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Sample records for stented elephant trunk

  1. The repair of a type Ia endoleak following thoracic endovascular aortic repair using a stented elephant trunk procedure.

    Qi, Rui-Dong; Zhu, Jun-Ming; Liu, Yong-Min; Chen, Lei; Li, Cheng-Nan; Xing, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Li-Zhong

    2018-04-01

    Type Ia endoleaks are not uncommon complications that occur after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Because aortic arch vessels prevent extension of the landing zone, it is very difficult to manipulate a type Ia endoleak using an extension cuff or stent-graft, especially when the aortic arch is involved. Here, we retrospectively review our experience of surgical treatment of type Ia endoleak after TEVAR using a stented elephant trunk procedure. From July 2010 to August 2016, we treated 17 patients diagnosed with a type Ia endoleak following TEVAR using stented elephant trunk procedure. The mean age of our patients was 52 ± 8 years. The mean interval between TEVAR and the open surgical repair was 38 ± 43 months. All cases of type Ia endoleak (100%) were repaired successfully. There were no in-hospital deaths. One case required reintubation and continuous renal replacement therapy due to renal failure; this patient recovered smoothly before discharge. One other patient suffered a stroke and renal failure and did not fully recover following discharge, or follow-up. During follow-up, there were 3 deaths. Acceptable results were obtained using a stented elephant trunk procedure in patients with a type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. This technique allowed us to repair the proximal aortic arch lesions, surgically correct the type Ia endoleak, and promote false lumen thrombosis in the distal aorta. Implantation of a stented elephant trunk, with or without a concomitant aortic arch procedure, is an alternative approach for this type of lesion. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Bentall operation combined with total arch replacement and stented elephant trunk implantation for serious Debakey I aortic dissecting aneurysm].

    Gu, Tian-Xiang; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Yu-Hai

    2008-12-01

    To summarize the clinical experience of Bentall operation combined with total arch replacement and stented elephant trunk implantation for serious Debakey I aortic dissecting aneurysm. Twelve patients with serious Debakey I aortic dissecting aneurysm underwent surgical treatment from January 2005 to December 2007. There were 10 male and 2 female with the mean age of (40.1 +/- 9.5) years old. There were acute aortic dissection in 9 cases, chronic aortic dissection in 3 cases. The inner diameter of aorta was (5.3 +/- 1.8) cm. There were Marfan syndrome in 4 cases, aortic regurgitation in all cases, severely persistent chest pain in 9 cases, acute left heart failure in 8 cases, and cardiac tamponade in 4 cases. Bentall operations combined with total arch replacement and stented elephant trunk implantation were performed by using deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and antegrade selective cerebral perfusion in all cases. Urgent surgery underwent in 9 cases. The mean interval between the onset of aortic dissection and the accomplishment of surgery was (41.0 +/- 15.9) hours. Cardiopulmonary bypass time was (191 +/- 26) min, average cross clamp time was (134 +/- 31) min, and average deep hypothermic circulatory arrest time was (50.0 +/- 14.5) min. One patient died in hospital. The time stayed in ICU was 3 to 27 d. Mental disorder in 6 cases, hemi-paralysis in 1 case, amputation in 1 case, hemorrhage of anastomosis in 1 case, hemorrhage of alimentary tract in 1 case, and pleural effusion in 4 cases were recorded. Eleven cases were followed-up for 8 weeks to 36 months. There were no bending of the stents and no obstruction in the vascular prosthesis.No re-operation was needed. One case died 6 months postoperatively. Bentall operation combined with total arch replacement and stented elephant trunk implantation is safe and effective for serious Debakey I aortic dissecting aneurysm, while good organs protection and consummate cardiopulmonary bypass were taken.

  3. Oxygenation impairment after total arch replacement with a stented elephant trunk for type-A dissection.

    Shen, Yuwen; Liu, Chuanzhen; Fang, Changcun; Xi, Jie; Wu, Shuming; Pang, Xinyan; Song, Guangmin

    2018-06-01

    To study the risk factors of oxygenation impairment in patients with type-A acute aortic dissection who underwent total arch replacement with a stented elephant trunk. In this study, 169 consecutive patients were enrolled who were diagnosed with type-A acute aortic dissection and underwent a total arch replacement procedure at the Qilu Hospital of Shandong University between January 2015 and February 2017. Postoperative oxygenation impairment was defined as arterial oxygen partial pressure/inspired oxygen fraction ≤ 200 with positive end expiratory pressure ≥ 5 cm H 2 O that occurred within 72 hours of surgery. Perioperative clinical characteristics of all patients were collected and univariable analyses were performed. Risk factors associated with oxygenation impairment identified by univariable analyses were included in the multivariable regression analysis. The incidence of postoperative oxygenation impairment was 48.5%. Postoperative oxygenation impairment was associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation time, intensive care unit stay, and hospital stay. Multivariable regression analysis demonstrated that body mass index (odds ratio [OR], 1.204; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.065-1.361; P = .003), preoperative oxygenation impairment (OR, 9.768; 95% CI, 4.159-22.941; P impairment. Postoperative oxygenation impairment is a common complication of surgery for type-A acute aortic dissection. Body mass index, preoperative oxygenation impairment, preoperative homocysteine, circulatory arrest time, and plasma transfusion were independent risk factors for oxygenation impairment after a total arch replacement procedure. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aortic arch/elephant trunk procedure with Sienna(TM) graft and endovascular stenting of thoraco-abdominal aorta for treatment of complex chronic dissection.

    Wong, Randolph H L; Baghai, Max; Yu, Simon C H; Underwood, Malcolm J

    2013-05-01

    Aneurismal dilatation of the remaining thoracic aorta after ascending aortic interposition grafting for type 'A' aortic dissection is not uncommon. For such complex cases, one treatment option is total arch replacement and elephant trunk procedure with the Sienna(TM) collared graft (Vascutek, Inchinnan, UK) technique followed by a staged thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). The video illustrates our technique in a 56-year-old man with an extensive aortic arch and descending thoracic aortic dissecting aneurysm. For the 'open' procedure femoral arterial and venous cannulation was used along with systemic cooling and circulatory arrest at 22 °C. Upon circulatory arrest, the aortic arch was incised and antegrade cerebral perfusion achieved via selective cannulation to the right brachiocephalic and left common carotid artery, keeping flow rates at 10-15 mL/kg/min and perfusion pressure at 50-60 mmHg. Arch replacement with an elephant trunk component was then performed and after completion of the distal aortic anastomosis antegrade perfusion via a side-arm in the graft was started and the operation completed using a variation of the 'sequential' clamping technique to maximize cerebral perfusion. The second endovascular stage was performed two weeks after discharge. Two covered stents were landing from the elephant trunk to the distal descending thoracic aorta, to secure the distal landing a bare stent of was placed to cover the aorta just distal to the origin of the celiac axis. The left subclavian artery was embolised with fibre coils. Post TEVAR angiogram showed no endoleak Although re-operative total arch replacement and elephant trunk procedure and subsequent TEVAR remained a challenging procedure, we believe excellent surgical outcome can be achieved with carefully planned operative strategy.

  5. Vegetation attached to the elephant trunk.

    Tanaka, Akiko; Sakamoto, Toshihito; Okada, Kenji; Okita, Yutaka

    2013-09-01

    The elephant trunk technique is used as a standard method in the approach to staged repair of extensive thoracic aneurysms. Here, we present a rare case of a graft infection, in which vegetation was attached to the distal end of the elephant trunk. A 36-year old male who had undergone total arch replacement with elephant trunk installation for type A aortic dissection was readmitted for high-grade fever. At the time of admission, Osler's nodules were present and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple small emboli and haemorrhages. Transoesophageal echocardiography could not locate any sign of infection within the cardiac chambers, but disclosed vegetation attached to the elephant trunk. He underwent successful emergent graft replacement of the lesion, and no recurrence of the infection has been observed.

  6. The Elephant Trunk Technique: A New Complication

    Neri, Eugenio; Toscano, Thomas; Frati, Giacomo; Sassi, Carlo

    2001-01-01

    We describe a complication that occurred during the 2nd stage of an “elephant trunk” aortic replacement. The patient was a 58-year-old woman who had undergone graft replacement of the ascending aorta and aortic arch with the elephant trunk technique for an acute, Stanford type-A aortic dissection.

  7. Elephant trunk in a small-calibre true lumen for chronic aortic dissection: cause of haemolytic anaemia?

    Araki, Haruna; Kitamura, Tadashi; Horai, Tetsuya; Shibata, Ko; Miyaji, Kagami

    2014-12-01

    The elephant trunk technique for aortic dissection is useful for reducing false lumen pressure; however, a folded vascular prosthesis inside the aorta can cause haemolysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an elephant trunk in a small-calibre lumen can cause haemolysis. Inpatient and outpatient records were retrospectively reviewed. Two cases of haemolytic anaemia after aortic surgery using the elephant trunk technique were identified from 2011 to 2013. A 64-year-old man, who underwent graft replacement of the ascending aorta for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection, presented with enlargement of the chronic dissection of the descending aorta and moderate aortic regurgitation. A two-stage surgery was scheduled. Total arch replacement with an elephant trunk in the true lumen and concomitant aortic valve replacement were performed. Postoperatively, he developed severe haemolytic anaemia because of the folded elephant trunk. The anaemia improved after the second surgery, including graft replacement of the descending aorta. Similarly, a 61-year-old man, who underwent total arch replacement for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection, presented with enlargement of the chronic dissection of the descending aorta. Graft replacement of the descending aorta with an elephant trunk inserted into the true lumen was performed. The patient postoperatively developed haemolytic anaemia because of the folded elephant trunk, which improved after additional stent grafting into the elephant trunk. A folded elephant trunk in a small-calibre lumen can cause haemolysis. Therefore, inserting an elephant trunk in a small-calibre true lumen during surgery for chronic aortic dissection should be avoided. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  8. A Case of an Aortic Abscess around the Elephant Trunk.

    Fujii, Takeshiro; Kawasaki, Muneyasu; Katayanagi, Tomoyuki; Okuma, Shinnosuke; Masuhara, Hiroshi; Shiono, Noritsugu; Watanabe, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old male patient with a history of total arch replacement using the elephant trunk technique for acute aortic dissection 4 years before visited our hospital with the chief complaint of persistent fever. Chest computed tomography (CT) suggested prosthetic vascular graft infection, which was treated surgically after chemotherapy. The first surgery consisted of debridement of an abscess around the vascular graft and in the aorta around the elephant trunk, and thoracic descending aorta replacement and vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) in view of the risk of bleeding from the peripheral region of the elephant trunk. One week later, omental filling was performed as the second step. This is a very rare case of aortic abscess around the elephant trunk that could successfully be managed by graft-conserving treatment.

  9. Extended aortic repair using frozen elephant trunk technique for Marfan syndrome with acute aortic dissection.

    Uchida, Naomichi; Katayama, Akira; Kuraoka, Masatsugu; Katayama, Keijiro; Takahashi, Shinya; Takasaki, Taiichi; Sueda, Taijiro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze midterm results of frozen elephant trunk technique for Marfan syndrome with acute aortic dissection. Between February 1999 and August 2011 we performed arch replacement uisng frozen elephant trunk technique for acute aortic dissection in 8 patients with Marfan syndrome containing two complicated type B dissections and six type A dissections.Five patients compromised annulo-aortic ectasia who performed Bentall operation. No patients died in the initial operation. Fate of false lumen on the stent graft border was expressed by CT scan follow-up that were patent in 0, thrombosis in 5 and absorption in 3 patients. One patient who had new aortic dissection 8 years after initial surgery required the Crawford V operation. Ten-years-survival rate was 100% and ten years-event free rate was 67%. Frozen elephant trunk technique was feasible for Marfan syndrome with acute aortic dissection and might become alternative prophylactic treatment to the downstream aorta for acute aortic dissection.

  10. Conventional versus frozen elephant trunk surgery for extensive disease of the thoracic aorta.

    Di Eusanio, Marco; Borger, Michael; Petridis, Francesco D; Leontyev, Sergey; Pantaleo, Antonio; Moz, Monica; Mohr, Friedrich; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    To compare early and mid-term outcomes after repair of extensive aneurysm of the thoracic aorta using the conventional elephant trunk or frozen elephant trunk (FET) procedures. Fifty-seven patients with extensive thoracic aneurysmal disease were treated using elephant trunk (n = 36) or FET (n = 21) procedures. Patients with aortic dissection, descending thoracic aorta (DTA) diameter less than 40 mm, and thoracoabdominal aneurysms were excluded from the analysis, as were those who did not undergo antegrade selective cerebral perfusion during circulatory arrest. Short-term and mid-term outcomes were compared according to elephant trunk/FET surgical management. Preoperative and intraoperative variables were similar in the two groups, except for a higher incidence of female sex, coronary artery disease and associated procedures in elephant trunk patients. Hospital mortality (elephant trunk: 13.9% versus FET: 4.8%; P = 0.2), permanent neurologic dysfunction (elephant trunk: 5.7% versus FET: 9.5%; P = 0.4) and paraplegia (elephant trunk: 2.9% versus FET: 4.8%; P = 0.6) rates were similar in the two groups. Follow-up was 100% complete. In the elephant trunk group, 68.4% of patients did not undergo a second-stage procedure during follow-up for a variety of reasons. Of these patients, the DTA diameter was greater than 51 mm in 72.2% and two (6.7%) died due to aortic rupture while awaiting stage-two intervention. Endovascular second-stage procedures were successfully performed in all FET patients with residual DTA aneurysmal disease (n = 3), whereas nine of 11 elephant trunk patients who returned for second-stage procedures required conventional surgical replacement through a lateral thoracotomy. Kaplan-Meier estimate of 4-year survival was 75.8 ± 7.6 and 72.8 ± 10.6 in elephant trunk and FET patients, respectively (log-rank P = 0.8). In patients with extensive aneurysmal disease of thoracic aorta, elephant trunk and FET procedures

  11. [Intravascular Hemolysis Caused by Stenosis of an Elephant Trunk;Report of a Case].

    Takamaru, Rikako; Kawahito, Koji; Aizawa, Kei; Misawa, Yoshio

    2017-07-01

    Symptomatic intravascular hemolysis after prosthetic aortic graft replacement is rare. It is primarily attributed to mechanical injury of red blood cells caused by stenosis of the vascular graft. A 50-year-old man presented with hemolytic anemia, 5 years after total arch replacement with an elephant trunk for type A aortic dissection. The hemolysis was caused by graft stenosis of the elephant trunk. Endovascular treatment for the stenotic elephant trunk was successfully performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the hemolysis was resolved immediately after operation.

  12. Optimal graft diameter and location reduce postoperative complications after total arch replacement with long elephant trunk for arch aneurysm.

    Kondoh, Haruhiko; Funatsu, Toshihiro; Toda, Koich; Kainuma, Satoshi; Kuki, Satoru; Taniguchi, Kazuhiro

    2011-08-01

    Total arch replacement with an elephant trunk is a standard treatment for arch aneurysm, but serious complications, such as paraplegia and peripheral embolization caused by flapping of the elephant trunk, remain. Moreover, dilation of the descending aorta and retrograde flow into the peri-graft space at the distal elephant trunk are frequent problems. We hypothesized that optimal graft diameter and location would reduce complications after total arch replacement with a long elephant trunk by achieving complete thrombosis and minimal dilation of the descending aorta around the elephant trunk. We treated 65 patients with arch aneurysm by total arch replacement with a long elephant trunk anastomosed at the base of the innominate artery. The graft diameter was undersized (10%-20% of the distal aorta's diameter). Elephant trunk length was determined by preoperative computed tomography to locate the distal end at Th6 to Th8. Thrombosis around the elephant trunk, diameter of the descending aorta, and distance between the descending aorta and the graft near the distal end of the elephant trunk were evaluated using computed tomography. The distal end of the elephant trunk was located at Th 8 ± 1. There were no operative deaths, 3 patients (5%) died in the hospital, and 3 patients (5%) experienced spinal cord injury, including 1 in whom permanent paraplegia developed. Computed tomography revealed complete thrombosis around the elephant trunk in 58 patients (89%). The descending aorta did not dilate further, and distance between the descending aorta and the graft progressively decreased. Optimal graft diameter and location minimized postoperative complications, with complete thrombosis and no dilation of the descending aorta around the long elephant trunk in most patients. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Is the frozen elephant trunk procedure superior to the conventional elephant trunk procedure for completion of the second stage?

    Rustum, Saad; Beckmann, Erik; Wilhelmi, Mathias; Krueger, Heike; Kaufeld, Tim; Umminger, Julia; Haverich, Axel; Martens, Andreas; Shrestha, Malakh

    2017-10-01

    Our goal was to compare the results and outcomes of second-stage completion in patients who had previously undergone the elephant trunk (ET) or the frozen elephant trunk (FET) procedure for the treatment of complex aortic arch and descending aortic disease. Between August 2001 and December 2014, 53 patients [mean age 61 ± 13 years, 64% (n = 34) male] underwent a second-stage completion procedure. Of these patients, 32% (n = 17) had a previous ET procedure and 68% (n = 36) a previous FET procedure as a first-stage procedure. The median times to the second-stage procedure were 7 (0-78) months in the ET group and 8 (0-66) months in the FET group. The second-stage procedure included thoracic endovascular aortic repair in 53% (n = 28) of patients and open surgical repair in 47% (n = 25). More endovascular interventions were performed in FET patients (61%, n = 22) than in the ET group (35%, n = 6, P = 0.117). The in-hospital mortality rate was significantly lower in the FET (8%, n = 3) group compared with the ET group (29%, n = 5, P = 0.045). The median follow-up time after the second-stage operation for the entire cohort was 4.6 (0.4-10.4) years. The 5-year survival rate was 76% in the ET patients versus 89% in the FET patients (log-rank: P = 0.11). We observed a significantly lower in-hospital mortality rate in the FET group compared to the ET group. This result might be explained by the higher rate of endovascular completion in the FET group. We assume that the FET procedure offers the benefit of a more ideal landing zone, thus facilitating endovascular completion. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Endovascular Retrieval of Entrapped Elephant Trunk Graft During Complex Hybrid Aortic Arch Repair

    Damodharan, Karthikeyan, E-mail: drdkarthik@hotmail.com [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Chao, Victor T. T., E-mail: victor.chao.t.t@singhealth.com.sg [National Heart Centre, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Singapore); Tay, Kiang Hiong, E-mail: tay.kiang.hiong@singhealth.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2016-12-15

    Entrapment of the elephant trunk graft within the false lumen is a rare complication of surgical repair of an aortic dissection. This is normally retrieved by emergent open surgery. We describe a technique of endovascular retrieval of the dislodged graft, during hybrid aortic arch repair. The elephant trunk was cannulated through and through from a femoral access and the free end of the wire was snared and retrieved from a brachial access. The wire was externalised from both accesses and was used to reposition the graft into the true lumen using a body flossing technique.

  15. True-lumen and false-lumen diameter changes in the downstream aorta after frozen elephant trunk implantation.

    Berger, Tim; Kreibich, Maximilian; Morlock, Julia; Kondov, Stoyan; Scheumann, Johannes; Kari, Fabian A; Rylski, Bartosz; Siepe, Matthias; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Czerny, Martin

    2018-02-19

    To evaluate early and mid-term clinical outcomes and to assess the potential of the frozen elephant trunk technique to induce remodelling of downstream aortic segments in acute and chronic thoracic aortic dissections. Over a 4-year period, 65 patients (48 men, aged 61 ± 12 years) underwent total aortic arch replacement using the frozen elephant trunk technique for acute (n = 31) and chronic (n = 34) thoracic aortic dissections at our institution. We assessed diameter changes at 3 levels: the L1 segment at the stent graft level; the L2 segment at the thoraco-abdominal transition level and the L3 segment at the coeliac trunk level. True-lumen (TL) and false-lumen (FL) diameter changes were assessed at each level. Fifty-six percent of patients had already undergone previous aortic or cardiac surgery. In-hospital mortality was 6%. Symptomatic spinal cord injury was not observed in this series. During a mean follow-up of 12 ± 12 months, late death was observed in 6% of patients. Aortic reinterventions in downstream aortic segments were performed in 28% at a mean of 394 ± 385 days. TL expansion and FL shrinkage were measured in all segments and were observed at each level. This effect was the most pronounced at the level of the stent graft in patients with chronic aortic dissection, TL diameter increased from 15 ± 17 mm before surgery to 28 ± 2 mm (P = 0.001) after 2 years, and the FL diameter decreased from 40 ± 11 mm before surgery to 32 ± 17 mm (P = 0.026). The frozen elephant trunk technique is associated with an excellent clinical outcome in a complex cohort of patients, and also effectively induces remodelling in downstream aortic segments in acute and chronic thoracic aortic dissections. The need for secondary interventions in downstream segments, which mainly depends on the extent of the underlying disease process, remains substantial. Further studies are required to assess the long-term outcome of

  16. An Unusual Case of Stent Migration After Celiac Trunk Endovascular Revascularization

    Negri, Silvia; Ferraro, Stefania; Piffaretti, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.piffaretti@uninsubria.it; Rivolta, Nicola; Bossi, Matteo [University of Insubria School of Medicine, Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, Circolo University Hospital (Italy); Carrafiello, Gianpaolo [University of Insubria School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Circolo University Hospital (Italy); Castelli, Patrizio [University of Insubria School of Medicine, Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, Circolo University Hospital (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    A 61-year-old woman underwent celiac trunk stenting to treat abdominal angina. Three months later, she was readmitted for recurrent symptoms. Computed tomography control revealed the migration of the stent into the splenic artery. No sign of vessel injury or end-organ ischemia was detected. Repeat stenting of the celiac trunk was performed; the postoperative course was uneventful. 12 months later, the patient was asymptomatic with the second stent in its correct position, and she was asymptomatic for mesenteric ischemia.

  17. An Unusual Case of Stent Migration After Celiac Trunk Endovascular Revascularization

    Negri, Silvia; Ferraro, Stefania; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Rivolta, Nicola; Bossi, Matteo; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Castelli, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman underwent celiac trunk stenting to treat abdominal angina. Three months later, she was readmitted for recurrent symptoms. Computed tomography control revealed the migration of the stent into the splenic artery. No sign of vessel injury or end-organ ischemia was detected. Repeat stenting of the celiac trunk was performed; the postoperative course was uneventful. 12 months later, the patient was asymptomatic with the second stent in its correct position, and she was asymptomatic for mesenteric ischemia.

  18. Renaut bodies in nerves of the trunk of the African elephant, Loxodonta africana.

    Witter, Kirsti; Egger, Gunter F; Boeck, Peter

    2007-05-01

    Renaut bodies are loosely textured, cell-sparse structures in the subperineurial space of peripheral nerves, frequently found at sites of nerve entrapment. The trunk of the elephant is a mobile, richly innervated organ, which serves for food gathering, object grasping and as a tactile organ. These functions of the trunk lead to distortion and mechanical compression of its nerves, which can therefore be expected to contain numerous Renaut bodies. Samples of the trunk wall of an adult African elephant (Loxodonta africana) were examined histologically using conventional staining methods, immunohistochemistry, and lectin histochemistry. Architecture of nerve plexuses and occurrence of Renaut bodies in the elephant trunk were compared with those in tissues surrounding the nasal vestibule of the pig. Prominent nerve plexuses were found in all layers of the elephant trunk. Almost all (81%) nerve profiles contained Renaut bodies, a basophilic, discrete subperineurial layer resembling cushions around the nerve core. In contrast, Renaut bodies were seen in only 15% of nerve profiles in the porcine nasal vestibule. Within Renaut bodies, fusiform fibroblasts and round, ruff-like cells were placed into a matrix of acidic glycosaminoglycans with delicate collagen and very few reticular fibers. The turgor of this matrix is thought to protect nerves against compression and shearing strain. Renaut bodies are readily stained with alcian blue (pH 2.5) favorably in combination with immunohistochemical markers of nerve fibers. They should be regarded as a physiological response to repeated mechanical insults and are distinct from pathological alterations. alterations. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Whole body perfusion in patients undergoing frozen elephant trunk for type A acute aortic dissections.

    Cappabianca, Giangiuseppe; Roscitano, Claudio; Bichi, Samuele; Cricco, Antonio; Parrinello, Matteo; Beghi, Cesare; Albano, Giovanni; Esposito, Giampiero

    2017-03-01

    The Frozen Elephant Trunk (FET) can be adopted in selected type A acute aortic dissections (TAAAD). During FET, a prolonged distal circulatory arrest exposes the spine and visceral organs to potential ischemic injuries. Antegrade distal aortic perfusion (ADAP) could minimize this risk: we describe the technical aspects of the simultaneous use of antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) and ADAP achieving a "Whole Body Perfusion" (WBP) during FET.

  20. Retrograde Ascending Dissection After Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair Combined With the Chimney Technique and Successful Open Repair Using the Frozen Elephant Trunk Technique.

    Hirano, Koji; Tokui, Toshiya; Nakamura, Bun; Inoue, Ryosai; Inagaki, Masahiro; Maze, Yasumi; Kato, Noriyuki

    2018-01-01

    The chimney technique can be combined with thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) to both obtain an appropriate landing zone and maintain blood flow of the arch vessels. However, surgical repair becomes more complicated if retrograde type A aortic dissection occurs after TEVAR with the chimney technique. We herein report a case involving a 73-year-old woman who developed a retrograde ascending dissection 3 months after TEVAR for acute type B aortic dissection. To ensure an adequate proximal sealing distance, the proximal edge of the stent graft was located at the zone 2 level and an additional bare stent was placed at the left subclavian artery (the chimney technique) at the time of TEVAR. Enhanced computed tomography revealed an aortic dissection involving the ascending aorta and aortic arch. Surgical aortic repair using the frozen elephant trunk technique was urgently performed. The patient survived without stroke, paraplegia, renal failure, or other major complications. Retrograde ascending dissection can occur after TEVAR combined with the chimney technique. The frozen elephant trunk technique is useful for surgical repair in such complicated cases.

  1. Experience with the conventional and frozen elephant trunk techniques: a single-centre study.

    Leontyev, Sergey; Borger, Michael A; Etz, Christian D; Moz, Monica; Seeburger, Joerg; Bakhtiary, Farhard; Misfeld, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich W

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of patients with extensive thoracic aortic disease involving the arch and descending/thoracoabdominal aorta is often performed using an elephant trunk procedure. We retrospectively analysed our results comparing two different techniques: the conventional elephant trunk (cET) and the frozen elephant trunk (FET) operation. Between January 2003 and December 2011, 171 consecutive patients underwent total aortic arch replacement with either a cET (n = 125) or FET (n = 46) technique. The mean age was 64 ± 13 years and was significantly higher in the FET group (P 40 min was an independent predictor for permanent spinal cord injury (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.1-20, P = 0.038). The estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year survival were 70 ± 4, 70 ± 4 and 68 ± 4% (cET) and 4 ± 7 and 60 ± 9, 40 ± 1% (FET), with mean survival time 5.2 ± 0.3 vs 3.8 ± 0.5 years (cET vs FET, log-rank P = 0.9). The FET procedure for extensive thoracic aortic disease is associated with an acceptable mortality rate, but with a higher incidence of perioperative spinal cord injury than cET. Arch replacement with a cET technique should be strongly considered in patients with expected prolonged circulatory arrest times, particularly if operated on under mild or moderate hypothermia. Axillary cannulation is associated with superior neurological outcomes and Type A acute aortic dissection is a risk factor for mortality and poor neurological outcomes in this patient population.

  2. "Elephant trunk" and endovascular stentgrafting : a hybrid approach to the treatment of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysm

    Holubec, Tomás; Raupach, Jan; Dominik, Jan; Vojácek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid approach to elephant trunk technique for treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms combines a conventional surgical and endovascular therapy. Compared to surgery alone, there is a presumption that mortality and morbidity is reduced. We present a case report of a 42-year-old man with a giant aneurysm of the entire thoracic aorta, significant aortic and tricuspid regurgitation and ventricular septum defect. The patient underwent multiple consecutive operations and interventions having, am...

  3. Detection of pathogenic elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus in routine trunk washes from healthy adult Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) by use of a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay

    Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Zong, Jian-Chao; Latimer, Erin; Tan, Jie; Herron, Alan; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathogenesis and transmission of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV1) by analyzing various elephant fluid samples with a novel EEHV1-specific real-time PCR assay. Animals 5 apparently healthy captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) from the same herd. Procedures A real-time PCR assay was developed that specifically detects EEHV1. The assay was used to evaluate paired whole blood and trunk-wash samples obtained from the 5 elephants during a 15-week period. Deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing and viral gene subtyping analysis were performed on trunk-wash DNA preparations that had positive results for EEHV1. Viral gene subtypes were compared with those associated with past fatal cases of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. Results The PCR assay detected viral DNA to a level of 1,200 copies/mL of whole blood. It was used to detect EEHV1 in trunk secretions of 3 of the 5 elephants surveyed during the 15-week period. Viral gene subtyping analysis identified 2 distinct elephant herpesviruses, 1 of which was identical to the virus associated with a previous fatal case of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance EEHV1 was shed in the trunk secretions of healthy Asian elephants. Trunk secretions may provide a mode of transmission for this virus. Results of this study may be useful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of EEHV1-associated disease and the overall management of captive elephant populations. PMID:20673092

  4. Kinematics and the implementation of an elephant's trunk manipulator and other continuum style robots

    Hannan, Michael W.; Walker, Ian D.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, robot manipulators have been a simple arrangement of a small number of serially connected links and actuated joints. Though these manipulators prove to be very effective for many tasks, they are not without their limitations, due mainly to their lack of maneuverability or total degrees of freedom. Continuum style (i.e., continuous "back-bone") robots, on the other hand, exhibit a wide range of maneuverability, and can have a large number of degrees of freedom. The motion of continuum style robots is generated through the bending of the robot over a given section; unlike traditional robots where the motion occurs in discrete locations, i.e., joints. The motion of continuum manipulators is often compared to that of biological manipulators such as trunks and tentacles. These continuum style robots can achieve motions that could only be obtainable by a conventionally designed robot with many more degrees of freedom. In this paper we present a detailed formulation and explanation of a novel kinematic model for continuum style robots. The design, construction, and implementation of our continuum style robot called the elephant trunk manipulator is presented. Experimental results are then provided to verify the legitimacy of our model when applied to our physical manipulator. We also provide a set of obstacle avoidance experiments that help to exhibit the practical implementation of both our manipulator and our kinematic model. c2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Total Arch Replacement With Frozen Elephant Trunk in Acute Type A Aortic Dissection.

    Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy, we performed a meta-analysis of total arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk in exclusive acute type A (neither chronic nor type B) aortic dissection. Databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched through March 2015 using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). Eligible studies were case series of frozen elephant trunk enrolling patients with acute type A (neither chronic nor type B) aortic dissection reporting at least early (in-hospital or 30-day) all-cause mortality. Study-specific estimates were combined in both fixed- and random-effect models. Fifteen studies enrolling 1279 patients were identified and included. Pooled analyses demonstrated the cardiopulmonary bypass time of 207.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 186.1-228.1) minutes, aortic cross-clamp time of 123.3 (95% CI, 113.1-133.5) minutes, selective antegrade cerebral perfusion time of 49.3 (95% CI, 37.6-61.0) minutes, hypothermic circulatory arrest time of 39.0 (95% CI, 30.7-47.2) minutes, early mortality of 9.2% (95% CI, 7.7-11.0%), stroke of 4.8% (95% CI, 2.5-9.0%), spinal cord injury of 3.5% (95% CI, 1.9-6.6%), mid- to long-term (≥1-year) overall mortality of 13.0% (95% CI, 10.4-16.0%), reintervention of 9.6% (95% CI, 5.6-15.8%), and false lumen thrombosis of 96.8% (95% CI, 90.7-98.9%). Total arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk provides a safe alternative to that with conventional elephant trunk in patients with acute type A aortic dissection, with acceptable early mortality and morbidity. The rates of mid- to long-term reintervention and false lumen non-thrombosis may be lower in patients undergoing the frozen than conventional elephant trunk procedure. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Total aortic arch replacement with the frozen elephant trunk technique: 10-year follow-up single-centre experience.

    Ius, Fabio; Fleissner, Felix; Pichlmaier, Maximilian; Karck, Matthias; Martens, Andreas; Haverich, Axel; Shrestha, Malakh

    2013-11-01

    Since August 2001, the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique has been used at our institution to treat degenerative or dissecting aneurysms involving the aortic arch and descending aorta as a potential 'single-stage' procedure. The aim of this study was to review our FET experience and to present the 10-year results. Between August 2001 and January 2012, 131 patients underwent FET implant with three different prostheses: the custom-made Chavan-Haverich (n = 66), the Jotec E-vita (n = 30) and the Vascutek Thoraflex (n = 35) prostheses. Concomitant procedures included aortic valve-sparing operations (David, n = 17) and aortic root replacement (Bentall, n = 25). Patient records and the first postoperative and last available computer tomography (CT) were retrospectively reviewed. Incidence of rethoracotomy for bleeding, stroke, spinal cord injury, prolonged ventilatory support (>96 h) and acute renal failure requiring dialysis were 18, 11, 1, 41 and 16%, respectively. In-hospital mortality was 15%. The mean follow-up was 42 ± 37 (range 1-134 months). At 1, 5 and 10 years, survivals were 82 ± 3, 72 ± 5 and 58 ± 8%, respectively. Freedoms from distal aortic operation were 81 ± 4, 67 ± 5 and 43 ± 13%, respectively. Thirty-six patients underwent 40 distal aortic operations, either open surgical (n = 22, 55%) or endovascular (n = 18, 45%). Chronic aortic dissection was identified as an independent risk factor for distal aortic operation (odds ratio = 3.8; 95% confidence interval 1.5-9.3; P = 0.004). At last CT control, false-lumen thrombosis rates up to 93% were achieved around the stent graft. An FET concept adds to the armament of the surgeon in the treatment of complex and diverse aortic arch pathologies. The preoperative patient risk profile explains the postoperative morbidity and in-hospital mortality. The FET can potentially be still a 'one-stage' procedure in selected patients. However, the extension of FET to patients with extensive aortic aneurysms has led

  7. A 51-year-old woman crushed by an elephant trunk.

    Tsung, Ann H; Allen, Brandon R

    2015-03-01

    Wild and exotic animal attacks are not common in the United States. Animal-related injuries in the United States are usually caused by dog bites, followed by cattle and horse injuries. Exotic animal attacks can occur when the animals are provoked, depressed, or housed improperly by owners. We report the case of a 51-year-old woman who sustained multiple systemic traumatic injuries after she was pinned to a fence by an elephant's trunk. Upon arrival in the emergency department, she was hypothermic with a temperature of 35.1ºC (95.1ºF), hypotensive to 94/60 mm Hg after 5 L crystalloid, tachycardic at 108 beats/min, and intubated with oxygen saturation of 100%. Tranexamic acid was administered in addition to starting a massive transfusion protocol. Injuries included bilateral multiple rib fractures, left abdominal wall degloving injury, right pneumothorax, right hemothorax, left chest wall puncture wound, grade IV splenic laceration, 3 grade III liver lacerations, retroperitoneal hematoma, and degloving injuries to bilateral posterior thighs requiring more than 30 operations. Why should an emergency physician be aware of this? Several factors need to be considered when evaluating animal-related injuries, including type, age, and sex of the animal. Multisystem traumatic injuries should be assumed when a large animal is involved. Prehospital care and transport time are vital to a patient's survival in both urban and rural settings. During the initial resuscitation, administering antibiotics tailored to the specific animal can greatly decrease risk of infection and morbidity. Additionally, tetanus immunoglobulin, tetanus toxoid, and rabies immunoglobulin and vaccine may be needed, unless the victim has been previously vaccinated. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Elective frozen elephant trunk procedure using the E-Vita Open Plus prosthesis in 94 patients: a multicentre French registry.

    Verhoye, Jean-Philippe; Belhaj Soulami, Reda; Fouquet, Olivier; Ruggieri, Vito Giovanni; Kaladji, Adrien; Tomasi, Jacques; Sellin, Michel; Farhat, Fadi; Anselmi, Amedeo

    2017-10-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the operative outcomes of the frozen elephant trunk technique using the E-Vita Open Plus® hybrid prosthesis in chronic aortic arch diseases and report clinical and radiological outcomes at the 1-year follow-up. As determined from a prospective multicentre registry, 94 patients underwent frozen elephant trunk procedures using the E-Vita Open Plus hybrid device for the treatment of chronic aortic conditions, including 50% chronic aortic dissections, 40% degenerative aneurysms and 10% miscellaneous indications. Fifty percent of the cases were reoperations. The perioperative mortality rate was 11.7%. Spinal cord ischaemia and stroke rates were 4% and 9.6%, respectively. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 252 ± 97 min, cardiac ischaemia time was 152 ± 53 min and cerebral perfusion time was 82 ± 22 min. Concomitant procedures were observed in 15% of patients. Among the 83 surviving patients, the survival rate after the 1-year follow-up was 98%. Eleven percent of patients underwent endovascular completion, whereas 4% of patients required aortic reintervention at 1 year. The E-Vita Open Plus hybrid device confirms the favourable short- and mid-term outcomes offered by its predecessor in frozen elephant trunk procedures in patients with chronic aortic arch disease. Implantation of the E-Vita Open Plus is associated with good 1-year survival rates, good rates of favourable aortic remodelling in both chronic dissection and degenerative aneurysms and a reproducible technique in a multicentre registry. Continued follow-up is required due to the risk of evolution at the downstream aorta. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  9. Arch translocation and the intra-arch elephant-trunk technique with collared graft for extended chronic dissecting aortic aneurysm

    Ikenaga Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Management of extensive, chronic, dissecting aortic aneurysms after prior repair of the ascending aorta presents a technical challenge for surgeons. A symptomatic 64-year-old patient was admitted for elective surgical repair of an aortic annular dilatation, causing severe aortic regurgitation, and a Crawford type II extended thoracoabdominal aneurysm, 4 years after he underwent primary repair of an acute aortic dissection. The aorta was diffusely dilated, and there were no sites beyond the distal aortic arch where anastomosis could be performed. We successfully performed total aortic replacement with a 2-stage strategy, using an arch translocation technique and an intra-arch elephant-trunk technique.

  10. Total aortic arch replacement with the elephant trunk technique: single-centre 30-year results.

    Shrestha, Malakh; Martens, Andreas; Krüger, Heike; Maeding, Illona; Ius, Fabio; Fleissner, Felix; Haverich, Axel

    2014-02-01

    The combined disease of the aortic arch and the descending aorta (aneurysms and dissection) remains a surgical challenge. Various approaches have been used to treat this complex pathology. In the two-stage operation, at the first-stage operation, the aortic arch is replaced through a median sternotomy. Later, at the second-stage operation, the descending thoracic aorta is replaced through a lateral thoracotomy. The elephant trunk (ET) technique was introduced by H.G. Borst at our centre in March 1982, greatly simplifying the second-phase operation. We present our 30-year experience. From March 1982 to March 2012, 179 patients (112 males, age 56.4±12.6 years) received an ET procedure for the combined disease of the aortic arch and the descending aorta (91 aneurysms, 88 dissections (47 acute)). Fifty-six of these patients had undergone previous cardiac operations. Concomitant procedures were performed if necessary. The cerebral protection was done either by deep (till 1999) or moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP, after 1999). Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and X-clamp times were 208.5±76.5 min and 123.7±54.8 min, respectively. The intraoperative mortality and 30-day mortality during the first-stage operation were 1.7% (3/179) and 17.3% (31/179, 15 with AADA), respectively. Perioperative stroke was 7.9% (n=14/176). Postoperative recurrent nerve palsy was present in 18.2% (32/176) and paraplegia in 5.6% (10/176). The second-stage completion operation was performed as early as possible. Fifty-seven second-stage completion procedures were performed, either surgically (n=50) or through interventional techniques (n=7). The intraoperative and 30-day mortality after the second-stage completion procedures were 5.2% (3/57) and 7.0% (4/57), respectively. The stroke, recurrent nerve palsy and paraplegia rates were 0, 0 and 7% (4/54), respectively. The ET technique has greatly facilitated the two-stage approach to the surgical

  11. Single-centre experience with the frozen elephant trunk technique in 251 patients over 15 years.

    Shrestha, Malakh; Martens, Andreas; Kaufeld, Tim; Beckmann, Erik; Bertele, Sebastian; Krueger, Heike; Neuser, Julia; Fleissner, Felix; Ius, Fabio; Abd Alhadi, Firas; Hanke, Jasmin; Schmitto, Jan D; Cebotari, Serghei; Karck, Matthias; Haverich, Axel; Chavan, Ajay

    2017-11-01

    Our goal was to present our 15-year experience (2001-2015) with the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique. A total of 251 patients (82 with aortic aneurysms, 96 with acute aortic dissection type A, 4 with acute type B dissections, 52 with chronic aortic dissection type A, 17 with chronic type B dissection and 67 redo cases) underwent FET implantation with either the custom-made Chavan-Haverich (n = 66), the Jotec E-vita (n = 31) or the Vascutek Thoraflex hybrid (n = 154) prosthesis. The cases were assigned to an early period (2001-2011) and a contemporary period (2012-present). Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time, aortic cross-clamp time, circulatory arrest time and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion time were 241 ± 72, 125 ± 59, 56 ± 30 and 81 ± 34 min, respectively. Incidence of rethoracotomy for bleeding, stroke, spinal cord injury, prolonged ventilatory support (>96 h) and long-term dialysis were 18, 14, 2, 24 and 2%, respectively. The in-hospital mortality rate was 11% (in acute aortic dissection type A, 12%). Of the 2 patients with graft infections, 1 died and the other had a protracted hospital stay. There were 49 second-stage procedures in the downstream aorta: either open surgical [n = 25 (thoraco-abdominal, n = 15; descending, n = 6; infrarenal, n = 4)] or transfemoral endovascular (n = 23). Elective thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair R implantation was successful in all 23 cases. FET results are comparable with those of the published results of the conventional elephant trunk technique. FET is an ideal landing zone for subsequent transfemoral endovascular completion. Patients with graft infections may have dismal results. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  12. Endovascular Treatment of Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia by Crossing of Two Stents in a Patient with Celiacomesenteric Trunk

    Khil, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jae Myeong [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    A 73-year-old woman was presented with a 3-month history of postprandial abdominal pain and weight loss. The patient had an anatomic variant of celiacomesenteric trunk (CMT), with complete occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and significant stenosis of the CMT ostium, resulting in chronic mesenteric ischemia. After several unsuccessful attempts at revascularization of the SMA, celiac artery stenting was performed, followed by SMA stent placement through the previously placed stent mesh into the occlusion site. The patient's symptoms completely resolved after treatment.

  13. Endovascular Treatment of Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia by Crossing of Two Stents in a Patient with Celiacomesenteric Trunk

    Khil, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jae Myeong

    2013-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was presented with a 3-month history of postprandial abdominal pain and weight loss. The patient had an anatomic variant of celiacomesenteric trunk (CMT), with complete occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and significant stenosis of the CMT ostium, resulting in chronic mesenteric ischemia. After several unsuccessful attempts at revascularization of the SMA, celiac artery stenting was performed, followed by SMA stent placement through the previously placed stent mesh into the occlusion site. The patient's symptoms completely resolved after treatment.

  14. Hybrid (laparoscopy + stent) treatment of celiac trunk compression syndrome (Dunbar syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS)).

    Michalik, Maciej; Dowgiałło-Wnukiewicz, Natalia; Lech, Paweł; Majda, Kaja; Gutowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Celiac trunk (CT) compression syndrome caused by the median arcuate ligament (MAL) is a rarely diagnosed disease because of its nonspecific symptoms, which cause a delay in the correct diagnosis. Intestinal ischemia occurs, which causes symptoms of abdominal angina. One method of treatment for this disease is surgical release of the CT - the intersection of the MAL. Laparoscopy is the first step of the hybrid technique combined with percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of the CT. To demonstrate the usefulness and advantages of the laparoscopic approach in the treatment of Dunbar syndrome. Between 2013 and 2016 in the General and Minimally Invasive Surgery Department of the Medical Sciences Faculty of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 6 laparoscopic procedures were performed because of median arcuate ligament syndrome. During the laparoscopy the MAL was cut with a harmonic scalpel. One month after laparoscopy 5 patients had Doppler percutaneous angioplasty of the CT with stent implantation in the Vascular Surgery Department in Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. In one case, there was a conversion of laparoscopic surgery to open due to unmanageable intraoperative bleeding. In one case, postoperative ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity demonstrated the presence of a large hematoma in the retroperitoneal space. All patients reported relief of symptoms in the first days after the operation. The hybrid method, combining laparoscopy and angioplasty, seems to be a long-term solution, which increases the comfort of the patient, brings the opportunity for normal functioning and minimizes the risk of restenosis.

  15. Hybrid (laparoscopy + stent treatment of celiac trunk compression syndrome (Dunbar syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS

    Maciej Michalik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Celiac trunk (CT compression syndrome caused by the median arcuate ligament (MAL is a rarely diagnosed disease because of its nonspecific symptoms, which cause a delay in the correct diagnosis. Intestinal ischemia occurs, which causes symptoms of abdominal angina. One method of treatment for this disease is surgical release of the CT – the intersection of the MAL. Laparoscopy is the first step of the hybrid technique combined with percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of the CT. Aim: To demonstrate the usefulness and advantages of the laparoscopic approach in the treatment of Dunbar syndrome. Material and methods : Between 2013 and 2016 in the General and Minimally Invasive Surgery Department of the Medical Sciences Faculty of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 6 laparoscopic procedures were performed because of median arcuate ligament syndrome. During the laparoscopy the MAL was cut with a harmonic scalpel. One month after laparoscopy 5 patients had Doppler percutaneous angioplasty of the CT with stent implantation in the Vascular Surgery Department in Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. Results : In one case, there was a conversion of laparoscopic surgery to open due to unmanageable intraoperative bleeding. In one case, postoperative ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity demonstrated the presence of a large hematoma in the retroperitoneal space. All patients reported relief of symptoms in the first days after the operation. Conclusions : The hybrid method, combining laparoscopy and angioplasty, seems to be a long-term solution, which increases the comfort of the patient, brings the opportunity for normal functioning and minimizes the risk of restenosis.

  16. Long-term outcomes of frozen elephant trunk for type A aortic dissection in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Ma, Wei-Guo; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jun-Ming; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Zhi, Ai-Hua; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Yong-Min; Elefteriades, John A; Sun, Li-Zhong

    2017-10-01

    The use of the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique for repair of type A aortic dissection (TAAD) in Marfan syndrome (MFS) is controversial. We seek to evaluate the efficacy of FET and total arch replacement (TAR) for TAAD in patients with MFS. The early and long-term outcomes were analyzed for 106 patients with MFS (mean age, 34.5 ± 9.7 years) undergoing FET + TAR for TAAD. Operative mortality was 6.6% (7 of 106). Spinal cord injury and stroke occurred in 1 patient each (0.9%), and reexploration for bleeding occurred in 6 patients (5.7%). Extra-anatomic bypass was the sole risk factor for operative mortality and morbidity (odds ratio [OR], 7.120; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.018-49.790; P = .048). Follow-up was complete in 97.0% (96 of 99), averaging 6.3 ± 2.8 years. Late death occurred in 17 patients. Patients with acute TAAD were less prone to late death than those with chronic TAAD (OR, 0.112; 95% CI, 0.021-0.587; P = .048). Twelve patients required late reoperation, including thoracoabdominal aortic repair in 8, thoracic endovascular aortic repair for distal new entry in 3, and coronary anastomotic repair in 1. At 5 years, survival was 86.6% (95% CI, 77.9%-92.0%) and freedom from reoperation was 88.8% (95% CI, 80.1%-93.4%), and at 8 years, survival was 74.1% (95% CI, 61.9%-83.0%) and freedom from reoperation was 84.2% (95% CI, 72.4%-91.2%). In competing risks analysis, mortality was 4% at 5 years, 18% at 8 years, and 25% at 10 years; the respective rates of reoperation were 10%, 15%, and 15%; and the respective rates of survival without reoperation were 86%, 67%, and 60%. Survival was significantly higher in patients who underwent root procedures during FET + TAR (P = .047). Risk factors for reoperation were days from diagnosis to surgery (OR, 1.160; 95% CI, 1.043-1.289; P = .006) and Bentall procedure (OR, 12.012; 95% CI, 1.041-138.606; P = .046). The frozen elephant trunk and total arch replacement procedure can be safely performed

  17. Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Successfully Managed with One-stage Surgery of Total Aortic Arch Replacement with Supra-aortic Transposition Plus Frozen Elephant Trunk Technique

    Meng-Lin Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute type A aortic dissection has long been a challenging issue. The surgical techniques traditionally vary with the anatomic extent of the aortic dissection. Simple ascending aortic grafting can be lifesaving, but the lesions beyond the aorta, which include the arch vessels and descending aorta, remain potential hazards. In this paper, we present a patient in which acute type A aortic dissection with lesions extending into descending thoracic aorta was successfully managed by total arch replacement with supra-aortic transposition plus the frozen elephant trunk technique to the descending aorta. A 67-year-old gentleman presented with severe tearing pain from the anterior to posterior chest. Computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of acute type A dissection extending to the level of the right common iliac artery. An emergent operation was performed as in the aforementioned technique. The surgery went well and the patient was discharged without comorbidities on postoperative day 25. The patient had regular outpatient clinical follow-up. The follow-up computed tomography images showed adequate results with the obliteration of the false lumen. In conclusion, total aortic arch replacement with supra-aortic transposition plus frozen elephant trunk technique is a safe and feasible operative method for patients with detrimental acute type A aortic dissection.

  18. Visceral hybrid reconstruction of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm after open repair of type a aortic dissection by the Bentall procedure with the elephant trunk technique: A case report

    Marjanović Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction of chronic type B dissection and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA remaining after the emergency reconstruction of the ascending thoracic aorta and aortic arch for acute type A dissection represents one of the major surgical challenges. Complications of chronic type B dissection are aneurysmal formation and rupture of an aortic aneurysm with a high mortality rate. We presented a case of visceral hybrid reconstruction of TAAA secondary to chronic dissection type B after the Bentall procedure with the elephant trunk technique due to acute type A aortic dissection in a high-risk patient. Case report. A 62 year-old woman was admitted to our institution for reconstruction of Crawford type I TAAA secondary to chronic dissection. The patient had had an acute type A aortic dissection 3 years before and undergone reconstruction by the Bentall procedure with the elephant trunk technique with valve replacement. On admission the patient had coronary artery disease (myocardial infarction, two times in the past 3 years, congestive heart disease with ejection fraction of 25% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. On computed tomography (CT of the aorta TAAA was revealed with a maximum diameter of 93 mm in the descending thoracic aorta secondary to chronic dissection. All the visceral arteries originated from the true lumen with exception of the celiac artery (CA, and the end of chronic dissection was below the origin of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA. The patient was operated on using surgical visceral reconstruction of the SMA, CA and the right renal artery (RRA as the first procedure. Postoperative course was without complications. Endovascular TAAA reconstruction was performed as the second procedure one month later, when the elephant trunk was used as the proximal landing zone for the endograft, and distal landing zone was the level of origin of the RRA. Postoperatively, the patient had no neurological deficit and

  19. Late prosthetic graft infection after frozen elephant trunk presenting by haemoptysis and positive ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    Morjan, Mohammed; Ali, Khaldoun; Harringer, Wolfgang; El-Essawi, Aschraf

    2014-11-01

    In cardiothoracic surgery, prosthetic graft infection represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Although clinical assessment, imaging techniques and microbiological investigations are helpful, late graft infection can be difficult to identify using classical diagnostic tools. An aggressive surgical approach involving removal and replacement of all prosthetic materials is technically demanding but remains the best strategy to eradicate infection. Herein, we report a case of a late aortic graft infection, after frozen elephant trunk implantation with atypical presentation, diagnosed with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and treated successfully through a radical surgical strategy. This case emphasizes the emerging diagnostic role of positron emission tomography and encourages the adoption of an aggressive surgical approach. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. [A re-operative case of bentall operation and aortic arch replacement using a stent graft for a Marfan syndrome, post sternum turnover and post mitral valve replacement].

    Sasaki, H; Aomi, S; Noji, S; Uwabe, K; Kihara, S; Kurihara, H; Koyanagi, H

    2001-09-01

    A 36-year-old male with Marfan syndrome succesfully underwent Bentall operation and aortic arch replacement using a stent graft as an elephant trunk. He had received MVR with sternum turn over 14 years previously. Median sternotomy was performed. Under circulatory arrest with rertograde cerebral perfusion we performed Bentall operation and aortic arch replacement using a stent graft. The sternum was cured well. Retractive breathing was not detected. This surgical procedure was effective for cardiovascular disease with Marfan syndrome.

  1. Stent

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Stent URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002303.htm Stent To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A stent is a tiny tube placed into a hollow structure in your ...

  2. Subclinical infection of a young captive Asian elephant with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 1.

    Azab, Walid; Damiani, Armando Mario; Ochs, Andreas; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2018-02-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) are a continuous threat for young Asian elephants. We report a laboratory-confirmed infection of a 5-year-old female Asian elephant (AZ_2016) in the Berlin Zoologischer Garten. Initially, high EEHV-1 loads were detected in trunk swabs obtained from the young elephant during routine screening. The animal showed no clinical signs except for slight irritability. EEHV-1 was continuously shed for almost one year, with fluctuations in viral load from time to time. Our investigations highlight the continuous threat of EEHV-1 to young captive Asian elephants and stress the importance of routine monitoring of captive elephants to allow early detection of infection.

  3. KINETICS OF VIRAL LOADS AND GENOTYPIC ANALYSIS OF ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS-1 INFECTION IN CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)

    Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Zong, Jian-Chao; Eng, Crystal; Howard, Lauren; Flanagan, Joe; Stevens, Martina; Schmitt, Dennis; Wiedner, Ellen; Graham, Danielle; Junge, Randall E.; Weber, Martha A.; Fischer, Martha; Mejia, Alicia; Tan, Jie; Latimer, Erin; Herron, Alan; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus); however, sporadic shedding of virus in trunk washes collected from healthy elephants also has been detected. Data regarding the relationship of viral loads in blood compared with trunk washes are lacking, and questions about whether elephants can undergo multiple infections with EEHVs have not been addressed previously. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the kinetics of EEHV1 loads, and genotypic analysis was performed on EEHV1 DNA detected in various fluid samples obtained from five Asian elephants that survived detectable EEHV1 DNAemia on at least two separate occasions. In three elephants displaying clinical signs of illness, preclinical EEHV1 DNAemia was detectable, and peak whole-blood viral loads occurred 3–8 days after the onset of clinical signs. In two elephants with EEHV1 DNAemia that persisted for 7–21 days, no clinical signs of illness were observed. Detection of EEHV1 DNA in trunk washes peaked approximately 21 days after DNAemia, and viral genotypes detected during DNAemia matched those detected in subsequent trunk washes from the same elephant. In each of the five elephants, two distinct EEHV1 genotypes were identified in whole blood and trunk washes at different time points. In each case, these genotypes represented both an EEHV1A and an EEHV1B subtype. These data suggest that knowledge of viral loads could be useful for the management of elephants before or during clinical illness. Furthermore, sequential infection with both EEHV1 subtypes occurs in Asian elephants, suggesting that they do not elicit cross-protective sterilizing immunity. These data will be useful to individuals involved in the husbandry and clinical care of Asian elephants. PMID:23505702

  4. Combined open proximal and stent-graft distal repair for distal arch aneurysms: an alternative to total debranching.

    Zierer, Andreas; Sanchez, Luis A; Moon, Marc R

    2009-07-01

    We present herein a novel, combined, simultaneous open proximal and stent-graft distal repair for complex distal aortic arch aneurysms involving the descending aorta. In the first surgical step, the transverse arch is opened during selective antegrade cerebral perfusion, and a Dacron graft (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) is positioned down the descending aorta in an elephant trunk-like fashion with its proximal free margin sutured circumferentially to the aorta just distal to the left subclavian or left common carotid artery. With the graft serving as the new proximal landing zone, subsequent endovascular repair is performed antegrade during rewarming through the ascending aorta.

  5. ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 5, A NEWLY RECOGNIZED ELEPHANT HERPESVIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH CLINICAL AND SUBCLINICAL INFECTIONS IN CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)

    Atkins, Lisa; Zong, Jian-Chao; Tan, Jie; Mejia, Alicia; Heaggans, Sarah Y.; Nofs, Sally A.; Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Flanagan, Joseph P.; Howard, Lauren; Latimer, Erin; Stevens, Martina R.; Hoffman, Daryl S.; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause acute hemorrhagic disease with high mortality rates in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Recently, a new EEHV type known as EEHV5 has been described, but its prevalence and clinical significance remain unknown. In this report, an outbreak of EEHV5 infection in a herd of captive Asian elephants in a zoo was characterized. In February 2011, a 42-yr-old wild-born female Asian elephant presented with bilaterally swollen temporal glands, oral mucosal hyperemia, vesicles on the tongue, and generalized lethargy. The elephant had a leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. She was treated with flunixin meglumine, famciclovir, and fluids. Clinical signs of illness resolved gradually over 2 wk, and the white blood cell count and platelets rebounded to higher-than-normal values. EEHV5 viremia was detectable starting 1 wk before presentation and peaked at the onset of clinical illness. EEHV5 shedding in trunk secretions peaked after viremia resolved and continued for more than 2 mo. EEHV5 trunk shedding from a female herd mate without any detectable viremia was detected prior to onset of clinical disease in the 42-yr-old elephant, indicating reactivation rather than primary infection in this elephant. Subsequent EEHV5 viremia and trunk shedding was documented in the other five elephants in the herd, who remained asymptomatic, except for 1 day of temporal gland swelling in an otherwise-healthy 1-yr-old calf. Unexpectedly, the two elephants most recently introduced into the herd 40 mo previously shed a distinctive EEHV5 strain from that seen in the other five elephants. This is the first report to document the kinetics of EEHV5 infection in captive Asian elephants and to provide evidence that this virus can cause illness in some animals. PMID:23505714

  6. Identification of shedders of elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses among Asian elephants (Elephas maximus in Switzerland.

    Mathias Ackermann

    Full Text Available Elephants, particularly Asian (Elephas maximus, are threatened by lethal elephant hemorrhagic disease (EHD due to elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV. At least five of seven known EEHV types have been associated to EHD, with types 1, 4, and 5 predominantly affecting Asian elephants. In Switzerland, at least three Asian elephants have been lost due to EHD but nothing is known about the present EEHV1 circulation. Moreover, the prevalence of other EEHV types has never been assessed. Intermittent shedding of EEHV can be monitored through collecting trunk secretions and analyzing them by PCR methods that discriminate the different EEHV types. To identify EEHV shedders, seven of eight Asian elephants in a Swiss zoo were trained to provide trunk wash samples. These were collected at intervals over a period of four months and tested by PCR for presence of EEHV1 through 6. Moreover, the quality of each sample was assessed by testing for the elephant TNF-alpha gene. Overall, 57% of the samples were valid with five of seven participating elephants identified as EEHV shedders. Two of those shed virus only once, whereas the other three, all closely related among each other, shed virus on multiple occasions. One of the frequent shedders had been in very close contact to all of the three EHD victims. Therefore, we speculate that this particular animal may represent the virus source in all three cases. However, when subtyping was conducted, the presently circulating virus was identified as EEHV1B, while the virus subtype causing EHD had been 1A in all three cases. In addition to four animals excreting EEHV1, a recently introduced animal was observed to shed EEHV3/4. We suggest that the policy of trunk washing to identify and characterize EEHV-shedders is to be endorsed in zoos with ongoing or planned elephant breeding programs.

  7. Engineering Encounters: Elephant Trunks and Dolphin Tails

    Hefty, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how one class at Douglas Jamerson Elementary School in St. Petersburg, Florida, a center for engineering and mathematics, incorporated an Engineering Design Process into its curriculum. At Jamerson Elementary, all students in kindergarten through fifth grade engage in teacher-created, integrated engineering units of study,…

  8. Tuberculosis in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Ong, B L; Ngeow, Y F; Razak, M F A Abdul; Yakubu, Y; Zakaria, Z; Mutalib, A R; Hassan, L; Ng, H F; Verasahib, K

    2013-07-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from 10 January to 9 April 2012, to determine the seroprevalence of tuberculosis (TB) of all captive Asian elephants and their handlers in six locations in Peninsular Malaysia. In addition, trunk-wash samples were examined for tubercle bacillus by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For 63 elephants and 149 elephant handlers, TB seroprevalence was estimated at 20.4% and 24.8%, respectively. From 151 trunkwash samples, 24 acid-fast isolates were obtained, 23 of which were identified by hsp65-based sequencing as non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific PCR was positive in the trunk-wash samples from three elephants which were also seropositive. Conversely, the trunk wash from seven seropositive elephants were PCR negative. Hence, there was evidence of active and latent TB in the elephants and the high seroprevalence in the elephants and their handlers suggests frequent, close contact, two-way transmission between animals and humans within confined workplaces.

