power conversion applications, from fraction-of-volt to tens of thousands of volts at power levels from milliwatts to megawatts. The literature has reported on various voltage-boosting techniques, in which......-boosting techniques and associated converters are discussed in detail. Finally, broad applications of dc-dc converters are presented and summarized with comparative study of different voltage-boosting techniques....

  8. Extra cogeneration step seen boosting output 20%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, P.

    1984-10-08

    Cogenerators can now buy a prototype 6.5 MW, pre-packaged cogeneration system that incorporates an added step to its cycle to reduce fuel use by 21%. Larger, custom-designed systems will be on the market in 1985. Fayette Manufacturing Co. will offer the Kalina Cycle system at a discount price of $8.2 million (1200/kW) until the systems are competitive with conventional units. The system varies from conventional cogeneration systems by adding a distillation step, which permits the use of two fluids for the turbine steam and operates at a higher thermodynamic efficiency, with boiling occuring at high temperature and low pressure. Although theoretically correct, DOE will withhold judgment on the system's efficiency until the first installation is operating.

  9. The stair-step approach in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sedrakyan, Hayk

    2018-01-01

    This book is intended as a teacher’s manual and as an independent-study handbook for students and mathematical competitors. Based on a traditional teaching philosophy and a non-traditional writing approach (the stair-step method), this book consists of new problems with solutions created by the authors. The main idea of this approach is to start from relatively easy problems and “step-by-step” increase the level of difficulty toward effectively maximizing students' learning potential. In addition to providing solutions, a separate table of answers is also given at the end of the book. A broad view of mathematics is covered, well beyond the typical elementary level, by providing more in depth treatment of Geometry and Trigonometry, Number Theory, Algebra, Calculus, and Combinatorics.

  10. Congenital Symmastia: A 3-Step Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sadaka, Mohamed Saad; Allam, Atef A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Congenital symmastia is a medial confluence of the breasts. It is a rare anomaly with few reports in the literature and no standard treatment. In this article, we present a case of congenital symmastia treated by 3 steps: liposuction, fixation of the skin to the chest wall in the area of the intermammary sulcus, and postoperative intermammary compression. A successful result was achieved with normal cleavage between the breasts. So, this is considered the ideal treatment for this con...

  11. Congenital Symmastia: A 3-Step Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Atef A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Congenital symmastia is a medial confluence of the breasts. It is a rare anomaly with few reports in the literature and no standard treatment. In this article, we present a case of congenital symmastia treated by 3 steps: liposuction, fixation of the skin to the chest wall in the area of the intermammary sulcus, and postoperative intermammary compression. A successful result was achieved with normal cleavage between the breasts. So, this is considered the ideal treatment for this condition. PMID:28293510

  12. STeP : Sicurezza Tutela e Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Carlesi, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    Organizzazione del corso di formazione sulla sicurezza dei dati e l'applicazione del 'Codice in materia di protezione dei dati personali - D.lgs. 196/2003', 'STeP: Sicurezza Tutela e Privacy'. Il corso, suddiviso in due giornate (di 4 ore) ? stato rivolto principalmente ai respondabili del trattamento dei dati personali, agli addetti al trattamento ed ai responsabili della sicurezza dei sistemi informatici. Il corso si prefigge di fornire un quadro completo della normativa ( D.Lgs. 196/2003) ...

  13. Tandem mirror next step: remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doggett, J.N.; Damm, C.C.; Hanson, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    This study of the next proposed experiment in the Mirror Fusion Program, the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS), has included serious consideration of the maintenance requirements of such a large source of high energy neutrons with its attendant throughput of tritium. Although maintenance will be costly in time and money, our conclusion is that with careful attention to a design for maintenance plan such a device can be reliably operated

  14. NEW STEPS IN SKETCHING MACHINE PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tocariu Liliana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new and main steps in sketching machine part, by using the Solid Edge program. The traditional method applied in the technical drawing is appreciably altered in the case of the computer-assisted and modern design. These modifications involve others: e.g., use of classic drawing rule in tool sketching. The author deals with them from three points of view, namely: technical drawing, technical education and advantages.

  15. Voltage-Step Transient on Circular Electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wein, Ondřej; Tovčigrečko, Valentin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 9 (2011), s. 1065-1075 ISSN 0021-891X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/08/0428; GA ČR GA104/09/0972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ohmic loss * voltage-step transient * cottrell asymptote Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.745, year: 2011

  16. Step Density Profiles in Localized Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roeck, Wojciech; Dhar, Abhishek; Huveneers, François; Schütz, Marius

    2017-06-01

    We consider two types of strongly disordered one-dimensional Hamiltonian systems coupled to baths (energy or particle reservoirs) at the boundaries: strongly disordered quantum spin chains and disordered classical harmonic oscillators. These systems are believed to exhibit localization, implying in particular that the conductivity decays exponentially in the chain length L. We ask however for the profile of the (very slowly) transported quantity in the steady state. We find that this profile is a step-function, jumping in the middle of the chain from the value set by the left bath to the value set by the right bath. This is confirmed by numerics on a disordered quantum spin chain of 9 spins and on much longer chains of harmonic oscillators. From theoretical arguments, we find that the width of the step grows not faster than √{L}, and we confirm this numerically for harmonic oscillators. In this case, we also observe a drastic breakdown of local equilibrium at the step, resulting in a heavily oscillating temperature profile.

  17. Microsoft® Visual Basic® 2010 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Halvorson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Your hands-on, step-by-step guide to learning Visual Basic® 2010. Teach yourself the essential tools and techniques for Visual Basic® 2010-one step at a time. No matter what your skill level, you'll find the practical guidance and examples you need to start building professional applications for Windows® and the Web. Discover how to: Work in the Microsoft® Visual Studio® 2010 Integrated Development Environment (IDE)Master essential techniques-from managing data and variables to using inheritance and dialog boxesCreate professional-looking UIs; add visual effects and print supportBuild com

  18. Social scaling of extrapersonal space: target objects are judged as closer when the reference frame is a human agent with available movement potentialities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, C; Brass, M; Committeri, G

    2015-01-01

    Space perception depends on our motion potentialities and our intended actions are affected by space perception. Research on peripersonal space (the space in reaching distance) shows that we perceive an object as being closer when we (Witt, Proffitt, & Epstein, 2005; Witt & Proffitt, 2008) or another actor (Costantini, Ambrosini, Sinigaglia, & Gallese, 2011; Bloesch, Davoli, Roth, Brockmole, & Abrams, 2012) can interact with it. Similarly, an object only triggers specific movements when it is placed in our peripersonal space (Costantini, Ambrosini, Tieri, Sinigaglia, & Committeri, 2010) or in the other's peripersonal space (Costantini, Committeri, & Sinigaglia, 2011; Cardellicchio, Sinigaglia, & Costantini, 2013). Moreover, also the extrapersonal space (the space outside reaching distance) seems to be perceived in relation to our movement capabilities: the more effort it takes to cover a distance, the greater we perceive the distance to be (Proffitt, Stefanucci, Banton, & Epstein, 2003; Sugovic & Witt, 2013). However, not much is known about the influence of the other's movement potentialities on our extrapersonal space perception. Three experiments were carried out investigating the categorization of distance in extrapersonal space using human or non-human allocentric reference frames (RF). Subjects were asked to judge the distance ("Near" or "Far") of a target object (a beach umbrella) placed at progressively increasing or decreasing distances until a change from near to far or vice versa was reported. In the first experiment we found a significant "Near space extension" when the allocentric RF was a human virtual agent instead of a static, inanimate object. In the second experiment we tested whether the "Near space extension" depended on the anatomical structure of the RF or its movement potentialities by adding a wooden dummy. The "Near space extension" was only observed for the human agent but not for the dummy. Finally, to rule out the possibility that the

  19. The construction of geological model using an iterative approach (Step 1 and Step 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kumazaki, Naoki; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Sasaki, Keiichi; Endo, Yoshinobu; Amano, Kenji

    2005-03-01

    One of the main goals of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project is to establish appropriate methodologies for reliably investigating and assessing the deep subsurface. This report documents the results of geological modeling of Step 1 and Step 2 using the iterative investigation approach at the site-scale (several 100m to several km in area). For the Step 1 model, existing information (e.g. literature), and results from geological mapping and reflection seismic survey were used. For the Step 2 model, additional information obtained from the geological investigation using existing borehole and the shallow borehole investigation were incorporated. As a result of this study, geological elements that should be represented in the model were defined, and several major faults with trends of NNW, EW and NE trend were identified (or inferred) in the vicinity of the MIU-site. (author)

  20. Follow These Step-by-Step Instructions to Prevent Avoidable Tumbles at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Robert; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Almost a quarter of disabling work injuries among school employees are caused by slips and falls. Outlines prevention steps and safety programs that can help lower the possibilities of accidents from falls in schools. (MD)

  1. Stepwise hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analysis on site scale (Step 0 and Step 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuya; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori

    2005-05-01

    One of the main goals of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment. To achieve this goal, a variety of investigations, analysis, and evaluations have been conducted using an iterative approach. In this study, hydrogeological modeling and ground water flow analyses have been carried out using the data from surface-based investigations at Step 0 and Step 1, in order to synthesize the investigation results, to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model, and to specify items for further investigation. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) As the investigation progresses Step 0 to Step 1, the understanding of groundwater flow was enhanced from Step 0 to Step 1, and the hydrogeological model could be revised, 2) The importance of faults as major groundwater flow pathways was demonstrated, 3) Geological and hydrogeological characteristics of faults with orientation of NNW and NE were shown to be especially significant. The main item specified for further investigations is summarized as follows: geological and hydrogeological characteristics of NNW and NE trending faults are important. (author)

  2. Stepping stability: effects of sensory perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krebs David E

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few tools exist for quantifying locomotor stability in balance impaired populations. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a technique for quantifying stability of stepping in healthy people and people with peripheral (vestibular hypofunction, VH and central (cerebellar pathology, CB balance dysfunction by means a sensory (auditory perturbation test. Methods Balance impaired and healthy subjects performed a repeated bench stepping task. The perturbation was applied by suddenly changing the cadence of the metronome (100 beat/min to 80 beat/min at a predetermined time (but unpredictable by the subject during the trial. Perturbation response was quantified by computing the Euclidian distance, expressed as a fractional error, between the anterior-posterior center of gravity attractor trajectory before and after the perturbation was applied. The error immediately after the perturbation (Emax, error after recovery (Emin and the recovery response (Edif were documented for each participant, and groups were compared with ANOVA. Results Both balance impaired groups exhibited significantly higher Emax (p = .019 and Emin (p = .028 fractional errors compared to the healthy (HE subjects, but there were no significant differences between CB and VH groups. Although response recovery was slower for CB and VH groups compared to the HE group, the difference was not significant (p = .051. Conclusion The findings suggest that individuals with balance impairment have reduced ability to stabilize locomotor patterns following perturbation, revealing the fragility of their impairment adaptations and compensations. These data suggest that auditory perturbations applied during a challenging stepping task may be useful for measuring rehabilitation outcomes.

  3. An approach to next step device optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salpietro, E.

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for ITER EDA were to achieve ignition with a good safety margin, and controlled long inductive burn. These requirements lead to a big device, which requested a too ambitious step to be undertaken by the world fusion community. More realistic objectives for a next step device shall be to demonstrate the net production of energy with a high energy gain factor (Q) and a high boot strap current fraction (>60%) which is required for a Fusion Power Plant (FPP). The Next Step Device (NSD) shall also allow operation flexibility in order to explore a large range of plasma parameters to find out the optimum concept for the fusion power plant prototype. These requirements could be too demanding for one single device and could probably be better explored in a strongly integrated world programme. The cost of one or more devices is the decisive factor for the choice of the fusion power development programme strategy. The plasma elongation and triangularity have a strong impact in the cost of the device and are limited by the plasma vertical position control issue. The distance between plasma separatrix and the toroidal field conductor does not vary a lot between devices. It is determined by the sum of the distance between first wall-plasma sepratrix and the thickness of the nuclear shield required to protect the toroidal field coil insultation. The thickness of the TF coil is determined by the allowable stresses and superconducting characteristics. The outer radius of the central solenoid is the result of an optimisation to provide the magnetic flux to inductively drive the plasma. Therefore, in order to achieve the objectives for Q and boot-strap current fractions at the minimum cost, the plasma aspect ratio and magnetic field value shall be determined. The paper will present the critical issues for the next device and will make considerations on the optimal way to proceed towards the realisation of the fusion power plant

  4. Ten steps to successful poster presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardicre, Jayne; Devitt, Patric; Coad, Jane

    Receiving a letter confirming acceptance for you to present a poster at a conference can evoke mixed emotions. Joy, panic, fear and dread are among the many possible emotions and this is not exclusive to first time presenters. Developing an effective poster presentation is a skill that you can learn and can provide a rewarding way to present your work in a manner less intimidating than oral presentation (Shelledy, 2004). The key to successful poster presentation is meticulous, timely, well informed preparation. This article outlines ten steps to help guide you through the process to maximize your success.

  5. Working together in future: next steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, S.

    2001-01-01

    Some questions about public trust have to find answers: the language of safety, how much is enough, how much is too much for stake holder interaction, how do you deal with the issue of responding, i.e. demonstrating action on issues when the licensing decision is not what public groups want, how do you measure the success of consultations, what are the indicators for trust, benchmarking and measuring public perceptions, need for consistency of approach (can determine public confidence by differences between countries) are so many questions that could help for next steps. (N.C.)

  6. HETC-3STEP included fragmentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Iga, Kiminori; Ishibashi, Kenji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    High Energy Transport Code (HETC) based on the cascade-evaporation model is modified to calculate the fragmentation cross section. For the cascade process, nucleon-nucleon cross sections are used for collision computation; effective in-medium-corrected cross sections are adopted instead of the original free-nucleon collision. The exciton model is adopted for improvement of backward nucleon-emission cross section for low-energy nucleon-incident events. The fragmentation reaction is incorporated into the original HETC as a subroutine set by the use of the systematics of the reaction. The modified HETC (HETC-3STEP/FRG) reproduces experimental fragment yields to a reasonable degree. (author)

  7. Angular momentum in multi-step photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Adachi, Hajime; Kuwako, Akira; Nittoh, Koichi; Araki, Yoshio; Watanabe, Takashi; Yoguchi, Itaru.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of the angular momenta on the multi-step laser-ionization efficiency was investigated numerically for cases with and without the hyperfine interactions. For either cases the ionization efficiency proved to depend appreciably on the values of J in the excitation ladder. In this respect, we elaborated a simple and efficient method of determining J, which was based on the laser polarization dependence of the excitation rate. Application of this method to a couple of real excitation ladders proved its usefulness and reliability. (author)

  8. Electronic dental records: start taking the steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergoff, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Converting paper patient records charts into their electronic counterparts (EDRs) not only has many advantages, but also could become a legal requirement in the future. Several steps key to a successful transition includes assessing the needs of the dental team and what they require as a part of the implementation Existing software and hardware must be evaluated for continued use and expansion. Proper protocols for information transfer must be established to ensure complete records while maintaining HIPAA regulations regarding patient privacy. Reduce anxiety by setting realistic dead-lines and using trusted back-up methods.

  9. The quality step; La demarche qualite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellenoue, K. [Awiplan (France); Noyon, N. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Bourmeau, E. [OVAL, France (FR)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The 25 and 26 may 2000, took place at Lille two discussion days on the quality step concerning the collecting, processing and valorization of the domestic wastes, facing the environmental and energy policy. The organic wastes concerned were the domestic wastes and also the wastes from the gardens. This document presents all the papers discussed during these two days and makes the state of the art in the domain. A special interest is given to the quality insurance management, its objectives and its operating. Many european examples and the QUALORG program are provided and analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  10. Stability study in one step steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, P.

    1990-01-01

    The TWO program is presented developed for the behaviour limit calculation stable in one step steam generators for the case of Density Waves phenomenom. The program is based on a nodal model which, using Laplace transformation equations, allows to study the system's transfer functions and foresee the beginning of the unstable behaviour. This program has been satisfactorily validated against channels data uniformly heated in the range from 4.0 to 6.0 Mpa. Results on the CAREM reactor's steam generator analysis are presented. (Author) [es

  11. RFID in libraries a step toward interoperability

    CERN Document Server

    Ayre, Lori Bowen

    2012-01-01

    The approval by The National Information Standards Organization (NISO) of a new standard for RFID in libraries is a big step toward interoperability among libraries and vendors. By following this set of practices and procedures, libraries can ensure that an RFID tag in one library can be used seamlessly by another, assuming both comply, even if they have different suppliers for tags, hardware, and software. In this issue of Library Technology Reports, Lori Bowen Ayre, an experienced implementer of automated materials handling systems, Provides background on the evolution of the standard

  12. Direct fuel cell power plants: the final steps to commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Donald R.

    Since the last paper presented at the Second Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, the Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has established two commercial subsidiaries, become a publically-held firm, expanded its facilities and has moved the direct fuel cell (DFC) technology and systems significantly closer to commercial readiness. The subsidiaries, the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) and Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) are perfecting their respective roles in the company's strategy to commercialize its DFC technology. FCE is the prime contractor for the Santa Clara Demonstration and is establishing the needed marketing, sales, engineering, and servicing functions. FCMC in addition to producing the stacks and stack modules for the Santa Clara demonstration plant is now upgrading its production capability and product yields, and retooling for the final stack scale-up for the commercial unit. ERC has built and operated the tallest and largest capacities-to-date carbonate fuel cell stacks as well as numerous short stacks. While most of these units were tested at ERC's Danbury, Connecticut (USA) R&D Center, others have been evaluated at other domestic and overseas facilities using a variety of fuels. ERC has supplied stacks to Elkraft and MTU for tests with natural gas, and RWE in Germany where coal-derived gas were used. Additional stack test activities have been performed by MELCO and Sanyo in Japan. Information from some of these activities is protected by ERC's license arrangements with these firms. However, permission for limited data releases will be requested to provide the Grove Conference with up-to-date results. Arguably the most dramatic demonstration of carbonate fuel cells in the utility-scale, 2 MW power plant demonstration unit, located in the City of Santa Clara, California. Construction of the unit's balance-of-plant (BOP) has been completed and the installed equipment has been operationally checked. Two of the four DFC stack sub-modules, each

  13. Effectiveness of a step-by-step oral recount before a practical simulation of fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abagge, Marcelo; Uliana, Christiano Saliba; Fischer, Sergei Taggesell; Kojima, Kodi Edson

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a step-by-step oral recount by residents before the final execution of a practical exercise simulating a surgical fixation of a radial diaphyseal fracture. The study included 10 residents of orthopaedics and traumatology (four second- year and six first-year residents) divided into two groups with five residents each. All participants initially gathered in a room in which a video was presented demonstrating the practical exercise to be performed. One group (Group A) was referred directly to the practical exercise room. The other group (Group B) attended an extra session before the practical exercise, in which they were invited by instructors to recount all the steps that they would perform during the practical exercise. During this session, the instructors corrected the residents if any errors in the step-by-step recount were identified, and clarified questions from them. After this session, both Groups A and B gathered in a room in which they proceeded to the practical exercise, while being video recorded and evaluated using a 20-point checklist. Group A achieved a 57% accuracy, with results in this group ranging from 7 to 15 points out of a total of a possible 20 points. Group B achieved an 89% accuracy, with results in this group ranging from 15 to 20 points out of 20. An oral step-by-step recount by the residents before the final execution of a practical simulation exercise of surgical fixation of a diaphyseal radial fracture improved the technique and reduced the execution time of the exercise. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ONE-STEP AND TWO-STEP CALIBRATION OF A PORTABLE PANORAMIC IMAGE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-C. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A Portable Panoramic Image Mapping System (PPIMS is proposed for rapid acquisition of three-dimensional spatial information. By considering the convenience of use, cost, weight of equipment, precision, and power supply, the designed PPIMS is equipped with 6 circularly arranged cameras to capture panoramic images and a GPS receiver for positioning. The motivation for this design is to develop a hand-held Mobile Mapping System (MMS for some difficult accessing areas by vehicle MMS, such as rugged terrains, forest areas, heavily damaged disaster areas, and crowed places etc. This PPIMS is in fact a GPS assisted close-range photogrammetric system. Compared with the traditional close-range photogrammetry, PPIMS can reduce the need of ground control points significantly. Under the condition of knowing the relative geometric relationships of the equipped sensors, the elements of exterior orientation of each captured image can be solved. However, the procedure of a system calibration should be done accurately to determine the relative geometric relationships of multi-cameras and the GPS antenna center, before the PPIMS can be applied for geo-referenced mapping. In this paper, both of one-step and two-step calibration procedures for PPIMS are performed to determine the lever-arm offsets and boresight angles among cameras and GPS. The performance of the one-step and two-step calibration is evaluated through the analysis of the experimental results. The comparison between these two calibration procedures was also conducted. The two-step calibration method outperforms the one-step calibration method in terms of calibration accuracy and operation convenience. We expect that the proposed two-step calibration procedure can also be applied to other platform-based MMSs.

  15. 40 CFR 35.917 - Facilities planning (step 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Facilities planning (step 1). 35.917... Facilities planning (step 1). (a) Sections 35.917 through 35.917-9 establish the requirements for facilities... the facilities planning provisions of this subpart before award of step 2 or step 3 grant assistance...

  16. 48 CFR 14.503-1 - Step one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Step one. 14.503-1 Section... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Two-Step Sealed Bidding 14.503-1 Step one. (a) Requests for... use the two step method. (3) The requirements of the technical proposal. (4) The evaluation criteria...

  17. 48 CFR 14.503-2 - Step two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Step two. 14.503-2 Section... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Two-Step Sealed Bidding 14.503-2 Step two. (a) Sealed bidding... submitting acceptable technical proposals in step one; (2) Include the provision prescribed in 14.201-6(t...

  18. Electric-current-induced step bunching on Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Yoshikazu; Aizawa, Noriyuki

    2000-01-01

    We experimentally investigated step bunching induced by direct current on vicinal Si(111)'1x1' surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The scaling relation between the average step spacing l b and the number of steps N in a bunch, l b ∼N -α , was determined for four step-bunching temperature regimes above the 7x7-'1x1' transition temperature. The step-bunching rate and scaling exponent differ between neighboring step-bunching regimes. The exponent α is 0.7 for the two regimes where the step-down current induces step bunching (860-960 and 1210-1300 deg. C), and 0.6 for the two regimes where the step-up current induces step bunching (1060-1190 and >1320 deg. C). The number of single steps on terraces also differs in each of the four temperature regimes. For temperatures higher than 1280 deg. C, the prefactor of the scaling relation increases, indicating an increase in step-step repulsion. The scaling exponents obtained agree reasonably well with those predicted by theoretical models. However, they give unrealistic values for the effective charges of adatoms for step-up-current-induced step bunching when the 'transparent' step model is used

  19. The Polytopic-k-Step Fibonacci Sequences in Finite Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömür Deveci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences, the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences modulo m, and the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences in finite groups. Also, we examine the periods of the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences in semidihedral group SD2m.

  20. REVIEW: A STEP AWAY FROM PARADISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Konchok Gelek (Dkon mchog dge legs དཀོན་མཆོག་དགེ་ལེགས། (Gengqiu Gelai 更求格来

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas K. Shor. 2012. A Step Away from Paradise: A Tibetan Lama's Extraordinary Journey to a Land of Immortality. [Kindle version]. ASIN B006TR0Y7W (7.03USD; ISBN 0999291890 (paperback 19.95USD. The author was fascinated by the account of Tulshuk Lingpa's disciple, Dorje Wangmo, a Bhutanese nun and a disciple who abandoned her worldly possessions to pursue the land of dreams and imagined paradise. The author dug deeper by interviewing Kungsang, Tulshuk Lingpa's son, and other key disciples who were participants in the search of the same hidden realm on the slope of a glacier. Elements of this tale resemble magical realism with its narration detailing participants' experiences of magic, a parallel world, and a portal to the hidden land. The story centers on a continuing search for locating this paradise with each step holding the possibility of drawing nearer to the destination. This holds readers' curiosity to the end. In 1962, Tulshuk Lingpa led 300 followers from Sikkim and Bhutan to an adjacent area along the Nepal-Sikkim border. He then took a few close disciples to Kangchenjunga, a remote area located on the border between Sikkim and Nepal, and attempted to pass through a gate that he believed led to a heavenly place, paralleling our own existence. At that moment, an avalanche enveloped them, killing Tulshuk and injuring the two others with him. ...

  1. Next Step Spherical Torus Design Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Kessel, C.; Ono, M.; Peng, M.; Schmidt, J.; Woolley, R.; Zatz, I.

    2002-01-01

    Studies are underway to identify and characterize a design point for a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) experiment. This would be a ''Proof of Performance'' device which would follow and build upon the successes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) a ''Proof of Principle'' device which has operated at PPPL since 1999. With the Decontamination and Decommissioning (DandD) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) nearly completed, the TFTR test cell and facility will soon be available for a device such as NSST. By utilizing the TFTR test cell, NSST can be constructed for a relatively low cost on a short time scale. In addition, while furthering spherical torus (ST) research, this device could achieve modest fusion power gain for short-pulse lengths, a significant step toward future large burning plasma devices now under discussion in the fusion community. The selected design point is Q=2 at HH=1.4, P subscript ''fusion''=60 MW, 5 second pulse, with R subscript ''0''=1.5 m, A=1.6, I subscript ''p''=10vMA, B subscript ''t''=2.6 T, CS flux=16 weber. Most of the research would be conducted in D-D, with a limited D-T campaign during the last years of the program

  2. Tracking Steps on Apple Watch at Different Walking Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Moran, Matthew Duffy; Renninger, Mitchell D; Rhudy, Matthew B; Dreisbach, Scott B; Gift, Kristin M

    2018-04-09

    QUESTION: How accurate are the step counts obtained from Apple Watch? In this validation study, video steps vs. Apple Watch steps (mean ± SD) were 2965 ± 144 vs. 2964 ± 145 steps; P Apple Watch steps when compared with the manual counts obtained from video recordings. Our study is one of the initial studies to objectively validate the accuracy of the step counts obtained from Apple watch at different walking speeds. Apple Watch tested to be an extremely accurate device for measuring daily step counts for adults.