  9. Detusking fence-breaker elephants as an approach in human-elephant conflict mitigation.

    Mutinda, Matthew; Chenge, Geoffrey; Gakuya, Francis; Otiende, Moses; Omondi, Patrick; Kasiki, Samuel; Soriguer, Ramón C; Alasaad, Samer

    2014-01-01

    Human-elephant conflict (HEC) is a recurring problem that appears wherever the range of elephants and humans overlap. Different methods including the use of electric fences are used worldwide to mitigate this conflict. Nonetheless, elephants learn quickly that their tusks do not conduct electricity and use them to break down fences (fence-breakers). In Lewa Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya, destructive elephants (Loxodonta africana) were monitored between 2010 and 2013. The fence-breaking rate reached four incidents (fence-breaking) per elephant per 100 days. Ten bull males and 57 females were identified as fence-breakers. The bulls were involved in 85.07% and the females in 14.93% of incidents. The Kenya Wildlife Service approved detusking (partial cutting of tusks) in four of the 10 fence-breakers as a way of preventing them from breaking down fences, thereby mitigating HEC in the Conservancy. The result of the detusking was a drastic six-fold reduction in damage to fences (range: 1.67 to 14.5 times less fence-breaking) by the four worst fence-breaker elephants, because with trimmed tusks elephants lack the tools to break down fences. Detusking could not totally eliminate fence destruction because, despite lacking their tools, elephants can still destroy fences using their heads, bodies and trunks, albeit less effectively. On the other hand, apart from inherent aesthetic considerations, the detusking of elephants may have certain negative effects on factors such as elephants' social hierarchies, breeding, mate selection and their access to essential minerals and food. Elephant detusking seems to be effective in drastically reducing fence-breaking incidents, nonetheless its negative effects on behaviour, access to food and its aesthetical consequences still need to be further studied and investigated.

  10. Detusking fence-breaker elephants as an approach in human-elephant conflict mitigation.

    Matthew Mutinda

    Full Text Available Human-elephant conflict (HEC is a recurring problem that appears wherever the range of elephants and humans overlap. Different methods including the use of electric fences are used worldwide to mitigate this conflict. Nonetheless, elephants learn quickly that their tusks do not conduct electricity and use them to break down fences (fence-breakers.In Lewa Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya, destructive elephants (Loxodonta africana were monitored between 2010 and 2013. The fence-breaking rate reached four incidents (fence-breaking per elephant per 100 days. Ten bull males and 57 females were identified as fence-breakers. The bulls were involved in 85.07% and the females in 14.93% of incidents. The Kenya Wildlife Service approved detusking (partial cutting of tusks in four of the 10 fence-breakers as a way of preventing them from breaking down fences, thereby mitigating HEC in the Conservancy. The result of the detusking was a drastic six-fold reduction in damage to fences (range: 1.67 to 14.5 times less fence-breaking by the four worst fence-breaker elephants, because with trimmed tusks elephants lack the tools to break down fences. Detusking could not totally eliminate fence destruction because, despite lacking their tools, elephants can still destroy fences using their heads, bodies and trunks, albeit less effectively. On the other hand, apart from inherent aesthetic considerations, the detusking of elephants may have certain negative effects on factors such as elephants' social hierarchies, breeding, mate selection and their access to essential minerals and food.Elephant detusking seems to be effective in drastically reducing fence-breaking incidents, nonetheless its negative effects on behaviour, access to food and its aesthetical consequences still need to be further studied and investigated.

  11. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Preston Foerder

    Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  12. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E; Reiss, Diana

    2011-01-01

    The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  13. Rogue-Elephant-Inflicted Panfacial Injuries: A Rare Case Report

    Santosh Kumar Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attacks by elephants, the largest of the “large animals,” produce many fatalities a year. Most attacks are provoked, although rogue elephants are occasionally responsible. Trampling, goring, tossing the individual with the trunk, or crushing with the knees produces the injuries. Injuries from encounters with large animals represent a significant health risk for rural communities. Wild-animal-inflicted maxillofacial injuries are rare, and limited literature is available describing their management. We present a case of severe maxillofacial injuries caused by the attack of a rogue elephant.

  14. Elephant logging and environment

    Tin-Aung-Hla

    1995-01-01

    The natural environment comprises non-biological elements such as air, water, light, heat and biological elements of animal and plant life; all interact with each other to create an ecosystem. Human activities like over-exploitation of forest results in deforestation and desertification. This consequently changes ecological balance. Topics on: (1) history of elephants utilization; (2) elephant logging; (3) classification of elephants; (4) dragging gear; (5) elephant power; (6) elephant logging and environment, are discussed

  15. Elephants - a conservation overview

    H.S. Riddle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of habitat is one of the most significant problems facing elephants worldwide, leading to clashes over resources between wildlife and humans where elephants receive the largest part of blame - defined as Human Elephant Conflict (HEC. The sub-Saharan region of Africa contains an approximate population of 500,000 elephants that occupy 37 range countries. The African Elephant (Loxodonta africana is categorized as Vulnerable in the Red List of Threatened Species; they are listed there as two distinct subspecies: the Savanna Elephant (L. a. africana and the Forest Elephant (L. a. cyclotis. The Red List of Threatened Species categorizes the Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus as endangered, and today they are found in 13 range states. The Asian Elephant population is estimated to be 30,000 to 50,000 with approximately 60% of the population being present in India. Due to threats of poaching, the elephant ivory debate has been an important part of recent meetings of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES as Parties have debated proposals for one-time sales of legal government stockpiles of elephant tusks. To maintain elephant populations into the future, long-term and large-scale planning is necessary to ensure adequate space and protection for elephants and people living in elephant habitats.

  16. Captive elephants - an overview

    H.S. Riddle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently a significant portion of the world’s elephant population is in captivity, mainly in Asia. Elephants have a long history of captivity in both Africa and Asia, and have adapted to many environments. Today, due to evolving needs and philosophies, some changes have occurred in the use of captive elephants, and debate about their welfare and management is increasing. To address this, several countries are developing higher standards of care via policies and guidelines; unfortunately most elephant range countries do not have a national strategy concerning their captive elephant population. Challenges in elephant medicine are always present, yet there is a lack of standardized requirements for veterinary care in elephant range countries, and the ability of veterinarians to treat elephant diseases is often limited. In recent years, much has been learned about elephant physiology, biology, and communication from captive elephants, and this knowledge supports management decisions affecting both captive and wild populations. Captive elephants present important educational and fundraising opportunities in support of conservation, but these are often not fully leveraged. Future considerations include implementing changes to improve staff support and training, establishing comprehensive registration of all captive populations, and ensuring that captive management does not negatively impact wild elephant populations.

  17. CLINICAL INFECTION OF CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) WITH ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 4.

    Fuery, Angela; Browning, Geoffrey R; Tan, Jie; Long, Simon; Hayward, Gary S; Cox, Sherry K; Flanagan, Joseph P; Tocidlowski, Maryanne E; Howard, Lauren L; Ling, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants. A number of EEHV types and subtypes exist, where most deaths have been caused by EEHV1A and EEHV1B. EEHV4 has been attributed to two deaths, but as both diagnoses were made postmortem, EEHV4 disease has not yet been observed and recorded clinically. In this brief communication, two cases of EEHV4 infection in juvenile elephants at the Houston Zoo are described, where both cases were resolved following intensive treatment and administration of famciclovir. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detected EEHV4 viremia that correlated with clinical signs. High levels of EEHV4 shedding from trunk wash secretions of the first viremic elephant correlated with subsequent infection of the second elephant with EEHV4. It is hoped that the observations made in these cases--and the successful treatment regimen used--will help other institutions identify and treat EEHV4 infection in the future.

  18. Importance of stent-graft design for aortic arch aneurysm repair

    C Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysm of the aorta is currently treated by open surgical repair or endovascular repair. However, when the aneurysm occurs in regions between the aortic arch and proximal descending aorta, it can be a complex pathology to treat due to its intricate geometry. When complex aortic aneurysms are treated with the conventional procedures, some of the patients present with significant post-operative complications and high mortality rate. Consequently, a clinically driven hybrid innovation known as the frozen elephant trunk procedure was introduced to treat complex aortic aneurysms. Although this procedure significantly reduces mortality rate and operating time, it is still associated with complications such as endoleaks, spinal cord ischemia, renal failure and stroke. Some of these complications are consequences of a mismatch in the biomechanical behaviour of the stent-graft device and the aorta. Research on complex aneurysm repair tended to focus more on the surgical procedure than the stent-graft design. Current stent-graft devices are suitable for straight vessels. However, when used to treat aortic aneurysm with complex geometry, these devices are ineffective in restoring the normal biological and biomechanical function of the aorta. A stent-graft device with mechanical properties that are comparable with the aorta and aortic arch could possibly lead to fewer post-operative complications, thus, better outcome for patients with complex aneurysm conditions. This review highlights the influence stent-graft design has on the biomechanical properties of the aorta which in turn can contribute to complications of complex aneurysm repair. Design attributes critical for minimising postoperative biomechanical mismatch are also discussed.

  19. Problem-elephant translocation: translocating the problem and the elephant?

    Prithiviraj Fernando

    Full Text Available Human-elephant conflict (HEC threatens the survival of endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus. Translocating "problem-elephants" is an important HEC mitigation and elephant conservation strategy across elephant range, with hundreds translocated annually. In the first comprehensive assessment of elephant translocation, we monitored 16 translocations in Sri Lanka with GPS collars. All translocated elephants were released into national parks. Two were killed within the parks where they were released, while all the others left those parks. Translocated elephants showed variable responses: "homers" returned to the capture site, "wanderers" ranged widely, and "settlers" established home ranges in new areas soon after release. Translocation caused wider propagation and intensification of HEC, and increased elephant mortality. We conclude that translocation defeats both HEC mitigation and elephant conservation goals.

  20. A fatal elephant attack.

    Hejna, Petr; Zátopková, Lenka; Safr, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of an elephant attack is presented. A 44-year-old man working as an elephant keeper was attacked by a cow elephant when he tripped over a foot chain while the animal was being medically treated. The man fell down and was consequently repeatedly attacked with elephant tusks. The man sustained multiple stab injuries to both groin regions, a penetrating injury to the abdominal wall with traumatic prolapse of the loops of the small bowel, multiple defects of the mesentery, and incomplete laceration of the abdominal aorta with massive bleeding into the abdominal cavity. In addition to the penetrating injuries, the man sustained multiple rib fractures with contusion of both lungs and laceration of the right lobe of the liver, and comminuted fractures of the pelvic arch and left femoral body. The man died shortly after he had been received at the hospital. The cause of death was attributed to traumatic shock. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Knowledge management and the elephant

    Marcus, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: I am pleased that NEA is a sponsor of this important conference and that I have been given the opportunity to welcome all of you on behalf of NEA. Knowledge management has been a personal interest of mine for some time now, and I have been gratified to see the increasing interest in this area. This international conference is therefore most timely, and by drawing in experts from across the spectrum of knowledge management, has the potential to help integrate different aspects of this field, and thereby help chart its future course. I would like to try to set the stage for your meeting by posing a few issues that I hope you will consider during the course of this conference.1 Discussing knowledge management sometimes reminds me a little of the parable of the blind men and the elephant - or, if I may be politically correct, of the visually challenged people and the elephant. In this story, a number of sightless men approach an elephant and touch it in different places. 'Ah,' says the first, who is touching the elephant's massive leg, 'An elephant looks like a tree.' 'No,' objects the second, who is holding the ear, 'The elephant is clearly like a giant fan.' 'Come, come,' chides a third, who has grabbed the elephant by its trunk, 'The elephant most resembles a snake.' Others, touching the side of the animal conclude it is like a wall, or feeling the tusk believe it resembles a spear, or grasping the tail likens it to a rope.2 Likewise, in my discussions on knowledge management (KM), I come away with a sense that different nuclear communities have somewhat different perceptions of what it is, and therefore, of what the issues or problems are. For educators, KM is education, and the most important need is to develop the right academic courses to train the next generation of nuclear professionals. Corporate management sees KM in terms of its strategic market advantages, and considers the passing on of corporate knowledge a major need. In some parts of the

  2. ELEPHANT TRUNK” AND ENDOVASCULAR STENTGRAFTING – A HYBRID APPROACH TO THE TREATMENT OF EXTENSIVE THORACIC AORTIC ANEURYSM

    Tomáš Holubec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid approach to elephant trunk technique for treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms combines a conventional surgical and endovascular therapy. Compared to surgery alone, there is a presumption that mortality and morbidity is reduced. We present a case report of a 42-year-old man with a giant aneurysm of the entire thoracic aorta, significant aortic and tricuspid regurgitation and ventricular septum defect. The patient underwent multiple consecutive operations and interventions having, among others, finally replaced the entire thoracic aorta with the use of the hybrid elephant trunk technique.

  3. TB in Captive Elephants

    2017-04-27

    Dr. Barry Kreiswirth, founding director of the Public Health Research Institute, TB Center, at Rutgers University, discusses TB in three captive elephants.  Created: 4/27/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2017.

  4. Expandable stents.

    Nesbitt, J C; Carrasco, H

    1996-05-01

    Expandable metallic stents are effective in selected patients with malignant or benign airway stenoses. When used for malignant lesions, the primary purpose of the stent is to improve the quality of life; stents are usually chosen for palliation of symptoms in recognition of the low likelihood of success for other therapy. For patients with benign stenoses, the stents provide a permanent source of structural support to alleviate the narrowed segment. The advantages of the expandable metallic stents are as follows: (1) they can be inserted through an endotracheal tube or under local anesthesia with relative simplicity under fluoroscopic guidance; (2) they do not impair the drainage of sputum because ciliary movement is not interrupted; (3) over a period of a few weeks, the meshwork is gradually covered with mucosa as the stent becomes incorporated into the airway wall; (4) ventilation usually is not impaired if the metallic mesh stent covers another nonstenosed bronchus, because the interstices of the stent are nonobstructive; and (5) they are dynamic and continue to expand over time, particularly if concurrent treatment achieves an effect on the lesion that caused stenosis. Disadvantages of the expandable stent include (1) they often are only temporarily effective for tracheobronchial stenosis due to intraluminal tumor or granulation tissue, both of which can grow between the wires; (2) they are considered permanent stents because removal is difficult; and (3) they can be poorly positioned during placement or can become displaced by progressive migration after placement, and they cannot be repositioned. A relative contraindication to insertion is an inflammatory process or infection that can predispose to granulation formation, particularly at the points of maximal contact pressure of the stent to the airway mucosa. In the presence of inflammation, it may be better to use a silicone prosthesis until the inflammatory process subsides and fibrosis occurs. Granulation

  5. Incidence of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus in Asian elephants in India.

    Barman, Nagendra N; Choudhury, Bhaskar; Kumar, Vishnu; Koul, Monika; Gogoi, Sophia M; Khatoon, Elina; Chakroborty, A; Basumatary, P; Barua, B; Rahman, T; Das, S K; Kumar, Sachin

    2017-09-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) are the cause of acute hemorrhagic disease in endangered Asian and African elephants. In the present study, we report the incidence of EEHV infection and associated mortality in the captive elephant of Assam, India. Our result showed the gross morphology and histopathological changes of EEHV infection in the elephant. Moreover, the phylogenetic analysis of the polymerase, helicase, and GPCR genes from the infected tissue samples suggested the presence of EEHV1A virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Trunk Stability, Trunk Strength and Sport Performance Level in Judo.

    David Barbado

    Full Text Available Although trunk muscle function has been suggested to be a determinant of judo performance, its contribution to high-level performance in this sport has been poorly studied. Therefore, several tests were used to assess the differences in trunk muscle function between 11 international and 14 national level judo practitioners (judokas. Trunk strength and endurance were assessed using isokinetic tests and core stability was assessed using two protocols: 1 sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to unexpected external perturbations; 2 stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participants' ability to control trunk balance. No differences between groups were found for trunk flexor isokinetic strength, trunk responses against lateral and posterior loading and trunk control while sitting. However, international level judokas showed significantly higher trunk extensor isokinetic strength (p <0.05 and lower trunk angular displacement after anterior trunk loading (p <0.05 than national level judokas. Few and low (r < 0.512 significant correlations were found between strength, endurance and stability parameters, which suggests that trunk strength and endurance are not limiting factors for trunk stability in competitive judokas. These results support the importance of trunk extensor strength and trunk stability against forward perturbations in elite judo performance.

  7. Human cowpox virus infection acquired from a circus elephant in Germany.

    Hemmer, Christoph J; Littmann, Martina; Löbermann, Micha; Meyer, Hermann; Petschaelis, Angelika; Reisinger, Emil C

    2010-09-01

    A 40-year-old Asian circus elephant developed mouth and trunk ulcers. Three weeks later, her 19-year-old animal warden noticed a vesicle on his forearm, evolving into a scab. Identical cowpox strains were isolated from lesions of the elephant and the warden. Cowpox virus could no longer be isolated after the scab disappeared, but PCR still revealed orthopox DNA. Healing was complete seven weeks later, leaving a 1 cm scar. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Is painting by elephants in zoos as enriching as we are led to believe?

    Megan English

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the activity of painting and performance of stereotyped and other stress-related behaviour was investigated in four captive Asian elephants at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. The activity involved the elephant being instructed to paint on a canvas by its keeper in front of an audience. Painting by elephants in zoos is commonly believed to be a form of enrichment, but this assumption had not been based on any systematic research. If an activity is enriching we would expect stress-related behaviour to be reduced but we found no evidence of the elephants anticipating the painting activity and no effect on the performance of stereotyped or other stress-related behaviour either before or after the painting session. This indicates that the activity does not fulfil one of the main aims of enrichment. However, if an elephant was not selected to paint on a given day this was associated with higher levels of non-interactive behaviour, a possible indicator of stress. Behavioural observations associated with ear, eye and trunk positions during the painting session showed that the elephant’s attentiveness to the painting activity or to the keeper giving instruction varied between individuals. Apart from positive reinforcement from the keeper, the results indicated that elephants gain little enrichment from the activity of painting. Hence, the benefits of this activity appear to be limited to the aesthetic appeal of these paintings to the people viewing them.

  9. Elephant crop damage and electric fence construction in the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique

    Boer, de W.F.; Ntumi, C.P.

    2001-01-01

    An electric fence is at present being constructed around the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique, to protect farmers from elephant raids. Elephants cause crop damage, estimated at US$ 8800 yr-1, or US$ 50 elephant-1. Elephants preferred maize, melons and beans and their raid frequency increased

  10. Airway stents

    Keyes, Colleen

    2018-01-01

    Stents and tubes to maintain the patency of the airways are commonly used for malignant obstruction and are occasionally employed in benign disease. Malignant airway obstruction usually results from direct involvement of bronchogenic carcinoma, or by extension of carcinomas occurring in the esophagus or the thyroid. External compression from lymph nodes or metastatic disease from other organs can also cause central airway obstruction. Most malignant airway lesions are surgically inoperable due to advanced disease stage and require multimodality palliation, including stent placement. As with any other medical device, stents have significantly evolved over the last 50 years and deserve an in-depth understanding of their true capabilities and complications. Not every silicone stent is created equal and the same holds for metallic stents. Herein, we present an overview of the topic as well as some of the more practical and controversial issues surrounding airway stents. We also try to dispel the myths surrounding stent removal and their supposed use only in central airways. At the end, we come to the long-held conclusion that stents should not be used as first line treatment of choice, but after ruling out the possibility of curative surgical resection or repair. PMID:29707506

  11. TB in Wild Asian Elephants

    2017-05-10

    Dr. Susan Mikota, co-founder of Elephant Care International, discusses TB in wild Asian elephants.  Created: 5/10/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/10/2017.

  12. Tuberculosis at the human-animal interface: an emerging disease of elephants.

    Mikota, Susan K; Maslow, Joel N

    2011-05-01

    Over the past 15 years, cases of infection with organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex have been diagnosed among captive elephants in the United States and worldwide. Outbreak investigations have documented that among staff employed at facilities housing infected animals, skin test conversion to purified protein derivative have been documented. Clonal spread among animals in close contact and even inter-species spread between elephant and human has been documented. Detection of actively infected animals relies on samples obtained by trunk wash. Diagnosis has been augmented by the development of a multi-antigen serologic assay with excellent specificity and sensitivity. Treatment regimens are still in development with efficacy largely unknown due to a paucity of both premortem follow-up and necropsy data of treated animals. The epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in elephants require additional careful study of clinical data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of trunk kinematics in trunk training exercises and throwing.

    Stodden, David F; Campbell, Brian M; Moyer, Todd M

    2008-01-01

    Strength and conditioning professionals, as well as coaches, have emphasized the importance of training the trunk and the benefits it may have on sport performance and reducing the potential for injury. However, no data on the efficacy of trunk training support such claims. The purpose of this study was to examine the maximum differential trunk rotation and maximum angular velocities of the pelvis and upper torso of participants while they performed 4 trunk exercises (seated band rotations, cross-overs, medicine ball throws, and twisters) and compare these trunk exercise kinematics with the trunk kinematics demonstrated in actual throwing performance. Nine NCAA Division I baseball players participated in this study. Each participant's trunk kinematics was analyzed while he performed 5 repetitions of each exercise in both dominant and nondominant rotational directions. Results indicated maximum differentiated rotation in all 4 trunk exercises was similar to maximum differentiated rotation (approximately 50-60 degrees) demonstrated in throwing performance. Maximum angular velocities of the pelvis and upper torso in the trunk exercises were appreciably slower (approximately 50% or less) than the angular velocities demonstrated during throwing performance. Incorporating trunk training exercises that demonstrate sufficient trunk ranges of motion and velocities into a strength and conditioning program may help to increase ball velocity and/or decrease the risk injury.

  14. Are hills like white elephants?

    Sunil Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Are Hills Like White Elephants?' is, of course, inspired by Hemingway; the tribute reflects on the abiding relevance of serious art in a changed world and extends the boundaries of his message to other human situations.

  15. African elephant in a cleft stick

    Wato, Yussuf

    2016-01-01

    Elephant population studies have become important especially because of the long standing perception that high elephant densities have negative impact on vegetation and other wildlife species. Thus, in areas of high elephant density, managers attempt to re-distribute them or keep their numbers

  16. Elephant-to-Human Transmission of Tuberculosis

    This podcast reports on the transmission of TB from elephants to humans. Dr. Rendi Murphree, Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Vanderbilt University Visiting Scholar, discusses the recent elephant-to-human transmission of tuberculosis at an elephant refuge in Tennessee.

  17. Symptomatic stent cast.

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

  18. Do elephants need to sweat?

    (1936) measured a daily water intake of about ISO f by his elephant of 3 672 kg under cool ... the edge and the remaining tissue is stiffened by outwardly directed delicate fIngers of .... sity Council for fInancial assistance. Figure 3 (upper) is ...

  19. The winter diet of elephant in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket, Addo Elephant National Park

    R.G.T. Paley; G.I.H. Kerley

    1998-01-01

    Direct observational methods were used to establish the winter diet of elephants in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket in the Addo Elephant National Park, thereby determining which plant species were most at risk from elephant herbivory. A total of 70 species were identified as food plants for elephants, with the grass Cynodon dactylon and the succulents Portulacaria afra and Platythyra haeckeliana dominating, both in terms of frequency of feeding events and volume consumed. In view of the fact...

  20. Optimal Covering Material for Stent-Grafts Placed in the Portal Vein in a Canine Model

    Ishii, Seigo; Sato, Morio; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Katsuyuki; Tanihata, Hirohiko; Ishikawa, Hime; Terada, Masaki; Sahara, Shinya; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Masashi; Mori, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the suitability of Dacron, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a covering material for stent-grafts placed in the portal vein as compared with a bare stent. Methods. Using 24 beagle dogs, either bare stents or stent-grafts covered with Dacron, PTFE, or SIS were placed in the main trunk of the portal vein in 6 animals each. Portography was performed immediately after stent placement, and at 2, 4, and 12 weeks thereafter. Next, the extracted stents or stent-grafts were examined histopathologically. Neointimal thickness adjacent to the stent wire and at the midportion between the stent wires was compared among the groups. Then, the neointimal thickness at the sub- and supragraft sites was compared between each stent-graft group. Serial changes in the histologic features of the thickened neointima were also investigated. Results. No significant difference was noted in the mean stenotic ratio of the portal vein diameter between the bare stent and PTFE groups, whereas it was significantly higher in the Dacron and SIS groups compared with the bare stent group. In neither of the studies on neointimal thickness adjacent to the stent wire and at the midportion between the stent wires were any significant differences noted between the neointimal thickness of the bare stent group and the sum of the neointimal thickness of the PTFE group, whereas the sum of the neointimal thickness of the Dacron and SIS groups was significantly greater than that of the bare stent group at both sites. In the comparison of the supragraft neointimal thickness, the SIS group showed significantly greater thickness than the PTFE group, while the difference between the Dacron and PTFE groups was not significant. In the comparison of the subgraft neointimal thickness, the Dacron and SIS groups showed significantly greater thickness than the PTFE group. Conclusion. The present results indicate that of the three covering materials examined here

  1. Diet and distribution of elephant in the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique

    de Boer, WF; Ntumi, CP; Correia, AU; Mafuca, JM

    The distribution and diet of the elephants of the Maputo Elephant Reserve were studied using dung counts, satellite tracking and faecal analysis. The results were compared with earlier data from before the civil war in Mozambique. The elephant population decreased during the civil war, but 180

  2. Surviving and fatal Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus-1A infections in juvenile Asian elephants - lessons learned and recommendations on anti-herpesviral therapy.

    Dastjerdi, Akbar; Seilern-Moy, Katharina; Darpel, Karin; Steinbach, Falko; Molenaar, Fieke

    2016-08-27

    Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause acute haemorrhagic disease in young Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and clinical EEHV infections account for the majority of their fatalities. The anti-herpesviral drug famciclovir (FCV) has been used routinely to treat viraemic at-risk elephants, but thus far without proven efficacy. This paper presents clinical and virological investigations of two EEHV-1A infected elephants treated with FCV, and discusses anti-herpesvirus therapies of viraemic elephants. Two 1.5 year old male Asian elephants at a zoological collection in the UK developed clinical EEHV-1A infections. Case 1 showed signs of myalgia for the duration of 24 hours before returning back to normal. EEHV-1A DNAemia was confirmed on the day of clinical signs and continued to be present for 18 days in total. Trunk shedding of the virus commenced 10 days after detection of initial DNAemia. Case 2 tested positive for EEHV-1A DNAemia in a routine blood screening sample in the absence of clinical signs. The blood viral load increased exponentially leading up to fatal clinical disease seven days after initial detection of DNAemia. Both calves were treated with 15 mg/kg FCV per rectum on detection of DNAemia and penciclovir, the FCV metabolite, could be detected in the blood at assumed therapeutic levels. The early indicators for clinical disease were a marked absolute and relative drop in white blood cells, particularly monocytes prior to the detection of viraemia. The most prognostic haematological parameter at later stages of the disease was the platelet count showing a continuous sharp decline throughout, followed by a dramatic drop at the time of death. The EEHV-1A viraemic animals investigated here further highlight the ongoing threat posed by these viruses to juvenile Asian elephants. The findings call into question the efficacy of rectal FCV in clinical cases and direct towards the use of alternative anti-herpesvirus drugs and complementary

  3. Elephant-to-Human Transmission of Tuberculosis

    2011-02-23

    This podcast reports on the transmission of TB from elephants to humans. Dr. Rendi Murphree, Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Vanderbilt University Visiting Scholar, discusses the recent elephant-to-human transmission of tuberculosis at an elephant refuge in Tennessee.  Created: 2/23/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/23/2011.

  4. Forest Elephant Crisis in the Congo Basin

    Blake, Stephen; Strindberg, Samantha; Boudjan, Patrick; Makombo, Calixte; Bila-Isia, Inogwabini; Ilambu, Omari; Grossmann, Falk; Bene-Bene, Lambert; de Semboli, Bruno; Mbenzo, Valentin; S'hwa, Dino; Bayogo, Rosine; Williamson, Liz; Fay, Mike; Hart, John; Maisels, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale. PMID:17407383

  5. The winter diet of elephant in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket, Addo Elephant National Park

    R.G.T. Paley

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct observational methods were used to establish the winter diet of elephants in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket in the Addo Elephant National Park, thereby determining which plant species were most at risk from elephant herbivory. A total of 70 species were identified as food plants for elephants, with the grass Cynodon dactylon and the succulents Portulacaria afra and Platythyra haeckeliana dominating, both in terms of frequency of feeding events and volume consumed. In view of the fact that elephants represent 78 of the herbivore biomass in the park, it appears likely that elephant feeding restricts the availability of forage for other browsers. Due to the limited time frame of this study, further research is needed to provide a comprehensive record of the elephant diet for all seasons of the year.

  6. Potential advantages and limitations of the Leo stent in endovascular treatment of complex cerebral aneurysms

    Lv Xianli; Li Youxiang; Jiang Chuhan; Yang Xinjian [Beijing Neurosurgical Institute and Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan Xili, 100050 Hebei, Beijing (China); Wu Zhongxue, E-mail: ttyyzjb@sina.com [Beijing Neurosurgical Institute and Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan Xili, 100050 Hebei, Beijing (China)

    2011-08-15

    Objective: The Leo self-expandable stent is a new retractable stent that is delivered via a conventional catheter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of this stent for endovascular treatment of complex aneurysms. Methods: Twenty-eight complex cerebral aneurysms (27 saccular and 1 fusiform) in 28 patients were treated electively. They were located at the internal carotid artery (17), basilar trunk (3), anterior cerebral artery (1), anterior communicating artery (3), vertebral artery (2) and middle cerebral artery (2). One aneurysm exhibited recanalization after primary endovascular treatment without stent. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Glasgow Outcome Scale. Results: Deployment of Leo stent was successful in 26 lesions, and difficulties in stent positioning due to tortuous cerebral circulation in 2 cases, which were treated with Neuroform stent. Additional coil embolization was performed in 26 lesions. No permanent neurological deficits were encountered consequent to endovascular procedure. Complete or partial occlusion immediately after stent deployment was achieved in all aneurysms. There was no immediate coil embolization was chosen in 3 cases because of subsequent reduced filling of the aneurysms with contrast agent on angiograms. There were 3 asymptomatic parent artery occlusion related to the deployment of the Leo stent, one stent migration. Follow-up revealed patent stents in the remaining cases. No angiographic recurrences arose. Conclusion: The Leo stent is very useful for endovascular treatment of complex cerebral aneurysms because it is easy to navigate and place precisely. A drawback is that in-stent thrombosis caused by stent placement and stiffer delivery catheters to place larger stents.

  7. Finding Elephant Flows for Optical Networks

    Fioreze, Tiago; Oude Wolbers, Mattijs; van de Meent, R.; Pras, Aiko

    2007-01-01

    Optical networks are fast and reliable networks that enable, amongst others, dedicated light paths to be established for elephant IP flows. Elephant IP flows are characterized by being small in number, but long in time and high in traffic volume. Moving these flows from the general IP network to

  8. Seed Dispersal Potential of Asian Elephants

    Harich, Franziska K.; Treydte, Anna Christina; Ogutu, Joseph Ochieng

    2016-01-01

    Elephants, the largest terrestrial mega-herbivores, play an important ecological role in maintaining forest ecosystem diversity. While several plant species strongly rely on African elephants (Loxodonta africana; L. cyclotis) as seed dispersers, little is known about the dispersal potential of As...

  9. Elephant invasion and escalated depletion of environmental ...

    For decades, elephants' invasion is known to be associated with severe environmental consequences leading to escalated depletion o environmental resources (plants, water, wildlife and soil). This paper examined the effects of elephants' activity on the environmental resources inHong and Gombi Local Government areas ...

  10. The Elephants Teach: Creative Writing since 1880

    Myers, David Gershom

    2006-01-01

    When Vladimir Nabokov was up for a chair in literature at Harvard, the linguist Roman Jakobson protested: "What's next? Shall we appoint elephants to teach zoology?" That anecdote, with which D. G. Myers begins "The Elephants Teach", perfectly frames the issues this book tackles. Myers explores more than a century of debate over how writing should…

  11. Trunk proprioception adaptations to creep deformation.

    Abboud, Jacques; Rousseau, Benjamin; Descarreaux, Martin

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the short-term effect of creep deformation on the trunk repositioning sense. Twenty healthy participants performed two different trunk-repositioning tasks (20° and 30° trunk extension) before and after a prolonged static full trunk flexion of 20 min in order to induce spinal tissue creep. Trunk repositioning error variables, trunk movement time and erector spinae muscle activity were computed and compared between the pre- and post-creep conditions. During the pre-creep condition, significant increases in trunk repositioning errors, as well as trunk movement time, were observed in 30° trunk extension in comparison to 20°. During the post-creep condition, trunk repositioning errors variables were significantly increased only when performing a 20° trunk extension. Erector spinae muscle activity increased in the post-creep condition, while it remained unchanged between trunk repositioning tasks. Trunk repositioning sense seems to be altered in the presence of creep deformation, especially in a small range of motion. Reduction of proprioception acuity may increase the risk of spinal instability, which is closely related to the risk of low back pain or injury.

  12. Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting Overview Carotid angioplasty (kuh-ROT-id AN-jee-o-plas-tee) and stenting ... to better see and examine the blood vessels. Food and medications You'll receive instructions on what ...

  13. The Dartmouth Elephant plasma facility

    Lynch, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Elephant facility in the Dartmouth Dept of Physics and Astronomyis a 1m by 2m chamber with a microwave-resonant plasma source togetherwith a higher energy electron/ion electrostatic gun. In this chamber weaim to re-create features of the auroral ionosphere including both thethermal plasma background, and the precipitating energetic auroral beam.We can manipulate the position and attitude of various sensors withinthe chamber and monitor their response to the various sources. Recentefforts have focussed on the sheath environment near and around thermalion RPA sensors and the small payloads which carry them into theionosphere.

  14. African bees to control African elephants

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  15. Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer of the Abdominal Aorta Involving the Celiac Trunk Origin and Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion: Endovascular Treatment

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G.; Petrocelli, Francesco; Seitun, Sara; Robaldo, Alessandro; Mazzei, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of endovascular treatment in a 64-year-old woman affected by a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) of the abdominal aorta with a 26-mm pseudoaneurysm involving the celiac trunk (CT) origin and with superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion in the first 30 mm. The patient underwent stenting to treat the SMA occlusion and subsequent deployment of a custom-designed fenestrated endovascular stent-graft to treat the PAU involving the CT origin. Follow-up at 6 months after device placement demonstrated no complications, and there was complete thrombosis of the PAU and patency of the two branch vessels.

  16. Serodiagnosis of tuberculosis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus in Southern India: a latent class analysis.

    Shalu Verma-Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a causative agent of chronic tuberculosis disease, is widespread among some animal species too. There is paucity of information on the distribution, prevalence and true disease status of tuberculosis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of serological tests to diagnose M. tuberculosis infection in captive elephants in southern India while simultaneously estimating sero-prevalence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Health assessment of 600 elephants was carried out and their sera screened with a commercially available rapid serum test. Trunk wash culture of select rapid serum test positive animals yielded no animal positive for M. tuberculosis isolation. Under Indian field conditions where the true disease status is unknown, we used a latent class model to estimate the diagnostic characteristics of an existing (rapid serum test and new (four in-house ELISA tests. One hundred and seventy nine sera were randomly selected for screening in the five tests. Diagnostic sensitivities of the four ELISAs were 91.3-97.6% (95% Credible Interval (CI: 74.8-99.9 and diagnostic specificity were 89.6-98.5% (95% CI: 79.4-99.9 based on the model we assumed. We estimate that 53.6% (95% CI: 44.6-62.8 of the samples tested were free from infection with M. tuberculosis and 15.9% (97.5% CI: 9.8 - to 24.0 tested positive on all five tests. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide evidence for high prevalence of asymptomatic M. tuberculosis infection in Asian elephants in a captive Indian setting. Further validation of these tests would be important in formulating area-specific effective surveillance and control measures.

  17. Circumferential Stent Fracture: Novel Detection and Treatment with the Use of StentBoost

    Ramegowda, Raghu T.; Chikkaswamy, Srinivas B.; Bharatha, Ashalatha; Radhakrishna, Jayashree; Krishnanaik, Geetha B.; Nanjappa, Manjunath C.; Panneerselvam, Arunkumar

    2012-01-01

    Circumferential stent fracture is extremely uncommon, and in rare cases, it can cause stent thrombosis. Recognizing stent fracture can be difficult on conventional fluoroscopy because of poor stent radiopacity. We found that StentBoost image acquisition yields improved visibility of stent struts, enabling the identification of stent fracture and the precise positioning of new stents over previously stented segments.

  18. Onboard Acoustic Recording from Diving Elephant Seals

    Fletcher, Stacia

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this project was to record sounds impinging on free-ranging northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, a first step in determining the importance of LFS to these animals as they dive...

  19. Microwave sensing of tree trunks

    Jezova, Jana; Mertens, Laurence; Lambot, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    The main subject of this research is the observation of the inner part of living tree trunks using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Trees are everyday part of human life and therefore it is important to pay attention to the tree conditions. The most obvious consequence of the poor tree condition is dead or injury caused by falling tree. The trunk internal structure is divided into three main parts: heartwood, sapwood and bark, which make this medium highly anisotropic and heterogeneous. Furthermore, the properties of the wood are not only specie-dependent but also depend on genetic and on environmental conditions. In urban areas the main problem for the stability of the trees relies in the apparition of decays provoked by fungi, insect or birds. This results in cavities or decreasing of the support capacity of the tree. GPR has proved itself to be a very powerful electromagnetic tool for non-destructive detection of buried objects. Since the beginning of the 20th century it has been used in several different areas (archaeology, landmine detection, civil engineering, ...). GPR uses the principle of the scattering of the electromagnetic waves that are radiated from a transmitting antenna. Then the waves propagate through the medium and are reflected from the object and then they are received by a receiving antenna. The velocity of the scattered signal is determined primarily by the permittivity of the material. The optimal functionality of the GPR was investigated using the numerical simulation tool gprMax2D. This tool is based on a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) numerical model. Subsequently, the GPR functionality was tested using the laboratory model of a decayed tree trunk. Afterwards, the results and lessons learnt in the simplified tests will be used in the processing of the real data and will help to achieve deeper understanding of them. The laboratory model of the tree trunk was made by plastic or carton pipes and filled by sand. Space inside the model

  20. The elephant interferon gamma assay: a contribution to diagnosis of tuberculosis in elephants

    Angkawanish, T.; Morar, D.; Kooten, P.J.; Bontekoning, I.; Schreuder, J.; Maas, M.; Wajjwalku, W.; Sirimalaisuwan, A.; Michel, A.L.; Tijhaar, E.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) has been shown to be the main causative agent of tuberculosis in elephants worldwide. M. tb may be transmitted from infected humans to other species including elephants and vice versa, in case of prolonged intensive contact. An accurate diagnostic approach covering

  1. How Bees Deter Elephants: Beehive Trials with Forest Elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis in Gabon.

    Steeve Ngama

    Full Text Available In Gabon, like elsewhere in Africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation among rural people. In this context, crop-raiding animals like elephants quickly become "problem animals". To deter elephants from raiding crops beehives have been successfully employed in East Africa; however, this method has not yet been tested in Central Africa. We experimentally examined whether the presence of Apis mellifera adansonii, the African honey bee species present in Central Africa, deters forest elephants (Loxodonta Africana cyclotis from feeding on fruit trees. We show for the first time that the effectiveness of beehives as deterrents of elephants is related to bee activity. Empty hives and those housing colonies of low bee activity do not deter elephants all the time; but beehives with high bee activity do. Although elephant disturbance of hives does not impede honey production, there is a tradeoff between deterrence and the quantity of honey produced. To best achieve the dual goals of deterring elephants and producing honey colonies must maintain an optimum activity level of 40 to 60 bee movements per minute. Thus, beehives colonized by Apis mellifera adansonii bees can be effective elephant deterrents, but people must actively manage hives to maintain bee colonies at the optimum activity level.

  2. COELIAC TRUNK BRANCHING PATTERN AND VARIATION

    Jude Jose Thomson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anatomical variations involving the visceral arteries are common. However, variations in coeliac trunk are usually asymptomatic, they may become important in patients undergoing diagnostic angiography for gastrointestinal bleeding or prior to an operative procedure. This study was useful for knowing the possible morphological variations before an upper abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study done by cadaveric dissection, conducted on thirty cadavers. The coeliac trunk being examined for its origin, branching pattern, distribution, and variations. Results were statistically analysed and compared with the previous studies. RESULTS In our study, 60% of the coeliac trunk shows variations and 40% have normal branching pattern. A complete absence of coeliac trunk was observed in one case. In the present study the Right inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6% and left inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 3 cases (9.9%. Both inferior phrenic arteries are arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6%. The common hepatomesenteric trunk and gastro splenic trunk was found in 1 case (3.3%. Hepatosplenic trunk was found in 2 cases (6.6%. In another 2 cases (6.6% gastric and hepatic artery originate from coeliac trunk but splenic artery has a separate origin from abdominal aorta. An absent trunk was also found in 1 case (3.3%. In 5 cases (16.7% showed trifurcation with variation in the branching pattern. CONCLUSION The branching pattern and extreme degree variability in coeliac trunk as brought out in the observations of the present study make it obvious that the present study almost falls in description with previous studies.

  3. Modified nasolacrimal duct stenting

    Tian Min; Jin Mei; Chen Huanjun; Li Yi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Traditional nasolacrimal duct stenting possesses some shortcoming including difficulty of pulling ball head guide wire from the nasal cavity with turbinate hypertrophy and nasal septal deviation. The new method of nose-oral tube track establishment can overcome the forementioned and increase the successful rate. Methods: 5 F catheter and arterial sheath were modified to be nasolacrimal duct stent delivery device respectively. Antegrade dacryocystography was taken firstly to display the obstructed site and followed by the modified protocol of inserting the guide wire through nasolacrimal duct and nasal cavity, and establishing the stent delivery track for retrograde stent placement. Results: 5 epiphora patients with failure implantation by traditional method were all succeeded through the modified stenting (100%). During 6-mouth follow-up, no serious complications and reocclusion occurred. Conclusion: The establishment of eye-nose-mouth-nose of external nasal guide wire track can improve the successful rate of nasolacrimal duct stenting. (authors)

  4. Auxetic coronary stent endoprosthesis

    Amin, Faisal; Ali, Murtaza Najabat; Ansari, Umar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular heart disease is one of the leading health issues in the present era and requires considerable health care resources to prevent it. The present study was focused on the development of a new coronary stent based on novel auxetic geometry which enables the stent to exhibit...... a negative Poisson's ratio. Commercially available coronary stents have isotropic properties, whereas the vascular system of the body shows anisotropic characteristics. This results in a mismatch between anisotropic-isotropic properties of the stent and arterial wall, and this in turn is not favorable...... for mechanical adhesion of the commercially available coronary stents with the arterial wall. It is believed that an auxetic coronary stent with inherent anisotropic mechanical properties and negative Poisson's ratio will have good mechanical adhesion with the arterial wall. METHODS: The auxetic design...

  5. Water-body use by Asian elephants in Southern Sri Lanka

    Pastorini, J; Nishantha, H G; Janaka, H K; Isler, K; Prithiviraj, F

    2010-01-01

    We assessed water-body use by elephants through monitoring elephant signs around them. Elephant footprints and dung piles were recorded at 25 water bodies fortnightly for one year. Elephants preferred perennial water bodies and avoided those with temporary human dwellings. Human activities did not significantly affect elephant use of water bodies, suggesting low incidence of activities and behavioral adaptation to them by elephants. Elephant signs at perennial water bodies increased in the dr...

  6. Why elephant have trunks and giraffe long tongues: how plants shape large herbivore mouth morphology

    Pretorius, Y.; Boer, de W.F.; Kortekaas, K.; Wijngaarden, van M.; Grant, R.C.; Kohi, E.M.; Mwakiwa, E.; Slotow, R.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether mass and morphological spatial patterns in plants possibly induced the development of enlarged soft mouth parts in especially megaherbivores. We used power functions and geometric principles to explore allometric relationships of both morphological and foraging

  7. Production of Elephant Trunks in HII Regions by Radiation-Magnetohydrodynamic Instabilities

    Fierlinger, Katharina; Krumholz, Mark; Grittschneder, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Recent SPH and grid code simulations showed, that ionizing radiation can amplify overdensities in turbulent molecular clouds and produce molecular pillars. The relevance of magnetic fields for the structure and stability of molecular clouds is still under discussion. We investigate whether an ionization front hitting a medium with small distortions of the magnetic field can produce the observed pillar-like structures in star forming regions (e.g. Eagle Nebula). Numerical MHD simulations with ...

  8. Elephant movement and local community attitudes towards the ...

    The route commonly traversed by elephants was mapped using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) techniques. Two elephant sightings, footprints ... A majority of the respondents were aware of importance of elephants in tourism, as agents of seed dispersal, sources of bush meat ...

  9. The southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina at Gough Island

    haul-out in December coincided with the elephant seal moulting season, the elephant seals were found on the vegetated areas whilst the majority of fur seals hauled out onto the boulder beach. No interactions between the two species were recorded. Potential predators of elephant seals, i.e. the killer whales Orcinus orca ...

  10. When elephants fall asleep: A literature review on elephant rest with case studies on elephant falling bouts, and practical solutions for zoo elephants.

    Schiffmann, Christian; Hoby, Stefan; Wenker, Christian; Hård, Therese; Scholz, Robert; Clauss, Marcus; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2018-05-01

    Little attention has been paid to the resting and sleeping behavior of zoo elephants so far. An important concern is when elephants avoid lying down, due to degenerative joint and foot disease, social structure, or stressful environmental changes. Inability or unwillingness to lie down for resting is an important welfare issue, as it may impair sleep. We emphasize the importance of satisfying rest in elephants by reviewing the literature on resting behavior in elephants (Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus) as well as the documentation of four cases from European zoos and our own direct observations in a zoo group of four female African elephants during 12 entire days. The common denominator in the case reports is the occurrence of a falling bout out of a standing position subsequently to a cessation of lying rest for different periods of time. Although well-known in horses as "episodic collapse" or "excessive drowsiness," this syndrome has not been described in elephants before. To enable its detection, we recommend nocturnal video monitoring for elephant-keeping institutions. The literature evaluation as well as own observational data suggest an inverse relationship between lying rest and standing rest. Preventative measures consist of enclosure modifications that facilitate lying rest (e.g., sand hills) or standing rest in a leaning position as a substitute. Anecdotal observations suggest that the provision of appropriate horizontal environmental structures may encourage safe, sleep-conducive standing rest. We provide drawings on how to install such structures. Effects of providing such structures should be evaluated in the future. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Endovascular treatment of experimentally induced aneurysms in rabbits using stents: a feasibility study

    Hans, F.J.; Thiex, R.; Gilsbach, J.M.; Krings, T.; Moeller-Hartmann, W.; Dreeskamp, H.; Stein, K.P.; Meetz, A.; Thron, A.; Pfeffer, J.; Scherer, K.; Brunn, A.

    2003-01-01

    Although Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) systems have been generally accepted for treatment of intracranial aneurysms, primary stenting of aneurysms using porous stents or implantation of coils after stent placement remains experimental. Testing of these new methods requires an animal model which imitates human aneurysms in size, configuration and neck morphology. We assessed in detail the technical requirements of and steps for transfemoral stent treatment of experimentally induced aneurysms at the top of the brachiocephalic trunk in rabbits. We created aneurysms in ten rabbits by distal ligation and intraluminal digestion of the right common carotid artery with elastase. We treated five animals with porous stents alone, and five with stents plus coiling via the meshes of the stent, which permitted dense packing of coils. No complications related to the procedures occurred. In all animals, even in those treated solely with porous stents, total occlusion of the aneurysm was achieved. Our animal model can be suitable for testing the biocompatibility and occlusion rate of new methods and devices for the treatment of experimental aneurysms. (orig.)

  12. Fatal elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 and -4 co-infection in a juvenile Asian elephant in Europe

    Seilern-Moy, Katharina; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Leifsson, Páll S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 (EEHV-1) is one of the major causes of fatality in juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). On occasions, other EEHV genotypes, i.e. EEHV-3, -4 and -5, have also been reported as the cause of Asian elephant deaths. In this case report we...

  13. Hybrid treatment of a true thyreocervical trunk aneurysm in a patient with Type B aortic dissection

    Nikolaos G Baikoussis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We would like to describe a case with a complex aortic disease treated in hybrid fashion. We present an interesting case of a 65-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease percutaneously treated. An acute Type B aortic dissection occurred and treated with the implantation of a stent-graft which occluded the left subclavian artery due to its extension to the aortic arch. This event required a carotid-subclavian artery bypass due to ischemia of the left arm. An aneurysm in the innominate artery also detected, was treated with another stent-graft implantation 3 months later. At 5-year follow-up, an aneurysm of the thyreocervical trunk was found while the stent-graft of the aorta was well-tolerated without endoleak and the carotid-subclavian graft was patent. The aneurysm was asymptomatic but considering the risk of spontaneous rupture of an aneurysm of this size, elective surgery was indicated. Because the aneurysm was very close to the brachiocephalic bifurcation, open surgical repair would require a sternotomy. The right common carotid artery and right subclavian artery were exposed. The thyrocervical trunk, right internal mammary artery and right vertebral artery were occluded by ligations to isolate the aneurysm. An 8-mm Dacron graft was anastomosed end-to-end to the distal part of subclavian artery. We would like through this case, discuss the role of the hybrid cardiovascular surgery to minimize the postoperative complications in complex cardiovascular pathology. We also discuss the international bibliography about the thyreocervical trunk aneurysm and the treatment options.

  14. Summation by Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus

    Naoko Irie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical evidence for complex cognition in elephants suggests that greater attention to comparative studies between non-human primates and other animals is warranted. We have previously shown that elephants possess the ability to judge the difference between two discrete quantities, and unlike other animals, their choice does not appear to be affected by distance or overall quantity. In this study, we investigated Asian elephants’ ability to perform summation, as exemplified by the ability to combine four quantities into two sums and subsequently compare them. We presented two discrete sums (3–7 to the elephants by baiting two buckets; they were loaded sequentially with two discrete quantities (1–5 pieces of food per bucket. All three elephants selected the larger grand sum significantly more often than the smaller grand sum. Moreover, their performance was not affected by either distance to the bait or the overall quantity evaluated. Studies report that the performance of other animal species on similar tasks declines as distance to the bait decreases and as the overall quantities evaluated increase. These results suggest that the numerical cognition of Asian elephants may be different from that of other animals, but further study is required to elucidate the differences precisely.

  15. Monitoring and controlling ovarian activity in elephants.

    Thitaram, Chatchote; Brown, Janine L

    2018-03-15

    Both Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants are important keystone, umbrella and flagship species. Paradoxically, world population numbers of both species are declining in many of their natural ranges due mainly to poaching, while over population of elephants in some areas is resulting in serious human-elephant conflict, and modifications of natural habitats that impact biodiversity. Understanding mechanisms of reproductive control is vital to effective population management, and for that reason significant advances have been made in endocrine and ultrasonographic monitoring techniques, particularly in studies of elephants ex situ. However, there remains a need to develop new methods to control ovarian activity, both for enhancing and inhibiting reproduction, to maintain population numbers at levels that ensure species survival and their ability to safely cohabitate with humans and other species. We present an overview of reproductive monitoring methods and how they have contributed to our knowledge of elephant reproductive biology, as well as their application for in situ and ex situ conservation purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment of intracranial wide neck aneurysm with neuroform self-expanding stent combined with spring coils

    Bai Weixing; Jiang Xifeng; Li Tianxiao; Zhai Shuiting; Xue Jiangyu; Wang Ziliang; Cao Huicun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the preliminary experience of the combined self-expanding neurovascular stent (Neuroform stent) with detachable coils in the management of intracranial wide neck aneurysms. Methods: Self-expanding neurovascular stents with detachable coils were used in treating 27 intracranial wide neck aneurysms of 25 patients including cavernous segment ICA aneurysms in 3, ophthalmic arterial anemysm in 1, PcomA in 18, AcomA in 2, MCAM1 in 1, MCA bifurcation in 1, and basilar trunk in 1. Among them, 2 cases consisted of multi-aneurysms, 2 aneurysms coincide with absolute wide neck (> 4 mm) and 6 with comparatively wide neck (> 7 mm). Nemoform stents were deployed across the neck of aneurysm and detachable coils were released to embolize the aneurysm through stent mesh. Results: Twenty-six Neuroform stents were successfully deployed in 25 patients including 4 Neuroform II stents, and 22 Neurofom III stents(all combined with spring coils). Total occlusion was achieved in 7 patients with residual neck in 9 nearly complete occlusion and partial occlusion in 11. 2 patients were rebleeding and other 2 showed intra-stent thrombosis during the operations. The latter 2 included 1 with post-operative limb paraplegia and 1 died. Still another 1 had transient ischemic attack after the operation. Twenty-three patient recovered well. Twenty-four patients were under clinical followed up from 0.5 to 28 months with an average of 10.8 months. There was no bleeding. Three patients were angiographically followed up for 3-6 months after the procedure, with only 1 case of in-stent thrombosis and no change in other 2 aneurysms with neck remnant. Conclusions: The Neuroform stent is technically feasible and safe for treating intracranial wide neck aneurysms unsuitable for clipping because of its prevention for coil protruding into parent artery. The long term effect still need to be further investigated. (authors)

  17. TRUNK LEAN DURING A SINGLE-LEG SQUAT IS ASSOCIATED WITH TRUNK LEAN DURING PITCHING.

    Plummer, Hillary A; Oliver, Gretchen D; Powers, Christopher M; Michener, Lori A

    2018-02-01

    Impaired trunk motion during pitching may be a risk factor for upper extremity injuries. Specifically, increased forces about the shoulder and elbow have been observed in pitchers with excessive contralateral trunk lean during pitching. Because of the difficulty in identifying abnormal trunk motions during a high-speed task such as pitching, a clinical screening test is needed to identify pitchers who have impaired trunk motion during pitching. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the degree of lateral trunk lean during the single-leg squat and amount of trunk lean during pitching and if trunk lean during pitching can be predicted from lean during the single-leg squat. Controlled Laboratory Study; Cross-sectional. Seventy-three young baseball pitchers (11.4 ± 1.7 years; 156.3 ± 11.9 cm; 50.5 ± 8.8 kg) participated. An electromagnetic tracking system was used to obtain trunk kinematic data during a single-leg squat task (lead leg) and at maximum shoulder external rotation of a fastball pitch. Pearson correlation coefficients for trunk lean during the single-leg squat and pitching were calculated. A linear regression analysis was performed to determine if trunk lean during pitching can be predicted from lean during the single-leg squat. There was a positive correlation between trunk lean during the single-leg squat and trunk lean during pitching (r = 0.53; plean during the single-leg squat predicted the amount of lateral trunk lean during pitching (R 2 = 0.28; p lean during an SLS and pitching. Trunk lean during the single-leg squat explained 28% of the variance in trunk lean during pitching. Diagnosis, level 3.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of two southern African elephant populations

    M.F. Essop

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The modern view is that there are at most only two valid forms of the African elephant namely Loxodonta qfricana africana, the bush elephant, and L.a. cyclotis, the forest elephant (Ansell 1974; Meester et al. 1986. The Knysna elephant which was also described as a separate sub-species is now almost extinct. Plans to augment the remnant population by introducing other animals must take into account the taxonomic questions and issue of conserving elephant gene pools (Greig 1982a. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA restriction fragment-size comparisons were performed on specimens from the Kruger National Park and the Addo Elephant National Park. If the Addo population's results are extrapolated to the Knysna population, it may be concluded that there is no genetic evidence for the Kruger and Knysna elephant populations to be considered as different sub-species.

  19. StentBoost Visualization for the Evaluation of Coronary Stent Expansion During Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

    Cura, Fernando; Albertal, Mariano; Candiello, Alfonsina; Nau, Gerardo; Bonvini, Victor; Tricherri, Hernan; Padilla, Lucio T.; Belardi, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inadequate stent implantation is associated with stent thrombosis and restenosis. StentBoost can enhance stent visualization and evaluate stent expansion. Currently, there are limited comparison studies between StentBoost and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). We aimed to test the correlation and agreement between IVUS and StentBoost measurements. Methods From December 2010 to December 2011, 38 patients (54 stents) were analyzed using IVUS and StentBoost. Minimal stent diameter and...

  20. Demography of a forest elephant population

    Turkalo, Andrea K.; Wrege, Peter H.

    2018-01-01

    African forest elephants face severe threats from illegal killing for ivory and bushmeat and habitat conversion. Due to their cryptic nature and inaccessible range, little information on the biology of this species has been collected despite its iconic status. Compiling individual based monitoring data collected over 20 years from the Dzanga Bai population in Central African Republic, we summarize sex and age specific survivorship and female age specific fecundity for a cohort of 1625 individually identified elephants. Annual mortality (average = 3.5%) and natality (average = 5.3%) were lower and markedly less variable relative to rates reported for savanna elephant populations. New individuals consistently entered the study system, leading to a 2.5% average annual increase in the registered population. Calf sex ratios among known birth did not differ from parity. A weak seasonal signal in births was detected suggesting increased conceptions during the wet season. Inter-calf intervals and age of primiparity were longer relative to savanna elephant populations. Within the population, females between the ages of 25–39 demonstrated the shortest inter-calf intervals and highest fecundity, and previous calf sex had no influence on the interval. Calf survivorship was high (97%) the first two years after birth and did not differ by sex. Male and female survival began to differ by the age of 13 years, and males demonstrated significantly lower survival relative to females by the age of 20. It is suspected these differences are driven by human selection for ivory. Forest elephants were found to have one of the longest generation times recorded for any species at 31 years. These data provide fundamental understanding of forest elephant demography, providing baseline data for projecting population status and trends. PMID:29447207

  1. What is the use of elephant hair?

    Conor L Myhrvold

    Full Text Available The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own.

  2. Predictors of early stent occlusion among plastic biliary stents.

    Khashab, Mouen A; Kim, Katherine; Hutfless, Susan; Lennon, Anne Marie; Kalloo, Anthony N; Singh, Vikesh K

    2012-09-01

    A major disadvantage of plastic biliary stents is their short patency rates. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of early stent occlusion among patients receiving conventional plastic biliary stents. Early stent occlusion was defined as worsening cholestatic liver test results of a severity sufficiently significant to warrant ERCP with stent exchange prior to the planned stent exchange, or as symptoms of cholangitis. The association of cumulative stent diameter, demographics, stricture location, procedure indication, Charlson comorbidity index, history of prior early stent occlusion, presence of gallbladder, and performance of sphincteromy with the occurrence of early stent occlusion was studied using logistic regression and multivariate analysis. Our patient cohort comprised 343 patients (mean age 59.3 years) who underwent 561 ERCP procedures with the placement of one or more plastic biliary stents (mean number of stents per procedure 1.2, mean total diameter of stents per procedure 12 Fr). Early stent occlusion occurred in 73 (13 %) procedures. Female gender was protective against early stent occlusion (adjusted OR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.32-0.90, p = 0.02), while hilar stricture location was independently associated with a significantly increased risk of early stent occlusion (adjusted OR 3.41, 95 % CI 1.68-6.90, p = 0.0007). Early occlusion of conventional biliary stents occurred in 13 % of cases. While female gender decreased the risk of early stent occlusion, hilar stricture location was a significant predictor of early stent occlusion. Our results suggest that physicians should consider early elective stent exchange in patients with hilar strictures.

  3. Aspects of elephant behavior, ecology, and interactions with humans

    O'Connell, Caitlin Elizabeth

    This dissertation is comprised of two chapters relating to the acoustic behavior of elephants, their surrounding ecology and interactions with humans. The first chapter investigates the seismic aspects of Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) acoustic communication. The second chapter is comprised of a synthesis of two separate studies conducted on the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia, both in Etosha National Park and the Caprivi region. The two studies were combined and published in Biological Conservation as one large study on aspects of the economic and social impacts of elephant/human conflict and experiments conducted to reduce conflict. In chapter one, seismic and acoustic data were recorded simultaneously from Asian elephants during periods of vocalizations and locomotion. Acoustic and seismic signals from rumbles were highly correlated at near and far distances and were in phase near the elephant and were out of phase at an increased distance from the elephant. Data analyses indicated that elephant generated signals associated with rumbles and "foot stomps" propagated at different velocities in the two media, the acoustic signals traveling at 309 m/s and the seismic signals at 248--264 m/s. Both types of signals had predominant frequencies in the range of 20 Hz. Seismic signal amplitudes considerably above background noise were recorded at 40 m from the generating elephants for both the rumble and the stomp. Seismic propagation models suggest that seismic waveforms from vocalizations are potentially detectable by instruments at distances of up to 16 km, and up to 32 km for locomotion generated signals. Thus, if detectable by elephants, these seismic signals could be useful for long distance communication. In chapter two, the economic impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana , and predators, particularly lions, Panthera leo, on rural agriculturists in the Kwando region of the East Caprivi, Namibia was assessed from the years 1991 to 1995. Elephants

  4. CLINICAL INFECTION OF TWO CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) WITH ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 1B.