  3. Time step length versus efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, Jan; Valtavirta, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Time step length largely affects efficiency of MC burnup calculations. • Efficiency of MC burnup calculations improves with decreasing time step length. • Results were obtained from SIE-based Monte Carlo burnup calculations. - Abstract: We demonstrate that efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations can be largely affected by the selected time step length. This study employs the stochastic implicit Euler based coupling scheme for Monte Carlo burnup calculations that performs a number of inner iteration steps within each time step. In a series of calculations, we vary the time step length and the number of inner iteration steps; the results suggest that Monte Carlo burnup calculations get more efficient as the time step length is reduced. More time steps must be simulated as they get shorter; however, this is more than compensated by the decrease in computing cost per time step needed for achieving a certain accuracy

  4. A step-by-step guide to systematically identify all relevant animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Marlies; Hooijmans, Carlijn R; van Veggel, Nieky; ter Riet, Gerben; Leeflang, Mariska; Hooft, Lotty; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Tillema, Alice; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2012-01-01

    Before starting a new animal experiment, thorough analysis of previously performed experiments is essential from a scientific as well as from an ethical point of view. The method that is most suitable to carry out such a thorough analysis of the literature is a systematic review (SR). An essential first step in an SR is to search and find all potentially relevant studies. It is important to include all available evidence in an SR to minimize bias and reduce hampered interpretation of experimental outcomes. Despite the recent development of search filters to find animal studies in PubMed and EMBASE, searching for all available animal studies remains a challenge. Available guidelines from the clinical field cannot be copied directly to the situation within animal research, and although there are plenty of books and courses on searching the literature, there is no compact guide available to search and find relevant animal studies. Therefore, in order to facilitate a structured, thorough and transparent search for animal studies (in both preclinical and fundamental science), an easy-to-use, step-by-step guide was prepared and optimized using feedback from scientists in the field of animal experimentation. The step-by-step guide will assist scientists in performing a comprehensive literature search and, consequently, improve the scientific quality of the resulting review and prevent unnecessary animal use in the future. PMID:22037056

  5. Mother Vocal Recognition in Antarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus gazella Pups: A Two-Step Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Aubin

    Full Text Available In otariids, mother's recognition by pups is essential to their survival since females nurse exclusively their own young and can be very aggressive towards non-kin. Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, come ashore to breed and form dense colonies. During the 4-month lactation period, females alternate foraging trips at sea with suckling period ashore. On each return to the colony, females and pups first use vocalizations to find each other among several hundred conspecifics and olfaction is used as a final check. Such vocal identification has to be highly efficient. In this present study, we investigated the components of the individual vocal signature used by pups to identify their mothers by performing playback experiments on pups with synthetic signals. We thus tested the efficiency of this individual vocal signature by performing propagation tests and by testing pups at different playback distances. Pups use both amplitude and frequency modulations to identify their mother's voice, as well as the energy spectrum. Propagation tests showed that frequency modulations propagated reliably up to 64m, whereas amplitude modulations and spectral content greatly were highly degraded for distances over 8m. Playback on pups at different distances suggested that the individual identification is a two-step process: at long range, pups identified first the frequency modulation pattern of their mother's calls, and other components of the vocal signature at closer range. The individual vocal recognition system developed by Antarctic fur seals is well adapted to face the main constraint of finding kin in a crowd.

  6. Neural Progenitors in the Developing Neocortex of the Northern Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri Show a Closer Relationship to Gyrencephalic Primates Than to Lissencephalic Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Römer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The neocortex is the most complex part of the mammalian brain and as such it has undergone tremendous expansion during evolution, especially in primates. The majority of neocortical neurons originate from distinct neural stem and progenitor cells (NPCs located in the ventricular and subventricular zone (SVZ. Previous studies revealed that the SVZ thickness as well as the abundance and distribution of NPCs, especially that of basal radial glia (bRG, differ markedly between the lissencephalic rodent and gyrencephalic primate neocortex. The northern tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri is a rat-sized mammal with a high brain to body mass ratio, which stands phylogenetically mid-way between rodents and primates. Our study provides – for the first time – detailed data on the presence, abundance and distribution of bRG and other distinct NPCs in the developing neocortex of the northern tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri. We show that the developing tree shrew neocortex is characterized by an expanded SVZ, a high abundance of Pax6+ NPCs in the SVZ, and a relatively high percentage of bRG at peak of upper-layer neurogenesis. We further demonstrate that key features of tree shrew neocortex development, e.g., the presence, abundance and distribution of distinct NPCs, are closer related to those of gyrencephalic primates than to those of ferret and lissencephalic rodents. Together, our study provides novel insight into the evolution of bRG and other distinct NPCs in the neocortex development of Euarchontoglires and introduces the tree shrew as a potential novel model organism in the area of human brain development and developmental disorders.

  7. Digital project management the complete step-by-step guide to a successful launch

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Taylor

    2016-01-01

    The digital world is growing and changing at a rate that can seem overwhelming to those project managers who have to keep up with it to build customer-facing solutions and applications. It's rare for project managers working in this field to be provided with much direction or a process by which to carry out a project, and there has been next to nothing available specific to these types of projects in the literary marketplace. Digital Project Management: The Complete Step-by-Step Guide to a Successful Launch was developed to fill this gap by providing the knowledge, best practices and proven steps to consistently managing these types of project successfully from end-to-end now, and in the future with just minor adjustments to adapt to changes in technology.

  8. Step-by-step manual for planning and performing bifurcation PCI: a resource-tailored approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milasinovic, Dejan; Wijns, William; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Hellig, Farrel; Mohamed, Awad; Stankovic, Goran

    2018-02-02

    As bifurcation PCI can often be resource-demanding due to the use of multiple guidewires, balloons and stents, different technical options are sometimes being explored, in different local settings, to meet the need of optimally treating a patient with a bifurcation lesion, while being confronted with limited material resources. Therefore, it seems important to keep a proper balance between what is recognised as the contemporary state of the art, and what is known to be potentially harmful and to be discouraged. Ultimately, the resource-tailored approach to bifurcation PCI may be characterised by the notion of minimum technical requirements for each step of a successful procedure. Hence, this paper describes the logical sequence of steps when performing bifurcation PCI with provisional SB stenting, starting with basic anatomy assessment and ending with the optimisation of MB stenting and the evaluation of the potential need to stent the SB, suggesting, for each step, the minimum technical requirement for a successful intervention.

  9. Poly (glycerol sebacate) elastomer supports bone regeneration by its mechanical properties being closer to osteoid tissue rather than to mature bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaky, S H; Lee, K W; Gao, J; Jensen, A; Verdelis, K; Wang, Y; Almarza, A J; Sfeir, C

    2017-05-01

    Mechanical load influences bone structure and mass. Arguing the importance of load-transduction, we investigated the mechanisms inducing bone formation using an elastomeric substrate. We characterized Poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) in vitro for its mechanical properties, compatibility with osteoprogenitor cells regarding adhesion, proliferation, differentiation under compression versus static cultures and in vivo for the regeneration of a rabbit ulna critical size defect. The load-transducing properties of PGS were compared in vitro to a stiffer poly lactic-co-glycolic-acid (PLA/PGA) scaffold of similar porosity and interconnectivity. Under cyclic compression for 7days, we report focal adhesion kinase overexpression on the less stiff PGS and upregulation of the transcription factor Runx2 and late osteogenic markers osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein (1.7, 4.0 and 10.0 folds increase respectively). Upon implanting PGS in the rabbit ulna defect, histology and micro-computed tomography analysis showed complete gap bridging with new bone by the PGS elastomer by 8weeks while minimal bone formation was seen in empty controls. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the new bone to be primarily regenerated by recruited osteoprogenitors cells expressing periostin protein during early phase of maturation similar to physiological endochondral bone development. This study confirms PGS to be osteoconductive contributing to bone regeneration by recruiting host progenitor/stem cell populations and as a load-transducing substrate, transmits mechanical signals to the populated cells promoting differentiation and matrix maturation toward proper bone remodeling. We hence conclude that the material properties of PGS being closer to osteoid tissue rather than to mineralized bone, allows bone maturation on a substrate mechanically closer to where osteoprogenitor/stem cells differentiate to develop mature load-bearing bone. The development of effective therapies for bone and

  10. Lyondell develops one step isobutylene process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Lyondell Petrochemical Co., Houston, has developed a one step process to convert normal butylenes to isobutylene, a key component of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE is expected to become the additive of choice among U.S. refiners to blend oxygenated gasolines required by 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act. Lyondell Pres. and Chief Executive Officer Bob Gower the the new process could help assure adequate supplies of MTBE to meet U.S. demand for cleaner burning fuels. Lyondell estimates the capital cost of building a grassroots plant to produce isobutylene with the new process would be less than half the cost of a grassroot plant to produce isobutylene with existing technology starting with normal butane

  11. Experimental results from a stepped frequency GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Signore

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of a nationally funded project, a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR has been developed by the Italian Consortium for Research on Advanced Remote Sensing Systems (CO.RI.S.T.A.. The system was described in a previous paper (Alberti et al., 2002. As new aspects, the system is a stepped frequency GPR that can work both in gated and ungated mode, and the antennas can be moved automatically in a controlled fashion. As aspects of geophysical interest, the system is exploitable in situations wherein a high resolution and a shallow penetration in the soil (a few meters are required. Possibly, this is an example of probing a landscape. This paper completes the results of Alberti et al. (2002, wherein laboratory tests where described, by providing the main results obtained during an outdoor experimental campaign, performed fi rst in a controlled site and then in an archaeological site.

  12. Electron work function of stepped tungsten surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahl-Urban, B.

    1976-03-01

    The electron work function of tungsten (110) vicinal faces was measured with the aid of thermionic emission, and its dependence on the crystallographic orientation and the surface structure was investigated. The thermionic measurements were evaluated with the aid of the Richardson plot. The real temperature of the emitting tungsten faces was determined with an accuracy of +- 0.5% in the range between 2,200 and 2,800 K. The vicinal faces under investigation have been prepared with an orientation exactness of +- 15'. In the tungsten (110) vicinal faces under investigation, a strong dependence of the temperature coefficient d PHI/dT of the work function on the crystallographic orientation was found. A strong influence of the edge structure as well as of the step density on the temperature coefficient was observed. (orig./HPOE) [de

  13. Classical and special relativity in four steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, K. M.

    2018-03-01

    The most fundamental and pedagogically useful path to the space-time transformations of both classical and special relativity is to postulate the principle of relativity, derive the generalised or Ignatowsky transformation which contains both, then apply two different second postulates that give either the Galilean or Lorentz transformation. What is new here is (a) a simple two-step derivation of the Ignatowsky transformation, (b) a second postulate of universal time which yields the Galilean transformation, and (c) a different second postulate of finite universal lightspeed to give the Lorentz transformation using a simple Ignatowsky transformation of a light wave. This method demonstrates that the fundamental difference between Galilean and Lorentz transformations is not that lightspeed is universal (which is true for both) but whether the model requires lightspeed to be infinite or finite (as once mentioned by Einstein).

  14. Railgun-type two step accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Maeda, Hikosuke; Onozuka, Masanori; Oda, Yasutsugu; Azuma, Kingo.

    1995-01-01

    In the two step-type railgun accelerator used in an experimental nuclear fusion device of the present invention, energy of laser beams to be irradiated in an acceleration gas behind a flying object can be reduced, and the voltage applied between the rails can be lowered. Charged particles are generated and supplied to the acceleration gas behind the flying object by a charged particle generating and supplying device so as to promote generation of plasmas caused by irradiation of laser beams. As a result, dielectric break down is caused between the rails by a Paschen's law by application of voltage lower than dielectric breakdown voltage, thereby enabling to generate plasmas easily. Accordingly, the energy of laser beams can be suppressed and the voltage applied between the rails can be lowered. (I.S.)

  15. Railgun-type two step accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Maeda, Hikosuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Onozuka, Masanori; Oda, Yasutsugu; Azuma, Kingo

    1995-10-13

    In the two step-type railgun accelerator used in an experimental nuclear fusion device of the present invention, energy of laser beams to be irradiated in an acceleration gas behind a flying object can be reduced, and the voltage applied between the rails can be lowered. Charged particles are generated and supplied to the acceleration gas behind the flying object by a charged particle generating and supplying device so as to promote generation of plasmas caused by irradiation of laser beams. As a result, dielectric break down is caused between the rails by a Paschen`s law by application of voltage lower than dielectric breakdown voltage, thereby enabling to generate plasmas easily. Accordingly, the energy of laser beams can be suppressed and the voltage applied between the rails can be lowered. (I.S.).

  16. Bullying: a stepping stone to dating aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Wendy L; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is the use of power and aggression to control and distress another. In this paper, we review research to explore whether the lessons learned in bullying provide a stepping stone to aggressive behavior in dating relationships. We start by considering definitions and a relationship framework with which to understand both bullying and dating aggression. We consider bullying from a developmental-contextual perspective and consider risk factors associated with the typical developmental patterns for bullying and dating aggression, including developmental and sociodemographic, individual attributes, and family, peer group, community, and societal relationship contexts that might lead some children and youths to follow developmental pathways that lead to bullying and dating aggression. We conclude by discussing implications for intervention with a review of evidence-based interventions.

  17. Generating regionalized neuronal cells from pluripotency, a step-by-step protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnete eKirkeby

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cells possess the potential to generate cells for regenerative therapies in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, and constitute an excellent cell source for studying human neural development and disease modeling. Protocols for neural differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells have undergone significant progress during recent years, allowing for rapid and synchronized neural conversion. Differentiation procedures can further be combined with accurate and efficient positional patterning to yield regionalized neural progenitors and subtype-specific neurons corresponding to different parts of the developing human brain. Here, we present a step-by-step protocol for neuralization and regionalization of human pluripotent cells for transplantation studies or in vitro analysis.

  18. Microsoft® Office Visio® 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Lemke, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to create professional-looking business and technical diagrams with Visio 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build organization charts, floor plans, and other diagramsAdd color, text, and other effectsConnect shapes and create effective flowchartsVisualize and analyze data with new PivotDiagramsInsert and modify diagrams in other Microsoft Office documentsCreate your own shapes and templates and build custom diagrams Your all-in-one learning experience in

  19. Microsoft® Office Excel® 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Frye, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to organize, analyze, and present data with Excel 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Create formulas, calculate values, and analyze dataPresent information visually with graphics, charts, and diagramsBuild PivotTable dynamic views-even easier with new data tablesReuse information from databases and other documentsShare spreadsheets for review and manage changesCreate macros to automate repetitive tasks and simplify your work Your all-in-one learning expe

  20. Compensatory stepping responses in individuals with stroke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, Bimal; Mansfield, Avril; Inness, Elizabeth L; McIlroy, William E

    2011-05-01

    Impaired postural control and a high incidence of falls are commonly observed following stroke. Compensatory stepping responses are critical to reactive balance control. We hypothesize that, following a stroke, individuals with unilateral limb dyscontrol will be faced with the unique challenge of controlling such rapid stepping reactions that may eventually be linked to the high rate of falling. The objectives of this exploratory pilot study were to investigate compensatory stepping in individuals poststroke with regard to: (1) choice of initial stepping limb (paretic or non-paretic); (2) step characteristics; and (3) differences in step characteristics when the initial step is taken with the paretic vs. the non-paretic limb. Four subjects following stroke (38-165 days post) and 11 healthy young adults were recruited. Anterior and posterior perturbations were delivered by using a weight drop system. Force plates recorded centre-of-pressure excursion prior to the onset of stepping and step timing. Of the four subjects, three only attempted to step with their non-paretic limb and one stepped with either limb. Time to foot-off was generally slow, whereas step onset time and swing time were comparable to healthy controls. Two of the four subjects executed multistep responses in every trial, and attempts to force stepping with the paretic limb were unsuccessful in three of the four subjects. Despite high clinical balance scores, these individuals with stroke demonstrated impaired compensatory stepping responses, suggesting that current clinical evaluations might not accurately reflect reactive balance control in this population.

  1. One False Step: "Detroit," "Step" and Movies of Rising and Falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    "Detroit" and "Step" are two recent movies in the context of urban riots in protest of police brutality. They refer to time periods separated by half a century, but there are common themes in the two that seem appropriate to both times. The movies are not primarily concerned with the riot events, but the riot is a major…

  2. From quality control to quality systems in x-ray radiology. Step by step approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendrutis Morkunas; Julius Ziliukas

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Quality systems in x-ray radiology as in any area of medical exposure is an important tool of optimization of radiation protection. Creation of these systems is related with a number of problems: limited resources, lack of knowledge and experience, negative attitude of hospitals staff and administration, lack of advice from outside. Problems related with transitionary period might be softened by the step by step approach. The following steps might be indicated: providing information on quality systems to hospital staff and administration, simple quality control procedures done by outside experts in hospitals, preparation of quality related procedures by hospital staff, practical implementation of quality control procedures done by hospital staff, preparation of quality manual by hospital staff, its integration into common quality system of hospital (if it is available) and constant development, measurements of performance indicators (e.g., patients' doses) and introduction of corrective measures if necessary, dissemination of experience by expert organizations and more advanced hospitals. These steps are to be discussed in the presentations based on Lithuanian experience since 1998.

  3. Pendekatan Pelatihan On-Site dan Step by Step untuk Optimalisasi Fungsi Guru dalam Pembelajaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch. Sholeh Y.A. Ichrom

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Remoteness of programme content from teachers' real work situation and unsuitability of approach employed were suspected as main reasons contributing to the failure of many inservise teacher training programmes. A step by step, onsite teacher training (SSOTT model was tried out in this experiment to study if the weakness of inservise programmes could be rectified. As it was tried out in relation with kindergarten mathemathics it was then called SSOTT-MTW (Step by Step Onsite Teacher Training-Methemathics Their Way model. Eighty four kindergartens were involved, in which 84 teachers and 877 pupils were recruited as experimental subjects. The teachers were devided into three group. One group was instructed by using One Period Teacher Training (OPOTT-MTW model, second group was trained with SSOTT-MTW model and the last group was given no training (NTT at all. Result of the experiment showed that the other groups. It was also shown that pupil and parents participation in teaching-learning activities also significantly improved.

  4. Ethnography, Step by Step (2nd Edition), by David M. Fetterman, Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage, 1998..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer C.; Buell, James

    2000-01-01

    Reviews this edition, which like the first is primarily an organized presentation of fieldwork vignettes and instructive examples from research and evaluation contexts. The presentation is organized by the steps involved in ethnographic fieldwork. This edition is updated with references to electronic technology. (SLD)

  5. Stepping movement analysis of control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yantao; Zu Hongbiao

    2013-01-01

    Background: Control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) is one of the important safety-related equipment for nuclear power plants. Purpose: The operating parameters of stepping movement, including lifting loads, step distance and step velocity, are all critical design targets. Methods: FEA and numerical simulation are used to analyze stepping movement separately. Results: The motion equations of the movable magnet in stepping movement are established by load analysis. Gravitation, magnetic force, fluid resistance and spring force are all in consideration in the load analysis. The operating parameters of stepping movement are given. Conclusions: The results, including time history curves of force, speed and etc, can positively used in the design of CRDM. (authors)

  6. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-01-01

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  7. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-09-05

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  8. Continuous versus step-by-step scanning mode of a novel 3D scanner for CyberKnife measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Kafi, M Abdullah; Mwidu, Umar; Moftah, Belal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the continuous versus step-by-step scanning mode of a commercial circular 3D scanner for commissioning measurements of a robotic stereotactic radiosurgery system. The 3D scanner was used for profile measurements in step-by-step and continuous modes with the intent of comparing the two scanning modes for consistency. The profile measurements of in-plane, cross-plane, 15 degree, and 105 degree were performed for both fixed cones and Iris collimators at depth of maximum dose and at 10 cm depth. For CyberKnife field size, penumbra, flatness and symmetry analysis, it was observed that the measurements with continuous mode, which can be up to 6 times faster than step-by-step mode, are comparable and produce scans nearly identical to step-by-step mode. When compared with centered step-by-step mode data, a fully processed continuous mode data gives rise to maximum of 0.50% and 0.60% symmetry and flatness difference respectfully for all the fixed cones and Iris collimators studied. - Highlights: • D scanner for CyberKnife beam data measurements. • Beam data analysis for continuous and step-by-step scan modes. • Faster continuous scanning data are comparable to step-by-step mode scan data.

  9. Step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction forces of intra-individual fastest sprinting in a single session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Ryu; Mizutani, Mirai; Matsuo, Akifumi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2018-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction forces during the acceleration phase for characterising intra-individual fastest sprinting within a single session. Step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction forces produced by 15 male athletes were measured over a 50-m distance during repeated (three to five) 60-m sprints using a long force platform system. Differences in measured variables between the fastest and slowest trials were examined at each step until the 22nd step using a magnitude-based inferences approach. There were possibly-most likely higher running speed and step frequency (2nd to 22nd steps) and shorter support time (all steps) in the fastest trial than in the slowest trial. Moreover, for the fastest trial there were likely-very likely greater mean propulsive force during the initial four steps and possibly-very likely larger mean net anterior-posterior force until the 17th step. The current results demonstrate that better sprinting performance within a single session is probably achieved by 1) a high step frequency (except the initial step) with short support time at all steps, 2) exerting a greater mean propulsive force during initial acceleration, and 3) producing a greater mean net anterior-posterior force during initial and middle acceleration.

  10. Risk Factors for Asthma Exacerbation and Treatment Failure in Adults and Adolescents with Well-Controlled Asthma during Continuation and Step Down Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMango, Emily; Rogers, Linda; Reibman, Joan; Gerald, Lynn B; Brown, Mark; Sugar, Elizabeth A; Henderson, Robert; Holbrook, Janet T

    2018-06-04

    require closer monitoring during asthma step-down treatment. Individuals with reduced pulmonary function, a history of exacerbations, and early onset disease, even if otherwise well controlled, may require closer observation to prevent treatment failures and asthma exacerbations. Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01437995).

  11. Describing the trajectory of language development in the presence of severe-to-profound hearing loss: a closer look at children with cochlear implants versus hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Baca, Rosalinda L; Sedey, Allison L

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to describe the language growth of children with severe or profound hearing loss with cochlear implants versus those children with the same degree of hearing loss using hearing aids. A prospective longitudinal observation and analysis. University of Colorado Department of Speech Language and Hearing Sciences. There were 87 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss from 48 to 87 months of age. All children received early intervention services through the Colorado Home Intervention Program. Most children received intervention services from a certified auditory-verbal therapist or an auditory-oral therapist and weekly sign language instruction from an instructor who was deaf or hard of hearing and native or fluent in American Sign Language. The Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd Edition, and the Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test, 3rd Edition, were the assessment tools for children 4 to 7 years of age. The expressive language subscale of the Minnesota Child Development was used in the infant/toddler period (birth to 36 mo). Average language estimates at 84 months of age were nearly identical to the normative sample for receptive language and 7 months delayed for expressive vocabulary. Children demonstrated a mean rate of growth from 4 years through 7 years on these 2 assessments that was equivalent to their normal-hearing peers. As a group, children with hearing aids deviated more from the age equivalent trajectory on the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd Edition, and the Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test, 3rd Edition, than children with cochlear implants. When a subset of children were divided into performance categories, we found that children with cochlear implants were more likely to be "gap closers" and less likely to be "gap openers," whereas the reverse was true for the children with hearing aids for both measures. Children who are educated through oral-aural combined with

  12. Positive steps turning into a process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božičević Goran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusion of the research conducted in Croatia for QPSW in 2003 is there is no systematic, accountable and structural confrontation with the past in Croatia, but there is growing concern within the civil society about the problems incurred by the lack of such a confrontation. Two different approaches can be discerned: individual work with particular persons or target groups and advocacy that could influence the alteration of the public opinion and decision-making. Both levels are necessary and they should unfold simultaneously. The systematization and regional cooperation of documentation centers, cooperation between victim organizations and peace initiatives, the inclusion of former warriors into peace building processes the cooperation of artists and activists - represent some of the new and promising steps on the civilian scene in Croatia. The constant strengthening of the independent media and the judiciary, coupled with constant efforts on both levels - the personal and the public - raises hopes that the confrontation with the past in Croatia is a process and not a trend.

  13. Universal Design: A Step toward Successful Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Kelly; Weir, Patricia L.; Azar, Dory; Azar, Nadia R.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of aging successfully has become increasingly important as demographics shift towards an aging population. Successful aging has been defined to include (1) a low probability of disease and disease-related disability; (2) a high level of physical and cognitive functioning; and (3) an active engagement in life. The built environment can create opportunities or constraints for seniors to participate in social and productive activities. Universally designed spaces are more easily accessed and used by a spectrum of people without specialized adaptations. Thus, a universally designed environment creates opportunities for older adults to participate in these activities without the stigmatization associated with adapted or accessible designs. Providing older adults with specific universal design options (e.g., lever handle faucets) has the potential to increase the ease of completing activities of daily living, which promotes a continual engagement in life. Literature regarding universal design is promising; however, its theory requires further attention from professionals designing the built environment, evidence of the significance of its application from academics, and the embracement of its core principles from society. Overall, universal design has the potential to provide a stepping stone toward successful aging. PMID:23431446

  14. Neuregulin: First Steps Towards a Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, D. S.; Malone, C. C.; Karr, L. J.

    2003-01-01

    Neuregulins are growth factor domain proteins with diverse bioactivities, such as cell proliferation, receptor binding, and differentiation. Neureguh- 1 binds to two members of the ErbB class I tyrosine kinase receptors, ErbB3 and ErbB4. A number of human cancers overexpress the ErbB receptors, and neuregulin can modulate the growth of certain cancer types. Neuregulin-1 has been shown to promote the migration of invasive gliomas of the central nervous system. Neuregulin has also been implicated in schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis and abortive cardiac abnormalities. The full function of neuregulin-1 is not known. In this study we are inserting a cDNA clone obtained from American Type Culture Collection into E.coli expression vectors to express neuregulin- 1 protein. Metal chelate affinity chromatography is used for recombinant protein purification. Crystallization screening will proceed for X-ray diffraction studies following expression, optimization, and protein purification. In spite of medical and scholarly interest in the neuregulins, there are currently no high-resolution structures available for these proteins. Here we present the first steps toward attaining a high-resolution structure of neuregulin- 1, which will help enable us to better understand its function

  15. Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP), phase B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP) Phase 2 effort includes preliminary design and activities plan preparation that will allow smooth and time transition into a Prototype Phase and then into Phases 3, 4, and 5. A Concurrent Engineering approach using Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, is being applied to define an oxygen-hydrogen engine. The baseline from Phase 1/1' studies was used as a point of departure for trade studies and analyses. Existing STME system models are being enhanced as more detailed module/component characteristics are determined. Preliminary designs for the open expander, closed expander, and gas generator cycles were prepared, and recommendations for cycle selection made at the Design Concept Review (DCR). As a result of July '90 DCR, and information subsequently supplied to the Technical Review Team, a gas generator cycle was selected. Results of the various Advanced Development Programs (ADP's) for the Advanced Launch Systems (ALS) were contributive to this effort. An active vehicle integration effort is supplying the NASA, Air Force, and vehicle contractors with engine parameters and data, and flowing down appropriate vehicle requirements. Engine design and analysis trade studies are being documented in a data base that was developed and is being used to organize information. To date, seventy four trade studies were input to the data base.

  16. Time to pause before the next step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemon, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Many scientists, who have staunchly supported ITER for years, are coming to realize it is time to further rethink fusion energy's development strategy. Specifically, as was suggested by Grant Logan and Dale Meade, and in keeping with the restructuring of 1996, a theme of better, cheaper, faster fusion would serve the program more effectively than ''demonstrating controlled ignition...and integrated testing of the high-heat-flux and nuclear components required to utilize fusion energy...'' which are the important ingredients of ITER's objectives. The author has personally shifted his view for a mixture of technical and political reasons. On the technical side, he senses that through advanced tokamak research, spherical tokamak research, and advanced stellarator work, scientists are coming to a new understanding that might make a burning-plasma device significantly smaller and less expensive. Thus waiting for a few years, even ten years, seems prudent. Scientifically, there is fascinating physics to be learned through studies of burning plasma on a tokamak. And clearly if one wishes to study burning plasma physics in a sustained plasma, there is no other configuration with an adequate database on which to proceed. But what is the urgency of moving towards an ITER-like step focused on burning plasma? Some of the arguments put forward and the counter arguments are discussed here

  17. Real Convergence, Steps from Adherence to Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Busu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The macroeconomic model Solow-Swan shows that the marginal rates of capital, technology and labor force, with positive values, have the capacity to stimulate the economic growth of the emergent economies, as in the case of Romania, for the 2005-2014 period, facilitating the determination of specific correlations between macroeconomic indicators to analyze the convergence towards the average European Union (EU. The economic theory, highlighted in particular by the Solow-Swan model, was applied in the current paper, to determine the potential of real convergence. Moreover, the statistics for the period 2005-2014 facilitated the analysis of the growth and recession factors specific to economies of Central and Eastern Europe and placed Romania amongst the EU countries with emergent economies and potential of economic growth. The European Commission’s reports regarding the macroeconomic imbalance procedure draw attention on the same indicators presented in the article to address proper recommendations and support corrective measures. Making a step from nominal to real convergence, the latter derives naturally from the need to recoup the gaps in comparison with developed economies amongst countries of the Euro Area.

  18. Deposition Diagnostics for Next-step Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Bader, A.; Wampler, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    The scale-up of deposition in next-step devices such as ITER will pose new diagnostic challenges. Codeposition of hydrogen with carbon needs to be characterized and understood in the initial hydrogen phase in order to mitigate tritium retention and qualify carbon plasma facing components for DT operations. Plasma facing diagnostic mirrors will experience deposition that is expected to rapidly degrade their reflectivity, posing a new challenge to diagnostic design. Some eroded particles will collect as dust on interior surfaces and the quantity of dust will be strictly regulated for safety reasons - however diagnostics of in-vessel dust are lacking. We report results from two diagnostics that relate to these issues. Measurements of deposition on NSTX with 4 Hz time resolution have been made using a quartz microbalance in a configuration that mimics that of a typical diagnostic mirror. Often deposition was observed immediately following the discharge suggesting that diagnostic shutters should be closed as soon as possible after the time period of interest. Material loss was observed following a few discharges. A novel diagnostic to detect surface particles on remote surfaces was commissioned on NSTX

  19. One step processing for future diesel specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    The trend in diesel fuel specifications is to limit the sulfur level to less than 0.05 wt- per cent. Many regions have also specified that diesel fuels must have lower aromatic levels, higher cetane numbers, and lower distillation end points. These changes will require significant refinery investment to meet the new diesel fuel specifications. The changes may also significantly affect the value of synthetic crude stocks. UOP has developed a new hydroprocessing catalyst which makes it possible to meet the new diesel specifications in one single processing step and at minimal cost. The catalyst saturates aromatics while opening ring structures at the same time. By selectively cracking heavy components into the diesel range with minimal cracking to gas or naphtha, heavier feedstocks can be upgraded to diesel, and refinery diesel yield can be augmented. Synthetic crude distillate is often high in aromatics and low in cetane number. This new UOP hydroprocessing system will allow synthetic crude producers and refiners to produce diesel fuels with higher cetane numbers, high-quality distillate blendstocks and distillate fuels. 26 figs

  20. Space Drive Physics: Introduction and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, M. G.

    Research toward the visionary goal of propellantless ``space drives'' is introduced, covering key physics issues and a listing of roughly 2-dozen approaches. The targeted advantage of a space drive is to circumvent the propellant constraints of rockets and the maneuvering limits of light sails by using the interactions between the spacecraft and its surrounding space for propulsion. At present, the scientific foundations from which to engineer a space drive have not been discovered and, objectively, might be impossible. Although no propulsion breakthroughs appear imminent, the subject has matured to where the relevant questions have been broached and are beginning to be answered. The critical make-break issues include; conservation of momentum, uncertain sources of reaction mass, and the net-external thrusting requirement. Note: space drives are not necessarily faster- than-light devices. Speed limits are a separate, unanswered issue. Relevant unsolved physics includes; the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, coupling of gravitation and electromagnetism, and the nature of the quantum vacuum. The propulsion approaches span mostly stages 1 through 3 of the scientific method (defining the problem, collecting data, and articulating hypotheses), while some have matured to stage 4 (testing hypotheses). Nonviable approaches include `stiction drives,' `gyroscopic antigravity,' and `lifters.' No attempt is made to gauge the prospects of the remaining approaches. Instead, a list of next-step research questions is derived from the examination of these goals, unknowns, and concepts.

  1. Destruction as a Step in Heidegger's Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J Safian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most controversial issues in Heidegger’s philosophy is his claim that western philosophy tradition has overlooked the issue of Being. Heidegger’s attempt is to reveal the origins of this negligence by means of destruction. However, it seems that through such claim Heidegger aims to destroy and disvalue this tradition. In addition to defining and explaining destruction, our purpose in this article is to show that Heidegger’s goal is not to destroy the tradition of philosophy but the term destruction refers to a process which is a step in Heidegger’s phenomenology by means of which one can conceive and perceive Being better because only through such destruction ontology can fully assure itself in a phenomenological way of the genuine character of its concepts. The necessity of doing destruction in Heidegger’s thought has also been discussed and his persistence on it has been shown in two of his works, one belongs to early and another to later Heidegger.

  2. First Steps in Using REBT in Life Coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Windy

    2011-01-01

    This step-by-step guide shows the Life Coach how to help coachees deal with any emotional problems that might prevent them from achieving their life goals, using the theory and practice of REBT adapted to a coaching setting.

  3. Uncertainty Principles on Two Step Nilpotent Lie Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We extend an uncertainty principle due to Cowling and Price to two step nilpotent Lie groups, which generalizes a classical theorem of Hardy. We also prove an analogue of Heisenberg inequality on two step nilpotent Lie groups.

  4. Revisionist integral deferred correction with adaptive step-size control

    KAUST Repository

    Christlieb, Andrew; Macdonald, Colin; Ong, Benjamin; Spiteri, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Mathematical Sciences Publishers. Adaptive step-size control is a critical feature for the robust and efficient numerical solution of initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we show that adaptive step

  5. Performance of an attention-demanding task during treadmill walking shifts the noise qualities of step-to-step variation in step width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabiner, Mark D; Marone, Jane R; Wyatt, Marilynn; Sessoms, Pinata; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2018-06-01

    The fractal scaling evident in the step-to-step fluctuations of stepping-related time series reflects, to some degree, neuromotor noise. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the fractal scaling of step width, step width and step width variability are affected by performance of an attention-demanding task. We hypothesized that the attention-demanding task would shift the structure of the step width time series toward white, uncorrelated noise. Subjects performed two 10-min treadmill walking trials, a control trial of undisturbed walking and a trial during which they performed a mental arithmetic/texting task. Motion capture data was converted to step width time series, the fractal scaling of which were determined from their power spectra. Fractal scaling decreased by 22% during the texting condition (p Step width and step width variability increased 19% and five percent, respectively (p step width fractal scaling. The change of the fractal scaling of step width is consistent with increased cognitive demand and suggests a transition in the characteristics of the signal noise. This may reflect an important advance toward the understanding of the manner in which neuromotor noise contributes to some types of falls. However, further investigation of the repeatability of the results, the sensitivity of the results to progressive increases in cognitive load imposed by attention-demanding tasks, and the extent to which the results can be generalized to the gait of older adults seems warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Compliant walking appears metabolically advantageous at extreme step lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehoon; Bertram, John E A

    2018-05-19

    Humans alter gait in response to unusual gait circumstances to accomplish the task of walking. For instance, subjects spontaneously increase leg compliance at a step length threshold as step length increases. Here we test the hypothesis that this transition occurs based on the level of energy expenditure, where compliant walking becomes less energetically demanding at long step lengths. To map and compare the metabolic cost of normal and compliant walking as step length increases. 10 healthy individuals walked on a treadmill using progressively increasing step lengths (100%, 120%, 140% and 160% of preferred step length), in both normal and compliant leg walking as energy expenditure was recorded via indirect calorimetry. Leg compliance was controlled by lowering the center-of-mass trajectory during stance, forcing the leg to flex and extend as the body moved over the foot contact. For normal step lengths, compliant leg walking was more costly than normal walking gait, but compliant leg walking energetic cost did not increase as rapidly for longer step lengths. This led to an intersection between normal and compliant walking cost curves at 114% relative step length (regression analysis; r 2  = 0.92 for normal walking; r 2  = 0.65 for compliant walking). Compliant leg walking is less energetically demanding at longer step lengths where a spontaneous shift to compliant walking has been observed, suggesting the human motor control system is sensitive to energetic requirements and will employ alternate movement patterns if advantageous strategies are available. The transition could be attributed to the interplay between (i) leg work controlling body travel during single stance and (ii) leg work to control energy loss in the step-to-step transition. Compliant leg walking requires more stance leg work at normal step lengths, but involves less energy loss at the step-to-step transition for very long steps. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Required Steps of Managing International Equity Placement Strategic Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Wandebori, Harimukti; de Bruijn, Erik Joost; Steenhuis, Harm-Jan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to unravel the steps of managing international equity placement strategic alliance (IEPSA). The steps of managing an IEPSA are obtained by conducting theoretical review. The theoretical reviews consist of theory of strategic alliance; definition, classification, and finding definition of an IEPSA, political and analytical considerations and the necessary steps. These steps of managing IEPSA can be classified into analyzing of macro consideration, micro considera...

  8. The effects of age and step length on joint kinematics and kinetics of large out-and-back steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Brian W; Ashton-Miller, James A; Alexander, Neil B

    2008-06-01

    Maximum step length (MSL) is a clinical test that has been shown to correlate with age, various measures of fall risk, and knee and hip joint extension speed, strength, and power capacities, but little is known about the kinematics and kinetics of the large out-and-back step utilized. Body motions and ground reaction forces were recorded for 11 unimpaired younger and 10 older women while attaining maximum step length. Joint kinematics and kinetics were calculated using inverse dynamics. The effects of age group and step length on the biomechanics of these large out-and-back steps were determined. Maximum step length was 40% greater in the younger than in the older women (P<0.0001). Peak knee and hip, but not ankle, angle, velocity, moment, and power were generally greater for younger women and longer steps. After controlling for age group, step length generally explained significant additional variance in hip and torso kinematics and kinetics (incremental R2=0.09-0.37). The young reached their peak knee extension moment immediately after landing of the step out, while the old reached their peak knee extension moment just before the return step liftoff (P=0.03). Maximum step length is strongly associated with hip kinematics and kinetics. Delays in peak knee extension moment that appear to be unrelated to step length, may indicate a reduced ability of older women to rapidly apply force to the ground with the stepping leg and thus arrest the momentum of a fall.

  9. Steps toward Gaining Knowledge of World Music Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This article presents steps toward gaining knowledge of world music pedagogy for K-12 general music educators. The majority of the article details steps that invite engagement within everyday contexts with accessible resources within local and online communities. The steps demonstrate ways general music teachers can diversify and self-direct their…

  10. Statistical theory of multi-step compound and direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feshbach, H.; Kerman, A.; Koonin, S.

    1980-01-01

    The theory of nuclear reactions is extended so as to include a statistical treatment of multi-step processes. Two types are distinguished, the multi-step compound and the multi-step direct. The wave functions for the system are grouped according to their complexity. The multi-step direct process involves explicitly those states which are open, while the multi-step compound involves those which are bound. In addition to the random phase assumption which is applied differently to the multi-step direct and to the multi-step compound cross-sections, it is assumed that the residual interaction will have non-vanishing matrix elements between states whose complexities differ by at most one unit. This is referred to as the chaining hypothesis. Explicit expressions for the double differential cross-section giving the angular distribution and energy spectrum are obtained for both reaction types. The statistical multi-step compound cross-sections are symmetric about 90 0 . The classical statistical theory of nuclear reactions is a special limiting case. The cross-section for the statistical multi-step direct reaction consists of a set of convolutions of single-step direct cross-sections. For the many step case it is possible to derive a diffusion equation in momentum space. Application is made to the reaction 181 Ta(p,n) 181 W using the statistical multi-step compound formalism

  11. Diffeomorphic image registration with automatic time-step adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru; Klein, S.; Sommer, Stefan Horst

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automated Euler's time-step adjustment scheme for diffeomorphic image registration using stationary velocity fields (SVFs). The proposed variational problem aims at bounding the inverse consistency error by adaptively adjusting the number of Euler's step required to r...... accuracy as a fixed time-step scheme however at a much less computational cost....

  12. FEM simulation of multi step forming of thick sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.H.; Huetink, Han

    2004-01-01

    A case study has been performed on the forming of an industrial product. This product, a bracket, is made of 5mm thick sheet in multiple steps. The process exists of a bending step followed by a drawing and a flanging step. FEM simulations have been used to investigate this forming process. First,

  13. Thermal fatigue in mixing tees: A step by step simplified procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faidy, Claude

    2003-01-01

    Following the CIVAUX 1 incident of a leak on RHR system, EDF has developed a step by step procedure to screen and analyse similar locations: mixing tees with long duration at high ΔT between the 2 fluids. The paper present the procedure, the background of the methodology and few R and D work that support this procedure. The procedure is based on: screening criteria on maximum DT and minimum duration. screening criteria without any duration consideration, only DT and material. a simplified and conservative estimation of a usage factor. a detailed analysis of usage factor and crack growth rate, based on specific data collection of operating transients. Around that procedure EDF launched an R and D program on fatigue curves and fatigue reduction factors for high cycle fatigue. The procedure is compared with field experience and recent R and D fatigue tests. (author)

  14. Evaluating Web-Scale Discovery Services: A Step-by-Step Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Deodato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a web-scale discovery service is a large and important undertaking that involves a significant investment of time, staff, and resources. Finding the right match begins with a thorough and carefully planned evaluation process. In order to be successful, this process should be inclusive, goal-oriented, data-driven, user-centered, and transparent. The following article offers a step-by-step guide for developing a web-scale discovery evaluation plan rooted in these five key principles based on best practices synthesized from the literature as well as the author’s own experiences coordinating the evaluation process at Rutgers University. The goal is to offer academic libraries that are considering acquiring a web-scale discovery service a blueprint for planning a structured and comprehensive evaluation process.

  15. Step-by-step approach to convective cooling of laser disc amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourque, R.F.

    1979-04-01

    A step by step approach is presented to the problem of gas cooling of laser glass amplifiers. The basic equations are given for glass conduction, thermal stress, gas convection, and heat exchanger and blower design. An example calculation is then carried out for helium gas at one atmosphere with the gas flow in the direction orthogonal to the optical path. It is found that pumping powers and temperatures are acceptable for this case. Results are also presented for helium in the slant direction and for nitrogen in both directions. Included also are the effects on pumping power of gas temperature rise, gas pressure, flashtube rep rate, and flow channel width. It is found that, based on temperature rise and pumping power, nitrogen is as viable a coolant as helium

  16. A step-by-step solution for embedding user-controlled cines into educational Web pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornfeld, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this article is to introduce a simple method for embedding user-controlled cines into a Web page using a simple JavaScript. Step-by-step instructions are included and the source code is made available. This technique allows the creation of portable Web pages that allow the user to scroll through cases as if seated at a PACS workstation. A simple JavaScript allows scrollable image stacks to be included on Web pages. With this technique, you can quickly and easily incorporate entire stacks of CT or MR images into online teaching files. This technique has the potential for use in case presentations, online didactics, teaching archives, and resident testing.

  17. Computer aided virtual manufacturing using Creo parametric easy to learn step by step guide

    CERN Document Server

    Kanife, Paul Obiora

    2016-01-01

    Providing a step-by-step guide for the implementation of virtual manufacturing using Creo Parametric software (formerly known as Pro-Engineer), this book creates an engaging and interactive learning experience for manufacturing engineering students. Featuring graphic illustrations of simulation processes and operations, and written in accessible English to promote user-friendliness, the book covers key topics in the field including: the engraving machining process, face milling, profile milling, surface milling, volume rough milling, expert machining, electric discharge machining (EDM), and area turning using the lathe machining process. Maximising reader insights into how to simulate material removal processes, and how to generate cutter location data and G-codes data, this valuable resource equips undergraduate, postgraduate, BTech and HND students in the fields of manufacturing engineering, computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided engineering (CAE) with transferable skills and knowledge. This book is...

  18. Constructing an exposure chart: step by step (based on standard procedures)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jocelyn L; Cansino, Percedita T.; Taguibao, Angileo P.

    2000-01-01

    An exposure chart is very important in conducting radiographic inspection of materials. By using an accurate exposure chart, an inspector is able to avoid a trial and error way of determining correct time to expose a specimen, thereby producing a radiograph that has an acceptable density based on a standard. The chart gives the following information: x-ray machine model and brand, distance of the x-ray tube from the film, type and thickness of intensifying screens, film type, radiograph density, and film processing conditions. The methods of preparing an exposure chart are available in existing radiographic testing manuals. These described methods are presented in step by step procedures, covering the actual laboratory set-up, data gathering, computations, and transformation of derived data into Characteristic Curve and Exposure Chart

  19. Positive steps toward non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, G.

    1979-08-30

    Russel W. Fox and Mason Willrich in their paper, International Custody of Plutonium Stocks: A First Step Toward an International Regime for Sensitive Nuclear Energy Activities, advocate placing excess plutonium in an international custodial facility; critical criteria governing releases are outlined so that, on one hand the owners can have high confidence that their plutonium will be returned promptly, under appropriate circumstances, and on the other hand, all the other participating and concerned countries can have confidence in the assurance that plutonium will be released only for immediate use in a defined and approved civil purpose. The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute in the 1978 issue of its Year Book, recognizes a move towards a more positive approach to the problem of nuclear proliferation. It is noted that the non-proliferation strategies of the main supply countries have largely concentrated on a two-pronged approach of technology denials with tightening of safeguards. But already, enrichment, reprocessing, and breeder reactor programs extend far beyond the five nuclear weapon states. History testifies to the limitations of a policy of technical denials. SIPRI recognizes that another way to dissuade non-nuclear weapon states from creating their own enrichment or reprocessing plants would be to establish an open market for these services, a market characterized by diversity and competition. So far, there has been no case where a country has developed nuclear explosives by diverting material from a civil power station. Development of nuclear weapons by various countries is briefly noted and areas where strengthening of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is needed are noted. (MCW)

  20. The magnesium chelation step in chlorophyll biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, J.

    1990-11-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, the biogenesis of energy transducing membranes requires the coordinate synthesis of prosthetic groups, proteins, and various lipids. Two of the major prosthetic groups, chlorophyll and heme, share a common biosynthetic pathway that diverges at the point of metal insertion into protoporphyrin IX (Proto). Insertion of iron leads to the formation of hemes, while insertion of magnesium is the first step unique to chlorophyll formation. This project is directed toward identifying the enzyme(s) responsible for magnesium chelation and elucidating the mechanism which regulates the flux of precursors through the branch point enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Using intact chloroplasts from greening cucumber cotyledons, we have confirmed the ATP requirement for Mg-Proto formation. Use of non-hydrolyzable ATP analogs, uncouplers and ionophores has led to the conclusions that ATP hydrolysis is necessary, but that this hydrolysis is not linked to the requirement for membrane intactness by transmembrane ion gradients or electrical potentials. The enzyme(s) are flexible with respect to the porphyrin substrate specificity, accepting porphyrins with -vinyl, -ethyl, or -H substituents at the 2 and 4 positions. The activity increases approximately four-fold during greening. Possible physiological feedback inhibitors such as heme, protochlorophyllide, and chlorophyllide had no specific effect on the activity. The activity has now been assayed in barely, corn and peas, with the system from peas almost ten-fold more active than the cucumber system. Work is continuing in pea chloroplasts with the development of a continuous assay and investigation of the feasibility of characterizing an active, organelle-free preparation. 6 figs.

  1. Interstellar Probe: First Step to the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, R. L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    a robotic craft can be built, and could be built and launched soon - to enable our first deliberate step to the stars.

  2. A Step-by-Step Framework on Discrete Events Simulation in Emergency Department; A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mahsa; Moftian, Nazila; Rezaei-Hachesu, Peyman; Samad-Soltani, Taha

    2017-04-01

    To systematically review the current literature of simulation in healthcare including the structured steps in the emergency healthcare sector by proposing a framework for simulation in the emergency department. For the purpose of collecting the data, PubMed and ACM databases were used between the years 2003 and 2013. The inclusion criteria were to select English-written articles available in full text with the closest objectives from among a total of 54 articles retrieved from the databases. Subsequently, 11 articles were selected for further analysis. The studies focused on the reduction of waiting time and patient stay, optimization of resources allocation, creation of crisis and maximum demand scenarios, identification of overcrowding bottlenecks, investigation of the impact of other systems on the existing system, and improvement of the system operations and functions. Subsequently, 10 simulation steps were derived from the relevant studies after an expert's evaluation. The 10-steps approach proposed on the basis of the selected studies provides simulation and planning specialists with a structured method for both analyzing problems and choosing best-case scenarios. Moreover, following this framework systematically enables the development of design processes as well as software implementation of simulation problems.

  3. Acomparative Study Comparing Low-dose Step-up Versus Step-down in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Resistant to Clomiphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Peivandi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS is one of the most common cause of infertility in women. clomiphene is the first line of treatment. however 20% of patients are resistant to clomiphene. because of follicular hypersensitivity to gonadotropins in pcod, multiple follicular growth and development occurs which is cause of OHSS and multiple pregnancy. Our aim of this random and clinical study was comparation between step-down and low dose step-up methods for induction ovulation in clomiphene resistant. Methods: 60 cases were included 30 women in low-dose step-up group and 30 women in step-down group. In low-dose step-up HMG 75u/d and in step-down HMG 225u/d was started on 3th days of cycle, monitoring with vaginal sonography was done on 8th days of cycle. When follicle with>14 mm in diameter was seen HMG dose was continued in low-dose step-up and was decreased in step-down group. When follicle reached to 18mm in diameter, amp HCG 10000 unit was injected and IUI was performed 36 hours later. Results: Number of HMG ampules, number of follicles> 14mm on the day of HCG injection and level of serum estradiol was greater in low dose step up protocol than step down protocol(p<0/0001. Ovulation rate and pregnancy rate was greater in lowdose step up group than step down group with significant difference (p<0/0001. Conclusion: Our study showed that low-dose step-up regimen with HMG is effective for stimulating ovulation and clinical pregnancy but in view of monofollicular growth, the step down method was more effective and safe. In our study multifolliular growth in step-up method was higher than step-down method. We can predict possibility of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome syndrome in highly sensitive PCOS patients.

  4. Issues with Access to Acquisition Data and Information in the Department of Defense: A Closer Look at the Origins and Implementation of Controlled Unclassified Information Labels and Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    by law. This representation of RAND intellectual property is provided for noncommercial use only. Unauthorized posting of this publication online is...Office of the Secretary of Defense asked RAND to take a closer look at several key sources of inefficiency by evaluating how marking and labeling CUI...ability of data users to properly identify, label, and, if needed, challenge improperly marked data. Identifying which unclassified but potentially

  5. Issues with Access to Acquisition Data and Information in the Department of Defense: A Closer Look at the Origins and Implementation of Controlled Unclassified Information Labels and Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-19

    directly affect the access and utility of acquisition databases. The current information security environment does not establish a consistent... information ” without a nondisclosure agreement • proposing a legislative amendment to 10 U.S.C. 2320, which allows access to technical data for providing...ISSUES WITH Access to Acquisition Data and Information IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE A Closer Look at the Origins and Implementation of

  6. Step-to-step variability in treadmill walking: influence of rhythmic auditory cueing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Terrier

    Full Text Available While walking, human beings continuously adjust step length (SpL, step time (SpT, step speed (SpS = SpL/SpT and step width (SpW by integrating both feedforward and feedback mechanisms. These motor control processes result in correlations of gait parameters between consecutive strides (statistical persistence. Constraining gait with a speed cue (treadmill and/or a rhythmic auditory cue (metronome, modifies the statistical persistence to anti-persistence. The objective was to analyze whether the combined effect of treadmill and rhythmic auditory cueing (RAC modified not only statistical persistence, but also fluctuation magnitude (standard deviation, SD, and stationarity of SpL, SpT, SpS and SpW. Twenty healthy subjects performed 6 × 5 min. walking tests at various imposed speeds on a treadmill instrumented with foot-pressure sensors. Freely-chosen walking cadences were assessed during the first three trials, and then imposed accordingly in the last trials with a metronome. Fluctuation magnitude (SD of SpT, SpL, SpS and SpW was assessed, as well as NonStationarity Index (NSI, which estimates the dispersion of local means in the times series (SD of 20 local means over 10 steps. No effect of RAC on fluctuation magnitude (SD was observed. SpW was not modified by RAC, what is likely the evidence that lateral foot placement is separately regulated. Stationarity (NSI was modified by RAC in the same manner as persistent pattern: Treadmill induced low NSI in the time series of SpS, and high NSI in SpT and SpL. On the contrary, SpT, SpL and SpS exhibited low NSI under RAC condition. We used relatively short sample of consecutive strides (100 as compared to the usual number of strides required to analyze fluctuation dynamics (200 to 1000 strides. Therefore, the responsiveness of stationarity measure (NSI to cued walking opens the perspective to perform short walking tests that would be adapted to patients with a reduced gait perimeter.

  7. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel

    2017-03-13

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step size for ground-motion simulations due to numerical stability conditions. To alleviate this problem, local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time stepping scheme to adapt the time step to the element size, allowing nearoptimal time steps everywhere in the mesh. This can potentially lead to significantly faster simulation runtimes.

  8. Testing a stepped care model for binge-eating disorder: a two-step randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Koszycki, Diana; Brugnera, Agostino; Chyurlia, Livia; Hammond, Nicole; Francis, Kylie; Ritchie, Kerri; Ivanova, Iryna; Proulx, Genevieve; Wilson, Brian; Beaulac, Julie; Bissada, Hany; Beasley, Erin; Mcquaid, Nancy; Grenon, Renee; Fortin-Langelier, Benjamin; Compare, Angelo; Balfour, Louise

    2018-05-24

    A stepped care approach involves patients first receiving low-intensity treatment followed by higher intensity treatment. This two-step randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a sequential stepped care approach for the psychological treatment of binge-eating disorder (BED). In the first step, all participants with BED (n = 135) received unguided self-help (USH) based on a cognitive-behavioral therapy model. In the second step, participants who remained in the trial were randomized either to 16 weeks of group psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy (GPIP) (n = 39) or to a no-treatment control condition (n = 46). Outcomes were assessed for USH in step 1, and then for step 2 up to 6-months post-treatment using multilevel regression slope discontinuity models. In the first step, USH resulted in large and statistically significant reductions in the frequency of binge eating. Statistically significant moderate to large reductions in eating disorder cognitions were also noted. In the second step, there was no difference in change in frequency of binge eating between GPIP and the control condition. Compared with controls, GPIP resulted in significant and large improvement in attachment avoidance and interpersonal problems. The findings indicated that a second step of a stepped care approach did not significantly reduce binge-eating symptoms beyond the effects of USH alone. The study provided some evidence for the second step potentially to reduce factors known to maintain binge eating in the long run, such as attachment avoidance and interpersonal problems.

  9. Development process and data management of TurnSTEP, a STEP-compliant CNC system for turning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, I.; Suh, S.-H; Kim, K.; Song, M.S.; Jang, M.; Lee, B.-E.