    Fuery, Angela; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Flanagan, Joseph P; Tocidlowski, Maryanne E; Howard, Lauren L; Ling, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    The ability of prior infection from one elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) type to protect against clinical or lethal infection from others remains an important question. This report describes viremia and subsequent shedding of EEHV1B in two juvenile 4-yr-old Asian elephants within 3 wk or 2 mo following significant infections caused by the rarely seen EEHV4. High levels of EEHV1B shedding were detected in the first elephant prior to emergence of infection and viremia in the second animal. The EEHV1B virus associated with both infections was identical to the strain causing infection in two herd mates previously. High EEHV viremia correlated with leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, which was followed by leukocytosis and thrombocytosis when clinical signs started to resolve. The observations from these cases should be beneficial for helping other institutions monitor and treat elephants infected with EEHV1, the most common virus associated with lethal hemorrhagic disease.

  5. Spectral Imaging for Intracranial Stents and Stent Lumen.

    Weng, Chi-Lun; Tseng, Ying-Chi; Chen, David Yen-Ting; Chen, Chi-Jen; Hsu, Hui-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Application of computed tomography for monitoring intracranial stents is limited because of stent-related artifacts. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of gemstone spectral imaging on the intracranial stent and stent lumen. In vitro, we scanned Enterprise stent phantom and a stent-cheese complex using the gemstone spectral imaging protocol. Follow-up gemstone spectral images of 15 consecutive patients with placement of Enterprise from January 2013 to September 2014 were also retrospectively reviewed. We used 70-keV, 140-keV, iodine (water), iodine (calcium), and iodine (hydroxyapatite) images to evaluate their effect on the intracranial stent and stent lumen. Two regions of interest were individually placed in stent lumen and adjacent brain tissue. Contrast-to-noise ratio was measured to determine image quality. The maximal diameter of stent markers was also measured to evaluate stent-related artifact. Two radiologists independently graded the visibility of the lumen at the maker location by using a 4-point scale. The mean of grading score, contrast/noise ratio and maximal diameter of stent markers were compared among all modes. All results were analyzed by SPSS version 20. In vitro, iodine (water) images decreased metallic artifact of stent makers to the greatest degree. The most areas of cheese were observed on iodine (water) images. In vivo, iodine (water) images had the smallest average diameter of stent markers (0.33 ± 0.17mm; P stent lumen (160.03 ±37.79; P stent-related artifacts of Enterprise and enhance contrast of in-stent lumen. Spectral imaging may be considered a noninvasive modality for following-up patients with in-stent stenosis.

  6. Percutaneous Ureteral stent insertion

    Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook; Choi, Woo Suk; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    Percutaneous ureteral stent insertion is a treatment of permanent or temporary urinary diversion to maintain continuity and function of the obstructed and injured ureter. We performed 31 cases of percutaneous double pig tall ureteral stent insertion in 21 patients, included 13 patients with malignant ureteral obstruction and eight patients with injured ureter as well as benign inflammatory stricture. Satisfactory resulted was obtained in all patients but one, who need percutaneous nephrostomy on week later for urinary diversion. No significant complication was encountered. The authors concluded that percutaneous ureteral stent insertion, an interventional procedure alternative to urologic retrograde method, is an effective method for urinary diversion.

  7. Genitourinary and pulmonary multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    Dumonceaux, Genevieve A; St Leger, Judy; Olsen, John H; Burton, Michael S; Ashkin, David; Maslow, Joel N

    2011-12-01

    A female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) developed vaginal and trunk discharge. Cultures were positive for pan-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Isoniazid and pyrazinamide were given rectally and monitored by serum levels. After being trained at 10 mo to accept oral dosing, treatment was changed and rifampin was added. Oral medications were administered for another 10 mo. A year after completion of therapy, the vaginal discharge increased and cultures yielded M. tuberculosis, resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. Treatment with oral ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and enrofloxacin and intramuscular amikacin was initiated. Although followup cultures became negative, adverse reactions to medications precluded treatment completion. Due to public health concerns related to multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB), the elephant was euthanized. Postmortem smears from the lung, peribronchial, and abdominal lymph nodes yielded acid-fast bacteria, although cultures were negative. This case highlights important considerations in the treatment of M. tuberculosis in animals and the need for a consistent approach to diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.

  8. Etorphine-halothane anaesthesia in two five-year-old African elephants (Loxodonta africana : clinical communication

    G.F. Stegmann

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesia of 2 five-year-old femaleAfrican elephants (Loxodonta africana was required for dental surgery. The animals were each premedicated with 120 mg of azaperone 60 min before transportation to the hospital. Before offloading, 1 mg etorphine was administered intramuscularly (i.m. to each elephant to facilitate walking them to the equine induction / recovery room. For induction, 2 mg etorphine was administered i.m. to each animal. Induction was complete within 6 min. Surgical anaesthesia was induced with halothane-in-oxygen after intubation of the trunk. During surgery the mean heart rate was 61 and 45 beats / min respectively. Systolic blood pressures increased to 27.5 and 25.6 kPa respectively, and were treated with intravenous azaperone. Blood pressure decreased thereafter to a mean systolic pressure of 18.1 and 19.8 kPa, respectively. Rectal temperature was 35.6 and 33.9 oC at the onset of surgery, and decreased to 35.3 and 33.5 oC, respectively, at the end of anaesthesia. Etorphine anaesthesia was reversed with 5mg diprenorphine at the completion of 90 min of surgery.

  9. Stenting in the treatment of chronic mesenteric ischemia. Technical and clinical success rates

    Heiss, P.; Zorger, N.; Kaempfe, I.; Jung, E.M.; Paetzel, C.; Feuerbach, S.; Herold, T.; Pfister, K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the technical and clinical success rates of percutaneous stent revascularization in the treatment of chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI). Patients and methods: 17 patients (12 female) with typical symptoms of CMI were treated by percutaneous stent placement for stenoses of the splanchnic arteries (celiac trunk; superior mesenteric artery, SMA; inferior mesenteric artery, IMA). The primary and secondary technical success, primary and secondary clinical success, and the long-term clinical outcome were determined. Results: a total of 24 stents were implanted in 21 splanchnic arteries (12 stents in the celiac trunk, 11 in the SMA and 1 in the IMA). The primary technical success rate was 91% (19/21 arteries), the secondary technical success rate was 95% (21/22 arteries). Clinical follow-up was available for 16 patients. The primary clinical success rate was 81% (13/16 patients). Following two secondary interventions, the secondary clinical success rate was 94% (15/16 patients). Long-term clinical success was achieved in 15 of 16 patients (94%) with a mean follow-up of 26 months. One patient died within 30 days of the intervention and two patients demonstrated major complications (1 dissection, 1 stent dislocation). None of the patients required surgical revascularization and none of the patients died due to recurrent mesenteric ischemia. (orig.)

  10. Trunk imbalance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Fortin, Carole; Grunstein, Erin; Labelle, Hubert; Parent, Stefan; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie

    2016-06-01

    Trunk imbalance (ie, frontal trunk shift measured with a plumb line from C7 to S1) is part of the clinical evaluation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), but its prevalence and relationship with scoliosis, back pain, and health-related factors are not well documented. The principal objectives are to document trunk imbalance prevalence and to explore the association between trunk imbalance and the following factors: Cobb angle, type of scoliosis, back pain, function, mental health, and self-image. The secondary objective is to determine back pain prevalence and the relationship between back pain and each of the following: Cobb angle, function, mental health, and self-image. This is a cross-sectional study in a scoliosis clinic of a tertiary university hospital center. The sample includes youth with AIS (N=55). The outcome measures were trunk imbalance prevalence and magnitude, and back pain prevalence and intensity using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) pain score, and the function, self-image, and mental health domains of the SRS-22. Trunk imbalance and back pain were assessed in 55 patients with AIS (Cobb angle: 10-60°). Patients completed the SRS-22 questionnaire and the NPRS. Correlations were done between trunk imbalance and scoliosis (Cobb angle, type of scoliosis), back pain (NPRS and SRS-22 pain score), and health-related factors using Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and logistic regression models. Trunk imbalance prevalence is 85% and back pain prevalence is 73%. We found fair to moderate significant positive correlation between trunk imbalance and Cobb angle (r=0.32-0.66, pself-image, or type of scoliosis. Lower self-reported pain significantly correlated with lower Cobb angles (r=0.29, p=.03), higher function (r=0.55, p=.000), higher self-image (r=0.44, p=.001), and better mental health (r=0.48, p=.000). There was a trend for trunk imbalance to be related with lower pain in logistic regression

  11. Intravascular ultrasound assessed incomplete stent apposition and stent fracture in stent thrombosis after bare metal versus drug-eluting stent treatment the Nordic Intravascular Ultrasound Study (NIVUS)

    Kosonen, Petteri; Vikman, Saila; Jensen, Lisette Okkels

    2012-01-01

    This prospective multicenter registry used intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with definite stent thrombosis (ST) to compare rates of incomplete stent apposition (ISA), stent fracture and stent expansion in patients treated with drug-eluting (DES) versus bare metal (BMS) stents. ST...... is a rare, but potential life threatening event after coronary stent implantation. The etiology seems to be multifactorial....

  12. Evaluating herbivore extinction probabilities in Addo Elephant ...

    Abstract. Population extinction evaluations, based on the model developed by Dennis et al. (1991) that did not take density dependence into account and that were based on census data, suggest that many of the herbivore species in Addo Elephant National Park (AENP) are vulnerable to local extinction. As a result of low ...

  13. Discovery Learning: Zombie, Phoenix, or Elephant?

    Bakker, Arthur

    2018-01-01

    Discovery learning continues to be a topic of heated debate. It has been called a zombie, and this special issue raises the question whether it may be a phoenix arising from the ashes to which the topic was burnt. However, in this commentary I propose it is more like an elephant--a huge topic approached by many people who address different…

  14. Making sense of elephants in the shamba

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    . The discussion posited that institutional failures such as the lack of an efficient compensation policy, politics, and the top-down approach to wildlife policy indirectly impact on farmers’ perceptions and subsequent sensemaking processes regarding their interactions with elephants in their crops. This article...

  15. The Asian Elephant: Ecology and Management

    or simply interested in elephant ecology and management in. Africa. the ... also discussed. The final chapters cover some problems of interaction between ... phylogeny and evolution now available. One such section ... animal and plant parasitic nematodes. .... infonnation on the adaptations to pollination in vygies, the photo-.

  16. Endovascular stent graft for treatment of complicated spontaneous dissection of celiac artery: Report of two cases

    Kang, Ung Rae; Lee, Young Hwan [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hwan [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    We report 2 cases of complicated spontaneous dissection of the celiac artery, which were successfully treated by a stent graft. The first patient was a 47-year-old man who presented with acute abdominal pain. CT scan showed ruptured saccular aneurysm with surrounding retroperitoneal hematoma. The second patient was a 57-year-old man with progressive dissecting aneurysm. Endovascular stent graft was placed in the celiac trunk to control bleeding, and to prevent rupture in each patient. Follow-up CT scans showed complete obliteration of a dissecting aneurysm.

  17. Percutaneous placement of ureteral stent

    Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Joon Koo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    Antegrade placement of ureteral stents has successfully achieved in 41 of 46 ureters. When it was difficult to advance ureteral stents through the lesion, it was facilitated by retrograde guide-wire snare technique through urethra. Complications associated with the procedure were non-function of ureteral stent by occlusion, upward migration,and spontaneous fracture of ureteral stent. These complications were managed by percutaneous nephrostomy and removal of ureteral stents by guide-wire snare technique and insertion of a new ureteral stent. While blood cell in urine was markedly increased in about 50% of patients following the procedure.

  18. Complex vibratory patterns in an elephant larynx.

    Herbst, Christian T; Svec, Jan G; Lohscheller, Jörg; Frey, Roland; Gumpenberger, Michaela; Stoeger, Angela S; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2013-11-01

    Elephants' low-frequency vocalizations are produced by flow-induced self-sustaining oscillations of laryngeal tissue. To date, little is known in detail about the vibratory phenomena in the elephant larynx. Here, we provide a first descriptive report of the complex oscillatory features found in the excised larynx of a 25 year old female African elephant (Loxodonta africana), the largest animal sound generator ever studied experimentally. Sound production was documented with high-speed video, acoustic measurements, air flow and sound pressure level recordings. The anatomy of the larynx was studied with computed tomography (CT) and dissections. Elephant CT vocal anatomy data were further compared with the anatomy of an adult human male. We observed numerous unusual phenomena, not typically reported in human vocal fold vibrations. Phase delays along both the inferior-superior and anterior-posterior (A-P) dimension were commonly observed, as well as transverse travelling wave patterns along the A-P dimension, previously not documented in the literature. Acoustic energy was mainly created during the instant of glottal opening. The vestibular folds, when adducted, participated in tissue vibration, effectively increasing the generated sound pressure level by 12 dB. The complexity of the observed phenomena is partly attributed to the distinct laryngeal anatomy of the elephant larynx, which is not simply a large-scale version of its human counterpart. Travelling waves may be facilitated by low fundamental frequencies and increased vocal fold tension. A travelling wave model is proposed, to account for three types of phenomena: A-P travelling waves, 'conventional' standing wave patterns, and irregular vocal fold vibration.

  19. Drug-eluting stents to prevent stent thrombosis and restenosis.

    Im, Eui; Hong, Myeong-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Although first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) have significantly reduced the risk of in-stent restenosis, they have also increased the long-term risk of stent thrombosis. This safety concern directly triggered the development of new generation DES, with innovations in stent platforms, polymers, and anti-proliferative drugs. Stent platform materials have evolved from stainless steel to cobalt or platinum-chromium alloys with an improved strut design. Drug-carrying polymers have become biocompatible or biodegradable and even polymer-free DES were introduced. New limus-family drugs (such as everolimus, zotarolimus or biolimus) were adopted to enhance stent performances. As a result, these new DES demonstrated superior vascular healing responses on intracoronary imaging studies and lower stent thrombotic events in actual patients. Recently, fully-bioresorbable stents (scaffolds) have been introduced, and expanding their applications. In this article, the important concepts and clinical results of new generation DES and bioresorbable scaffolds are described.

  20. Drug eluting stents and modern stent technologies for in-stent restenosis.

    Werner, Martin

    2017-08-01

    The implantation of metallic stents has become a standard procedure to improve the outcome after angioplasty of peripheral vessels. However, the occurrence of in-stent restenosis is hampering the long-term efficacy of these procedures and is associated with re-occurrence of symptoms. The optimal treatment modality for in-stent-restenosis in the peripheral vasculature is not well examined. This review discusses the existing evidence for the treatment of in-stent restenosis with drug eluting stents and modern stent technologies.

  1. The risk and prognostic impact of definite stent thrombosis or in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation

    Thayssen, Per; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Lassen, Jens Flensted

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Data are limited on the prognostic impact of stent thrombosis and in-stent restenosis in patients treated with coronary stents. We examined the prognostic impact of stent thrombosis and in-stent restenosis in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and results......: All patients who underwent stent implantation from 2002 to 2005 were identified in the Western Denmark Heart Registry. The hazard ratio (HR) for death associated with stent thrombosis or in-stent restenosis was estimated with a Cox regression analysis with stent thrombosis or in-stent restenosis...... as time-dependent variables. A total of 12,277 patients were treated with stent implantation. Stent thrombosis was observed in 111 (0.9%) patients and in-stent restenosis in 503 (4.1%) patients within 12 months after the index PCI. Occurrence of stent thrombosis was associated with an increased risk...

  2. [Supra-aortic trunks occlusive disease: three different treatment approaches].

    Dias, P; Almeida, P; Sampaio, S; Silva, A; Leite-Moreira, A; Pinho, P; Roncon de Albuquerque, R

    2010-01-01

    Unlike carotid bifurcation atherosclerotic stenosis, supra-aortic trunks (SAT) occlusive disease is rare and its revascularization uncommon, accouting for less than 10% of the operations performed on the extracranial brain-irrigating arteries. There are three different treatment approaches: transthoracic, extra-anatomic cervical and endovascular. Endovascular repair is gaining popularity as first-line therapy for proximal lesions with favorable anatomy because of its low morbidity and rare mortality. Extra-anatomic bypass is a safe and durable reconstruction and should be considered in patients with single vessel disease, with cardiopulmonary high-risk or with limited life expectancy. If cardiac surgery is needed, central transthoracic reconstruction is preferable, and the two procedures should be combined. The long-term patency of bypasses with aortic origin, specially when multiple vessels are involved, is superior to other repair techniques. We present three clinical cases that illustrate each of these therapeutic strategies: central brachiocephalic revascularization and synchronous cardiac surgery in a patient with complex SAT atherosclerosis disease; subclavian-carotid transposition for disabling upper limb claudication; and subclavian artery stenting for subclavian-steal syndrome. Surgical approach selection should be based on the individual patient's anatomy and operative risk.

  3. Future developments in biliary stenting

    Hair, Clark D; Sejpal, Divyesh V

    2013-01-01

    Biliary stenting has evolved dramatically over the past 30 years. Advancements in stent design have led to prolonged patency and improved efficacy. However, biliary stenting is still affected by occlusion, migration, anatomical difficulties, and the need for repeat procedures. Multiple novel plastic biliary stent designs have recently been introduced with the primary goals of reduced migration and improved ease of placement. Self-expandable bioabsorbable stents are currently being investigated in animal models. Although not US Food and Drug Administration approved for benign disease, fully covered self-expandable metal stents are increasingly being used in a variety of benign biliary conditions. In malignant disease, developments are being made to improve ease of placement and stent patency for both hilar and distal biliary strictures. The purpose of this review is to describe recent developments and future directions of biliary stenting. PMID:23837001

  4. Application of stereo photogrammetric techniques for measuring African Elephants

    A. J Hall-Martin

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of shoulder height and back length of African elephants were obtained by means of stereo photogrammetric techniques. A pair of Zeiss UMK 10/1318 cameras, mounted on a steel frame on the back of a vehicle, were used to photograph the elephants in the Addo Elephant National Park, Republic of South Africa. Several modifications of normal photogrammetry procedure applicable to the field situation (eg. control points and the computation of results (eg. relative orientation are briefly mentioned. Six elephants were immobilised after being photographed and the measurements obtained from them agreed within a range of 1 cm-10 cm with the photogrammetric measurements.

  5. Renal PTA stenting

    Tsetis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a common condition that may lead to hypertension, progressive renal dysfunction and cardiovascular morbidity. Catheter-based therapy for symptomatic, haemodynamically significant, RAS has become the preferred method of revascularization. Balloon angioplasty has been the traditional treatment of choice for fibromuscular dysplasia, however stents are increasingly used for the treatment of atheromatous lesions; in many cases-such as in ostial lesions-, direct stenting is strongly indicated. Despite the increased use of endovascular therapy for renal artery stenosis, there is still controversy regarding the optimal management and the net benefit of this treatment. Several randomized trials of balloon angioplasty or stenting for renal artery stenosis compared with medical therapy alone have been conducted, however these could not show definite advantage of endovascular therapy. Problems encountered with those trials include enrollment of small number of patients, frequent crossover from medical to interventional therapy compromising the intention-to-treat results, or selection of patients that are not expected to show clear benefit. The Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) is the most important of these trials; however, it,s study design was faulty and therefore did not provide conclusive evidence to answer the question of whether angioplasty and stenting or medical therapy is the best treatment for haemodynamically significant RAS. All expectations are now focused on the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial which was designed to answer the same question, and its methodologies took into consideration the weaknesses of the ASTRAL trial. Regarding stent device itself, it seems that the optimal design is probably a stainless steel, laser cut, open-cells stent mounted on a rapid exchange delivery balloon catheter compatible with 0.014-in and 0.018-in guidewire. As a future

  6. Future developments in biliary stenting

    Hair CD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Clark D Hair,1 Divyesh V Sejpal21Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY, USAAbstract: Biliary stenting has evolved dramatically over the past 30 years. Advancements in stent design have led to prolonged patency and improved efficacy. However, biliary stenting is still affected by occlusion, migration, anatomical difficulties, and the need for repeat procedures. Multiple novel plastic biliary stent designs have recently been introduced with the primary goals of reduced migration and improved ease of placement. Self-expandable bioabsorbable stents are currently being investigated in animal models. Although not US Food and Drug Administration approved for benign disease, fully covered self-expandable metal stents are increasingly being used in a variety of benign biliary conditions. In malignant disease, developments are being made to improve ease of placement and stent patency for both hilar and distal biliary strictures. The purpose of this review is to describe recent developments and future directions of biliary stenting.Keywords: plastic stents, self-expandable metal stents, drug eluting stents, bioabsorbable stents, malignant biliary strictures, benign biliary strictures

  7. Heterogeneous Intravascular Ultrasound Findings of Stent Thrombosis

    Morofuji, Toru; Inaba, Shinji; Aisu, Hiroe; Takahashi, Kayo; Saito, Makoto; Higashi, Haruhiko; Yoshii, Toyofumi; Sumimoto, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The underlying mechanisms of stent thrombosis are not completely understood. Methods We experienced 12 definite stent thrombosis cases (1 early, 1 late, and 10 very late) at our hospital from July 2011 to April 2016 and evaluated the possible causes of stent thrombosis by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Results Five different potential morphological causes of stent thrombosis (neoatherosclerosis, stent malapposition, stent fracture, edge dissection, and stent underexpansion) were d...

  8. Ecological consequences of forest elephant declines for Afrotropical forests.

    Poulsen, John R; Rosin, Cooper; Meier, Amelia; Mills, Emily; Nuñez, Chase L; Koerner, Sally E; Blanchard, Emily; Callejas, Jennifer; Moore, Sarah; Sowers, Mark

    2017-10-27

    Poaching is rapidly extirpating African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) from most of their historical range, leaving vast areas of elephant-free tropical forest. Elephants are ecological engineers that create and maintain forest habitat; thus, their loss will have large consequences for the composition and structure of Afrotropical forests. Through a comprehensive literature review, we evaluated the roles of forest elephants in seed dispersal, nutrient recycling, and herbivory and physical damage to predict the cascading ecological effects of their population declines. Loss of seed dispersal by elephants will favor tree species dispersed abiotically and by smaller dispersal agents, and tree species composition will depend on the downstream effects of changes in elephant nutrient cycling and browsing. Loss of trampling and herbivory of seedlings and saplings will result in high tree density with release from browsing pressures. Diminished seed dispersal by elephants and high stem density are likely to reduce the recruitment of large trees and thus increase homogeneity of forest structure and decrease carbon stocks. The loss of ecological services by forest elephants likely means Central African forests will be more like Neotropical forests, from which megafauna were extirpated thousands of years ago. Without intervention, as much as 96% of Central African forests will have modified species composition and structure as elephants are compressed into remaining protected areas. Stopping elephant poaching is an urgent first step to mitigating these effects, but long-term conservation will require land-use planning that incorporates elephant habitat into forested landscapes that are being rapidly transformed by industrial agriculture and logging. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Analisis Migrasi Radio Trunking Analog ke Radio Trunking Digital di Indonesia

    Riza Azmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalam Tabel Alokasi Spektrum Frekuensi di Indonesia pada catatan kaki INS9 dan INS13 disebutkan bahwa alokasi pada pita-pita frekuensi yang digunakan untuk teknologi trunking direncanakan dimigrasi ke sistem komunikasi trunking digital pada waktu yang akan ditentukan oleh pemerintah. Terkait dengan hal itu, studi ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji bagaimana kelayakan migrasi dari sistem trunking analog ke sistem trunking digital dan hal-hal yang terkait dengannya. Dengan menggunakan analisis biaya dan manfaat (Cost-Benefit Analysis studi ini melihat bahwa migrasi hanya dapat dilakukan jika umur masing-masing lisensi dari operator telah berakhir, atau dengan kata lain pemerintah dapat mendorong transisi ke digital dengan menerbitkan lisensi baru yaitu lisensi trunking digital.

  10. Risk and ethical concerns of hunting male elephant: behavioural and physiological assays of the remaining elephants.

    Tarryne Burke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hunting of male African elephants may pose ethical and risk concerns, particularly given their status as a charismatic species of high touristic value, yet which are capable of both killing people and damaging infrastructure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified the effect of hunts of male elephants on (1 risk of attack or damage (11 hunts, and (2 behavioural (movement dynamics and physiological (stress hormone metabolite concentrations responses (4 hunts in Pilanesberg National Park. For eleven hunts, there were no subsequent attacks on people or infrastructure, and elephants did not break out of the fenced reserve. For three focal hunts, there was an initial flight response by bulls present at the hunting site, but their movements stabilised the day after the hunt event. Animals not present at the hunt (both bulls and herds did not show movement responses. Physiologically, hunting elephant bulls increased faecal stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites in both those bulls that were present at the hunts (for up to four days post-hunt and in the broader bull and breeding herd population (for up to one month post-hunt. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As all responses were relatively minor, hunting male elephants is ethically acceptable when considering effects on the remaining elephant population; however bulls should be hunted when alone. Hunting is feasible in relatively small enclosed reserves without major risk of attack, damage, or breakout. Physiological stress assays were more effective than behavioural responses in detecting effects of human intervention. Similar studies should evaluate intervention consequences, inform and improve best practice, and should be widely applied by management agencies.

  11. Clinical leadership: the elephant in the room.

    Edmonstone, John

    2009-01-01

    The article explores the concept of clinical leadership in the National Health Service in the UK by seeking to establish a workable definition and by contrasting it with managerial leadership, focussing on the 'disconnected hierarchy' in professional organizations. It proposes that the problems faced by clinical leadership relate to the current nature of general management in the NHS and concludes by suggesting that clinical leadership is the 'elephant in the room'-often ignored or unaddressed.

  12. An Anomalous Branching of Coeliac Trunk

    Jadhav Surekha D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of the coeliac trunk arevery common. A variation of coeliac trunk oc-curs due to the developmental abnormalities inthe ventral splanchnic arteries. Present paperhighlights a rare variation of branching patternof coeliac trunk which was observed during rou-tine dissection. In a 63 year old male cadaver,we observed a bifurcation of coeliac trunk intoshort hepato-splenic and longer hepato-gastrictrunks. The hepato-splenic trunk divided intocommon hepatic artery and splenic artery. Cys-tic artery originated from proper hepatic arteryand then proper hepatic artery divided into rightand left hepatic arteries. Hepato-gastric trunkran laterally and upward, and then it divided intotwo branches: a left gastric artery and left ac-cessory hepatic artery. Knowledge of this rarevariation is clinically very important for sur-geons, especially while performing liver trans-plantation, gastric, gallbladder surgeries andtransarterial chemoembolization for hepatictumor and during invasive procedures like an-giography and also other radiological studies.

  13. Arthropods vector grapevine trunk disease pathogens.

    Moyo, P; Allsopp, E; Roets, F; Mostert, L; Halleen, F

    2014-10-01

    Arthropod-mediated dispersal of pathogens is known in many cropping systems but has never been demonstrated for grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Arthropods from vineyards were screened for the presence of pathogens associated with Petri disease and esca using cultural and molecular techniques. The ability of the most abundant pathogen-carrying species to inoculate healthy grapevine vascular tissues was also determined. Millipedes and ants were allowed to associate with a DsRed- Express-transformed Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, after which they were exposed to freshly pruned healthy grapevines under controlled conditions and wounds were monitored for subsequent infection. In addition, the possibility of millipede excreta, commonly found on pruning wounds in the field, to act as inoculum source was determined. A diverse arthropod fauna was associated with declining grapevines and many of these carried trunk disease pathogens. However, spiders, the ant Crematogaster peringueyi, and the millipede Ommattoiulus moreleti were the most abundant pathogen carriers. The ant and millipede species fed on pruning wound sap and effectively transmitted trunk disease pathogens. Millipede excreta contained viable spores of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and may serve as an inoculum source. Numerous arthropods, including beneficial predators, are potential vectors of grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Our results highlight the need for an integrated approach, including targeted management of ants and millipedes at the time of pruning, to limit the spread of grapevine trunk diseases.

  14. Interactive Trunk Extraction from Forest Point Cloud

    T. Mizoguchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For forest management or monitoring, it is required to constantly measure several parameters of each tree, such as height, diameter at breast height, and trunk volume. Terrestrial laser scanner has been used for this purpose instead of human workers to reduce time and cost for the measurement. In order to use point cloud captured by terrestrial laser scanner in the above applications, it is an important step to extract all trees or their trunks separately. For this purpose, we propose an interactive system in which a user can intuitively and efficiently extract each trunk by a simple editing on the distance image created from the point cloud. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed system from various experiments.

  15. Genetic assessment of captive elephant (Elephas maximus) populations in Thailand

    Thitaram, Chatchote; Somgird, Chaleamchart; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Angkavanich, Taweepoke; Roongsri, Ronnachit; Thongtip, Nikorn; Colenbrander, Ben; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of 136 captive Thai elephants (Elephas maximus) with known region of origin were investigated by analysis of 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci. We did not detect significant indications of inbreeding and only a low differentiation of elephants

  16. Devastating decline of forest elephants in Central Africa

    Maisels, F.; Strindberg, S.; Blake, S.; Wittemyer, G.; Hart, J.; Williamson, E.A.; Aba'a, R.G.; Amsini, F.; Ambahe, R.D.; Bakabana, P.C.; Hicks, T.C.; Bayogo, R.E.; Bechem, M.; Beyers, R.L.; Bezangoye, A.N.; Boundja, P.; Bout, N.; Akou, M.E.; Bene, L.E.; Fosso, B.; Greengrass, E.; Grossmann, F.; Ikamba-Nkulu, C.; Ilambu, O.; Inogwabini, B.I.; Iyenguet, F.; Kiminou, F.; Kokangoye, M.; Kujirakwinja, D.; Latour, S.; Liengola, I.; Mackaya, Q.; Madidi, J.; Madzoke, B.; Makoumbou, C.; Malanda, G.A.; Malonga, R.; Mbani, O.; Mbendzo, V.A.; Ambassa, E.; Ekinde, A.; Mihindou, Y.; Morgan, B.J.; Motsaba, P.; Moukala, G.; Mounguengui, A.; Mowawa, B.S.; Ndzai, C.; Nixon, S.; Nkumu, P.; Nzolani, F.; Pintea, L.; Plumptre, A.; Rainey, H.; de Semboli, B.B.; Serckx, A.; Stokes, E.; Turkalo, A.; Vanleeuwe, H.; Vosper, A.; Warren, Y.

    2013-01-01

    African forest elephants- taxonomically and functionally unique-are being poached at accelerating rates, but we lack range-wide information on the repercussions. Analysis of the largest survey dataset ever assembled for forest elephants (80 foot-surveys; covering 13,000 km; 91,600 person-days of

  17. Fluctuations in the population of southern elephant seals Mirounga ...

    and seals (Laws 1973). Predation. Carrick and Ingham (1962) indicated that the killer whale. Orcinus orca is an important predator of elephant seals, es- pecially of immature individuals. Moreover, Condy (1977) suggests that the observed decrease in the elephant seal population at Marion Island is due to a lowered recruit-.

  18. Predicting factors influencing crop raiding by elephants in the ...

    Nyirenda et al.

    By developing predictive models of binary logistic regression and employing questionnaire surveys, we .... Lupande Game Management Area (GMA), covering an area of 4 840 km2 constitutes the ...... Temporal trends in elephant ... the modern conservation paradigm: Can agricultural communities co- exist with elephant?

  19. Do elephants need to sweat? | Wright | African Zoology

    An adequate rate of evaporative water loss is considered essential for the maintenance of thermal balance in the elephant in warm climatic conditions. Histological studies have failed to reveal the existence of sweat glands in elephant skin. Transepidermal water-loss rate has been measured and shown to be sufficiently ...

  20. Determinants of elephant distribution at Nazinga Game Ranch, Burkina Faso

    Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Wicks, Zeno W.

    2007-01-01

    We used seasonal ground total counts and remote sensing and GIS technology to relate elephant (Loxodonta africana africana) distribution at Nazinga Game Ranch to environmental and anthropogenic factors. Variables used in analyses were normalized difference vegetation index, elevation, stream density, density of poaching and human illegal activities, distance to dams, distance to rivers, distance to roads, and distance to poaching risk. Contrary to our expectation, road traffic did not disturb elephants. Strong negative relationships were documented between elephant abundance and stream density, distance to dams, and poaching density. Density of poaching and other human illegal activities explained 81%, vegetation greenness 6%, and stream density 3% of the variation in elephant density. Elephant distribution represented a survival strategy affected by poaching, food quality and abundance, and water availability. 

  1. 'Stent in a stent'--an alternative technique for removing partially covered stents following sleeve gastrectomy complications.

    Vasilikostas, Georgios; Sanmugalingam, Nimalan; Khan, Omar; Reddy, Marcus; Groves, Chris; Wan, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Endoscopic stenting is a relatively new technique for the treatment of post sleeve gastrectomy complications. Partially covered stents are used in this method to minimise the risk of migration but they are associated with difficulties with removal. Patients requiring emergency stenting following sleeve gastrectomy underwent insertion of a partially covered metallic stent. One month later, if the stent was not easily removable, a fully covered overlapping stent was inserted and the patient was readmitted 2 weeks later for removal of both stents. Four patients required stenting following sleeve gastrectomy leaks, and one patient required stenting for a stricture. In these cases, a 'stent in a stent' technique was used for removal. This technique allows the safe removal of partially covered stents inserted following sleeve gastrectomy complications.

  2. 'When elephants battle, the grass suffers.' Power, ivory and the Syrian elephant

    Çakirlar, Canan

    2016-01-01

    The craftsmanship of the ivory objects in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age Eastern Mediterranean leave no doubt as to their intention to impress. Elephant teeth are an important raw material for the manufacture of these objects. Zooarchaeological research shows that cranial, dental, and postcranial

  3. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002953.htm Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery To use the sharing features ... to remove plaque buildup ( endarterectomy ) Carotid angioplasty with stent placement Description Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) is ...

  4. Angioplasty and stent placement in the treatment of radiation-induced arterial injury

    Liu Pengcheng; Pierre, P.; Philippe, O.; Danial, C.; Jean-Paul, B.; Cyril, B.; Jean-Pierre, C.; Denis, K.; Helve, R.; Francis, J.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and longterm patency of angioplasty and stent for the treatment of radiation induced arterial disease. Methods: PTA was attempted in 18 arterial lesions following irradiation in 14 patients. Thirteen stents were placed in 8 patients to treat occlusion (n = 3), aneurysm (n = 1), residual stenosis (n =2), multiple stenoses (n = 1), and delayed restenosis after previous balloon angioplasty (n = 1). The stents were readily visualized and patency of the stent and the target artery determined with Doppler US and (or) CT in all patients. Results: Interventional procedure was successful in 14 patients of which 8 underwent stent placement for their arterial lesions. Eleven of these patients demonstrated primary patency with relief of clinical symptoms with a mean follow-up of 2 years (range, 8 months -60 months). Clinical improvement was noted for the other patients. Eleven patients underwent PTA once or twice. One patient had PTA four times and three stents were installed, two of which were in the area of the aortic bifurcation, and one in the celiac trunk. another patient also had PTA four times and two stents were placed in the superior mesenteric artery. A stent was implanted in one patient because of PTA induced dissection and occlusion, and the arterial lesion was considered to be cured clinically after a follow-up of 5 years. Conclusions: The results suggested that PTA with single or multiple techniques may be effective immediately in the treatment of arterial lesions caused by radiation and can be considered the first therapeutic option in these cases

  5. The Effect of Stent Cell Geometry on Carotid Stenting Outcomes

    Alparslan, Burcu, E-mail: burcu.alparslan@gmail.com [Yozgat State Hospital, Radiology Clinic (Turkey); Nas, Omer Fatih, E-mail: omerfatihnas@gmail.com [Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Eritmen, Ulku Turpcu, E-mail: drulkutur@hotmail.com.tr [Special Eregli Anatolia Hospital, Radiology Clinic (Turkey); Duran, Selcen, E-mail: selcenduran16@hotmail.com [Yerkoy State Hospital, Neurology Clinic (Turkey); Ozkaya, Guven, E-mail: ozkaya@uludag.edu.tr [Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics (Turkey); Hakyemez, Bahattin, E-mail: bhakyemez@uludag.edu.tr [Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2016-04-15

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to investigate the effect of stent cell geometry on midterm results of carotid artery stenting (CAS).Materials and MethodOne hundred fifty-five patients underwent CAS between February 2010 and December 2012. Ninety-one open- and 84 closed-cell stents were used in this non-randomized, retrospective study. Periprocedural complications were defined as the ones happened during the procedure or within 30 days afterwards. Starting from the 6th month after the procedure, in-stent restenosis was detected with multidetector computed tomography angiography and classified into four groups from focal restenosis to occlusion.ResultsEleven complications were encountered in the periprocedural period (four on the open- and seven on the closed-cell group). Total complication rate was 6.3 % (11/175). No significant difference was detected in terms of periprocedural complications between two groups (p = 0.643). There was statistically significant difference between stent design groups in regard to radiological findings (p = 0.002). Sixteen of open-cell stents and three of closed-cell stents had focal restenosis. One closed-cell stent had diffuse proliferative restenosis and one open-cell stent had total occlusion.ConclusionIn-stent restenosis was more common in open-cell stent group, which have larger free cell area than closed-cell stents. Although our radiologic findings promote us to use closed-cell design if ‘possible’, no difference was detected in terms of clinical outcomes.

  6. Self-expandable metalic endotracheal stent

    Do, Young Soo; Cho, Dae Soon; Cho, Kyung Ja; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Mi Jae

    1993-01-01

    Six bare stents and six covered stents were inserted in the trachea of 12 dogs under general anesthesia. After 1-10 weeks of observation, the dogs were killed, and the trachea and lung were examined grossly and histologically. Pneumonia and stent migration were observed more frequently at covered stent group. Inflammatory change of the trachea was more severe at covered stent group. In conclusion, we believe that it is inadequate to insert silicone covered stent in the tracheobronchial tree. (Author)

  7. Self-expandable metalic endotracheal stent

    Do, Young Soo; Cho, Dae Soon; Cho, Kyung Ja; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Mi Jae [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-01-01

    Six bare stents and six covered stents were inserted in the trachea of 12 dogs under general anesthesia. After 1-10 weeks of observation, the dogs were killed, and the trachea and lung were examined grossly and histologically. Pneumonia and stent migration were observed more frequently at covered stent group. Inflammatory change of the trachea was more severe at covered stent group. In conclusion, we believe that it is inadequate to insert silicone covered stent in the tracheobronchial tree. (Author).

  8. Delayed complications after flow-diverter stenting: reactive in-stent stenosis and creeping stents.

    Cohen, José E; Gomori, John Moshe; Moscovici, Samuel; Leker, Ronen R; Itshayek, Eyal

    2014-07-01

    We assessed the frequency and severity of changes in stent configuration and location after the treatment of intracranial aneurysms, and patterns of in-stent stenosis. We retrospectively reviewed data for consecutive aneurysm patients managed with endovascular implantation of flow-diverter stents (Silk Flow Diverter [Balt Extrusion, Montmorency, France] and Pipeline Embolization Device [ev3/Coviden, Minneapolis, MN, USA]) from October 2011 to July 2012. Routine 2, 6, 9-12, and 16-20 month follow-up angiograms were compared, with a focus on changes in stent configuration and location from immediately after deployment to angiographic follow-up, and the incidence and development of in-stent stenosis. Thirty-four patients with 42 aneurysms met inclusion criteria. The Silk device was implanted in 16 patients (47%, single device in 15), the Pipeline device in 18 (53%, single device in 16). On first follow-up angiography, in-stent stenosis was observed in 38% of Silk devices and 39% of Pipeline devices. In-stent stenosis was asymptomatic in 12 of 13 patients. One woman presented with transient ischemic attacks and required stent angioplasty due to end tapering and mild, diffuse in-stent stenosis. Configuration and location changes, including stent creeping and end tapering were seen in 2/16 patients (13%) with Silk devices, and 0/18 patients with Pipeline devices. We describe stent creeping and end tapering as unusual findings with the potential for delayed clinical complications. In-stent stenosis, with a unique behavior, is a frequent angiographic finding observed after flow-diverter stent implant. The stenosis is usually asymptomatic; however, close clinical and angiographic monitoring is mandatory for individualized management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation Protection Elephants in the Room

    Vetter, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    As our system of radiological protection evolves, several significant issues loom within radiation protection discussions and publications. These issues influence the nature of epidemiological and radiobiological research and the establishment of radiation protection recommendations, standards, and regulations. These issues are like the proverbial e lephants in the room . They are large, and it is unwise to ignore them. This paper discusses the impact of three young elephants as they make their presence increasingly obvious: increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation, terrorism and fear of radiation, and patient safety. Increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation is emerging as a discussion topic related to the safety of computed tomography (CT) and other medical modalities. Shortly after publication of CT dose data, manufacturers were helping to reduce doses to children by increasing flexibility for adjustment of technique factors. Also, radiation epidemiological data are being used in the development of guidance on exposure to chemical carcinogens during early life. Re-emergence of public fear of radiation has been fueled by threats of radiological dispersion devises and confusing messages about personal decontamination, emergency room acceptance or rejection of contaminated victims, and environmental clean-up. Finally, several professional publications have characterized risk of medical radiation exposure in terms of patient deaths even though epidemiological data do not support such conclusions. All three of these elephants require excellent science and sophisticated data analysis to coax them from the room. Anecdotal communications that confuse the public should be avoided. These are not the only elephants in the room, but these three are making their presence increasingly obvious. This paper discusses the need for radiation protection professionals to rely on good science in the evolution of the system of

  10. Trunk Muscle Function Deficit in Youth Baseball Pitchers With Excessive Contralateral Trunk Tilt During Pitching.

    Oyama, Sakiko; Waldhelm, Andrew G; Sosa, Araceli R; Patel, Ravina R; Kalinowski, Derick L

    2017-09-01

    Pitching technique is one of many factors that affect injury risk. Exhibiting excessive contralateral trunk tilt (CLT) during pitching has been linked to higher ball speed but also to increased joint loading. Deficit in trunk muscle strength has been suggested as an underlying cause of this movement pattern. The purpose of the study was to compare trunk muscle strength between youth baseball pitchers with varying degree of CLT during pitching. Cross-sectional study. Baseball practice fields. Twenty-eight youth baseball pitchers. Pitching technique was captured using a video camera. Based on the 2-dimensional trunk contralateral flexion angle, pitchers were categorized into low (30 degrees) CLT groups. Maximum isometric strength tests for trunk flexion, extension, and bilateral rotation, measured using a dynamometer. The pitchers with high CLT (n = 10) had longer pitching experience (P = 0.014), produced higher ball speed (P = 0.003) compared with the pitchers with moderate (n = 10) and low (n = 8) CLT, but demonstrated greater asymmetry in trunk rotation strength (relative weakness in rotation strength toward dominant side) compared with the pitchers with low CLT (P = 0.015). Excessive CLT may be a strategy that young pitchers learn to achieve higher ball velocity but also may be associated with imbalance between the oblique muscles on dominant and nondominant side, which may be acquired from repetitive pitching. Strengthening and emphasizing the use of dominant side oblique muscles may keep pitchers from leaning excessively during pitching and thus decrease joint loading.

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asiatic elephant [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Asiatic elephant Elephas maximus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Elephas_maxim...us_L.png Elephas_maximus_NL.png Elephas_maximus_S.png Elephas_maximus_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maxim...us&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=NS ...

  12. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    Drug-eluting stents - discharge; PCI - discharge; Percutaneous coronary intervention - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - discharge; Coronary angioplasty - discharge; Coronary artery angioplasty - discharge; Cardiac ...

  13. Indications for stenting during thrombolysis

    Bækgaard, N; Broholm, R; Just, Sven Richardt Lundgren

    2013-01-01

    of a stent in this position is the treatment of choice facilitating the venous flow into an unobstructed outflow tract either from the femoral vein or the deep femoral vein or both. The stent, made of stainless steel or nitinol, has to be self-expandable and flexible with radial force to overcome...... the challenges in this low-pressure system. The characteristics of the anatomy with external compression and often a curved vein segment with diameter difference make stent placement necessary. Ballooning alone has no place in this area. The proportion of inserted stents varies in the published materials...

  14. A novel antigen capture ELISA for the specific detection of IgG antibodies to elephant endotheliotropic herpes virus

    P. van den Doel (Petra); V.R. Prieto (Víctor Rodríguez); S.E. Van Rossum-Fikkert (Sarah E.); W. Schaftenaar (Willem); E. Latimer (Erin); L. Howard (Lauren); S. Chapman (Sarah); N. Masters (Nic); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P.D. Ling (Paul D.); A. Dastjerdi (Akbar); B.E.E. Martina (Byron)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Elephants are classified as critically endangered animals by the International Union for Conservation of Species (IUCN). Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) poses a large threat to breeding programs of captive Asian elephants by causing fatal haemorrhagic disease.

  15. The stenting strategy of drug-eluting stents for coronary artery disease in patients on dialysis

    Hiroshi Fujita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reports regarding the relationship between the length and diameter of implanted drug-eluting stents and clinical and angiographic outcomes in dialysis patients are limited. Aim: We investigated the efficiency of drug-eluting stents for coronary artery disease in patients on dialysis from the viewpoint of stent sizing. Methods: Sirolimus-eluting stents were implanted in 88 lesions and bare metal stents were implanted in 43 lesions. We compared stenting strategy, major adverse cardiac events, and angiographic results between sirolimus-eluting stent and bare metal stent groups. Results: Stent diameter was smaller and stent length was longer in the sirolimus-eluting stent group than in the bare metal stent group in our routine practices. There was no significant between-group difference in late diameter loss. Rates of angiographic restenosis and target lesion revascularization were significantly higher in the sirolimus-eluting stent group than in the bare metal stent group. Although stent length was significantly longer and stent diameter was smaller in the sirolimus-eluting stent group, sirolimus-eluting stents did not improve the subsequent clinical and angiographic results compared with bare metal stents in dialysis patients. Conclusion: In dialysis patients, a longer length and/or smaller diameter sirolimus-eluting stent implantation was associated with high rates of restenosis and target lesion revascularization compared with bare metal stents.

  16. Trunk Robot Rehabilitation Training with Active Stepping Reorganizes and Enriches Trunk Motor Cortex Representations in Spinal Transected Rats

    Oza, Chintan S.; Giszter, Simon F.

    2015-01-01

    Trunk motor control is crucial for postural stability and propulsion after low thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) in animals and humans. Robotic rehabilitation aimed at trunk shows promise in SCI animal models and patients. However, little is known about the effect of SCI and robot rehabilitation of trunk on cortical motor representations. We previously showed reorganization of trunk motor cortex after adult SCI. Non-stepping training also exacerbated some SCI-driven plastic changes. Here we e...

  17. Mammoth and Elephant Phylogenetic Relationships: Mammut Americanum, the Missing Outgroup

    Ludovic Orlando

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available At the morphological level, the woolly mammoth has most often been considered as the sister-species of Asian elephants, but at the DNA level, different studies have found support for proximity with African elephants. Recent reports have increased the available sequence data and apparently solved the discrepancy, finding mammoths to be most closely related to Asian elephants. However, we demonstrate here that the three competing topologies have similar likelihood, bayesian and parsimony supports. The analysis further suggests the inadequacy of using Sirenia or Hyracoidea as outgroups. We therefore argue that orthologous sequences from the extinct American mastodon will be required to defi nitively solve this long-standing question.

  18. Investigating the depth of thermal burns in elephants

    A. Shakespeare

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Histological examination of burn injuries in elephants revealed that the depth was not as severe as expected from clinical observation. Although the actual burn depth was deep, the thickness of elephant skin, especially the dermis, resulted in the lesions being classified as less severe than expected. Examination of skin samples from selected areas showed that most lesions were either superficial (1st degree or superficial partial-thickness (superficial 2nd degree burns with the occasional deep partial thickness (deep 2nd degree wound. These lesions however, resulted in severe complications that eventually led to the death of a number of the elephants.

  19. Elephant management: a scientific assessment of South Africa

    Scholes, RJ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available families between Sabi Sand Game Reserve and Kruger 359 xiiiList of figures Chapter 10 1 Values for the environment 448 2 Impact of crop damage costs due to elephants on the economic gross output, the contribution to the gross national income... Impact of elephant crop damage costs on the measures of private and economic viability for a model CBNRM community trust investment in the Okavango Delta, Botswana 459 6 Valuation studies on African elephants 463 7 Summary of main economic values...

  20. Dedicated bifurcation stents

    Ajith Ananthakrishna Pillai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bifurcation percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is still a difficult call for the interventionist despite advancements in the instrumentation, technical skill and the imaging modalities. With major cardiac events relate to the side-branch (SB compromise, the concept and practice of dedicated bifurcation stents seems exciting. Several designs of such dedicated stents are currently undergoing trials. This novel concept and pristine technology offers new hope notwithstanding the fact that we need to go a long way in widespread acceptance and practice of these gadgets. Some of these designs even though looks enterprising, the mere complex delivering technique and the demanding knowledge of the exact coronary anatomy makes their routine use challenging.

  1. Trunk biomechanics during hemiplegic gait after stroke: A systematic review.

    Van Criekinge, Tamaya; Saeys, Wim; Hallemans, Ann; Velghe, Silke; Viskens, Pieter-Jan; Vereeck, Luc; De Hertogh, Willem; Truijen, Steven

    2017-05-01

    Stroke commonly results in trunk impairments that are associated with decreased trunk coordination and limited trunk muscle strength. These impairments often result in biomechanical changes during walking. Additionally, the so-called pelvic step might be influenced by these impairments. Therefore, the aim of this review was twofold. First, to gain more insight into trunk biomechanics during walking in stroke patients compared to healthy individuals. Second, to investigate the influence of walking speed on trunk biomechanics. The search strategy was performed by the PRISMA guidelines and registered in the PROSPERO database (no. CRD42016035797). Databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, and Rehabdata were systematically searched until December 2016. Sixteen of the 1099 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. Risk of bias was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The majority of studies reported on trunk kinematics during walking, data on trunk kinetics and muscle activity is lacking. Following stroke, patients walk with increased mediolateral trunk sway and larger sagittal motion of the lower trunk. Although rotation of the upper trunk is increased, the trunk shows a more in-phase coordination. Acceleration of the trunk diminishes while instability and asymmetry increase as there are less movement towards the paretic side. However, it is of great importance to differentiate between compensatory trunk movements and intrinsic trunk control deficits. Specific exercise programs, assistive devices and orthoses might be of help in controlling these deficits. Importantly, studies suggested that more natural trunk movements were observed when walking speed was increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of pushing height on trunk posture and trunk muscle activity when a cart suddenly starts or stops moving.

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2012-01-01

    Unexpected sudden (un)loading of the trunk may induce inadequate responses of trunk muscles and uncontrolled trunk motion. These unexpected perturbations may occur in pushing tasks, when the cart suddenly starts moving (unloading) or is blocked by an obstacle (loading). In pushing, handle height affects the user's working posture, which may influence trunk muscle activity and trunk movement in response to the perturbation. Eleven healthy male subjects pushed a 200 kg cart with handles at shoulder and hip height in a start condition (sudden release of brakes) and a stop condition (bumping into an obstacle). Before the perturbation, the baseline of the trunk inclination, internal moment and trunk extensor muscle activity were significantly higher when pushing at hip height than at shoulder height. After the perturbation, the changes in trunk inclination and internal moment were significantly larger when pushing at shoulder height than at hip height in both conditions. The opposite directions of changes in trunk inclination and internal moment suggest that the unexpected perturbations caused uncontrolled trunk motion. Pushing at shoulder height may impose a high risk of low-back injury due to the low trunk stiffness and large involuntary trunk motion occurring after carts suddenly move or stop.

  3. The Subfossil Trunk of Chiarano (TV

    Tiziana Urso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the characterization of a subfossil trunk found buried in the mud of the Piavon canal, at Chiarano (TV, when dredging took place in 2008. The trunk, of imposing dimensions, lacking branches and bark, has a black, deeply cracked and strongly deteriorated outer surface with a carbonized appearance, while internally it has the typical blackish colour of the so-called drowned oak. The studies have demonstrated that it is a tree belonging to the genus Quercus, common oak or sessile oak, that may have been felled between the end of the 12 th and early 14 th century A.D.. Determination of the MWC and residual basic density indicate that the deterioration decreases from the outside inwards; the ash content is high externally and diminishes moving toward the centre. Nowadays, the Piavon is an irrigation canal, but in Venetian times it was navigable and was used for the transport of goods and timber. There were extensive woodlands of common oak and sessile oak all along the Piavon, the size and composition of which is documented in the Venetian cadastres, which also report the distances between the woodlands and the nearest water courses, proof of the importance of river transport for the timber. In particular, an 18 hectare oak woodland is recorded in the Surian cadastre (1569-70 for the villa at Chiarano. The oaks were used by the Republic of Venice mainly for the construction and maintenance of the shipping fleet. The Chiarano trunk, given its age and the area where it was found, may therefore be a trunk felled in Venetian times, perhaps destined for naval use, which was lost during its transport by floating.

  4. Trunk stabilization exercises for healthy individuals

    Francisco J Vera-Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n2p200   The aim of this study was to analyze the trunk muscular response during different variations of some of the most popular stabilization exercises: front-bridge, back-bridge, side-bridge, and bird-dog. Surface electromyography was bilaterally re-corded from rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique and erector spinae during 25 variations of the aforementioned exercises. Compared to the conventional form of the front- and side-bridge, performing these exercises kneeling on a bench or with elbows extended reduced the muscular challenge. Conversely, performing the back-bridge with elbows extended elicited higher muscular activation than the conventional exercise. While bridge exercises with double leg support produced the highest activation levels in those muscles that counteracted gravity, single leg support while bridging increased the activation of the trunk rotators, especially internal oblique. The highest activation levels were found in three exercises: sagittal walkout in a front-bridge position, rolling from right side-bridge into front-bridge position, and side-bridge with single leg support on a BOSUTMbalance trainer. Although the exercises performed on unstable surfaces usu-ally enhanced the muscle activation, performing the exercises on the BOSUTMbalance trainer did not always increase the trunk muscle activity. Overall, this information may be useful to guide fitness instructors and clinicians when establishing stabilization exercise progressions for the trunk musculature.

  5. Intravascular stent graft with polyurethane and metallic stent: experimental study

    Do, Young Soo; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Boo Kyung Han; Park, Jae Hyung; Lee, Hak Jong; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Sung Hyun; Kim, Jong Won; Ha, Jongwon

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of a new model of the stent graft, and of tissue response related to placement of the stent graft. The stent graft was constructed from polyurethane (Pellethane) graft and Hanaro stent(12mm in diameter, 45mm in length, 10 bends). A stent grafts was inserted into the lower thoracic aorta in each of six adult mongrel dogs(body weight, 12-16kg). At one, two, four, and six months, follow-up studies of angiography and spiral CT angiography were preformed to evaluate wascular patency, vascular stenosis, and thrombus formation. Two dogs were sacrificed at 1month, 2months, and 6months after insertion of the stent graft and macroscopic, light microscopic, and scanning electron microscopic examinations of the aortic segment including the stent graft were performed to evaluate intimal hyperplasia, endothelial growth to the graft, and thrombus formation. During follow-up at one, two, four, and six months, angiography or spiral CT angiography showed 20-100% luminal stenosis or occlusion of the lower thoracic aorta by the thrombus and perigraft leaks in three dogs(50%), and collateral vessels caused by occlusion of the aorta in two (33.3%). On gross examination, there were thrombi of 1-5mm thickness at the graft portions in all dogs, and this thickness gradually increased. The mean thickness of intimal hyperplasia at the stent portion gradually increased from 120μm to 227μm and the mean thickness of intimal hyperplasia at the graft portion from 93μm to 914μm. This thickness was greater at the graft portion than at the stent portion. Scanning electron microscopy showed elliptical endothelial lining on the neointimal surfaces at each end of the graft. Thrombi caused stenosis or occlusion of the stent graft. In order for such a graft to be ideal, further study is needed

  6. Stent fabric fatigue of grafts supported by Z-stents versus ringed stents: an in vitro buckling test.

    Lin, Jing; Wang, Lu; Guidoin, Robert; Nutley, Mark; Song, Ge; Zhang, Ze; Du, Jia; Douville, Yvan

    2014-03-01

    Stent-grafts externally fitted with a Z-shaped stents were compared to devices fitted with ringed stents in an in vitro oscillating fatigue machine at 200 cycles per minute and a pressure of 360 mmHg for scheduled durations of up to 1 week. The devices fitted with Z-stents showed a considerably lower endurance limit to buckling compared to the controls. The contact between the apexes of adjacent Z-stents resulted in significant damage to the textile scaffolds and polyester fibers due to the sharp angle of the Z-stents. The ringed stents did not cause any fraying in the textile scaffolds.

  7. On the Possible Detection of Lightning Storms by Elephants

    Michael C. Kelley

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical calculations suggest that sounds produced by thunderstorms and detected by a system similar to the International Monitoring System (IMS for the detection of nuclear explosions at distances ≥100 km, are at sound pressure levels equal to or greater than 6 × 10−3 Pa. Such sound pressure levels are well within the range of elephant hearing. Frequencies carrying these sounds might allow for interaural time delays such that adult elephants could not only hear but could also locate the source of these sounds. Determining whether it is possible for elephants to hear and locate thunderstorms contributes to the question of whether elephant movements are triggered or influenced by these abiotic sounds.

  8. The relative host status of rock elephant shrews Elephantulus ...

    1991-10-18

    Oct 18, 1991 ... rocky terrain, occur in South Africa (Smithers 1983) and the distribution of ... elephant shrews on northern and on southern slopes on the farm 'Preezfon- .... this has caused paralysis in Angora goat kids (Fourie et al. 1988a).

  9. Devastating decline of forest elephants in central Africa.

    Fiona Maisels

    Full Text Available African forest elephants- taxonomically and functionally unique-are being poached at accelerating rates, but we lack range-wide information on the repercussions. Analysis of the largest survey dataset ever assembled for forest elephants (80 foot-surveys; covering 13,000 km; 91,600 person-days of fieldwork revealed that population size declined by ca. 62% between 2002-2011, and the taxon lost 30% of its geographical range. The population is now less than 10% of its potential size, occupying less than 25% of its potential range. High human population density, hunting intensity, absence of law enforcement, poor governance, and proximity to expanding infrastructure are the strongest predictors of decline. To save the remaining African forest elephants, illegal poaching for ivory and encroachment into core elephant habitat must be stopped. In addition, the international demand for ivory, which fuels illegal trade, must be dramatically reduced.

  10. Predictors of elephant poaching in a wildlife crime hotspot

    Zafra-Calvo, Noelia; Lobo, J.M.; Prada, C.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of elephant carcasses in relation to ecological characteristics and human activities is critical to developing targeted management strategies for reducing poaching. We employ a spatial modelling approach to quantify the relative contribution of multiple...

  11. Physiological stress and refuge behavior by African elephants.

    David S Jachowski

    Full Text Available Physiological stress responses allow individuals to adapt to changes in their status or surroundings, but chronic exposure to stressors could have detrimental effects. Increased stress hormone secretion leads to short-term escape behavior; however, no studies have assessed the potential of longer-term escape behavior, when individuals are in a chronic physiological state. Such refuge behavior is likely to take two forms, where an individual or population restricts its space use patterns spatially (spatial refuge hypothesis, or alters its use of space temporally (temporal refuge hypothesis. We tested the spatial and temporal refuge hypotheses by comparing space use patterns among three African elephant populations maintaining different fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM concentrations. In support of the spatial refuge hypothesis, the elephant population that maintained elevated FGM concentrations (iSimangaliso used 20% less of its reserve than did an elephant population with lower FGM concentrations (Pilanesberg in a reserve of similar size, and 43% less than elephants in the smaller Phinda reserve. We found mixed support for the temporal refuge hypothesis; home range sizes in the iSimangaliso population did not differ by day compared to nighttime, but elephants used areas within their home ranges differently between day and night. Elephants in all three reserves generally selected forest and woodland habitats over grasslands, but elephants in iSimangaliso selected exotic forest plantations over native habitat types. Our findings suggest that chronic stress is associated with restricted space use and altered habitat preferences that resemble a facultative refuge behavioral response. Elephants can maintain elevated FGM levels for ≥ 6 years following translocation, during which they exhibit refuge behavior that is likely a result of human disturbance and habitat conditions. Wildlife managers planning to translocate animals, or to initiate other

  12. Pulmonary aspergillosis in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    Kaim, Ute; Paltian, Vanja; Krudewig, Christiane; Nieder, Anne; Wohlsein, Peter

    2009-04-01

    A 26-year-old female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) with a history of purulent pododermatitis, recurrent abdominal pain, and severe weight loss died spontaneously after a period of deteriorating disease. The main pathological finding was a severe bilateral pyogranulomatous, partially necrotizing pneumonia with numerous intralesional fungal hyphae. At microbiological examination Aspergillus spp. were isolated. The present case indicates that mycotic pneumonia should to be considered as a differential diagnosis of pulmonary disorders in elephants.