    2006-01-01

    TurnSTEP is one of the earliest STEP-compliant CNC systems for turning. Based on the STEP-NC data model formalized as ISO 14649-12 and 121, it is designed to support intelligent and autonomous control of NC machines for e-manufacturing. The present paper introduces the development process and data

  10. OSIRIS (the first step). A user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engberg, D.

    1999-01-01

    The OSIRIS Project will explore the instrumental horizons available with the cold neutrons from a pulsed source and especially the totally new avenues available to polarised neutrons on these sources. On pulsed sources, polarisation techniques offer great potential for high resolution studies, and only lack of opportunity has left the field unexploited. On OSIRIS, the fundamentally novel methods developed on IRIS will be combined with proven and extended neutron polarising techniques. The high flux available at ISIS, coupled to the advanced design of the OSIRIS guide, will provide the means to take this field to its next evolutionary stage. By exploiting the combination of sharp pulses, white beams and cold neutrons from ISIS, high resolution measurements, both dynamic and structural, can be carried out using both unpolarised and polarised neutrons. The OSIRIS Project is an international collaboration involving India, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The project has three well-defined phases; phase 1: Extraction of a second cold beam guide from the IRIS beam line; phase 2: large d-spacing powder diffraction, incident beam polarised powder diffraction; phase 3: high resolution spectroscopy, spectroscopy polarisation analysis, diffraction polarisation analysis. This is the user manual for the first step of the OSIRIS project, which means that phase 2 is now almost finished, i.e. we have a high resolution large d-spacing diffractometer, but the incident beam polarisation is as of yet only used for tests. You can find more information on the Osiris web-pages at . This document is also available in an html version at that address. This document is divided into five different parts. First, this short introduction, then what you need to think about before your arrive at ISIS, thereafter, the different parts of the instrument are described, together with some examples of sample environments. Fourthly, the actual running of an experiment is dealt

  11. Preparation for Compensatory Forward Stepping in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laurie A.; St George, Rebecca J.; Carlson-Kuhta, Patricia; Nutt, John G.; Horak, Fay B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To characterize preparation for compensatory stepping in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) compared with healthy control subjects, and to determine whether levodopa medication improves preparation or the execution phases of the step. Design Observational study. Setting Outpatient neuroscience laboratory. Participants Nineteen participants with idiopathic PD tested both in the on and off levodopa states and 17 healthy subjects. Intervention Moveable platform with posterior translations of 24cm at 56cm/s. Main Outcome Measures Compensatory steps forward, in response to a backward surface translation (24cm amplitude at 56cm/s), were categorized according to the presence of an anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) before stepping: no APA, single APA, or multiple APAs. The following step parameters were calculated: step latency, step length, center of mass (CoM) average velocity, and CoM displacement at the step initiation. Results Lateral APAs were evident in 57% and 42% of trials for people with PD in the off and on medication states, respectively, compared with only 10% of trials for control subjects. Compared with subjects with PD who did not have APAs, those subjects with PD who did make an APA prior to stepping had significantly later (mean ± SEM, 356 ± 16ms vs 305 ± 8ms) and shorter (mean ± SEM, 251 ± 27mm vs 300 ± 16mm) steps, their CoM was significantly farther forward (185 ± 7mm vs 171 ± 5mm) at foot-off, and they took significantly more steps to regain equilibrium. Levodopa did not affect the preparation or execution phase of compensatory stepping. Poor axial scores and reports of freezing in the United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale were associated with use of 1 or more APAs before compensatory stepping. Conclusions Lateral postural preparation prior to compensatory stepping in subjects with PD was associated with inefficient balance recovery from external perturbations. PMID:20801249

  12. Considerations for the independent reaction times and step-by-step methods for radiation chemistry simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Devroye, Luc

    2017-10-01

    Ionizing radiation interacts with the water molecules of the tissues mostly by ionizations and excitations, which result in the formation of the radiation track structure and the creation of radiolytic species such as H.,.OH, H2, H2O2, and e-aq. After their creation, these species diffuse and may chemically react with the neighboring species and with the molecules of the medium. Therefore radiation chemistry is of great importance in radiation biology. As the chemical species are not distributed homogeneously, the use of conventional models of homogeneous reactions cannot completely describe the reaction kinetics of the particles. Actually, many simulations of radiation chemistry are done using the Independent Reaction Time (IRT) method, which is a very fast technique to calculate radiochemical yields but which do not calculate the positions of the radiolytic species as a function of time. Step-by-step (SBS) methods, which are able to provide such information, have been used only sparsely because these are time-consuming in terms of calculation. Recent improvements in computer performance now allow the regular use of the SBS method in radiation chemistry. The SBS and IRT methods are both based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). In this paper, several sampling algorithms of the GFDE and for the IRT method are presented. We show that the IRT and SBS methods are exactly equivalent for 2-particles systems for diffusion and partially diffusion-controlled reactions between non-interacting particles. We also show that the results obtained with the SBS simulation method with periodic boundary conditions are in agreement with the predictions by classical reaction kinetics theory, which is an important step towards using this method for modelling of biochemical networks and metabolic pathways involved in oxidative stress. Finally, the first simulation results obtained with the code RITRACKS (Relativistic Ion Tracks) are presented.

  13. Microsoft® SQL Server® 2008 Analysis Services Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Teach yourself to use SQL Server 2008 Analysis Services for business intelligence-one step at a time. You'll start by building your understanding of the business intelligence platform enabled by SQL Server and the Microsoft Office System, highlighting the role of Analysis Services. Then, you'll create a simple multidimensional OLAP cube and progressively add features to help improve, secure, deploy, and maintain an Analysis Services database. You'll explore core Analysis Services 2008 features and capabilities, including dimension, cube, and aggregation design wizards; a new attribute relatio

  14. Statistics translated a step-by-step guide to analyzing and interpreting data

    CERN Document Server

    Terrell, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Written in a humorous and encouraging style, this text shows how the most common statistical tools can be used to answer interesting real-world questions, presented as mysteries to be solved. Engaging research examples lead the reader through a series of six steps, from identifying a researchable problem to stating a hypothesis, identifying independent and dependent variables, and selecting and interpreting appropriate statistical tests. All techniques are demonstrated both manually and with the help of SPSS software. The book provides students and others who may need to read and interpret sta

  15. Microsoft® SQL Server® 2008 MDX Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Bryan; Consulting, Hitachi

    2009-01-01

    Teach yourself the Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) query language-one step at a time. With this practical, learn-by-doing tutorial, you'll build the core techniques for using MDX with Analysis Services to deliver high-performance business intelligence solutions. Discover how to: Construct and execute MDX queriesWork with tuples, sets, and expressionsBuild complex sets to retrieve the exact data users needPerform aggregation functions and navigate data hierarchiesAssemble time-based business metricsCustomize an Analysis Services cube through the MDX scriptImplement dynamic security to cont

  16. Microsoft® SQL Server® 2008 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Hotek, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Teach yourself SQL Server 2008-one step at a time. Get the practical guidance you need to build database solutions that solve real-world business problems. Learn to integrate SQL Server data in your applications, write queries, develop reports, and employ powerful business intelligence systems.Discover how to:Install and work with core components and toolsCreate tables and index structuresManipulate and retrieve dataSecure, manage, back up, and recover databasesApply tuning plus optimization techniques to generate high-performing database applicationsOptimize availability through clustering, d

  17. A simple, compact, and rigid piezoelectric step motor with large step size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Lu, Qingyou

    2009-08-01

    We present a novel piezoelectric stepper motor featuring high compactness, rigidity, simplicity, and any direction operability. Although tested in room temperature, it is believed to work in low temperatures, owing to its loose operation conditions and large step size. The motor is implemented with a piezoelectric scanner tube that is axially cut into almost two halves and clamp holds a hollow shaft inside at both ends via the spring parts of the shaft. Two driving voltages that singly deform the two halves of the piezotube in one direction and recover simultaneously will move the shaft in the opposite direction, and vice versa.

  18. Increasing preferred step rate during running reduces plantar pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, James M; Bonanno, Daniel R

    2018-01-01

    Increasing preferred step rate during running is a commonly used strategy in the management of running-related injuries. This study investigated the effect of different step rates on plantar pressures during running. Thirty-two healthy runners ran at a comfortable speed on a treadmill at five step rates (preferred, ±5%, and ±10%). For each step rate, plantar pressure data were collected using the pedar-X in-shoe system. Compared to running with a preferred step rate, a 10% increase in step rate significantly reduced peak pressure (144.5±46.5 vs 129.3±51 kPa; P=.033) and maximum force (382.3±157.6 vs 334.0±159.8 N; P=.021) at the rearfoot, and reduced maximum force (426.4±130.4 vs 400.0±116.6 N; P=.001) at the midfoot. In contrast, a 10% decrease in step rate significantly increased peak pressure (144.5±46.5 vs 161.5±49.3 kPa; P=.011) and maximum force (382.3±157.6 vs 425.4±155.3 N; P=.032) at the rearfoot. Changing step rate by 5% provided no effect on plantar pressures, and no differences in plantar pressures were observed at the medial forefoot, lateral forefoot or hallux between the step rates. This study's findings indicate that increasing preferred step rate by 10% during running will reduce plantar pressures at the rearfoot and midfoot, while decreasing step rate by 10% will increase plantar pressures at the rearfoot. However, changing preferred step rate by 5% will provide no effect on plantar pressures, and forefoot pressures are unaffected by changes in step rate. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Step-by-Step Simulation of Radiation Chemistry Using Green Functions for Diffusion-Influenced Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiolytic species are formed approximately 1 ps after the passage of ionizing radiation through matter. After their formation, they diffuse and chemically react with other radiolytic species and neighboring biological molecules, leading to various oxidative damage. Therefore, the simulation of radiation chemistry is of considerable importance to understand how radiolytic species damage biological molecules [1]. The step-by-step simulation of chemical reactions is difficult, because the radiolytic species are distributed non-homogeneously in the medium. Consequently, computational approaches based on Green functions for diffusion-influenced reactions should be used [2]. Recently, Green functions for more complex type of reactions have been published [3-4]. We have developed exact random variate generators of these Green functions [5], which will allow us to use them in radiation chemistry codes. Moreover, simulating chemistry using the Green functions is which is computationally very demanding, because the probabilities of reactions between each pair of particles should be evaluated at each timestep [2]. This kind of problem is well adapted for General Purpose Graphic Processing Units (GPGPU), which can handle a large number of similar calculations simultaneously. These new developments will allow us to include more complex reactions in chemistry codes, and to improve the calculation time. This code should be of importance to link radiation track structure simulations and DNA damage models.

  20. Step-by-Step robotic heminephrectomy for duplicated renal collecting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Zargar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A duplicated renal collecting system is a relatively common congenital anomaly rarely presenting in adults. Aim In this video we demonstrate our step-by-step technique of Robotic heminephrectomy in a patient with non-functioning upper pole moiety. Materials and Methods Following cystoscopy and ureteral catheter insertion the patient was placed in 600 modified flank position with the ipsilateral arm positioned at the side of the patient. A straight-line, three arm robotic port configuration was employed. The robot was docked at a 90-degree angle, perpendicular to the patient. Following mobilization the colon and identifying both ureters of the duplicated system, the ureters were followed cephalically toward, hilar vessels where the hilar anatomy was identified. The nonfunctioning pole vasculature was ligated using hem-o-lok clips. The ureter was sharply divided and the proximal ureteral stump was passed posterior the renal hilum. Ureteral stump was used as for retraction and heminephrectomy is completed along the line demarcating the upper and lower pole moieties. Renorrhaphy was performed using 0-Vicryl suture with a CT-1 needle. The nonfunctioning pole ureter was then dissected caudally toward the bladder hiatus, ligated using clips, and transected. Results The operating time was 240 minutes and blood loss was 100 cc. There was no complication post-operatively. Conclusions Wrist articulation and degree of freedom offered by robotic platform facilitates successful performance of minimally invasive heminephrectomy in the setting of an atrophic and symptomatic renal segment.

  1. Step-by-Step Model for the Study of the Apriori Algorithm for Predictive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Grigore ROŞCA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper was to develop an educational oriented application based on the Data Mining Apriori Algorithm which facilitates both the research and the study of data mining by graduate students. The application could be used to discover interesting patterns in the corpus of data and to measure the impact on the speed of execution as a function of problem constraints (value of support and confidence variables or size of the transactional data-base. The paper presents a brief overview of the Apriori Algorithm, aspects about the implementation of the algorithm using a step-by-step process, a discussion of the education-oriented user interface and the process of data mining of a test transactional data base. The impact of some constraints on the speed of the algorithm is also experimentally measured without a systematic review of different approaches to increase execution speed. Possible applications of the implementation, as well as its limits, are briefly reviewed.

  2. Picture archiving and communication system planning as a whole practice in step by step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Min; Luo Song; Lei Weiyong; Wen Hongyu; Wu Hongxing; Wang Xiaolin; Wang Xuejian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the whole design and to carry through the implement project in building picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Methods: All modalities with or without DICOM were integrated into PACS to store the whole images and share those resources. Windows NT and SQL 7.0 were used on the servers to store all kinds of patient image files, and those images could be viewed on all the web-based clinical workstations and the license was up to 100. RAID 5 online HDD which had the capability to store images for 3 months and DLT long term archive storage up to 7 T in size were built in the system. The PACS already finished the integration with RIS and HIS to expand images to the whole hospital and ready to be an imaging center of one area. Results: The founded typical PACS connected hospital equipments at present and realized primary no-film mode in department of radiology. The PACS had extended to the whole hospital clinical rooms, surgery, and emergency treatment room, etc. The PACS was connected to the HIS and networks of other hospitals. The center of image data was established, realizing the connection among the center of image data together with current area and other area hospitals. The PACS was easy to use for the doctors and improved the work efficiency. Conclusion: The practice has proved that current project related PACS planning as a whold practice in step by step is viable and successful

  3. Dynamic balance and stepping versus tai chi training to improve balance and stepping in at-risk older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnodim, Joseph O; Strasburg, Debra; Nabozny, Martina; Nyquist, Linda; Galecki, Andrzej; Chen, Shu; Alexander, Neil B

    2006-12-01

    To compare the effect of two 10-week balance training programs, Combined Balance and Step Training (CBST) versus tai chi (TC), on balance and stepping measures. Prospective intervention trial. Local senior centers and congregate housing facilities. Aged 65 and older with at least mild impairment in the ability to perform unipedal stance and tandem walk. Participants were allocated to TC (n = 107, mean age 78) or CBST, an intervention focused on improving dynamic balance and stepping (n = 106, mean age 78). At baseline and 10 weeks, participants were tested in their static balance (Unipedal Stance and Tandem Stance (TS)), stepping (Maximum Step Length, Rapid Step Test), and Timed Up and Go (TUG). Performance improved more with CBST than TC, ranging from 5% to 10% for the stepping tests (Maximum Step Length and Rapid Step Test) and 9% for TUG. The improvement in TUG represented an improvement of more than 1 second. Greater improvements were also seen in static balance ability (in TS) with CBST than TC. Of the two training programs, in which variants of each program have been proven to reduce falls, CBST results in modest improvements in balance, stepping, and functional mobility versus TC over a 10-week period. Future research should include a prospective comparison of fall rates in response to these two balance training programs.

  4. 40 CFR 35.2109 - Step 2+3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Step 2+3. 35.2109 Section 35.2109... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2109 Step 2+3. The Regional Administrator may award a Step 2+3 grant which will provide the Federal share of an allowance under appendix B and the...

  5. An explicit multi-time-stepping algorithm for aerodynamic flows

    OpenAIRE

    Niemann-Tuitman, B.E.; Veldman, A.E.P.

    1997-01-01

    An explicit multi-time-stepping algorithm with applications to aerodynamic flows is presented. In the algorithm, in different parts of the computational domain different time steps are taken, and the flow is synchronized at the so-called synchronization levels. The algorithm is validated for aerodynamic turbulent flows. For two-dimensional flows speedups in the order of five with respect to single time stepping are obtained.

  6. Step width alters iliotibial band strain during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meardon, Stacey A; Campbell, Samuel; Derrick, Timothy R

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the effect of step width during running on factors related to iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome. Three-dimensional (3D) kinematics and kinetics were recorded from 15 healthy recreational runners during overground running under various step width conditions (preferred and at least +/- 5% of their leg length). Strain and strain rate were estimated from a musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity. Greater ITB strain and strain rate were found in the narrower step width condition (p running, especially in persons whose running style is characterized by a narrow step width, may be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of running-related ITB syndrome.

  7. PIV Study of Aeration Efficient of Stepped Spillway System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, M. A.; Jamil, R.; Rozainy, M. R.; Zainol, M. A.; Adlan, M. N.; Keong, C. W.

    2017-06-01

    This paper investigates the three-dimensional (3D) simulation of Cascade aerator system using Lattice Boltzmann simulation and laboratory experiment was carried out to investigate the flow, aeration and cavitation in the spillway. Different configurations of stepped spillway are designed in this project in order to investigate the relationship between the configurations of stepped spillway and cavitation in the flow. The aeration in the stepped spillway will also be investigated. The experimental result will be compared with the simulated result at the end of this project. The figure of flow pattern at the 3rd step in simulation and experiment for Set 1 and Set 2 are look similar between LBM simulation and the experiment findings. This will provide a better understanding of the cavitation, aeration and flow in different configurations of the stepped spillway. In addition the occurrence of negative pressure region in the stepped spillway, increases the possibility of cavitation to occur. The cavitation will damage the structure of the stepped spillway. Furthermore, it also founds that increasing in barrier thickness of the stepped spillway will improve the aeration efficiency and reduce the cavitation in stepped spillway.

  8. Considering dominance in reduced single-step genomic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, J; Edel, C; Pimentel, E C G; Emmerling, R; Götz, K-U

    2018-06-01

    Single-step models including dominance can be an enormous computational task and can even be prohibitive for practical application. In this study, we try to answer the question whether a reduced single-step model is able to estimate breeding values of bulls and breeding values, dominance deviations and total genetic values of cows with acceptable quality. Genetic values and phenotypes were simulated (500 repetitions) for a small Fleckvieh pedigree consisting of 371 bulls (180 thereof genotyped) and 553 cows (40 thereof genotyped). This pedigree was virtually extended for 2,407 non-genotyped daughters. Genetic values were estimated with the single-step model and with different reduced single-step models. Including more relatives of genotyped cows in the reduced single-step model resulted in a better agreement of results with the single-step model. Accuracies of genetic values were largest with single-step and smallest with reduced single-step when only the cows genotyped were modelled. The results indicate that a reduced single-step model is suitable to estimate breeding values of bulls and breeding values, dominance deviations and total genetic values of cows with acceptable quality. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Foot and Ankle Kinematics During Descent From Varying Step Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Emily E; O'Connor, Kristian; Keenan, Kevin G; Cobb, Stephen C

    2017-12-01

    In the general population, one-third of incidences during step negotiation occur during the transition to level walking. Furthermore, falls during curb negotiation are a common cause of injury in older adults. Distal foot kinematics may be an important factor in determining injury risk associated with transition step negotiation. The purpose of this study was to identify foot and ankle kinematics of uninjured individuals during descent from varying step heights. A 7-segment foot model was used to quantify kinematics as participants walked on a level walkway, stepped down a single step (heights: 5 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm), and continued walking. As step height increased, landing strategy transitioned from the rearfoot to the forefoot, and the rearfoot, lateral and medial midfoot, and medial forefoot became more plantar flexed. During weight acceptance, sagittal plane range of motion of the rearfoot, lateral midfoot, and medial and lateral forefoot increased as step height increased. The changes in landing strategy and distal foot function suggest a less stable ankle position at initial contact and increased demand on the distal foot at initial contact and through the weight acceptance phase of transition step negotiation as step height increases.

  10. Atomic-scale friction on stepped surfaces of ionic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Pascal; Gnecco, Enrico; Krok, Franciszek; Budzioch, Janusz; Walczak, Lukasz; Konior, Jerzy; Szymonski, Marek; Meyer, Ernst

    2011-05-06

    We report on high-resolution friction force microscopy on a stepped NaCl(001) surface in ultrahigh vacuum. The measurements were performed on single cleavage step edges. When blunt tips are used, friction is found to increase while scanning both up and down a step edge. With atomically sharp tips, friction still increases upwards, but it decreases and even changes sign downwards. Our observations extend previous results obtained without resolving atomic features and are associated with the competition between the Schwöbel barrier and the asymmetric potential well accompanying the step edges.

  11. Determinants of limb preference for initiating compensatory stepping poststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Avril; Inness, Elizabeth L; Lakhani, Bimal; McIlroy, William E

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the determinants of limb preference for initiating compensatory stepping poststroke. Retrospective chart review. Inpatient rehabilitation. Convenience sample of individuals admitted to inpatient rehabilitation with poststroke hemiparesis. Not applicable. Compensatory stepping responses were evoked using a lean-and-release postural perturbation. The limb used to initiate compensatory stepping was determined. The relationships between stepping with the paretic limb and premorbid limb dominance, weight bearing on the paretic limb in quiet standing, ability to bear weight on the paretic limb, preperturbation weight bearing on the paretic limb, and lower-limb motor recovery scores were determined. The majority (59.1%) of responses were steps initiated with the nonparetic limb. Increased lower-limb motor recovery scores and preperturbation weight bearing on the nonparetic limb were significantly related to increased frequency of stepping with the paretic limb. When the preferred limb was physically blocked, an inappropriate response was initiated in 21% of trials (ie, nonstep responses or an attempt to step with the blocked limb). This study reveals the challenges that individuals with poststroke hemiparesis face when executing compensatory stepping responses to prevent a fall after a postural perturbation. The inability or challenges to executing a compensatory step with the paretic limb may increase the risk for falls poststroke. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A theory of the stepped leader in lightning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowke, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    There is no generally accepted explanation of the stepped leader behaviour in terms of basic physical processes. Existing theories generally involve significant gas heating within the stepped leader. In the present paper, the stepped nature of the leader is proposed to arise due to a combination of two physical phenomena. Electron transport is dominant over ion transport, during the luminous step stage, because electron mobilities are about 100 times larger than ion mobilities, and the streamer front velocity is determined by electron ionization effects. During the dark time between steps, there are only ions and charge transport is very much slower. The second effect leading to stepped behaviour arises because the electric field required for electric breakdown in air prior to a discharge is ∼30kV/cm, and is very much higher than the electric field of 5kV/cm that is required to sustain a glow discharge in air. During the luminous step stage, electrons tend to produce space charges to make a uniform field in the streamer of ∼5kV/cm. During the dark time between steps, there are no electrons but only ions. Time is required for ion drift to produce a space charge sheath of negative ions at the head of the streamer to produce a field of ∼30kV/cm sufficient for electron ionization to produce a new luminous step

  13. The Performance of Step-Wise Group Screening Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Manene

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the performance of step-wise group screening designs in which group-factors contain an equal number of factors in the initial step.  A usual assumption in group screening designs is that the directions of possible effects are known a-priori. In practice, however, this assumption is unreasonable. We shall examine step-wise group screening designs without errors in observations when this assumption is relaxed. We shall consider cancellations of effects within group-factors. The performance of step-wise group-screening designs shall then be compared with the performance of multistage group screening designs.

  14. One step forward, two steps back? The GMC, the common law and 'informed' consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovargue, Sara; Miola, José

    2010-08-01

    Until 2008, if doctors followed the General Medical Council's (GMC's) guidance on providing information prior to obtaining a patient's consent to treatment, they would be going beyond what was technically required by the law. It was hoped that the common law would catch up with this guidance and encourage respect for patients' autonomy by facilitating informed decision-making. Regrettably, this has not occurred. For once, the law's inability to keep up with changing medical practice and standards is not the problem. The authors argue that while the common law has moved forward and started to recognise the importance of patient autonomy and informed decision-making, the GMC has taken a step back in their 2008 guidance on consent. Indeed, doctors are now required to tell their patients less than they were in 1998 when the last guidance was produced. This is an unfortunate development and the authors urge the GMC to revisit their guidance.

  15. A step-by-step guide for countries conducting a Technology Needs Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Narkeviciute, Rasa; Rogat Castillo, Jorge Enrique

    . For this new TNA Phase II (2015-2017), we reflect upon experience from the 36 countries in the TNA Phase I (2010-2013) and offer country case-study examples to help illustrate how the project can be organised and implemented. Links to the full electronic (.pdf) versions of the guidance documents are provided......The purpose of this document is to summarise the various steps in the implementation of a TNA, serving as the ‘go-to’ document for national coordinators and consultants. It also points to the various materials that are available to further guide and support project management and methodology...... in this guidance note and can be downloaded from the TNA project website www.tech-action.org under ‘Publications’....

  16. A small step in VLC systems - a big step in Li-Fi implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rîurean, S. M.; Nagy, A. A.; Leba, M.; Ionica, A. C.

    2018-01-01

    Light is part of our sustainable environmental life so, using it would be the handiest and cheapest way for wireless communication. Since ever, light has been used to send messages in different ways and now, due to the high technological improvements, bits through light, at high speed on multiple paths, allow humans to communicate. Using the lighting system both for illumination and communication represents lately one of the worldwide main research issues with several implementations with real benefits. This paper presents a viable VLC system, that proves its sustainability for sending by light information not only few millimetres but meters away. This system has multiple potential applications in different areas where other communication systems are bottlenecked, too expensive, unavailable or even forbidden. Since a Li-Fi fully developed system requires bidirectional, multiple access communication, there are still some challenges towards a functional Li-Fi wireless network. Although important steps have been made, Li-Fi is still under experimental stage.

  17. Comparison of single-step and two-step purified coagulants from Moringa oleifera seed for turbidity and DOC removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, J; Ghebremichael, K; Beltrán-Heredia, J

    2010-08-01

    The coagulant proteins from Moringa oleifera purified with single-step and two-step ion-exchange processes were used for the coagulation of surface water from Meuse river in The Netherlands. The performances of the two purified coagulants and the crude extract were assessed in terms of turbidity and DOC removal. The results indicated that the optimum dosage of the single-step purified coagulant was more than two times higher compared to the two-step purified coagulant in terms of turbidity removal. And the residual DOC in the two-step purified coagulant was lower than in single-step purified coagulant or crude extract. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vygotsky's Principle "One Step in Learning - One Hundred Steps In Development": From Idea To Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaretsky V.K.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews Lev Vygotsky’s published works to trace the evolution of his understanding of child development. The authors believe that his assumption that one step in learning may mean one hundred steps in development, is as important as the two other key postulates of the cultural-historical theory: the principle that learning precedes development and the concept of zone of proximal development. The authors provide a rationale for utilization of these assumptions in the practice of development-facilitating psychological and educational assistance. A mechanism of this learning-development relationship is hypothesized. The article outlines a multidimensional model of the zone of proximal development illustrating the above mechanism. This model is one of the conceptual tools of the Reflection and Activity Approach helping children overcome learning difficulties and promoting their development. Having given the account of how they proceeded “from the idea to the problem” and “from the idea to the mechanism”, the authors provide case studies showing how this mechanism allows working with learning difficulties to trigger simultaneous improvement in multiple developmental dimensions. The article reports on the experience of running special Summer Schools for children with learning difficulties, implementing the “Chess for General Development” Project, and assisting orphaned children with severe somatic conditions. A case study of a female college student displaying signs of the learned helplessness syndrome is presented. The authors infer that Vygotsky’s idea of a specific relationship between learning and development may be of fundamental theoretical and practical value, especially for working with children with special needs.

  19. One step versus two step approach for gestational diabetes screening: systematic review and meta-analysis of the randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Gabriele; Caissutti, Claudia; Khalifeh, Adeeb; Meltzer, Sara; Scifres, Christina; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Kelekci, Sefa; Sevket, Osman; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2017-12-03

    To compare both the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as well as maternal and neonatal outcomes by either the one-step or the two-step approaches. Electronic databases were searched from their inception until June 2017. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the one-step with the two-step approaches for the screening and diagnosis of GDM. The primary outcome was the incidence of GDM. Three RCTs (n = 2333 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. 910 were randomized to the one step approach (75 g, 2 hrs), and 1423 to the two step approach. No significant difference in the incidence of GDM was found comparing the one step versus the two step approaches (8.4 versus 4.3%; relative risk (RR) 1.64, 95%CI 0.77-3.48). Women screened with the one step approach had a significantly lower risk of preterm birth (PTB) (3.7 versus 7.6%; RR 0.49, 95%CI 0.27-0.88), cesarean delivery (16.3 versus 22.0%; RR 0.74, 95%CI 0.56-0.99), macrosomia (2.9 versus 6.9%; RR 0.43, 95%CI 0.22-0.82), neonatal hypoglycemia (1.7 versus 4.5%; RR 0.38, 95%CI 0.16-0.90), and admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (4.4 versus 9.0%; RR 0.49, 95%CI 0.29-0.84), compared to those randomized to screening with the two step approach. The one and the two step approaches were not associated with a significant difference in the incidence of GDM. However, the one step approach was associated with better maternal and perinatal outcomes.

  20. On the equivalence between small-step and big-step abstract machines: a simple application of lightweight fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    -step specification. We illustrate this observation here with a recognizer for Dyck words, the CEK machine, and Krivine’s machine with call/cc. The need for such a simple proof is motivated by our current work on small-step abstract machines as obtained by refocusing a function implementing a reduction semantics (a...... syntactic correspondence), and big-step abstract machines as obtained by CPStransforming and then defunctionalizing a function implementing a big-step semantics (a functional correspondence). © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. Determination of the step dipole moment and the step line tension on Ag(0 0 1) electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltramo, G.L.; Ibach, H.; Linke, U.; Giesen, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using impedance spectroscopy, we determined the step dipole moment and the potential dependence of the step line tension of silver electrodes in contact with an electrolyte: (0 0 1) and vicinal surfaces (1 1 n) with n = 5, 7, 11 in 10 mM ClO 4 - -solutions were investigated. The step dipole moment is determined from the shift of the potential of zero charge (pzc) as a function of the surface step density. The dipole moment per step atom was found to be 3.5 ± 0.5 x 10 -3 e A. From the pzc and the potential dependence of the capacitance curves, the potential dependence of the surface tension of the vicinal surfaces is determined. The line tension of the steps is then calculated from the difference between the surface tensions of stepped (1 1 n) and the nominally step-free (0 0 1) surfaces. The results are compared to a previous study on Au(1 1 n) surfaces. For gold, the step line tension decreases roughly linear with potential, whereas a parabolic shape is observed for silver

  2. Valuing Euro rating-triggered step-up telecom bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Houweling (Patrick); A.A. Mentink; A.C.F. Vorst (Ton)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe value rating-triggered step-up bonds with three methods: (i) the Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull (1997, JLT) framework, (ii) a similar framework using historical probabilities and (iii) as plain vanilla bonds. We find that the market seems to value single step-up bonds according to the JLT

  3. Valuing Euro Rating-Triggered Step-Up Telecom Bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Houweling (Patrick); A.A. Mentink; A.C.F. Vorst (Ton)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe value rating-triggered step-up bonds with three methods: (i) the Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull (1997, JLT) framework, (ii) a similar framework using historical probabilities and (iii) as plain vanilla bonds. We find that the market seems to value single step-up bonds according to the JLT

  4. Storybridging : Four steps for constructing effective health narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeijinga, A.; Hoeken, Hans; Sanders, José

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To develop a practical step-by-step approach to constructing narrative health interventions in response to the mixed results and wide diversity of narratives used in health-related narrative persuasion research. Method: Development work was guided by essential narrative characteristics as

  5. Experimental investigation of stepped solar still with continuous water circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Agouz, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison between modified stepped and conventional solar still was carried out. • Effect of storage tank and cotton absorber on productivity was investigated. • Efficiency for modified stepped still is higher than conventional still by 20%. • The day and night efficiency increases by 5% and 3.5% for salt and sea water. - Abstract: This paper presents a modification of stepped solar still with continuous water circulation using a storage tank for sea and salt water. Total dissolved solids (TDS) of seawater and salt water before desalination is 57,100 and 2370 mg/l. A comparison study between modified stepped and conventional solar still was carried out to evaluate the developed desalination system performance under the same climate conditions. The effect of installing a storage tank and cotton black absorber for modified stepped solar still on the distillate productivity was investigated. The results indicate that, the productivity of the modified stepped still is higher than that for conventional still approximately by 43% and 48% for sea and salt water with black absorber respectively, while 53% and 47% of sea and salt water, respectively with cotton absorber. Also, the daily efficiency for modified stepped still is higher than that for conventional still approximately by 20%. The maximum efficiency of modified stepped still is occurring at a feed water flow rate of 1 LPM for sea water and 3 LPM for salt water. Total dissolved solids (TDS) of seawater and salt water after desalination is 41, and 27 mg/l

  6. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  7. Factors affecting GEBV accuracy with single-step Bayesian models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Mrode, Raphael; Zhang, Shengli; Zhang, Qin; Li, Bugao; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2018-01-01

    A single-step approach to obtain genomic prediction was first proposed in 2009. Many studies have investigated the components of GEBV accuracy in genomic selection. However, it is still unclear how the population structure and the relationships between training and validation populations influence GEBV accuracy in terms of single-step analysis. Here, we explored the components of GEBV accuracy in single-step Bayesian analysis with a simulation study. Three scenarios with various numbers of QTL (5, 50, and 500) were simulated. Three models were implemented to analyze the simulated data: single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP; SSGBLUP), single-step BayesA (SS-BayesA), and single-step BayesB (SS-BayesB). According to our results, GEBV accuracy was influenced by the relationships between the training and validation populations more significantly for ungenotyped animals than for genotyped animals. SS-BayesA/BayesB showed an obvious advantage over SSGBLUP with the scenarios of 5 and 50 QTL. SS-BayesB model obtained the lowest accuracy with the 500 QTL in the simulation. SS-BayesA model was the most efficient and robust considering all QTL scenarios. Generally, both the relationships between training and validation populations and LD between markers and QTL contributed to GEBV accuracy in the single-step analysis, and the advantages of single-step Bayesian models were more apparent when the trait is controlled by fewer QTL.

  8. Step Detection Robust against the Dynamics of Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan-hee; Choi, Suji; Lee, Myeong-jin

    2015-01-01

    A novel algorithm is proposed for robust step detection irrespective of step mode and device pose in smartphone usage environments. The dynamics of smartphones are decoupled into a peak-valley relationship with adaptive magnitude and temporal thresholds. For extracted peaks and valleys in the magnitude of acceleration, a step is defined as consisting of a peak and its adjacent valley. Adaptive magnitude thresholds consisting of step average and step deviation are applied to suppress pseudo peaks or valleys that mostly occur during the transition among step modes or device poses. Adaptive temporal thresholds are applied to time intervals between peaks or valleys to consider the time-varying pace of human walking or running for the correct selection of peaks or valleys. From the experimental results, it can be seen that the proposed step detection algorithm shows more than 98.6% average accuracy for any combination of step mode and device pose and outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:26516857

  9. The LHCb Inner Tracker Module Production Steps and Quality Assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Bettler, M O; Esperante, D; Fauland, P; van Hunen, J; Knecht, M; Koestner, S; Tran, M T; Perez Trigo, E; Vazquez, P; Voss, H

    2010-01-01

    This note describes the various production step for the LHCb Inner Tracker silicon modules. We quickly sketch where the various items are produced and mention their acceptance criteria where applicable. A detail description is given of the various production and testing steps of the silicon detector modules in Lausanne and at CERN.

  10. An explicit multi-time-stepping algorithm for aerodynamic flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemann-Tuitman, B.E.; Veldman, A.E.P.

    1997-01-01

    An explicit multi-time-stepping algorithm with applications to aerodynamic flows is presented. In the algorithm, in different parts of the computational domain different time steps are taken, and the flow is synchronized at the so-called synchronization levels. The algorithm is validated for

  11. 49 CFR 38.99 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Floors, steps and thresholds. 38.99 Section 38.99 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.99 Floors, steps and thresholds...

  12. Stepping Motor - Hydraulic Motor Servo Drives for an NC Milling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the retrofit design of the control system of an NC milling machine with a stepping motor and stepping motor - actuated hydraulic motor servo mechanism on the machines X-axis is described. The servo designed in the course of this study was tested practically and shown to be linear - the velocity following errors ...

  13. Stepping Stones to Evaluating Your Own School Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Jeri; Carnahan, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Stepping Stones to Literacy is a tool for elementary school improvement teams to evaluate and strengthen their reading programs. Each Stepping Stone is a guided activity to stimulate reflection and guide systematic inquiry. It is a collaborative, active research approach to evaluation (Levesque & Hinton 2001). The goal is to eliminate the gap…

  14. Direct NO decomposition over stepped transition-metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falsig, Hanne; Bligaard, Thomas; Christensen, Claus H.

    2007-01-01

    We establish the full potential energy diagram for the direct NO decomposition reaction over stepped transition-metal surfaces by combining a database of adsorption energies on stepped metal surfaces with known Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations for the activation barriers of dissociation...

  15. A structured four-step curriculum in basic laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandbygaard, Jeanett; Bjerrum, Flemming; Maagaard, Mathilde

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a 4-step curriculum in basic laparoscopy consisting of validated modules integrating a cognitive component, a practical component and a procedural component.......The objective of this study was to develop a 4-step curriculum in basic laparoscopy consisting of validated modules integrating a cognitive component, a practical component and a procedural component....

  16. Self Blocking of CO Dissociation on a Stepped Ruthenium Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm; Johansson, Martin; Mowbray, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    The influence of steps on CO reactions has been studied on a Ru(0 1 (1) over bar 5 4) single crystal with a step density of 4%. Based on temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and oxygen titration experiments as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we show that the CO dissociation...

  17. Postural inflexibility in PD: does it affect compensatory stepping?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, K.; Esselink, R.A.J.; Swart, B.J.M. de; Geurts, A.C.H.; Bloem, B.R.; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) impairs the ability to shape postural responses to contextual factors. It is unknown whether such inflexibility pertains to compensatory steps to overcome balance perturbations. Participants were instructed to recover balance in response to a platform translation. A step was

  18. Charge equilibration and potential steps in organic semiconductor multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocks, G.; Cakir, Deniz; Bokdam, Menno; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; Fahlman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Substantial potential steps ∼0.5 eV are frequently observed in organic multilayers of donor and acceptor molecules. Often such potential steps depend on the order in which the individual layers are deposited, or on which substrate they are deposited. In this paper we outline a model for these

  19. Two-Step Macrocycle Synthesis by Classical Ugi Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelraheem, Eman M M; Khaksar, Samad; Kurpiewska, Katarzyna; Kalinowska-Tłuścik, Justyna; Shaabani, Shabnam; Dömling, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    The direct nonpeptidic macrocycle synthesis of α-isocyano-ω-amines via the classical Ugi four-component reaction (U-4CR) is introduced. Herein an efficient and flexible two-step procedure to complex macrocycles is reported. In the first step, the reaction between unprotected diamines and

  20. Characterization of Mo/Si multilayer growth on stepped topographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Toine; Louis, Eric; Zoethout, E.; Goldberg, K.A.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with nanoscale bilayer thicknesses have been deposited on stepped substrate topographies, using various deposition angles. The multilayer morphology at the step-edge region was studied by cross section transmission electron microscopy. A transition from a continuous- to

  1. Two Step Wittig/Dihydroxylation Synthetic Route to Higher Sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation......Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation...

  2. Single-step digital backpropagation for nonlinearity mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secondini, Marco; Rommel, Simon; Meloni, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinearity mitigation based on the enhanced split-step Fourier method (ESSFM) for the implementation of low-complexity digital backpropagation (DBP) is investigated and experimentally demonstrated. After reviewing the main computational aspects of DBP and of the conventional split-step Fourier...... in the computational complexity, power consumption, and latency with respect to a simple feed-forward equalizer for bulk dispersion compensation....

  3. Disciplinary Counseling: The First Step toward Due Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Patrick J.

    1980-01-01

    The oral reprimand is seen as the most important step in a corrective discipline procedure. Steps of disciplinary counseling include: always counsel in a private place; identify the problem; identify the desired behavior; define the consequences; get commitment from employee; identify session as oral reprimand; and monitor and follow up.(MLW)

  4. Linear micromechanical stepping drive for pinhole array positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endrödy, Csaba; Mehner, Hannes; Hoffmann, Martin; Grewe, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    A compact linear micromechanical stepping drive for positioning a 7 × 5.5 mm 2 optical pinhole array is presented. The system features a step size of 13.2 µm and a full displacement range of 200 µm. The electrostatic inch-worm stepping mechanism shows a compact design capable of positioning a payload 50% of its own weight. The stepping drive movement, step sizes and position accuracy are characterized. The actuated pinhole array is integrated in a confocal chromatic hyperspectral imaging system, where coverage of the object plane, and therefore the useful picture data, can be multiplied by 14 in contrast to a non-actuated array. (paper)

  5. Stepped-frequency radar sensors theory, analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Cam

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the theory, analysis and design of microwave stepped-frequency radar sensors. Stepped-frequency radar sensors are attractive for various sensing applications that require fine resolution. The book consists of five chapters. The first chapter describes the fundamentals of radar sensors including applications followed by a review of ultra-wideband pulsed, frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW), and stepped-frequency radar sensors. The second chapter discusses a general analysis of radar sensors including wave propagation in media and scattering on targets, as well as the radar equation. The third chapter addresses the analysis of stepped-frequency radar sensors including their principles and design parameters. Chapter 4 presents the development of two stepped-frequency radar sensors at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies based on microwave integrated circuits (MICs), microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) and printed-circuit antennas, and discusses their signal processing....

  6. Performance analysis in stepped solar still for effluent desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velmurugan, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Infant Jesus College of Engineering, Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu 628 851 (India); Naveen Kumar, K.J.; Noorul Haq, T.; Srithar, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, Tamil Nadu 625 015 (India)

    2009-09-15

    In this work, a stepped solar still and an effluent settling tank are fabricated and tested for desalinating the textile effluent. The effluent is purified in an effluent settling tank. In this tank, large and fine solid particles are settled and clarified. The settled effluents are used as raw water in the stepped solar still. For better performance, the stepped solar still consists of 50 trays with two different depths. First 25 trays with 10 mm height and the next 25 trays with 5 mm height are used. Fin, sponge, pebble and combination of the above are used for enhancing the productivity of the stepped solar still. A maximum increase in productivity of 98% occurs in stepped solar still when fin, sponge and pebbles are used in this basin. Theoretical analysis agrees well with experimental results. (author)

  7. Two-step variable selection in quantile regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Yali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-step variable selection procedure for high dimensional quantile regressions, in which the dimension of the covariates, pn is much larger than the sample size n. In the first step, we perform ℓ1 penalty, and we demonstrate that the first step penalized estimator with the LASSO penalty can reduce the model from an ultra-high dimensional to a model whose size has the same order as that of the true model, and the selected model can cover the true model. The second step excludes the remained irrelevant covariates by applying the adaptive LASSO penalty to the reduced model obtained from the first step. Under some regularity conditions, we show that our procedure enjoys the model selection consistency. We conduct a simulation study and a real data analysis to evaluate the finite sample performance of the proposed approach.

  8. Effect of step width manipulation on tibial stress during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meardon, Stacey A; Derrick, Timothy R

    2014-08-22

    Narrow step width has been linked to variables associated with tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of step width on bone stresses using a standardized model of the tibia. 15 runners ran at their preferred 5k running velocity in three running conditions, preferred step width (PSW) and PSW±5% of leg length. 10 successful trials of force and 3-D motion data were collected. A combination of inverse dynamics, musculoskeletal modeling and beam theory was used to estimate stresses applied to the tibia using subject-specific anthropometrics and motion data. The tibia was modeled as a hollow ellipse. Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial stresses at the distal 1/3 of the tibia differed with step width manipulation (p=0.002). Compression on the posterior and medial aspect of the tibia was inversely related to step width such that as step width increased, compression on the surface of tibia decreased (linear trend p=0.036 and 0.003). Similarly, tension on the anterior surface of the tibia decreased as step width increased (linear trend p=0.029). Widening step width linearly reduced shear stress at all 4 sites (pstresses experienced by the tibia during running were influenced by step width when using a standardized model of the tibia. Wider step widths were generally associated with reduced loading of the tibia and may benefit runners at risk of or experiencing stress injury at the tibia, especially if they present with a crossover running style. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bio-inspired step-climbing in a hexapod robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Ya-Cheng; Yu, Wei-Shun; Huang, Ke-Jung; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the observation that the cockroach changes from a tripod gait to a different gait for climbing high steps, we report on the design and implementation of a novel, fully autonomous step-climbing maneuver, which enables a RHex-style hexapod robot to reliably climb a step up to 230% higher than the length of its leg. Similar to the climbing strategy most used by cockroaches, the proposed maneuver is composed of two stages. The first stage is the ‘rearing stage,’ inclining the body so the front side of the body is raised and it is easier for the front legs to catch the top of the step, followed by the ‘rising stage,’ maneuvering the body's center of mass to the top of the step. Two infrared range sensors are installed on the front of the robot to detect the presence of the step and its orientation relative to the robot's heading, so that the robot can perform automatic gait transition, from walking to step-climbing, as well as correct its initial tilt approaching posture. An inclinometer is utilized to measure body inclination and to compute step height, thus enabling the robot to adjust its gait automatically, in real time, and to climb steps of different heights and depths successfully. The algorithm is applicable for the robot to climb various rectangular obstacles, including a narrow bar, a bar and a step (i.e. a bar of infinite width). The performance of the algorithm is evaluated experimentally, and the comparison of climbing strategies and climbing behaviors in biological and robotic systems is discussed. (paper)

  10. Increasing Running Step Rate Reduces Patellofemoral Joint Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Rachel L.; Thelen, Darryl G.; Wille, Christa M.; Chumanov, Elizabeth S.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Increasing step rate has been shown to elicit changes in joint kinematics and kinetics during running, and has been suggested as a possible rehabilitation strategy for runners with patellofemoral pain. The purpose of this study was to determine how altering step rate affects internal muscle forces and patellofemoral joint loads, and then to determine what kinematic and kinetic factors best predict changes in joint loading. Methods We recorded whole body kinematics of 30 healthy adults running on an instrumented treadmill at three step rate conditions (90%, 100%, and 110% of preferred step rate). We then used a 3D lower extremity musculoskeletal model to estimate muscle, patellar tendon, and patellofemoral joint forces throughout the running gait cycles. Additionally, linear regression analysis allowed us to ascertain the relative influence of limb posture and external loads on patellofemoral joint force. Results Increasing step rate to 110% of preferred reduced peak patellofemoral joint force by 14%. Peak muscle forces were also altered as a result of the increased step rate with hip, knee and ankle extensor forces, and hip abductor forces all reduced in mid-stance. Compared to the 90% step rate condition, there was a concomitant increase in peak rectus femoris and hamstring loads during early and late swing, respectively, at higher step rates. Peak stance phase knee flexion decreased with increasing step rate, and was found to be the most important predictor of the reduction in patellofemoral joint loading. Conclusion Increasing step rate is an effective strategy to reduce patellofemoral joint forces and could be effective in modulating biomechanical factors that can contribute to patellofemoral pain. PMID:23917470

  11. Validity of the Stages of Change in Steps instrument (SoC-Step) for achieving the physical activity goal of 10,000 steps per day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Richard R; Duncan, Mitch J; Caperchione, Cristina M; Kolt, Gregory S; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Maeder, Anthony J; Savage, Trevor N; Mummery, W Kerry

    2015-11-30

    Physical activity (PA) offers numerous benefits to health and well-being, but most adults are not sufficiently physically active to afford such benefits. The 10,000 steps campaign has been a popular and effective approach to promote PA. The Transtheoretical Model posits that individuals have varying levels of readiness for health behavior change, known as Stages of Change (Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, and Maintenance). Few validated assessment instruments are available for determining Stages of Change in relation to the PA goal of 10,000 steps per day. The purpose of this study was to assess the criterion-related validity of the SoC-Step, a brief 10,000 steps per day Stages of Change instrument. Participants were 504 Australian adults (176 males, 328 females, mean age = 50.8 ± 13.0 years) from the baseline sample of the Walk 2.0 randomized controlled trial. Measures included 7-day accelerometry (Actigraph GT3X), height, weight, and self-reported intention, self-efficacy, and SoC-Step: Stages of Change relative to achieving 10,000 steps per day. Kruskal-Wallis H tests with pairwise comparisons were used to determine whether participants differed by stage, according to steps per day, general health, body mass index, intention, and self-efficacy to achieve 10,000 steps per day. Binary logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that participants in Maintenance or Action stages would have greater likelihood of meeting the 10,000 steps goal, in comparison to participants in the other three stages. Consistent with study hypotheses, participants in Precontemplation had significantly lower intention scores than those in Contemplation (p = 0.003) or Preparation (p per day (OR = 3.11; 95 % CI = 1.66,5.83) compared to those in Precontemplation, Contemplation, or Preparation. Intention (p per day. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12611000157976 World Health Organization Universal Trial

  12. How many steps/day are enough? for adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe David A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical activity guidelines from around the world are typically expressed in terms of frequency, duration, and intensity parameters. Objective monitoring using pedometers and accelerometers offers a new opportunity to measure and communicate physical activity in terms of steps/day. Various step-based versions or translations of physical activity guidelines are emerging, reflecting public interest in such guidance. However, there appears to be a wide discrepancy in the exact values that are being communicated. It makes sense that step-based recommendations should be harmonious with existing evidence-based public health guidelines that recognize that "some physical activity is better than none" while maintaining a focus on time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Thus, the purpose of this review was to update our existing knowledge of "How many steps/day are enough?", and to inform step-based recommendations consistent with current physical activity guidelines. Normative data indicate that healthy adults typically take between 4,000 and 18,000 steps/day, and that 10,000 steps/day is reasonable for this population, although there are notable "low active populations." Interventions demonstrate incremental increases on the order of 2,000-2,500 steps/day. The results of seven different controlled studies demonstrate that there is a strong relationship between cadence and intensity. Further, despite some inter-individual variation, 100 steps/minute represents a reasonable floor value indicative of moderate intensity walking. Multiplying this cadence by 30 minutes (i.e., typical of a daily recommendation produces a minimum of 3,000 steps that is best used as a heuristic (i.e., guiding value, but these steps must be taken over and above habitual activity levels to be a true expression of free-living steps/day that also includes recommendations for minimal amounts of time in MVPA. Computed steps/day translations of time in

  13. Small Town Energy Program (STEP) Final Report revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Charles (Chuck) T.

    2014-01-02

    University Park, Maryland (“UP”) is a small town of 2,540 residents, 919 homes, 2 churches, 1 school, 1 town hall, and 1 breakthrough community energy efficiency initiative: the Small Town Energy Program (“STEP”). STEP was developed with a mission to “create a model community energy transformation program that serves as a roadmap for other small towns across the U.S.” STEP first launched in January 2011 in UP and expanded in July 2012 to the neighboring communities of Hyattsville, Riverdale Park, and College Heights Estates, MD. STEP, which concluded in July 2013, was generously supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The STEP model was designed for replication in other resource-constrained small towns similar to University Park - a sector largely neglected to date in federal and state energy efficiency programs. STEP provided a full suite of activities for replication, including: energy audits and retrofits for residential buildings, financial incentives, a community-based social marketing backbone and local community delivery partners. STEP also included the highly innovative use of an “Energy Coach” who worked one-on-one with clients throughout the program. Please see www.smalltownenergy.org for more information. In less than three years, STEP achieved the following results in University Park: • 30% of community households participated voluntarily in STEP; • 25% of homes received a Home Performance with ENERGY STAR assessment; • 16% of households made energy efficiency improvements to their home; • 64% of households proceeded with an upgrade after their assessment; • 9 Full Time Equivalent jobs were created or retained, and 39 contractors worked on STEP over the course of the project. Estimated Energy Savings - Program Totals kWh Electricity 204,407 Therms Natural Gas 24,800 Gallons of Oil 2,581 Total Estimated MMBTU Saved (Source Energy) 5,474 Total Estimated Annual Energy Cost Savings $61,343 STEP clients who

  14. StepByStep : design of an interactive pictorial activity game for teaching generalization skills to children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruarin, A.; Westenberg, M.A.; Barakova, E.I.; Anacleto, J.C.; Clua, E.W.G.; Correa da Silva, F.S.; Fels, S.; Yang, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Translating acquired behavioral skills from training environments to daily-life situations is difficult for children with autism. This study introduces the StepByStep platform, in which pictorial activity schedules are implemented. Design decisions that increase the sameness in the environment and

  15. The Effects of Multiple-Step and Single-Step Directions on Fourth and Fifth Grade Students' Grammar Assessment Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerik, Matthew B.

    2006-01-01

    The mean scores of English Language Learners (ELL) and English Only (EO) students in 4th and 5th grade (N = 110), across the teacher-administered Grammar Skills Test, were examined for differences in participants' scores on assessments containing single-step directions and assessments containing multiple-step directions. The results indicated no…

  16. A Spiral Step-by-Step Educational Method for Cultivating Competent Embedded System Engineers to Meet Industry Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing,Lei; Cheng, Zixue; Wang, Junbo; Zhou, Yinghui

    2011-01-01

    Embedded system technologies are undergoing dramatic change. Competent embedded system engineers are becoming a scarce resource in the industry. Given this, universities should revise their specialist education to meet industry demands. In this paper, a spirally tight-coupled step-by-step educational method, based on an analysis of industry…

  17. Perinatal Depression Algorithm: A Home Visitor Step-by-Step Guide for Advanced Management of Perinatal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszewski, Audrey; Wichman, Christina L.; Doering, Jennifer J.; Maletta, Kristyn; Hammel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood professionals do many things to support young families. This is true now more than ever, as researchers continue to discover the long-term benefits of early, healthy, nurturing relationships. This article provides an overview of the development of an advanced practice perinatal depression algorithm created as a step-by-step guide…

  18. On the Equivalence between Small-Step and Big-Step Abstract Machines: A Simple Application of Lightweight Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    -step specification. We illustrate this observation here with a recognizer for Dyck words, the CEK machine, and Krivine's machine with call/cc. The need for such a simple proof is motivated by our current work on small-step abstract machines as obtained by refocusing a function implementing a reduction semantics (a...