  13. Percutaneous biliary drainage and stenting

    Totev, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) is an X-ray or US guided procedure that involves the injection of a contrast material directly into the bile ducts inside the liver to produce pictures of them. If a blockage or narrowing is found, additional procedures may be performed: 1. insertion of a catheter to drain excess bile out of the body or both - internal and external; 2. plastic endoprothesis placement; 3. self-expandable metal stents placement to help open bile ducts or to bypass an obstruction and allow fluids to drain. Current percutaneous biliary interventions include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and biliary drainage to manage benign and malignant obstructions. Internal biliary stents are either plastic or metallic, and various types of each kind are available. Internal biliary stents have several advantages. An external tube can be uncomfortable and have a psychological disadvantage. An internal stent prevents the problems related to external catheters, for example, pericatheter leakage of bile and the need for daily flushing. The disadvantages include having to perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or new PTC procedures to obtain access in case of stent obstruction. Better patency rates are reported with metallic than with plastic stents in cases of malignant obstruction, though no effect on survival is noted. Plastic internal stents are the cheapest but reportedly prone to migration. Metallic stents are generally not used in the treatment of benign disease because studies have shown poor long-term patency rates. Limited applications may include the treatment of patients who are poor surgical candidates or of those in whom surgical treatment fails. Most postoperative strictures are treated surgically, though endoscopic and (less commonly) percutaneous placement of nonmetallic stents has increasingly been used in the past few years. Now there are some reports about use of biodegradable biliary

  14. Endotracheal expandable metallic stent placement in dogs

    Sawada, S; Tanabe, Y; Fujiwara, Y; Koyama, T; Tanigawa, N; Kobayashi, M; Katsube, Y; Nakamura, H [Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan). Dept. of Radiology Research Inst. for Microbial Diseases, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    1991-01-01

    Various types of Gianturco zig-zag wire stent were implanted into the tracheas of 4 dogs to define the suitable characteristics of the endotracheal wire stent in these animals. These stents were constructed of 0.45, and 0.33 mm stainless steel wire. The diameter of the fully expanded stents was 3 cm and their lengths were 2, 3, and 4 cm. The 2 cm stent constructed of 0.33 mm wire showed minimum pathologic changes of the trachea of the dog compared to the other stents, and at the same time had a complete covering of ciliated columnar epithelium over the stent surface. (orig.).

  15. Towards an Automated Acoustic Detection System for Free Ranging Elephants.

    Zeppelzauer, Matthias; Hensman, Sean; Stoeger, Angela S

    The human-elephant conflict is one of the most serious conservation problems in Asia and Africa today. The involuntary confrontation of humans and elephants claims the lives of many animals and humans every year. A promising approach to alleviate this conflict is the development of an acoustic early warning system. Such a system requires the robust automated detection of elephant vocalizations under unconstrained field conditions. Today, no system exists that fulfills these requirements. In this paper, we present a method for the automated detection of elephant vocalizations that is robust to the diverse noise sources present in the field. We evaluate the method on a dataset recorded under natural field conditions to simulate a real-world scenario. The proposed method outperformed existing approaches and robustly and accurately detected elephants. It thus can form the basis for a future automated early warning system for elephants. Furthermore, the method may be a useful tool for scientists in bioacoustics for the study of wildlife recordings.

  16. Preliminary Report of Carotid Artery Stenting Using a Tapered Stent

    Jeong, Chang Woo; Kim, Dong Hyun; Hong, Seung; Jeong; Kim, Young Suk; Byun, Joo Nam; Oh, Jae Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seong Hwan [Dept. of Neurology, Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    To analyze the results of carotid artery stenting using a tapered stent and to evaluate the effectiveness of the tapered stent compared to previously reported studies using non-tapered stents. From October 2008 to August 2010, elective carotid artery stenting using a tapered stent was attempted in 39 lesions from 36 consecutive patients. Post-procedural complications were evaluated by neurologic symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging. Restenosis or occlusion was evaluated by carotid Doppler ultrasound and computerized tomography with angiography. Newly developed neurologic symptoms were evaluated clinically. The self-expandable tapered stent was placed across the carotid artery stenosis. A total stroke was noted in 3 patients, while a major stroke was noted in 1 patient. On diffusion weighted imaging, new lesions were observed in 15 patients, but 13 patients were clinically silent. Follow-up imaging studies were performed in the 13 clinically silent lesions, and no evidence of restenosis or occlusion was found any of the 13 lesions. During clinical follow-up in 34 lesions from 31 patients, there were newly developed neurological symptoms in only 1 patient.

  17. Balloon use with kitchen knife and Stent in main trunk not protected

    Bula, Alvaro; Restrepo, Gustavo; Stephens, Ingrid

    2003-01-01

    66 year-old man with arterial hypertension and inadequacy renal chronicle in hemodialysis, with oppressive thoracic pain and dyspnoea of 40 minutes. It is made a diagnose, evolution and discussion of the case

  18. Radial force measurement of endovascular stents: Influence of stent design and diameter.

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Matsubara, Yutaka; Aoyagi, Yukihiko; Matsuda, Daisuke; Okadome, Jun; Morisaki, Koichi; Inoue, Kentarou; Tanaka, Shinichi; Ohkusa, Tomoko; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Angioplasty and endovascular stent placement is used in case to rescue the coverage of main branches to supply blood to brain from aortic arch in thoracic endovascular aortic repair. This study assessed mechanical properties, especially differences in radial force, of different endovascular and thoracic stents. We analyzed the radial force of three stent models (Epic, E-Luminexx and SMART) stents using radial force-tester method in single or overlapping conditions. We also analyzed radial force in three thoracic stents using Mylar film testing method: conformable Gore-TAG, Relay, and Valiant Thoracic Stent Graft. Overlapping SMART stents had greater radial force than overlapping Epic or Luminexx stents (P stents was greater than that of all three endovascular stents (P stents, site of deployment, and layer characteristics. In clinical settings, an understanding of the mechanical characteristics, including radial force, is important in choosing a stent for each patient. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Has the VA Become a White Elephant?

    Robbins RA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. As I write this Dennis Wagner is publishing a series of articles in the Arizona Republic describing his quest to find out if care at VA hospitals have improved over the last 2 years (1. To begin the article Wagner describes the fable of the King of Siam who presented albino pachyderms to his enemies knowing they would be bankrupted because the cost of food and care outweighed all usefulness. A modern expression derives from this parable: the white elephant. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA has prided itself on being a leader in healthcare. It is the largest healthcare system in the US, implemented the first electronic medical record, and more than 70 percent of all US doctors have received training in the VA healthcare system (2. This year the VA is celebrating the 70th anniversary of its partnership with US medical schools. Beginning in 1946, the VA partnered ...

  20. Celiac Trunk Embolization, as a Means of Elongating Short Distal Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Necks, Prior to Endovascular Aortic Repair

    Belenky, Alexander; Haddad, Menashe; Idov, Igor; Knizhnik, Michael; Litvin, Sergey; Bachar, Gil N.; Atar, Eli

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience in elongating short distal necks of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (DTAAs) by coil embolization of the celiac trunk prior to endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). During 6 years seven patients (five men and two women; mean age, 74) who had DTAAs with short distal necks unsuitable for conventional EVAR, and well patent superior and inferior mesenteric arteries based on CT, were treated in one session with EVAR after the celiac trunk was coil embolized to elongate the neck. All patients were followed by CT every 3 months in the first year and every 6 months thereafter. Technical success was achieved in all patients, and no early or late ischemic complications were noted. No procedural complications occurred and good aneurysm sealing was obtained in all patients. Three endoleaks were identified after 3 months (one patient) and 6 months (two patients); all were treated successfully with insertion of an additional stent-graft. In patients with DTAAs who are candidates for EVAR but have short aneurysm distal necks, celiac trunk embolization-only if the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries are patent-is a good and safe way to elongate the neck and enable EVAR.

  1. A demographic model to predict future growth of the Addo elephant population

    A.M. Woodd

    1999-01-01

    An age-structured demographic model of the growth of the Addo elephant population was developed using parameters calculated from long-term data on the population. The model was used to provide estimates of future population growth. Expansion of the Addo Elephant National Park is currently underway, and the proposed target population size for elephant within the enlarged park is 2700. The model predicts that this population size will be reached during the year 2043, so that the Addo elephant p...

  2. Angiographic CT: in vitro comparison of different carotid artery stents-does stent orientation matter?

    Lettau, Michael; Bendszus, Martin; Hähnel, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the in vitro visualization of different carotid artery stents on angiographic CT (ACT). Of particular interest was the influence of stent orientation to the angiography system by measurement of artificial lumen narrowing (ALN) caused by the stent material within the stented vessel segment to determine whether ACT can be used to detect restenosis within the stent. ACT appearances of 17 carotid artery stents of different designs and sizes (4.0 to 11.0 mm) were investigated in vitro. Stents were placed in different orientations to the angiography system. Standard algorithm image reconstruction and stent-optimized algorithm image reconstruction was performed. For each stent, ALN was calculated. With standard algorithm image reconstruction, ALN ranged from 19.0 to 43.6 %. With stent-optimized algorithm image reconstruction, ALN was significantly lower and ranged from 8.2 to 18.7 %. Stent struts could be visualized in all stents. Differences in ALN between the different stent orientations to the angiography system were not significant. ACT evaluation of vessel patency after stent placement is possible but is impaired by ALN. Stent orientation of the stents to the angiography system did not significantly influence ALN. Stent-optimized algorithm image reconstruction decreases ALN but further research is required to define the visibility of in-stent stenosis depending on image reconstruction.

  3. Making sense of human–elephant conflict in Laikipia County, Kenya

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes sensemaking theory to understand human–elephant interactions. The article draws on a case study of human–elephant interaction in Laikipia County, Kenya, to understand how farmers make sense of elephants in their crops. Drawing on eight interviews, the analysis showed that re...

  4. Habitat relationships of Asian elephants in shifting-cultivation landscapes of Meghalaya, Northeast India

    Bruce G. Marcot; Ashish Kumar; G. Talukdar; A.K. Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    In Asia and India, Asian elephants (Elaphas maximus) attain their highest densities and numbers in Meghalaya, particularly in Garo Hills, of northeast India. Little quantitative work has been done on elephant-habitat relationships in this region where the species' distribution is known to be highly fragmented. If elephants and their habitat...

  5. Continent-wide survey reveals massive decline in African savannah elephants.

    Chase, Michael J; Schlossberg, Scott; Griffin, Curtice R; Bouché, Philippe J C; Djene, Sintayehu W; Elkan, Paul W; Ferreira, Sam; Grossman, Falk; Kohi, Edward Mtarima; Landen, Kelly; Omondi, Patrick; Peltier, Alexis; Selier, S A Jeanetta; Sutcliffe, Robert

    2016-01-01

    African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are imperiled by poaching and habitat loss. Despite global attention to the plight of elephants, their population sizes and trends are uncertain or unknown over much of Africa. To conserve this iconic species, conservationists need timely, accurate data on elephant populations. Here, we report the results of the Great Elephant Census (GEC), the first continent-wide, standardized survey of African savannah elephants. We also provide the first quantitative model of elephant population trends across Africa. We estimated a population of 352,271 savannah elephants on study sites in 18 countries, representing approximately 93% of all savannah elephants in those countries. Elephant populations in survey areas with historical data decreased by an estimated 144,000 from 2007 to 2014, and populations are currently shrinking by 8% per year continent-wide, primarily due to poaching. Though 84% of elephants occurred in protected areas, many protected areas had carcass ratios that indicated high levels of elephant mortality. Results of the GEC show the necessity of action to end the African elephants' downward trajectory by preventing poaching and protecting habitat.

  6. Elephant distribution around a volcanic shield dominated by a mosaic of forest and savanna (Marsabit, Kenya)

    Ngene, S.M.; Skidmore, A.K.; Gils, H.; Douglas-Hamilton, I.; Omondi, P.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the factors that influenced the distribution of the African elephant around a volcanic shield dominated by a mosaic of forest and savanna in northern Kenya. Data on elephant distribution were acquired from four female and five bull elephants, collared with satellite-linked

  7. Evaluation of non-invasive trunk sprays and trunk-injected emamectic benzoate

    Deborah G. McCullough; D.L. Cappaert; T.M. Poland; A.C. Anulewicz; P. Lewis; J. Molongoski

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, we continued to evaluate two neo-nicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and dinotefuron, applied as non-invasive trunk sprays to control emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Neo-nicotinoid products are widely used to protect landscape ash trees because they are relatively safe for humans and non-target species. These...

  8. [Coronary stents: 30 years of medical progress].

    Silvain, Johanne; Cayla, Guillaume; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Fargeot, Catherine; Montalescot, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    The history of interventional cardiology has been marked by several technologic revolutions since the late 1970s. The first key step was the use of inflatable balloon angioplasty as an alternative to CABG surgery for coronary revascularization, followed by intracoronary delivery of bare metal stent (BMS) and drug eluting stents (DES) to drastically reduce intracoronary restenosis observed with BMS. Improved stents platforms and polymers (absorbable or biocompatible) led to a dramatic reduction in the rate of late stent thrombosis. Self-expanding stents are now available to improve stent a position especially in acute myocardial infarction. The emergence of new fully bioabsorbable stents that can be combined with antiproliferative drugs is the ongoing revolution. A new generation of stents is continuously improving and likely to become the ideal stent for coronary revascularization in the near future. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  9. Assemblages of saproxylic beetles on large downed trunks of oak.

    Milberg, Per; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Sancak, Kerem; Jansson, Nicklas

    2016-03-01

    Old living oaks (Quercus robur) are known as a very species-rich habitat for saproxylic beetles, but it is less clear to what extent such veteran trees differ from an even rarer feature: downed trunks of large oaks. In this study, we set out to sample this habitat, using window traps, with two aims: (1) to describe the variation of assemblages among downed trunks of different type and (2) to compare beetles on downed oaks with data from veteran standing trees. The results showed that trunk volume and sun exposure better explained assemblages as well as species numbers on downed trunks than did decay stage. Furthermore, species classified as facultative saproxylic species showed weak or no differentiation among downed trunks. Species with different feeding habits showed no apparent differentiation among downed trunks. Furthermore, species composition on dead, downed oak trunks differed sharply from that of living, veteran oaks. Wood or bark feeders were more common on veterans than downed trunks, but there was no difference for those species feeding on fungi or those feeding on insects and their remains. In conclusion, for a successful conservation of the saproxylic beetle fauna it is important to keep downed oak trunks, and particularly large ones, in forest and pastures as they constitute a saproxylic habitat that differs from that of living trees.

  10. Molecular characterisation and genetic variation of Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus infection in captive young Asian elephants in Thailand.

    Sripiboon, Supaphen; Jackson, Bethany; Ditcham, William; Holyoake, Carly; Robertson, Ian; Thitaram, Chatchote; Tankaew, Pallop; Letwatcharasarakul, Preeda; Warren, Kristin

    2016-10-01

    Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus (EEHV) is emerging as a new threat for elephant conservation, since being identified as the cause of severe, often fatal, haemorrhagic disease in young Asian elephants. To describe positive cases and the molecular relatedness of virus detected in elephants in Thailand, we re-examined all available of EEHV samples occurring in young elephants in Thailand between 2006 and 2014 (n=24). Results indicated 75% (18/24) of suspected cases were positive for EEHV by semi-nested PCR. Further gene analysis identified these positive cases as EEHV1A (72%, 13/18 cases), EEHV1B (11%, 2/18) and EEHV4 (17%, 3/18). This study is the first to phylogenetically analyse and provide an overview of most of the known EEHV cases that have occurred in Thailand. Positive individuals ranged in age from one to nine years, with no sex association detected, and occurred across geographical locations throughout the country. All individuals, except one, were captive-born. No history of direct contact among the cases was recorded, and this together with the fact that various subtype clusters of virus were found, implied that none of the positive cases were epidemiologically related. These results concur with the hypothesis that EEHV1 is likely to be an ancient endogenous pathogen in Asian elephants. It is recommended that active surveillance and routine monitoring for EEHV should be undertaken in all elephant range countries, to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology, transmission and prevention of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Trunk Robot Rehabilitation Training with Active Stepping Reorganizes and Enriches Trunk Motor Cortex Representations in Spinal Transected Rats

    Oza, Chintan S.

    2015-01-01

    Trunk motor control is crucial for postural stability and propulsion after low thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) in animals and humans. Robotic rehabilitation aimed at trunk shows promise in SCI animal models and patients. However, little is known about the effect of SCI and robot rehabilitation of trunk on cortical motor representations. We previously showed reorganization of trunk motor cortex after adult SCI. Non-stepping training also exacerbated some SCI-driven plastic changes. Here we examine effects of robot rehabilitation that promotes recovery of hindlimb weight support functions on trunk motor cortex representations. Adult rats spinal transected as neonates (NTX rats) at the T9/10 level significantly improve function with our robot rehabilitation paradigm, whereas treadmill-only trained do not. We used intracortical microstimulation to map motor cortex in two NTX groups: (1) treadmill trained (control group); and (2) robot-assisted treadmill trained (improved function group). We found significant robot rehabilitation-driven changes in motor cortex: (1) caudal trunk motor areas expanded; (2) trunk coactivation at cortex sites increased; (3) richness of trunk cortex motor representations, as examined by cumulative entropy and mutual information for different trunk representations, increased; (4) trunk motor representations in the cortex moved toward more normal topography; and (5) trunk and forelimb motor representations that SCI-driven plasticity and compensations had caused to overlap were segregated. We conclude that effective robot rehabilitation training induces significant reorganization of trunk motor cortex and partially reverses some plastic changes that may be adaptive in non-stepping paraplegia after SCI. PMID:25948267

  12. Trunk robot rehabilitation training with active stepping reorganizes and enriches trunk motor cortex representations in spinal transected rats.

    Oza, Chintan S; Giszter, Simon F

    2015-05-06

    Trunk motor control is crucial for postural stability and propulsion after low thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) in animals and humans. Robotic rehabilitation aimed at trunk shows promise in SCI animal models and patients. However, little is known about the effect of SCI and robot rehabilitation of trunk on cortical motor representations. We previously showed reorganization of trunk motor cortex after adult SCI. Non-stepping training also exacerbated some SCI-driven plastic changes. Here we examine effects of robot rehabilitation that promotes recovery of hindlimb weight support functions on trunk motor cortex representations. Adult rats spinal transected as neonates (NTX rats) at the T9/10 level significantly improve function with our robot rehabilitation paradigm, whereas treadmill-only trained do not. We used intracortical microstimulation to map motor cortex in two NTX groups: (1) treadmill trained (control group); and (2) robot-assisted treadmill trained (improved function group). We found significant robot rehabilitation-driven changes in motor cortex: (1) caudal trunk motor areas expanded; (2) trunk coactivation at cortex sites increased; (3) richness of trunk cortex motor representations, as examined by cumulative entropy and mutual information for different trunk representations, increased; (4) trunk motor representations in the cortex moved toward more normal topography; and (5) trunk and forelimb motor representations that SCI-driven plasticity and compensations had caused to overlap were segregated. We conclude that effective robot rehabilitation training induces significant reorganization of trunk motor cortex and partially reverses some plastic changes that may be adaptive in non-stepping paraplegia after SCI. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357174-16$15.00/0.

  13. Stenting of major airway constriction

    Wu Xiaomei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlated issues in the stenting treatment of major airway constriction. Methods: Nineteen cases of major airway stenting procedure were studied retrospectively. The clinical choice of stents of different advantages or deficiencies were discussed. The importance of intravenous anesthesia supporting, life-parameters monitoring during the procedures and the prevention of complications were analysed. Results: Under intravenous and local anesthesia, 19 Wallstents had been successively placed and relieved 19 cases of major airway constrictions due to malignant or benign diseases (15 of tumors, 3 of tuberculosis, 1 of tracheomalacia). Intravenous anesthesia and life-parameters monitoring had made the procedures more safe and precise. Conclusions: Major airway stenting is an reliable method for relieving tracheobronchial stenosis; and intravenous anesthesia supporting and life-parameters monitoring guarantee the satisfactions of procedures

  14. Should humans interfere in the lives of elephants?

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Culling seems to be a cruel method of human interference in the lives of elephants. Culling is generally used to control population numbers of highly developed mammals to protect vegetation and habitat for other species. Many people are against human interference in the lives of elephants. In this article aspects of this highly controversial issue are explored. Three fascinating characteristics of this ethical dilemma are discussed in the introductory part, and then the major arguments raised against human interference in the lives of elephants are evaluated. These arguments are the following: First, that nature should be allowed to run its course and establish its own balance; nature will thus solve the problem of elephant over-population. The second argument raised by animal-rights activists as well as by animal-welfare groups either claim that animals have rights that humans must respect at all times, or that all sentient beings have interests that humans ought to respect, as those beings can experience pleasure or pain. The third argument often associates culling elephants as method for population control with the commercial use and exploitation of wilderness areas. Many people argue that it is unethical to use wildlife as a sustainable resource for fighting poverty. In conclusion it is stated that despite these arguments human

  15. Demographic variables for wild Asian elephants using longitudinal observations.

    de Silva, Shermin; Webber, C Elizabeth; Weerathunga, U S; Pushpakumara, T V; Weerakoon, Devaka K; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species' remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitored, providing cohort-based information on mortality and reproduction. Reproduction was seasonal, such that most births occurred during the long inter-monsoon dry season and peaked in May. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was 13.4 years and the 50(th) percentile inter-birth interval was approximately 6 years. Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity. Fecundity was relatively stable throughout the observed reproductive life of an individual (ages 11-60), averaging between 0.13-0.17 female offspring per individual per year. Mortalities and injuries based on carcasses and disappearances showed that males were significantly more likely than females to be killed or injured through anthropogenic activity. Overall, however, most observed injuries did not appear to be fatal. This population exhibits higher fecundity and density relative to published estimates on other Asian elephant populations, possibly enhanced by present range constriction. Understanding the factors responsible for these demographic dynamics can shed insight on the future needs of this elephant population, with probable parallels to other populations in similar settings.

  16. Demographic variables for wild Asian elephants using longitudinal observations.

    Shermin de Silva

    Full Text Available Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species' remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitored, providing cohort-based information on mortality and reproduction. Reproduction was seasonal, such that most births occurred during the long inter-monsoon dry season and peaked in May. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was 13.4 years and the 50(th percentile inter-birth interval was approximately 6 years. Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity. Fecundity was relatively stable throughout the observed reproductive life of an individual (ages 11-60, averaging between 0.13-0.17 female offspring per individual per year. Mortalities and injuries based on carcasses and disappearances showed that males were significantly more likely than females to be killed or injured through anthropogenic activity. Overall, however, most observed injuries did not appear to be fatal. This population exhibits higher fecundity and density relative to published estimates on other Asian elephant populations, possibly enhanced by present range constriction. Understanding the factors responsible for these demographic dynamics can shed insight on the future needs of this elephant population, with probable parallels to other populations in similar settings.

  17. Unusual Behavioural Responses of Elephants: A Challenge for Mitigating Man – Elephant Conflict in “Shivalik Elephant Reserve”, Northwest India

    Ritesh JOSHI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Drastic changes in the Shivalik landscape and rapid rate of developmental and anthropogenic activities are expected to lead to a severe threat and unusual behavioural changes in elephants. Some unusual behavioural responses of Asian elephants were observed from northwest India, which were rather abnormal and were directly linked with increasing man–elephant conflict. To evaluate ground based data, we used ground surveys to generate database on these behavioural responses and to identify potential impact of developmental projects and anthropogenic activities and for this we made 387 extensive surveys in the crucial elephant’s reserve and on the motor roads, which are running across different habitats during March 2005 to December 2008. All the behaviours studied represents the severe interaction scenario between man and elephant and the prime reason found behind this was human encroachment into the deeper forest regime and shrinking of large migratory corridors. Understanding how animal populations react to such vast adverse activities and their behavioural response is thus essential for addressing future challenges for wildlife management and conservation. There have been little scientific studies available on such type of catastrophic impacts even though such reports are highly required to know the status and our competence in illustrating success and failures of wildlife management besides in conservation of an endangered wildlife. An adaptive management approach will be crucial with corridor connectivity being of paramount importance, as we continue to gain knowledge of wildlife and elephant’s response to such derisive impacts.

  18. Dissection of descending aorta treated by stent-graft implantation in a patient with Marfan syndrome

    Marat A. Aripov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a 32 years old patient with Marfan syndrome and hypertension. David`s procedure was performed to the patient three months before due to dissection of the ascending thoracic aorta. Computer tomography scan showed DeBakey type III dissection of aorta beginning from left subclavian artery with transition to the ostium of the celiac trunk and proximal part of the left common iliac artery. Stent-grafts in the descending thoracic aorta with overlapping of left subclavian artery were implanted to the patient with Marfan syndrome. Patient was discharged and no complications recorded at 6th month follow-up.

  19. The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus in North American Zoos.

    Brian J Greco

    Full Text Available Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta africana], 42 Asian [Elephas maximus] at 39 North American zoos during the summer and winter. Elephants were videoed for a median of 12 daytime hours per season. A subset of 32 elephants (19 African, 13 Asian was also observed live for a median of 10.5 nighttime hours. Percentages of visible behavior scans were calculated from five minute instantaneous samples. Stereotypic behavior was the second most commonly performed behavior (after feeding, making up 15.5% of observations during the daytime and 24.8% at nighttime. Negative binomial regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations were used to determine which social, housing, management, life history, and demographic variables were associated with daytime and nighttime stereotypic behavior rates. Species was a significant risk factor in both models, with Asian elephants at greater risk (daytime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 4.087; nighttime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 8.015. For both species, spending time housed separately (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.009, and having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.175, increased the risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy during the day, while spending more time with juvenile elephants (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 0.985, and engaging with zoo staff reduced this risk (p = 0.018, Risk Ratio = 0.988. At night, spending more time in environments with both indoor and outdoor areas (p = 0.013, Risk Ratio = 0.987 and in larger social groups (p = 0.039, Risk Ratio = 0.752 corresponded with reduced risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy, while having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p = 0.033, Risk Ratio = 1.115 increased this risk. Overall, our results

  20. Quantity and configuration of available elephant habitat and related conservation concerns in the Lower Kinabatangan floodplain of Sabah, Malaysia.

    Jason G Estes

    Full Text Available The approximately 300 (298, 95% CI: 152-581 elephants in the Lower Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo are a priority sub-population for Borneo's total elephant population (2,040, 95% CI: 1,184-3,652. Habitat loss and human-elephant conflict are recognized as the major threats to Bornean elephant survival. In the Kinabatangan region, human settlements and agricultural development for oil palm drive an intense fragmentation process. Electric fences guard against elephant crop raiding but also remove access to suitable habitat patches. We conducted expert opinion-based least-cost analyses, to model the quantity and configuration of available suitable elephant habitat in the Lower Kinabatangan, and called this the Elephant Habitat Linkage. At 184 km(2, our estimate of available habitat is 54% smaller than the estimate used in the State's Elephant Action Plan for the Lower Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range (400 km(2. During high flood levels, available habitat is reduced to only 61 km(2. As a consequence, short-term elephant densities are likely to surge during floods to 4.83 km(-2 (95% CI: 2.46-9.41, among the highest estimated for forest-dwelling elephants in Asia or Africa. During severe floods, the configuration of remaining elephant habitat and the surge in elephant density may put two villages at elevated risk of human-elephant conflict. Lower Kinabatangan elephants are vulnerable to the natural disturbance regime of the river due to their limited dispersal options. Twenty bottlenecks less than one km wide throughout the Elephant Habitat Linkage, have the potential to further reduce access to suitable habitat. Rebuilding landscape connectivity to isolated habitat patches and to the North Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range (less than 35 km inland are conservation priorities that would increase the quantity of available habitat, and may work as a mechanism to allow population release, lower elephant density, reduce

  1. Novel J stents reduce the risk of embolic stroke in vitro

    Bartoli, Carlo R.; Spence, Paul A.; Giridharan, Guruprasad A.

    2010-01-01

    Two and a half million Americans with atrial fibrillation are at an elevated risk for embolic stroke. Warfarin therapy is standard treatment for high-risk patients, yet 40-65% of elderly patients do not receive anticoagulation therapy due to bleeding complications. To address this clinical need, we are evaluating a minimally invasive stent-based stroke prevention device to divert emboli from entering the arterial supply of the brain. The feasibility of a J-shaped stroke prevention device was tested in a mock circulatory loop. Sixteen sets of 100 simulated emboli (1-5 mm 3 ) were injected into the left atrium with and without J stents protecting the aortic arch vessels. To determine efficacy, emboli were trapped in filters in the aortic arch vessels and distal aorta for manual counting. J stents decreased the number of emboli that entered the brachiocephalic trunk by 93.7% (p<0.0001), left common carotid artery by 79.8% (p<0.0001), and left subclavian artery by 89.7% (p<0.0001). In a mock circulation, J stents positioned in the aortic arch vessels and oriented downstream of aortic flow significantly decreased the number of emboli that entered the aortic arch vessels. These results warrant further investigation to determine the safety and efficacy of this prophylactic intervention to reduce embolic events, and chronic large animal studies are underway. (orig.)

  2. Novel J stents reduce the risk of embolic stroke in vitro

    Bartoli, Carlo R. [University of Louisville, M.D./Ph.D. Program, Louisville, KY (United States); Spence, Paul A. [SCR Inc., Louisville, KY (United States); Giridharan, Guruprasad A. [Cardiovascular Innovation Institute, University of Louisville, Department of Bioengineering, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Two and a half million Americans with atrial fibrillation are at an elevated risk for embolic stroke. Warfarin therapy is standard treatment for high-risk patients, yet 40-65% of elderly patients do not receive anticoagulation therapy due to bleeding complications. To address this clinical need, we are evaluating a minimally invasive stent-based stroke prevention device to divert emboli from entering the arterial supply of the brain. The feasibility of a J-shaped stroke prevention device was tested in a mock circulatory loop. Sixteen sets of 100 simulated emboli (1-5 mm{sup 3}) were injected into the left atrium with and without J stents protecting the aortic arch vessels. To determine efficacy, emboli were trapped in filters in the aortic arch vessels and distal aorta for manual counting. J stents decreased the number of emboli that entered the brachiocephalic trunk by 93.7% (p<0.0001), left common carotid artery by 79.8% (p<0.0001), and left subclavian artery by 89.7% (p<0.0001). In a mock circulation, J stents positioned in the aortic arch vessels and oriented downstream of aortic flow significantly decreased the number of emboli that entered the aortic arch vessels. These results warrant further investigation to determine the safety and efficacy of this prophylactic intervention to reduce embolic events, and chronic large animal studies are underway. (orig.)

  3. ANGIOPLASTIA PERCUTÁNEA CON STENT EN EL TRONCO PRINCIPAL DE LA ARTERIA CORONARIA IZQUIERDA / Percutaneous angioplasty with stent in the left main coronary artery

    Javier Almeida Gómez

    2012-10-01

    is coronary artery bypass surgery. In several multicenter studies, the possibility of treating coronary artery disease by percutaneous coronary intervention with implantation of endoluminal prosthesis or stent is suggested. The objective of this research was to characterize percutaneous angioplasty with stent in the left main coronary artery. Method: An observational, descriptive and transversal study was carried out in 21 patients with percutaneous angioplasty with stent in the left main coronary artery, performed in the laboratory of Hemodynamics and Interventional Cardiology of Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital, between January 2010 and July 2011. Results: There was no significant difference in sex. The age group 50-64 years (47.6% and white skin color (76.19% were predominant. The most commonly found cardiovascular risk factor was hypertension (85.71%, followed by dyslipidemia (47.61%. Effort angina was the most observed diagnosis with 14 cases (66.66%. The lesion in the body of the trunk (12 patients, 57.1% was the most prevalent, followed by ostial lesion (8 cases. Drug-eluting (61.9% was the most used type of stent and only 4 patients had surgically protected trunks. Conclusions: Most cases were elective, with a predominance of unprotected trunks. Hypertension was the coronary risk factor most commonly found. A significant association between diabetes mellitus and ostial location of the lesion was found.

  4. Stent migration after right ventricular outflow tract stenting in the severe cyanotic Tetralogy of Fallot case

    Tamaki Hayashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our experience with a stent migration after right ventricle outflow tract stenting and converted to patent ductus arteriosus stenting in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF with severe infundibular stenosis. Finally, the patient achieved to TOF repair, and the migrated stent was removed without any complication.

  5. Continent-wide survey reveals massive decline in African savannah elephants

    Michael J. Chase

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available African elephants (Loxodonta africana are imperiled by poaching and habitat loss. Despite global attention to the plight of elephants, their population sizes and trends are uncertain or unknown over much of Africa. To conserve this iconic species, conservationists need timely, accurate data on elephant populations. Here, we report the results of the Great Elephant Census (GEC, the first continent-wide, standardized survey of African savannah elephants. We also provide the first quantitative model of elephant population trends across Africa. We estimated a population of 352,271 savannah elephants on study sites in 18 countries, representing approximately 93% of all savannah elephants in those countries. Elephant populations in survey areas with historical data decreased by an estimated 144,000 from 2007 to 2014, and populations are currently shrinking by 8% per year continent-wide, primarily due to poaching. Though 84% of elephants occurred in protected areas, many protected areas had carcass ratios that indicated high levels of elephant mortality. Results of the GEC show the necessity of action to end the African elephants’ downward trajectory by preventing poaching and protecting habitat.

  6. The ecology of the elephants in the Kasungu National Park, Malawi with specific reference to management of elephant populations in the Brachystegia biome of Southern Central Africa

    Jachmann, Hugo

    1984-01-01

    The elephant is one of the most important animals in African Wildlife Management, firstly because it is capable of modifying through cropping. The latter also makes it a prime poaching target. The main problems caused by elephant concern changes in the physiognomy of the habitat with its consequences for the population itself and the diversity of plant and animal species in the conservation area. The Kasungu National Park suffers simultaneously from heavy illegal offtake and an elephant probl...

  7. Ovarian cycle activity varies with respect to age and social status in free-ranging elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa.

    Freeman, Elizabeth W; Meyer, Jordana M; Putman, Sarah B; Schulte, Bruce A; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging African elephants live in a fission-fusion society, at the centre of which is the matriarch. Matriarchs are generally older females that guide their families to resources and co-ordinate group defense. While much is known about elephant society, knowledge is generally lacking about how age affects the physiology of wild elephants. Investigation of the ovarian activity of free-ranging elephants could provide insight into the reproductive ageing process, with implications for population management. Faecal samples were collected from 46 individuals ranging in age from 14 to 60 years for a 2-year period, and progestagen metabolite analyses were used to examine relationships between social status, age, season, and ovarian activity in female elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Social status was the strongest predictor of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in non-pregnant elephants, with grand matriarchs (n = 6) having the lowest values compared with matriarchs (n = 21) and non-matriarch females (n = 19). Likewise, social status and age were the strongest predictors of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in pregnant elephants (n = 27). The number of years since a non-pregnant female gave birth to her last calf (post-partum duration) was longer for older females with a higher social status, as well as during the dry season. Our results indicate that social standing and age of elephants are related to reproductive function, and that older females exhibit reductions in ovarian capacity. These results expand our understanding of reproduction and fertility throughout an elephant's lifespan, and the factors that impact gonadal function in free-ranging females. Given that possible over-abundance of elephants in areas such as Addo Elephant National Park is fuelling the debate over how best to manage these populations, knowledge about the reproductive potential of high-ranking females can provide managers with

  8. Strangulating intestinal obstructions in four captive elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana).

    Wiedner, Ellen B; Peddie, James; Peddie, Linda Reeve; Abou-Madi, Noha; Kollias, George V; Doyle, Charles; Lindsay, William A; Isaza, Ramiro; Terrell, Scott; Lynch, Tim M; Johnson, Kari; Johnson, Gary; Sammut, Charlie; Daft, Barbara; Uzal, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Three captive-born (5-day-old, 8-day-old, and 4-yr-old) Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and one captive-born 22-yr-old African elephant (Loxodonta africana) from three private elephant facilities and one zoo in the United States presented with depression, anorexia, and tachycardia as well as gastrointestinal signs of disease including abdominal distention, decreased borborygmi, tenesmus, hematochezia, or diarrhea. All elephants showed some evidence of discomfort including agitation, vocalization, or postural changes. One animal had abnormal rectal findings. Nonmotile bowel loops were seen on transabdominal ultrasound in another case. Duration of signs ranged from 6 to 36 hr. All elephants received analgesics and were given oral or rectal fluids. Other treatments included warm-water enemas or walking. One elephant underwent exploratory celiotomy. Three animals died, and the elephant taken to surgery was euthanized prior to anesthetic recovery. At necropsy, all animals had severe, strangulating intestinal lesions.

  9. Trunk Flexibility Improvement in Response to Powered Assisted Exercise

    B.S. Bains

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background study: Flexibility in human spine has always plays an important role in dexterity and seamless ambulatory activities. When optimum range is not maintained by the trunk column, due to lack of flexibility, the posture gets affected resulting in reduce trunk rotation flexibility and mobility hence loss of complete trunk rotation. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Shapemaster Power Assisted Exercise Equipment (SPAEE on trunk flexibility. Methodology: Twenty healthy individual ages between 40 to 60 years were randomly divided into control and exercise groups. Shapemaster exercise program performed two times per week for 5 weeks and 45 minutes per session. Before and after 10 sessions of Shapemaster exercise protocol, Seated trunk rotation test was used to measure trunk flexibility. Results: Repeated measurement ANOVA were used to analysis data between groups. The results of this study illustrated that after 10th sessions trunk flexibility significantly improved (F (1.0, 18 = 11.732, p < 0.003. Conclusion: In conclusion results were determined that SPAEE is safe and it did effectively enhance flexibility among individual healthy adults. Keyword: Shapemaster Power Assisted Exercise Equipment (SPAEE, Trunk Flexibility, Healthy individual

  10. Behavioral and cognitive evaluation of FireWorks education trunk

    Linda R. Thomas; James A. Walsh; Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of FireWorks, an educational trunk about wildland fire, in increasing student understanding, enabling students to apply classroom learning in a field setting, and improving the learning environment. Students who were in classrooms using the FireWorks educational trunk demonstrated more knowledge in both classroom and field-based...

  11. Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of ...

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical structure of the trunk wood and the roots of A. nitida and R. racemosa, two mangrove trees from Gabon. The anatomical differences between the trunks and the roots were used to understand their bio-remediating differences through heavy metals. It was found that the ...

  12. Spectrum of antibody profiles in tuberculous elephants, cervids, and cattle.

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Gortázar, Christian; Miller, Michele A; Waters, W Ray

    2018-02-01

    Using multi-antigen print immunoassay and DPP ® VetTB Assay approved in the United States for testing captive cervids and elephants, we analyzed antibody recognition of MPB83 and CFP10/ESAT-6 antigens in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), fallow deer (Dama dama), elk (Cervus elaphus), and cattle (Bos taurus) infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Serum IgG reactivity to MPB83 was found in the vast majority of tuberculous cattle and cervid species among which white-tailed deer and elk also showed significant CFP10/ESAT-6 recognition rates with added serodiagnostic value. In contrast, the infected elephants developed antibody responses mainly to CFP10/ESAT-6 with MPB83 reactivity being relatively low. The findings demonstrate distinct patterns of predominant antigen recognition by different animal hosts in tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Poaching and human encroachment reverse recovery of African savannah elephants in south-east Angola despite 14 years of peace

    Chase, Michael J.; Griffin, Curtice R.

    2018-01-01

    With populations of African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) declining across the continent, assessing the status of individual elephant populations is important for conservation. Angola’s elephant population represents a key linkage between the larger populations of Namibia and Botswana. Elephants in Angola were decimated during the 1975–2002 Angolan civil war, but a 2005 survey showed that populations were recolonizing former habitats. Between 2005 and 2015, no research was permitted on elephants in Angola, but elsewhere in Africa many elephant populations experienced a poaching crisis. In 2015, we were able to resume elephant research in Angola. We used aerial surveys and satellite monitoring of collared elephants to determine the current status of elephant populations in Angola and to learn how human populations may be affecting elephant habitat usage. The aerial survey revealed a population of 3,395 ± SE of 797 elephants, but populations had declined 21% from the 2005 estimate. The high number of carcasses observed on the survey suggests that populations may have increased after the 2005 survey but were declining rapidly as of 2015. Satellite-collared elephants avoided areas elephants from preferred habitats near rivers. Taken together, these results suggest that Angola’s elephant population is experiencing intense poaching and may be losing habitat to human settlements. Without action to conserve their populations, Angola’s elephants face an uncertain future. PMID:29538387

  14. The Elephant Vanishes: impact of human-elephant conflict on people's wellbeing.

    Jadhav, Sushrut; Barua, Maan

    2012-11-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts impact upon the wellbeing of marginalised people, worldwide. Although tangible losses from such conflicts are well documented, hidden health consequences remain under-researched. Based on preliminary clinical ethnographic inquiries and sustained fieldwork in Assam, India, this paper documents mental health antecedents and consequences including severe untreated psychiatric morbidity and substance abuse. The case studies presented make visible the hidden mental health dimensions of human-elephant conflict. The paper illustrates how health impacts of conflicts penetrate far deeper than immediate physical threat from elephants, worsens pre-existing mental illness of marginalised people, and leads to newer psychiatric and social pathologies. These conflicts are enacted and perpetuated in institutional spaces of inequality. The authors argue that both wildlife conservation and community mental health disciplines would be enhanced by coordinated intervention. The paper concludes by generating questions that are fundamental for a new interdisciplinary paradigm that bridges ecology and the clinic. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanical trunk in pine wood for cattle

    Antonio Orlando da Luz Freire Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The timber reforestation, mainly by Eucalyptus and Pinus sp., has low power processing, strength, good natural durability and, most importantly, provide reduce pressure on native forests. The concern with native forests and the high price of some of these woods force the market to replace those species by other, more abundant and available at most competitive prices. Anything that involves the handling of animals in its various phases has a direct dependency of husbandry facilities, pastures and actions of the people involved (best practices. With the segment of the production and export of meat increasingly competitive and globalized world, the adoption of best practices and animal welfare criteria are striking and decision makers for the acceptance of Brazilian beef in the world market, especially the European market. The use of appropriate animal husbandry facilities is critical to the proper rational management ("action with knowledge" of animals and increased productivity. The trunk restraint carries important role in the implementation and conduct of good animal welfare as having desirable features strength, durability, ability to contain cattle of various sizes, as well as easy to manipulate when the animal inside. Available on the market in the form of different models and costs, is an installation manufactured in wood and iron or galvanized, and may or may not be coupled with an analytical balance or digital, still and mechanical and other systems or electronics. The concern in this installation is perceived improvement in the number of patents filed and recorded and the constant evolution of their functions, with various companies operating in this segment. However, the development and validation of containment trunks with alternative materials, reflecting mainly the reduction of the final cost are poorly studied. In this first phase of the project will be considered the construction of trunk restraint coupled with analytical balance

  16. Mechanisms of Biliary Plastic Stent Occlusion and Efforts at Prevention

    Chang-Il Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biliary stenting via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has greatly improved the quality of patient care over the last 30 years. Plastic stent occlusion limits the life span of such stents. Attempts to improve plastic stent patency duration have mostly failed. Metal stents (self-expandable metal stents [SEMSs] have therefore replaced plastic stents, especially for malignant biliary strictures. SEMS are at least 10 times more expensive than plastic stents. In this focused review, we will discuss basic mechanisms of plastic stent occlusion, along with a systematic summary of previous efforts and related studies to improve stent patency and potential new techniques to overcome existing limitations.

  17. Geographic variation of stable isotopes in African elephant ivory

    Ziegler, S.; Merker, S.; Jacob, D.

    2012-04-01

    In 1989, the international community listed the African elephant in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) thus prohibiting commercial ivory trade. Recent surveillance data show that the illegal trade in ivory has been growing worldwide. Long-term preservation of many of the African elephant populations can be supported with a control mechanism that helps with the implementation of remedial conservation action. Therefore, setting up a reference database that predicts the origin of ivory specimens can assist in determining smuggling routes and the provenance of illegal ivory. Our research builds on earlier work to seek an appropriate method for determining the area of origin for individual tusks. Several researchers have shown that the provenance of elephant ivory can be traced by its isotopic composition, but this is the first attempt to produce an integrated isotopic reference database of elephant ivory provenance. We applied a combination of various routine geochemical analyses to measure the stable isotope ratios of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulphur. Up to now, we analysed 606 ivory samples of known geographical origin from African range states, museums and private collections, comprising 22 African elephant range states. The isotopic measurements were superimposed with data layers from vegetation, geology and climate. A regression function for the isotope composition of the water isotopes in precipitation and collagen in ivory was developed to overcome the problem of imprecise origin of some of the sampled material. Multivariate statistics, such as nearest neighborhood and discriminate analysis were applied to eventually allow a statistical determination of the provenance for ivory of unknown origin. Our results suggest that the combination of isotopic parameters have the potential to provide predictable and complementary markers for estimating the origin of seized elephant ivory.

  18. Freezing African elephant semen as a new population management tool.

    Robert Hermes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The captive elephant population is not self-sustaining and with a limited number of breeding bulls, its genetic diversity is in decline. One way to overcome this is to import young and healthy animals from the wild. We introduce here a more sustainable alternative method - importation of semen from wild bulls without removing them from their natural habitat. Due to the logistics involved, the only practical option would be to transport cryopreserved sperm. Despite some early reports on African elephant semen cryopreservation, the utility of this new population management tool has not been evaluated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Semen was collected by electroejaculation from 14 wild African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana bulls and cryopreserved using the directional freezing technique. Sperm treatments evaluated included the need for centrifugation, the use of hen or quail yolk, the concentration of glycerol (3%, 5% or 7% in the extender, and maintenance of motility over time after thawing. Our results suggest that dilution in an extender containing hen yolk and 7% glycerol after centrifugation best preserved post-thaw sperm motility when compared to all other treatments (P≤0.012 for all. Using this approach we were able to achieve after thawing (mean ± SD 54.6±3.9% motility, 85.3±2.4% acrosome integrity, and 86.8±4.6% normal morphology with no decrease in motility over 1 h incubation at 37°C. Sperm cryopreserved during this study has already lead to a pregnancy of a captive female elephant following artificial insemination. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With working techniques for artificial insemination and sperm cryopreservation of both African and Asian elephants in hand, population managers can now enrich captive or isolated wild elephant populations without removing valuable individuals from their natural habitat.

  19. Anomalous Posterior Intercostal Arterial Trunk Arising From the Abdominal Aorta

    Jie, Bing, E-mail: jbshh@163.com; Yu, Dong, E-mail: yudong-mail@126.com; Jiang, Sen, E-mail: jasfly77@vip.163.com [Tongji University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital (China)

    2016-04-15

    A common trunk of the ipsilateral posterior intercostal artery (PIA) arising from the thoracic aorta is usually an anatomical variation. However, a common trunk of bilateral posterior intercostal arterial trunk (PIAT) arising from the abdominal aorta is rare. It is important to recognize this anatomical variation of PIA when performing interventional radiological procedures. We present a rare case of an anomalous PIAT that originated from the abdominal aorta in a patient with hemoptysis caused by tuberculosis sequelae. Bilateral 4th to 11th PIAs arose from a common trunk and the trunk arising from the posterior aspect of the abdominal aorta at the level of T12/L1 intervertebral space. The pathological right 4th and 5th PIAs and bronchial arteries were embolized. Hemoptysis has been controlled for 3 months.

  20. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery - discharge

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000235.htm Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery - discharge To use the sharing ... the hospital. You may have also had a stent (a tiny wire mesh tube) placed in the ...

  1. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000234.htm Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge To use the sharing ... peripheral artery). You may have also had a stent placed. To perform the procedure: Your doctor inserted ...

  2. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007393.htm Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries To use the sharing features ... inside the arteries and block blood flow. A stent is a small, metal mesh tube that keeps ...

  3. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  4. Management of stent dislodgment in coarctoplasty of aorta with three overlapping self-expandable nitinol stents.

    Ghazi, Payam; Haji-Zeinali, Ali-Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of native coarctation of aorta managed with three self-expandable nitinol stents. After balloon pre-dilation, the first and second stents were dislodged. The coarcted area was successfully treated with the third stent overlapped with the previous stents. During follow up (30 months), the patient was free of complications. It seems that implantation of multiple overlapping self-expandable stents in aortic coarctation patients, if needed, is safe and possible.

  5. Plastic biliary stents for malignant biliary diseases

    Huibregtse, Inge; Fockens, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Plastic biliary endoprostheses have not changed much since their introduction more than 3 decades ago. Although their use has been challenged by the introduction of metal stents, plastic stents still remain commonly used. Much work has been done to improve the problem of stent obstruction but

  6. Therapies targeting inflammation after stent implantation.

    Okura, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Since the introduction of coronary vessel scaffold by metallic stent, percutaneous coronary intervention has become widely performed all over the world. Although drug-eluting stent technology has further decrease the incidence of in-stent restenosis, there still remaining issues related to stent implantation. Vessel inflammation is one of the causes that may be related to stent restenosis as well as stent thrombosis. Therefore, systemic therapies targeting inflammation emerged as adjunctive pharmacological intervention to improve outcome. Statins, corticosteroids, antiplatelets, and immunosuppresive or anti-cancer drugs are reported to favorably impact outcome after bare-metal stent implantation. In type 2 diabetic patients, pioglitazone may be the most promising drug that can lower neointimal proliferation and, as a result, lower incidence of restenosis and target lesion revascularization. On the other hand, several new stent platforms that might decrease inflammatory response after drug-eluting stent implantation have been introduced. Because durable polymer used in the first generation drug-eluting stents are recognized to be responsible for unfavorable vessel response, biocompatible or bioabsorbable polymer has been introduce and already used clinically. Furthermore, polymer-free drug-eluting stent and bioresorbable scaffold are under investigation. Although vessel inflammation may be reduced by using these new drug-eluting stents or scaffold, long-term impact needs to be investigated further.

  7. Incidence and predictors of coronary stent thrombosis

    D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Bollati, Mario; Clementi, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Stent thrombosis remains among the most feared complications of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting. However, data on its incidence and predictors are sparse and conflicting. We thus aimed to perform a collaborative systematic review on incidence and predictors of stent...

  8. 21 CFR 876.4620 - Ureteral stent.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ureteral stent. 876.4620 Section 876.4620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4620 Ureteral stent. (a) Identification. A ureteral stent...

  9. 21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vaginal stent. 884.3900 Section 884.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or to...

  10. Metallic ureteral stents in malignant ureteral obstruction: clinical factors predicting stent failure.

    Chow, Po-Ming; Hsu, Jui-Shan; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Wang, Shuo-Meng; Lee, Yuan-Ju; Huang, Kuo-How; Yu, Hong-Jheng; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Liang, Po-Chin

    2014-06-01

    To provide clinical outcomes of the Resonance metallic ureteral stent in patients with malignant ureteral obstruction, as well as clinical factors predicting stent failure. Cancer patients who have received Resonance stents from July 2009 to March 2012 for ureteral obstruction were included for chart review. Stent failure was detected by clinical symptoms, image studies, and renal function tests. Survival analysis for stent duration was used to estimate patency rate and factors predicting stent failure. A total of 117 stents were inserted successfully into 94 ureteral units in 79 patients. There were no major complications. These stents underwent survival analysis and proportional hazard regression. The median duration for the stents was 5.77 months. In multivariate analysis, age (P=0.043), preoperative serum creatinine level (P=0.0174), and cancer type (P=0.0494) were significant factors associated with stent failure. Cancer treatment before and after stent insertion had no effect on stent duration. Resonance stents are effective and safe in relieving malignant ureteral obstructions. Old age and high serum creatinine level are predictors for stent failure. Stents in patients with lower gastrointestinal cancers have longer functional duration.

  11. Complete Obliteration of a Basilar Artery Aneurysm after Insertion of a Self- Expandable Leo Stent into the Basilar Artery without Coil Embolization

    Juszkat, Robert; Nowak, Stanis Aw; Wieloch, Micha; Zarzecka, Anna [Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan (Poland)

    2008-08-15

    We report a case of a 45-year-old man who underwent endovascular treatment in the acute setting of a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of a widenecked basilar trunk aneurysm. The patient was treated with stent implantation without coiling. A control angiographic scan obtained immediately after the procedure revealed significantly decreased intraaneurysmal flow. Follow-up angiography performed after one month demonstrated total aneurysm occlusion.

  12. Coronary and peripheral stenting in aorto-ostial protruding stents: The balloon assisted access to protruding stent technique.

    Helmy, Tarek A; Sanchez, Carlos E; Bailey, Steven R

    2016-03-01

    Treatment of aorto-ostial in-stent restenosis lesions represents a challenge for interventional cardiologists. Excessive protrusion of the stent into the aorta may lead to multiple technical problems, such as difficult catheter reengagement of the vessel ostium or inability to re-wire through the stent lumen in repeat interventions. We describe a balloon assisted access to protruding stent technique in cases where conventional coaxial engagement of an aorto-ostial protruding stent with the guide catheter or passage of the guide wire through the true lumen is not feasible. This technique is applicable both in coronary and peripheral arteries. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Experimental absorbable stent permits airway remodeling.

    Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Liu, Yun-Hen; Peng, Yi-Jie; Liu, Shih-Jung

    2011-02-01

    Despite metallic and silicone stents being effective in treating various airway lesions, many concerns still remain. A bioresorbable stent that scaffolds the airway lumen and dissolves after the remodeling process is completed has advantages over metallic and silicone stents. We designed and fabricated a new mesh-type bioresorbable stent with a backbone of polycaprolactone (PCL), and evaluated its safety and biocompatibility in a rabbit trachea model. The PCL stent was fabricated by a laboratory-made microinjection molding machine. In vitro mechanical strength of the PCL stents was tested and compared to that of commercial silicone stents. The bioresorbable stents were surgically implanted into the cervical trachea of New Zealand white rabbits (n=6). Animals received bronchoscopic examination at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. Histological examination was completed to evaluate the biocompatibility of the stents. No animals died during the period of study. Distal stent migration was noted in 1 rabbit. In-stent secretion accumulation was found in 2 rabbits. Histological examination showed intact ciliated epithelium and marked leukocyte infiltration in the submucosa of the stented area at 10 and 28 weeks. Stent degradation was minimal, and the mechanical strength was well preserved at the end of 33 weeks. These preliminary findings showed good safety and biocompatibility of the new PCL stent when used in the airway remodeling. PCL could be a promising bioresorbable material for stent design if prolonged degradation time is required. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analyzing Vegetation Change in an Elephant-Impacted Landscape Using the Moving Standard Deviation Index

    Timothy J. Fullman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Botswana is influenced by various socio-ecological drivers of landscape change. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana is one of the leading sources of landscape shifts in this region. Developing the ability to assess elephant impacts on savanna vegetation is important to promote effective management strategies. The Moving Standard Deviation Index (MSDI applies a standard deviation calculation to remote sensing imagery to assess degradation of vegetation. Used previously for assessing impacts of livestock on rangelands, we evaluate the ability of the MSDI to detect elephant-modified vegetation along the Chobe riverfront in Botswana, a heavily elephant-impacted landscape. At broad scales, MSDI values are positively related to elephant utilization. At finer scales, using data from 257 sites along the riverfront, MSDI values show a consistent negative relationship with intensity of elephant utilization. We suggest that these differences are due to varying effects of elephants across scales. Elephant utilization of vegetation may increase heterogeneity across the landscape, but decrease it within heavily used patches, resulting in the observed MSDI pattern of divergent trends at different scales. While significant, the low explanatory power of the relationship between the MSDI and elephant utilization suggests the MSDI may have limited use for regional monitoring of elephant impacts.

  15. Elephant population growth in Kruger National Park, South Africa, under a landscape management approach

    Sam M. Ferreira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available South African National Parks (SANParks manage landscapes rather than numbers of elephants (Loxodonta africana to mitigate the effects that elephants may have on biodiversity, tourism and stakeholder conservation values associated with protected areas. This management philosophy imposes spatial variability of critical resources on elephants. Restoration of such ecological processes through less intensive management predicts a reduction in population growth rates from the eras of intensive management. We collated aerial survey data since 1995 and conducted an aerial total count using a helicopter observation platform during 2015. A minimum of 17 086 elephants were resident in the Kruger National Park (KNP in 2015, growing at 4.2% per annum over the last generation of elephants (i.e. 12 years, compared to 6.5% annual population growth noted during the intensive management era ending in 1994. This may come from responses of elephants to density and environmental factors manifested through reduced birth rates and increased mortality rates. Authorities should continue to evaluate the demographic responses of elephants to landscape scale interventions directed at restoring the limitation of spatial variance in resource distribution on elephant spatiotemporal dynamics and the consequences that may have for other conservation values. Conservation implications: Conservation managers should continue with surveying elephants in a way that allows the extraction of key variables. Such variables should focus on measures that reflect on how theory predicts elephants should respond to management interventions.

  16. Human-elephant conflict in western Thailand: Socio-economic drivers and potential mitigation strategies

    Matteson, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Understanding human-wildlife conflict is an important first step in the conservation of highly endangered species that can have adverse effects on human communities, such as elephants. To gain insights into variables that shape attitudes toward elephant conservation in Asia, we surveyed 410 households and 46 plantation owners in seven villages around the Salakpra Wildlife Sanctuary in western Thailand, an area of high human-elephant conflict. We sought to evaluate how past experiences with elephants (positive or negative), as well as socio-economic variables (age, income level, gender, and employment type) affect attitudes toward elephant conservation and coexistence in this area. In addition, we quantified deterrence methods currently used and identify potential mitigation strategies supported by community members. In general, less supportive attitudes toward elephant conservation and coexistence were held by individuals older than 35 years of age, those who had previously had experienced negative interactions with elephants, those with lower incomes, and those working in the agricultural sector. Conversely, those who had received benefits from living near elephants (e.g., supplemental income or feelings of pride from hosting volunteers or participating in conservation work) had more supportive views of elephant coexistence. Plantation owners reported using a variety of deterrence methods with varying success, with firecrackers being the most commonly utilized method. Community members identified several potentially beneficial mitigation strategies including forest restorations and patrol teams, adding water sources to wild elephant habitat, and education of local school and community groups. Overall, our results highlight the value of community members receiving benefits from living near elephants and suggest that special incentives may be needed for demographic groups disproportionately affected by elephants (e.g. those at lower income levels, those working in

  17. Elevated elephant density does not improve ecotourism opportunities: convergence in social and ecological objectives.

    Maciejewski, Kristine; Kerley, Graham I H

    2014-07-01

    In order to sustainably conserve biodiversity, many protected areas, particularly private protected areas, must find means of self-financing. Ecotourism is increasingly seen as a mechanism to achieve such financial sustainability. However, there is concern that ecotourism operations are driven to achieve successful game-viewing, influencing the management of charismatic species. An abundance of such species, including the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), has been stocked in protected areas under the assumption that they will increase ecotourism value. At moderate to high densities, the impact of elephants is costly; numerous studies have documented severe changes in biodiversity through the impacts of elephants. Protected areas that focus on maintaining high numbers of elephants may therefore face a conflict between socioeconomic demands and the capacity of ecological systems. We address this conflict by analyzing tourist elephant-sighting records from six private and one statutory protected area, the Addo Elephant National Park (AENP), in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, in relation to elephant numbers. We found no relationship between elephant density and elephant-viewing success. Even though elephant density in the AENP increased over time, a hierarchical partitioning analysis indicated that elephant density was not a driver of tourist numbers. In contrast, annual tourist numbers for the AENP were positively correlated with general tourist numbers recorded for South Africa. Our results indicate that the socioeconomic and ecological requirements of protected areas in terms of tourism and elephants, respectively, converge. Thus, high elephant densities and their associated ecological costs are not required to support ecotourism operations for financial sustainability. Understanding the social and ecological feedbacks that dominate the dynamics of protected areas, particularly within private protected areas, can help to elucidate the management

  18. Preemergence herbicides on weed control in elephant grass pasture

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. is an important forage crop that has been proposed as a potential feedstock for bioenergy production. However, weed interference is a major factor limiting elephant grass production. Field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to evaluate preemergence herbicides for selective weed control in an elephant grass pasture. Herbicide treatments included atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, diuron + hexazinone, sulfentrazone, imazethapyr, and atrazine at label use rates. Weedy and weed-free treatments were included. Atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine did not cause phytotoxicity on elephantgrass 35 days after treatment (DAT. However, diuron + hexazinone and imazethapyr were the most phytotoxic on elephantgrass, resulting in 81 and 70% phytotoxicity in 2014, and 7 and 6% phytotoxicity in 2015 respectively 35 DAT. All treatments provided effective weed control (>81% with the exception of ethoxysulfuron (0 and 11% in 2014 and 2015, respectively, and atrazine (59% in 2014. These results show that atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine were selectives when applied in preemergence in elephant grass pasture.

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of domesticated Asian elephants, Thailand.

    2011-01-01

    Four Asian elephants were confirmed to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis by bacterial culture, other diagnostic procedures, and sequencing of 16S–23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer region, 16S rRNA, and gyrase B gene sequences. Genotyping showed that the infectious agents originated from 4 sources in Thailand. To identify infections, a combination of diagnostic assays is essential.

  20. Why do elephants flap their ears? | Wright | African Zoology

    The blood flow in the ear of the African elephant Loxodonta africana was measured In anaesthetized animals using the dye dilution technique at the same time as the arterio-venous temperature difference. The calculated heat loss from the ear is shown to be a substantial proportion of the total metabolic heat-loss ...

  1. Natal site fidelity by breeding female southern elephant seals in ...

    Of the four types of terrestrial haulout periods undertaken by southern elephant seals Mirounga leonina, only the purpose of the winter haulout is unknown. Returning to a haulout site from distant pelagic foraging grounds bears significant costs in terms of increased energy expenditure, reduced foraging time and increased ...

  2. Lion predation on elephants in the Savuti, Chobe National Park ...

    Botswana's Savuti lions, however, switch to preying on elephants during the late dry season (August–November), and the frequency of this has increased in the last two decades (1985–2005). An opportunity to document this phenomenon was made possible with infrared viewing and filming equipment. A pride of 30 lions ...

  3. Meteorology and elephant infrasound at Etosha National Park, Namibia

    Larom, D

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available are used to estimate elephant infrasonic calling range and calling area, Directionality and calling range are shown to be controlled by the diurnal cycle in wind (shear) and temperature. Low-level nocturnal radiative temperature inversions and low surface...

  4. Intestinal protozoa of the African elephant Loxodonta africana ...

    The digestive tract of 15 elephants from South Africa and two from Zaïre were sampled in order to determine the identity, density and population composition of the intestinal protozoa. The following orders were represented: Gymnostomatida, Trichostomatida and Entodiniomorphida. Altogether 17 species were identified, ...

  5. THROMBOELASTOGRAPHY IN THE HEALTHY ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)

    Perrin, Kathryn L.; Krogh, Anne K.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2018-01-01

    elephants. Kaolin-activated TEG was performed on whole blood at 60 min and 24 hr postsampling (to replicate shipment to an external laboratory) as well as on freeze–thawed plasma samples, 12–14 mo postsampling. Reference intervals were calculated for fresh whole blood and freeze–thawed plasma samples...

  6. Managing African Elephant Populations: Act or let die

    Colenbrander, Ben; Gooijer, Jean de; Paling, Robert; Stout, Susanna; Stout, Tom; Allen, Twink

    2004-01-01

    During the last century, the number of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) declined dramatically as a result of over-hunting, poaching for ivory and, more recently, the loss of habitat area due to encroachment of the human population. In some areas, however, the trend to declining numbers was

  7. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-09

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species.

  8. Movement of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina L. from Elephant Is. South Shetlands, Antarctica

    Mônica M. C. Muelbert

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, at-sea activity of two young southern elephant seal males (Mirounga leonina from Elephant Is. (61º13'S, 55º23'W, Antarctica, was monitored and tracked for 9 months. The individuals were randomly selected, captured, sedated (Zoletil 50®- 1mg/kg, weighed, measured, bled, paint-marked and fitted with satellite tags (STDR - ST-6PPT, Telonics®, USA. Deployment of the STDR took about 45 min since each animal had a lower incisor tooth extracted for age determination. The seals exhibited individual behaviors. Seal "V"-23842 (BM ~ 801kg moved from Elephant Is. (61.2ºS 55.3ºW in Jan. 1999 to King George Is. (62.2ºS 58.1ºW in Feb. 1999 when the tag stopped signaling. Seal "T"-23843 (BM ~ 656 kg was restricted to the area around Elephant Is. (61.2ºS 54.4ºW - 61.6ºS 55.4ºW from January to May 1999, when it started to move south-eastwards. Although the age of these individuals was not yet determined it was likely to explain the difference in the two patterns of movement reported here. The temporal and spatial association of these movements with areas of high productivity is being investigated to assess whether the observed distribution reflects foraging activity.O presente estudo descreve os movimentos de dois exemplares de elefante-marinho do sul (Mirounga leonina durante a fase pelágica de seu ciclo de vida. Os exemplares foram capturados no verão austral de 1999 na Ilha Elefante (61º13'S, 55º23'W, Antártica, e monitorados por aproximadamente 9 meses. Cada exemplar foi instrumentado com um medidor de tempo e profundidade de mergulho via satélite (Sattelite Time Depth Recorder, STDR mod. ST-6PPT, Telonics®, EUA com uma antena VHF acoplada ao instrumento, montado num molde de tela e resina, fixado com cintas plásticas, e colados na pelagem dorsal do animal com resina plástica. Para a instrumentação o animal era capturado com rede de contenção e imobilizado quimicamente com anestésico dissociativo (Zoletil 50®- 1mg/kg. Um

  9. Microvascular stent anastomosis using N-fibroin stents: feasibility, ischemia time, and complications.

    Smeets, Ralf; Vorwig, Oliver; Wöltje, Michael; Gaudin, Robert; Luebke, Andreas M; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta; Rheinnecker, Michael; Heiland, Max; Grupp, Katharina; Gröbe, Alexander; Hanken, Henning

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate a novel microvascular anastomosis technique using N-fibroin stents. Cylinder stents of 1 mm diameter and 5 mm length were fabricated using N-fibroin from silkworms. In 22 rats, aortas were dissected, and the stent was inserted into the two ends of the aorta and fixed using methylmethacrylate. Stent anastomosis was successful in 21 (96%) rats. The mean ischemia time was 7.4 minutes, significantly shorter than the 15.9 minutes in the control group with conventional sutures (P stent anastomosis cases, and marked host rejection was evident at the stent anastomosis sites. Around the stents, thrombi were frequent (52%). Our study demonstrated the basic feasibility of stent anastomosis using N-fibroin stents and reduced ischemia time. However, thrombus formation, frequent and severe abdominal infections, and heavy host rejection remain critical issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Endoscopic stent suture fixation for prevention of esophageal stent migration during prolonged dilatation for achalasia treatment.

    Rieder, E; Asari, R; Paireder, M; Lenglinger, J; Schoppmann, S F

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to compare endoscopic stent suture fixation with endoscopic clip attachment or the use of partially covered stents (PCS) regarding their capability to prevent stent migration during prolonged dilatation in achalasia. Large-diameter self-expanding metal stents (30 mm × 80 mm) were placed across the gastroesophageal junction in 11 patients with achalasia. Stent removal was scheduled after 4 to 7 days. To prevent stent dislocation, endoscopic clip attachment, endoscopic stent suture fixation, or PCS were used. The Eckardt score was evaluated before and 6 months after prolonged dilatation. After endoscopic stent suture fixation, no (0/4) sutured stent migrated. When endoscopic clips were used, 80% (4/5) clipped stents migrated (p = 0.02). Of two PCS (n = 2), one migrated and one became embedded leading to difficult stent removal. Technical adverse events were not seen in endoscopic stent suture fixation but were significantly correlated with the use of clips or PCS (r = 0.828, p = 0.02). Overall, 72% of patients were in remission regarding their achalasia symptoms 6 months after prolonged dilatation. Endoscopic suture fixation of esophageal stents but not clip attachment appears to be the best method of preventing early migration of esophageal stents placed at difficult locations such as at the naive gastroesophageal junction. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Angulated Stents-A Novel Stent Improvisation to Manage Difficult Post-tuberculosis Bronchial Stenosis.

    Tay, Chee Kiang; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Kim, Hojoong

    2017-10-18

    Post-tuberculosis bronchostenosis (PTBS), a complication of endobronchial tuberculosis is currently treated by bronchial stenting. However, in cases of angulated bronchial stenoses, difficulty is often encountered in stent insertion and maintenance, resulting in stent migration, granulation tissue overgrowth, and restenosis. To accommodate the angulated alignment of the stenosis, we devised an "angulated stent"-a novel improvisation of the conventional stent via splicing and suturing to achieve a resultant angulated shape. A retrospective review was undertaken to evaluate the performance of this stent. Among 283 PTBS patients who underwent interventional bronchoscopy at our center from 2004 to 2014, 21 were treated with at least one angulated stent. Clinical outcomes, including the stenting duration were investigated. After a median follow-up of 26 months, stent removal was successful in 7 (33.3%) out of 21 patients. In patients managed with angulated stents, the median duration to stent change or eventual removal was longer than those treated with straight tube stents (392 days vs. 86 days; p < 0.05). Angulated stents are a feasible treatment option in patients with angulated PTBS by reducing complications and prolonging the stent-changing interval.

  12. Primary and revision efficacy of cross-wired metallic stents for endoscopic bilateral stent-in-stent placement in malignant hilar biliary strictures.

    Lee, T H; Moon, J H; Kim, J H; Park, D H; Lee, S S; Choi, H J; Cho, Y D; Park, S H; Kim, S J

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic bilateral drainage for inoperable malignant hilar biliary strictures (HBS) using metal stents is considered to be technically difficult. Furthermore, endoscopic revision of bilateral stenting after occlusion can be challenging. This study was performed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of endoscopic bilateral stent-in-stent placement of cross-wired metallic stents in high-grade malignant HBS and planned endoscopic bilateral revision. A total of 84 patients with inoperable high-grade malignant HBS were enrolled from three academic tertiary referral centers. Two cross-wired metal stents were inserted using a bilateral stent-in-stent placement method. Bilateral endoscopic revision was also performed during follow-up using either identical metal stents or plastic stents. The main outcome measurements were technical and functional success, complications, stent patency, and endoscopic revision efficacy. The technical and clinical success rates of endoscopic bilateral stent-in-stent placement of cross-wired metallic stents were 95.2% (80/84) and 92.9% (78/84), respectively. Median patency (range) and survival were 238 days (10-429) and 256 days (10-1130), respectively. Obstruction of primary bilateral stents occurred in 30.8% (24/78) of patients with functionally successful stent placement. The technical and clinical success rates of planned bilateral endoscopic revision for occluded stents were 83.3% (20/24) and 79.2% (19/24), respectively. For revision, bilateral metallic stents were placed in 11 patients (55.0%); the remaining patients received plastic stents. Palliative endoscopic bilateral stent-in-stent placement of cross-wired metallic stents was effective in patients with inoperable HBS. Revision endoscopic bilateral stenting may be feasible and successful in cases where the primary deployed metal stents are occluded. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Endobronchial Occlusion Stent: A Preliminary Experimental Study

    Choi, Yo Won; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Seoung Hoon; Heo, Jeong Nam; Jeon, Seok Chol [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Gi Young; Song, Ho Young [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    To evaluate the safety and the technical feasibility of the use of an endobronchial occlusion stent and to get preliminary data for the development of the optimal material required for endobronchial occlusions. A commercialized, self-expandable tracheobronchial stent was modified; one half had a polyurethane cover with an occluded end and the other half was uncovered with a flaring configuration. The occluded end was placed such that it would face the distal lung. Under fluoroscopic guidance, seven stents were placed at the lower lobar bronchus in 6 mini-pigs. The bronchial obstruction was examined immediately after stent placement. Chest radiographs were taken at days 1, 7, 14, and 28 after stent placement and the removed airways from two, two, one, and one mini-pigs sacrificed on corresponding days were examined for the maintenance of bronchial obstruction. Stents were successfully placed and induced the immediate bronchial obstruction in all mini-pigs. Five of seven airways with occlusion stents maintained an obstruction until the mini-pigs were sacrificed. Proximal stent migration occurred in two mini-pigs (29%), and pulmonary consolidations were observed distal to four of the stents (57%). The placement of an endobronchial occlusion stent and the obstruction of targeted bronchi seem to be feasible, but an add-on check valve should be considered to prevent stent migration and obstructive pneumonia

  14. [Absorbable coronary stents. New promising technology].

    Erbel, Raimund; Böse, Dirk; Haude, Michael; Kordish, Igor; Churzidze, Sofia; Malyar, Nasser; Konorza, Thomas; Sack, Stefan

    2007-06-01

    Coronary stent implantation started in Germany 20 years ago. In the beginning, the progress was very slow and accelerated 10 years later. Meanwhile, coronary stent implantation is a standard procedure in interventional cardiology. From the beginning of permanent stent implantation, research started to provide temporary stenting of coronary arteries, first with catheter-based systems, later with stent-alone technology. Stents were produced from polymers or metal. The first polymer stent implantation failed except the Igaki-Tamai stent in Japan. Newly developed absorbable polymer stents seem to be very promising, as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography have demonstrated. Temporary metal stents were developed based on iron and magnesium. Currently, the iron stent is tested in peripheral arteries. The absorbable magnesium stent (Biotronik, Berlin, Germany) was tested in peripheral arteries below the knee and meanwhile in the multicenter international PROGRESS-AMS (Clinical Performance and Angiographic Results of Coronary Stenting with Absorbable Metal Stents) study. The first magnesium stent implantation was performed on July 30, 2004 after extended experimental testing in Essen. The magnesium stent behaved like a bare-metal stent with low recoil of 5-7%. The stent struts were absorbed when tested with IVUS. Stent struts were not visible by fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT) as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). That means, that the magnesium stent is invisible and therefore CT and MRI can be used for imaging of interventions. Only using micro-CT the stent struts were visible. The absorption process could be demonstrated in a patient 18 days after implantation due to suspected acute coronary syndrome, which was excluded. IVUS showed a nice open lumen. Stent struts were no longer visible, but replaced by tissue indicating the previous stent location. Coronary angiography after 4 months showed an ischemia-driven target lesion

  15. A comparative evaluation of early stent occlusion among biliary conventional versus wing stents.

    Khashab, Mouen A; Hutfless, Susan; Kim, Katherine; Lennon, Anne Marie; Canto, Marcia I; Jagannath, Sanjay B; Okolo, Patrick I; Shin, Eun Ji; Singh, Vikesh K

    2012-06-01

    Conventional plastic stents with a lumen typically have limited patency. The lumenless wing stent was engineered to overcome this problem. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of early stent occlusion (symptomatic occlusion/cholangitis necessitating re-insertion within 90 days) for wing stents and conventional plastic stents. Patients with biliary pathology treated with plastic biliary stenting during the period 2003-2009 comprised the study cohort. Patients who had at least one biliary wing stent placed comprised the wing stent group, whereas patients who underwent only conventional stent plastic placement comprised the conventional stent group. Patients were stratified by indication: benign biliary strictures (group 1), malignant biliary strictures (group 2), or benign biliary non-stricture pathology (group 3). The association of stent type with the occurrence of primary outcome by indication was analyzed by use of multivariable logistic regression. Three-hundred and forty-six patients underwent 612 ERCP procedures with placement of plastic biliary stent(s). On multivariate analysis, early stent occlusion did not differ between the wing and conventional groups in groups 1, 2, and 3. Among patients who achieved primary outcome in group 2, significantly fewer patients in the wing group had cholangitis (6.7% vs. 39.1%, P = 0.03). Among patients who achieved primary outcome in group 3, significantly fewer patients in the wing group had cholangitis (10% vs. 50%, P = 0.03). Early stent occlusion was similar for wing stents and conventional plastic stents. Wing stents, however, were associated with a lower incidence of cholangitis in patients with malignant biliary obstruction and benign non-stricturing biliary pathology.

  16. The ecology of the elephants in the Kasungu National Park, Malawi with specific reference to management of elephant populations in the Brachystegia biome of Southern Central Africa

    Jachmann, Hugo

    1984-01-01

    The elephant is one of the most important animals in African Wildlife Management, firstly because it is capable of modifying through cropping. The latter also makes it a prime poaching target. The main problems caused by elephant concern changes in the physiognomy of the habitat with its

  17. Erratum to: Elephants also like coffee: Trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.

    Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

    2011-08-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

  18. Elephants also like coffee: trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.

    Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

    2011-05-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

  19. The dynamics of social networks among female Asian elephants

    de Silva Shermin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns in the association of individuals can shed light on the underlying conditions and processes that shape societies. Here we characterize patterns of association in a population of wild Asian Elephants at Uda Walawe National Park in Sri Lanka. We observed 286 individually-identified adult female elephants over 20 months and examined their social dynamics at three levels of organization: pairs of individuals (dyads, small sets of direct companions (ego-networks, and the population level (complete networks. Results Corroborating previous studies of this and other Asian elephant populations, we find that the sizes of elephant groups observed in the field on any particular day are typically small and that rates of association are low. In contrast to earlier studies, our longitudinal observations reveal that individuals form larger social units that can be remarkably stable across years while associations among such units change across seasons. Association rates tend to peak in dry seasons as opposed to wet seasons, with some cyclicity at the level of dyads. In addition, we find that individuals vary substantially in their fidelity to companions. At the ego-network level, we find that despite these fluctuations, individuals associate with a pool of long-term companions. At the population level, social networks do not exhibit any clear seasonal structure or hierarchical stratification. Conclusions This detailed longitudinal study reveals different social dynamics at different levels of organization. Taken together, these results demonstrate that low association rates, seemingly small group sizes, and fission-fusion grouping behavior mask hidden stability in the extensive and fluid social affiliations in this population of Asian elephants.

  20. Functional nonredundancy of elephants in a disturbed tropical forest.

    Sekar, Nitin; Lee, Chia-Lo; Sukumar, Raman

    2017-10-01

    Conservation efforts are often motivated by the threat of global extinction. Yet if conservationists had more information suggesting that extirpation of individual species could lead to undesirable ecological effects, they might more frequently attempt to protect or restore such species across their ranges even if they were not globally endangered. Scientists have seldom measured or quantitatively predicted the functional consequences of species loss, even for large, extinction-prone species that theory suggests should be functionally unique. We measured the contribution of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to the dispersal of 3 large-fruited species in a disturbed tropical moist forest and predicted the extent to which alternative dispersers could compensate for elephants in their absence. We created an empirical probability model with data on frugivory and seed dispersal from Buxa Tiger Reserve, India. These data were used to estimate the proportion of seeds consumed by elephants and other frugivores that survive handling and density-dependent processes (Janzen-Connell effects and conspecific intradung competition) and germinate. Without compensation, the number of seeds dispersed and surviving density-dependent effects decreased 26% (Artocarpus chaplasha), 42% (Careya arborea), and 72% (Dillenia indica) when elephants were absent from the ecosystem. Compensatory fruit removal by other animals substantially ameliorated these losses. For instance, reductions in successful dispersal of D. indica were as low as 23% when gaur (Bos gaurus) persisted, but median dispersal distance still declined from 30% (C. arborea) to 90% (A. chaplasha) without elephants. Our results support the theory that the largest animal species in an ecosystem have nonredundant ecological functionality and that their extirpation is likely to lead to the deterioration of ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal. This effect is likely accentuated by the overall defaunation of many tropical

  1. Recurrence of Subacute Stent Thrombosis and In-Stent Restenosis during Five Months after Stent Implantation in the LAD. A Case Report.

    島田, 弘英; 大和, 眞史; 櫻井, 俊平; 疋田, 博之; 池田, 修一

    2001-01-01

    A coronary stent was deployed in the left anterior descending artery of an 82-year-old woman with unstable angina.Recurrence of subacute stent thrombosis and in-stent restenosis occurred frequently during the five months after initial stent implantation.Balloon angioplasty and cutting balloon angioplasty failed to prevent these complications,but they ceased after re-stenting in the initial stent.In this case,tissue protrusion through the stent strut, deformation of the coil stent and inadequa...

  2. Predictors of stent dysfunction after self-expandable metal stent placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction: tumor ingrowth in uncovered stents and migration of covered stents.

    Hori, Yasuki; Naitoh, Itaru; Hayashi, Kazuki; Ban, Tesshin; Natsume, Makoto; Okumura, Fumihiro; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Takada, Hiroki; Hirano, Atsuyuki; Jinno, Naruomi; Togawa, Shozo; Ando, Tomoaki; Kataoka, Hiromi; Joh, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    Endoscopic metallic stenting is widely accepted as a palliation therapy for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). However, the predictors of stent dysfunction have not been clarified. We aimed to evaluate the predictors, especially tumor ingrowth in uncovered self-expandable metallic stents (U-SEMS) and migration of covered self-expandable metallic stents (C-SEMS), which are the main causes related to the stent characteristics. In this multicenter retrospective study, we compared patients with U-SEMS and C-SEMS in terms of clinical outcomes, and predictors of stent dysfunction. In total, 252 patients (126 with U-SEMS and 126 with C-SEMS) were enrolled. There were no significant differences in technical success, clinical success, GOO score, or time to stent dysfunction. Tumor ingrowth was significantly more frequent in U-SEMS (U-SEMS, 11.90% vs. C-SEMS, 0.79%; p = 0.002), and stent migration was significantly more frequent for C-SEMS (C-SEMS, 8.73% vs. U-SEMS, 0.79%; p = 0.005). Karnofsky performance status (p = 0.04), no presence of ascites (p = 0.02), and insufficient (stent expansion (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with tumor ingrowth in U-SEMS. Meanwhile, a shorter stent length (p = 0.05) and chemotherapy (p = 0.03) were predictors of C-SEMS migration. Both U-SEMS and C-SEMS are effective with comparable patencies. Tumor ingrowth and stent migration are the main causes of stent dysfunction for U-SEMS and C-SEMS, respectively. With regard to stent dysfunction, U-SEMS might be a good option for patients receiving chemotherapy, while C-SEMS with longer stents for patients in good condition. (Clinical trial registration number: UMIN000024059).

  3. Clinical experience in coronary stenting with the Vivant Z Stent.

    Chee, K H; Siaw, F S; Chan, C G; Chong, W P; Imran, Z A; Haizal, H K; Azman, W; Tan, K H

    2005-06-01

    This single centre study was designed to demonstrate feasibility, safety and efficacy of the Vivant Z stent (PFM AG, Cologne, Germany). Patients with de novo lesion were recruited. Coronary angioplasty was performed with either direct stenting or after balloon predilatation. Repeated angiogram was performed 6 months later or earlier if clinically indicated. Between January to June 2003, a total of 50 patients were recruited (mean age 55.8 +/- 9 years). A total of 52 lesions were stented successfully. Mean reference diameter was 2.77 mm (+/-0.59 SD, range 2.05-4.39 mm) with mean target lesion stenosis of 65.5% (+/-11.6 SD, range 50.1-93.3%). Forty-six lesions (88.5%) were American College of Cardiologist/American Heart Association class B/C types. Direct stenting was performed in 18 (34.6%) lesions. Mean stent diameter was 3.18 mm (+/-0.41 SD, range 2.5-4 mm), and mean stent length was 14.86 mm (+/-2.72 SD, range 9-18 mm). The procedure was complicated in only one case which involved the loss of side branch with no clinical sequelae. All treated lesions achieved Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 3 flow. Mean residual diameter stenosis was 12.2% (+/-7.55 SD, range 0-22.6%) with acute gain of 1.72 mm (+/-0.50 SD, range 0.5-2.8). At 6 months, there was no major adverse cardiovascular event. Repeated angiography after 6 months showed a restenosis rate of 17% (defined as >50% diameter restenosis). Mean late loss was 0.96 mm (+/-0.48 SD) with loss index of 0.61 (+/-0.38 SD). The restenosis rate of those lesions less than 3.0 mm in diameter was 22.2% compared with 6.25% in those lesions more than 3.0 mm in diameter. The Vivant Z stent was shown to be safe and efficacious with low restenosis rate in de novo coronary artery lesion.

  4. A method to determine the kink resistance of stents and stent delivery systems according to international standards

    Brandt-Wunderlich Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The kink behavior of vascular stents is of particular interest for clinicians, stent manufacturers and regulatory as a kinked stent generates a lumen loss in the stented vessel and can lead to in-stent restenosis. In this study methods to determine the kink resistance of stents and stent delivery systems according to the ISO 25539-2 and FDA guidance no. 1545 were presented. The methods are applicable for balloon expandable stents as well as for self-expanding stents and determine the lumen loss and residual diameter change dependent on the specific bending radius.

  5. Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of ...

    Any interspecies variability was found between their trunk vessels diameter. However, a significant ... are discharged in the sea, releasing like this toxic organic ...... Water. Discharge on nutrient contamination of mangrove soils and plants.

  6. Estimating economic losses to tourism in Africa from the illegal killing of elephants

    Naidoo, Robin; Fisher, Brendan; Manica, Andrea; Balmford, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Recent surveys suggest tens of thousands of elephants are being poached annually across Africa, putting the two species at risk across much of their range. Although the financial motivations for ivory poaching are clear, the economic benefits of elephant conservation are poorly understood. We use Bayesian statistical modelling of tourist visits to protected areas, to quantify the lost economic benefits that poached elephants would have delivered to African countries via tourism. Our results show these figures are substantial (~USD $25 million annually), and that the lost benefits exceed the anti-poaching costs necessary to stop elephant declines across the continent's savannah areas, although not currently in the forests of central Africa. Furthermore, elephant conservation in savannah protected areas has net positive economic returns comparable to investments in sectors such as education and infrastructure. Even from a tourism perspective alone, increased elephant conservation is therefore a wise investment by governments in these regions.

  7. An in Vitro Twist Fatigue Test of Fabric Stent-Grafts Supported by Z-Stents vs. Ringed Stents

    Jing Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Whereas buckling can cause type III endoleaks, long-term twisting of a stent-graft was investigated here as a mechanism leading to type V endoleak or endotension. Two experimental device designs supported with Z-stents having strut angles of 35° or 45° were compared to a ringed control under accelerated twisting. Damage to each device was assessed and compared after different durations of twisting, with focus on damage that may allow leakage. Stent-grafts with 35° Z-stents had the most severe distortion and damage to the graft fabric. The 45° Z-stents caused less fabric damage. However, consistent stretching was still seen around the holes for sutures, which attach the stents to the graft fabric. Larger holes may become channels for fluid percolation through the wall. The ringed stent-graft had the least damage observed. Stent apexes with sharp angles appear to be responsible for major damage to the fabrics. Device manufacturers should consider stent apex angle when designing stent-grafts, and ensure their devices are resistant to twisting.

  8. Stent malapposition, as a potential mechanism of very late stent thrombosis after bare-metal stent implantation: A case report

    Higuma, Takumi, E-mail: higuma@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp; Abe, Naoki; Hanada, Kenji; Yokoyama, Hiroaki; Tomita, Hirofumi; Okumura, Ken

    2014-04-15

    A 90-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. He had a history of post-infarction angina pectoris 79 months ago and had a bare-metal stent (BMS) implanted in the proximal left anterior descending artery at our hospital. Emergent coronary angiography demonstrated thrombotic occlusion in the previously stented segment. After catheter thrombectomy, antegrade flow was restored, but 90% stenosis with haziness persisted in the proximal and distal portions of the previously stented segment. Intravascular ultrasound imaging showed interstrut cavities or stent malapposition at the proximal and distal sites of stented segment. In close proximity to the sites, residual thrombi were also observed. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated neither lipid-laden neointimal tissue nor rupture but clearly demonstrated residual thrombus adjacent to the malapposed region in addition to the stent malapposition. PCI with balloon was successfully performed and stent apposition was confirmed by OCT. Stent malapposition is an unusual mechanism of very late stent thrombosis after BMS implantation. OCT can clearly reveal the etiology of stent thrombosis.

  9. An in Vitro Twist Fatigue Test of Fabric Stent-Grafts Supported by Z-Stents vs. Ringed Stents.

    Lin, Jing; Guidoin, Robert; Du, Jia; Wang, Lu; Douglas, Graeham; Zhu, Danjie; Nutley, Mark; Perron, Lygia; Zhang, Ze; Douville, Yvan

    2016-02-16

    Whereas buckling can cause type III endoleaks, long-term twisting of a stent-graft was investigated here as a mechanism leading to type V endoleak or endotension. Two experimental device designs supported with Z-stents having strut angles of 35° or 45° were compared to a ringed control under accelerated twisting. Damage to each device was assessed and compared after different durations of twisting, with focus on damage that may allow leakage. Stent-grafts with 35° Z-stents had the most severe distortion and damage to the graft fabric. The 45° Z-stents caused less fabric damage. However, consistent stretching was still seen around the holes for sutures, which attach the stents to the graft fabric. Larger holes may become channels for fluid percolation through the wall. The ringed stent-graft had the least damage observed. Stent apexes with sharp angles appear to be responsible for major damage to the fabrics. Device manufacturers should consider stent apex angle when designing stent-grafts, and ensure their devices are resistant to twisting.

  10. Long-term results after carotid artery stenting. Restenosis after carotid artery stenting using self-expandable stent

    Matsumoto, Yasushi; Furui, Eisuke; Tsuboi, Ken; Takahashi, Akira; Ezura, Masayuki

    2008-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting has emerged as an acceptable treatment alternative in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Although early clinical results of carotid artery stenting have shown promise, long, term clinical results remain less certain. We report the frequency, management, and clinical results of in-stent restenosis after carotid artery stenting using a self-expandable stent. Between August 1998 and September 2004, 80 carotid artery stenting procedures in 78 patients were performed. We evaluated 76 of the 80 procedures in 75 of the 78 patients treated during this period who had a minimum 6-month clinical and imaging (ultrasound and/or magnetic resonance angiography) follow-up. Recurrent stenosis (≥50%) after carotid artery stenting occurred in 3 (3.9%) patients. The recurrent stenosis occurred within one year after the procedure in all cases. The low rate of in-stent restenosis using self-expandable stent suggested that carotid artery stenting may be an effective alternative treatment for carotid artery stenosis, but more data of long-term follow-up are required. (author)

  11. Observing of tree trunks and other cylindrical objects using GPR

    Jezova, Jana; Lambot, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Trees are a part of our everyday life, hence it is important to prevent their collapse to protect people and urban infrastructures. It is also important to characterize tree wood properties for usages in construction. In order to investigate internal parts of tree trunks non-invasively, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), or in this case, ultra-wideband microwave radar as a general tool, appears to be a very promising technology. Nevertheless, tree trunk tomography using microwave radar is a complicated task due to the circular shape of the trunk and the very complex (heterogeneous and anisotropic) internal structures of the trunk. Microwave sensing of tree trunks is also complicated due to the electromagnetic properties of living wood, which strongly depend on water content, density and temperature of wood. The objective of this study is to describe tree trunk radar cross sections including specific features originating from the particular circumferential data acquisition geometry. In that respect, three experiments were performed: (1) numerical simulations using a finite-difference time-domain software, namely, gprMax 2D, (2) measurements on a simplified laboratory trunk model including plastic and cardboard pipes, sand and air, and (3) measurements over a real tree trunk. The analysis was further deepened by considering: (1) common zero-offset reflection imaging, (2) imaging with a planar perfect electrical conductor (PEC) at the opposite side of the trunk, and (3) imaging with a PEC arc at the opposite side of the trunk. Furthermore, the shape of the reflection curve of a cylindrical target was analytically derived based on the straight-ray propagation approximation. Subsequently, the total internal reflection (TIR) phenomenon occurring in cylindrical objects was observed and analytically described. Both the straight-ray reflection curve and TIR were well observed on the simulated and laboratory radar data. A comparison between all experiments and radar

  12. Comparison of a New Polytetrafluoroethylene-Covered Metallic Stent to a Noncovered Stent in Canine Ureters

    Chung, Hwan-Hoon; Lee, Seung Hwa; Cho, Sung Bum; Park, Hong Suk; Kim, Young Sik; Kang, Byung Chul; Frisoli, Joan K.; Razavi, Mahmood K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a newly designed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered metallic stent in the ureter by comparing its effectiveness with that of the noncovered stent in a canine model. We placed 14 stents in the ureters of seven mongrel dogs that weighed 30-40 kg each. The covered and noncovered stents were deployed in the right and left ureters, respectively, of six dogs. In the seventh dog, a covered stent and a double-J catheter were inserted in the right ureter, and a covered stent only was inserted in the left ureter. The first six dogs were sacrificed at 5, 10, and 15 weeks after deployment of the stents (two for each follow-up period), and the seventh dog was sacrificed at 30 weeks. There was no migration or poor expansion of any of the stents observed on plain radiography. On intravenous pyelogram and retrograde pyelogram, all of the covered stents at each follow-up period had patent lumens at the stented segments without hydronephrosis, and the passage of contrast material through it was well preserved. The noncovered stents in the dogs sacrificed at 5 and 10 weeks and one of the two dogs sacrificed at 15 weeks showed near-complete occlusion of the stent lumen due to ingrowth of the soft tissue, and severe hydronephrosis was also noted. The noncovered stent in the other dog sacrificed at 15 weeks showed the passage of contrast material without hydronephrosis, but the lumen of the stent was still nearly occluded by the soft tissue. There was no evidence of hydronephrosis or passage disturbance of the contrast material in both ureters of the dog sacrificed at 30 weeks. We conclude that the newly designed PTFE-covered stent effectively prevented the luminal occlusion caused by urothelial hyperplasia compared to the near-total occlusion of the noncovered stents, and no migration of the covered stents was noted

  13. Being stressed outside the park — conservation of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia

    Hunninck, Louis; Ringstad, Iris; Jackson, Craig Ryan; May, Roelof Frans; Fossøy, Frode; Uiseb, Kenneth; Killian, Werner; Røskaft, Eivin

    2017-01-01

    The conservation of the African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) is of prime importance for many African countries. Interactions between elephants and humans are known to induce stress and thereby have the potential to affect elephants’ fitness. In Namibia, anthropogenic disturbances are increasing due to increasing human population size and development, particularly near protected areas, such as national parks. In this study, we investigated elephant stress levels in relation to their l...

  14. How elephants utilize a miombo-wetland ecosystem in Ugalla landscape, Western Tanzania

    Kalumanga, Elikana

    2015-01-01

    African elephants are ‘keystone’ species with respect to biodiversity conservation in Africa since they maintain habitats that support several animal communities by changing vegetation structure through foraging and by dispersing seeds between landscapes. Elephants are also ‘flagship’ species because, given their impressive size, they can make people sympathetic and stimulate local and international concerns for their protection. Economically, elephants contribute to national revenues as tour...

  15. Forage mass and stocking rate of elephant grass pastures managed under agroecological and conventional systems

    Clair Jorge Olivo; Carlos Alberto Agnolin; Priscila Flôres Aguirre; Cláudia Marques de Bem; Tiago Luís da Ros de Araújo; Michelle Schalemberg Diehl; Gilmar Roberto Meinerz

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) pastures, under the agroecological and conventional systems, as forage mass and stocking rate. In the agroecological system, the elephant grass was established in rows spaced by 3.0 m from each other. During the cool season ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was established between these rows, which allowed the development of spontaneous growth species during the warm season. In the conventional system the elephant gra...

  16. MR Angiography of Peripheral Arterial Stents: In Vitro Evaluation of 22 Different Stent Types

    Matthias C. Burg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate stent lumen visibility of a large sample of different peripheral arterial (iliac, renal, carotid stents using magnetic resonance angiography in vitro. Materials and Methods. 21 different stents and one stentgraft (10 nitinol, 7 316L, 2 tantalum, 1 cobalt superalloy, 1 PET + cobalt superalloy, and 1 platinum alloy were examined in a vessel phantom (vessel diameters ranging from 5 to 13 mm filled with a solution of Gd-DTPA. Stents were imaged at 1.5 Tesla using a T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence. Image analysis was performed measuring three categories: Signal intensity in the stent lumen, lumen visibility of the stented lumen, and homogeneity of the stented lumen. The results were classified using a 3-point scale (good, intermediate, and poor results. Results. 7 stents showed good MR lumen visibility (4x nitinol, 2x tantalum, and 1x cobalt superalloy. 9 stents showed intermediate results (5x nitinol, 2x 316L, 1x PET + cobalt superalloy, and 1x platinum alloy and 6 stents showed poor results (1x nitinol, and 5x 316L. Conclusion. Stent lumen visibility varies depending on the stent material and type. Some products show good lumen visibility which may allow the detection of stenoses inside the lumen, while other products cause artifacts which prevent reliable evaluation of the stent lumen with this technique.

  17. Polymeric Biodegradable Stent Insertion in the Esophagus

    Kai Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal stent insertion has been used as a well-accepted and effective alternative to manage and improve the quality of life for patients diagnosed with esophageal diseases and disorders. Current stents are either permanent or temporary and are fabricated from either metal or plastic. The partially covered self-expanding metal stent (SEMS has a firm anchoring effect and prevent stent migration, however, the hyperplastic tissue reaction cause stent restenosis and make it difficult to remove. A fully covered SEMS and self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS reduced reactive hyperplasia but has a high migration rate. The main advantage that polymeric biodegradable stents (BDSs have over metal or plastic stents is that removal is not require and reduce the need for repeated stent insertion. But the slightly lower radial force of BDS may be its main shortcoming and a post-implant problem. Thus, strengthening support of BDS is a content of the research in the future. BDSs are often temporarily effective in esophageal stricture to relieve dysphagia. In the future, it can be expect that biodegradable drug-eluting stents (DES will be available to treat benign esophageal stricture, perforations or leaks with additional use as palliative modalities for treating malignant esophageal stricture, as the bridge to surgery or to maintain luminal patency during neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

  18. Stent Design Affects Femoropopliteal Artery Deformation.

    MacTaggart, Jason; Poulson, William; Seas, Andreas; Deegan, Paul; Lomneth, Carol; Desyatova, Anastasia; Maleckis, Kaspars; Kamenskiy, Alexey

    2018-03-23

    Poor durability of femoropopliteal artery (FPA) stenting is multifactorial, and severe FPA deformations occurring with limb flexion are likely involved. Different stent designs result in dissimilar stent-artery interactions, but the degree of these effects in the FPA is insufficiently understood. To determine how different stent designs affect limb flexion-induced FPA deformations. Retrievable markers were deployed into n = 28 FPAs of lightly embalmed human cadavers. Bodies were perfused and CT images were acquired with limbs in the standing, walking, sitting, and gardening postures. Image analysis allowed measurement of baseline FPA foreshortening, bending, and twisting associated with each posture. Markers were retrieved and 7 different stents were deployed across the adductor hiatus in the same limbs. Markers were then redeployed in the stented FPAs, and limbs were reimaged. Baseline and stented FPA deformations were compared to determine the influence of each stent design. Proximal to the stent, Innova, Supera, and SmartFlex exacerbated foreshortening, SmartFlex exacerbated twisting, and SmartControl restricted bending of the FPA. Within the stent, all devices except Viabahn restricted foreshortening; Supera, SmartControl, and AbsolutePro restricted twisting; SmartFlex and Innova exacerbated twisting; and Supera and Viabahn restricted bending. Distal to the stents, all devices except AbsolutePro and Innova exacerbated foreshortening, and Viabahn, Supera, Zilver, and SmartControl exacerbated twisting. All stents except Supera were pinched in flexed limb postures. Peripheral self-expanding stents significantly affect limb flexion-induced FPA deformations, but in different ways. Although certain designs seem to accommodate some deformation modes, no device was able to match all FPA deformations.

  19. Diurnal and Nocturnal Activity Time Budgets of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus in a Zoological Park

    Denise E. Lukacs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal and nocturnal activity time budgets of five adult female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus were studied in a zoological park for two 24-hour, five 14-hour, and one 9-hour observation periods between May and June 2011. Relatively few studies have looked at detailed daytime and nighttime activity time budgets in captive Asian elephants. Continuous observation was used to measure the activity time budgets of at least one focal animal per observation period. The activity time budgets varied between animals and observation periods. The elephants spent 17-49% of the day (daylight hours standing, 1-9% of the day walking, 19-44% of the day eating, and 1-20% of the day using enrichment items. At night, the elephants spent 29-87% of the observation period standing, 1-19% of the night eating, and 0.1-10% of the night using enrichment items. At night, elephants spent 0-45% of the observation period lying down. Variations in activity time budgets between elephants and observation periods have been observed in other studies of captive and wild elephants. Results of this observational study allow comparison between groups of captive elephants and between captive and wild elephants. Furthermore, results of this study can inform management strategies.

  20. Elephant (Elephas maximus Health and Management in Asia: Variations in Veterinary Perspectives

    David Miller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to identify strategic investments in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus health that will yield maximal benefits for overall elephant health and conservation. As an exploratory first step, a survey was administered to veterinarians from Asian elephant range countries at a workshop and via email to help prioritize health-related concerns that will mostly benefit elephants. Responses were received from 45 veterinarians from eight countries that had a range of experience with captive and wild elephants. The occurrence of medical conditions and responses to treatment varied among responses. However, injuries, parasitism, and gastrointestinal disease were reported as the most common syndromes responsible for elephant morbidity, whereas injury and infectious disease not due to parasitism were the most commonly reported sources of elephant mortality. Substandard nutrition, water quality and quantity deficiencies, and inadequate or absent shelter were among the factors listed as barriers to optimal elephant health. While this survey’s results do not support definitive conclusions, they can be used to identify where and how subsequent investigations should be directed. Rigorous assessment of the relative costs and benefits of available options is required to ensure that investments in individual and population health yield the maximal benefits for elephants.

  1. A demographic model to predict future growth of the Addo elephant population

    A.M. Woodd

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available An age-structured demographic model of the growth of the Addo elephant population was developed using parameters calculated from long-term data on the population. The model was used to provide estimates of future population growth. Expansion of the Addo Elephant National Park is currently underway, and the proposed target population size for elephant within the enlarged park is 2700. The model predicts that this population size will be reached during the year 2043, so that the Addo elephant population can continue to increase for a further 44 years before its target size within the enlarged park is attained.

  2. Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction after Coronary Stent Fracture.

    Rafighdust, Abbasali; Eshraghi, Ali

    2015-10-27

    The invention of the drug-eluting stent (DES) has brought about revolutionary changes in the field of interventional cardiology. In the DES era, in-stent restenosis has declined but new issues such as stent thrombosis have emerged. One of the emerging paradigms in the DES era is stent fracture. There are reports about stent fracture leading to in-stent restenosis or stent thrombosis. Most of these reports concern the Sirolimus-eluting stent. The present case is a representation of a Biolimus-eluting stent fracture. We introduce a 64-year-old male patient, for whom the BioMatrix stent was deployed in the right coronary artery. Five months after the implantation, he experienced acute myocardial infarction, with stent fracture leading to stent thrombosis being the causative mechanism. Another DES (Cypher) was used to manage this situation, and the final result was good.

  3. Causes and prevention of in-stent restenosis of vertebral artery origin after stenting

    Zhao Huipin; Li Shenmao; Zhang Guangping

    2010-01-01

    Vertebral artery stenosis is an important cause of posterior circulation stroke. Vertebral artery stenosis most commonly occurs at its origin site. In recent years, balloon angioplasty and stent implantation have been widely employed in the treatment of vertebral artery origin stenosis. However, the long term outcome of stent implantation is affected by in-stent restenosis. Multiple contributory factors have been identified, but clear understanding of the overall underlying mechanism remains an enigma. With the development of pathophysiology, prevention and treatment methods of in-stent restenosis have been improved. In recent years, drug-eluting stents, radioactive stents and magnetic stents have been widely applied. To some extent, these stents and drug therapy can solve the problem of restenosis. This article aims to review the clinical application and the up-to-date research progresses in preventing and managing vertebral artery origin restenosis. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of a novel stent technology: the Genous EPC capturing stent

    Klomp, M.

    2012-01-01

    Tegenwoordig gebruiken ziekenhuizen een nieuwe stent bij dotterbehandelingen van kransslagadervernauwingen. Deze Genous-stent heeft een laag met antistoffen waardoor het behandelde bloedvat snel bedekt raakt met lichaamseigen cellen. Zo wordt tegengegaan dat er opnieuw een vernauwing optreedt of dat

  5. Modeling elephant-mediated cascading effects of water point closure.

    Hilbers, Jelle P; Van Langevelde, Frank; Prins, Herbert H T; Grant, C C; Peel, Mike J S; Coughenour, Michael B; De Knegt, Henrik J; Slotow, Rob; Smit, Izak P J; Kiker, Greg A; De Boer, Willem F

    2015-03-01

    Wildlife management to reduce the impact of wildlife on their habitat can be done in several ways, among which removing animals (by either culling or translocation) is most often used. There are, however, alternative ways to control wildlife densities, such as opening or closing water points. The effects of these alternatives are poorly studied. In this paper, we focus on manipulating large herbivores through the closure of water points (WPs). Removal of artificial WPs has been suggested in order to change the distribution of African elephants, which occur in high densities in national parks in Southern Africa and are thought to have a destructive effect on the vegetation. Here, we modeled the long-term effects of different scenarios of WP closure on the spatial distribution of elephants, and consequential effects on the vegetation and other herbivores in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Using a dynamic ecosystem model, SAVANNA, scenarios were evaluated that varied in availability of artificial WPs; levels of natural water; and elephant densities. Our modeling results showed that elephants can indirectly negatively affect the distributions of meso-mixed feeders, meso-browsers, and some meso-grazers under wet conditions. The closure of artificial WPs hardly had any effect during these natural wet conditions. Under dry conditions, the spatial distribution of both elephant bulls and cows changed when the availability of artificial water was severely reduced in the model. These changes in spatial distribution triggered changes in the spatial availability of woody biomass over the simulation period of 80 years, and this led to changes in the rest of the herbivore community, resulting in increased densities of all herbivores, except for giraffe and steenbok, in areas close to rivers. The spatial distributions of elephant bulls and cows showed to be less affected by the closure of WPs than most of the other herbivore species. Our study contributes to ecologically

  6. Recursion to food plants by free-ranging Bornean elephant.

    English, Megan; Gillespie, Graeme; Goossens, Benoit; Ismail, Sulaiman; Ancrenaz, Marc; Linklater, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Plant recovery rates after herbivory are thought to be a key factor driving recursion by herbivores to sites and plants to optimise resource-use but have not been investigated as an explanation for recursion in large herbivores. We investigated the relationship between plant recovery and recursion by elephants (Elephas maximus borneensis) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah. We identified 182 recently eaten food plants, from 30 species, along 14 × 50 m transects and measured their recovery growth each month over nine months or until they were re-browsed by elephants. The monthly growth in leaf and branch or shoot length for each plant was used to calculate the time required (months) for each species to recover to its pre-eaten length. Elephant returned to all but two transects with 10 eaten plants, a further 26 plants died leaving 146 plants that could be re-eaten. Recursion occurred to 58% of all plants and 12 of the 30 species. Seventy-seven percent of the re-eaten plants were grasses. Recovery times to all plants varied from two to twenty months depending on the species. Recursion to all grasses coincided with plant recovery whereas recursion to most browsed plants occurred four to twelve months before they had recovered to their previous length. The small sample size of many browsed plants that received recursion and uneven plant species distribution across transects limits our ability to generalise for most browsed species but a prominent pattern in plant-scale recursion did emerge. Plant recovery time was a good predictor of time to recursion but varied as a function of growth form (grass, ginger, palm, liana and woody) and differences between sites. Time to plant recursion coincided with plant recovery time for the elephant's preferred food, grasses, and perhaps also gingers, but not the other browsed species. Elephants are bulk feeders so it is likely that they time their returns to bulk feed on these grass species when quantities have

  7. Comparison of self-expandable and balloon-expanding stents for hybrid ductal stenting in hypoplastic left heart complex.

    Goreczny, Sebastian; Qureshi, Shakeel A; Rosenthal, Eric; Krasemann, Thomas; Nassar, Mohamed S; Anderson, David R; Morgan, Gareth J

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to compare the procedural and mid-term performance of a specifically designed self-expanding stent with balloon-expandable stents in patients undergoing hybrid palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and its variants. The lack of specifically designed stents has led to off-label use of coronary, biliary, or peripheral stents in the neonatal ductus arteriosus. Recently, a self-expanding stent, specifically designed for use in hypoplastic left heart syndrome, has become available. We carried out a retrospective cohort comparison of 69 neonates who underwent hybrid ductal stenting with balloon-expandable and self-expanding stents from December, 2005 to July, 2014. In total, 43 balloon-expandable stents were implanted in 41 neonates and more recently 47 self-expanding stents in 28 neonates. In the balloon-expandable stents group, stent-related complications occurred in nine patients (22%), compared with one patient in the self-expanding stent group (4%). During follow-up, percutaneous re-intervention related to the ductal stent was performed in five patients (17%) in the balloon-expandable stent group and seven patients (28%) in self-expanding stents group. Hybrid ductal stenting with self-expanding stents produced favourable results when compared with the results obtained with balloon-expandable stents. Immediate additional interventions and follow-up re-interventions were similar in both groups with complications more common in those with balloon-expandable stents.

  8. Metallic stent implantation in the treatment of malignant tracheal stenosis under general anaesthesia

    Bai Xuming; Jin Yong; Xie Hong; Cheng Long; Gu Xingshi; Chang Liuhui

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of the tracheal stent implantation for treatment of malignant tracheal stenosis under general anaesthesia. Methods: Eighteen patients with malignant tracheal stenosis underwent preoperative 64-slice spiral CT scan and airway reconstruction. The stenotic sites were located in main tracheal trunk (5 patients), in right main bronchus (1 patient), in trachea and left main bronchus (4 patients), in trachea and right main bronchus (3 patients), in main tracheal trunk and bilateral main bronchus (5 patients). The degree of stenosis was rated 51% to 70% in 7 cases, 71% to 90% in 11 cases. All patients, 17 patients of ASA grade Ⅳ and 1 patient of grade Ⅲ, presented with severe dyspnea. Under general anaesthesia, implantation of metallic stent was performed through the sputum aspiration hole of the connecting tubing with DSA guidance. The NBP, ECG, RR, SaO 2 of the patients were recorded and compared with t test during the entire procedure. At the end of the procedure, relief of dyspnea, complications related to anesthesia and operation were recorded. Results: The success rate of stent placement was 18/18, and dyspnea was significantly relived in all patients. Slightly bloody sputum occurred in 7 cases. The stent was obstructed by sputum in 1 case,and the patient was treated with medication. There were no severe complications. The operative course were rated 11 to 9 in 17 cases, and 6 to 8 in 1 case. All 18 patients were cooperative during the procedure. Sixteen patients rated the procedure as very comfortable and 2 rated the procedure as comfortable. Respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) decreased in all patients after the operation [(37.1 ± 2.8)/min and (106.5 ± 14.2) bpm before the operation respectively, (18.6 ± 1.4)/min and (73.2 ± 7.6) bpm after the operation respectively], t=17.81 and 3.80, P<0.01. Pulse oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ) during the operation [(91.2 ± 1.8)%]increased [(76.3 ± 8.6 )% before the

  9. Forgotten Ureteral Stents: An Avoidable Morbidity

    Murtaza, B.; Alvi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical presentation of forgotten ureteral stents and highlight the etiological factors resulting in the retention of these stents. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Urology, Armed Forces Institute of Urology, Rawalpindi, from January 2010 to Jun 2011. Methodology: Thirty-eight patients, with forgotten ureteral stents, retained for more than 6 months duration, were enrolled. A detailed evaluation was performed, along with the questions regarding the patients' opinion about the ureteral stents. They were specially asked whether they knew about the stents or were they formally informed regarding the stents. Subsequently, the patients were managed according to their clinical condition. Results: The male to female ratio was 2.1:1 aged 23 - 69 years, mean being 40.24 ± 12.59 years. The time of presentation after the ureteral stenting was 7 - 180 months (mean = 28.89 ± 33.435 years). Seven patients (18.4 percentage) reported with chronic kidney disease, including ESRD in two cases. Recurrent UTI was seen in 28 cases (73.6 percentage), calculus formed over the stents in 20 cases (52.6 percentage), and stent fragmented in 5 patients (13.1 percentage). Majority of patients, (n = 23, 60.5 percentage), were not even aware of the placement of these stents while 8 (21.0 percentage) knew but were reluctant about its removal. In 3 cases (7.8 percentage), the relatives knew about the stent but never informed the patients. The stent had been removed in 2 cases (5.2 percentage), but the other broken fragment was missed. One case (2.6 percentage) each had a misconception about the permanent placement of the stents like cardiac stents and regarding degradation of the stents in situ. Conclusion: Forgotten ureteral stents produce clinical features ranging from recurrent UTI to ESRD. This preventable urological complication is primarily due to the unawareness or ignorance of the patients and their relatives

  10. Self-Expandable Metal Stents and Trans-stent Light Delivery: Are Metal Stents and Photodynamic Therapy Compatible?

    Wang, Luo-Wei; Li, Li-Bo; Li, Zhao-Shen; Chen, Yang K; Hetzel, Fred W.; Huang, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Obstructive non-small cell lung cancer and obstructive esophageal cancer are US FDA approved indications of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The usefulness of PDT for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma is currently under clinical investigation. Endoscopic stenting for lumen restoration is a common palliative intervention for those indications. It is important to assess whether self-expandable metal stents are compatible with trans-stent PDT light delivery. Study Design/Materials and Methods: Direct effects of various components of metal biliary (n = 2), esophageal (n = 2), and bronchial (n = 1) stents on PDT light transmittance and distribution were examined using a point or linear light source (630 or 652 nm diode laser). Resected pig biliary duct and esophageal wall tissues were used to examine the feasibility of PDT light delivery through the fully expanded metal stents. Results: While using a point light source, the metal components (thread and joint) of the stent could cause a significant shadow effect. The liner material (polytetrafluoroethylene or polyurethane) could cause various degrees of light absorption. When the stent was covered with a thin layer of biliary duct and esophageal tissues containing all wall layers, the shadow effect could be mitigated due to tissue scattering. Conclusions: This study clearly demonstrates that it is feasible to combine stenting and PDT for the treatment of luminal lesions. PDT light dose should be adjusted to counteract the reduction of light transmittance caused by the metal and liner materials of stent. PMID:18951422

  11. Prevention of stent thrombosis: challenges and solutions

    Reejhsinghani, Risheen; Lotfi, Amir S

    2015-01-01

    Stent thrombosis is an uncommon but serious complication which carries with it significant mortality and morbidity. This review analyzes the entity of stent thrombosis from a historical and clinical perspective, and chronicles the evolution of this condition through the various generations of stent development, from bare metal to first-generation, second-generation, and third-generation drug-eluting stents. It also delineates the specific risk factors associated with stent thrombosis and comprehensively examines the literature related to each of these risks. Finally, it highlights the preventative strategies that can be garnered from the existing data, and concludes that a multifactorial approach is necessary to combat the occurrence of stent thrombosis, with higher risk groups, such as patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, meriting further research. PMID:25657588

  12. Camera traps to study the forest elephant's (Loxodonta cyclotis) response to chilli pepper repellent devices in Gamba, Gabon

    Steeve Ngama; Lisa Korte; Mireille Johnson; Cédric Vermeulen; Jérôme Bindelle

    2018-01-01

    In Central Africa, Gabon is a forested country with a rich biodiversity where conflict between wild animals and humans is common and causes innumerable damage to crops. The worst crop raiders are elephants, which can destroy an entire crop in a single night. These raids threaten people's livelihoods as well as elephants because angry farmers often retaliate with killing campaigns against crop raiding elephants. To keep elephants out of farms the use of chilli pepper is recommended as a non-le...

  13. Development of the tush and tusk and tusklessness in African elephant (Loxodonta africana)

    E.J. Raubenheimer

    2000-01-01

    The embryologic development of the tush and tusk of the African elephant was studied by means of serial histologic sections prepared from elephant embryos with masses varying between Ig and 240 g. Statistics on tusklessness obtained during a four year population control programme in the Kruger National Park were analysed and compared with those reported in other elephant reserves in Southern Africa. Maxillae of eight elephant embryos, the maternal histories of which were available in six case...

  14. Removal of retrievable self-expandable urethral stents: experience in 58 stents

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Ko, Heung-Kyu; Kim, Yong Jae; Woo, Chul-Woong; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Ko, Gi-Young; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Sung, Kyu-Bo; Park, Hyungkeun

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of removing retrievable self-expandable urethral stents using a retrieval hook wire. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the removal of 58 polyurethane or PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene)-covered stents was attempted in 33 patients using a retrieval hook wire. Indications for removal were elective removal (n=21), stent migration (n=19), formation of tissue hyperplasia around or inside of the stent (n=14), stent deformity (n=3), and severe pain (n=1). The mean time the stents remained in place was 64.8±42.9 days (range, 1-177 days). Fifty-six (97%) of the 58 stents were successfully removed using the retrieval hook wire despite the following difficulties; hook wire disconnection (n=2), untied drawstrings (n=3), and polyurethane membrane disruption/separation (n=4). The removal procedure using a retrieval hook wire failed in two stents (3%) which had migrated into the urinary bladder. One of the two stents with migration into the urinary bladder was removed using a snare through the cystostomy route. The overall complication rate was 14% (seven hematuria cases and one urethral tear case), and all were minor and spontaneously resolved without further treatment. In conclusion, removal of retrievable urethral stents using a retrieval hook wire was safe and effective despite some technical difficulties. It is a useful method for allowing temporary stent placement and solving various complications of stent use. (orig.)

  15. Genous endothelial progenitor cell-capturing stent system: a novel stent technology

    Klomp, Margo; Beijk, Marcel A. M.; de Winter, Robbert J.

    2009-01-01

    Drug-eluting stents have been demonstrated to significantly reduce clinical and angiographic restenosis in patients with coronary artery disease compared with bare-metal stents. Intuitively, however, a prohealing approach for the prevention of in-stent restenosis by promoting accelerated

  16. Mechanical behavior of peripheral stents and stent-vessel interaction: A computational study

    Dottori, Serena; Flamini, Vittoria; Vairo, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    In this paper stents employed to treat peripheral artery disease are analyzed through a three-dimensional finite-element approach, based on a large-strain and large-displacement formulation. Aiming to evaluate the influence of some stent design parameters on stent mechanics and on the biomechanical interaction between stent and arterial wall, quasi-static and dynamic numerical analyses are carried out by referring to computational models of commercially and noncommercially available versions of both braided self-expandable stents and balloon-expandable stents. Addressing isolated device models, opening mechanisms and flexibility of both opened and closed stent configurations are numerically experienced. Moreover, stent deployment into a stenotic peripheral artery and possible postdilatation angioplasty (the latter for the self-expandable device only) are simulated by considering different idealized vessel geometries and accounting for the presence of a stenotic plaque. Proposed results highlight important differences in the mechanical response of the two types of stents, as well as a significant influence of the vessel shape on the stress distributions arising upon the artery-plaque system. Finally, computational results are used to assess both the stent mechanical performance and the effectiveness of the stenting treatment, allowing also to identify possible critical conditions affecting the risk of stent fracture, tissue damage, and/or pathological tissue response.

  17. PulmoStent : In Vitro to In Vivo Evaluation of a Tissue Engineered Endobronchial Stent

    Thiebes, Anja Lena; Kelly, Nicola; Sweeney, Caoimhe A.; McGrath, Donnacha J.; Clauser, Johanna; Kurtenbach, Kathrin; Gesche, Valentine N.; Chen, Weiluan; Kok, Robbert Jan; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Bruzzi, Mark; O’Brien, Barry J.; McHugh, Peter E.; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Cornelissen, Christian G.

    Currently, there is no optimal treatment available for end stage tumour patients with airway stenosis. The PulmoStent concept aims on overcoming current hurdles in airway stenting by combining a nitinol stent with a nutrient-permeable membrane, which prevents tumour ingrowth. Respiratory epithelial

  18. Removal of retrievable self-expandable urethral stents: experience in 58 stents

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Ko, Heung-Kyu; Kim, Yong Jae; Woo, Chul-Woong; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Ko, Gi-Young; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Sung, Kyu-Bo [Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Park, Hyungkeun [Asan Medical Center, Department of Urology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of removing retrievable self-expandable urethral stents using a retrieval hook wire. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the removal of 58 polyurethane or PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene)-covered stents was attempted in 33 patients using a retrieval hook wire. Indications for removal were elective removal (n=21), stent migration (n=19), formation of tissue hyperplasia around or inside of the stent (n=14), stent deformity (n=3), and severe pain (n=1). The mean time the stents remained in place was 64.8{+-}42.9 days (range, 1-177 days). Fifty-six (97%) of the 58 stents were successfully removed using the retrieval hook wire despite the following difficulties; hook wire disconnection (n=2), untied drawstrings (n=3), and polyurethane membrane disruption/separation (n=4). The removal procedure using a retrieval hook wire failed in two stents (3%) which had migrated into the urinary bladder. One of the two stents with migration into the urinary bladder was removed using a snare through the cystostomy route. The overall complication rate was 14% (seven hematuria cases and one urethral tear case), and all were minor and spontaneously resolved without further treatment. In conclusion, removal of retrievable urethral stents using a retrieval hook wire was safe and effective despite some technical difficulties. It is a useful method for allowing temporary stent placement and solving various complications of stent use. (orig.)