  19. Step by step. How to install CopperCore, how to publish and run a UoL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Through these four documents the full installation process of CopperCore is described in detailed. Step by step, and full supported with screenshots, it's shown how to install Cc, how to publish a UoL with Cc and Clicc, how to run a UoL and to exit of Cc and Clicc

  20. Steps That Count: Physical Activity Recommendations, Brisk Walking, and Steps Per Minute-How Do They Relate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillay, J.; Kolbe-Alexander, T.L.; Proper, K.I.; van Mechelen, W.; Lambert, E.V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brisk walking is recommended as a form of health-enhancing physical activity. This study determines the steps/minute rate corresponding to self-paced brisk walking (SPBW); a predicted steps/minute rate for moderate physical activity (MPA) and a comparison of the 2 findings. Methods: A

  1. Human exposure assessment for biocides in the EU development of step by step guidance and worked examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen-Ebben, R.M.G.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Directive 98/8/EC(1) concerns EU harmonisation of placing biocidal products on the market. In the present short paper the preliminary results of an ongoing project are presented in which step by step guidance on human exposure assessment with worked examples is developed. For all 23 biocidal product

  2. A step-by-step framework to assess benefits of established temperate marine protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Götz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs have been advocated as a solution to the challenges of both conservation and modern fishery management, but their application remains controversial, partly because there are only general guidelines for evaluating their effectiveness. We propose a framework to specifically evaluate established MPAs in six steps. We tested the approach by reviewing published research and unpublished information on the Goukamma MPA in the centre of the South African temperate south coast. Information reviewed included effects on the structure of fish populations, catch and abundance indices of fish species, and ecosystem effects. We investigated factors that determine the usefulness of a MPA in fisheries management, including the movement behaviour of adult fishes, larval dispersal and fisher-displacement patterns. We found that differences in the rates of exploitation across the MPA border resulted in differences in abundance, size and condition of the main target species, roman (Chrysoblephus laticeps. The diversity and abundance of non-target fish species, and the composition of the benthic invertebrate community, were affected by the cessation of fishing. The potential for "spillover" of adult roman might be limited to the vicinity of the MPA by their small home range, but there is potential for self-seeding and dispersal of roman eggs and larvae over wider areas. These theoretical considerations were confirmed by an analysis of catch data from before and after MPA implementation. The framework presented here may help to identify and fill gaps in the knowledge of established MPAs along South Africa's temperate south coast.

  3. Significant improvements of electrical discharge machining performance by step-by-step updated adaptive control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wu, Jianyang; Xu, Xiaoyi; Mu, Xin; Dou, Yunping

    2018-02-01

    In order to obtain improved electrical discharge machining (EDM) performance, we have dedicated more than a decade to correcting one essential EDM defect, the weak stability of the machining, by developing adaptive control systems. The instabilities of machining are mainly caused by complicated disturbances in discharging. To counteract the effects from the disturbances on machining, we theoretically developed three control laws from minimum variance (MV) control law to minimum variance and pole placements coupled (MVPPC) control law and then to a two-step-ahead prediction (TP) control law. Based on real-time estimation of EDM process model parameters and measured ratio of arcing pulses which is also called gap state, electrode discharging cycle was directly and adaptively tuned so that a stable machining could be achieved. To this end, we not only theoretically provide three proved control laws for a developed EDM adaptive control system, but also practically proved the TP control law to be the best in dealing with machining instability and machining efficiency though the MVPPC control law provided much better EDM performance than the MV control law. It was also shown that the TP control law also provided a burn free machining.

  4. Comparative analysis of single-step and two-step biodiesel production using supercritical methanol on laboratory-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micic, Radoslav D.; Tomić, Milan D.; Kiss, Ferenc E.; Martinovic, Ferenc L.; Simikić, Mirko Ð.; Molnar, Tibor T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-step supercritical transesterification compared to the two-step process. • Two-step process: oil hydrolysis and subsequent supercritical methyl esterification. • Experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. • Higher biodiesel yields in two-step process at milder reaction conditions. • Two-step process has potential to be cost-competitive with the single-step process. - Abstract: Single-step supercritical transesterification and two-step biodiesel production process consisting of oil hydrolysis and subsequent supercritical methyl esterification were studied and compared. For this purpose, comparative experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor and optimal reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, molar ratio and time) were determined. Results indicate that in comparison to a single-step transesterification, methyl esterification (second step of the two-step process) produces higher biodiesel yields (95 wt% vs. 91 wt%) at lower temperatures (270 °C vs. 350 °C), pressures (8 MPa vs. 12 MPa) and methanol to oil molar ratios (1:20 vs. 1:42). This can be explained by the fact that the reaction system consisting of free fatty acid (FFA) and methanol achieves supercritical condition at milder reaction conditions. Furthermore, the dissolved FFA increases the acidity of supercritical methanol and acts as an acid catalyst that increases the reaction rate. There is a direct correlation between FFA content of the product obtained in hydrolysis and biodiesel yields in methyl esterification. Therefore, the reaction parameters of hydrolysis were optimized to yield the highest FFA content at 12 MPa, 250 °C and 1:20 oil to water molar ratio. Results of direct material and energy costs comparison suggest that the process based on the two-step reaction has the potential to be cost-competitive with the process based on single-step supercritical transesterification. Higher biodiesel yields, similar or lower energy

  5. Required Steps of Managing International Equity Placement Strategic Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harimukti Wandebori

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to unravel the steps of managing international equity placement strategic alliance (IEPSA. The steps of managing an IEPSA are obtained by conducting theoretical review. The theoretical reviews consist of theory of strategic alliance; definition, classification, and finding definition of an IEPSA, political and analytical considerations and the necessary steps. These steps of managing IEPSA can be classified into analyzing of macro consideration, micro consideration, domestic company’s stakeholder support, cultural understanding, strategic planning, internal support, human resource management, organizational arrangement, management control system, evolved cultural understanding, and evaluating results. In this research, the domestic partners who formed the IEPSAs are limited to State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs. The IEPSA was one of the means of privatization. The research will be beneficial for both foreign and domestic partners who form an IEPSA in the previous SOEs. By knowing the steps of managing the IEPSA both partners will be able to secure a successful implementation of IEPSA. By identifying the steps of managing the IEPSA, the stakeholder will not see IEPSA as threat rather as an opportunity to improve performance, to create synergy, and generate benefits for both partners and stakeholder. By knowing the necessary steps of managing the IEPSA, the stakeholder including society and politician will envisage the IEPSA as a means of effectively improving the SOEs’ performances.The research was espected to provide contributions for the research on strategic alliances. Apparently, there exist no literatures discussing about IEPSA in the domain of strategic alliances.

  6. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  7. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand,  posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007.  The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  8. Evaluation of one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate fuming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuu, Alicia; Chadwick, Scott; Spindler, Xanthe; Lam, Rolanda; Moret, Sébastien; Roux, Claude

    2016-06-01

    One-step luminescent cyanoacrylates have recently been introduced as an alternative to the conventional cyanoacrylate fuming methods. These new techniques do not require the application of a luminescent post-treatment in order to enhance cyanoacrylate-developed fingermarks. In this study, three one-step polymer cyanoacrylates: CN Yellow Crystals (Aneval Inc.), PolyCyano UV (Foster+Freeman Ltd.) and PECA Multiband (BVDA), and one monomer cyanoacrylate: Lumikit™ (Crime Scene Technology), were evaluated against a conventional two-step cyanoacrylate fuming method (Cyanobloom (Foster+Freeman Ltd.) with rhodamine 6G stain). The manufacturers' recommended conditions or conditions compatible with the MVC™ 1000/D (Foster+Freeman Ltd.) were assessed with fingermarks aged for up to 8 weeks on non-porous and semi-porous substrates. Under white light, Cyanobloom generally gave better development than the one-step treatments across the substrates. Similarly when viewed under the respective luminescent conditions, Cyanobloom with rhodamine 6G stain resulted in improved contrast against the one-step treatments except on polystyrene, where PolyCyano UV and PECA Multiband gave better visualisation. Rhodamine 6G post-treatment of one-step samples did not significantly enhance the contrast of any of the one-step treatments against Cyanobloom/rhodamine 6G-treated samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Group sequential designs for stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayling, Michael J; Wason, James Ms; Mander, Adrian P

    2017-10-01

    The stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial design has received substantial attention in recent years. Although various extensions to the original design have been proposed, no guidance is available on the design of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. In an individually randomised trial setting, group sequential methods can provide notable efficiency gains and ethical benefits. We address this by discussing how established group sequential methodology can be adapted for stepped-wedge designs. Utilising the error spending approach to group sequential trial design, we detail the assumptions required for the determination of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. We consider early stopping for efficacy, futility, or efficacy and futility. We describe first how this can be done for any specified linear mixed model for data analysis. We then focus on one particular commonly utilised model and, using a recently completed stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, compare the performance of several designs with interim analyses to the classical stepped-wedge design. Finally, the performance of a quantile substitution procedure for dealing with the case of unknown variance is explored. We demonstrate that the incorporation of early stopping in stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial designs could reduce the expected sample size under the null and alternative hypotheses by up to 31% and 22%, respectively, with no cost to the trial's type-I and type-II error rates. The use of restricted error maximum likelihood estimation was found to be more important than quantile substitution for controlling the type-I error rate. The addition of interim analyses into stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials could help guard against time-consuming trials conducted on poor performing treatments and also help expedite the implementation of efficacious treatments. In future, trialists should consider incorporating early stopping of some kind into

  10. Stepping strategies for regulating gait adaptability and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, Laura; Houdijk, Han; Steenbrink, Frans; Mert, Agali; van der Wurff, Peter; Beek, Peter J; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2013-03-15

    Besides a stable gait pattern, gait in daily life requires the capability to adapt this pattern in response to environmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the anticipatory strategies used by able-bodied people to attain an adaptive gait pattern, and how these strategies interact with strategies used to maintain gait stability. Ten healthy subjects walked in a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation ENvironment (CAREN). To provoke an adaptive gait pattern, subjects had to hit virtual targets, with markers guided by their knees, while walking on a self-paced treadmill. The effects of walking with and without this task on walking speed, step length, step frequency, step width and the margins of stability (MoS) were assessed. Furthermore, these trials were performed with and without additional continuous ML platform translations. When an adaptive gait pattern was required, subjects decreased step length (padaptations resulted in the preservation of equal MoS between trials, despite the disturbing influence of the gait adaptability task. When the gait adaptability task was combined with the balance perturbation subjects further decreased step length, as evidenced by a significant interaction between both manipulations (p=0.012). In conclusion, able-bodied people reduce step length and increase step width during walking conditions requiring a high level of both stability and adaptability. Although an increase in step frequency has previously been found to enhance stability, a faster movement, which would coincide with a higher step frequency, hampers accuracy and may consequently limit gait adaptability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The CTB Treaty and next steps towards nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, W.

    1998-01-01

    The achievement of a CTBT is of course the indispensable first step in any program of nuclear disarmament. It will not be easy for Conference on Disarmament to agree by consensus to establish the committee on nuclear disarmament and will be even more difficult for it to agree on its mandate or terms of reference. In the meantime the nuclear powers should seek to implement a number of steps towards nuclear disarmament which thy can argue and implement by their own accord. The next steps are described in this report

  12. Role of steps in N-2 activation on Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Søren; Logadottir, Ashildur; Egeberg, Rasmus

    1999-01-01

    Using adsorption experiments and density functional calculations we show that N-2 dissociation on the Ru(0001) surface is totally dominated by steps. The measured adsorption rate at the steps is at least 9 orders of magnitude higher than on the terraces at 500 K, and the corresponding calculated ...... difference in activation energy is 1.5 eV. The low barrier at the step is shown to be due to a combination of electronic and geometrical effects. The consequences for Ru as a catalyst for ammonia synthesis are discussed....

  13. Mechanism for propagation of the step leader of streak lightning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, A.I.; Zolotovskil, V.I.; Ivanovskil, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    A hypothetical scheme for the development of the step leader of streak lightning is discussed. The mathematical problem of modeling the propagation of the leader in this scheme is stated. The main parameters of the leader are estimated: the length and propagation velocity of the step, the average propagation velocity, etc. This is compared with data from observations in nature. The propagation of the leader is simulated numerically. Results of the calculation are presented for two 'flashes' of the step leader. 25 refs., 6 figs

  14. Delivering stepped care: an analysis of implementation in routine practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards David A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom, clinical guidelines recommend that services for depression and anxiety should be structured around a stepped care model, where patients receive treatment at different 'steps,' with the intensity of treatment (i.e., the amount and type increasing at each step if they fail to benefit at previous steps. There are very limited data available on the implementation of this model, particularly on the intensity of psychological treatment at each step. Our objective was to describe patient pathways through stepped care services and the impact of this on patient flow and management. Methods We recorded service design features of four National Health Service sites implementing stepped care (e.g., the types of treatments available and their links with other treatments, together with the actual treatments received by individual patients and their transitions between different treatment steps. We computed the proportions of patients accessing, receiving, and transiting between the various steps and mapped these proportions visually to illustrate patient movement. Results We collected throughput data on 7,698 patients referred. Patient pathways were highly complex and very variable within and between sites. The ratio of low (e.g., self-help to high-intensity (e.g., cognitive behaviour therapy treatments delivered varied between sites from 22:1, through 2.1:1, 1.4:1 to 0.5:1. The numbers of patients allocated directly to high-intensity treatment varied from 3% to 45%. Rates of stepping up from low-intensity treatment to high-intensity treatment were less than 10%. Conclusions When services attempt to implement the recommendation for stepped care in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines, there were significant differences in implementation and consequent high levels of variation in patient pathways. Evaluations driven by the principles of implementation science (such as targeted planning

  15. Thermodynamic approach and comparison of two-step and single step DME (dimethyl ether) syntheses with carbon dioxide utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Hsu, Chih-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    DME (Dimethyl ether) synthesis from syngas with CO_2 utilization through two-step and single step processes is analyzed thermodynamically. The influences of reaction temperature, H_2/CO molar ratio, and CO_2/CO molar ratio on CO and CO_2 conversions, DME selectivity and yield, and thermal behavior are evaluated. Particular attention is paid to the comparison of the performance of DME synthesis between the two different methods. In the two-step method, the addition of CO_2 suppresses the CO conversion during methanol synthesis. An increase in CO_2/CO ratio decreases the CO_2 conversion (negative effect), but increases the total consumption amount of CO_2 (positive effect). At a given reaction temperature with H_2/CO = 4, the maximum DME yield develops at CO_2/CO = 1. In the single step method, over 98% of CO can be converted and the DME yield can be as high as 0.52 mol (mol CO)"−"1 at CO_2/CO = 2. The comparison of the single step and two-step processes indicates that the maximum CO conversion, DME selectivity, and DME yield in the former are higher than those in the latter, whereas an opposite result in the maximum CO_2 conversion is observed. These results reveal that the single step process has lower thermodynamic limitation and is a better option for DME synthesis. From CO_2 utilization point of view, the operation with low temperature, high H_2/CO ratio, and low CO_2/CO ratio results in higher CO_2 conversion, irrespective of two-step or single step DME synthesis. - Highlights: • DME (Dimethyl ether) synthesis with CO_2 utilization is analyzed thermodynamically. • Single step and two-step DME syntheses are studied and compared with each other. • CO_2 addition suppresses CO conversion in MeOH synthesis but increases MeOH yield. • The performance of the single step DME synthesis is better than that of the two-step one. • Increase CO_2/CO ratio decreases CO_2 conversion but increases CO_2 consumption amount.

  16. Step by Step Implementation of Knowledge Sharing for Library In Indonesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nove E. Variant Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Knowledge sharing banyak diyakini sebagai kegiatan yang mampu mendorong kreativitas dan terciptanya inovasi bagi sebuah organisasi. Banyak organisasi yang memiliki inisiatif menerapkan knowledge sharing demi terciptanya inovasi. Paper ini ingin memberikan wacana bagi perpustakaan yang ingin mengimplementasikan knowledge sharing di perpustakaan. Paper ini terdiri dari pemaparan dan analisis kondisi perpustakaan dan implementasi knowledge sharig di perpustakaan, teknologi yang mendukung knowledge sharing. Langkah-langkah yang bisa diimplementasikan dalam knowledge sharing antara lain dengan menciptakan leader dan champion, menciptakan budaya sharing dan trust antar pegawai, menciptakan office layout yang mendorong terjadinya kolaborasi, dan memberikan motivasi bagi para pegawai agar mau berpartisipasi dalam knowledge sharing. Metode yang digunakan pada paper ini adalah studi pustaka dengan menelusur sumber informasi baik dari jurnal, artikel, berita, studi kasus, dan standar terkait knowledge sharing.   Kata kunci: knowledge sharing, knowledge sharing di perpustakaan, perpustakaan, strategi knowledge sharing   Abstract. Knowledge sharing is believed to be an activity that is able to encourage creativity and create innovation in an organization. Many organizations have the initiative to implement knowledge sharing in order to create innovations. This paper proposes a discourse for libraries that want to implement knowledge sharing. This paper explains and analyzes the condition of the library and the implementation of knowledge sharing in the library and the technology that supports knowledge sharing. The steps that can be implemented in knowledge sharing include creating leaders and champions, creating sharing culture and trust among employees, creating office layout which encourage collaboration and motivating the employees to participate in knowledge sharing. This paper used literature study to search sources of information from

  17. Taking the First Step towards Entrenching Mental Health in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taking the First Step towards Entrenching Mental Health in the Workplace: ... of optimal employee mental health to sustainable human capital development in the ... can be mobilized to promote the entrenchment of workplace mental health.

  18. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel; Rietmann, Max; Galvez, Percy; Ampuero, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step

  19. "Small Steps, Big Rewards": You Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Steps, Big Rewards": You Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents For ... million Americans are at risk for type 2 diabetes." "Fifty four million Americans are at risk for ...

  20. MIDPOINT TWO- STEPS RULE FOR THE SQUARE ROOT METHOD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR S.E UWAMUSI

    Aberth third order method for finding zeros of a polynomial in interval ... KEY WORDS: Square root iteration, midpoint two steps Method, ...... A New set of Methods for the simultaneous determination of zeros of polynomial equation and iterative ...

  1. Using Analogy to Solve a Three-Step Physics Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-10-01

    In a companion paper, we discuss students' ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss students' ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two-step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.

  2. Ensemble Kalman filtering with one-step-ahead smoothing

    KAUST Repository

    Raboudi, Naila F.; Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    error statistics. This limits their representativeness of the background error covariances and, thus, their performance. This work explores the efficiency of the one-step-ahead (OSA) smoothing formulation of the Bayesian filtering problem to enhance

  3. A Stepped Frequency CW SAR for Lightweight UAV Operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Keith

    2005-01-01

    A stepped-frequency continuous wave (SF-CW) synthetic aperture radar (SAR), with frequency-agile waveforms and real-time intelligent signal processing algorithms, is proposed for operation from a lightweight UAV platform...

  4. Multivariate statistical analysis of a multi-step industrial processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinikainen, S.P.; Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring and quality control of industrial processes often produce information on how the data have been obtained. In batch processes, for instance, the process is carried out in stages; some process or control parameters are set at each stage. However, the obtained data might not be utilized...... efficiently, even if this information may reveal significant knowledge about process dynamics or ongoing phenomena. When studying the process data, it may be important to analyse the data in the light of the physical or time-wise development of each process step. In this paper, a unified approach to analyse...... multivariate multi-step processes, where results from each step are used to evaluate future results, is presented. The methods presented are based on Priority PLS Regression. The basic idea is to compute the weights in the regression analysis for given steps, but adjust all data by the resulting score vectors...

  5. Time step size selection for radiation diffusion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rider, W.J.; Knoll, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to describe a time step control technique as applied to radiation diffusion. Standard practice only provides a heuristic criteria related to the relative change in the dependent variables. The authors propose an alternative based on relatively simple physical principles. This time step control applies to methods of solution that are unconditionally stable and converges nonlinearities within a time step in the governing equations. Commonly, nonlinearities in the governing equations are evaluated using existing (old time) data. The authors refer to this as the semi-implicit (SI) method. When a method converges nonlinearities within a time step, the entire governing equation including all nonlinearities is self-consistently evaluated using advance time data (with appropriate time centering for accuracy)

  6. Advanced Electric Propulsion NextSTEP BAA Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the AES Advanced Electric Propulsion Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) activity is to...

  7. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of step size adaptation rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, Oswin; Glasmachers, Tobias; Igel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We present a comparison of step size adaptation methods for evolution strategies, covering recent developments in the field. Following recent work by Hansen et al. we formulate a concise list of performance criteria: a) fast convergence of the mean, b) near-optimal fixed point of the normalized s...... that cumulative step size adaptation (CSA) and twopoint adaptation (TPA) provide reliable estimates of the optimal step size. We further find that removing the evolution path of CSA still leads to a reliable algorithm without the computational requirements of CSA.......We present a comparison of step size adaptation methods for evolution strategies, covering recent developments in the field. Following recent work by Hansen et al. we formulate a concise list of performance criteria: a) fast convergence of the mean, b) near-optimal fixed point of the normalized...

  8. Representation of (Step) Mothering and Identity Formation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Representation of (Step) Mothering and Identity Formation of Children in Plural ... problematic for women and children than for the fathers in such relationships. ... boundaries, low self-esteem and polarized identity between “self” and “other” ...

  9. Scanning tunneling microscope with a rotary piezoelectric stepping motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimov, V. N.

    1996-02-01

    A compact scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with a novel rotary piezoelectric stepping motor for coarse positioning has been developed. An inertial method for rotating of the rotor by the pair of piezoplates has been used in the piezomotor. Minimal angular step size was about several arcsec with the spindle working torque up to 1 N×cm. Design of the STM was noticeably simplified by utilization of the piezomotor with such small step size. A shaft eccentrically attached to the piezomotor spindle made it possible to push and pull back the cylindrical bush with the tubular piezoscanner. A linear step of coarse positioning was about 50 nm. STM resolution in vertical direction was better than 0.1 nm without an external vibration isolation.

  10. Fusion Kalman filtration with k-step delay sharing pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Zdzisław

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A fusion hierarchical state filtration with k−step delay sharing pattern for a multisensor system is considered. A global state estimate depends on local state estimates determined by local nodes using local information. Local available information consists of local measurements and k−step delay global information - global estimate sent from a central node. Local estimates are transmitted to the central node to be fused. The synthesis of local and global filters is presented. It is shown that a fusion filtration with k−step delay sharing pattern is equivalent to the optimal centralized classical Kalman filtration when local measurements are transmitted to the center node and used to determine a global state estimate. It is proved that the k−step delay sharing pattern can reduce covariances of local state errors.

  11. Phase-step retrieval for tunable phase-shifting algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayubi, Gastón A.; Duarte, Ignacio; Perciante, César D.; Flores, Jorge L.; Ferrari, José A.

    2017-12-01

    Phase-shifting (PS) is a well-known technique for phase retrieval in interferometry, with applications in deflectometry and 3D-profiling, which requires a series of intensity measurements with certain phase-steps. Usually the phase-steps are evenly spaced, and its knowledge is crucial for the phase retrieval. In this work we present a method to extract the phase-step between consecutive interferograms. We test the proposed technique with images corrupted by additive noise. The results were compared with other known methods. We also present experimental results showing the performance of the method when spatial filters are applied to the interferograms and the effect that they have on their relative phase-steps.

  12. Diffraction model of a step-out transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.; Zimmermann, F.

    1996-06-01

    The diffraction model of a cavity, suggested by Lawson, Bane and Sands is generalized to a step out transition. Using this model, the high frequency impedance is calculated explicitly for the case that the transition step is small compared with the beam pipe radius. In the diffraction model for a small step out transition, the total energy is conserved, but, unlike the cavity case, the diffracted waves in the geometric shadow and the pipe region, in general, do not always carry equal energy. In the limit of small step sizes, the impedance derived from the diffraction model agrees with that found by Balakin, Novokhatsky and also Kheifets. This impedance can be used to compute the wake field of a round collimator whose half aperture is much larger than the bunch length, as existing in the SLC final focus.

  13. The step complexity measure for emergency operating procedures: measure verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea; Ha, Jaejoo; Park, Changkue

    2002-01-01

    In complex systems, such as nuclear power plants (NPPs) or airplane control systems, human errors play a major role in many accidents. Therefore, to prevent an occurrence of accidents or to ensure system safety, extensive effort has been made to identify significant factors that can cause human errors. According to related studies, written manuals or operating procedures are revealed as one of the most important factors, and the understandability is pointed out as one of the major reasons for procedure-related human errors. Many qualitative checklists are suggested to evaluate emergency operating procedures (EOPs) of NPPs. However, since qualitative evaluations using checklists have some drawbacks, a quantitative measure that can quantify the complexity of EOPs is very necessary to compensate for them. In order to quantify the complexity of steps included in EOPs, Park et al. suggested the step complexity (SC) measure. In addition, to ascertain the appropriateness of the SC measure, averaged step performance time data obtained from emergency training records for the loss of coolant accident and the excess steam dump event were compared with estimated SC scores. Although averaged step performance time data show good correlation with estimated SC scores, conclusions for some important issues that have to be clarified to ensure the appropriateness of the SC measure were not properly drawn because of lack of backup data. In this paper, to clarify remaining issues, additional activities to verify the appropriateness of the SC measure are performed using averaged step performance time data obtained from emergency training records. The total number of available records is 36, and training scenarios are the steam generator tube rupture and the loss of all feedwater. The number of scenarios is 18 each. From these emergency training records, averaged step performance time data for 30 steps are retrieved. As the results, the SC measure shows statistically meaningful

  14. An improved 4-step commutation method application for matrix converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yu; Guo, Yougui; Deng, Wenlang

    2014-01-01

    A novel four-step commutation method is proposed for matrix converter cell, 3 phase inputs to 1 phase output in this paper, which is obtained on the analysis of published commutation methods for matrix converter. The first and fourth step can be shorter than the second or third one. The discussed...... method here is implemented by programming in VHDL language. Finally, the novel method in this paper is verified by experiments....

  15. The STEP standard as an approach for design and prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Plantec , Alain; Ribaud , Vincent

    1998-01-01

    International audience; STEP is an ISO standard (ISO-10303) for the computer-interpretable representation and exchange of product data. Parts of STEP standardize conceptual structures and usage of information in generic or specific domains. The standardization process of these constructs is an evolutionary approach , which uses generated prototypes at different phases of the process. This paper presents a method for the building of prototype generators, inspired by this standardization proces...

  16. Stepping motors a guide to theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Acarnely, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This book provides an introductory text which will enable the reader to both appreciate the essential characteristics of stepping motor systems and understand how these characteristics are being exploited in the continuing development of new motors, drives and controllers. A basic theoretical approach relating to the more significant aspects of performance is presented, although it is assumed throughout that the reader has no previous experience of electrical machines and is primarily interested in the applications of stepping motors.

  17. Revisionist integral deferred correction with adaptive step-size control

    KAUST Repository

    Christlieb, Andrew

    2015-03-27

    © 2015 Mathematical Sciences Publishers. Adaptive step-size control is a critical feature for the robust and efficient numerical solution of initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we show that adaptive step-size control can be incorporated within a family of parallel time integrators known as revisionist integral deferred correction (RIDC) methods. The RIDC framework allows for various strategies to implement stepsize control, and we report results from exploring a few of them.