  19. Nutcracker syndrome associated with celiacomesentric trunk anomaly: case report

    Al-Zoubi NA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nabil A Al-Zoubi,1 Ibrahim F Al-Ghalayini,1,2 Radwan Al-Okour1,2 1Department of Surgery, 2Division of Urology, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan Introduction: Nutcracker syndrome is a rare disease entity that is caused by entrapment of the left renal vein between the aorta and superior mesenteric artery, usually due to abnormal branching of the superior mesenteric artery from the aorta causing renal venous hypertension. The symptoms vary from asymptomatic hematuria to severe pelvic congestion. Celiacomesenteric trunk anomaly is a rare variation of splanchnic artery anomaly that occurs when the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric arteries have a common origin from the aorta. A disease involving the rarely encountered celiacomesenteric trunk anomaly is extremely uncommon. To our knowledge, association between nutcracker syndrome and celiacomesentric trunk anomaly has not been reported in the literature.Case presentation: A 14-year-old boy with no significant past medical history presented with a 3-year painless hematuria. CT-angiogram revealed anterior nutcracker syndrome with celiacomesenteric trunk anomaly. The patient was managed conservatively with close follow-up.Conclusion: Nutcracker syndrome associated with celiacomesenteric trunk anomaly is extremely uncommon and is a rare cause of hematuria in children. Whether this abnormal anatomy is the cause of nutcracker syndrome or just an association should be investigated. Moreover, awareness of this anatomical variation may help in planning therapeutic options and reducing the chance of surgical iatrogenic injuries. Keywords: nutcracker syndrome, celiacomesenteric trunk, hematuria in children

  20. Complication after self expandable metallic stent for esophageal cancer

    Nagahama, Takeshi; Maruyama, Michio; Kato, Kiyomi; Shinoura, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Kumi; Takashima, Itaru; Ebuchi, Masakazu

    2003-01-01

    Major complications after placement of esophageal stent and airway stent were reviewed and evaluated. Four patients, including two patients with perforations and two patients with fistula formation, developed major complications after placement of a self expandable metallic stent. Two patients underwent additional radiation to improve stricture after stent placement. In one patient, stent placement was selected to improve esophageal stricture that occurred after radical radiation therapy. In one patient, migration of stent into the lesion caused a perforation. It can be concluded that additional radiation after stent placement increases the risk of complication. Stent migration also can lead to the risk of perforation. (author)

  1. Endovascular treatment of penetrating arterial trauma with stent grafts.

    Biagioni, Rodrigo Bruno; Burihan, Marcelo Calil; Nasser, Felipe; Biagioni, Luisa Ciucci; Ingrund, José Carlos

    2018-02-01

    The endovascular management of arterial injuries has resulted in reduced operating time, blood loss, hospital mortality, lower incidence of sepsis, and decrease in mortality rates. For penetrating trauma, however, the benefits of endovascular therapy are questionable. Data were obtained by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records. All patients with vascular trauma seeking care at our institution from January 2010 to December 2015 were reviewed. A total of 223 vascular trauma patients were enrolled. Of these, 18 patients (8 %) were treated with endovascular techniques. The data related to clinical presentation, patient characteristics, technical aspects of the treatment, and follow-up were analysed. The mean patient age was 35.4 ± 17.8 years, 94 % were male. The mean injury severity score was 10.4 ± 2.5. The most commonly observed trauma mechanism was a gunshot in 10 cases (55 %), followed by lesions provoked by arterial catheter misplacement in five cases (27 %), and stab wounds in three cases (16.6 %). The main injury site was the subclavian artery, accounting for eight cases (44 %), followed by the superficial femoral artery and the tibiofibular trunk in two cases, respectively (18 %). The anterior tibial, fibular artery, axillary, common carotid, superior mesenteric, and profunda femoris were each affected once. Arteriovenous fistula was detected in nine cases (50 %), pseudoaneurysms in nine cases (50 %), and short occlusion in two cases (11 %). The mean follow-up duration was 753 days. The primary patency rate was 92.3 and 61.5 % after one and two years, respectively. The survival rate was 94.4 % after one and two years. Infection of the stents or limb amputations were not identified at follow-up. The endovascular treatment of penetrating arterial injuries with covered stents is feasible. However, the criteria used to choose the best method must be individualized.

  2. The current role of vascular stents.

    Busquet, J

    1993-09-01

    The limitations of percutaneous balloon angioplasty have favoured the development and the use of vascular endoprostheses or stents. These thin-walled metal devices maintain after expansion, an optimal and constant diameter for the vascular lumen. Restenosis, dissection, abrupt closure, residual stenosis or re-opened total occlusion represent appropriate indications for stenting. A large experience with non-coronary application of stents is currently available in iliac, femoro-popliteal and renal arteries, aorta, large veins.

  3. Stent implantation influence wall shear stress evolution

    Bernad, S. I.; Totorean, A. F.; Bosioc, A. I.; Petre, I.; Bernad, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    Local hemodynamic factors are known affect the natural history of the restenosis critically after coronary stenting of atherosclerosis. Stent-induced flows disturbance magnitude dependent directly on the strut design. The impact of flow alterations around struts vary as the strut geometrical parameters change. Our results provide data regarding the hemodynamic parameters for the blood flow in both stenosed and stented coronary artery under physiological conditions, namely wall shear stress and pressure drop.

  4. TL dating of vases with elephant ears in Yuan Dynasty

    Xia Junding; Wang Weida; Leung, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating using an activation method in pre-dose technique was described. Three vases in underglaze blue with elephant ears and one vase in underglaze red with elephant ears in Yuan Dynasty were dated by this method. The results show that the TL ages are all less than 100 a B.P., and in which sbc 648 and sbc 649 were imitated in recent years. This method is quick, convenient and reliable for porcelain dating with the age of less than 1000 a B.P.. As a comparison, a porcelain sample with underglaze blue in Yuan Dynasty was dated too, and its TL age is 620 ± 140 B.P.. In addition, some complex factors associated with dating have been discussed and a resolution has been raised, which will help improve the accuracy of TL dating. (authors)

  5. Delayed postpartum fetotomy in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    Schaftenaar, Willem

    2013-03-01

    A 37-yr-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) started parturition after 640 days of pregnancy but no fetal parts entered the birth canal. Despite veterinary intervention, the calf was not delivered. After 13 mo calving resumed and a full-term dead calf advanced into and lodged within the vagina. With standing xylazine tranquilization, the dam received a vagino-vestibulotomy to permit total fetotomy of the calf, which presented with bilateral carpal arthrogryposis. Severe infection of the caudal vaginal vestibulum complicated wound healing, and over the following year two corrective surgeries were performed, which resolved the fistula 3 mo after the second debridement. The elephant not only survived the procedures but also resumed normal estrous cycles, as demonstrated by blood progesterone concentration monitoring.

  6. Potential of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine to suppress musth in captive male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Homkong, Pongpon; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2015-01-01

    Musth in adult bull elephants is a period of increased androgen concentrations ranging from a few weeks to several months. For captive elephant bull management, musth presents a serious challenge because of the aggressive behavior of musth bulls toward people and other elephants. Commercially

  7. DNA analysis indicates that Asian elephants are native to Borneo and are therefore a high priority for conservation.

    Prithiviraj Fernando

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The origin of Borneo's elephants is controversial. Two competing hypotheses argue that they are either indigenous, tracing back to the Pleistocene, or were introduced, descending from elephants imported in the 16th-18th centuries. Taxonomically, they have either been classified as a unique subspecies or placed under the Indian or Sumatran subspecies. If shown to be a unique indigenous population, this would extend the natural species range of the Asian elephant by 1300 km, and therefore Borneo elephants would have much greater conservation importance than if they were a feral population. We compared DNA of Borneo elephants to that of elephants from across the range of the Asian elephant, using a fragment of mitochondrial DNA, including part of the hypervariable d-loop, and five autosomal microsatellite loci. We find that Borneo's elephants are genetically distinct, with molecular divergence indicative of a Pleistocene colonisation of Borneo and subsequent isolation. We reject the hypothesis that Borneo's elephants were introduced. The genetic divergence of Borneo elephants warrants their recognition as a separate evolutionary significant unit. Thus, interbreeding Borneo elephants with those from other populations would be contraindicated in ex situ conservation, and their genetic distinctiveness makes them one of the highest priority populations for Asian elephant conservation.

  8. Discovery of a predynastic elephant burial at Hierakonpolis, Egypt

    Barbara Adams

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available It has long been known that the ancient Egyptians buried such animals as dogs, baboons and cattle, sometimes in human tombs and sometimes in separate graves of their own. Now excavation in a cemetery associated with the large settlement of Hierakonpolis has led to the unexpected discovery of a 5700-year-old elephant burial. Here the Research Curator of the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology at UCL describes the discovery and discusses its significance.

  9. Prolonged fasting increases glutathione biosynthesis in postweaned northern elephant seals

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Forman, Henry Jay; Crocker, Daniel E.; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Northern elephant seals experience prolonged periods of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting) while breeding, molting or weaning. The postweaning fast in elephant seals is characterized by increases in the renin–angiotensin system, expression of the oxidant-producing protein Nox4, and NADPH oxidase activity; however, these increases are not correlated with increased oxidative damage or inflammation. Glutathione (GSH) is a potent reductant and a cofactor for glutathione peroxidases (GPx), glutathione-S transferases (GST) and 1-cys peroxiredoxin (PrxVI) and thus contributes to the removal of hydroperoxides, preventing oxidative damage. The effects of prolonged food deprivation on the GSH system are not well described in mammals. To test our hypothesis that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting in postweaned elephant seals, we measured circulating and muscle GSH content at the early and late phases of the postweaning fast in elephant seals along with the activity/protein content of glutamate-cysteine ligase [GCL; catalytic (GCLc) and modulatory (GCLm) subunits], γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glutathione disulphide reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), GST and PrxVI, as well as plasma changes in γ-glutamyl amino acids, glutamate and glutamine. GSH increased two- to four-fold with fasting along with a 40–50% increase in the content of GCLm and GCLc, a 75% increase in GGT activity, a two- to 2.5-fold increase in GR, G6PDH and GST activities and a 30% increase in PrxVI content. Plasma γ-glutamyl glutamine, γ-glutamyl isoleucine and γ-glutamyl methionine also increased with fasting whereas glutamate and glutamine decreased. Results indicate that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting and that GSH contributes to counteracting hydroperoxide production, preventing oxidative damage in fasting seals. PMID:21430206

  10. Comparative demography of an at-risk African elephant population.

    George Wittemyer

    Full Text Available Knowledge of population processes across various ecological and management settings offers important insights for species conservation and life history. In regard to its ecological role, charisma and threats from human impacts, African elephants are of high conservation concern and, as a result, are the focus of numerous studies across various contexts. Here, demographic data from an individually based study of 934 African elephants in Samburu, Kenya were summarized, providing detailed inspection of the population processes experienced by the population over a fourteen year period (including the repercussions of recent increases in illegal killing. These data were compared with those from populations inhabiting a spectrum of xeric to mesic ecosystems with variable human impacts. In relation to variability in climate and human impacts (causing up to 50% of recorded deaths among adults, annual mortality in Samburu fluctuated between 1 and 14% and, unrelatedly, natality between 2 and 14% driving annual population increases and decreases. Survivorship in Samburu was significantly lower than other populations with age-specific data even during periods of low illegal killing by humans, resulting in relatively low life expectancy of males (18.9 years and females (21.8 years. Fecundity (primiparous age and inter-calf interval were similar to those reported in other human impacted or recovering populations, and significantly greater than that of comparable stable populations. This suggests reproductive effort of African savanna elephants increases in relation to increased mortality (and resulting ecological ramifications as predicted by life history theory. Further comparison across populations indicated that elongated inter-calf intervals and older ages of reproductive onset were related to age structure and density, and likely influenced by ecological conditions. This study provides detailed empirical data on elephant population dynamics strongly

  11. Discovery of a predynastic elephant burial at Hierakonpolis, Egypt

    Barbara Adams

    1998-01-01

    It has long been known that the ancient Egyptians buried such animals as dogs, baboons and cattle, sometimes in human tombs and sometimes in separate graves of their own. Now excavation in a cemetery associated with the large settlement of Hierakonpolis has led to the unexpected discovery of a 5700-year-old elephant burial. Here the Research Curator of the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology at UCL describes the discovery and discusses its significance.

  12. Comparative demography of an at-risk African elephant population.

    Wittemyer, George; Daballen, David; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of population processes across various ecological and management settings offers important insights for species conservation and life history. In regard to its ecological role, charisma and threats from human impacts, African elephants are of high conservation concern and, as a result, are the focus of numerous studies across various contexts. Here, demographic data from an individually based study of 934 African elephants in Samburu, Kenya were summarized, providing detailed inspection of the population processes experienced by the population over a fourteen year period (including the repercussions of recent increases in illegal killing). These data were compared with those from populations inhabiting a spectrum of xeric to mesic ecosystems with variable human impacts. In relation to variability in climate and human impacts (causing up to 50% of recorded deaths among adults), annual mortality in Samburu fluctuated between 1 and 14% and, unrelatedly, natality between 2 and 14% driving annual population increases and decreases. Survivorship in Samburu was significantly lower than other populations with age-specific data even during periods of low illegal killing by humans, resulting in relatively low life expectancy of males (18.9 years) and females (21.8 years). Fecundity (primiparous age and inter-calf interval) were similar to those reported in other human impacted or recovering populations, and significantly greater than that of comparable stable populations. This suggests reproductive effort of African savanna elephants increases in relation to increased mortality (and resulting ecological ramifications) as predicted by life history theory. Further comparison across populations indicated that elongated inter-calf intervals and older ages of reproductive onset were related to age structure and density, and likely influenced by ecological conditions. This study provides detailed empirical data on elephant population dynamics strongly influenced by human

  13. Management of JJ stent-related symptoms.

    Papatsoris, Athanasios; Dellis, Athanasios; Daglas, George; Sanguedolce, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Ureteric JJ stents are inserted in numerous pa- tients as a routine procedure. Nevertheless, the ideal JJ stent that does not cause any lower urinary tract symptoms has not been developed yet. Even special validated ques- tionnaires have been used for the assessment of JJ stent-related symtoms. For the management of such symtoms usually alpha-blockers are admin- istered. Also, studies have examined the efficacy and safety of anticholinergics and calcium channel blo- ckers. In this article we review the literature upon the management of JJ stent-related symptoms.

  14. Configuration affects parallel stent grafting results.

    Tanious, Adam; Wooster, Mathew; Armstrong, Paul A; Zwiebel, Bruce; Grundy, Shane; Back, Martin R; Shames, Murray L

    2018-05-01

    A number of adjunctive "off-the-shelf" procedures have been described to treat complex aortic diseases. Our goal was to evaluate parallel stent graft configurations and to determine an optimal formula for these procedures. This is a retrospective review of all patients at a single medical center treated with parallel stent grafts from January 2010 to September 2015. Outcomes were evaluated on the basis of parallel graft orientation, type, and main body device. Primary end points included parallel stent graft compromise and overall endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) compromise. There were 78 patients treated with a total of 144 parallel stents for a variety of pathologic processes. There was a significant correlation between main body oversizing and snorkel compromise (P = .0195) and overall procedural complication (P = .0019) but not with endoleak rates. Patients were organized into the following oversizing groups for further analysis: 0% to 10%, 10% to 20%, and >20%. Those oversized into the 0% to 10% group had the highest rate of overall EVAR complication (73%; P = .0003). There were no significant correlations between any one particular configuration and overall procedural complication. There was also no significant correlation between total number of parallel stents employed and overall complication. Composite EVAR configuration had no significant correlation with individual snorkel compromise, endoleak, or overall EVAR or procedural complication. The configuration most prone to individual snorkel compromise and overall EVAR complication was a four-stent configuration with two stents in an antegrade position and two stents in a retrograde position (60% complication rate). The configuration most prone to endoleak was one or two stents in retrograde position (33% endoleak rate), followed by three stents in an all-antegrade position (25%). There was a significant correlation between individual stent configuration and stent compromise (P = .0385), with 31

  15. Endovascular AAA exclusion: will stents with hooks and barbs prevent stent-graft migration?

    Malina, M; Lindblad, B; Ivancev, K; Lindh, M; Malina, J; Brunkwall, J

    1998-11-01

    To investigate if stents with hooks and barbs will improve stent-graft fixation in the abdominal aorta. Sixteen- to 24-mm-diameter Dacron grafts were deployed inside cadaveric aortas. The grafts were anchored by stents as in endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. One hundred thirty-seven stent-graft deployments were carried out with modified self-expanding Z-stents with (A) no hooks and barbs (n = 75), (B) 4 5-mm-long hooks and barbs (n = 39), (C) 8 10-mm-long, strengthened hooks and barbs (n = 19), or (D) hooks only (n = 4). Increasing longitudinal traction was applied to determine the displacement force needed to extract the stent-grafts. The radial force of the stents was measured and correlated to the displacement force. The median (interquartile range) displacement force needed to extract grafts anchored by stent A was 2.5 N (2.0 to 3.4), stent B 7.8 N (7.4 to 10.8), and stent C 22.5 N (17.1 to 27.9), p barbs added anchoring strength. During traction, the weaker barbs were distorted or caused intimal tears. The stronger barbs engaged the entire aortic wall. The radial force of the stents had no impact on fixation, while aortic calcification and graft oversizing had marginal effects. Stent barbs and hooks increased the fixation of stent-grafts tenfold, while the radial force of stents had no impact. These data may prove important in future endograft development to prevent stent-graft migration after aneurysm exclusion.

  16. Predictive Factors of In-Stent Restenosis in Renal Artery Stenting: A Retrospective Analysis

    Vignali, Claudio; Bargellini, Irene; Lazzereschi, Michele; Cioni, Roberto; Petruzzi, Pasquale; Caramella, Davide; Pinto, Stefania; Napoli, Vinicio; Zampa, Virna; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To retrospectively evaluate the role of clinical and procedural factors in predicting in-stent restenosis in patients with renovascular disease treated by renal artery stenting. Methods. From 1995 to 2002, 147 patients underwent renal artery stenting for the treatment of significant ostial atherosclerotic stenosis. Patients underwent strict clinical and color-coded duplex ultrasound follow-up. Ninety-nine patients (111 stents), with over 6 months of continuous follow-up (mean 22±12 months, range 6-60 months), were selected and classified according to the presence (group A, 30 patients, 32 lesions) or absence (group B, 69 patients, 79 lesions) of significant in-stent restenosis. A statistical analysis was performed to identify possible preprocedural and procedural predictors of restenosis considering the following data: sex, age, smoking habit, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, serum creatinine, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, renal artery stenosis grade, and stent type, length and diameter. Results. Comparing group A and B patients (χ 2 test), a statistically significant relation was demonstrated between stent diameter and length and restenosis: the risk of in-stent restenosis decreased when the stent was ≥6 mm in diameter and between 15 and 20 mm in length. This finding was confirmed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Stent diameter and length were proved to be significantly related to in-stent restenosis also when evaluating only patients treated by Palmaz stent (71 stents). Conclusion. Although it is based on a retrospective analysis, the present study confirms the importance of correct stent selection in increasing long-term patency, using stents of at least 6 mm in diameter and with a length of approximately 15-20 mm

  17. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus reassure others in distress

    Joshua M. Plotnik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Contact directed by uninvolved bystanders toward others in distress, often termed consolation, is uncommon in the animal kingdom, thus far only demonstrated in the great apes, canines, and corvids. Whereas the typical agonistic context of such contact is relatively rare within natural elephant families, other causes of distress may trigger similar, other-regarding responses. In a study carried out at an elephant camp in Thailand, we found that elephants affiliated significantly more with other individuals through directed, physical contact and vocal communication following a distress event than in control periods. In addition, bystanders affiliated with each other, and matched the behavior and emotional state of the first distressed individual, suggesting emotional contagion. The initial distress responses were overwhelmingly directed toward ambiguous stimuli, thus making it difficult to determine if bystanders reacted to the distressed individual or showed a delayed response to the same stimulus. Nonetheless, the directionality of the contacts and their nature strongly suggest attention toward the emotional states of conspecifics. The elephants’ behavior is therefore best classified with similar consolation responses by apes, possibly based on convergent evolution of empathic capacities.

  18. Elephant's foot phenomenon in liquid storage tanks

    Chen, C.Q.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a method for analyzing the seismic response of a flat bottomed cylindrical liquid storage tank to vertical earthquake excitation. Here, vertical earthquake acceleration is considered to correspond to an increase in the density of a stored liquid. Taking into account the vertical and horizontal earthquake loads, hydrostatic pressure, and considering restrictive moment and shear forces at shell-bottom welded joint, the author has calculated circumferential and longitudinal stresses. These are combined to more accurately approximate the stresses at the base shell course. The calculated result closely conforms to the actual damage, termed ''elephant's foot,'' observed in the fuel storage tanks damaged in the Tangshan earthquake. This result shows that the ''elephant's foot'' phenomenon is not caused by buckling of the tank shell due to longitudinal compressive stresses resulting from horizontal earthquake acceleration, but rather by the combined stresses in the base shell course of the storage tank exceeding the yield strength of the shell course material. The effect due to vertical earthquake load is more than the effect from the horizontal load. Finally, some earthquake resistant methods to prevent the ''elephant's foot'' phenomenon are suggested by the author.

  19. Morphological aspects and composition of African elephant (Loxodonta africana ivory

    E.J. Raubenheimer

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the origin of the diamond shaped pattern and composition of ivory of the African elephant. Fragments of ivory and tusks were obtained through the National Parks Board from the Kruger Park, Addo Elephant Park, Kaokoveld, Caprivi, Etosha, Kavango and Tembe Elephant Park. Polished surfaces were prepared in different planes and examined with light and electron microscopical techniques. Analyses of the inorganic composition were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, ion selective electrodes and inductively coupled optical emission spectroscopy. The total amino acid composition was determined with the aid of an amino acid analyser. Morphological investigations showed the distinctive diamond shaped pattern of ivory to be caused by the sinusoidal surface to pulpal course followed by odontoblastic tubules. This course is the result of pressure which builds up between tightly packed odontoblasts on their centripetal course along an ever decreasing pulpal circumference during formation of ivory. A total of 17 elements were detected in the inorganic fraction of ivory, some in concentrations as low as 0.25 ^g/g. The concentrations of calcium, magnesium, fluoride, cobalt and zinc showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.007 between selected regions and may prove valuable in distinguishing chemically between ivory from different geographical locations. The organic content of ivory showed 17 amino acids in varying concentrations. The possible causes of these variations are discussed.

  20. Nearby grandmother enhances calf survival and reproduction in Asian elephants.

    Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-06-10

    Usually animals reproduce into old age, but a few species such as humans and killer whales can live decades after their last reproduction. The grandmother hypothesis proposes that such life-history evolved through older females switching to invest in their existing (grand)offspring, thereby increasing their inclusive fitness and selection for post-reproductive lifespan. However, positive grandmother effects are also found in non-menopausal taxa, but evidence of their associated fitness effects is rare and only a few tests of the hypothesis in such species exist. Here we investigate the grandmother effects in Asian elephants. Using a multigenerational demographic dataset on semi-captive elephants in Myanmar, we found that grandcalves from young mothers (years) had 8 times lower mortality risk if the grandmother resided with her grandcalf compared to grandmothers residing elsewhere. Resident grandmothers also decreased their daughters' inter-birth intervals by one year. In contrast to the hypothesis predictions, the grandmother's own reproductive status did not modify such grandmother benefits. That elephant grandmothers increased their inclusive fitness by enhancing their daughter's reproductive rate and success irrespective of their own reproductive status suggests that fitness-enhancing grandmaternal effects are widespread, and challenge the view that grandmother effects alone select for menopause coupled with long post-reproductive lifespan.

  1. Lumbopelvic flexibility modulates neuromuscular responses during trunk flexion-extension.

    Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel; Artacho-Pérez, Carla; Biviá-Roig, Gemma

    2016-06-01

    Various stimuli such as the flexibility of lumbopelvic structures influence the neuromuscular responses of the trunk musculature, leading to different load sharing strategies and reflex muscle responses from the afferents of lumbopelvic mechanoreceptors. This link between flexibility and neuromuscular response has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lumbopelvic flexibility and neuromuscular responses of the erector spinae, hamstring and abdominal muscles during trunk flexion-extension. Lumbopelvic movement patterns were measured in 29 healthy women, who were separated into two groups according to their flexibility during trunk flexion-extension. The electromyographic responses of erector spinae, rectus abdominis and biceps femoris were also recorded. Subjects with greater lumbar flexibility had significantly less pelvic flexibility and vice versa. Subjects with greater pelvic flexibility had a higher rate of relaxation and lower levels of hamstring activation during maximal trunk flexion. The neuromuscular response patterns of the hamstrings seem partially modulated by pelvic flexibility. Not so with the lumbar erector spinae and lumbar flexibility, despite the assertions of some previous studies. The results of this study improve our knowledge of the relationships between trunk joint flexibility and neuromuscular responses, a relationship which may play a role in low back pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional and morphological variety in trunk muscles of Urodela.

    Omura, Ayano; Anzai, Wataru; Endo, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    Trunk musculature in Urodela species varies by habitat. In this study, trunk musculature was examined in five species of adult salamanders representing three different habitats: aquatic species, Amphiuma tridactylum and Necturus maculosus; semi-aquatic species, Cynops pyrrhogaster; terrestrial species, Hynobius nigrescens and Ambystoma tigrinum. More terrestrial species have heavier dorsal and ventral trunk muscles than more aquatic forms. By contrast, the lateral hypaxial musculature was stronger in more aquatic species. The number of layers of lateral hypaxial musculature varied among Urodela species and did not clearly correlate with their habitats. The M. rectus abdominis was separated from the lateral hypaxial musculature in both terrestrial and semi-aquatic species. In aquatic species, M. rectus abdominis was not separated from lateral hypaxial musculature. Lateral hypaxial musculature differed in thickness among species and was relatively thinner in terrestrial species. In more terrestrial species, dorsal muscles may be used for stabilization and ventral flexing against gravity. Ventral muscle may be used in preventing dorsally concave curvature of the trunk by dorsal muscles and by weight. The lengthy trunk supported by limbs needs muscular forces along the ventral contour line in more terrestrial species. And, the locomotion on well-developed limbs seems to lead to a decrease of the lateral hypaxial musculature.

  3. Delayed cerebral infarction due to stent folding deformation following carotid artery stenting

    Seo, Kwon Duk; Lee, Kyung Yul; Suh, Sang Hyun [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Moon [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We report a case of delayed cerebral infarction due to stent longitudinal folding deformation following carotid artery stenting using a self-expandable stent with an open-cell design. The stented segment of the left common carotid artery was divided into two different lumens by this folding deformation, and the separated lumens became restricted with in-stent thrombosis. Although no established method of managing this rare complication exists, a conservative approach was taken with administration of anticoagulant and dual antiplatelet therapy. No neurological symptoms were observed during several months of clinical follow-up after discharge.

  4. Being stressed outside the park—conservation of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia

    Ringstad, Iris H; Jackson, Craig R; May, Roel; Fossøy, Frode; Uiseb, Kenneth; Killian, Werner; Palme, Rupert; Røskaft, Eivin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The conservation of the African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) is of prime importance for many African countries. Interactions between elephants and humans are known to induce stress and thereby have the potential to affect elephants’ fitness. In Namibia, anthropogenic disturbances are increasing due to increasing human population size and development, particularly near protected areas, such as national parks. In this study, we investigated elephant stress levels in relation to their land use, specifically their protection status, comparing elephants within Etosha National Park in Namibia with elephants residing outside the park. We noninvasively collected dung samples of 91 elephants and determined the concentration of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM), an indicator of physiological stress. Elephants outside the park (N = 35) had significantly higher concentrations of fGCM than those inside ENP (N = 56), suggesting that, despite including community-based conservancies, unprotected areas are more stressful for elephants than protected areas, most likely due to increased interactions with humans. We also found that males had lower fGCM concentrations than females, but no significant effect of age, body size or group size was detected. Additionally, herd sizes were significantly smaller and calf recruitment was potentially lower in unprotected areas. These findings underpin the importance of protected areas such as ENP, while encouraging decision-makers to continue reducing and mitigating potential human-induced disturbances. PMID:29270294

  5. Genomic DNA sequences from mastodon and woolly mammoth reveal deep speciation of forest and savanna elephants.

    Nadin Rohland

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the history of living and extinct elephantids, we generated 39,763 bp of aligned nuclear DNA sequence across 375 loci for African savanna elephant, African forest elephant, Asian elephant, the extinct American mastodon, and the woolly mammoth. Our data establish that the Asian elephant is the closest living relative of the extinct mammoth in the nuclear genome, extending previous findings from mitochondrial DNA analyses. We also find that savanna and forest elephants, which some have argued are the same species, are as or more divergent in the nuclear genome as mammoths and Asian elephants, which are considered to be distinct genera, thus resolving a long-standing debate about the appropriate taxonomic classification of the African elephants. Finally, we document a much larger effective population size in forest elephants compared with the other elephantid taxa, likely reflecting species differences in ancient geographic structure and range and differences in life history traits such as variance in male reproductive success.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Habitat Use of an Asian Elephant in Sumatra

    Todd K. Fuller

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural and human development has forced Sumatran elephants into relatively small areas, but there is little information on how elephants use these areas and thus, how habitats can be managed to sustain elephants in the future. Using a Global Positioning System (GPS collar and a land cover map developed from TM imagery, we identified the habitats used by a wild adult female elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus in the Seblat Elephant Conservation Center, Bengkulu Province, Sumatra during 2007–2008. The marked elephant (and presumably her 40–60 herd mates used a home range that contained more than expected medium canopy and open canopy land cover. Further, within the home range, closed canopy forests were used more during the day than at night. When elephants were in closed canopy forests they were most often near the forest edge vs. in the forest interior. Effective elephant conservation strategies in Sumatra need to focus on forest restoration of cleared areas and providing a forest matrix that includes various canopy types.

  7. Elephant reproduction: improvement of breeding efficiency and development of a breeding strategy

    Thitaram, C.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of reproduction of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) has become of major concern. Captive breeding programs worldwide have met with limited success and few ex situ elephant populations are self-sustaining. The low birth rate and high mortality cause the captive population to

  8. Survey sequencing and comparative analysis of the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii genome.

    Byrappa Venkatesh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their phylogenetic position, cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays, skates, and chimaeras provide a critical reference for our understanding of vertebrate genome evolution. The relatively small genome of the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, a chimaera, makes it an attractive model cartilaginous fish genome for whole-genome sequencing and comparative analysis. Here, the authors describe survey sequencing (1.4x coverage and comparative analysis of the elephant shark genome, one of the first cartilaginous fish genomes to be sequenced to this depth. Repetitive sequences, represented mainly by a novel family of short interspersed element-like and long interspersed element-like sequences, account for about 28% of the elephant shark genome. Fragments of approximately 15,000 elephant shark genes reveal specific examples of genes that have been lost differentially during the evolution of tetrapod and teleost fish lineages. Interestingly, the degree of conserved synteny and conserved sequences between the human and elephant shark genomes are higher than that between human and teleost fish genomes. Elephant shark contains putative four Hox clusters indicating that, unlike teleost fish genomes, the elephant shark genome has not experienced an additional whole-genome duplication. These findings underscore the importance of the elephant shark as a critical reference vertebrate genome for comparative analysis of the human and other vertebrate genomes. This study also demonstrates that a survey-sequencing approach can be applied productively for comparative analysis of distantly related vertebrate genomes.

  9. Patch-occupancy survey of elephant (Loxodonta africana surrounding Livingstone, Zambia

    David A. Youldon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild elephants represent the biggest human–wildlife conflict issue in Livingstone, Zambia. However, little is known about their movements. This survey investigated elephants’ habitat use outside a core protected and fenced zone that forms part of Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park, Zambia. Using ‘patch-occupancy’ methodology, indications of elephant presence (feeding behaviour, dung and tracks were surveyed. The survey aimed to assist proposed future monitoring exercises by defining the geographical extent that should be considered to improve accuracy in species abundance estimates. Results were supplemented using collected indications of elephant presence from prior monitoring exercises, and during this survey. Elephant presence was confirmed up to 8 km from the boundary of the protected core habitat, focussed in: (1 an unfenced zone of the national park, (2 along a road leading from the national park to the Dambwa Forest to the north and (3 along two rivers located to the west (Sinde River and east (Maramba River of the core area. Detection probability of elephant presence was high using these methods, and we recommend regular sampling to determine changes in habitat use by elephants, as humans continue to modify land-use patterns. Conservation implications: Identification of elephant ranging behaviour up to 8 km outside of the Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park in southern Zambia will assist in managing human– elephant conflict in the area, as well as in assessing this seasonal population’s abundance.

  10. Prospects for managing African elephant population growth by immunocontraception: a review

    Perdok, A.A.; Boer, de W.F.; Stout, T.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Immunocontraception has been proposed as a tool for managing African elephant populations threatening to. 'outgrow' a wildlife reserve. To date, however, the only immunocontraceptive technique tested on elephant cows is porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccination, in which solubilized pZP is injected

  11. Wild Animals and Justice : The Case of the Dead Elephant in the Room

    Kopnina, H.N.

    2016-01-01

    Elephants, the largest terrestrial representatives of the animal kingdom, are highorder mammals with complex ethology and social dynamics, looming large both in natural landscapes and cultural settings in diverse locations.1 Elephants are “wonderful or terrible, depending on where or who you are.”2

  12. Studi Perencanaan Migrasi Sistem Digital Oleh Penyelenggara Radio Trunking di Indonesia

    Awangga Febian Surya Admaja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sistem Radio Trunking merupakan sistem radio yang berbasis repeater untuk satu atau lebih menara dengan menggunakan lebih dari satu frekuensi, dimana pengguna secara semi-privat dapat memiliki kanal tersendiri untuk melakukan pembicaraan secara grup. Di Indonesia, alokasi pada pita frekuensi radio trunking analog direncanakan akan digunakan untuk trunking digital, dimana aplikasi sistem radio trunking  yang baru harus menggunakan teknologi trunking digital dan sistem analog yang ada disyaratkan untuk beralih ke teknologi digital. Studi ini bertujuan untuk melihat seberapa besar kesiapan dari penyelenggara radio trunking di Indonesia dalam melakukan migrasi radio trunking digital. Studi ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif melalui wawancara mendalam dan didukung dengan data kuantitatif untuk menunjukkan nilai indeks kesiapan dari penyelenggara radio trunking. Studi ini menghasilkan nilai indeks kesiapan dari sampel penyelenggara radio trunking dengan skema perencanaan migrasi sesuai dengan nilai indeks kesiapan.

  13. The effect of stent coating on stent deliverability: direct randomised comparison of drug eluting and bare metal stents using the same stent platform.

    Siminiak, Tomasz; Link, Rafał; Wołoszyn, Maciej; Kałmucki, Piotr; Baszko, Artur

    2012-01-01

    There is certain experimental and clinical evidence indicating that the covering of bare metal stents (BMS) with drug eluting polymers to produce drug eluting stents (DES) results in increased stent stiffness and modifies the mechanical properties of the stent platform. In addition, it has been speculated that the mechanical performance of DES, compared to BMS, may be related to the type of polymer used to cover stents. We aimed at evaluating the deliverability of DES with a lactate based biodegradable polymer and BMS in patients with stable coronary artery disease in a prospective randomised study. One hundred eleven consecutive patients (age: 36-77, mean 58.8 years) scheduled for routine angioplasty due to stable coronary disease were randomised to receive BMS (Chopin II(TM), Balton, Poland) or paclitaxel eluting stent (Chopin Luc(TM), Balton, Poland) using the same metal platform. Only patients scheduled for angioplasty using the direct implantation technique of a single stent were randomised. The exclusion criteria included patients 〉 80 years, multivessel disease and reference diameter of the target vessel 〉 3.5 mm. In the BMS group (n = 55; 35 males and 20 females), the mean diameter of implanted stents was 3.09 ± 0.40 and the mean length was 11.37 ± 2.80, whereas in the DES group (n = 56; 34 males and 22 females) the mean stent sizes were 3.02 ± 0.34 and 17.90 ± 7.38 mm, respectively (p 〉 0.05 for length). The groups did not significantly differ regarding the frequency of stent implantation to particular coronary vessels. The direct stenting technique was attempted and failed, leading to the stents' implantation after predilatation in five patients in the BMS group and six patients in the DES group. Failure of stent implantation and subsequent implantation of another stent type was observed in no BMS patients and in one DES patient (NS). Although stent covering with lactate based drug eluting polymer may increase its stiffness, it does not affect

  14. Removal of oil palm trunk lignin in ammonium hydroxide pretreatment

    Az-Zahraa, Balqis; Zakaria, Sarani; Daud, Muhammad F. B.; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed

    2018-04-01

    Alkaline pretreatment using ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH serves as one of a process to remove lignin from lignocellulosic biomass such as oil palm trunk fiber. In this study, the effect of NH4OH pretreatment on removal of oil palm trunk lignin was investigated. The oil palm trunk fiber was dissolved in NH4OH with different concentrations (6, 8 and 10 %), different duration (3, 5 and 7 h) and temperatures (60, 80 and 100 °C). The samples were analyzed by using UV-Vis to estimate the concentration of extracted lignin. The result indicates that the optimum conditions to gain maximum extracted lignin were 8% NH4OH, 100 °C and 5 h with concentration of 64 mgL-1 while the lowest was at 6% NH4OH, 100 °C and 5 h with concentration of 62.5 mgL-1.

  15. Systematic review on the conservation genetics of African savannah elephants.

    Zacarias, Daniel; Bini, Luis Mauricio; Loyola, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we review the conservation genetics of African savannah elephants, aiming to understand the spatio-temporal research trends and their underlying factors. As such, we explore three questions associated to the conservation genetics and molecular ecology of these elephants: (1) what are the research trends concerning the conservation genetics of Loxodonta africana ? (2) Do richer countries conduct more research on the genetics of African elephants? (3) Which attributes influence where scholars conduct their research? We examined available peer-reviewed publications from 1993 to 2014 in complementary online databases, including the ISI/Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and Google Scholar (GS), and searched for publications in scientific journals as well as in the reference section of these publications. We analyzed the annual trend of publications in this field of research, including the number of authors, levels of collaboration among authors, year of publication, publishing journal and the countries from where genetic samples were collected. Additionally, we identified main research clusters, authors, and institutional collaborations, based on co-citation and co-occurrence networks. We found that during the study period there was a positive trend in the number of publications and a reduction in the number of authors per paper. Twenty-five countries contributed, with the majority of publications authored by researchers in the USA, Kenya and South Africa. The majority of samples were collected in Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa. Research outputs are associated with the existence of long-term conservation/research projects and research potential as measured by the literacy rate and the number of higher education institutions in a country. Five research clusters were identified, focusing on the origin and evolution of the species, methodological issues and the relatedness among elephant species. Research in this field should be expanded to additional countries

  16. Systematic review on the conservation genetics of African savannah elephants

    Daniel Zacarias

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background In this paper we review the conservation genetics of African savannah elephants, aiming to understand the spatio-temporal research trends and their underlying factors. As such, we explore three questions associated to the conservation genetics and molecular ecology of these elephants: (1 what are the research trends concerning the conservation genetics of Loxodonta africana? (2 Do richer countries conduct more research on the genetics of African elephants? (3 Which attributes influence where scholars conduct their research? Materials and Methods We examined available peer-reviewed publications from 1993 to 2014 in complementary online databases, including the ISI/Web of Science (WoS, Scopus and Google Scholar (GS, and searched for publications in scientific journals as well as in the reference section of these publications. We analyzed the annual trend of publications in this field of research, including the number of authors, levels of collaboration among authors, year of publication, publishing journal and the countries from where genetic samples were collected. Additionally, we identified main research clusters, authors, and institutional collaborations, based on co-citation and co-occurrence networks. Results We found that during the study period there was a positive trend in the number of publications and a reduction in the number of authors per paper. Twenty-five countries contributed, with the majority of publications authored by researchers in the USA, Kenya and South Africa. The majority of samples were collected in Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa. Research outputs are associated with the existence of long-term conservation/research projects and research potential as measured by the literacy rate and the number of higher education institutions in a country. Five research clusters were identified, focusing on the origin and evolution of the species, methodological issues and the relatedness among elephant species. Conclusions

  17. Recursion to food plants by free-ranging Bornean elephant

    Megan English

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant recovery rates after herbivory are thought to be a key factor driving recursion by herbivores to sites and plants to optimise resource-use but have not been investigated as an explanation for recursion in large herbivores. We investigated the relationship between plant recovery and recursion by elephants (Elephas maximus borneensis in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah. We identified 182 recently eaten food plants, from 30 species, along 14 × 50 m transects and measured their recovery growth each month over nine months or until they were re-browsed by elephants. The monthly growth in leaf and branch or shoot length for each plant was used to calculate the time required (months for each species to recover to its pre-eaten length. Elephant returned to all but two transects with 10 eaten plants, a further 26 plants died leaving 146 plants that could be re-eaten. Recursion occurred to 58% of all plants and 12 of the 30 species. Seventy-seven percent of the re-eaten plants were grasses. Recovery times to all plants varied from two to twenty months depending on the species. Recursion to all grasses coincided with plant recovery whereas recursion to most browsed plants occurred four to twelve months before they had recovered to their previous length. The small sample size of many browsed plants that received recursion and uneven plant species distribution across transects limits our ability to generalise for most browsed species but a prominent pattern in plant-scale recursion did emerge. Plant recovery time was a good predictor of time to recursion but varied as a function of growth form (grass, ginger, palm, liana and woody and differences between sites. Time to plant recursion coincided with plant recovery time for the elephant’s preferred food, grasses, and perhaps also gingers, but not the other browsed species. Elephants are bulk feeders so it is likely that they time their returns to bulk feed on these grass species when

  18. Iliocaval Confluence Stenting for Chronic Venous Obstructions

    Graaf, Rick de, E-mail: r.de.graaf@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Wolf, Mark de, E-mail: markthewolf@gmail.com [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Sailer, Anna M., E-mail: anni.sailer@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Laanen, Jorinde van, E-mail: jorinde.van.laanen@mumc.nl; Wittens, Cees, E-mail: c.wittens@me.com [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Jalaie, Houman, E-mail: hjalaie@ukaachen.de [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Surgery (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeDifferent techniques have been described for stenting of venous obstructions. We report our experience with two different confluence stenting techniques to treat chronic bi-iliocaval obstructions.Materials and MethodsBetween 11/2009 and 08/2014 we treated 40 patients for chronic total bi-iliocaval obstructions. Pre-operative magnetic resonance venography showed bilateral extensive post-thrombotic scarring in common and external iliac veins as well as obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Stenting of the IVC was performed with large self-expandable stents down to the level of the iliocaval confluence. To bridge the confluence, either self-expandable stents were placed inside the IVC stent (24 patients, SECS group) or high radial force balloon-expandable stents were placed at the same level (16 patients, BECS group). In both cases, bilateral iliac extensions were performed using nitinol stents.ResultsRecanalization was achieved for all patients. In 15 (38 %) patients, a hybrid procedure with endophlebectomy and arteriovenous fistula creation needed to be performed because of significant involvement of inflow vessels below the inguinal ligament. Mean follow-up was 443 ± 438 days (range 7–1683 days). For all patients, primary, assisted-primary, and secondary patency rate at 36 months were 70, 73, and 78 %, respectively. Twelve-month patency rates in the SECS group were 85, 85, and 95 % for primary, assisted-primary, and secondary patency. In the BECS group, primary patency was 100 % during a mean follow-up period of 134 ± 118 (range 29–337) days.ConclusionStenting of chronic bi-iliocaval obstruction shows relatively high patency rates at medium follow-up. Short-term patency seems to favor confluence stenting with balloon-expandable stents.

  19. The forgotten ureteric JJ stent and its prevention: a prospective audit of the value of a ureteric stent logbook.

    Thomas, A Z; Casey, R G; Grainger, R; McDermott, T; Flynn, R; Thornhill, J A

    2007-01-01

    Temporary ureteric stent insertion is an integral part of modern endo-urological practice. Delayed stent removal or forgotten stents are associated with increased patient morbidity and complications which are often difficult to manage. We prospectively audited our ureteric stent insertion and removal logbook system to determine the value and effectiveness of our stent follow-up. Over a 1-year period, 210 ureteric stents were inserted in our urological unit. Of these, 47 (22.4%) patients were unaccounted as having their stents removed within the stent logbooks. One patient was lost to follow-up and re-presented with stent encrustation 10 months later. Our results in this audit suggest that our system of ureteric stent follow-up is not effective. We have now introduced a new system that we feel is a safer and a satisfactory alternative to the stent logbooks. This includes a patient education leaflet and removal date scheduling prior to discharge from hospital.

  20. [The Predictive Factors of Stent Failure in the Treatment of Malignant Extrinsc Ureteral Obstruction Using Internal Ureteral Stents].

    Matsuura, Hiroshi; Arase, Shigeki; Hori, Yasuhide; Tochigi, Hiromi

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the experiences at our single institute in the treatment of malignant extrinsic ureteral obstruction (MUO) using ureteral stents to investigate the clinical outcomes and the predictive factors of stent failure. In 52 ureters of 38 patients who had radiologically significant hydronephrosis due to MUO, internal ureteral stents (The BARD(R) INLAY(TM) ureteral stent set) were inserted. The median follow-up interval after the initial stent insertion was 124.5 days (4-1,120). Stent failure occurred in 8 ureters (15.4%) of the 7 patients. The median interval from the first stent insertion to stent failure was 88 days (1-468). A Cox regression multivariate analysis showed that the significant predictors of stent failure were bladder invasion. Based on the possibility of stent failure, the adaptation of the internal ureteral stent placement should be considered especially in a patient with MUO combined with bladder invasion.

  1. Immune responses of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to commercial tetanus toxoid vaccine.

    Lindsay, William A; Wiedner, Ellen; Isaza, Ramiro; Townsend, Hugh G G; Boleslawski, Maria; Lunn, D P

    2010-02-15

    Although captive elephants are commonly vaccinated annually against tetanus using commercially available tetanus toxoid vaccines marketed for use in horses and livestock, no data exists to prove that tetanus toxoid vaccination produces measurable antibody titers in elephants. An ELISA test was created to measure antibody responses to tetanus toxoid vaccinations in 22 Asian elephants ranging in age from 24 to 56 years (mean age 39 years) over a 7-month period. All animals had been previously vaccinated with tetanus toxoid vaccine, with the last booster administered 4 years before the start of the study. The great majority of elephants had titers prior to booster vaccination, and following revaccination all elephants demonstrated anamnestic increases in titers, indicating that this species does respond to tetanus vaccination. Surprisingly older animals mounted a significantly higher response to revaccination than did younger animals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of the tush and tusk and tusklessness in African elephant (Loxodonta africana

    E.J. Raubenheimer

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The embryologic development of the tush and tusk of the African elephant was studied by means of serial histologic sections prepared from elephant embryos with masses varying between Ig and 240 g. Statistics on tusklessness obtained during a four year population control programme in the Kruger National Park were analysed and compared with those reported in other elephant reserves in Southern Africa. Maxillae of eight elephant embryos, the maternal histories of which were available in six cases, were radiographed, dissected and examined microscopically. This study has shown that the tush and tusk develop from one tooth germ in a deciduous to permanent tooth relationship. Tusklessness was found to be unilateral or bilateral and associated with either the absence or presence of a tush. The possible causes of the differences in the frequency of bilateral tusklessness in different elephant populations are discussed.

  3. MRT of carotid stents: influence of stent properties and sequence parameters on visualization of the carotid artery lumen

    Straube, T.; Wolf, S.; Alfke, K.; Jansen, O.; Flesser, A.; Deli, M.; Nabavi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate MR artifacts of carotid artery stents and to optimize stent properties and sequence parameters. Material and Methods: Four carotid artery stents - Wallstent (mediloy), Precise (nitinol), ACCULINK (nitinol) and a stent prototype (nitinol) - were investigated in a flow model of the cervical vessels. The model was made of silicon tubing and a flow pump that produces realistic flow curves of the carotid artery. To investigate the effects of magnetic susceptibility and radiofrequency induced shielding artifacts, turbo spin echo and gradient echo sequences as well as CE-MRAs were measured. To improve the visualization of the stent lumen in a CE-MRA, flip angle as well as geometry and covering of the stent prototype were altered. Results: Susceptibility artifacts in stents of the carotid artery only influence the lumen visualization at the proximal and distal end of the braided mediloy stent. A change of stent coverings has no significant influence on radiofrequency artifacts, whereas a reduction in linking elements between stent segments and a change in diameter of stent struts improves visualization of the stent lumen. By increasing the flip angle in a CE-MRA, visualization of the stent lumen is possible in both mediloy and nitinol stents. Conclusion: The choice of stent material and changes in stent geometry as well as the optimization of the flip angle of the CE-MRA may reduce susceptibility and radiofrequency artifacts, rendering feasible the CE-MRA of a stented carotid artery. (orig.)

  4. Compliance Study of Endovascular Stent Grafts Incorporated with Polyester and Polyurethane Graft Materials in both Stented and Unstented Zones

    Ying Guan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Compliance mismatch between stent graft and host artery may induce complications and blood flow disorders. However, few studies have been reported on stent graft compliance. This study aims to explore the deformation and compliance of stent graft in stented and unstented zones under three pressure ranges. Compliance of two stent grafts incorporated with polyurethane graft (nitinol-PU and polyester graft (nitinol-PET materials respectively were tested; the stents used in the two stent grafts were identical. For the circumferential deformation of the stent grafts under each pressure range, the nitinol-PET stent graft was uniform in both zones. The nitinol-PU stent graft was circumferentially uniform in the stented zone, however, it was nonuniform in the unstented zone. The compliance of the PU graft material was 15 times higher than that of the PET graft. No significant difference in compliance was observed between stented and unstented zones of the nitinol-PET stent graft regardless of the applied pressure range. However, for the nitinol-PU stent graft, compliance of the unstented PU region was approximately twice that of the stented region; thus, compliance along the length of the nitinol-PU stent graft was not constant and different from that of the nitinol-PET stent graft.

  5. Risk Factors and Clinical Evaluation of Superficial Femoral Artery Stent Fracture: Prote'ge'GPS Stent

    Lee, Da Un; Kim, Jae Kyu; Jung, Hye Doo; Huh, Tae Wook; Yim, Nam Yeol; Oh, Hyun jun; Choi, Soo Jin Na; Chang, Nam Kyu

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of superficial femoral artery stent fractures, the risk factors of stent fracture, and the relationship between fractures and clinical findings. Of the 38 patients who underwent treatment with Prote'ge'GPS stenting due to arterial occlusions on the superficial femoral artery, 17 also underwent a clinical analysis. Forty-three stents were inserted in the 17 superficial femoral arteries, ranging between 15 and 50 cm in length, with a mean treated length of 26.4 cm (15-50 cm). A fracture was evaluated by taking a PA and lateral simple radiography, as well as a follow-up evaluation accompanied with a CT angiography, DSA, and a color Doppler sonography. The examination involved the assessment of the difference between bone fractures due to length, placement, and frequency. Fractures occurred in 13 of 43 stents (30.2%). A total of 10 (71.4%) occurred in the upper third, compared to 4 (28.6%) in the lower third of the superficial femoral artery. In addition, 10 stents (71.4%) had a single strut fracture, whereas 4 (28.6%) had multiple strut fractures. A stent fracture occurred more frequently when the stents and lesions were longer (p=0.021, 0.012) and the stents were inserted near the joint. However, there was no significant relationship between stent numbers and the fractures (p=0.126). When the stents were inserted along the popliteal artery, a stent fracture occurred more frequently in the lower third of the artery. The stent fractures did not significantly influence the patency rate of the stented artery (p=0.44) Prote'ge'GPS stents in the superficial femoral artery revealed a considerable number of fractures and the fracture frequency showed a significant relationship with the length of stents and lesions. The closer stent insertion was to the joints, the more frequently fractures occurred. There were no evident significant relationships between the presence of stent fractures and the patency of the stented arteries

  6. Chondroid lipoma of the trunk: MRI appearance and pathologic correlation

    Boets, An; Mieghem, Isabelle M.Van; Breuseghem, Iwan Van [Catholic University Leuven Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Sciot, Raf [Catholic University Leuven, Pathology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    Chondroid lipoma is a rare tumour of adipose tissue, bearing a strikingly close pathologic resemblance to myxoid liposarcoma and extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Unlike these malignant tumours, chondroid lipoma has a non-aggressive behaviour and does not require radical treatment. Although repeatedly reported in the proximal extremities and limb girdles, this rare entity may less frequently be observed in the trunk. We describe the imaging findings of a chondroid lipoma in the trunk and provide a discussion on the radiologic-pathologic correlation and differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. Duplicated facial nerve trunk with a first branchial cleft cyst.

    Hinson, Drew; Poteet, Perry; Bower, Charles

    2014-03-01

    First branchial cleft anomalies are rare and their various anatomical relationships to the facial nerve have been described. We encountered a 15-year-old female with a type II first branchial cleft cyst presenting as a right neck mass that we found during surgical excision to transverse two main facial nerve trunks. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a first branchial cleft anomaly in conjunction with a duplicated facial nerve trunk. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. USE OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS AS A COMPONENT OF TUSK FRACTURE MANAGEMENT IN AN ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) AND AN AFRICAN ELEPHANT (LOXODONTA AFRICANA).

    Sim, Richard R; Stringer, Elizabeth; Donovan, Dennis; Chappell, Rachael; Flora, Pat; Hall, Jon; Pillay, Selvum; Willis, Benjamin G; McCain, Stephanie

    2017-09-01

    Tusk fractures in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) can result in damage to the distal end or to longitudinal cracks, potentially progressing to pulpitis. With pulp exposure, endodontic therapy is the treatment of choice, but conservative therapy has sufficed for some elephants. This manuscript describes the use of composite materials as a component of tusk fracture management. A 7-yr-old male Asian elephant fractured the distal end of both tusks with pulp exposure in one. Capping of each tusk with a Kevlar/fiberglass composite prevented further damage, and a modification allowed care of the exposed pulp tissue. A 34-yr-old male African elephant with a longitudinal crack received a carbon fiber/fiberglass composite circumferential wrap to potentially stabilize the crack. Compression of the crack was achieved, but follow-up was truncated due to bacterial pulpitis. Both cases show that composite material allows for lightweight, durable management of tusk fractures with continued radiographic monitoring.

  9. Asian elephants in China: estimating population size and evaluating habitat suitability.

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available We monitored the last remaining Asian elephant populations in China over the past decade. Using DNA tools and repeat genotyping, we estimated the population sizes from 654 dung samples collected from various areas. Combined with morphological individual identifications from over 6,300 elephant photographs taken in the wild, we estimated that the total Asian elephant population size in China is between 221 and 245. Population genetic structure and diversity were examined using a 556-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA, and 24 unique haplotypes were detected from DNA analysis of 178 individuals. A phylogenetic analysis revealed two highly divergent clades of Asian elephants, α and β, present in Chinese populations. Four populations (Mengla, Shangyong, Mengyang, and Pu'Er carried mtDNA from the α clade, and only one population (Nangunhe carried mtDNA belonging to the β clade. Moreover, high genetic divergence was observed between the Nangunhe population and the other four populations; however, genetic diversity among the five populations was low, possibly due to limited gene flow because of habitat fragmentation. The expansion of rubber plantations, crop cultivation, and villages along rivers and roads had caused extensive degradation of natural forest in these areas. This had resulted in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and had formed artificial barriers that inhibited elephant migration. Using Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing technology, we found that the area occupied by rubber plantations, tea farms, and urban settlements had dramatically increased over the past 40 years, resulting in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and forming artificial barriers that inhibit elephant migration. The restoration of ecological corridors to facilitate gene exchange among isolated elephant populations and the establishment of cross-boundary protected areas between China and Laos to secure

  10. Usual populations, unusual individuals: insights into the behavior and management of Asian elephants in fragmented landscapes.

    Nishant M Srinivasaiah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A dearth in understanding the behavior of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus at the scale of populations and individuals has left important management issues, particularly related to human-elephant conflict (HEC, unresolved. Evaluation of differences in behavior and decision-making among individual elephants across groups in response to changing local ecological settings is essential to fill this gap in knowledge and to improve our approaches towards the management and conservation of elephants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized certain behavioral decisions that would be made by Asian elephants as reflected in their residence time and movement rates, time-activity budgets, social interactions and group dynamics in response to resource availability and human disturbance in their habitat. This study is based on 200 h of behavioral observations on 60 individually identified elephants and a 184-km(2 grid-based survey of their natural and anthropogenic habitats within and outside the Bannerghatta National Park, southern India during the dry season. At a general population level, the behavioral decisions appeared to be guided by the gender, age and group-type of the elephants. At the individual level, the observed variation could be explained only by the idiosyncratic behaviors of individuals and that of their associating conspecific individuals. Recursive partitioning classification trees for residence time of individual elephants indicated that the primary decisions were taken by individuals, independently of their above-mentioned biological and ecological attributes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Decision-making by Asian elephants thus appears to be determined at two levels, that of the population and, more importantly, the individual. Models based on decision-making by individual elephants have the potential to predict conflict in fragmented landscapes that, in turn, could aid in mitigating HEC. Thus, we must target individuals

  11. Reproductive Health Assessment of Female Elephants in North American Zoos and Association of Husbandry Practices with Reproductive Dysfunction in African Elephants (Loxodonta africana.

    Janine L Brown

    Full Text Available As part of a multi-institutional study of zoo elephant welfare, we evaluated female elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and applied epidemiological methods to determine what factors in the zoo environment are associated with reproductive problems, including ovarian acyclicity and hyperprolactinemia. Bi-weekly blood samples were collected from 95 African (Loxodonta africana and 75 Asian (Elephas maximus (8-55 years of age elephants over a 12-month period for analysis of serum progestogens and prolactin. Females were categorized as normal cycling (regular 13- to 17-week cycles, irregular cycling (cycles longer or shorter than normal or acyclic (baseline progestogens, <0.1 ng/ml throughout, and having Low/Normal (<14 or 18 ng/ml or High (≥14 or 18 ng/ml prolactin for Asian and African elephants, respectively. Rates of normal cycling, acyclicity and irregular cycling were 73.2, 22.5 and 4.2% for Asian, and 48.4, 37.9 and 13.7% for African elephants, respectively, all of which differed between species (P < 0.05. For African elephants, univariate assessment found that social isolation decreased and higher enrichment diversity increased the chance a female would cycle normally. The strongest multi-variable models included Age (positive and Enrichment Diversity (negative as important factors of acyclicity among African elephants. The Asian elephant data set was not robust enough to support multi-variable analyses of cyclicity status. Additionally, only 3% of Asian elephants were found to be hyperprolactinemic as compared to 28% of Africans, so predictive analyses of prolactin status were conducted on African elephants only. The strongest multi-variable model included Age (positive, Enrichment Diversity (negative, Alternate Feeding Methods (negative and Social Group Contact (positive as predictors of hyperprolactinemia. In summary, the incidence of ovarian cycle problems and hyperprolactinemia predominantly

  12. Stent placement for esophageal strictures : an update

    Hirdes, Meike Madeleine Catharine; Vleggaar, Frank Paul; Siersema, Peter Derk

    The use of stents for esophageal strictures has evolved rapidly over the past 10 years, from rigid plastic tubes to flexible self-expanding metal (SEMS), plastic (SEPS) and biodegradable stents. For the palliative treatment of malignant dysphagia both SEMS and SEPS effectively provide a rapid relief

  13. Incidence of definite stent thrombosis or in-stent restenosis after drug-eluting stent implantation for treatment of coronary in-stent restenosis. From western denmark heart registry

    Jensen, Jesper; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl

    2012-01-01

    There are limited data on the optimal management of in-stent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with bare metal stent (BMS) or drug-eluting stent (DES) implantations. We assessed the clinical presentation, the incidence, and prognosis of definite stent thrombosis...

  14. Direct coronary stenting in reducing radiation and radiocontrast consumption

    Caluk, Jasmin; Osmanovic, Enes; Barakovic, Fahir; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Terzic, Ibrahim; Caluk, Selma; Sofic, Amela

    2010-01-01

    Coronary stenting is the primary means of coronary revascularization. There are two basic techniques of stent implantation: stenting with balloon predilatation of stenosis and stenting without predilatation (direct stenting). Limiting the time that a fluoroscope is activated and by appropriately managing the intensity of the applied radiation, the operator limits radiation in the environment, and this saves the exposure to the patient and all personnel in the room. Nephrotoxicity is one of the most important properties of radiocontrast. The smaller amount of radiocontrast used also provides multiple positive effects, primarily regarding the periprocedural risk for the patients with the reduced renal function. The goal of the study was to compare fluoroscopy time, the amount of radiocontrast, and expenses of material used in direct stenting and in stenting with predilatation. In a prospective study, 70 patients with coronary disease were randomized to direct stenting, or stenting with predilatation. Fluoroscopy time and radiocontrast use were significantly reduced in the directly stented patients in comparison to the patients stented with balloon-predilatation. The study showed a significant reduction of expenses when using a direct stenting method in comparison to stenting with predilatation. If the operator predicts that the procedure can be performed using direct stenting, he is encouraged to do so. Direct stenting is recommended for all percutaneous coronary interventions when appropriate conditions have been met. If direct stenting has been unsuccessful, the procedure can be converted to predilatation

  15. Stent Graft in Managing Juxta-Renal Aortoiliac Occlusion

    Prabhudesai, V.; Mitra, K.; West, D. J.; Dean, M. R. E.

    2003-01-01

    Endovascular procedures are frequently used as an alternative to surgical bypass in aortic and iliac occlusion. Stents have revolutionized the scope of such endovascular procedures, but there are few reports of stents or stent grafts in occlusive juxta-renal aortic occlusion. We present a case where such occlusion was managed by use of a stent graft with successful outcome

  16. Tourism-induced disturbance of wildlife in protected areas: A case study of free ranging elephants in Sri Lanka

    Eranga Ranaweerage

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tourism-induced disturbance is a growing concern in wildlife conservation worldwide. This case study in a key protected area in Sri Lanka, examined the behavioral changes of Asian elephants in the context of elephant watching tourism activities. Observations of different age–sex-group classes of elephants were conducted focusing on the feeding activity of elephants in the presence vs. absence of tourists. Frequency and duration of alert, fear, stress and aggressive behaviors of elephants were significantly high in the presence of tourists and these behaviors occurred at a cost of feeding time. Tourist behavior, vehicle noise, close distances and time of the tours were closely associated with the behavioral changes of elephants. It is important to monitor tourism effects on endangered species such as Asian elephants and to take proper measures including controlled tourist behavior and vehicle activity in protected areas in order to reduce disturbance of wildlife behavior.

  17. Basic Knowledge about Metal Stent Development

    Seok Jeong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biliary self-expandable metal stents (SEMS, a group of non-vascular stents, have been used in the palliative management of biliary obstruction around the world. However, there are still unmet needs in the clinical application of biliary SEMS. Comprehensive understanding of the SEMS is required to resolve the drawbacks and difficulties of metal stent development. The basic structure of SEMS, including the materials and knitting methods of metal wires, covering materials, and radiopaque markers, are discussed in this review. What we know about the physical and mechanical properties of the SEMS is very important. With an understanding of the basic knowledge of metal stents, hurdles such as stent occlusion, migration, and kinking can be overcome to develop more ideal SEMS.

  18. Stent graft placement for dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts

    Jeon, Gyeong Sik [Dept. of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, College of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young; Ahn, Moon Sang [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and outcomes of stent graft use in dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts. Eleven patients who underwent stent graft placement for a dysfunctional hemodialysis graft were included in this retrospective study. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene covered stent grafts were placed at the venous anastomosis site in case of pseudoaneurysm, venous laceration, elastic recoil or residual restenosis despite the repeated angioplasty. The patency of the arteriovenous graft was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Primary and secondary mean patency was 363 days and 741 days. Primary patency at 3, 6, and 12 months was 82%, 73%, and 32%, respectively. Secondary patency at the 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months was improved to 91%, 82%, 82%, 50%, and 25%, respectively. Fractures of the stent graft were observed in 2 patients, but had no effect on the patency. Stent graft placement in dysfunctional arteriovenous graft is useful and effective in prolonging graft patency.

  19. External stent for repair of secondary tracheomalacia.

    Johnston, M R; Loeber, N; Hillyer, P; Stephenson, L W; Edmunds, L H

    1980-09-01

    Tracheomalacia was created in anesthetized piglets by submucosal resection of 3 to 5 tracheal cartilages. Measurements of airway pressure and flow showed that expiratory airway resistance is maximal at low lung volumes and is significantly increased by creation of the malacic segment. Cervical flexion increases expiratory airway resistance, whereas hyperextension of the neck reduces resistance toward normal. External stenting of the malacic segment reduces expiratory airway resistance, and the combination of external stenting and hyperextension restores airway resistance to normal except at low lung volume. Two patients with secondary tracheomalacia required tracheostomy and could not be decannulated after the indication for the tracheostomy was corrected. Both were successfully decannulated after external stenting of the malacic segment with rib grafts. Postoperative measurements of expiratory pulmonary resistance show a marked decrease from preoperative measurements. External stenting of symptomatic tracheomalacia reduces expiratory airway resistance by supporting and stretching the malacic segment and is preferable to prolonged internal stenting or tracheal resection.

  20. Atrial septal stenting - How I do it?

    Kothandam Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide atrial communication is important to maintain hemodynamics in certain forms of congenital and acquired heart defects. In comparison to balloon septostomy or blade septostomy, atrial septal stenting provides a controlled, predictable, and long-lasting atrial communication. It often needs a prior Brockenbrough needle septal puncture to obtain a stable stent position. A stent deployed across a previously dilated and stretched oval foramen or tunnel form of oval foramen carries higher risk of embolization. This review provides technical tips to achieve a safe atrial septal stenting. Even though this is a "How to do it article," an initial discussion about the indications for atrial septal stenting is vital as the resultant size of the atrial septal communication should be tailored for each indication.

  1. Classic crush and DK crush stenting techniques.

    Zhang, Jun-Jie; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Clinical data have supported the advantages of the double kissing (DK) crush technique, which consists of stenting the side branch (SB), balloon crush, first kissing, stenting the main vessel (MV) and final kissing balloon inflation, for complex coronary bifurcation lesions compared to other stenting techniques. Careful rewiring from the proximal cell of the MV stent to make sure the wire is in the true lumen of the SB stent is key to acquiring optimal angiographic results. Balloon anchoring from the MV, alternative inflation and each kissing inflation using large enough non-compliant balloons at high pressure, and the proximal optimisation technique are mandatory to improve both angiographic and clinical outcomes. Stratification of a given bifurcation lesion is recommended before decision making.

  2. Plastic Biliary Stent Migration During Multiple Stents Placement and Successful Endoscopic Removal Using Intra-Stent Balloon Inflation Technique: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Calcara, Calcedonio; Broglia, Laura; Comi, Giovanni; Balzarini, Marco

    2016-02-05

    Late migration of a plastic biliary stent after endoscopic placement is a well known complication, but there is little information regarding migration of a plastic stent during multiple stents placement. A white man was hospitalized for severe jaundice due to neoplastic hilar stenosis. Surgical eligibility appeared unclear on admission and endoscopy was carried out, but the first stent migrated proximally at the time of second stent insertion. After failed attempts with various devices, the migrated stent was removed successfully through cannulation with a dilation balloon. The migration of a plastic biliary stent during multiple stents placement is a possible complication. In this context, extraction can be very complicated. In our patient, cannulation of a stent with a dilation balloon was the only effective method.

  3. Impact of elephant on two woody trees, Boscia oleoides and Pappea capensis, in an arid thicket-Nama Karoo mosaic, Greater Addo Elephant National Park

    Marietjie Landman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive evidence of the influences of elephant on woody trees in savannah habitats, effects on trees in the succulent thickets of the Eastern Cape are relatively poorly described. Our study investigates the role and intensity of elephant impacts on Pappea capensis and the relatively rare Boscia oleoides in an arid thicket-Nama Karoo mosaic habitat of the Greater Addo Elephant National Park. We show that roughly 19% of the B. oleoides and nearly half of the P. capensis individuals recorded showed signs of elephant impact. Elephant often toppled our study trees, and where these individuals were uprooted, mortalities occurred: B. oleoides ~ 44% of the impacted trees (4 individuals; P. capensis ~ 22% of the impacted trees (29 individuals. Conservation implications: Whilst this study is restricted by limited spatial and temporal replication, P. capensis mortalities caused by elephant occurred at a rate exceeding that of other processes. Our results provide insight into the severity of the measured changes and the need to reduce the impacts. However, it would be critically important to establish the specific driver of elephant–tree interactions before any management intervention is implemented.

  4. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response.

    Sarah A Boyle

    Full Text Available Captive African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants' behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 ± 2.1% and 56.6 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans. There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants

  5. Upper Gastrointestinal Stent Insertion in Malignant and Benign Disorders

    Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2015-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) stents are increasingly being used to manage upper GI obstructions. Initially developed for palliative treatment of esophageal cancer, upper GI stents now play an emerging role in benign strictures of the upper GI tract. Because recurrent obstruction and stent-related complications are common, new modifications of stents have been implemented. Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) have replaced older plastic stents. In addition, newly designed SEMS have been developed to prevent complications. This review provides an overview of the various types, indications, methods, complications, and clinical outcomes of upper GI stents in a number of malignant and benign disorders dividing the esophagus and gastroduodenum. PMID:26064817

  6. An ovine in vivo framework for tracheobronchial stent analysis.

    McGrath, Donnacha J; Thiebes, Anja Lena; Cornelissen, Christian G; O'Shea, Mary B; O'Brien, Barry; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Bruzzi, Mark; McHugh, Peter E

    2017-10-01

    Tracheobronchial stents are most commonly used to restore patency to airways stenosed by tumour growth. Currently all tracheobronchial stents are associated with complications such as stent migration, granulation tissue formation, mucous plugging and stent strut fracture. The present work develops a computational framework to evaluate tracheobronchial stent designs in vivo. Pressurised computed tomography is used to create a biomechanical lung model which takes into account the in vivo stress state, global lung deformation and local loading from pressure variation. Stent interaction with the airway is then evaluated for a number of loading conditions including normal breathing, coughing and ventilation. Results of the analysis indicate that three of the major complications associated with tracheobronchial stents can potentially be analysed with this framework, which can be readily applied to the human case. Airway deformation caused by lung motion is shown to have a significant effect on stent mechanical performance, including implications for stent migration, granulation formation and stent fracture.

  7. Tuberculosis serosurveillance and management practices of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area.

    Rosen, L E; Hanyire, T G; Dawson, J; Foggin, C M; Michel, A L; Huyvaert, K P; Miller, M A; Olea-Popelka, F J

    2018-04-01

    Transfrontier conservation areas represent an international effort to encourage conservation and sustainable development. Their success faces a number of challenges, including disease management in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tuberculosis (TB) affects humans and a multitude of non-human animal species and is of particular concern in sub-Saharan Africa. The Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area encompasses five countries, including Zimbabwe, and is home to the largest contiguous population of free-ranging elephants in Africa. Elephants are known to be susceptible to TB; thus, understanding TB status, exposure and transmission risks to and from elephants in this area is of interest for both conservation and human health. To assess risk factors for TB seroprevalence, a questionnaire was used to collect data regarding elephant management at four ecotourism facilities offering elephant-back tourist rides in the Victoria Falls area of Zimbabwe. Thirty-five working African elephants were screened for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex antibodies using the ElephantTB Stat-Pak and the DPP VetTB Assay for elephants. Six of 35 elephants (17.1%) were seropositive. The risk factor most important for seropositive status was time in captivity. This is the first study to assess TB seroprevalence and risk factors in working African elephants in their home range. Our findings will provide a foundation to develop guidelines to protect the health of captive and free-ranging elephants in the southern African context, as well as elephant handlers through simple interventions. Minimizing exposure through shared feed with other wildlife, routine TB testing of elephant handlers and regular serological screening of elephants are recommended as preventive measures. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Stent insertion in patients with malignant biliary obstruction: problems of the Hanaro stent

    Kwon, Jae Hyun; Seong, Chang Kyu; Shin, Tae Beom; Kim, Yong Joo [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Gyoo Sik [School of Medicine, Kosin National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byeung Ho [School of Medicine, Donga National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    To investigate the problems of the Hanaro stent (Solco Intermed, Seoul, Korea) when used in the palliative treatment of patients with inoperable malignant biliary obstruction. Between January 2000 and May 2001, the treatment of 46 patients with malignant biliary obstruction involved percutaneous placement of the Hanaro stent. Five patients encountered problems during removal of the stent's introduction system. The causes of obstruction were pancreatic carcinoma (n=2), cholangiocarcinoma (n=2), and gastric carcinoma with biliary invasion (n=1). In one patient, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and stent insertion were performed as a one-step procedure, while the others underwent conventional percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage for at least two days prior to stent insertion. A self-expandable Hanaro stent, 8-10 mm in deameter and 50-100 mm in lengh, and made from a strand of nitinol wire, was used in all cases. Among the five patients who encountered problems, breakage of the olive tip occourred in three, upward displacement of the stent in two, and improper expansion of the distal portion of the stent, unrelated with the obstruction site, in one. The broken olive tip was pushed to the duodenum in two cases and to the peripheral intrahepatic duct in one. Where the stent migrated during withdrawal of its introduction system, an additional stent was inserted. In one case, the migrated stent was positioned near the liver capsule and the drainage catheter could not be removed. Although the number of patients in this study was limited, some difficulties were encountered in withdrawing the stent's introduction system. To prevent the occurrence of this unusual complication, the stent should be appropriately expansile, and shape in the olive tip should be considered.

  9. Self-expandable metallic stents vs. plastic stents for endoscopic biliary drainage in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Chung, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Sang Hyub; Park, Jin Myung; Lee, Jae Min; Ahn, Dong-Won; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2015-06-01

    The patency of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) is known to be better than plastic stents in the palliation of malignant biliary obstruction. However, data are scarce for obstructive jaundice caused by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to compare SEMSs and plastic stents for the palliation of obstructive jaundice in unresectable HCC. A total of 96 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage with SEMSs or plastic stents were included in this retrospective analysis. The rate of successful biliary drainage, adverse events, stent patency duration, and patient survival were compared between the SEMS (n = 36) and plastic stent (n = 60) groups. The rate of successful biliary drainage was similar between the SEMS and plastic stent groups (25/36 [69.4 %] vs. 39/60 [65.0 %]; P = 0.655). Adverse events occurred in 6 patients (16.7 %) in the SEMS group and 13 patients (21.7 %) in the plastic stent group (P = 0.552). The median patency duration was also similar between the two groups (60 vs. 68 days; P = 0.396). The median patient survival was longer in the plastic stent group than in the SEMS group (123 vs. 48 days; P = 0.005). SEMSs were not superior to plastic stents for the palliation of malignant biliary obstruction in HCC with regard to successful drainage, stent patency, and adverse events. Patient survival was better in the plastic stent group. Given the lower cost, plastic stents could be a favorable option for malignant biliary obstruction caused by HCC. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Trunk muscle recruitment patterns in simulated precrash events.

    Ólafsdóttir, Jóna Marín; Fice, Jason B; Mang, Daniel W H; Brolin, Karin; Davidsson, Johan; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2018-02-28

    To quantify trunk muscle activation levels during whole body accelerations that simulate precrash events in multiple directions and to identify recruitment patterns for the development of active human body models. Four subjects (1 female, 3 males) were accelerated at 0.55 g (net Δv = 4.0 m/s) in 8 directions while seated on a sled-mounted car seat to simulate a precrash pulse. Electromyographic (EMG) activity in 4 trunk muscles was measured using wire electrodes inserted into the left rectus abdominis, internal oblique, iliocostalis, and multifidus muscles at the L2-L3 level. Muscle activity evoked by the perturbations was normalized by each muscle's isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) activity. Spatial tuning curves were plotted at 150, 300, and 600 ms after acceleration onset. EMG activity remained below 40% MVC for the three time points for most directions. At the 150- and 300 ms time points, the highest EMG amplitudes were observed during perturbations to the left (-90°) and left rearward (-135°). EMG activity diminished by 600 ms for the anterior muscles, but not for the posterior muscles. These preliminary results suggest that trunk muscle activity may be directionally tuned at the acceleration level tested here. Although data from more subjects are needed, these preliminary data support the development of modeled trunk muscle recruitment strategies in active human body models that predict occupant responses in precrash scenarios.

  11. Structural evolution and diversity of the caterpillar trunk

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    cuticle thickness, the degree of myrmecopily and the underlying mechanism of lycaenid-ant associations (MS4). In two major manuscripts (MS1-2), comparative descriptions are provided of the larval trunk in, respectively the Micropterigidae and the lowest-grade leaf-mining caterpillars. Available knowledge...

  12. Test-retest reliability of trunk accelerometric gait analysis

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Moe-Nilssen, R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of a trunk accelerometric gait analysis in healthy subjects. Accelerations were measured during walking using a triaxial accelerometer mounted on the lumbar spine of the subjects. Six men and 14 women (mean age 35.2; range 18...... a definite potential in clinical gait analysis....

  13. A nonlinear dynamics of trunk kinematics during manual lifting tasks.

    Khalaf, Tamer; Karwowski, Waldemar; Sapkota, Nabin

    2015-01-01

    Human responses at work may exhibit nonlinear properties where small changes in the initial task conditions can lead to large changes in system behavior. Therefore, it is important to study such nonlinearity to gain a better understanding of human performance under a variety of physical, perceptual, and cognitive tasks conditions. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether the human trunk kinematics data during a manual lifting task exhibits nonlinear behavior in terms of determinist chaos. Data related to kinematics of the trunk with respect to the pelvis were collected using Industrial Lumbar Motion Monitor (ILMM), and analyzed applying the nonlinear dynamical systems methodology. Nonlinear dynamics quantifiers of Lyapunov exponents and Kaplan-Yorke dimensions were calculated and analyzed under different task conditions. The study showed that human trunk kinematics during manual lifting exhibits chaotic behavior in terms of trunk sagittal angular displacement, velocity and acceleration. The findings support the importance of accounting for nonlinear dynamical properties of biomechanical responses to lifting tasks.

  14. Diverticulum of the brachiocephalic trunk - angiography and embryological explanation

    Pfefferkorn, J.R.; Lunkenheimer, A.; Loeser, H.; Hilgenberg, F.

    1983-03-01

    A diverticulum of the brachiocephalic trunk is described in 5 children with unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery, in a child with tetralogy of Fallot, and in an other child with Bland-White-Garland syndrome. The diverticulum is a remnant of a contralateral ductus arteriosus, which closed after birth and represents the origin of the distal part of the sixth aortic arch.

  15. TD-LTE maritime trunking communication system based on TVWS

    Ren, Chunxiang; Chen, Xing; Li, Wanchao; Chen, Baodan

    2014-10-01

    This paper collects the measurement results of 470 MHZ-960MHZ spectrum in the coastal areas, and analyzes the characteristics of TV broadcast spectrum occupancy in the measurement region. Moreover, this article proposes construct the TD-LTE maritime trunking communication system using geolocation database, television database (TVDB) and cognitive radio (CR) technology.

  16. Hip and trunk muscles activity during nordic hamstring exercise

    Narouei, Shideh; Imai, Atsushi; Akuzawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Kaneoka, Koji

    2018-01-01

    The nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a dynamic lengthening hamstring exercise that requires trunk and hip muscles activation. Thigh muscles activation, specifically hamstring/quadriceps contractions has been previously examined during NHE. Trunk and hip muscles activity have not been enough studied. The aim of this study was to analyze of hip and trunk muscles activity during NHE. Surface electromyography (EMG) and kinematic data were collected during NHE. Ten healthy men with the age range of 21–36 years performed two sets of two repetitions with downward and upward motions each of NHE. EMG activity of fifteen trunk and hip muscles and knee kinematic data were collected. Muscle activity levels were calculated through repeated measure analysis of variance in downward and upward motions, through Paired t-test between downward and upward motions and gluteus maximus to erector spine activity ratio (Gmax/ES ratio) using Pearson correlation analyses were evaluated. Semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles activity levels were the greatest in both motions and back extensors and internal oblique muscles activity were greater than other muscles (Phamstrings contractions. It could be important for early assessment of subjects with hamstring injury risk. PMID:29740557

  17. Trunk Reservation in Multi-service Networks with BPP Traffic

    Zheng, H.; Zhang, Qi; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we develop approximate models for trunk reservation in multi-service systems with BPP (Binomial-Poisson-Pascal) multi-rate traffic streams. The approximation is a generalization of previous work by Tran-Gia & Hubner who assumed Poisson arrival processes. It is based on a generalized...

  18. Hip and trunk muscles activity during nordic hamstring exercise.

    Narouei, Shideh; Imai, Atsushi; Akuzawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Kaneoka, Koji

    2018-04-01

    The nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a dynamic lengthening hamstring exercise that requires trunk and hip muscles activation. Thigh muscles activation, specifically hamstring/quadriceps contractions has been previously examined during NHE. Trunk and hip muscles activity have not been enough studied. The aim of this study was to analyze of hip and trunk muscles activity during NHE. Surface electromyography (EMG) and kinematic data were collected during NHE. Ten healthy men with the age range of 21-36 years performed two sets of two repetitions with downward and upward motions each of NHE. EMG activity of fifteen trunk and hip muscles and knee kinematic data were collected. Muscle activity levels were calculated through repeated measure analysis of variance in downward and upward motions, through Paired t -test between downward and upward motions and gluteus maximus to erector spine activity ratio (Gmax/ES ratio) using Pearson correlation analyses were evaluated. Semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles activity levels were the greatest in both motions and back extensors and internal oblique muscles activity were greater than other muscles ( P hamstrings contractions. It could be important for early assessment of subjects with hamstring injury risk.

  19. Biodegradable magnesium-alloy stent:current situation in research

    Chen Hua; Zhao Xianxian

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, permanent metal stents are employed in the majority of interventional therapies; nevertheless, such kind of stents carries the problems of thrombosis and restenosis. Therefore, the biodegradable magnesium alloy stent has become the focus of attention. Theoretically, it has overcome the problems caused by permanent metal stents, so it is the development direction to use the biodegradable magnesium alloy in future. The authors believe that biodegradable magnesium alloy stents will be widely used in interventional procedures for many diseases. (authors)

  20. Age-related reduction of trunk muscle torque and prevalence of trunk sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly: Validity of a portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument and its application to a large sample cohort study.

    Eiji Sasaki

    Full Text Available Trunk muscle weakness and imbalance are risk factors for postural instability, low back pain, and poor postoperative outcomes. The association between trunk muscle strength and aging is poorly understood, and establishing normal reference values is difficult. We aimed to establish the validity of a novel portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument (PTMI. We then estimated reference data for healthy young adults and elucidated age-related weakness in trunk muscle strength. Twenty-four university students were enrolled to validate values for PTMI, and 816 volunteers from the general population who were recruited to the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were included to estimate reference data for trunk muscle strength. Trunk flexion and extension torque were measured with PTMI and KinCom, and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC were estimated to evaluate the reliability of PTMI values. Furthermore, from the young adult reference, the age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque and the prevalence of sarcopenia among age-sex groups were estimated. The ICC in flexion and extension torque were 0.807 (p<0.001 and 0.789 (p<0.001, respectively. The prevalence of sarcopenia increased with age, and the prevalence due to flexion torque was double that of extension torque. Flexion torque decreased significantly after 60 years of age, and extension torque decreased after 70 years of age. In males over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 49.1% in flexion and 63.5% in extension. In females over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 60.7% in flexion and 68.4% in extension. The validity of PTMI was confirmed by correlation with KinCom. PTMI produced reference data for healthy young adults, and demonstrated age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque. Trunk sarcopenia progressed with aging, and the loss of flexion torque began earlier than extension torque. At age 80, trunk muscle torque had decreased 60% compared with healthy young adults.

  1. Age-related reduction of trunk muscle torque and prevalence of trunk sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly: Validity of a portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument and its application to a large sample cohort study.

    Sasaki, Eiji; Sasaki, Shizuka; Chiba, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Yuji; Nawata, Atsushi; Tsuda, Eiichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2018-01-01

    Trunk muscle weakness and imbalance are risk factors for postural instability, low back pain, and poor postoperative outcomes. The association between trunk muscle strength and aging is poorly understood, and establishing normal reference values is difficult. We aimed to establish the validity of a novel portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument (PTMI). We then estimated reference data for healthy young adults and elucidated age-related weakness in trunk muscle strength. Twenty-four university students were enrolled to validate values for PTMI, and 816 volunteers from the general population who were recruited to the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were included to estimate reference data for trunk muscle strength. Trunk flexion and extension torque were measured with PTMI and KinCom, and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were estimated to evaluate the reliability of PTMI values. Furthermore, from the young adult reference, the age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque and the prevalence of sarcopenia among age-sex groups were estimated. The ICC in flexion and extension torque were 0.807 (psarcopenia increased with age, and the prevalence due to flexion torque was double that of extension torque. Flexion torque decreased significantly after 60 years of age, and extension torque decreased after 70 years of age. In males over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 49.1% in flexion and 63.5% in extension. In females over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 60.7% in flexion and 68.4% in extension. The validity of PTMI was confirmed by correlation with KinCom. PTMI produced reference data for healthy young adults, and demonstrated age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque. Trunk sarcopenia progressed with aging, and the loss of flexion torque began earlier than extension torque. At age 80, trunk muscle torque had decreased 60% compared with healthy young adults.

  2. Transient coronary aneurysm formation after Nevo™ stent implantation versus persistent coronary aneurysm after Cypher Select™ stent implantation

    Christiansen, Evald Høj; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Jensen, Lisette Okkels

    2011-01-01

    We implanted a Cypher Select™ coronary stent and two months later a Nevo™ sirolimus-eluting coronary stent in another vessel. At a prescheduled angiographic follow-up, coronary aneurysms were seen in the two stented segments, 6 and 8 months after stent implantation, respectively. Six months later......, the aneurysm had healed in the Nevo, but was still present in the Cypher stented segment. We hypothesize that aneurysm formation was induced by sirolimus and the polymer of the implanted stents, and that subsequent healing was possible in the Nevo stent after degradation of the polymer....

  3. Comparison of trunk activity during gait initiation and walking in humans.

    Jean-Charles Ceccato

    Full Text Available To understand the role of trunk muscles in maintenance of dynamic postural equilibrium we investigate trunk movements during gait initiation and walking, performing trunk kinematics analysis, Erector spinae muscle (ES recordings and dynamic analysis. ES muscle expressed a metachronal descending pattern of activity during walking and gait initiation. In the frontal and horizontal planes, lateroflexion and rotation occur before in the upper trunk and after in the lower trunk. Comparison of ES muscle EMGs and trunk kinematics showed that trunk muscle activity precedes corresponding kinematics activity, indicating that the ES drive trunk movement during locomotion and thereby allowing a better pelvis mobilization. EMG data showed that ES activity anticipates propulsive phases in walking with a repetitive pattern, suggesting a programmed control by a central pattern generator. Our findings also suggest that the programs for gait initiation and walking overlap with the latter beginning before the first has ended.

  4. An analysis of trunk kinematics and gait parameters in people with stroke

    Adnil W. Titus

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: This pilot study found significant asymmetry in trunk motion between the affected and unaffected sides that varied across the gait cycle. This suggests the trunk may need to be targeted in clinical gait retraining post-stroke.

  5. Endoscopic bilateral stent-in-stent placement for malignant hilar obstruction using a large cell type stent.

    Park, Jin Myung; Lee, Sang Hyub; Chung, Kwang Hyun; Jang, Dong Kee; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Yong-Tae; Lee, Jae Min; Paik, Woo Hyun

    2016-12-01

    Bilateral stent-in-stent (SIS) self-expandable metal stent placement is technically challenging for palliation of unresectable malignant hilar obstruction. In the SIS technique, the uniform large cell type biliary stent facilitates contralateral stent deployment through the mesh of the first metallic stent. This study aimed to assess the technical success and clinical effectiveness of this technique with a uniform large cell type biliary stent. Thirty-one patients who underwent bilateral SIS placement using a large cell type stent were reviewed retrospectively. All patients showed malignant hilar obstruction (Bismuth types II, III, IV) with different etiologies. Sixteen (51.6%) patients were male. The mean age of the patients was 67.0+/-14.0 years. Most patients were diagnosed as having hilar cholangiocarcinoma (58.1%) and gallbladder cancer (29.0%). Technical success rate was 83.9%. Success was achieved more frequently in patients without masses obstructing the biliary confluence (MOC) than those with MOC (95.2% vs 60.0%, P=0.03). Functional success rate was 77.4%. Complications occurred in 29.0% of the patients. These tended to occur more frequently in patients with MOC (50.0% vs 19.0%, P=0.11). Median time to recurrent biliary obstruction was 188 days and median survival was 175 days. The large cell type stent can be used efficiently for bilateral SIS placement in malignant hilar obstruction. However, the risk of technical failure increases in patients with MOC, and caution is needed to prevent complications for these patients.

  6. Partially Covered Metal Stents May Not Prolong Stent Patency Compared to Uncovered Stents in Unresectable Malignant Distal Biliary Obstruction

    Kim, Jae Yun; Ko, Gyu Bong; Lee, Tae Hoon; Park, Sang-Heum; Lee, Yun Nah; Cho, Young Sin; Jung, Yunho; Chung, Il-Kwun; Choi, Hyun Jong; Cha, Sang-Woo; Moon, Jong Ho; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Sun-Joo

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Controversy still exists regarding the benefits of covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) compared to uncovered SEMSs. We aimed to compare the patency and stent-related adverse events of partially covered SEMSs (PC-SEMSs) and uncovered SEMSs in unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction. Methods A total of 134 patients who received a PC-SEMS or uncovered SEMS for palliation of unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction were reviewed retrospectively. The main outcome measures were stent patency, stent-related adverse events, and overall survival. Results The median stent patency was 118 days (range, 3 to 802 days) with PC-SEMSs and 105 days (range, 2 to 485 days) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.718). The overall endoscopic revision rate due to stent dysfunction was 36.6% (26/71) with PC-SEMSs and 36.5% (23/63) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.589). Tumor ingrowth was more frequent with uncovered SEMSs (4.2% vs 19.1%, p=0.013), but migration was more frequent with PC-SEMSs (11.2% vs 1.5%, p=0.04). The incidence of stent-related adverse events was 2.8% (2/71) with PC-SEMSs and 9.5% (6/63) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.224). The median overall survival was 166 days with PC-SEMSs and 168 days with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.189). Conclusions Compared to uncovered SEMSs, PC-SEMSs did not prolong stent patency in unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction. Stent migration was more frequent with PC-SEMSs. However, tumor ingrowth was less frequent with PC-SEMSs compared to uncovered SEMSs. PMID:28208003

  7. Energy cost of running instability evaluated with wearable trunk accelerometry.

    Schütte, Kurt H; Sackey, Saint; Venter, Rachel; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2018-02-01

    Maintaining stability under dynamic conditions is an inherent challenge to bipedal running. This challenge may impose an energetic cost (Ec) thus hampering endurance running performance, yet the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Wireless triaxial trunk accelerometry is a simple tool that could be used to unobtrusively evaluate these mechanisms. Here, we test a cost of instability hypothesis by examining the contribution of trunk accelerometry-based measures (triaxial root mean square, step and stride regularity, and sample entropy) to interindividual variance in Ec (J/m) during treadmill running. Accelerometry and indirect calorimetry data were collected concurrently from 30 recreational runners (16 men; 14 women) running at their highest steady-state running speed (80.65 ± 5.99% V̇o 2max ). After reducing dimensionality with factor analysis, the effect of dynamic stability features on Ec was evaluated using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Three accelerometry-based measures could explain an additional 10.4% of interindividual variance in Ec after controlling for body mass, attributed to anteroposterior stride regularity (5.2%), anteroposterior root mean square ratio (3.2%), and mediolateral sample entropy (2.0%). Our results lend support to a cost of instability hypothesis, with trunk acceleration waveform signals that are 1) more consistent between strides anteroposterioly, 2) larger in amplitude variability anteroposterioly, and 3) more complex mediolaterally and are energetically advantageous to endurance running performance. This study shows that wearable trunk accelerometry is a useful tool for understanding the Ec of running and that running stability is important for economy in recreational runners. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study evaluates and more directly lends support to a cost of instability hypothesis between runners. Moreover, this hypothesis was tested using a minimalist setup including a single triaxial trunk mounted accelerometer

  8. Surgical treatment of celiomesenteric trunk aneurysm-7 case report.

    Wang, Chunxi; Cai, Xiangjun; Liang, Faqi; Chu, Futao; Chen, Gang; Duan, Zhiquan

    2014-01-01

    The celiomesenteric trunk is a rare anomaly characterized by a common origin of the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery from the aorta, which accounts for less than 1% of all celiac artery anomalies, so the aneurysm occurred in such trunk is even rarer. There have been few reports on how to diagnose and deal with such malformed celiomesenteric trunk aneurysms till now. This paper tries to summarize the experience of how to expose and excise such kind of aneurysm according to the seven cases' data. The clinic data were collected retrospectively. There were seven cases with celiomesenteric trunk aneurysm from February 2000 to February 2013, including 5 males and 2 females aged 35~62. The operations were done including aneurysm resection and vascular reconstruction under general anesthesia. The operated patients were followed-up at the sixth month and each year post operation. The vascular stomas were detected or examined by Color Doppler Sonography, spiral Computed Tomography angiography (SCTA). The seven operated patients were cured and discharged from hospital, and they were followed up for 3~10 years (mean time 5 years), with four patients being followed up longer than 5 years. No sign of intestinal ischemia or hepatic ischemia or splenic ischemia was found, and no image of anastomosis stricture or stenosis was found during the follow-up. Five patients are alive now while two patients were dead, with one dying of large area myocardial infarction unexpectedly at 6 years post operation and the other dying of cerebral infarction abruptly at 4 years post operation. It is an effective and safe method to treat the celiomesenteric trunk aneurysm by using by-pass operation with artificial blood vessels, originating from inferior kidney aorta to visceral arteries including hepatic artery, splenic artery and superior mesenteric artery. Its short-term and middle-term effects are relatively better.

  9. Water conservation in fasting northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    Lester, Christopher W; Costa, Daniel P

    2006-11-01

    Prolonged terrestrial fasting is a key element in the life history of elephant seals. While on land seals typically fast without access to fresh water, and thus must maintain positive water balance by reductions in water loss such that they can subsist primarily on metabolic water production (MWP). The terrestrial apnea demonstrated by seals may reduce respiratory evaporative water loss (REWL) to levels that allow seals to make a net gain of water from MWP. We empirically measured REWL in 13 fasting northern elephant seal pups and determined the effects on water conservation of a breathing mode that incorporates a regular pattern of apneas, of > or =1 min in duration, followed by eupneic recovery, compared with a breathing mode with no apneas longer than 20 s and resembling typical breathing patterns in other mammals (normative breathing). Overall REWL fell 41% from 0.075+/-0.013 g min(-1) (mean +/- s.d.) during normative breathing to 0.044+/-0.006 g min(-1) during apneic breathing. The decline in REWL is attributed to a decrease in overall ventilation rate, made possible by a decline in metabolic rate along with an increase in oxygen extraction that would occur during apneic breathing. Data on the range of ambient humidity conditions at the local breeding site were collected and used to bound the range of environmental conditions used in laboratory measurements. Our data showed that the observed variations in ambient humidity had no significant effect on REWL. A combination of apneic breathing and the complex nasal turbinates allows fasting elephant seals to reduce REWL well below the rate of MWP so that they can maintain water balance during the fast.

  10. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin in a marine mammal, the northern elephant seal.

    Tift, Michael S; Ponganis, Paul J; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-05-15

    Low concentrations of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated primarily through degradation of heme from heme-proteins, have been shown to maintain physiological function of organs and to exert cytoprotective effects. However, high concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), formed by CO binding to hemoglobin, potentially prevent adequate O2 delivery to tissues by lowering arterial O2 content. Elevated heme-protein concentrations, as found in marine mammals, are likely associated with greater heme degradation, more endogenous CO production and, consequently, elevated COHb concentrations. Therefore, we measured COHb in elephant seals, a species with large blood volumes and elevated hemoglobin and myoglobin concentrations. The levels of COHb were positively related to the total hemoglobin concentration. The maximum COHb value was 10.4% of total hemoglobin concentration. The mean (± s.e.m.) value in adult seals was 8.7 ± 0.3% (N=6), while juveniles and pups (with lower heme-protein contents) had lower mean COHb values of 7.6 ± 0.2% and 7.1 ± 0.3%, respectively (N=9 and N=9, respectively). Serial samples over several hours revealed little to no fluctuation in COHb values. This consistent elevation in COHb suggests that the magnitude and/or rate of heme-protein turnover is much higher than in terrestrial mammals. The maximum COHb values from this study decrease total body O2 stores by 7%, thereby reducing the calculated aerobic dive limit for this species. However, the constant presence of elevated CO in blood may also protect against potential ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with the extreme breath-holds of elephant seals. We suggest the elephant seal represents an ideal model for understanding the potential cytoprotective effects, mechanisms of action and evolutionary adaptation associated with chronically elevated concentrations of endogenously produced CO. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Flexibility and trackability of laser cut coronary stent systems.

    Szabadíts, Péter; Puskás, Zsolt; Dobránszky, János

    2009-01-01

    Coronary stents are the most important supports in present day cardiology. Flexibility and trackability are two basic features of stents. In this paper, four different balloon-expandable coronary stent systems were investigated mechanically in order to compare their suitability. The coronary stent systems were assessed by measurements of stent flexibility as well as by comparison of forces during simulated stenting in a self-investigated coronary vessel model. The stents were cut by laser from a single tube of 316L stainless steel or L-605 (CoCr) cobalt chromium alloy. The one-and four-point bending tests were carried out to evaluate the stent flexibility E x I (Nmm(2)), under displacement control in crimped and expanded configurations. The flexibility of stents would be rather dependent on the design than on raw material. In general a more flexible stent needs lower tracking force during the implantation. The L-605 raw material stents need lower track force to pass through in the vessel model than the 316L raw material stents. The sort and long stents passed through the curved vessel model in different ways. The long stents nestled to the vessel wall at the outer arc and bent, while the short stents did not bend in the curve, only the delivery systems bent.

  12. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response

    Boyle, Sarah A.; Roberts, Beth; Pope, Brittany M.; Blake, Margaret R.; Leavelle, Stephen E.; Marshall, Jennifer J.; Smith, Andrew; Hadicke, Amanda; Falcone, Josephine F.; Knott, Katrina; Kouba, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Captive African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal) and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol) responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants’ behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position) were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans) compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 ± 2.1% and 56.6 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans). There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants. Cortisol

  13. New elephant crisis in Asia-Early warning signs from Myanmar.

    Sampson, Christie; McEvoy, John; Oo, Zaw Min; Chit, Aung Myo; Chan, Aung Nyein; Tonkyn, David; Soe, Paing; Songer, Melissa; Williams, A Christy; Reisinger, Klaus; Wittemyer, George; Leimgruber, Peter

    2018-01-01

    In the southern Bago Yoma mountain range in Myanmar, Asian elephants are being killed at a disturbing rate. This emerging crisis was identified initially through a telemetry study when 7 of 19 of collared elephants were poached within a year of being fitted with a satellite-GPS collar. Subsequent follow up of ground teams confirmed the human caused death or disappearance of at least 19 elephants, including the seven collared individuals, within a 35 km2 area in less than two years. The carcasses of 40 additional elephants were found in areas located across south-central Myanmar once systematic surveys began by our team and collaborators. In addition to the extreme rate of loss, this study documents the targeting of elephants for their skin instead of the more common ivory, an increasing trend in Myanmar. Intensive research programs focused on other conservation problems identified this issue and are now encouraging local authorities to prioritize anti-poaching efforts and improve conservation policies within the country. Myanmar represents one of the last remaining countries in Asia with substantial wildlands suitable for elephants. Increasing rates of human-elephant conflict and poaching events in this country pose a dire threat to the global population.

  14. New elephant crisis in Asia-Early warning signs from Myanmar.

    Christie Sampson

    Full Text Available In the southern Bago Yoma mountain range in Myanmar, Asian elephants are being killed at a disturbing rate. This emerging crisis was identified initially through a telemetry study when 7 of 19 of collared elephants were poached within a year of being fitted with a satellite-GPS collar. Subsequent follow up of ground teams confirmed the human caused death or disappearance of at least 19 elephants, including the seven collared individuals, within a 35 km2 area in less than two years. The carcasses of 40 additional elephants were found in areas located across south-central Myanmar once systematic surveys began by our team and collaborators. In addition to the extreme rate of loss, this study documents the targeting of elephants for their skin instead of the more common ivory, an increasing trend in Myanmar. Intensive research programs focused on other conservation problems identified this issue and are now encouraging local authorities to prioritize anti-poaching efforts and improve conservation policies within the country. Myanmar represents one of the last remaining countries in Asia with substantial wildlands suitable for elephants. Increasing rates of human-elephant conflict and poaching events in this country pose a dire threat to the global population.

  15. Trace element concentrations in the fruit peels and trunks of Musa paradisiaca.

    Selema, M D; Farago, M E

    1996-08-01

    Chemical analyses for the elementary compositions of the ashes of the fruit peels and trunks of the tropical plantain Musa paradisiaca have been undertaken. The elements, categorized as trace elements, generally are found to have higher mean concentrations in the fruit peels than in the trunks (except in the case of Zn). Their peel-trunk uptake ratios have been calculated and range between 1 and 4, showing normal levels of accumulations in the fruit peels over the trunks.

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: African savanna elephant [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available African savanna elephant Loxodonta africana Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Loxodonta_afri...cana_L.png Loxodonta_africana_NL.png Loxodonta_africana_S.png Loxodonta_africana_NS....png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+afric...ana&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=NS ...

  17. Age profiles in elephant and mammoth bone assemblages

    Haynes, Gary

    1985-11-01

    Age profiles of modern African elephant ( Loxodonta africana) populations are significantly affected by drought conditions that cause local die-offs. Subadult animals die in proportions that may be nearly twice what is recorded in live populations. Such biasing of death sample age profiles might also have occurred during late Pleistocene die-offs of Mammuthus. This comparative study of modern and fossil proboscidean age structures supports a tentative interpretation that late Pleistocene extinction of Mammuthus (at least in the southwestern United States) resulted from severe drought conditions, at which Clovis hunters were witnesses, but not necessarily frequent participants.

  18. Touraine Solente Gole syndrome: The elephant skin disease

    T. M. Sheeja Rajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Touraine Solente Gole syndrome is a rare hereditary syndrome of primary pachydermoperiostosis, with the characteristic triad of pachydermia (or elephant like skin, periostosis and acropachia. A 27-year-old patient presented with aesthetic deformity of forehead due to deep skin folds and coarsening of facial features due to progressive thickening of skin. Associated palmoplantar hyperkeratosis with broadened of finger and toe tips and digital clubbing were noticed. Dermatologic evaluation revealed cutis verticis gyrata of scalp, seborrhoeic hyperplasia of face and hyperhidrosis. Natural history of the disease and aetiopathogenesis were reviewed. Aesthetic correction of forehead through frontal rhytidectomy was attempted.

  19. Tracheal obstruction caused by an expandable metallic stent: a case of successful removal of the stent.

    Okuyama, Hiroomi; Kubota, Akio; Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Oue, Takaharu; Nose, Satoko; Ihara, Toshiyuki

    2005-07-01

    We report a case of tracheal obstruction caused by an expandable metallic stent. A 3-month-old girl with severe tracheomalacia had a placement of a Palmaz stent. At 3 years of age, she developed progressive dyspnea. The CT scan showed tracheal obstruction caused by granulation tissue over the stent. At operation, the stent was found to have penetrated the posterior tracheal wall. Under partial cardiopulmonary bypass, the stent was removed along with the membranous wall of the trachea, and the trachea was reconstructed using slide tracheoplasty. Tracheal obstruction is one of the serious complications caused by an expandable metallic stent. Direct open approach to the trachea under cardiopulmonary bypass is thought to be a safe way to manage this problem.

  20. TOKYO criteria 2014 for transpapillary biliary stenting.

    Isayama, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Yasuda, Ichiro; Itoi, Takao; Ryozawa, Shomei; Nakai, Yousuke; Kogure, Hirofumi; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to carry out meta-analyses or to compare the results of different studies of biliary stents because there is no uniform evaluation method. Therefore, a standardized reporting system is required. We propose a new standardized system for reporting on biliary stents, the 'TOKYO criteria 2014', based on a consensus among Japanese pancreatobiliary endoscopists. Instead of stent occlusion, we use recurrent biliary obstruction, which includes occlusion and migration. The time to recurrent biliary obstruction was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis with the log-rank test. We can evaluate both plastic and self-expandable metallic stents (uncovered and covered). We also propose specification of the cause of recurrent biliary obstruction, identification of complications other than recurrent biliary obstruction, indication of severity, measures of technical and clinical success, and a standard for clinical care. Most importantly, the TOKYO criteria 2014 allow comparison of biliary stent quality across studies. Because blocked stents can be drained not only using transpapillary techniques but also by an endoscopic ultrasonography-guided transmural procedure, we should devise an evaluation method that includes transmural stenting in the near future. © 2014 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  1. Experimental use of new absorbable tracheal stent.

    Schopf, Luciano F; Fraga, José Carlos; Porto, Rodrigo; Santos, Luis A; Marques, Douglas R; Sanchez, Paulo R; Meyer, Fabíola S; Ulbrich, Jane M

    2017-11-16

    Silicone and metallic stents are not effective in children with tracheobronchial stenosis or tracheomalacia. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the clinical manifestations and histological reaction of rabbit trachea to the presence of a new poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) with polyisoprene (PLGA/PI) polymer absorbable stent. Fourteen adult white rabbits (weight, 3.0-3.5kg) were randomly assigned to three groups: Group I (n=6): PLGA/PI spiral stent; Group II (n=6): PLGA/PI fragment; and Group III (n=2): controls. After a longitudinal incision on three cervical tracheal rings, the stents and fragments were inserted into the trachea and fixed onto the lateral wall with nonabsorbable sutures. The stented group showed significantly more stridor at rest (p=0.0041), agitation (p=0.014), and use of accessory muscles (p=0.0002) and required more emergency endoscopies than the fragment group. Further, it showed significantly more remarkable histological inflammatory damage than the fragment and control groups (p=0.002). The new PLGA/PI polymeric stent implanted into the trachea of rabbits caused more clinical manifestations and histologically verified inflammatory reaction than the PLGA/PI polymeric fragment. Future studies should be aimed at reducing the stent-wall thickness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Serosurveillance for pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 virus infection in domestic elephants, Thailand.

    Weena Paungpin

    Full Text Available The present study conducted serosurveillance for the presence of antibody to pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 virus (H1N1pdm virus in archival serum samples collected between 2009 and 2013 from 317 domestic elephants living in 19 provinces situated in various parts of Thailand. To obtain the most accurate data, hemagglutination-inhibition (HI assay was employed as the screening test; and sera with HI antibody titers ≥20 were further confirmed by other methods, including cytopathic effect/hemagglutination based-microneutralization (microNT and Western blot (WB assays using H1N1pdm matrix 1 (M1 or hemagglutinin (HA recombinant protein as the test antigen. Conclusively, the appropriate assays using HI in conjunction with WB assays for HA antibody revealed an overall seropositive rate of 8.5% (27 of 317. The prevalence of antibody to H1N1pdm virus was 2% (4/172 in 2009, 32% (17/53 in 2010, 9% (2/22 in 2011, 12% (1/8 in 2012, and 5% (3/62 in 2013. Notably, these positive serum samples were collected from elephants living in 7 tourist provinces of Thailand. The highest seropositive rate was obtained from elephants in Phuket, a popular tourist beach city. Young elephants had higher seropositive rate than older elephants. The source of H1N1pdm viral infection in these elephants was not explored, but most likely came from close contact with the infected mahouts or from the infected tourists who engaged in activities such as elephant riding and feeding. Nevertheless, it could not be excluded that elephant-to-elephant transmission did occur.

  3. Understanding long-term variations in an elephant piosphere effect to manage impacts.

    Marietjie Landman

    Full Text Available Surface water availability is a key driver of elephant impacts on biological diversity. Thus, understanding the spatio-temporal variations of these impacts in relation to water is critical to their management. However, elephant piosphere effects (i.e. the radial pattern of attenuating impact are poorly described, with few long-term quantitative studies. Our understanding is further confounded by the complexity of systems with elephant (i.e. fenced, multiple water points, seasonal water availability, varying population densities that likely limit the use of conceptual models to predict these impacts. Using 31 years of data on shrub structure in the succulent thickets of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, we tested elephant effects at a single water point. Shrub structure showed a clear sigmoid response with distance from water, declining at both the upper and lower limits of sampling. Adjacent to water, this decline caused a roughly 300-m radial expansion of the grass-dominated habitats that replace shrub communities. Despite the clear relationship between shrub structure and ecological functioning in thicket, the extent of elephant effects varied between these features with distance from water. Moreover, these patterns co-varied with other confounding variables (e.g. the location of neighboring water points, which limits our ability to predict such effects in the absence of long-term data. We predict that elephant have the ability to cause severe transformation in succulent thicket habitats with abundant water supply and elevated elephant numbers. However, these piosphere effects are complex, suggesting that a more integrated understanding of elephant impacts on ecological heterogeneity may be required before water availability is used as a tool to manage impacts. We caution against the establishment of water points in novel succulent thicket habitats, and advocate a significant reduction in water provisioning at our study site

  4. Understanding long-term variations in an elephant piosphere effect to manage impacts.

    Landman, Marietjie; Schoeman, David S; Hall-Martin, Anthony J; Kerley, Graham I H

    2012-01-01

    Surface water availability is a key driver of elephant impacts on biological diversity. Thus, understanding the spatio-temporal variations of these impacts in relation to water is critical to their management. However, elephant piosphere effects (i.e. the radial pattern of attenuating impact) are poorly described, with few long-term quantitative studies. Our understanding is further confounded by the complexity of systems with elephant (i.e. fenced, multiple water points, seasonal water availability, varying population densities) that likely limit the use of conceptual models to predict these impacts. Using 31 years of data on shrub structure in the succulent thickets of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, we tested elephant effects at a single water point. Shrub structure showed a clear sigmoid response with distance from water, declining at both the upper and lower limits of sampling. Adjacent to water, this decline caused a roughly 300-m radial expansion of the grass-dominated habitats that replace shrub communities. Despite the clear relationship between shrub structure and ecological functioning in thicket, the extent of elephant effects varied between these features with distance from water. Moreover, these patterns co-varied with other confounding variables (e.g. the location of neighboring water points), which limits our ability to predict such effects in the absence of long-term data. We predict that elephant have the ability to cause severe transformation in succulent thicket habitats with abundant water supply and elevated elephant numbers. However, these piosphere effects are complex, suggesting that a more integrated understanding of elephant impacts on ecological heterogeneity may be required before water availability is used as a tool to manage impacts. We caution against the establishment of water points in novel succulent thicket habitats, and advocate a significant reduction in water provisioning at our study site, albeit with greater

  5. The influence of artificially increased trunk stiffness on the balance recovery after a trip

    van der Burg, J.C.E.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Falls occur frequently in the growing population of elderly. Since trunk control is critical for maintaining balance, the higher trunk stiffness in elderly people compared to the general population has been associated with their increased fall-risk. Theoretically, trunk stiffness may be beneficial

  6. Reorganized trunk muscle activity during multidirectional floor perturbations after experimental low back pain

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain changes the trunk muscle activity after external perturbations but the relationship between pain intensities and distributions and their effect on the trunk muscle activity remains unclear. The effects of unilateral and bilateral experimental low back pain on trunk muscle activity w...

  7. 49 CFR 571.401 - Standard No. 401; Interior trunk release.

    2010-10-01

    .... Requirements. S4.1 Each passenger car with a trunk compartment must have an automatic or manual release... possible for a person trapped inside the trunk compartment of a passenger car to escape from the compartment. S2. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars that have a trunk compartment. This...

  8. File list: His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX093317,SRX09...3316 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  9. File list: NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 No description Embryo Embryonic trunk ERX40226...7,ERX402264 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  10. File list: DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 DNase-seq Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX191030 htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX093317,SRX09...3316 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  12. Targeting In-Stent-Stenosis with RGD- and CXCL1-Coated Mini-Stents in Mice.

    Simsekyilmaz, Sakine; Liehn, Elisa A; Weinandy, Stefan; Schreiber, Fabian; Megens, Remco T A; Theelen, Wendy; Smeets, Ralf; Jockenhövel, Stefan; Gries, Thomas; Möller, Martin; Klee, Doris; Weber, Christian; Zernecke, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions that critically narrow the artery can necessitate an angioplasty and stent implantation. Long-term therapeutic effects, however, are limited by excessive arterial remodeling. We here employed a miniaturized nitinol-stent coated with star-shaped polyethylenglycole (star-PEG), and evaluated its bio-functionalization with RGD and CXCL1 for improving in-stent stenosis after implantation into carotid arteries of mice. Nitinol foils or stents (bare metal) were coated with star-PEG, and bio-functionalized with RGD, or RGD/CXCL1. Cell adhesion to star-PEG-coated nitinol foils was unaltered or reduced, whereas bio-functionalization with RGD but foremost RGD/CXCL1 increased adhesion of early angiogenic outgrowth cells (EOCs) and endothelial cells but not smooth muscle cells when compared with bare metal foils. Stimulation of cells with RGD/CXCL1 furthermore increased the proliferation of EOCs. In vivo, bio-functionalization with RGD/CXCL1 significantly reduced neointima formation and thrombus formation, and increased re-endothelialization in apoE-/- carotid arteries compared with bare-metal nitinol stents, star-PEG-coated stents, and stents bio-functionalized with RGD only. Bio-functionalization of star-PEG-coated nitinol-stents with RGD/CXCL1 reduced in-stent neointima formation. By supporting the adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells, RGD/CXCL1 coating of stents may help to accelerate endothelial repair after stent implantation, and thus may harbor the potential to limit the complication of in-stent restenosis in clinical approaches.

  13. Stent underexpansion in angiographic guided percutaneous coronary intervention, despite adjunctive balloon post-dilatation, in drug eluting stent era

    Mehrdad Taherioun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stent underexpansion is the most powerful predictor of long-term stent patency and clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and predictors of stent underexpansion despite adjunctive post-dilatation with non-compliant balloon. METHODS: After elective coronary stent implantation and adjunctive post-dilatation with non-compliant balloon and optimal angiographic result confirmed by the operator, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS was performed for all the treated lesions. If the treated lesions fulfilled the IVUS criteria, they are considered as the optimal stent group; if not, they are considered as the suboptimal group. RESULTS: From 50 patients enrolled in this study 39 (78% had optimal stent deployment and 11 (22% had suboptimal stent deployment. In the suboptimal group 7 (14% had underexpansion, 2 (4% malposition, and 2 (4% had asymmetry. There were no stent edge dissections detected by IVUS. We did not find any correlation between lesion calcification, ostial lesions, stent length, and stent underexpansion. Stent diameter ≤ 2.75 mm had a strong correlation with stent underexpansion. CONCLUSION: Despite adjunctive post-dilatation with noncompliant balloon, using a relatively small stent diameter was a strong predictor for underexpansion. IVUS guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI may be considered for drug eluting stent (DES implantation in relatively small vessels.   Keywords: Stent, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Ultrasound, Post-dilatation 

  14. Beehive fences as a multidimensional conflict-mitigation tool for farmers coexisting with elephants.

    King, Lucy E; Lala, Fredrick; Nzumu, Hesron; Mwambingu, Emmanuel; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2017-08-01

    Increasing habitat fragmentation and human population growth in Africa has resulted in an escalation in human-elephant conflict between small-scale farmers and free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta Africana). In 2012 Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) implemented the national 10-year Conservation and Management Strategy for the Elephant in Kenya, which includes an action aimed at testing whether beehive fences can be used to mitigate human-elephant conflict. From 2012 to 2015, we field-tested the efficacy of beehive fences to protect 10 0.4-ha farms next to Tsavo East National Park from elephants. We hung a series of beehives every 10 m around the boundary of each farm plot. The hives were linked with strong wire. After an initial pilot test with 2 farms, the remaining 8 of 10 beehive fences also contained 2-dimensional dummy hives between real beehives to help reduce the cost of the fence. Each trial plot had a neighboring control plot of the same size within the same farm. Of the 131 beehives deployed 88% were occupied at least once during the 3.5-year trial. Two hundred and fifty-three elephants, predominantly 20-45 years old entered the community farming area, typically during the crop- ripening season. Eighty percent of the elephants that approached the trial farms were kept out of the areas protected by the beehive fences, and elephants that broke a fence were in smaller than average groups. Beehive fences not only kept large groups of elephants from invading the farmland plots but the farmers also benefited socially and financially from the sale of 228 kg of elephant-friendly honey. As news of the success of the trial spread, a further 12 farmers requested to join the project, bringing the number of beehive fence protected farms to 22 and beehives to 297. This demonstrates positive adoption of beehive fences as a community mitigation tool. Understanding the response of elephants to the beehive fences, the seasonality of crop raiding and fence breaking, and the

  15. CONSERVATION. Genetic assignment of large seizures of elephant ivory reveals Africa's major poaching hotspots.

    Wasser, S K; Brown, L; Mailand, C; Mondol, S; Clark, W; Laurie, C; Weir, B S

    2015-07-03

    Poaching of elephants is now occurring at rates that threaten African populations with extinction. Identifying the number and location of Africa's major poaching hotspots may assist efforts to end poaching and facilitate recovery of elephant populations. We genetically assign origin to 28 large ivory seizures (≥0.5 metric tons) made between 1996 and 2014, also testing assignment accuracy. Results suggest that the major poaching hotspots in Africa may be currently concentrated in as few as two areas. Increasing law enforcement in these two hotspots could help curtail future elephant losses across Africa and disrupt this organized transnational crime. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. CONTROL OF APERTURE CLOSURE INITIATION DURING TRUNK-ASSISTED REACH-TO-GRASP MOVEMENTS

    Rand, Miya K.; Van Gemmert, Arend W. A.; Hossain, Abul B.M.I.; Shimansky, Yury P.; Stelmach, George E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated how the involvement and direction of trunk movement during reach-to-grasp movements affect the coordination between the transport and grasping components. Seated young adults made prehensile movements in which the involvement of the trunk was varied; the trunk was not involved, moved forward (flexion), or moved backward (extension) in the sagittal plane during the reach to the object. Each of the trunk movements was combined with an extension or flexion motion of the arm during the reach. Regarding the relation between the trunk and arm motion for arm transport, the onset of wrist motion relative to that of the trunk was delayed to a greater extent for the trunk extension than for the trunk flexion. The variability of the time period from the peak of wrist velocity to the peak of trunk velocity was also significantly greater for trunk extension compared to trunk flexion. These findings indicate that trunk flexion was better integrated into the control of wrist transport than trunk extension. In terms of the temporal relationship between wrist transport and grip aperture, the relation between the time of peak wrist velocity and the time of peak grip aperture did not change or became less steady across conditions. Therefore, the stability of temporal coordination between wrist transport and grip aperture was maintained despite the variation of the pattern of intersegmental coordination between the arm and the trunk during arm transport. The transport-aperture coordination was further assessed in terms of the control law according to which the initiation of aperture closure during the reach occurs when the hand crosses a hand-to-target distance threshold for grasp initiation that is a function of peak aperture, wrist velocity and acceleration, trunk velocity and acceleration, and trunk-to-target distance at the time of aperture closure initiation. The participants increased the hand-to-target distance threshold for grasp initiation in

  17. Control of aperture closure initiation during trunk-assisted reach-to-grasp movements.

    Rand, Miya K; Van Gemmert, Arend W A; Hossain, Abul B M I; Shimansky, Yury P; Stelmach, George E

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated how the involvement and direction of trunk movement during reach-to-grasp movements affect the coordination between the transport and grasping components. Seated young adults made prehensile movements in which the involvement of the trunk was varied; the trunk was not involved, moved forward (flexion), or moved backward (extension) in the sagittal plane during the reach to the object. Each of the trunk movements was combined with an extension or flexion motion of the arm during the reach. Regarding the relationship between the trunk and arm motion for arm transport, the onset of wrist motion relative to that of the trunk was delayed to a greater extent for the trunk extension than for the trunk flexion. The variability of the time period from the peak of wrist velocity to the peak of trunk velocity was also significantly greater for trunk extension compared to trunk flexion. These findings indicate that trunk flexion was better integrated into the control of wrist transport than trunk extension. In terms of the temporal relationship between wrist transport and grip aperture, the relationship between the time of peak wrist velocity and the time of peak grip aperture did not change or become less steady across conditions. Therefore, the stability of temporal coordination between wrist transport and grip aperture was maintained despite the variation of the pattern of intersegmental coordination between the arm and the trunk during arm transport. The transport-aperture coordination was further assessed in terms of the control law according to which the initiation of aperture closure during the reach occurs when the hand crosses a hand-to-target distance threshold for grasp initiation, which is a function of peak aperture, wrist velocity and acceleration, trunk velocity and acceleration, and trunk-to-target distance at the time of aperture closure initiation. The participants increased the hand-to-target distance threshold for grasp

  18. Stent-assisted angioplasty for intracranial atherosclerosis

    Nakahara, Toshinori; Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Hamasaki, Osamu; Sakoda, Katsuaki

    2002-01-01

    We report on two patients with intracranial atherosclerosis of the carotid artery or vertebral artery treated with stent-assisted angioplasty. Both patients have severe intracranial atherosclerosis (>70%) with refractory symptoms despite optimal medical treatment. In both patients, a coronary balloon-expandable stent was successfully placed using a protective balloon technique without procedural complications. The patients were asymptomatic and neurologically intact at a mean clinical follow-up of 13 months. Follow-up angiograms did not show restenosis 3 or 4 months after procedure, respectively. Stent-assisted angioplasty for intracranial atherosclerosis in the elective patient has proven effective, with an acceptable low rate of morbidity and mortality. (orig.)

  19. Well-Being Impacts of Human-Elephant Conflict in Khumaga, Botswana: Exploring Visible and Hidden Dimensions

    Allison L Mayberry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High densities of wild African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana combined with widespread human land-use have increased human-elephant conflict in northern Botswana. Visible impacts (e.g. crop/property damage, injury/fatality of elephants on human well-being are well documented in scholarly literature while hidden impacts (e.g. emotional stress, restricted mobility are less so. This research uses qualitative methods to explore human experiences with elephants and perceived impacts of elephants on human well-being. Findings reveal participants are concerned about food insecurity and associated visible impacts of elephant crop raids. Findings also reveal participants are concerned about reduced safety and restricted mobility as hidden impacts threatening livelihoods and everyday life. Both visible and hidden impacts of elephants contribute to people's negative feelings towards elephants, as does the broader political context. This research emphasises the importance of investigating both visible and hidden impacts of elephants on human well-being to foster holistic understanding of human-elephant conflict scenarios and to inform future mitigation strategies.