  18. Required Steps of Managing International Equity Placement Strategic Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harimukti Wandebori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to unravel the steps of managing international equity placement strategic alliance (IEPSA. The steps of managing an IEPSA are obtained by conducting theoretical review. The theoretical reviews consist of theory of strategic alliance; definition, classification, and finding definition of an IEPSA, political and analytical considerations and the necessary steps. These steps of managing IEPSA can be classified into analyzing of macro consideration, micro consideration, domestic company’s stakeholder support, cultural understanding, strategic planning, internal support, human resource management, organizational arrangement, management control system, evolved cultural understanding, and evaluating results. In this research, the domestic partners who formed the IEPSAs are limited to State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs. The IEPSA was one of the means of privatization. The research will be beneficial for both foreign and domestic partners who form an IEPSA in the previous SOEs. By knowing the steps of managing the IEPSA both partners will be able to secure a successful implementation of IEPSA. By identifying the steps of managing the IEPSA, the stakeholder will not see IEPSA as threat rather as an opportunity to improve performance, to create synergy, and generate benefits for both partners and stakeholder. By knowing the necessary steps of managing the IEPSA, the stakeholder including society and politician will envisage the IEPSA as a means of effectively improving the SOEs’ performances.The research was espected to provide contributions for the research on strategic alliances. Apparently, there exist no literatures discussing about IEPSA in the domain of strategic alliances. Keywords: strategic alliance, equity placement, international equity placement strategic alliance, privatization, steps of international equity placement strategic alliance, state-owned enterprises

  19. Extraction of Human Stepping Pattern Using Acceleration Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyohira Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gait analysis plays an important role in characterizing individuals and each condition and gait analysis systems have been developed using various devices or instruments. However, most systems do not catch synchronous stepping actions between right foot and left foot. For obtaining a precise gait pattern, a synchronous walking sensing system is developed, in which a pair of acceleration and angular velocity sensors are attached to left and right shoes of a walking person and their data are transmitted to a PC through a wireless channel. Walking data from 19 persons of the age of 14 to 20 are acquired for walking analysis. Stepping time diagrams are extracted from the acquired data of right and left foot actions of stepping-off and-on the ground, and the time diagrams distinguish between an ordinary person and a person injured on left leg, and a stepping recovery process of the injured person is shown. Synchronous sensing of stepping action between right foot and left foot contributes to obtain precise stepping patterns.

  20. Improved perovskite phototransistor prepared using multi-step annealing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mingxuan; Zhang, Yating; Yu, Yu; Yao, Jianquan

    2018-02-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites with good intrinsic physical properties have received substantial interest for solar cell and optoelectronic applications. However, perovskite film always suffers from a low carrier mobility due to its structural imperfection including sharp grain boundaries and pinholes, restricting their device performance and application potential. Here we demonstrate a straightforward strategy based on multi-step annealing process to improve the performance of perovskite photodetector. Annealing temperature and duration greatly affects the surface morphology and optoelectrical properties of perovskites which determines the device property of phototransistor. The perovskite films treated with multi-step annealing method tend to form highly uniform, well-crystallized and high surface coverage perovskite film, which exhibit stronger ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence spectrum compare to the perovskites prepared by conventional one-step annealing process. The field-effect mobilities of perovskite photodetector treated by one-step direct annealing method shows mobility as 0.121 (0.062) cm2V-1s-1 for holes (electrons), which increases to 1.01 (0.54) cm2V-1s-1 for that treated with muti-step slow annealing method. Moreover, the perovskite phototransistors exhibit a fast photoresponse speed of 78 μs. In general, this work focuses on the influence of annealing methods on perovskite phototransistor, instead of obtains best parameters of it. These findings prove that Multi-step annealing methods is feasible to prepared high performance based photodetector.

  1. Two-step Raman spectroscopy method for tumor diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, V. P.; Bratchenko, I. A.; Kozlov, S. V.; Moryatov, A. A.; Myakinin, O. O.; Artemyev, D. N.

    2014-05-01

    Two-step Raman spectroscopy phase method was proposed for differential diagnosis of malignant tumor in skin and lung tissue. It includes detection of malignant tumor in healthy tissue on first step with identification of concrete cancer type on the second step. Proposed phase method analyze spectral intensity alteration in 1300-1340 and 1640-1680 cm-1 Raman bands in relation to the intensity of the 1450 cm-1 band on first step, and relative differences between RS intensities for tumor area and healthy skin closely adjacent to the lesion on the second step. It was tested more than 40 ex vivo samples of lung tissue and more than 50 in vivo skin tumors. Linear Discriminant Analysis, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machine were used for tumors type classification on phase planes. It is shown that two-step phase method allows to reach 88.9% sensitivity and 87.8% specificity for malignant melanoma diagnosis (skin cancer); 100% sensitivity and 81.5% specificity for adenocarcinoma diagnosis (lung cancer); 90.9% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity for squamous cell carcinoma diagnosis (lung cancer).

  2. Design and fabrication of a chitosan hydrogel with gradient structures via a step-by-step cross-linking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongxiang; Yuan, Shenpo; Han, Jianmin; Lin, Hong; Zhang, Xuehui

    2017-11-15

    The development of scaffolds to mimic the gradient structure of natural tissue is an important consideration for effective tissue engineering. In the present study, a physical cross-linking chitosan hydrogel with gradient structures was fabricated via a step-by-step cross-linking process using sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium hydroxide as sequential cross-linkers. Chitosan hydrogels with different structures (single, double, and triple layers) were prepared by modifying the gelling process. The properties of the hydrogels were further adjusted by varying the gelling conditions, such as gelling time, pH, and composition of the crosslinking solution. Slight cytotoxicity was showed in MTT assay for hydrogels with uncross-linking chitosan solution and non-cytotoxicity was showed for other hydrogels. The results suggest that step-by-step cross-linking represents a practicable method to fabricate scaffolds with gradient structures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Can Reduced-Step Polishers Be as Effective as Multiple-Step Polishers in Enhancing Surface Smoothness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemaloglu, Hande; Karacolak, Gamze; Turkun, L Sebnem

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various finishing and polishing systems on the final surface roughness of a resin composite. Hypotheses tested were: (1) reduced-step polishing systems are as effective as multiple-step systems on reducing the surface roughness of a resin composite and (2) the number of application steps in an F/P system has no effect on reducing surface roughness. Ninety discs of a nano-hybrid resin composite were fabricated and divided into nine groups (n = 10). Except the control, all of the specimens were roughened prior to be polished by: Enamel Plus Shiny, Venus Supra, One-gloss, Sof-Lex Wheels, Super-Snap, Enhance/PoGo, Clearfil Twist Dia, and rubber cups. The surface roughness was measured and the surfaces were examined under scanning electron microscope. Results were analyzed with analysis of variance and Holm-Sidak's multiple comparisons test (p One-gloss, Enamel Plus Shiny, and Venus Supra groups. (1) The number of application steps has no effect on the performance of F/P systems. (2) Reduced-step polishers used after a finisher can be preferable to multiple-step systems when used on nanohybrid resin composites. (3) The effect of F/P systems on surface roughness seems to be material-dependent rather than instrument- or system-dependent. Reduced-step systems used after a prepolisher can be an acceptable alternative to multiple-step systems on enhancing the surface smoothness of a nanohybrid composite; however, their effectiveness depends on the materials' properties. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:31-40, 2017). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Calculating Characteristics of the Screws with Constant And Variable Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Zotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to creating a technique for calculating power characteristics of the screws with constant and variable step for the centrifugal pumps. The technique feature is that the reverse currents, which are observed in screws working at low flow, are numerically taken into account. The paper presents a diagram of the stream in the screw with flow to the network Q=0, and the static pressure of the screw in this mode is computed according to reverse current parameters. Maximum flow of screw is determined from the known formulas. When calculating the power characteristics and computing the overall efficiency of the screw, for the first time a volumetric efficiency of the screw is introduced. It is defined as a ratio between the flow into the network and the sum of the reverse current flows and a flow into the network. This approach allowed us to determine the efficiency of the screw over the entire range of flows.A comparison of experimental characteristics of the constant step screw with those of calculated by the proposed technique shows their good agreement.The technique is also used in calculating characteristics of the variable step screws. The variable step screw is considered as a screw consisting of two screws with a smooth transition of the blades from the inlet to the outlet. Screws in which the step at the inlet is less than that of at the outlet as well as screws with the step at the inlet being more than that of at the outlet were investigated. It is shown that a pressure of the screw with zero step and the value of the reverse currents depend only on the parameters of the input section of the screw, and the maximum flow, if the step at the inlet is more than the step at the outlet, is determined by the parameters of the output part of the screw. Otherwise, the maximum flow is determined a little bit differently.The paper compares experimental characteristics with characteristics calculated by the technique for variable step

  5. Step one within stepped care trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for young children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Alison; Robst, John; Scheeringa, Michael S; Cohen, Judith A; Wang, Wei; Murphy, Tanya K; Tolin, David F; Storch, Eric A

    2014-02-01

    This pilot study explored the preliminary efficacy, parent acceptability and economic cost of delivering Step One within Stepped Care Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (SC-TF-CBT). Nine young children ages 3-6 years and their parents participated in SC-TF-CBT. Eighty-three percent (5/6) of the children who completed Step One treatment and 55.6 % (5/9) of the intent-to-treat sample responded to Step One. One case relapsed at post-assessment. Treatment gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Generally, parents found Step One to be acceptable and were satisfied with treatment. At 3-month follow-up, the cost per unit improvement for posttraumatic stress symptoms and severity ranged from $27.65 to $131.33 for the responders and from $36.12 to $208.11 for the intent-to-treat sample. Further research on stepped care for young children is warranted to examine if this approach is more efficient, accessible and cost-effective than traditional therapy.

  6. Numerical characterisation of one-step and three-step solar air heating collectors used for cocoa bean solar drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbegoso, Elder Mendoza; Saavedra, Rafael; Marcelo, Daniel; La Madrid, Raúl

    2017-12-01

    In the northern coastal and jungle areas of Peru, cocoa beans are dried using artisan methods, such as direct exposure to sunlight. This traditional process is time intensive, leading to a reduction in productivity and, therefore, delays in delivery times. The present study was intended to numerically characterise the thermal behaviour of three configurations of solar air heating collectors in order to determine which demonstrated the best thermal performance under several controlled operating conditions. For this purpose, a computational fluid dynamics model was developed to describe the simultaneous convective and radiative heat transfer phenomena under several operation conditions. The constructed computational fluid dynamics model was firstly validated through comparison with the data measurements of a one-step solar air heating collector. We then simulated two further three-step solar air heating collectors in order to identify which demonstrated the best thermal performance in terms of outlet air temperature and thermal efficiency. The numerical results show that under the same solar irradiation area of exposition and operating conditions, the three-step solar air heating collector with the collector plate mounted between the second and third channels was 67% more thermally efficient compared to the one-step solar air heating collector. This is because the air exposition with the surface of the collector plate for the three-step solar air heating collector former device was twice than the one-step solar air heating collector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intermediate surface structure between step bunching and step flow in SrRuO3 thin film growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, Giulia; Gura, Anna; Dawber, Matthew

    We performed a systematic study of SrRuO3 thin films grown on TiO2 terminated SrTiO3 substrates using off-axis magnetron sputtering. We investigated the step bunching formation and the evolution of the SRO film morphology by varying the step size of the substrate, the growth temperature and the film thickness. The thin films were characterized using Atomic Force Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction. We identified single and multiple step bunching and step flow growth regimes as a function of the growth parameters. Also, we clearly observe a stronger influence of the step size of the substrate on the evolution of the SRO film surface with respect to the other growth parameters. Remarkably, we observe the formation of a smooth, regular and uniform ``fish skin'' structure at the transition between one regime and another. We believe that the fish skin structure results from the merging of 2D flat islands predicted by previous models. The direct observation of this transition structure allows us to better understand how and when step bunching develops in the growth of SrRuO3 thin films.

  8. Stabilization of a three-dimensional limit cycle walking model through step-to-step ankle control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myunghee; Collins, Steven H

    2013-06-01

    Unilateral, below-knee amputation is associated with an increased risk of falls, which may be partially related to a loss of active ankle control. If ankle control can contribute significantly to maintaining balance, even in the presence of active foot placement, this might provide an opportunity to improve balance using robotic ankle-foot prostheses. We investigated ankle- and hip-based walking stabilization methods in a three-dimensional model of human gait that included ankle plantarflexion, ankle inversion-eversion, hip flexion-extension, and hip ad/abduction. We generated discrete feedback control laws (linear quadratic regulators) that altered nominal actuation parameters once per step. We used ankle push-off, lateral ankle stiffness and damping, fore-aft foot placement, lateral foot placement, or all of these as control inputs. We modeled environmental disturbances as random, bounded, unexpected changes in floor height, and defined balance performance as the maximum allowable disturbance value for which the model walked 500 steps without falling. Nominal walking motions were unstable, but were stabilized by all of the step-to-step control laws we tested. Surprisingly, step-by-step modulation of ankle push-off alone led to better balance performance (3.2% leg length) than lateral foot placement (1.2% leg length) for these control laws. These results suggest that appropriate control of robotic ankle-foot prosthesis push-off could make balancing during walking easier for individuals with amputation.

  9. The availability of the step optimization in Monaco planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Sup

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to reduce this gap and complete the treatment plan, to be made by the re-optimization is performed in the same conditions as the initial treatment plan different from Monaco treatment planning system. The optimization is carried in two steps when performing the inverse calculation for volumetric modulated radiation therapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy in Monaco treatment planning system. This study was the first plan with a complete optimization in two steps by performing all of the treatment plan, without changing the optimized condition from Step 1 to Step 2, a typical sequential optimization performed. At this time, the experiment was carried out with a pencil beam and Monte Carlo algorithm is applied In step 2. We compared initial plan and re-optimized plan with the same optimized conditions. And then evaluated the planning dose by measurement. When performing a re-optimization for the initial treatment plan, the second plan applied the step optimization. When the common optimization again carried out in the same conditions in the initial treatment plan was completed, the result is not the same. From a comparison of the treatment planning system, similar to the dose-volume the histogram showed a similar trend, but exhibit different values that do not satisfy the conditions best optimized dose, dose homogeneity and dose limits. Also showed more than 20% different in comparison dosimetry. If different dose algorithms, this measure is not the same out. The process of performing a number of trial and error, and you get to the ultimate goal of treatment planning optimization process. If carried out to optimize the completion of the initial trust only the treatment plan, we could be made of another treatment plan. The similar treatment plan could not satisfy to optimization results. When you perform re-optimization process, you will need to apply the step optimized conditions, making sure the dose distribution through the optimization

  10. Analysis of reaction schemes using maximum rates of constituent steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motagamwala, Ali Hussain; Dumesic, James A.

    2016-01-01

    We show that the steady-state kinetics of a chemical reaction can be analyzed analytically in terms of proposed reaction schemes composed of series of steps with stoichiometric numbers equal to unity by calculating the maximum rates of the constituent steps, rmax,i, assuming that all of the remaining steps are quasi-equilibrated. Analytical expressions can be derived in terms of rmax,i to calculate degrees of rate control for each step to determine the extent to which each step controls the rate of the overall stoichiometric reaction. The values of rmax,i can be used to predict the rate of the overall stoichiometric reaction, making it possible to estimate the observed reaction kinetics. This approach can be used for catalytic reactions to identify transition states and adsorbed species that are important in controlling catalyst performance, such that detailed calculations using electronic structure calculations (e.g., density functional theory) can be carried out for these species, whereas more approximate methods (e.g., scaling relations) are used for the remaining species. This approach to assess the feasibility of proposed reaction schemes is exact for reaction schemes where the stoichiometric coefficients of the constituent steps are equal to unity and the most abundant adsorbed species are in quasi-equilibrium with the gas phase and can be used in an approximate manner to probe the performance of more general reaction schemes, followed by more detailed analyses using full microkinetic models to determine the surface coverages by adsorbed species and the degrees of rate control of the elementary steps. PMID:27162366

  11. Biophysical Interactions within Step-Pool Mountain Streams Following Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, A.; Chin, A.; O'Dowd, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Recovery of riverine ecosystems following disturbance is driven by a variety of interacting processes. Wildfires pose increasing disturbances to riverine landscapes, with rising frequencies and magnitudes owing to warming climates and increased fuel loads. The effects of wildfire include loss of vegetation, elevated runoff and flash floods, erosion and deposition, and changing biological habitats and communities. Understanding process interactions in post-fire landscapes is increasingly urgent for successful management and restoration of affected ecosystems. In steep channels, steps and pools provide prominent habitats for organisms and structural integrity in high energy environments. Step-pools are typically stable, responding to extreme events with recurrence intervals often exceeding 50 years. Once wildfire occurs, however, intensification of post-fire flood events can potentially overpower the inherent stability of these systems, with significant consequences for aquatic life and human well-being downstream. This study examined the short-term response of step-pool streams following the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire in Colorado. We explored interacting feedbacks among geomorphology, hydrology, and ecology in the post-fire environment. At selected sites with varying burn severity, we established baseline conditions immediately after the fire with channel surveys, biological assessment using benthic macroinvertebrates, sediment analysis including pebble counts, and precipitation gauging. Repeat measurements after major storm events over several years enabled analysis of the interacting feedbacks among post-fire processes. We found that channels able to retain the step-pool structure changed less and facilitated recovery more readily. Step habitats maintained higher percentages of sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa compared to pools through post-fire floods. Sites burned with high severity experienced greater reduction in the percentage of sensitive taxa. The decimation of

  12. A step-by-step development of radioactive waste management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytsy, Tero; Yla-Mella, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Fennovoima is Finland's third nuclear power company founded in 2007. Fennovoima will build a new nuclear power plant, Hanhikivi 1, in Pyhajoki municipality located in Northern Finland. Currently Fennovoima is evaluating bids from reactor suppliers. Originally two suppliers, AREVA and Toshiba Heavy Industries were invited to bid for the plant but later also a bid from Rosatom were invited. The plant supplier will be selected in 2013. Platom is a Finnish company with extensive experience in radioactive waste management. In the beginning of 2008, Platom was assigned by Fennovoima as radioactive waste management consultant and to develop radioactive waste management strategy and to support Fennovoima in negotiations with plant suppliers in waste management aspects. Since Fennovoima has started, there have been some changes to the regulatory requirements which had to be taken into account while developing the strategy. One important change is due to the Government Degree 27.11.2008/736 which establishes a new waste category of very low-level waste following international development and the 'new' IAEA waste classification. Other important change was introduced by the change 342/2008 to the Nuclear Energy Act allowing some nuclear waste to be delivered to another country for treatment. These and many more requirements had to be considered when developing the strategy. Early work by Platom was mostly done to support development of application for Decision-in-Principle. This was the first important licensing step for Fennovoima. Work started with studies and plans which were used by Fennovoima to gather the know-how required to draw up the application. Descriptions of waste streams and waste management technologies were developed as well as preliminary waste inventories and studies for final disposal, including preliminary dimensioning of the repository facilities. Based on these plans nuclear regulator's preliminary safety assessment was performed. The

  13. Effect of beamlet step-size on IMRT plan quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guowei; Jiang Ziping; Shepard, David; Earl, Matt; Yu, Cedric

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the degree to which beamlet step-size impacts the quality of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans. Treatment planning for IMRT begins with the application of a grid that divides each beam's-eye-view of the target into a number of smaller beamlets (pencil beams) of radiation. The total dose is computed as a weighted sum of the dose delivered by the individual beamlets. The width of each beamlet is set to match the width of the corresponding leaf of the multileaf collimator (MLC). The length of each beamlet (beamlet step-size) is parallel to the direction of leaf travel. The beamlet step-size represents the minimum stepping distance of the leaves of the MLC and is typically predetermined by the treatment planning system. This selection imposes an artificial constraint because the leaves of the MLC and the jaws can both move continuously. Removing the constraint can potentially improve the IMRT plan quality. In this study, the optimized results were achieved using an aperture-based inverse planning technique called direct aperture optimization (DAO). We have tested the relationship between pencil beam step-size and plan quality using the American College of Radiology's IMRT test case. For this case, a series of IMRT treatment plans were produced using beamlet step-sizes of 1, 2, 5, and 10 mm. Continuous improvements were seen with each reduction in beamlet step size. The maximum dose to the planning target volume (PTV) was reduced from 134.7% to 121.5% and the mean dose to the organ at risk (OAR) was reduced from 38.5% to 28.2% as the beamlet step-size was reduced from 10 to 1 mm. The smaller pencil beam sizes also led to steeper dose gradients at the junction between the target and the critical structure with gradients of 6.0, 7.6, 8.7, and 9.1 dose%/mm achieved for beamlet step sizes of 10, 5, 2, and 1 mm, respectively

  14. Step Prediction During Perturbed Standing Using Center Of Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos R. Popovic

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of a sensor that can measure balance during quiet standing and predict stepping response in the event of perturbation has many clinically relevant applica- tions, including closed-loop control of a neuroprothesis for standing. This study investigated the feasibility of an algorithm that can predict in real-time when an able-bodied individual who is quietly standing will have to make a step to compensate for an external perturbation. Anterior and posterior perturbations were performed on 16 able-bodied subjects using a pul- ley system with a dropped weight. A linear relationship was found between the peak center of pressure (COP velocity and the peak COP displacement caused by the perturbation. This result suggests that one can predict when a person will have to make a step based on COP velocity measurements alone. Another important feature of this finding is that the peak COP velocity occurs considerably before the peak COP displacement. As a result, one can predict if a subject will have to make a step in response to a perturbation sufficiently ahead of the time when the subject is actually forced to make the step. The proposed instability detection algorithm will be implemented in a sensor system using insole sheets in shoes with minitur- ized pressure sensors by which the COPv can be continuously measured. The sensor system will be integrated in a closed-loop feedback system with a neuroprosthesis for standing in the near future.

  15. Newmark local time stepping on high-performance computing architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Rietmann, Max

    2016-11-25

    In multi-scale complex media, finite element meshes often require areas of local refinement, creating small elements that can dramatically reduce the global time-step for wave-propagation problems due to the CFL condition. Local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time-stepping scheme to adapt the time-step to the element size, allowing near-optimal time-steps everywhere in the mesh. We develop an efficient multilevel LTS-Newmark scheme and implement it in a widely used continuous finite element seismic wave-propagation package. In particular, we extend the standard LTS formulation with adaptations to continuous finite element methods that can be implemented very efficiently with very strong element-size contrasts (more than 100×). Capable of running on large CPU and GPU clusters, we present both synthetic validation examples and large scale, realistic application examples to demonstrate the performance and applicability of the method and implementation on thousands of CPU cores and hundreds of GPUs.

  16. Newmark local time stepping on high-performance computing architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rietmann, Max, E-mail: max.rietmann@erdw.ethz.ch [Institute for Computational Science, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland); Institute of Geophysics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Grote, Marcus, E-mail: marcus.grote@unibas.ch [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Basel (Switzerland); Peter, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.peter@kaust.edu.sa [Institute for Computational Science, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland); Institute of Geophysics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Schenk, Olaf, E-mail: olaf.schenk@usi.ch [Institute for Computational Science, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland)

    2017-04-01

    In multi-scale complex media, finite element meshes often require areas of local refinement, creating small elements that can dramatically reduce the global time-step for wave-propagation problems due to the CFL condition. Local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time-stepping scheme to adapt the time-step to the element size, allowing near-optimal time-steps everywhere in the mesh. We develop an efficient multilevel LTS-Newmark scheme and implement it in a widely used continuous finite element seismic wave-propagation package. In particular, we extend the standard LTS formulation with adaptations to continuous finite element methods that can be implemented very efficiently with very strong element-size contrasts (more than 100x). Capable of running on large CPU and GPU clusters, we present both synthetic validation examples and large scale, realistic application examples to demonstrate the performance and applicability of the method and implementation on thousands of CPU cores and hundreds of GPUs.

  17. Accessory stimulus modulates executive function during stepping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tatsunori; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo; Nojima, Ippei

    2015-07-01

    When multiple sensory modalities are simultaneously presented, reaction time can be reduced while interference enlarges. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of task-irrelevant acoustic accessory stimuli simultaneously presented with visual imperative stimuli on executive function during stepping. Executive functions were assessed by analyzing temporal events and errors in the initial weight transfer of the postural responses prior to a step (anticipatory postural adjustment errors). Eleven healthy young adults stepped forward in response to a visual stimulus. We applied a choice reaction time task and the Simon task, which consisted of congruent and incongruent conditions. Accessory stimuli were randomly presented with the visual stimuli. Compared with trials without accessory stimuli, the anticipatory postural adjustment error rates were higher in trials with accessory stimuli in the incongruent condition and the reaction times were shorter in trials with accessory stimuli in all the task conditions. Analyses after division of trials according to whether anticipatory postural adjustment error occurred or not revealed that the reaction times of trials with anticipatory postural adjustment errors were reduced more than those of trials without anticipatory postural adjustment errors in the incongruent condition. These results suggest that accessory stimuli modulate the initial motor programming of stepping by lowering decision threshold and exclusively under spatial incompatibility facilitate automatic response activation. The present findings advance the knowledge of intersensory judgment processes during stepping and may aid in the development of intervention and evaluation tools for individuals at risk of falls. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Newmark local time stepping on high-performance computing architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Rietmann, Max; Grote, Marcus; Peter, Daniel; Schenk, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    In multi-scale complex media, finite element meshes often require areas of local refinement, creating small elements that can dramatically reduce the global time-step for wave-propagation problems due to the CFL condition. Local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time-stepping scheme to adapt the time-step to the element size, allowing near-optimal time-steps everywhere in the mesh. We develop an efficient multilevel LTS-Newmark scheme and implement it in a widely used continuous finite element seismic wave-propagation package. In particular, we extend the standard LTS formulation with adaptations to continuous finite element methods that can be implemented very efficiently with very strong element-size contrasts (more than 100×). Capable of running on large CPU and GPU clusters, we present both synthetic validation examples and large scale, realistic application examples to demonstrate the performance and applicability of the method and implementation on thousands of CPU cores and hundreds of GPUs.

  19. Tax-Optimal Step-Up and Imperfect Loss Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Diller

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the field of mergers and acquisitions, German and international tax law allow for several opportunities to step up a firm's assets, i.e., to revaluate the assets at fair market values. When a step-up is performed the taxpayer recognizes a taxable gain, but also obtains tax benefits in the form of higher future depreciation allowances associated with stepping up the tax base of the assets. This tax-planning problem is well known in taxation literature and can also be applied to firm valuation in the presence of taxation. However, the known models usually assume a perfect loss offset. If this assumption is abandoned, the depreciation allowances may lose value as they become tax effective at a later point in time, or even never if there are not enough cash flows to be offset against. This aspect is especiallyrelevant if future cash flows are assumed to be uncertain. This paper shows that a step-up may be disadvantageous or a firm overvalued if these aspects are not integrated into the basic calculus. Compared to the standard approach, assets should be stepped up only in a few cases and - under specific conditions - at a later point in time. Firm values may be considerably lower under imperfect loss offset.