  20. Drug-eluting stents and bare metal stents in patients with NSTE-ACS

    Pedersen, Sune Haahr; Pfisterer, Matthias; Kaiser, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    the randomised BASKET-PROVE trial (sirolimus-eluting stent vs. everolimus-eluting stent vs. bare metal stent in large-vessel stenting). The primary endpoint was the combined two-year rate of cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI). Secondary endpoints were each component of the primary...... implantation in large vessels was associated with a reduction in both TVR and the combined endpoint consisting of cardiovascular death/MI. Thus, DES use improves both efficacy and safety. These findings support the use of DES in NSTE-ACS patients....

  1. Treatment of Post-Stent Gastroesophageal Reflux by Anti-Reflux Z-Stent

    Davies, Roger Philip; Kew, Jacqueline; Byrne, Peter D.

    2000-01-01

    Severe symptoms of heartburn and retrosternal pain consistent with gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) developed in a patient following placement of a conventional self-expanding 16-24-mm-diameter x 12-cm-long esophageal stent across the gastroesophageal junction to treat an obstructing esophageal carcinoma. A second 18-mm-diameter x 10-cm-long esophageal stent with anti-reflux valve was deployed coaxially and reduced symptomatic GER immediately. Improvement was sustained at 4-month follow-up. An anti-reflux stent can be successfully used to treat significant symptomatic GER after conventional stenting

  2. The social and ecological integration of captive-raised adolescent male African elephants (Loxodonta africana into a wild population.

    Kate Evans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A rapid rise in the number of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana used in the tourism industry in southern Africa and orphaned elephants in human care has led to concerns about their long-term management, particularly males. One solution is to release them into the wild at adolescence, when young males naturally leave their herd. However, this raises significant welfare concerns: little is known about how well released elephants integrate into wild populations and whether they pose a greater threat to humans than wild elephants. We document the release of three captive-raised adolescent male African elephants in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Despite having been part of a herd of working elephants for at least eight years, the three males progressively integrated into the complex fission-fusion society of wild bull elephants. In the three years following release, they showed no tendency to be closer to human habitation, and there were no significant differences between wild and captive-raised adolescent males in the total number of social interactions, size of ranges and habitat use. However, the captive-raised elephants sparred less and vocalised more, and spent more time alone and in smaller social groups. Thereafter the released elephants continued to expand their ranges and interact with both mixed-sex herds and males. One male was shot by farmers 94 months after release, along with ten wild elephants, on a ranch outside the protected area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that captive-raised adolescent male elephants can integrate into a wild population. Long-term studies are required to determine the longevity, breeding success, and eventual fate of released male elephants, but we identified no significant short-term welfare problems for the released elephants or recipient population. Release of captive-raised mammals with complex social systems is a husbandry option that should be

  3. [Developments in percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary stents].

    Simsek, C; Daemen, J; Zijlstra, F

    2014-01-01

    In The Netherlands, more than 30.000 patients undergo a percutaneous coronary intervention every year, during which a coronary stent implantation will be performed in 90% of the cases. It is estimated that more than 5 million coronary stent implantations will be performed worldwide this year. While these numbers are impressive, however, coronary stents still have as a limitation the possibility of stent thrombosis. This has been and is an important stimulus for the development of both coronary stents, from a bare metal stent via a drug eluting stent to the present-day development of bio-absorbable stents, and anti-platelet drugs,from acenocoumarol to thieropyridines. The possibility of shortening the period of use of this powerful medication by developing new kinds of non-thrombogenic stents would, for example, make it possible to achieve significant reductions in subsequent bleeding during (dental) procedures.

  4. Covered duodenal self-expandable metal stents prolong biliary stent patency in double stenting: The largest series of bilioduodenal obstruction.

    Hori, Yasuki; Naitoh, Itaru; Hayashi, Kazuki; Kondo, Hiromu; Yoshida, Michihiro; Shimizu, Shuya; Hirano, Atsuyuki; Okumura, Fumihiro; Ando, Tomoaki; Jinno, Naruomi; Takada, Hiroki; Togawa, Shozo; Joh, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Endoscopic biliary and duodenal stenting (DS; double stenting) is widely accepted as a palliation therapy for malignant bilioduodenal obstruction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the patency and adverse events of duodenal and biliary stents in patients with DS. Patients who underwent DS from April 2004 to March 2017 were analyzed retrospectively with regard to clinical outcomes and predictive factors of recurrent biliary and duodenal obstruction (recurrent biliary obstruction [RBO] and recurrent duodenal obstruction [RDO]). A total of 109 consecutive patients was enrolled. Technical success of DS was achieved in 108 patients (99.1%). Symptoms due to biliary and duodenal obstruction were improved in 89 patients (81.7%). RBO occurred in 25 patients (22.9%) and RDO in 13 (11.9%). The median times to RBO and RDO from DS were 87 and 76 days, respectively. Placement of a duodenal uncovered self-expandable metal stent (U-SEMS) was significantly associated with RBO in the multivariable analysis (P = 0.007). Time to RBO was significantly longer in the duodenal covered self-expandable metal stent group than in the U-SEMS group (P = 0.003). No predictive factors of RDO were detected, and duodenal stent type was not associated with the time to RDO (P = 0.724). Double stenting was safe and effective for malignant bilioduodenal obstruction. Duodenal U-SEMS is a risk factor for RBO. The covered self-expandable metal stent is the preferred type of duodenal SEMS in patients with DS (Clinical trial registration number: UMIN000027606). © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Mechanical design of an intracranial stent for treating cerebral aneurysms.

    Shobayashi, Yasuhiro; Tanoue, Tetsuya; Tateshima, Satoshi; Tanishita, Kazuo

    2010-11-01

    Endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms using stents has advanced markedly in recent years. Mechanically, a cerebrovascular stent must be very flexible longitudinally and have low radial stiffness. However, no study has examined the stress distribution and deformation of cerebrovascular stents using the finite element method (FEM) and experiments. Stents can have open- and closed-cell structures, and open-cell stents are used clinically in the cerebrovasculature because of their high flexibility. However, the open-cell structure confers a risk of in-stent stenosis due to protrusion of stent struts into the normal parent artery. Therefore, a flexible stent with a closed-cell structure is required. To design a clinically useful, highly flexible, closed-cell stent, one must examine the mechanical properties of the closed-cell structure. In this study, we investigated the relationship between mesh patterns and the mechanical properties of closed-cell stents. Several mesh patterns were designed and their characteristics were studied using numerical simulation. The results showed that the bending stiffness of a closed-cell stent depends on the geometric configuration of the stent cell. It decreases when the stent cell is stretched in the circumferential direction. Mechanical flexibility equal to an open-cell structure was obtained in a closed-cell structure by varying the geometric configuration of the stent cell. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Were Malagasy Uncarina fruits dispersed by the extinct elephant bird?

    N. Illing

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesise that the spiny fruits of the endemic Madagascar
    genus Uncarina (Pedaliaceae are trample burrs that evolved to be
    dispersed on the feet of the extinct elephant bird (Aepyornis. Our
    evidence is: i the morphology of the fruit with its large grapple
    hooks is more likely to attach to a foot than to adhere to fur and
    ii the presentation of mature fruits on the ground rather than in the
    canopy. These differences to adhesive burrs make lemurs unlikely
    dispersers. We argue, given the absence of other large terrestrial
    mammals in Madagascar, that the most likely dispersers of
    Uncarina fruits were the extinct large birds. If correct, our hypothesis
    has implications for conservation of Uncarina, the biogeography
    of the elephant birds and dispersal biology. For
    example, we predict that the demography of Uncarina will be
    skewed towards adult plants, and that the dispersal mutualism
    could possibly be rescued by domestic animals.

  7. Effects of 32P radioactive stents on in-stent restenosis in a double stent injury model of the porcine coronary arteries

    Kim, Han-Soo; Chan, Rosanna C.; Kollum, Marc; Au, Arthur; Tio, Fermin O.; Yazdi, Hamid A.; Ajani, Andrew E.; Waksman, Ron

    2001-01-01

    Background: The major limitation of coronary stenting remains in-stent restenosis, due to the development of neointimal proliferation. Radioactive stents have demonstrated the ability to reduce this proliferation in the healthy nonatherosclerotic porcine animal model. However, inhibition of tissue proliferation in the in-stent restenotic lesion in a porcine model is not well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of the 32 P radioactive stent for the treatment of in-stent restenosis in a double stent injury model of the porcine coronaries. Methods and Materials: Eighteen coronary arteries in 9 pigs underwent nonradioactive stent (8 mm in length) implantation. Thirty days after the initial stent implantation, a 32 P radioactive stent (18 mm in length) with an activity of 0 and 18 μCi was implanted to cover the initial stent. The swine were killed 30 days after the second stent implantation. Histomorphometric analysis was performed for vessel area (VA), stent strut area (SSA), intimal area (IA), and lumen area (LA). Results: Injury scores, VA, SSA, and LA were similar among the control and radiated groups. Neointimal formation was significantly reduced after placement of radioactive stents as compared to control in both the overlapped (0.93±0.12 vs. 1.31±0.51 mm 2 , p 2 , p 32 P radioactive stents may be safe and effective in reducing neointimal formation leading to in-stent restenosis. Longer follow-up will be required to examine whether these positive findings can be maintained

  8. Stent Fracture and Reocclusion After Placement of a Single Self-Expanding Stent in the Common Iliac Artery and Endovascular Treatment

    Higashiura, Wataru; Sakaguchi, Shoji; Morimoto, Kengo; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of fracture of a single self-expanding stent placed in the common iliac artery (CIA). An 80-year-old woman underwent placement of a self-expanding stent for CIA occlusion. Stent fracture and reocclusion were detected after 18 months. Successful revascularization was achieved using a stent-in-stent maneuver. The possibility of stent fracture with reocclusion should be considered following treatment with a single self-expanding stent for CIA occlusion.

  9. Spinal mobility and trunk muscle strength in elite hockey players.

    Lindgren, S; Twomey, L

    1988-01-01

    Elite hockey players of both sexes from the Australian Institute of Sport were assessed for lumbar spine mobility, trunk flexion and back extensor muscle strength, hamstring flexibility and postural characteristics over a two year period. All the athletes were more mobile in rotation than the 'normal' West Australian population, and demonstrated flexible hamstrings and powerful back extensor muscles; trunk flexion was less strong initially, but improved after intervention in the form of a specific exercise programme, over the measurement period. A questionnaire disclosed that low back pain is a common complaint of hockey players, but rarely required intensive physical and medical treatment. The term 'hockey player's back' has been coined in recognition of the long flat thoracolumbar spine frequently noted in these subjects. Copyright © 1988 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of Visceral Aneurysm Using Multilayer Stent: Two-Year Follow-Up Results in Five Consecutive Patients

    Balderi, Alberto, E-mail: balders@libero.it; Antonietti, Alberto, E-mail: antonietti.a@ospedale.cuneo.it; Pedrazzini, Fulvio, E-mail: pedrazzini.f@ospedale.cuneo.it; Sortino, Davide, E-mail: davide.sortino@hotmail.it; Vinay, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.vinay@gmail.com; Grosso, Maurizio, E-mail: grosso.m@ospedale.cuneo.it [AO Santa Croce e Carle Hospital, Department of Radiology (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The present study was performed to analyze the midterm results (five consecutive patients, 2-year follow-up) of the endovascular management of visceral artery aneurysms using the Cardiatis Multilayer Flow Modulator (CMFM) (Cardiatis, Isnes, Belgium), a self-expandable stent. Materials and Methods: From August 2009 to January 2011, we implanted five CMFMs in five patients (all men; mean age 73 years) to treat two common hepatic artery aneurysms, one celiac trunk aneurysm, one splenic artery aneurysm, and one superior mesenteric artery aneurysm (diameter 25-81 mm). The primary end point was technical success. The secondary end point was stent patency, absence of aneurysm rupture or reperfusion, and shrinking of the sac at 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up using computed tomography angiography. Follow-up ranged from 24 to 48 months (mean 31.2). Results: Technical success was achieved in all patients. Complete exclusion of the aneurysm with sac shrinking was achieved in two patients. Two stents became occluded at 6- and 24-month follow-up, respectively; both patients were asymptomatic and were not retreated. One patient developed sac reperfusion due to incomplete aneurysm exclusion. Conclusion: Long-term results in a wider population are needed to validate the effectiveness of the CMFM.

  11. The measurement of blood speed in the pulmonary artery trunk

    Saro, J P; Bula-Cruz, J [UTAD - 5000 Vila Real (Spain); Rafael, J A [Dep. Electronica e Telecomunicacoes da Univ. de Aveiro - 3800 Aveiro (Spain); Botelho, M F; Lima, J P [IBILI - Faculdade de Medicina da Univ. de Coimbra - 3000 Coimbra (Spain)

    1999-12-31

    The paper describes a non invasive methodology for the measurement of blood speed in the pulmonary artery trunk. The methodology has been tested with a moving radioactive tracer (nuclear medicine). An image processing technique is proposed, for detection and analysis of a moving object with variable shape and intensity over time (radioactive bolus). Experiments on the application of the technique in nuclear medicine are critically analysed. (authors) 9 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Celiac artery trunk thrombosis presenting as acute liver failure

    Akbarian, M.A.; Kahrom, M.; Kahrom, H.

    2011-01-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is a life-threatening vascular emergency that requires early diagnosis and intervention to adequately restore mesenteric blood flow and to prevent bowel necrosis and patient death. While, almost always superior and inferior mesenteric arteries are involved, we report a 57-year-old male with an unusual celiac artery trunk thrombosis leading to gastero-duodenal and hepato-splenic infarction, and presenting an acute liver failure. (author)

  13. Pseudo aneurysm of the celiac trunk - radiological findings report

    Magalhaes Junior, Mauricio R. de; Henrique, Katia; Teixeira, Sonia Marcelino; Cardenas, Gloria Pamela Galdames; Marchiori, Edson; Acceta, Pietro

    1997-01-01

    The authors report a case of a celiac trunk pseudoneurysm, diagnosed by ultrasonography, computed tomography and arteriography, in a 54-year-old man, alcoholic, with gastrointestinal bleeding, abdominal pain and an epigastric pulsatile mass. After the diagnostic, he was operated and it was showed a fistula from the pseudoaneurysm to the choledoch and the gall bladder fill with blood. The patient has a good clinic development. (author)

  14. A diverticulum of the brachiocephalic trunk - angiography and embryological explanation

    Pfefferkorn, J.R.; Lunkenheimer, A.; Loeser, H.; Hilgenberg, F.

    1983-01-01

    A diverticulum of the brachiocephalic trunk is described in 5 children with unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery, in a child with tetralogy of Fallot, and in an other child with Bland-White-Garland syndrome. The diverticulum is a remnant of a contralateral ductus arteriosus, which closed after birth and represents the origin of the distal part of the sixth aortic arch. (orig.) [de

  15. Application of computer graphics to regional trunk road network planning

    M Odani

    1992-01-01

    The author attempts to demonstrate the use of computer graphics to provide an efficient and effective visual presentation method for tranbsprtation planning. First, the basic concept of the visual presentation method of planning is explained and the required hardware is introduced. The information presented graphically by the proposed method is then shown for each step in the process of regional trunk road network planning in the Keihanshin Metropolitan Area of Japan: analysis of the traffic-...

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRUNK MUSCLES ENDURANCE AND NORMAL BMI AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS WITH SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE

    Karthikeyan Selvaganapathy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most important trunk stabilizers are the trunk flexors and extensors. The isometric endurance of the trunk muscles is an essential element for mechanical support of the spine in all positions. The study objectives were to find out the trunk flexors and extensors endurance, its relationship with normal BMI and to find out the ratio of trunk flexors to extensors endurance. Methods: In this correlation study, 50 subjects were selected by convenience sampling method on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria from Asia metropolitan university, Malaysia. The trunk flexors and extensors endurance were assessed by Kraus- Weber and Sorenson test respectively. Paired 't' test and Spearman correlation test were used for data analysis. Results: There was a significant difference (p 0.01 and TEE, rs (50 = -0.162, p >0.01 but there was a significant strong positive relationship between TFE and TEE, rs (50 = 0.68, p < 0.01. The ratio of trunk flexors to extensors was 0.61. Conclusion: The trunk extensors endurance is higher than trunk flexors endurance and BMI has no relationship with trunk flexors and extensors muscle endurance. The ratio of trunk flexors to extensors endurance value is low

  17. Functional Self-Expandable Metal Stents in Biliary Obstruction

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2013-01-01

    Biliary stents are widely used not only for palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction but also for benign biliary diseases. Each plastic stent or self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) has its own advantages, and a proper stent should be selected carefully for individual condition. To compensate and overcome several drawbacks of SEMS, functional self-expandable metal stent (FSEMS) has been developed with much progress so far. This article looks into the outcomes and defects of each stent type for benign biliary stricture and describes newly introduced FSEMSs according to their functional categories. PMID:24143314

  18. Biomimicry, vascular restenosis and coronary stents.

    Schwartz, R S; van der Giessen, W J; Holmes, D R

    1998-01-01

    Biomimicry is in its earliest stages and is being considered in the realm of tissue engineering. If arterial implants are to limit neointimal thickening, purely passive structures cannot succeed. Bioactivity must be present, either by pharmacologic intervention or by fabricating a 'living stent' that contains active cellular material. As tissue engineering evolves, useful solutions will emerge from applying this knowledge directly to vascular biologic problems resulting from angioplasty, stenting, and vascular prosthesis research.

  19. Nasolacrimal Polyurethane Stent: Complications with CT Correlation

    Pinto, Isabel T.; Paul, Laura; Grande, Carlos

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate initial results in patients with epiphora secondary to obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct treated by placement of a polyurethane stent, and to discuss the technical problems and complications arising during the procedure, with visualization of the anatomy of the drainage apparatus using computed tomography (CT). Methods: We inserted 20 polyurethane Song stents under fluoroscopic guidance after dacryocystography in 19 patients with grade 3-4 epiphora caused by idiopathic obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct. CT scans were obtained following stent placement in all patients. Results: We focus on the technical problems and complications that arose during these procedures. During negotiation of the guidewire past the obstruction at the level of the junction of the duct with the lacrimal sac, the guidewire created a false passage in a posterior suborbital direction in two cases and towards the posterior midline in another. In all cases the guidewire was withdrawn and reinserted through the proper anatomic route without further difficulty or complications. In two cases the stent was improperly positioned wholly or partially outside the nasolacrimal system (one medially, one posteriorly). In one case the stent was removed and reinserted; in the other it remains in place and functional. CT was performed in all these cases to ensure proper anatomic alignment and determine what had gone wrong. The epiphora was completely resolved in 13 cases and partially relieved in four; there were three cases of stent obstruction. Epistaxis of short duration (1 hr) occurred in seven patients and headache in one. Conclusions: Treatment of epiphora with polyurethane stents is a technique that is well tolerated by patients and achieves a high success rate, yet problems in placement may be encountered. Though no major consequences for patients are involved, cognizance of such difficulties is important to avoid incorrect positioning of stents

  20. Hemi-Intravascular Stenting for Supermicrosurgical Anastomosis

    Kensuke Tashiro, MD; Shuji Yamashita, MD; Mitsunaga Narushima, MD; Isao Koshima, MD; Shimpei Miyamoto, MD

    2017-01-01

    Background:. Although supermicrosurgical anastomosis is a widely known reconstructive microsurgical technique, it is difficult to perform. To expand the clinical use of supermicrosurgery, we used hemi-intravascular stenting (hemi-IVaS), which is performed by inserting an intravascular stent into one side of the vessel. We conducted lymphaticovenular anastomosis, free perforator flap transfer, and fingertip replantation with supermicrosurgical anastomosis using hemi-IVaS technique and examined...

  1. Renal artery stent angioplasty for renovascular hypertension

    Li Gang; Li Haiqing; Wang Lin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic results of expandable stent for treatment of atherosclerotic renovascular obstructive disease. Methods: 15 patients (10 men and 5 women, 41-75 years old; mean age, 52 years) with renal arterial hypertension underwent renal stent angioplasty including renal arterial stenosis 89%(n=13) and fully obstruction without function in 2, of which 2 patients had bilateral involvement. The stenotic range of all arterial segments showed 60% to 90% width of the normal arterial diameter. 16 stents were implanted under the guidance of fluoroscopy. The most of stents implanted were Palmaz (n=12, 75%) with regular clinical and angiographic follow up. Results: Technical success (residual stenosis <30%) was achieved in all patients without serious complication. During the follow-up (6-15 months; mean, 8 ± 4 months), hypertension was improved in 9 patients and cured in 4 patients with a total benefit of 86% and no efficacy in 2(13%). The average systolic blood pressure decreased from 27.12 ± 3.09 kPa to 18.62 ± 3.12 kPa and the average diastolic blood pressure decreased from 17.73 ± 1.92 kPa to 11.12 ± 2.43 kPa after stent treatment (P<0.05). Serum creatinine remained stable in 60% (n=9) patients with improvement in 33% (n=5) and worsened in 6% (n=1) patients. Follow-up angiography was performed in all patients with 1 case of a restenosis. 6 months after expanding through stent by using balloon, the two follow up angiographies showed a stable restenosis about 20%. Conclusions: Percutaneous transluminal stent placement is highly beneficial for patients who had renal arterial obstructive disease. The success of stent angioplasty of complete obstructive renal arteries reveals wide prospects for interventional method. (authors)

  2. Estimating population sizes for elusive animals: the forest elephants of Kakum National Park, Ghana.

    Eggert, L S; Eggert, J A; Woodruff, D S

    2003-06-01

    African forest elephants are difficult to observe in the dense vegetation, and previous studies have relied upon indirect methods to estimate population sizes. Using multilocus genotyping of noninvasively collected samples, we performed a genetic survey of the forest elephant population at Kakum National Park, Ghana. We estimated population size, sex ratio and genetic variability from our data, then combined this information with field observations to divide the population into age groups. Our population size estimate was very close to that obtained using dung counts, the most commonly used indirect method of estimating the population sizes of forest elephant populations. As their habitat is fragmented by expanding human populations, management will be increasingly important to the persistence of forest elephant populations. The data that can be obtained from noninvasively collected samples will help managers plan for the conservation of this keystone species.

  3. No evidence for an elephant-termite feedback loop in Sand Forest, South Africa

    Lagendijk, D. D G; Davies, A. B.; Eggleton, P.; Slotow, R.

    2016-01-01

    Termites and mammalian herbivores might derive mutual benefit from each other through positive feedback loops, but empirical evidence is lacking. One suggested positive feedback loop is between termites and elephant, both ecosystem engineers. Termites, as decomposer organisms, contribute to nutrient

  4. Blood Volume and Other Hematologic Values in Young Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Simpson, John G; Gilmartin, William G; Ridgway, Sam H

    1970-01-01

    ... (Mirounga angustirostris) by a method that could be accurate to 2 percent. The blood volumes of 7 young northern elephant seals were analyzed using a dilution of radioactive iodinated human serum albumin...

  5. Generation and Analysis of Full-length cDNA Sequences from Elephant Shark (Callorhinchus milii)

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Tay, Boon-Hui; Tan, Yue Ying; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2009-01-01

    Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest living group of jawed vertebrates and therefore is an important group for understanding the evolution of vertebrate genomes including the human genome. Our laboratory has proposed elephant shark (C. milii) as a

  6. Effect of supplementing crossbt·ed lactating dairy cows fed elephant ...

    Effect of supplementing lactating c.rosshrcd dairy cows fed on elephant grass based diets with labjab hay ... causes a reduction in overall digestibility of herbage dry matter. ..... Selected Topics in animal. Nutrition. ... Working paper No. 99:pp.

  7. Immediate Effects of Different Trunk Exercise Programs on Jump Performance.

    Imai, A; Kaneoka, K; Okubo, Y; Shiraki, H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of trunk stabilization exercise (SE) and conventional trunk exercise (CE) programs on jump performance. 13 adolescent male soccer players performed 2 kinds of jump testing before and immediate after 3 experimental conditions: SE, CE, and non-exercise (NE). The SE program consisted of the elbow-toe, hand-knee, and back bridge, and the CE program consisted of the sit-up, sit-up with trunk rotation and back extension. Testing of a countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jump (RJ) were performed to assess jump performance. Jump height of the CMJ and RJ-index, contact time, and jump height of the RJ were analyzed. The RJ index was improved significantly only after SE (p=0.017). However, contact time and jump height did not improve significantly in the SE condition. Moreover, no significant interaction or main effects of time or group were observed in the CMJ. Consequently, this study showed the different immediate effect on the RJ between the SE and CE, and suggested the possibility that the SE used in this study is useful as a warm-up program to improve the explosive movements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Stability and Control of Human Trunk Movement During Walking.

    Wu, Q.; Sepehri, N.; Thornton-Trump, A. B.; Alexander, M.

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to study the control mechanisms of human trunk movement during walking. The trunk is modeled as a base-excited inverted pendulum with two-degrees of rotational freedom. The base point, corresponding to the bony landmark of the sacrum, can move in three-dimensional space in a general way. Since the stability of upright posture is essential for human walking, a controller has been designed such that the stability of the pendulum about the upright position is guaranteed. The control laws are developed based on Lyapunov's stability theory and include feedforward and linear feedback components. It is found that the feedforward component plays a critical role in keeping postural stability, and the linear feedback component, (resulting from viscoelastic function of the musculoskeletal system) can effectively duplicate the pattern of trunk movement. The mathematical model is validated by comparing the simulation results with those based on gait measurements performed in the Biomechanics Laboratory at the University of Manitoba.

  9. [Muscular trunk stability in professional and amateur volleyball players].

    Miltner, O; Siebert, C; Tschaepe, R; Maus, U; Kieffer, O

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the efficiency of muscular activity in the trunk stabilisation of professional volleyball players compared to a group of amateur hobby players. The results were compared amongst the groups as well as with a reference group consisting of asymptomatic individuals. The question to be answered was whether or not professional volleyball players possess a characteristic strength profile in their trunk musculature and if differences exist with regard to the individuals' competitive playing level. In this comparative study 12 professional volleyball players (German Bundesliga) and 18 non-professional volleyball players were analysed with regard to their isometric strength profile in all three planes. The reference group was provided by the Proxomed company, which had previously analysed healthy untrained individuals (n = 1045) of various age groups. A sports-specific profile for the musculature of volleyball players revealed a significant reduction in the flexion and rotation strength as well as a well-developed lateral flexion strength (highly significant when compared to the reference group). With reference to the level played, better strength values in flexion and lateral flexion were found among the professional athletes. Professional volleyball players present with a characteristic trunk musculature strength profile. A detailed analysis of the muscle strength of the spine as part of a sports medicine work-up could prove helpful in preventing injuries and overuse problems in professional and hobby volleyball players.

  10. Evolution of the head-trunk interface in tetrapod vertebrates

    Sefton, Elizabeth M; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Mohaddes, Zahra; Hanken, James

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate neck musculature spans the transition zone between head and trunk. The extent to which the cucullaris muscle is a cranial muscle allied with the gill levators of anamniotes or is instead a trunk muscle is an ongoing debate. Novel computed tomography datasets reveal broad conservation of the cucullaris in gnathostomes, including coelacanth and caecilian, two sarcopterygians previously thought to lack it. In chicken, lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) adjacent to occipital somites is a recently identified embryonic source of cervical musculature. We fate-map this mesoderm in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), which retains external gills, and demonstrate its contribution to posterior gill-levator muscles and the cucullaris. Accordingly, LPM adjacent to the occipital somites should be regarded as posterior cranial mesoderm. The axial position of the head-trunk border in axolotl is congruent between LPM and somitic mesoderm, unlike in chicken and possibly other amniotes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09972.001 PMID:27090084

  11. Adsorption of Cu, As, Pb and Zn by Banana Trunk

    Nurzulaifa Shaheera Erne Mohd Yasim; Zitty Sarah Ismail; Suhanom Mohd Zaki; Mohd Fahmi Abd Azis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of banana trunk as an adsorbent in removal of heavy metals in aqueous solution. Functional groups of adsorbent were determined using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Batch experiments were conducted to determine the adsorption percentage of heavy metals (Cu, As, Pb and Zn). The optimum adsorption using banana trunk was based on pH difference, contact time and dosage. Adsorption percentage was found to be proportional to pH, contact time and dosage. Maximum adsorption percentage of Cu, As, Pb and Zn at pH 6, 100 minutes and 8 gram of dosage are 95.80 %, 75.40 %, 99.36 % and 97.24 %, respectively. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to determine the equilibrium state for heavy metals ion adsorption experiments. All equilibrium heavy metals were well explained by the Freundlich isotherm model with R"2= 0.9441, R"2= 0.8671, R"2= 0.9489 and R"2= 0.9375 for Cu, As, Pb and Zn respectively. It is concluded that banana trunk has considerable potential for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution. (author)

  12. Outcomes of the single-stent versus kissing-stents technique in asymmetric complex aortoiliac bifurcation lesions.

    Suh, Yongsung; Ko, Young-Guk; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Choi, Donghoon; Hong, Myeong-Ki; Jang, Yangsoo

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the outcomes of single-stent vs kissing-stents techniques in asymmetric complex aortoiliac bifurcation (ACAB) lesions. We retrospectively investigated 80 consecutive patients (69 males, 66.6 ± 8.7 years) treated with a single stent and 30 patients (26 males, 67.1 ± 7.7 years) treated with kissing stents for ACAB between January 2005 and December 2012 from a single-center cohort. A ACAB lesion was defined as a symptomatic unilateral common iliac artery stenosis (>50%) combined with intermediate stenosis (30%-50%) in the contralateral common iliac artery ostium. The primary end point was the primary patency of the ACAB. The baseline clinical characteristics did not differ significantly between the single-stent and the kissing-stents group. Technical success was achieved in all patients. The single-stent group required fewer stents (1.3 ± 0.5 vs 2.3 ± 0.8; P stent group (3%) required bailout kissing stents because of plaque shift to the contralateral side. The major complication rates were 8% in single-stent vs 13% in the kissing-stent group, which was similar (P = .399). At 3 years, the single-stent and kissing-stents group had similar rates of primary patency (89% vs 87%; P = .916) and target lesion revascularization-free survival (93% vs 87%; P = .462). The single-stent technique in ACAB was safe and showed midterm outcomes comparable with those of kissing stents. Considering the benefits, such as fewer stents, less bilateral femoral access, and the availability of contralateral access for future intervention, the single-stent technique may be an advantageous treatment option in ACAB. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ureteral stent discomfort: Etiology and management

    Ricardo Miyaoka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To review the evidence-based literature on the causes, characteristics, and options to manage double J stent-related symptoms. Methods : We performed a Medline database assessment on papers that investigated the prevalence, mechanisms, risk factors, bothersome and management of double-J stent-related symptoms. Articles in English were reviewed and summarized. Results : Stent-related symptoms have a high prevalence and may affect over 80% of patients. They include irritative voiding symptoms including frequency, urgency, dysuria, incomplete emptying; flank and suprapubic pain; incontinence, and hematuria. Assessment tools are important to determine their intensity and allow for comparisons between different points in the timeline. The Urinary Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ is the most proper tool used for this purpose. Management should be focused on the prevention and management of symptoms. In this sense, research has focused on new materials and stent designs that would be more compatible to the physiologic properties of the urinary tract and medications that can ameliorate the sensitivity and motor response of the bladder. Conclusions : Stent-related symptoms are very common in the Urological clinical setting. It is of major importance for the urologist to understand their physiopathology and to be familiar with ways to avoid or manage them.

  14. Computational micromechanics of bioabsorbable magnesium stents.

    Grogan, J A; Leen, S B; McHugh, P E

    2014-06-01

    Magnesium alloys are a promising candidate material for an emerging generation of absorbable metal stents. Due to its hexagonal-close-packed lattice structure and tendency to undergo twinning, the deformation behaviour of magnesium is quite different to that of conventional stent materials, such as stainless steel 316L and cobalt chromium L605. In particular, magnesium exhibits asymmetric plastic behaviour (i.e. different yield behaviours in tension and compression) and has lower ductility than these conventional alloys. In the on-going development of absorbable metal stents it is important to assess how the unique behaviour of magnesium affects device performance. The mechanical behaviour of magnesium stent struts is investigated in this study using computational micromechanics, based on finite element analysis and crystal plasticity theory. The plastic deformation in tension and bending of textured and non-textured magnesium stent struts with different numbers of grains through the strut dimension is investigated. It is predicted that, unlike 316L and L605, the failure risk and load bearing capacity of magnesium stent struts during expansion is not strongly affected by the number of grains across the strut dimensions; however texturing, which may be introduced and controlled in the manufacturing process, is predicted to have a significant influence on these measures of strut performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Where sociality and relatedness diverge: the genetic basis for hierarchical social organization in African elephants

    Wittemyer, George; Okello, John B. A.; Rasmussen, Henrik B.

    2009-01-01

    Hierarchical properties characterize elephant fission-fusion social organization whereby stable groups of individuals coalesce into higher order groups or split in a predictable manner. This hierarchical complexity is rare among animals and, as such, an examination of the factors driving its......-tier level bonds, indicating the importance of direct benefits in the emergence of complex, hierarchical social relations among elephants. Future directions and conservation implications are discussed....

  16. Successful artificial insemination in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus using chilled and frozen-thawed semen

    Wongkalasin Warut

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial insemination (AI using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI. Methods Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls (age range, 12-to 42-years by manual stimulation. Semen with high quality were either cooled to 4°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C before being used for AI. Blood samples collected from ten elephant females (age range, 12-to 52-years were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during 2003 to 2008; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement. Results One female (Khod inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in 2007. The gestation length was 663 days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female (Sao inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. Conclusion This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant. Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population.

  17. Causes and correlates of calf mortality in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus.

    Khyne U Mar

    Full Text Available Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020 to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391 between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4% and pre-weaning mortality (25.6% were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population

  18. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (Poaceae, Poales) and their interspecific hybrids

    Techio, Vânia Helena; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Pereira, Antônio Vander

    2006-01-01

    The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28) and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14) can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21). This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their proge...

  19. Molecular characterization of adipose tissue in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana.

    Emeli M Nilsson

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit, Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare, and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika. Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and α linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition

  20. Chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels of dehydrated cashew bagasse

    Danillo Glaydson Farias Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels dried cashew bagasse (DCB. Our experiment used a randomized design replicated four times, each replicate consisting of the following five treatments: 100% elephant grass; 95% elephant grass + 5% DCB; 90% elephant grass + 10% DCB; 85% elephant grass + 15% DCB; and 80% elephant grass + 20% DCB. The elephant grass was cut manually to a residual height of 5 cm at 80 days of age, and cashew bagasse was obtained from the processing of cashew stalks used in fruit pulp manufacturing in Mossoró/RN. Plastic buckets were used as experimental silos, and 90 days after ensiling the experimental silos were opened and the contents analyzed. The addition of dried cashew bagasse to silage linearly increased the levels of dried matter and crude protein by 0.59% and 0.13%, respectively, for each 1% addition (P < 0.05. The neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent content of the silages was reduced by 0.22% and 0.09%, respectively, for each 1% addition of the bagasse. The total carbohydrate content was not influenced by the bagasse addition (P > 0.05, and averaged 82.29%. The levels of non-fiber carbohydrate showed linear growth (P < 0.05 as the dehydrated cashew bagasse was added, and pH and ammoniacal nitrogen levels were reduced. The addition of the dehydrated bagasse to elephant grass silage improves its chemical composition, and it can be effectively added up to the level of 20%.

  1. Elephant Management in North American Zoos: Environmental Enrichment, Feeding, Exercise, and Training.

    Brian J Greco

    Full Text Available The management of African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephants in zoos involves a range of practices including feeding, exercise, training, and environmental enrichment. These practices are necessary to meet the elephants' nutritional, healthcare, and husbandry needs. However, these practices are not standardized, resulting in likely variation among zoos as well as differences in the way they are applied to individual elephants within a zoo. To characterize elephant management in North America, we collected survey data from zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, developed 26 variables, generated population level descriptive statistics, and analyzed them to identify differences attributable to sex and species. Sixty-seven zoos submitted surveys describing the management of 224 elephants and the training experiences of 227 elephants. Asian elephants spent more time managed (defined as interacting directly with staff than Africans (mean time managed: Asians = 56.9%; Africans = 48.6%; p<0.001, and managed time increased by 20.2% for every year of age for both species. Enrichment, feeding, and exercise programs were evaluated using diversity indices, with mean scores across zoos in the midrange for these measures. There were an average of 7.2 feedings every 24-hour period, with only 1.2 occurring during the nighttime. Feeding schedules were predictable at 47.5% of zoos. We also calculated the relative use of rewarding and aversive techniques employed during training interactions. The population median was seven on a scale from one (representing only aversive stimuli to nine (representing only rewarding stimuli. The results of our study provide essential information for understanding management variation that could be relevant to welfare. Furthermore, the variables we created have been used in subsequent elephant welfare analyses.

  2. Elephant Management in North American Zoos: Environmental Enrichment, Feeding, Exercise, and Training.

    Greco, Brian J; Meehan, Cheryl L; Miller, Lance J; Shepherdson, David J; Morfeld, Kari A; Andrews, Jeff; Baker, Anne M; Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    The management of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in zoos involves a range of practices including feeding, exercise, training, and environmental enrichment. These practices are necessary to meet the elephants' nutritional, healthcare, and husbandry needs. However, these practices are not standardized, resulting in likely variation among zoos as well as differences in the way they are applied to individual elephants within a zoo. To characterize elephant management in North America, we collected survey data from zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, developed 26 variables, generated population level descriptive statistics, and analyzed them to identify differences attributable to sex and species. Sixty-seven zoos submitted surveys describing the management of 224 elephants and the training experiences of 227 elephants. Asian elephants spent more time managed (defined as interacting directly with staff) than Africans (mean time managed: Asians = 56.9%; Africans = 48.6%; pyear of age for both species. Enrichment, feeding, and exercise programs were evaluated using diversity indices, with mean scores across zoos in the midrange for these measures. There were an average of 7.2 feedings every 24-hour period, with only 1.2 occurring during the nighttime. Feeding schedules were predictable at 47.5% of zoos. We also calculated the relative use of rewarding and aversive techniques employed during training interactions. The population median was seven on a scale from one (representing only aversive stimuli) to nine (representing only rewarding stimuli). The results of our study provide essential information for understanding management variation that could be relevant to welfare. Furthermore, the variables we created have been used in subsequent elephant welfare analyses.

  3. Long-term monitoring of Dzanga Bai forest elephants: forest clearing use patterns.

    Turkalo, Andrea K; Wrege, Peter H; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Individual identification of the relatively cryptic forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) at forest clearings currently provides the highest quality monitoring data on this ecologically important but increasingly threatened species. Here we present baseline data from the first 20 years of an individually based study of this species, conducted at the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. A total of 3,128 elephants were identified over the 20-year study (1,244 adults; 675 females, 569 males). It took approximately four years for the majority of elephants visiting the clearing to be identified, but new elephants entered the clearing every year of the study. The study population was relatively stable, varying from 1,668 to 1,864 individuals (including juveniles and infants), with increasingly fewer males than females over time. The age-class distribution for females remained qualitatively unchanged between 1995 and 2010, while the proportion of adult males decreased from 20% to 10%, likely reflecting increased mortality. Visitation patterns by individuals were highly variable, with some elephants visiting monthly while others were ephemeral users with visits separated by multiple years. The number of individuals in the clearing at any time varied between 40 and 100 individuals, and there was little evidence of a seasonal pattern in this variation. The number of elephants entering the clearing together (defined here as a social group) averaged 1.49 (range 1-12) for males and 2.67 (range 1-14) for females. This collation of 20 years of intensive forest elephant monitoring provides the first detailed, long term look at the ecology of bai visitation for this species, offering insight to the ecological significance and motivation for bai use, social behavior, and threats to forest elephants. We discuss likely drivers (rainfall, compression, illegal killing, etc.) influencing bai visitation rates. This study provides the baseline for future demographic and behavioral

  4. Molecular Indicators of Chronic Stress in a Model Pinniped - The Northern Elephant Seal

    2015-09-30

    Pinniped - The Northern Elephant Seal Cory Champagne , Jane Kyudyakov, & Dorian Houser National Marine Mammal Foundation 2240 Shelter Island Dr, Suite...in studies of stress and its impacts ( Champagne et al, 2012). Measurements will be conducted in juvenile elephant seals that reliably haul out each...their large adipose stores) and a reduced amino acid release (potentially resulting from a protein sparing adaptation during fasting; Champagne et

  5. 4D phase contrast flow imaging for in-stent flow visualization and assessment of stent patency in peripheral vascular stents – A phantom study

    Bunck, Alexander C.; Jüttner, Alena; Kröger, Jan Robert; Burg, Matthias C.; Kugel, Harald; Niederstadt, Thomas; Tiemann, Klaus; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Crelier, Gerard R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: 4D phase contrast flow imaging is increasingly used to study the hemodynamics in various vascular territories and pathologies. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and validity of MRI based 4D phase contrast flow imaging for the evaluation of in-stent blood flow in 17 commonly used peripheral stents. Materials and methods: 17 different peripheral stents were implanted into a MR compatible flow phantom. In-stent visibility, maximal velocity and flow visualization were assessed and estimates of in-stent patency obtained from 4D phase contrast flow data sets were compared to a conventional 3D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) as well as 2D PC flow measurements. Results: In all but 3 of the tested stents time-resolved 3D particle traces could be visualized inside the stent lumen. Quality of 4D flow visualization and CE-MRA images depended on stent type and stent orientation relative to the magnetic field. Compared to the visible lumen area determined by 3D CE-MRA, estimates of lumen patency derived from 4D flow measurements were significantly higher and less dependent on stent type. A higher number of stents could be assessed for in-stent patency by 4D phase contrast flow imaging (n = 14) than by 2D phase contrast flow imaging (n = 10). Conclusions: 4D phase contrast flow imaging in peripheral vascular stents is feasible and appears advantageous over conventional 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography and 2D phase contrast flow imaging. It allows for in-stent flow visualization and flow quantification with varying quality depending on stent type

  6. 4D phase contrast flow imaging for in-stent flow visualization and assessment of stent patency in peripheral vascular stents--a phantom study.

    Bunck, Alexander C; Jüttner, Alena; Kröger, Jan Robert; Burg, Matthias C; Kugel, Harald; Niederstadt, Thomas; Tiemann, Klaus; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Crelier, Gerard R; Heindel, Walter; Maintz, David

    2012-09-01

    4D phase contrast flow imaging is increasingly used to study the hemodynamics in various vascular territories and pathologies. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and validity of MRI based 4D phase contrast flow imaging for the evaluation of in-stent blood flow in 17 commonly used peripheral stents. 17 different peripheral stents were implanted into a MR compatible flow phantom. In-stent visibility, maximal velocity and flow visualization were assessed and estimates of in-stent patency obtained from 4D phase contrast flow data sets were compared to a conventional 3D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) as well as 2D PC flow measurements. In all but 3 of the tested stents time-resolved 3D particle traces could be visualized inside the stent lumen. Quality of 4D flow visualization and CE-MRA images depended on stent type and stent orientation relative to the magnetic field. Compared to the visible lumen area determined by 3D CE-MRA, estimates of lumen patency derived from 4D flow measurements were significantly higher and less dependent on stent type. A higher number of stents could be assessed for in-stent patency by 4D phase contrast flow imaging (n=14) than by 2D phase contrast flow imaging (n=10). 4D phase contrast flow imaging in peripheral vascular stents is feasible and appears advantageous over conventional 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography and 2D phase contrast flow imaging. It allows for in-stent flow visualization and flow quantification with varying quality depending on stent type. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coronary artery aneurysm after stent implantation: acute and long-term results after percutaneous treatment with a stent graft.

    Rubartelli, Paolo; Terzi, Giacomo; Borgo, Lorenzo; Giachero, Corinna

    2002-03-01

    A patient with unstable angina was treated with elective Palmaz-Schatz stent implantation on a focal stenosis of the left circumflex artery. One year later, a large (13 mm in diameter) coronary artery aneurysm was diagnosed at angiography in the stented site. Intravascular ultrasound examination confirmed the presence of a true aneurysm located at the proximal end of the stent. The aneurysm was successfully treated with a Jostent Graft (Jomed Implantate) consisting of two slotted tube stainless steel stents supporting a polytetrafluoroethylene tube. The stent graft was implanted under intravascular ultrasound guidance. The 18-month angiographic follow-up showed good patency of the stent graft and complete exclusion of the aneurysm.

  8. Evaluation of Demographics and Social Life Events of Asian (Elephas maximus and African Elephants (Loxodonta africana in North American Zoos.

    Natalia A Prado-Oviedo

    Full Text Available This study quantified social life events hypothesized to affect the welfare of zoo African and Asian elephants, focusing on animals that were part of a large multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional elephant welfare study in North America. Age was calculated based on recorded birth dates and an age-based account of life event data for each elephant was compiled. These event histories included facility transfers, births and deaths of offspring, and births and deaths of non-offspring herd mates. Each event was evaluated as a total number of events per elephant, lifetime rate of event exposure, and age at first event exposure. These were then compared across three categories: species (African vs. Asian; sex (male vs. female; and origin (imported vs. captive-born. Mean age distributions differed (p<0.05 between the categories: African elephants were 6 years younger than Asian elephants, males were 12 years younger than females, and captive-born elephants were 20 years younger than imported elephants. Overall, the number of transfers ranged from 0 to 10, with a 33% higher age-adjusted transfer rate for imported African than imported Asian elephants, and 37% lower rate for imported females than males (p<0.05. Other differences (p<0.05 included a 96% higher rate of offspring births for captive-born females than those imported from range countries, a 159% higher rate of birthing event exposures for captive-born males than for their imported counterparts, and Asian elephant females being 4 years younger than African females when they produced their first calf. In summarizing demographic and social life events of elephants in North American zoos, we found both qualitative and quantitative differences in the early lives of imported versus captive-born elephants that could have long-term welfare implications.

  9. Patterns and Determinants of Habitat Occupancy by the Asian Elephant in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    Devcharan Jathanna

    Full Text Available Understanding species distribution patterns has direct ramifications for the conservation of endangered species, such as the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. However, reliable assessment of elephant distribution is handicapped by factors such as the large spatial scales of field studies, survey expertise required, the paucity of analytical approaches that explicitly account for confounding observation processes such as imperfect and variable detectability, unequal sampling probability and spatial dependence among animal detections. We addressed these problems by carrying out 'detection--non-detection' surveys of elephant signs across a c. 38,000-km(2 landscape in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. We analyzed the resulting sign encounter data using a recently developed modeling approach that explicitly addresses variable detectability across space and spatially dependent non-closure of occupancy, across sampling replicates. We estimated overall occupancy, a parameter useful to monitoring elephant populations, and examined key ecological and anthropogenic drivers of elephant presence. Our results showed elephants occupied 13,483 km(2 (SE = 847 km(2 corresponding to 64% of the available 21,167 km(2 of elephant habitat in the study landscape, a useful baseline to monitor future changes. Replicate-level detection probability ranged between 0.56 and 0.88, and ignoring it would have underestimated elephant distribution by 2116 km(2 or 16%. We found that anthropogenic factors predominated over natural habitat attributes in determining elephant occupancy, underscoring the conservation need to regulate them. Human disturbances affected elephant habitat occupancy as well as site-level detectability. Rainfall is not an important limiting factor in this relatively humid bioclimate. Finally, we discuss cost-effective monitoring of Asian elephant populations and the specific spatial scales at which different population parameters can be estimated. We

  10. XIENCE V everolimus-eluting coronary stent system: a novel second generation drug-eluting stent

    Beijk, Marcel A. M.; Piek, Jon J.

    2007-01-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DES) have been shown to be safe and significantly reduce clinical events and angiographic restenosis in the percutaneous treatment of coronary artery disease. Currently, three DES have been approved in Europe and Northern America: the sirolimus-eluting stent (SES), the

  11. Mechanical properties of various z-stent designs: an endovascular stent-grafting perspective.

    Bashar, Abul Hasan Muhammad; Kazui, Teruhisa; Washiyama, Naoki; Terada, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Katsushi; Haque, Mohammad E

    2003-08-01

    To comparatively assess the mechani-cal behavior of various clinically relevant Z-stent designs. A total of 16 Z-stents of original, biliary, spiral, and double-skirted designs (n=4 for each) were constructed using similar specifications for all. Stents were then evaluated for stiffness, snap opening force (SOF), flexibility, and displacement force using a novel tensiometer. Differences among the stents were determined using statistical methods. Stents explanted from dog aorta after a mean follow-up of 13 months were examined under a scanning electron microscope for surface defects. Forces required for about 50% reduction in diameter were 1.88 +/- 0.16 N, 3.81 +/- 0.21 N, 2.76 +/- 0.22 N, and 3.35 +/- 0.19 N for original, biliary, spiral, and skirted designs, respectively. Differences among the four designs were statistically significant at almost all points of measurement (P designs showed higher SOF values in the early measurements. Stents explanted from dog aorta after a mean duration of 13 months showed no obvious corrosion or breakage in the wire struts. Significant differences exist among the various Z-stent designs in terms of their mechanical properties. Understanding them should help to select the appropriate stent for a given lesion. 316L stainless steel shows a favorable long-term tissue interaction.

  12. Nitinol Esophageal Stents: New Designs and Clinical Indications

    Strecker, Ernst-Peter; Boos, Irene; Vetter, Sylvia; Strohm, Michael; Domschke, Sigurd

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical use of covered and noncovered, knitted nitinol stents in patients presenting new stent indications. Methods: Self-expandable, knitted nitinol stents were implanted in four patients for treatment of dysphagia. In two patients who had malignant strictures and had esophago-respiratory fistulae and in one patient with an esophagocutaneous fistula, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents were implanted. One patient received a noncovered stent, but a retrograde approach through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) fistula had to be chosen for recanalization of an esophageal occlusion. Two patients received stents for treatment of benign strictures. Results: Recanalization of the stricture and stent implantation were performed under fluoroscopic control without any procedure-related morbidity or mortality. Dysphagia improved in all patients and the esophageal fistulae could be sealed off by covered stents. During a maximum follow-up of 18 months, there was no stent migration or esophageal perforation. Complications observed were stent stenosis due to food impaction (1/4) and benign stent stenosis (2/2). Most complications could be treated by the interventional radiologist. Conclusion: Self-expandable, covered Nitinol stents provide an option for the treatment of dysphagia combined with esophageal fistulae. In combination with interventional radiology techniques, even complex strictures are accessible. For benign strictures, the value of stent treatment has not yet been proven

  13. Risk Factors for Migration, Fracture, and Dislocation of Pancreatic Stents

    Yoshiaki Kawaguchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the risk factors for pancreatic stent migration, dislocation, and fracture in chronic pancreatitis patients with pancreatic strictures. Materials and Methods. Endoscopic stent placements (total 386 times were performed in 99 chronic pancreatitis patients with pancreatic duct stenosis at our institution between April 2006 and June 2014. We retrospectively examined the frequency of stent migration, dislocation, and fracture and analyzed the patient factors and stent factors. We also investigated the retrieval methods for migrated and fractured stents and their success rates. Results. The frequencies of stent migration, dislocation, and fracture were 1.5% (5/396, 0.8% (3/396, and 1.2% (4/396, respectively. No significant differences in the rates of migration, dislocation, or fracture were noted on the patient factors (etiology, cases undergoing endoscopic pancreatic sphincterotomy, location of pancreatic duct stenosis, existence of pancreatic stone, and approach from the main or minor papilla and stent factors (duration of stent placement, numbers of stent placements, stent shape, diameter, and length. Stent retrieval was successful in all cases of migration. In cases of fractured stents, retrieval was successful in 2 of 4 cases. Conclusion. Stent migration, fracture, and dislocation are relatively rare, but possible complications. A good understanding of retrieval techniques is necessary.

  14. New expandable metallic stents: An experimental study in vessels of dogs

    Song, Ho Young; Lee, Jung Min; Chung, Jin Young; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kim, Bog Yi; Kuh, Ja Houng

    1992-01-01

    Three-types of expandable metallic stents were constructed to evaluate the differences between the stents: one, formed in a cylindrical zigzag pattern wth stainless steel wire (Gianturco stent), another, made by coating the Gianturco stent with silicone rubber (Silicone stent), the third, made by coating the Gianturco stent with 24 carat gold (Gold stent) for tissue acceptance. A total of 69 stents (each 23 stents of Gianturco, Silicone, and Gold stents) of 8-12 mm in diameter and 20 mm long were placed into normal abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava and lilac artery of nine adults dogs for 2 weeks to 11 months. It was more difficult to introduce Silicone stent into an introducing sheath than Gianturco or Gold stent due to the thickness of silicone rubber. Four Gianturco stents and three Silicone stents showed migration but Gold stent did not. Luminal narrowing or occlusion was noted in 3 Silicone stents. In 2 Gianturco stents, and in 1 Gold stent. Neointimal proliferation over the stent wires was more rapid and even in Gold stent than Silicone or Gianturco stent. Although further study is needed, Gold stent seems to be better than Gianturco or Silicone stent as an endovascular graft material

  15. New expandable metallic stents: An experimental study in vessels of dogs

    Song, Ho Young; Lee, Jung Min; Chung, Jin Young; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kim, Bog Yi; Kuh, Ja Houng [Chunbuk National University Medical School, Chunju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    Three-types of expandable metallic stents were constructed to evaluate the differences between the stents: one, formed in a cylindrical zigzag pattern wth stainless steel wire (Gianturco stent), another, made by coating the Gianturco stent with silicone rubber (Silicone stent), the third, made by coating the Gianturco stent with 24 carat gold (Gold stent) for tissue acceptance. A total of 69 stents (each 23 stents of Gianturco, Silicone, and Gold stents) of 8-12 mm in diameter and 20 mm long were placed into normal abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava and lilac artery of nine adults dogs for 2 weeks to 11 months. It was more difficult to introduce Silicone stent into an introducing sheath than Gianturco or Gold stent due to the thickness of silicone rubber. Four Gianturco stents and three Silicone stents showed migration but Gold stent did not. Luminal narrowing or occlusion was noted in 3 Silicone stents. In 2 Gianturco stents, and in 1 Gold stent. Neointimal proliferation over the stent wires was more rapid and even in Gold stent than Silicone or Gianturco stent. Although further study is needed, Gold stent seems to be better than Gianturco or Silicone stent as an endovascular graft material.

  16. Prenatal passive transfer of maternal immunity in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Nofs, Sally A; Atmar, Robert L; Keitel, Wendy A; Hanlon, Cathleen; Stanton, Jeffrey J; Tan, Jie; Flanagan, Joseph P; Howard, Lauren; Ling, Paul D

    2013-06-15

    Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants exhibit characteristics of endotheliochorial placentation, which is common in carnivore species and is associated with modest maternal to fetal transplacental antibody transfer. However, it remains unknown whether the bulk of passive immune transfer in elephants is achieved prenatally or postnatally through ingestion of colostrum, as has been documented for horses, a species whose medical knowledgebase is often extrapolated for elephants. To address this issue, we took advantage of the fact that many zoo elephants are immunized with tetanus toxoid and/or rabies vaccines as part of their routine health care, allowing a comparison of serum antibody levels against these antigens between dams and neonates. Serum samples were collected from 3 newborn Asian elephant calves at birth (before ingestion of colostrum); 2-4 days after birth; and 2-3 months of age. The findings indicate that the newborns had anti-tetanus toxoid and anti-rabies titers that were equivalent to or higher than the titers of their dams from birth to approximately 3 months of age, suggesting that the majority of maternal-to-fetal transfer is transplacental and higher than expected based on the architecture of the Asian elephant placenta. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Elephants (and extinct relatives) as earth-movers and ecosystem engineers

    Haynes, Gary

    2012-07-01

    Modern African elephants affect habitats and ecosystems in significant ways. They push over trees to feed on upper branches and often peel large sections of bark to eat. These destructive habits sometimes transform woody vegetation into grasslands. Systems of elephant trails may be used and re-used for centuries, and create incised features that extend for many kilometers on migration routes. Elephants, digging in search of water or mineral sediments, may remove several cubic meters of sediments in each excavation. Wallowing elephants may remove up to a cubic meter of pond sediments each time they visit water sources. Accumulations of elephant dung on frequented land surfaces may be over 2 kg per square meter. Elephant trampling, digging, and dust-bathing may reverse stratigraphy at archeological localities. This paper summarizes these types of effects on biotic, geomorphic, and paleontological features in modern-day landscapes, and also describes several fossil sites that indicate extinct proboscideans had very similar effects, such as major sediment disturbances.

  18. Runx family genes in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii.

    Giselle Sek Suan Nah

    Full Text Available The Runx family genes encode transcription factors that play key roles in hematopoiesis, skeletogenesis and neurogenesis and are often implicated in diseases. We describe here the cloning and characterization of Runx1, Runx2, Runx3 and Runxb genes in the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii, a member of Chondrichthyes, the oldest living group of jawed vertebrates. Through the use of alternative promoters and/or alternative splicing, each of the elephant shark Runx genes expresses multiple isoforms similar to their orthologs in human and other bony vertebrates. The expression profiles of elephant shark Runx genes are similar to those of mammalian Runx genes. The syntenic blocks of genes at the elephant shark Runx gene loci are highly conserved in human, but represented by shorter conserved blocks in zebrafish indicating a higher degree of rearrangements in this teleost fish. Analysis of promoter regions revealed conservation of binding sites for transcription factors, including two tandem binding sites for Runx that are totally conserved in the distal promoter regions of elephant shark Runx1-3. Several conserved noncoding elements (CNEs, which are putative cis-regulatory elements, and miRNA binding sites were identified in the elephant shark and human Runx gene loci. Some of these CNEs and miRNA binding sites are absent in teleost fishes such as zebrafish and fugu. In summary, our analysis reveals that the genomic organization and expression profiles of Runx genes were already complex in the common ancestor of jawed vertebrates.

  19. VITAL SIGNS AND FIRST OCCURRENCES IN NORMAL AND ABNORMAL NEWBORN ASIAN ELEPHANT ( ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) CALVES.

    Wiedner, Ellen; Kiso, Wendy K; Aria, Janice; Isaza, Ramiro; Lindsay, William; Jacobson, Gary; Jacobson, Kathy; Schmitt, Dennis

    2017-12-01

    Sixteen years of medical records documenting 19 births within a herd of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) at a private facility in the southeastern United States were reviewed. Of the 19 calves, 11 were normal at birth, requiring no additional veterinary care, and eight were abnormal, requiring veterinary care immediately or within the first week of birth. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate morphometrics, vital signs, and behavioral milestones in newborn calves both normal and abnormal. Blood work and urinalysis results from all calves were compared to values for adult elephants. Medical management of abnormal calves is described. All calves had faster heart rates and respiratory rates than did adult elephants, but rectal temperatures were the same. Calves were precocious with regard to sitting and standing but could be very slow to nurse. The most-common medical conditions of newborn calves were umbilical abnormalities and problems associated with nursing. Two calves required cardiopulmonary resuscitation after birth but made full recoveries. Some conditions were not apparent at birth but were recognized a few hours or days later. Following veterinary intervention, six of the eight calves made full recoveries, suggesting that early identification and treatment of problems can greatly decrease mortality. This is the first report of multiple veterinary and behavioral parameters in normal and abnormal neonatal Asian elephants from a facility with a calf survival rate above 90%. This information may be helpful to other elephant-holding facilities in providing care to their newborn elephant calves.

  20. A survey of elephant husbandry and foot health in North American zoos.

    Lewis, Karen D; Shepherdson, David J; Owens, Terrah M; Keele, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The foot health of elephants in human care is a longstanding concern. In 2001, the AZA Standards for Elephant Management and Care were published recommending husbandry to improve foot health. This article reports the results of a 2006 survey: basic statistics describing facility, husbandry, and foot health attributes are reported and relationships among variables are investigated. Median area available to elephants exceeded Standard recommendations (755 ft(2) per elephant indoor and 10,000 ft(2) outdoor). Concrete makes up 69% of indoor area and natural substrates account for 85% of outdzoor area. Elephants in AZA facilities received an average of 45.5 min/day of exercise, and facilities with a structured exercise plan provided significantly more exercise than did facilities without a structured exercise plan (z=-2.522, P=0.012). Enrichment is important to psychological health and may also stimulate activity beneficial to foot health; 95% of institutions had a structured enrichment program. Preventative foot care was nearly universal, and 100% of facilities performed routine nail and pad trimming. However, foot pathology has not been eradicated; 33% of institutions reported at least one pathology in the previous year. This study found a strong inverse relationship between foot pathology and exercise (chi(2)(3)=24.34, Pelephants seemed to experience lower rates of foot pathology and arthritis than Asian elephants; however, this was explained by differences in age.