  20. STEPS: A NARRATIVE ACCOUNT OF A GABAPENTIN SEEDING TRIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Samuel D.; Egilman, David S.; Ross, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Seeding trials, clinical studies conducted by pharmaceutical companies for marketing purposes, have rarely been described in detail. Methods We examined all documents relating to the clinical trial Study of Neurontin: Titrate to Effect, Profile of Safety (STEPS) produced during the Neurontin marketing, sales practices and product liability litigation, including company internal and external correspondence, reports, and presentations, as well as depositions elicited in legal proceedings of Harden Manufacturing v. Pfizer and Franklin v. Warner-Lambert, the majority of which were created between 1990 and 2009. Using a systematic search strategy, we identified and reviewed all documents related to the STEPS trial, in order to identify key themes related to the trial’s conduct and determine the extent of marketing involvement in its planning and implementation. Results Documents demonstrated that STEPS was a seeding trial posing as a legitimate scientific study. Documents consistently described the trial itself, not trial results, to be a marketing tactic in the company’s marketing plans. Documents demonstrated that several external sources questioned the validity of the study before execution, and that data quality during the study was often compromised. Furthermore, documents described company analyses examining the impact of participating as a STEPS investigator on rates and dosages of gabapentin prescribing, finding a positive association. None of these findings were reported in two published papers. Conclusions The STEPS trial was a seeding trial, used to promote gabapentin and increase prescribing among investigators, and marketing was extensively involved in its planning and implementation. PMID:21709111

  1. An overview on STEP-NC compliant controller development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M. A.; Minhat, M.; Jamaludin, Z.

    2017-10-01

    The capabilities of conventional Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools as termination organiser to fabricate high-quality parts promptly, economically and precisely are undeniable. To date, most CNCs follow the programming standard of ISO 6983, also called G & M code. However, in fluctuating shop floor environment, flexibility and interoperability of current CNC system to react dynamically and adaptively are believed still limited. This outdated programming language does not explicitly relate to each other to have control of arbitrary locations other than the motion of the block-by-block. To address this limitation, new standard known as STEP-NC was developed in late 1990s and is formalized as an ISO 14649. It adds intelligence to the CNC in term of interoperability, flexibility, adaptability and openness. This paper presents an overview of the research work that have been done in developing a STEP-NC controller standard and the capabilities of STEP-NC to overcome modern manufacturing demands. Reviews stated that most existing STEP-NC controller prototypes are based on type 1 and type 2 implementation levels. There are still lack of effort being done to develop type 3 and type 4 STEP-NC compliant controller.

  2. Effects of step rate manipulation on joint mechanics during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Chumanov, Elizabeth S; Michalski, Max P; Wille, Christa M; Ryan, Michael B

    2011-02-01

    the objective of this study was to characterize the biomechanical effects of step rate modification during running on the hip, knee, and ankle joints so as to evaluate a potential strategy to reduce lower extremity loading and risk for injury. three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were recorded from 45 healthy recreational runners during treadmill running at constant speed under various step rate conditions (preferred, ± 5%, and ± 10%). We tested our primary hypothesis that a reduction in energy absorption by the lower extremity joints during the loading response would occur, primarily at the knee, when step rate was increased. less mechanical energy was absorbed at the knee (P running and may prove beneficial in the prevention and treatment of common running-related injuries.

  3. The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    STEP will carry concentric test masses to Earth orbit to test a fundamental assumption underlying Einstein's theory of general relativity: that gravitational mass is equivalent to inertial mass. STEP is a 21st-century version of the test that Galileo is said to have performed by dropping a carnon ball and a musket ball simultaneously from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa to compare their accelerations. During the STEP experiment, four pairs of test masses will be falling around the Earth, and their accelerations will be measured by superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS). The extended time sensitivity of the instruments will allow the measurements to be a million times more accurate than those made in modern ground-based tests.

  4. Doubled Shapiro steps in a topological Josephson junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Hang; Song, Juntao; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Hua; Sun, Qing-Feng; Xie, X. C.

    2018-01-01

    We study the transport properties of a superconductor-quantum spin Hall insulator-superconductor hybrid system in the presence of microwave radiation. Instead of adiabatic analysis or use of the resistively shunted junction model, we start from the microscopic Hamiltonian and calculate the d.c. current directly with the help of the nonequilibrium Green's function method. The numerical results show that (i) the I-V curves of background current due to multiple Andreev reflections exhibit a different structure from those in the conventional junctions, and (ii) all Shapiro steps are visible and appear one by one at high frequencies, while at low frequencies, the steps evolve exactly as the Bessel functions and the odd steps are completely suppressed, implying a fractional Josephson effect.

  5. In core monitor having multi-step seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Makoto; Ono, Susumu.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To completely prevent a sensor gas sealed in a pipe from leaking in an in-core neutron detector for use with a bwr type reactor. Constitution: In an in core monitor fabricated by disposing inner and outer electrodes in a housing, forming a layer of neutron conversion material on the outer electrode, filling an ionizing gas within the space between the layer and the inner electrode and, thereafter, attaching an insulation cable and an exhaust pipe respectively by way of insulators to both ends of the housing, the exhaust pipe is sealed in two-steps through pressure bonding using a multi-stepped pincher tool having two pressure bonding bits of a step shape and the outer sealing portion is further welded. The sensor gas sealed in the pipe can thus be prevented from leaking upon pressure bonding and welding. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Performance of claw-poled PM-stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.P.; Jeng, G.R.; Chen, W.C.; Tsai, M.C.; Wu, K.T.; Yao, Y.D.

    2007-01-01

    Present work is to analyze the performance of a permanent-magnetic (PM) stepping motor with claw poles by using the magnetic-circuit simulation technique. In this paper, we calculate the torque characteristics of the motor, such as the detent and the holding torques, and the step-position error by changing the gap between the upper and the lower stators and the staggered angle between the two stators. Through comparison of numerical data with experiment measurements, we found that the detent torque could be effectively reduced by increasing the stator-to-stator gap and further by decreasing the step-position error. Furthermore, the holding torque could be unchanged as the stator assemblage changed; however, it would be degenerated under the condition of low magnetization

  7. 12-step programs to reduce illicit drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Nielsen, Sine Kirkegaard; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2014-01-01

    Many treatments are not rigorously evaluated as to their effectiveness, and it is uncertain which types of interventions are more effective than others in reducing illicit drug use. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic mapping of the research literature of the effectiveness of 12-step...... programs in reducing illicit drug use. A systematic literature search was conducted based on 17 international and Nordic Bibliographic databases. A total of 15993 references were screened, and eleven unique studies were finally included in this mapping. The included studies demonstrated conflicting results...... regarding the effectiveness of the 12-step treatment and TSF in reducing individuals’ drug use. Two studies reported a positive effect of the TSF treatment compared to the comparison conditions in reducing drug use. Six studies reported no differences between 12-step program and the comparison condition...

  8. Thermal sensation and thermophysiological responses with metabolic step-changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, Tomonobu; Toftum, Jørn; deDear, Richard

    2006-01-01

    at sedentary activity. In a second experimental series, subjects alternated between rest and exercise as well as between exercise at different intensities at two temperature levels. Measurements comprised skin and oesophageal temperatures, heart rate and subjective responses. Thermal sensation started to rise....... The sensitivity of thermal sensation to changes in core temperature was higher for activity down-steps than for up-steps. A model was proposed that estimates transient thermal sensation after metabolic step-changes. Based on predictions by the model, weighting factors were suggested to estimate a representative...... average metabolic rate with varying activity levels, e.g. for the prediction of thermal sensation by steady-state comfort models. The activity during the most recent 5 min should be weighted 65%, during the prior 10-5 min 25% and during the prior 20-10 min 10%....

  9. High pressure as an alternative processing step for ham production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingen, Sylvia; Sudhaus, Nadine; Becker, André; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter

    2016-08-01

    As high pressure processing (HPP) is becoming more and more important in the food industry, this study examined the application of HPP (500 and 600MPa) as a manufacturing step during simulated ham production. By replacing conventional heating with HPP steps, ham-like texture or color attributes could not be achieved. HPP products showed a less pale, less red appearance, softer texture and higher yields. However, a combination of mild temperature (53°C) and 500MPa resulted in parameters more comparable to cooked ham. We conclude that HPP can be used for novel food development, providing novel textures and colors. However, when it comes to ham production, a heating step seems to be unavoidable to obtain characteristic ham properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In core monitor having multi-step seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, M; Ono, S

    1976-12-09

    A method to completely prevent a sensor gas sealed in a pipe from leaking in an in-core neutron detector for use with a BWR type reactor is described. In an in core monitor fabricated by disposing inner and outer electrodes in a housing, forming a layer of neutron conversion material on the outer electrode, filling an ionizing gas within the space between the layer and the inner electrode and, thereafter, attaching an insulation cable and an exhaust pipe respectively by way of insulators to both ends of the housing, the exhaust pipe is sealed in two-steps through pressure bonding using a multi-stepped pincher tool having two pressure bonding bits of a step shape and the outer sealing portion is further welded. The sensor gas sealed in the pipe can thus be prevented from leaking upon pressure bonding and welding.

  11. Peru steps up push to attract oil investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Peru's government is stepping up efforts to attract more foreign investment in its oil and gas sector. Since taking over in July 1990, the government of President Alberto Fujimori has taken a number of steps to privatize the oil sector, improve the fiscal regime for oil investment, and streamline regulations on oil and gas investment. In the most dramatic step, the Fujimori administration ended state oil company Petroleos del Peru's monopoly on downstream operations as well as imports and exports of oil and gas as part of sweeping new oil and gas legislation. In addition, officials of the Fujimori administration have been traveling to key oil centers around the world with a presentation on Peru's hydrocarbon potential, trying to spark interest in E and D investment there

  12. Mobile Device Accuracy for Step Counting Across Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modave, François; Guo, Yi; Bian, Jiang; Gurka, Matthew J; Parish, Alice; Smith, Megan D; Lee, Alexandra M; Buford, Thomas W

    2017-06-28

    Only one in five American meets the physical activity recommendations of the Department of Health and Human Services. The proliferation of wearable devices and smartphones for physical activity tracking has led to an increasing number of interventions designed to facilitate regular physical activity, in particular to address the obesity epidemic, but also for cardiovascular disease patients, cancer survivors, and older adults. However, the inconsistent findings pertaining to the accuracy of wearable devices for step counting needs to be addressed, as well as factors known to affect gait (and thus potentially impact accuracy) such as age, body mass index (BMI), or leading arm. We aim to assess the accuracy of recent mobile devices for counting steps, across three different age groups. We recruited 60 participants in three age groups: 18-39 years, 40-64 years, and 65-84 years, who completed two separate 1000 step walks on a treadmill at a self-selected speed between 2 and 3 miles per hour. We tested two smartphones attached on each side of the waist, and five wrist-based devices worn on both wrists (2 devices on one wrist and 3 devices on the other), as well as the Actigraph wGT3X-BT, and swapped sides between each walk. All devices were swapped dominant-to-nondominant side and vice-versa between the two 1000 step walks. The number of steps was recorded with a tally counter. Age, sex, height, weight, and dominant hand were self-reported by each participant. Among the 60 participants, 36 were female (60%) and 54 were right-handed (90%). Median age was 53 years (min=19, max=83), median BMI was 24.1 (min=18.4, max=39.6). There was no significant difference in left- and right-hand step counts by device. Our analyses show that the Fitbit Surge significantly undercounted steps across all age groups. Samsung Gear S2 significantly undercounted steps only for participants among the 40-64 year age group. Finally, the Nexus 6P significantly undercounted steps for the group

  13. Two-Step Incision for Periarterial Sympathectomy of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Bae Jeon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSurgical scars on the palmar surface of the hand may lead to functional and also aesthetic and psychological consequences. The objective of this study was to introduce a new incision technique for periarterial sympathectomy of the hand and to compare the results of the new two-step incision technique with those of a Koman incision by using an objective questionnaire.MethodsA total of 40 patients (17 men and 23 women with intractable Raynaud's disease or syndrome underwent surgery in our hospital, conducted by a single surgeon, between January 2008 and January 2013. Patients who had undergone extended sympathectomy or vessel graft were excluded. Clinical evaluation of postoperative scars was performed in both groups one year after surgery using the patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS and the Wake Forest University rating scale.ResultsThe total patient score was 8.59 (range, 6-15 in the two-step incision group and 9.62 (range, 7-18 in the Koman incision group. A significant difference was found between the groups in the total PS score (P-value=0.034 but not in the total observer score. Our analysis found no significant difference in preoperative and postoperative Wake Forest University rating scale scores between the two-step and Koman incision groups. The time required for recovery prior to returning to work after surgery was shorter in the two-step incision group, with a mean of 29.48 days in the two-step incision group and 34.15 days in the Koman incision group (P=0.03.ConclusionsCompared to the Koman incision, the new two-step incision technique provides better aesthetic results, similar symptom improvement, and a reduction in the recovery time required before returning to work. Furthermore, this incision allows the surgeon to access a wide surgical field and a sufficient exposure of anatomical structures.

  14. Three steps to a more successful quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferriss, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    The three steps that will be presented are by no means a cure-all for the variety of problems and challenges that a Quality Assurance (QA) Department is faced with in its role in the design and construction of a nuclear power plant. However, these steps are considered to be three of the most important ones in the realization of an effective and efficient QA program. Step 1. Awareness. With the multitude of people involved in activities that effect the resultant Quality of Design, Procurement, and Construction of a nuclear power plant, a concerted effort has been put forth at Bechtel to promote 'Quality Awareness'. This effort has resulted in presentations to thousands of engineers, buyers, superintendents, supervisors and many others to make them more aware of their role in the Quality program. These presentations cover the Quality criteria, organizations, manuals, and implementation responsibilities that constitute the Company Quality program. In addition to the above, many specialized courses covering inspection techniques, communications, auditing, problem solving, etc. have been given to the people involved in the Generic Quality Assurance functions. Step 2. Attitude. Nuclear Power Quality requirements are quite stringent and have presented additional requirements to engineers, buyers, and superintendents who have previously designed and constructed fossil fuel power plants. Logically there was a resistance to these new requirements and a number of attitudes had to be changed. The most effective way that we have found to accomplish this is through communications from top management expressing their support of the Quality Program. Step 3. Objective and economical compliance. With the increased awareness and a more positive attitude toward Quality requirements, Bechtel has been able to devote considerable effort on finding effective methods to comply with Quality requirements in the most economical way. The complete presentation will include several examples of

  15. Nine steps towards a better water meter management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, F J; Soriano, J; Cabrera, E; Cobacho, R

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides a comprehensive perspective of the critical aspects to be taken into account when planning the long-term management of water meters in a utility. In order to facilitate their quick understanding and practical implementation, they have been structured into nine steps. Ranging from an initial audit up to the final periodic meter replacement planning, these steps cover three aspects of the problem - field work, laboratory work and management tasks; and each one is developed in detail paying attention to the particular data needed and noting the practical outcome it will yield.

  16. Phonics Pathways Clear Steps to Easy Reading and Perfect Spelling

    CERN Document Server

    Hiskes, Dolores G

    2011-01-01

    Teaches students of all ages the basics of phonics with a time-tested, foolproof method This tenth edition of the best-selling book teaches reading using sounds and spelling patterns. These sounds and patterns are introduced one at a time, and slowly built into words, syllables, phrases, and sentences. Simple step-by-step directions begin every lesson. Although originally designed for K-2 emergent readers, this award-winning book is also successfully being used with adolescent and adult learners, as well as second language learners and students with learning disabilities. Wise and humorous pro

  17. One Step Quantum Key Distribution Based on EPR Entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Li, Na; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Tao

    2016-06-30

    A novel quantum key distribution protocol is presented, based on entanglement and dense coding and allowing asymptotically secure key distribution. Considering the storage time limit of quantum bits, a grouping quantum key distribution protocol is proposed, which overcomes the vulnerability of first protocol and improves the maneuverability. Moreover, a security analysis is given and a simple type of eavesdropper's attack would introduce at least an error rate of 46.875%. Compared with the "Ping-pong" protocol involving two steps, the proposed protocol does not need to store the qubit and only involves one step.

  18. 12-step programs for reducing illicit drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøg, Martin; Filges, Trine; Brännström, Lars

    2017-01-01

    12-step programs for reducing illicit drug use are neither better nor worse than other interventions Illicit drug abuse has serious and far-reaching implications for the abuser, their family members, friends, and society as a whole. Preferred intervention programs are those that effectively reduce...... illicit drug use and its negative consequences, and are cost-effective as well. Current evidence shows that overall, 12-step programs are just as effective as alternative, psychosocial interventions. The costs of programs are, therefore, an important consideration. However, the strength of the studies...

  19. Step-Up DC-DC Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a step-up DC-DC power converter which comprises a primary side circuit and a secondary side circuit coupled through a galvanic isolation barrier. The primary side circuit comprises a positive and a negative input terminal for receipt of an input voltage and an input...... being charged from the input voltage and discharged to the output capacitor through the galvanic isolation barrier in accordance with a switch control signal to produce the converter output voltage. The step-up DC-DC power converter comprises an electrical short-circuit connection across the galvanic...

  20. Convenient one-step synthesis of 5-carboxy-seminaphthofluoresceins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Peter; Thyhaug, Erling; Harris, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    The one-step synthesis and characterization of a series of regioisomerically pure 5-carboxy-seminaphthofluoresceins (5-carboxy-SNAFLs) is reported. The optical properties were determined in aqueous buffer at around biological pH, and highly pH sensitive, large Stokes-shift fluorophores with emiss......The one-step synthesis and characterization of a series of regioisomerically pure 5-carboxy-seminaphthofluoresceins (5-carboxy-SNAFLs) is reported. The optical properties were determined in aqueous buffer at around biological pH, and highly pH sensitive, large Stokes-shift fluorophores...

  1. Variable Step Size Maximum Correntropy Criteria Based Adaptive Filtering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maximum correntropy criterion (MCC based adaptive filters are found to be robust against impulsive interference. This paper proposes a novel MCC based adaptive filter with variable step size in order to obtain improved performance in terms of both convergence rate and steady state error with robustness against impulsive interference. The optimal variable step size is obtained by minimizing the Mean Square Deviation (MSD error from one iteration to the other. Simulation results in the context of a highly impulsive system identification scenario show that the proposed algorithm has faster convergence and lesser steady state error than the conventional MCC based adaptive filters.

  2. Steps in creating a methodology for interpreting a geodiversity element -integrating a geodiversity element in the popular knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Cristina; Andrasanu, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    elements derived from the key words, and establishing the purpose of the interpretation, the following step will be finding the message to be sent through interpretation. The last step of the framework will be finding the proper means to transmit the interpretive message: panels, installations, geo-routes, visitors centers, landart, virtual/augmented reality. This framework would represent a methodology to be followed when interpreting scientific knowledge about a geological process. Thus, this approach - the geodiversity reflected through the anthropological and socio-economic aspects- would be a successful method for showing the general public how a geological element influenced their lives, drawing them closer to Earth Sciences.

  3. Two-step versus one-step FT4 assays in heparin treated patients and non-thyroidal illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.; Bieler, G.; Ertl, G.; Gloss, H.; Boerner, W.

    1985-01-01

    The primary intention of this study is to inform the clinician about the direction and the order of magnitude of possible disturbances of different FT 4 parameters under the condition mentioned last, which is not uncommon in daily routine. No single FT 4 -RIA proved be valid in severe NTI. There is the risk to misinterprete hyperthyroidism as euthyroidism with 1step assays and the possibility to classify euthyroid patients falsely as hyperthyroid with 2step assays. In relation to this problem, the sometimes lowered FT 4 values by 1step methods are clinically not so important. It has to be established, wether TSH assays of high sensitivity are able to overcome some of the difficulties with determinations of peripheral thyroid hormones in NTI. (orig./MG)

  4. Comparison of two-step versus four-step composite finishing/polishing disc systems: evaluation of a new two-step composite polishing disc system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Juliana B; Goncalves, Flavia; Ferracane, Jack L

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate surface finish and gloss of a two-step composite finishing/polishing (F/P) disc system compared with two multistep systems on five composites. Seventy-five disc-shaped composite specimens (D=10.0 mm, 2 mm thick, n=15 per composite) were made of microfill (Durafill-D), nanofill (Filtek Supreme-FS), nanohybrid (Premise-PR), and microhybrids (Filtek Z250-FZ, Esthet-EX). One side of each specimen was initially finished with a carbide bur. Five specimens of each resin composite were randomly assigned to receive full F/P by each of the disc systems: two-step (Enhance Flex NST-EF) and four-step (Sof-Lex-SL, Super-Snap-SS). Surface gloss was measured with a glossmeter and surface roughness was measured with a profilometer. Results were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)/Tukey's (αgloss was noted among the three F/P systems when used with D and EX; no difference between SL and EF when used with any composite, except for FS; and no difference between SL and SS when used with any composite. SL and EF showed similar surface roughness when used on all composites, except for EX. EF and SS showed similar surface roughness on PR. SL and SS showed similar surface roughness values on every composite, except for FZ. EF was capable of providing similar gloss and surface roughness to SL on four composites evaluated but was not able to produce as glossy or as smooth a surface as SS for three of the five composites.

  5. Steps to Opening the Skilled Trades to Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    Employers' and unions' acceptance in attitude and practice of the equal capacity of women to function in the skilled trades and other apprentice-type jobs depends upon knowledge of facts, actual experience, and understanding of equal opportunity laws, according to the authors of the document, which offers to employers first steps to take to…

  6. Calculation of Cogging Torque in Hybrid Stepping Motors | Agber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When the windings of a hybrid stepping motor are unexcited the permanent magnet's flux produces cogging torque. This torque has both desirable and undesirable features depending on the application that the motor is put into. This paper formulates an analytical method for predicting cogging torque using measured ...

  7. Preferred step frequency minimizes veering during natural human walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uematsu, Azusa; Inoue, Koh; Hobara, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Iwamoto, Yuki; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Suzuki, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    In the absence of visual information, humans cannot maintain a straight walking path. We examined the hypothesis that step frequency during walking affects the magnitude of veering in healthy adults. Subject walked at a preferred (1.77 +/- 0.18 Hz), low (0.8 x preferred, 1.41 +/- 0.15 Hz), and high

  8. Two-step rocket engine bipropellant valve concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, J. E.; Ferguson, R. E.; Pohl, H. O.

    1969-01-01

    Initiating combustion of altitude control rocket engines in a precombustion chamber of ductile material reduces high pressure surges generated by hypergolic propellants. Two-step bipropellant valve concepts control initial propellant flow into precombustion chamber and subsequent full flow into main chamber.

  9. Verification of a CT scanner using a miniature step gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantatore, Angela; Andreasen, J.L.; Carmignato, S.

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with performance verification of a CT scanner using a 42mm miniature replica step gauge developed for optical scanner verification. Errors quantification and optimization of CT system set-up in terms of resolution and measurement accuracy are fundamental for use of CT scanning...

  10. A Study of Laminar Backward-Facing Step Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidson, Lars; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The laminar flow for a backwards facing step is studied. This work was initially part of the work presented in. In that work low-Reynolds number effects was studied, and the plan was also to include laminar flow. However, it turned out that when the numerical predictions of the laminar flow (Re...

  11. The analogy between photonic crystal fibres and step index fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birks, T.A.; Mogilevtsev, D.; Knight, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The propagation constant of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) can be approximated by substituting the effective V-value and NA into a formula valid for step index fibers (SIF), provided the V-value is defined with a core radius of 0.625 $Lambda@. V$PRM and NA must still be computed. Care must be taken...

  12. The World Food Conference--A Frustrating First Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald W.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the positive results of the World Food Conference and the world awareness (aroused by the conference) which is the first step in the solution of world hunger. Some of the positive results are the establishment of the World Food Council, establishment of grain reserves, and a worldwide system of food information. (BR)

  13. Efficacy, Beliefs, and Investment in Step-Level Public Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Oude Mulders, J.

    2014-01-01

    behavior in terms of increasing group well-being. We report a decision and game theoretical analysis of efficacy in step-level public goods (SPGs). Previous research shows a positive relation between efficacy and contributions to SPGs and explains this relation by a purely motivational account. We

  14. Another Curriculum Requirement? Quantitative Reasoning in Economics: Some First Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick B.; Flynn, David T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe first steps toward focusing on quantitative reasoning in an intermediate microeconomic theory course. We find student attitudes toward quantitative aspects of economics improve over the duration of the course (as we would hope). Perhaps more importantly, student attitude toward quantitative reasoning improves, in…

  15. Calculation of the thermal regime of a stepped combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskarev, B.N.; Gilevich, D.D.; Ostras, V.N.; Shvarts, IU.G.

    1985-01-01

    The effective-length method is used to calculate the heat-transfer characteristics and thermal regime of the walls of a stepped scramjet combustor. Based on this method, a formula is proposed for calculating heat transfer between the transition boundary layer and a nonporous surface. 13 references.

  16. Ensemble Kalman filtering with one-step-ahead smoothing

    KAUST Repository

    Raboudi, Naila F.

    2018-01-11

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is widely used for sequential data assimilation. It operates as a succession of forecast and analysis steps. In realistic large-scale applications, EnKFs are implemented with small ensembles and poorly known model error statistics. This limits their representativeness of the background error covariances and, thus, their performance. This work explores the efficiency of the one-step-ahead (OSA) smoothing formulation of the Bayesian filtering problem to enhance the data assimilation performance of EnKFs. Filtering with OSA smoothing introduces an updated step with future observations, conditioning the ensemble sampling with more information. This should provide an improved background ensemble in the analysis step, which may help to mitigate the suboptimal character of EnKF-based methods. Here, the authors demonstrate the efficiency of a stochastic EnKF with OSA smoothing for state estimation. They then introduce a deterministic-like EnKF-OSA based on the singular evolutive interpolated ensemble Kalman (SEIK) filter. The authors show that the proposed SEIK-OSA outperforms both SEIK, as it efficiently exploits the data twice, and the stochastic EnKF-OSA, as it avoids observational error undersampling. They present extensive assimilation results from numerical experiments conducted with the Lorenz-96 model to demonstrate SEIK-OSA’s capabilities.

  17. Addiction Recovery: 12-Step Programs and Cognitive-Behavioral Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow-Braitman, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Provides helping professionals with an overview of treatment issues referred to as spiritual by those recovering from alcohol and drug addictions through 12-step programs. Reviews conflicts between academically trained helping professionals and researchers, and those advocating spiritually oriented treatment programs. Discusses spiritual…

  18. Method of making stepped photographic density standards of radiographic photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovin, I.V.; Kondina, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    In industrial radiography practice the need often arises for a prompt evaluation of the photographic density of an x-ray film. A method of making stepped photographic density standards for industrial radiography by contact printing from a negative is described. The method is intended for industrial radiation flaw detection laboratories not having specialized sensitometric equipment

  19. Melting-curve extrema from a repulsive ''step'' potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.A.; Alder, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    Molecular dynamics calculations in two dimensions for particles interacting with a repulsive ''step'' potential show melting-curve maxima and minima as well as solid-solid phase transitions. These features are similar to those observed in the phase diagram of cesium and cerium

  20. A Two-Step Approach to Analyze Satisfaction Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Pier Alda; Pagani, Laura; Fiorio, Carlo V.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a two-step procedure based on Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis (NLPCA) and Multilevel models (MLM) for the analysis of satisfaction data is proposed. The basic hypothesis is that observed ordinal variables describe different aspects of a latent continuous variable, which depends on covariates connected with individual and…